Aeronautics

Volume 16 - No. 8 - 1915 June

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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VOL. XV1 No. 8

JUNE 30, 1915

15 Cents

im

EROWflflTIC

The output of this model is sold for some weeks to come. Those desiring motors of this type should communicate with the factory at Hammondsport for the necessary arrangements for future deliveries.

All the important American records are held by the Cur-tiss Motor.

160 H.P. Model

Modern factory methods and large facilities have developed Curtiss Motors to the highest degree of efficiency.

implicity of design and con-truction permit overhauling or re-airing by any good mechanic, no special knowledge being required.

Light in weight, yet not so light that durability and strength are sacrificed. The factor of safety is large in Curtiss Motors.

Curtiss Motor Co.

HAMMONDSPORT

NEW YORK

o

o

o

Weight in Pounds per Lineal Foot for Shelby Standard Cold-Drawn Mechanical Tubing

Based on weight of i cubic inch of steel = 0.2833 pound.

Outside diam. inches

iVa

iVi 1% 1V2

i*A 2

2\\ ?\'«

hi 3

3\i 3V2 3%

4

4« 4V2

4% S»

sVfe

5<J'i 6

Thickness in gauge and fractions of an inch

BWG BWG BWG

.141 .179 .216

■ 253 . 291 .328

.36S

•174 .236 .221 .301 .267 .367

314 .361 .407

•454 .501

.432 .498 .563 .629 .694

54S .759

Via

.292

• 37S

• 459

■S42 .626

■ 793 .876 .960

1 13 1.29 1.46

1.63 1-79

.407

• 532

• 657 .782 .907

I 03

1.16 1.28 1.41

1.66 1.91 2.16

2.41 2.66 2.91

3->6

• SOI .668 .834

1.17 1 -34 1 SO 1.67 1.84

2.17 2.50 2.84

1.41

1.62

1.83 2.03 2.24

2.66 3.0S 3-49

3-91 4-33 4-75

5.16 S.58 6.00

6.41 6.83 7-2S

7.67 S.08 8.50

S.92 9-33 9-7S

1.13 1.38 1.63 1.83

213 2.38 2.63

763 8.14

8.64

9.14 9.64 10.14

10.64 ii 14 11.64

I S3 1.83 2.12

2.41 2.70 2-99

3-sS 4.16 4-75

S-33 S-9I 6.so 7.08 7.67 8.2S

8.83 9.42 10.00

10.59 11.17 11.75

12.34 12.92 13 SI

2-34 2.67 3-00 3-34

63 34 8.01 8.68 9 35 10.01 10.68 11-35

14.02 1469 '5-35

64

5-51 6.Si 7-51 8.51 9-51 10.51

11.51

12. S2 1352

14-52 15-52 l6.S2

17-52 18. 52 19.52 20.53

21-53 22.53

5-34 6.63 S.oi 9 35 10.68 12.02 13-35 14.69 16.02 17.36 18.69 20.03 21.36

22.70 24.03 25-37 26.70 28.04 29.37

9.18 10.85

12.52 14.18 15-85 17-52 1919 20.86

22.53 24.20 25-S7

27-53 29.20 30.87

32-54 34-21 35.83

20 IS 16 14 13 12 11 10

.035 .049 .065 .0S3 .095 .109 .120 .134 .156 .INS .219 .250 .313 .375 .500 .625 .750 .875

l.noo

o

o 3 ■o

Published semimonthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New York

Telephone. Circle 22S9 Cable. Aeronautics. New T jrk

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ .Model Editor

| Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. 1WS, under the Act of March 3. 1879. §3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

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Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS

With this issue is ended I'olume XI'I. The issues for each six months have, up to and including Vol. XV. formed one volume. (For the years 1907 to 1913. inclusive, the magazine was published monthly and six numbers constituted a volume.) Beginning Januory \Sth. 1914. the magazine was published semi-monthly, making 12 issues to each six-months-vohtmc.

There should have been 12 issues for Vol. XV (July-December. 1914), and 12 issues for Vol. XVI (January-June, 1915). Ozi'ing to a lapse in issues and in order to bring the date of publication to that proper, I'ol. XV had but 8 uum-bers. the last thereof being dated October 31, 1914. Vol. XVI did not begin until March IS, 1915, so that to end it

with the June 30th. 1915, issue, according to the established custom, zvill necessitate its constitution of but 8 numbers also.

As stated in the March \5th, 1915. issue, subscriptions were set ahead so that every subscriber will receive the full complement of issues due. Indices are published in the last issue of each volume.

WHEN WILL THE OCEAN BE CROSSED?

By Joseph Brucker

FORMER EDITOR CHICAGO StaatS-Zcitung; COMMISSIONER TO GERMANY FOR THE ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION.

[Editor's Note.—-This article was written for Aeronautics in 1909 when Mr. Brucker was actively engaged1 in his plans to attempt a transatlantic ascent. These plans were eventually defeated and six years have passed, with the projected feat unaccomplished. The Wanamaker aeroplane trip was postponed, first temporarily, and then indefinitely by the war. When will the crossing be made by aircraft?]

Every new record gives a new impetus, and it will certainly be a historical moment when the first aircraft, of whatever construction, ascending in Europe, will land in America, or vice versa.

When Christopher Columbus sailed westward to find a nearer route to India, the caravels were gently driven by the ocean current and the trade winds toward the American shore. These winds blew so steadily that the sailors became very nervous about them, and thought they never could return to their old country. The science of meteorology has explained the nature of the trade winds, and it is not necessary to go into details about them. The name "trade wind" is only used by the English-speaking people. The Spaniards call these winds "passata," because they utilized them for the passage to America. The French call them "vents alizes"—uniform winds. The Germans have adopted the Spanish word and call them "passat-winds."

The Spaniards called that part of the North Atlantic Ocean which is blessed with the trade winds, "el Golfo de las damas" (Women's Ocean), because there even a fair lady could steer a vessel without special effort.

In the center of the North Atlantic, the trade winds reach from the 25th to the 30th degree of latitude in winter,

and from the 30th to the 10th in summer. Near the African Continent the limits run a good deal higher up during the summer; it develops its highest strength between latitude 25 and 15.

On Beaufort's scale the trade winds are registered with a strength of from 4 to 5. an average of 10 meters in a second, 600 meters in a minute, or 36 kilometers in an hour. But they reach even a strength of 45 kilometers, or nearly 28 miles an hour, faster than the record of any ocean steamer.

In the region of the trade winds, the wind blows gently all the year round; storms or calms hardly ever occur, and a passage in an airship from the lnsulae Fortunates (Canary Islands) to the West Indies would be a pleasure and could be accomplished in about four days, as the distance from Teneriffe to Porto Rico is only about 2,500 miles, while that from New York to Bremen is 4,235, and to Hamburg 4,320 miles, a distance which is traversed by the fastest steamers in eight days, none averaging more than 25 miles an hour.

The latest contests show that the trip in high air across the Atlantic is feasible.

In the contest of the American Federation of Aero Clubs, July 4, 1908, the balloon "Fielding," with H. E. Honeywell as pilot and F. D. Fielding as assistant, ascended in Chicago and landed at Shefford, Province of Quebec, Canada, traversing a distance of 896;/ miles and beating the record of the balloon "Pommern" (Erbsloch), which made 87634 miles.

In the James Gordon Bennett International contest. October 12, 1908, the balloon "Helvetia," with Capt. Schaeck as pilot, descended near Molde, Norway, and was 74 hours, or over 3 days and 3

nights in the air. [The distance and duration record is now 1,895 miles and 87 hours, respectively.]

The trip across the Atlantic should start during the last week in July. * * * [when] moon will be full * * *, and the aeronauts will enjoy fine nights during the week. Besides, the second rainy season in the West Indies commences about the middle of August, and that season, which brings heavy storms, must be avoided.

The start should he made from Cadiz, with the first station at Madeira, if necessary; otherwise at Teneriffe, a distance of about 1,400 kilometers, or 870 miles, which can be traversed in less than two days. From the Canary Islands the trip across the ocean can be made directly, and the balloon, traversing a distance of about 2,500 miles in four days, can land in Porto Rico, Hayti or Cuba.

Or it might be more feasible to fly from Teneriffe to the Cape Verde Islands, a distance not greater than that from Cadiz to the Canary Islands. The balloon can be refilled at Porto Grande and can from there fly to Barbadoes or Martinique, a distance of only about 1,500 miles, which can be traversed in three days.

The discovery of America by Christopher Columbus with his little caravels, the first crossing of the Atlantic by a steamer in 1833, the first cable message sent across in 1866, were great and memorable events in the history of the world.

The first landing in America of an airship which ascended in Europe would he just as great and memorable an event, and I will make it the effort of my life to accomplish this feat.

ARE WE TO REMAIN A MINOR AIR POWER ?

Asking whether the time has not arrived for the injection of aircraft into strategical and game-board problems and suggesting that the Naval War College impress upon the services the strategical and tactical aspect of aeronautics, Comdr. Thomas Drayton Parker, U.S.N., in the May-June Proceedings of the Naval Institute calls attention to the sluggishness of public sentiment in the United States in the matter of aerial defense, which apathy would have to be faced if a real effort were made to give to this country a really adequate aerial building program. While we Americans, he points out, jealously compare our navy, ship for ship, with the navies of other first-class Powers, we have been indifferent to the fact that the air navies of France and Germany outnumber ours in the proportion of about sixty to one. Hence a really adequate building program, though moderate in expense compared with that of naval increase, would excite amazement and ridicule. We should take 200 aeroplanes as absolute minimum, for with fewer we would remain a minor air power or no air power at all. Further than this, we must form an idea of the number that France or Germany, say, could bring to this side of the Atlantic in about five years from now, and make that number a desideratum in building.

Doubtless the suggested program of forty-eight aeroplanes and one dirigible represents all that can be attempted, but at this rate, if maintained, we should catch up with France and Germany in about twenty-eight years. After getting under way we could hardly build less for naval use than 100 planes and four dirigibles each year. With that modest program in force for four years, the naval increase budget, exclusive of the cost of hangars, masts, etc., would be $1,100,000 for the hundred planes and $1,000,000 even for the four dirigibles. This total of $2,100,000 would he about one-fourth

the cost of a battleship. The problem of personnel is not so difficult, as a flier can be quickly trained, and our navy list is strong in the lower grades where men of the living age abound. Judging from the mechanical ability and intelligence of our enlisted force, we shall soon have qualified fliers from forward. But to utilize these officers or men, immediate changes in existing law are necessary. Without a corresponding increase in the navy list, it is difficult to see how officer-aviators are to be provided in the navy too small already for purely marine purposes. Development in material will inevitably be retarded by the natural desire to avoid crippling the sea-going fleet.

Aircraft bombs appeal to Commander Parker as a grave menace to particular structures. Me quotes the testimony of Riley Scott, the inventor of a bonib-throwing apparatus, before the Military Affairs Committee of the House in August, 1913, in which he said he believed the Panama Canal could be put out of business in one or two hours by an enemy with a flock of aeroplanes which would drop one explosive after another either on the locks or in the Culebra Cut to cause slides by the shaking of the earth. Our best defense against aircraft attack on the canal is aircraft of our own. permanently based, like the submarines, on the Isthmus. We need strong aeroplane stations at San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle. Honolulu, Guam and Manila. The lack of proper aerial eyes for our fleet, the author ascribes, first, to lack of public interest in military aviation: second, to tardy service appreciation of its nature and importance; third, to a marked need of government support, and, fourth, to the backwardness of our aerial industries for want of fostering. After quoting the report of the Aeronautical Board, Commander Parker suggests that it will be a defect if in war the army aviators are

not available as a naval reserve and vice versa. The lack of a joint flying school or its equivalent seems to him to be a weakness of our dual organization.

As to which type, plane or dirigible, is best, Commander Parker says both types are needed and the dirigible without delay. Germany has "pulled the chestnuts out of the fire," her aviators having passed through fire and storm. France began building aeroplanes only and soon found that she must have dirigibles too. Germany began with dirigibles and now has as many aeroplanes as France. England built aeroplanes and is now rushing dirigibles into air. Every minute wasted now by us is a moment of danger.

The policy clearly indicated for us is this: Air strength superior, at the point of application, to that of the strongest opponent considered. As to whether we should build rigids, non-rigids or semi-rigids, the essayist says that we cannot build Zeppelins (rigids) before learning to make and handle non-rigids, and by that time the relative usefulness of the Zeppelin should be shown. The opportunity presented by this war is a golden one for us. We can utilize the teachings of the conflict. We can observe, prepare and obtain command of the air in the Western Atlantic. With a minimum of effort we can get an air fleet of the latest kind, always supposing we are not interrupted. As to dirigibles, we are fortunate in another way. A first-class shed is a necessity to a dirigible and the sheds of Europe have become too small. If, after training with a few non-rigids, we build only the largest air dreadnoughts, with revolving sheds to match, we can quickly rival those who have "borne the heat and burden of the day." Like Germany, we can standardize our aeroplanes and, building only the best, may find ourselves when Europe takes breath among the great air Powers.

AERO SQUADRON LEAVE SAN DIEGO

The First Aero Squadron, which will be composed of 20 officers, 90 enlisted men, and 8 machines, will not go to San Antonio until about the first of December. They will leave San Diego about the 25th of July for the Field Artillery School of Fire at Fort Sill, and will be used in connection with the field artillery during the Fall course of instruction.

The pessimism in the press about the condition of Army aeronautics is not warranted by facts. "We have at the present plenty of machines for our needs and can get machines whenever we want them. Everybody has overlooked the main point. It is not the number of machines that any nation has, but the number of trained fliers, or, in other words, the real fighting strength of a country is not gauged by the amount of material on hand, but the value of its personnel.

A storehouse full of field guns or rifles is of no value unless you have men trained to use them efficiently," said a high military authority on aeronautics to a representative of AERONAUTICS.

STURTEVANT WORKS NIGHTS

The B. F. Sturtevant Co. have found that their present facilities for the testing of their gasoline motors is inadequate, owing to the large volume of orders which are being filled for their eight-cylinder 140 H. P. aeronautical motor and consequently work is being carried on day and night in the erection of a new test plant. This building when completed will be devoted exclusively to the testing of the aeronautical motors.

The work is being carried on under the personal supervision of Mr. Noble Foss, designer of the eight-cylinder motor, and Mr: Channinghouse, an expert in charge ofthe testing of the motors.

The equipment will consist of the most improved and up to date machines including several large stands provided with calibrated moulinets. Nothing will he lacking in order to determine the oil and gasoline consumption, the brake horsepower and other tests with the greatest precision.

The new plant will be in full operation within a week.

TRINITY HONORS WRIGHT.

Hartford, Conn., June 23.—Orville Wright received the honorary degree of Doctor of Science at the eighty-ninth commencement at Trinity College, Hartford, June 23rd.

William Thaw is said to be the only American aviator actually at the front with the French aero corps. Six other American aviators, including Norman Prince, who has been training, near Paris, expect to leave soon for the front.

Page 117

DATA ON TURNBUCKLES

A most valuable paper to the engineer who may be working on new aeroplanes, or to the manufacturer of accessories, was some time ago presented to the Laboratory Committee of the Aeronautical Sociey, in England, by J. Erime-low and \Y. G. Mann.

Twelve tests were made with turn-buckles regularly on the market, each specimen being pulled to destruction.

Then the least area of gunnietal at 7854d,'-'X44

any section =-

20

7T

But this is equal to — (df—d") 4

therefore d/-=d,3X V X<1\ and dj=\ (d=+ ',' <lr).

In size 4 it will be seen that it is necessary to make the diameter at the adjustment bole d», larger than d-., as shown in Figs. I and 11. The length of this enlargement may he taken as 38-

The above tests were carried out at the East London College (University of London), and the authors are indebted to Prof. D. A. Low for his valuable supervision and suggestions.

TABLE I

TESTS OF ACTUAL WIRE STRAIVERS

Specimen

J

d,

d.

L

ir

K

E

F

Maximum load ■ lbs.

1(a)

J *

•4

■437

4-5

2-0

•273

^187

■490

3200

1(6)

 

4

•437

4-5

2 0

•260

■187

•490

2450

2(a)

T«"

■205

•314

4-0

175

•175

127

•37.5

1475

2(6)

Tb*

■267

•282

3-25

1-25

■214

•127

•373

lorn

2(c)

ih"

■294

•313

4 0

r-75

■185

126

•371

1475

2(rf)

le

■270

•282

3-25

1-25

•177

•127

•375

1250

*3 (a)

 

■230

•250

2-625

1125

•168

■09

■308

1000

3(6)

 

•230

■250

2-625

1125

■175

■09

•308

975

Ha)

 

•224

•250

2-0

■8125

•124

■072

•249

500

4(6)

1*

■193

■218

2-0

•875

■124

•072

•238

875

5(a)

s'V"

•140

•155

1-75

■75

•11

■064

•186

425

5(6)

is

•146

•155

1-75

•75

11

•064

•186

400

Broke in the guumotai pol

The strainers were tested complete in order to find the weakest part, and to provide data for the design of strainers of such dimensions that the strength of the gunnietal body portion should be equal to the strength of the steel screwed portion, at the bottom of the thread.

The sizes of the wire strainers are classified according to the diameter of the threaded steel eye bolts.

Table [ gives the sizes and breaking loads of the actual specimens. From these data the average breaking stress of the steel screw* was found to be 44 tons per square inch.

lit the first series of tests it was noticeable that, with one exception, all the specimens broke in the screwed steel portion. Several of the strainers were next turned down until the gunmetal portion was obviously weaker than the steel portion. Careful measurements were taken, and the specimens were again tested to destruction in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. 1. From these tests, and the single specimen which broke in the gunmetal portion during the first test, the average tensile strength of the gunmetal was found to be 20 tons per square inch.

The dimensions given in Table 11 were next calculated in the following manner, assuming Whitworth screws: d =diameter of steel bolt. di=diameter at bottom of thread (WhitworthL

Then 7S54d,"=area of steel at bottom of thread; and •7854di"X44-=breaking load in tons=F.

X.P.—In each test the steel portion was screwed in a distance M=3d.

For the center portion containing the adjustment hole. d:l is found as follows: ( 7854 d/ — ,d;,1 20=7S54 drx44=F

1 F

.-. d:,2---8<1»=

•7854

20x 7854

"One day in Chicago." said Beachey, 'I had just concluded one flight and ■vas preparing to go up again—[ was after the altitude record that time— when a young fellow bustled up to me and introduced himself as a newspaper reporter especially commissioned by his paper to write my obituary notice. He asked for an interview, but \ told him he'd have to wait until after my flight, as I was almost ready to go aloft and the crowds were waiting.

"But the fellow was not to he put off.

'"'Nothing doing!' he insisted. 'That probably will be too late. The old man saw you do your fool stunts this morning, and he sent me out here to get the facts for your obituary, so we can have it set up in case we need it in a hurry. There's no use, Mr. Beachey, in beating around the bush about this business; you've got to talk to me. You're going to slam down and bump the old earth good and hard one of these days—

DIMENSION'S OF WIRE STRAINERS.

14

6J" 3"

55" 2>*

4J* 2"

3J" . ir

2J- | I""

* For the nrst four size* tile diameter o[ tin- hole used fur adjuslmeut wai taken as the last ,'0*. as per tahle.

t The speeimtna in actual use give very approximately thr rules L = lsd and H =S1

or d.t:

whence d;:

•2738-dn — -0636 F=0;

1-2738+\ 1-628-+-254

maybe today—and my paper wants to know what it can say about your past life. We want to get it all set up, so there won't be that to interfere with getting the details of the smash-up.'"

THE ZEPPELIN AS AN OFFENSIVE WEAPON

(From a Correspondent)

In view of tile repeated visits paid to England by German airships, and the consequently increased curiosity as to their capabilities, the present would seem to be a suitable opportunity for a discussion of the characteristics of a modern Zeppelin.

As a result of the descent of Z4 at Ltineville in 1913 we are fortunately in possession of tolerably accurate information on the subject, thanks to an article by M. Georges Prade, which has recently appeared in l.c Journal, and which, it is believed, embodies the details obtained by the French and British authorities in their examination of the ship.

The Z4 had a volume of 20.000 cubic metres and, therefore, a lifting capacity of slightly more than 20 tons.

Each of the 180-h.p. Maybach motors weighed approximately 1,000 lbs., and consumed about 100 lbs. of fuel per hour, while the weight of the "carcass" of the airship, without the motors, was 31,600 lbs. According to M. Prade, who may be accepted as a reliable authority, a 22-ton vessel, which is the army type, weighs about one-eighth more than the 20-ton ship—say, 4,000 lbs.—and the 28-ton naval type, having a volume of 27,000 cubic metres, has an additional burden of 7,700 lbs. to lift, giving a total "tare" of 43,300 lbs. for this type. Airships of this size require at least four motors, weighing in the aggregate 4,000 lbs., and consuming fuel to the extent of 400 lbs. per hour.

A crew of at least 20 men is carried, who would weigh an additional 3,000 lbs. Both the LI and L2 were manned by 28 men at the time of their destruction.

To attain a height of 6,000 feet the crew of Z4 had been compelled to jettison 6,600 lbs. of ballast, and a 28-ton vessel would therefore be provided with water or sand to a weight of at least 9,000 lbs. for this purpose.

This completes the sum of the data available, from which it is proposed to determine the capabilities of a Zeppelin of naval type effecting a 12-hour flight

with a crew of 20 men.

Setting forth the various items in tabular form, the following result is obtained :

Lbs.

Weight of "'carcass"..............43,300

Weight of four motors........... 4,000

Weight of fuel (.400 lbs. per hour) 5,000

Weight of crew ................. 3,000

Weight of wireless apparatus..... 200

Weight of ballast ................ 9,000

Gross weight ..................64,500

As already stated, the type of vessel under consideration is capable of lifting a gross weight of 28 tons, or 62,720 lbs., which shows a deficit of nearly a ton; a sufficient answer to the statement so constantly reiterated that a Zeppelin can carry a load of 5 tons of explosives.

The apparent liability of these craft to lift their own weight when fully loaded, without the addition of any offensive weapons, necessitates the consideration

of a feature in their design which is commonly overlooked.

All Zeppelins are fitted with a series of horizontal fins which, possibly in conjunction with the bottom of the gondolas and connecting gangway, act as aerofoils, and consequently exercise a considerable dynamic lift. According to an American authority, in an early example, this lift amounted to between 2 or 3 tons, which will undoubtedly have been improved upon in recent jears, so that it is safe to assume that in the "L" type this force will amount to some 4 tons.

1 f this be the case, with its motors working, one of these ships can in all probability carry a ton and a half to two tons of explosives in addition to machine guns when provisioned for a 12-hour cruise, but it is important to bear in mind that this is only possible when the motors are running. If the motive power fails from any cause, the aircraft would be compelled to descend, unless a sufficient quantity of fuel or ballast had been expended to counterbalance the deficiency in lift. This brings us to the consideration of a suggestion which has frequently been made that, with a view to surprise, a Zeppelin would shape its course to windward of the object, and, having stopped its engines, drift down over it.

It has already been shown that this is impossible for a fully loaded airship at the commencement of a long voyage, but it remains to be considered whether it is a possibility after a journey over the North Sea to the neighborhood of these islands.

From the nearest airship base in Germany to the English coast is nearly 300 miles, which, at an average speed of 35 m.p.h., would take Syi hours to cover, during which time the engines would have consumed about a ton and a half of fuel.

If the Zeppelin, then, set out with 1 yi tons of explosives on board, by the time she arrived here she would be approximately in a condition of static equilibrium.

This, however, does not take into account the almost insuperable objection to the course under consideration that an airship drifting with the wind in the manner suggested would not have steerage way and would, in all probability, yaw broadside on to the wind and become completely unmanageable unless the engines were restarted.

It will be noticed that by estimating for a flight of only 12 hours' duration the amount of fuel to be borne has been by no means overestimated, in view of the distance to be traversed in making a journey from the airship base to this country.

As the average speed of a Zeppelin has been said to be considerably higher than the figure mentioned here, it may be well to recall that on a recent occasion five hours was expended by a hostile airship in arriving at the English coast from a

point distant 180 miles, an average speed' of 36 m.p.h.

The weight of the explosive bombs habitually carried by Zeppelins is 185 lbs., while they are usually provided in addition with a number of incendiary bombs weighing about 20 lbs. each.

Having arrived at the conclusion that it is scarcely feasible for more than \l/> tons of explosives to be carried, it can be computed that the crew are in a position to drop 14 or 15 explosive bombs and some 20 of an incendiary nature, or, if preferred, 200 incendiary projectiles and 7 or 8 explosives.

This conclusion is confirmed by the experience of Alay 10, when 100 incendiary and 4 or 5 explosive bombs were dropped on Southend and district, which, one may assume, was the total number carried on that occasion, as it is unlikely that the ship would have returned home with some of her ammunition still unexpended, since there was apparently no definite objective in view.

TO AERONAUTICAL DERELICTS

In a letter from a reformed nut: As for my humble self—talk about turning Pegasus into a plow-horse, that is nothing to the spectacle of America's best aeronautic engineer serving as chauffeur to a hoe. So far gardening has not proved any more remunerative than aeronautics—and you know how much that is. I had no idea it took so long to grow tilings—everything but weeds, that is. However. I have a little kitchen patch that is supplying a daily contribution to my menu, and the lake is full of fish and turtles, and plenty of rabbits in the woods—so—on the whole •—I should worry and get short-circuits in my spark plugs. Under such conditions the entire Allied Army can't starve me out, and that's more than you poor devils still aeronanting can say. Best of all, the outdoor life in the most perfect climate ever made is rapidly restoring my health. I'll soon be strong enough, at this rate, to operate one of those cute little man-power ornithopters your devoted friends are so often inventing and then getting sore because you won't boost them in the nut mag. And not the least charm of the life is its freedom and independence. I have hired a boy to come and wake me every morning at five, and say, "The Commander wants you to get up at once and make a recou-naisance over the enemy's lines." Whereupon I retort, "Tell the Commander to go make a reconnaisance over the northwest corner of Hell and from that point do a vertical volplane!" and go back to sleep serenely. Ah, this is the life! When at last the fateful day comes that you must get out of town two jumps ahead of your creditors, come to me and I'll give you peace and rest.

Yours to the end of the War.

RAUSENBERGER 12-CYLINDER MOTOR

The first 12-cylinder motor to be produced in this country is the "Rausenber-ger," manufactured by the City Engineering Co., of Dayton, Ohio. It antedates the 12-cylinder automobile engines now the latest in automobiledom. This motor was used by Cecil Peoli and attained prominence through his flights with it. The ban just put on aero engine testing at the Automobile Club of America prevents us from giving data on brake horse power, fuel consumption and the like. Several characteristics follow.

The cylinder dimensions are -Hs-iuch bore by eight-inch stroke. The valves are all in head and mechanically operated ; copper spun water jackets, two liosch magnetos, two Schebeler carburetors, oil system return type, water cooled, weight 5y0 pounds, 5 gallons water for cooling.

Cylinders are made from a fine grade of grey iron with copper skin water jackets with all valves in head mechanically operated. The pistons are made from same material as cylinders using three rings. Pistons weigh 2'/t pounds. Valves are of nickel steel, operated by rocker arms. All valve seats are located in cylinder bead.

Two model "L" Schebeler carburetors. 1-V.J inches, are used. One for each 6 cylinders, evenly distributing gas to all cylinders. The levers are connected together.

Water pump is of centrifugal type mounted on front of gear case driven direct from end of crank shaft.

Oil system is of the return type, actuated by a plunger pump driven by an eccentric on cam shaft. This pump has only one valve. The oil is forced

through all main bearings from where it distributes to splash basin. The surplus oil overflows back into oil pump, where it goes through a fine filter before it can return to pump. When the motor runs no smoke can be seen.

The crank case is made from a tough alloy of aluminum. Eight main bearings are located in case. On each bearings are two yj-inch special studs to hold bearing caps. Under each nut a flat machined washer is used to make a solid seat for nut. The nuts are hardened and slotted for cotter-pins. The gear case is cast integral on front end of case. On the rear end a long extension is provided for propellor clearance. The base of case has an oil reservoir with a capacity of 4 gallons. The crankshaft is made from Chrome-Vanadium, oil treated and hollow thruout.

Connecting rods are made from drop forged nickel steel of the I beam type. At the piston end a bronze bushing is fitted. The lower end has two special bolts to hold cap and liners.

All main bearings are made from Parson white brass of ample size.

An S. K. F. radial ball thrust bearing is used and runs in oil. This bearing holds the alignment of crank shaft and thrust from the propellor, no change for push or pull.

Cam shaft is made from a tough steel with all of the 24 cams out integral, hardened and ground. Seven bronze bearings support the shaft. This, too, is held in position endways by one bearing at the end allowing the shaft to float free.

Two Bosch magnetos are used, mounted on gear case cover and driven direct from timing gear. Bosch spark plugs and cables used. Metric threads.

GREAT ACTIVITY AT THE THOMAS PLANT

Behind closed gates and locked doors a small army of men at the Thomas plant are busily engaged making the new Thomas military tractors, which have gained wide international attention.

The Thomas Bros, hesitated to accept a large foreign order with specific "rush" clauses. To-day they are breaking the speed limit in furnishing machines much more promptly than asked for in their contract, and increasing the capacity of their plant by over a hundred times.

This company will soon be able to turn out, on the average, a machine for every working day.

The plant is divided into eight departments. At the head of each is an expert closely scrutinizing the work of each of his men. A special inspector carefully examines and criticises each and every part, the construction and the placing of each one of the thousand and one parts that go to make up the Thomas military tractor.

Personally supervising every phase of the construction of this machine are the Thomas Bros.' engineering staff.

To the observer who saw their plant three months ago, the growth seemed almost mushroom-like, but it is indeed not a mushroom growth. It was not, however, the work only of the past few months. During many years of experimentation and study, this company was preparing for this when their business would come into its own. Their dream has been realized and they are now fully prepared to meet the emergency that the demands of foreign governments and even our own have put upon the capacity of their skill and facilities.

Seven of the twenty-four machines which were ordered by a foreign government a few weeks ago have been tested and delivered. The rest of the order is in process of construction and will soon be ready for shipment.

With the orders for the construction of miltary tractors, another department of the Thomas Bros.'s business has had a phenomenal growth. At the back and front doors of this plant come prospective students from all over the. world, asking for admission to their school. Interest in aviation seems to be spreading rapidly, if the applications received by the company are any indication of the tendency.

With the erection of the new sheds, the long lease which this company was able to obtain for a straightaway, and the excellent facilities over Cayuga Lake for flying boats and hydroplanes, there is no school that can excel the Thomas. With experienced men to train the students in even' phase of the profession, with the constant supply of machines for testing and exhibitions, a student at the Thomas School can gain experience with rapid strides.

R. W. JANNUS OPENS AT TOLEDO

Rog'er W. Jannus, who for more than a year has been giving demonstration flights with his hydroaeroplane at Spring Gardens, has located at Toledo, Ohio. He will open a flying school at Toledo. The Jannus brother. Roger and Anthony, have delighted hundreds of Baltimoreans by their exhibitions, and those who have witnessed the flights will be sorry to see the young aviators leave.

THOMAS SELLS U. S.

The N'avy Department announced a contract for two tractor hydroaeroplanes at $12,000 each, to be delivered by the Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company, of Ithaca, N. Y„ early in July. They will be used in training officers and men in handling this type of machine as compared to the pusher type now in use and tested for availability for use in rough weather.

CURTISS MAKING

AIR DREADNAUGHT

Charles M. Manly and Dr. A. F. Zahm are at the Curtiss works in Toronto working on a monster land biplane. The Toronto shop is in charge of J. A. D. McCunly. Tony Jannus has lately joined the Curtiss forces.

STEWART VACUUM

GAS FEED SYSTEM

The trouble of leaky pressure tanks and the neeessit3' for air or suction pumps are done away with by the Stewart vacuum gasoline system now being used on Curtiss aeroplanes. The illustration shows a special-built car so fitted to demonstrate that gasoline will run uphill—when properly induced. With this system the flow to the carburetor is actually by gravity, but the supply is taken from a large tank located in any spot where it is desired to have it placed.

The Stewart vacuum gasoline system comprises a small round tank, mounted on either side of dash. This tank is divided into two chambers, upper and luwer. The upper chamber is connected to the intake manifold, while another pipe connects it with the main gasoline supply tank. The lower chamber is connected with the carburetor.

The intake strokes of the motor create a vacuum in the upper chamber of the tank, and this vacuum draws gasoline from the supply tank.

As the gasoline flows into this upper chamber it raises a float valve. When this float valve reaches a certain height it automatically shuts off the vacuum valve, and opens an atmospheric valve, which lets the gasoline flow down into the lower chamber. The float in the upper chamber drops with the gasoline flowing out, and when it reaches a certain point it in turn reopens the vacuum valve, and the process of refilling the upper chamber begins again. The same processes are repeated continuously and absolutely automatically. The lower chamber is always open to the atmosphere, so that the gasoline flows to the carburetor, as required, uninterruptedly and with an even pressure.

The amount of gasoline always remaining in the tank gets the heat from the motor, and thereby aids carburetion, as also makes starting easier, by reason of supplying warm gasoline to carburetor.

Lower chamber of tank is constructed as a filter, and prevents any water or sediment that may be in gasoline from passing into carburetor. A petcock in bottom of the tank permits drawing off this sediment, and also allows one to

draw gasoline, if required for priming or cleaning purposes.

Address of the Stewart-Warner Speedometer Corp. will be found in your Data Sheets under "Instruments."

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

IMPORTS

April, 1915 .................... none

Same period, 1914, part only... none Ten months ending April. 1915,

parts only ...................$ 2,291

Same period, 1914, parts only... 26,359 Same period, 1913, 13 aeroplanes ($50,920): parts ($1,7/6); total .......................... 52.696

DOMESTIC EXPORTS April. 1915. 46 aeroplanes ($318,492): parts ($39,086)........$357,578

Same period, 1914, 2 aeroplanes ($6,500); parts ($6,646); total .......................... 13,146

r

i'

I

Ten months ending April, 1915, 80 aeroplanes ($590,857), parts ($283,916) ; total ............ 874,773

Same period, 1914, 29 aeroplanes ($157,424); parts ($36,577); total ........................ 194,001

Same period, 1913. 25 aeroplanes ($73,450) ; parts ($23,524) ; total ............................ 96,974

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN

April, 1915 .................... none

Ten months ending April, 1915. none Same period, 1914, 1 aeroplane

($4,049); parts ($900).......$ 4.949

IN WAREHOUSE APRIL 31

1915. 1 aeroplane...............$ 1,856

1914........................... none

RACE AT PACIFIC EXPOSITION

Four balloons were on hand to race fin June 10 at the San Francisco Exposition grounds: George B. Harrison Jewel City): Leon Brooks (Venice); Clarence Drake (Queen of the Pacific) ; Edward Unger (California).

The high wind tore the Drake and Unger balloons and Drake hopped in the basket with Harrison, who was the only one to get away. Brooks' bag was torn as he got in. but he kept going just the

same, bumped over a few buildings, trees and other minor details and finally dropped in the bay and was rescued. The following day Unger repaired his balloon, and with Guy T. Slaughter, president of the Pacific Aero Club, went after 11 arrison's figure. I larrison landed at Collegeville, a distance of about 75 miles. Unger traveled 110 miles, to Patterson, near Modesto. There was supposed to have been some $10,000 in the way of a prize, but an unkind newspaper suggests the winner's share will be mostly glory.

NILES LOOPS WITH PASSENGER

On June 16th Charles Niles, the old Thomas Brothers flyer, later with the Curtiss contingent, looped the loop and flew upside down with Steve MacGordon in a Bleriot-type monoplane built by Harold Kantner of the Huntington Aircraft Company, on the Hempstead Plains. The motor was a 90-h.p. Gyro.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Philadelphia, June 17.—Thomas E. Eldridge and George H. Simmerman, president and vice-president, respectively of the Aeronautical Recreation Society, ascended in the Greater Philadelphia II. from Point Breeze. The balloon sailed over the citv and landed five hours later at White Bog, N. J.

BALLOON UP 28,900 FEET

San Francisco, June 21.—A height of 28,900 feet was reported reached by Edward Unger in the balloon Jewel City. This is believed to constitute an American record.

AVIATION SCHOOL FRAUD IS CHARGE

Becoming a stockholder and pupil of the Curtis Howell Aviation School of Richmond, Cal.. proved an expensive venture for Walter Herzer, a song writer, 241 Sansome street, who caused the arrest of Frederick V. Persons. 2712 Derby street, Berkeley, on a warrant issued by Police Judge Morris Oppen-lieini. Herzer alleged in his complaint that he was fleeced of $1,500, and accused Persons of obtaining money by false pretenses.

Persons, according to Herzer, represented himself as the president of the Howell School, and stated that the institution had more than sixty pupils: that the income from tuition amounted to more than $585, and that a $5,000 French racing machine was a part of the equipment.

It was upon these representations, Herzer stated, that he was induced to invest $1,500. All of Persons' statements, according to the complainant, were false. —San Francisco Chronicle.

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT OFF

The new Wright-Curtiss suit was postponed, on motion, by Judge Hazel at Buffalo, on June 21.

NAVY STARTS CLASS

Nine officers on July I of the Navy and Marine Corps selected by the Navy Department to form the class in aeronautics at the station at Pensacola, Fla. The class will assemble at once.

The men selected are: Lieuts. E. F. Tohnson, A. C. Read; Lieuts. (junior grade) E. G. Has, R. Paunack, W. W. Corry, Ensigns J. P. Norfleet, H. W. Scofield, all of the Navy. From the Marine Corps, Lieuts. S. F. T. Evans and A. E. Cunningham were chosen.

MAY BE NEW RECORD

Stephen MacGordon and two passengers flew 1 hour 37 min. on June 25 at Hempstead in a Heinrich Gyro-motored biplane. The altitude made was 6.000 feet.

NEW CORPORATIONS

Russell Aeroplane Co.. Great Falls, Mont.; $20,000; E. L. Russell. Frank Hodeus. Albert Michalsyk, G. S. Russell, Geo. H. Minson, Hanson Brothers, Jess Pogreba, Carl Smith.

FOR SALE—Some used aeroplane motors at moderate prices. Also parts, propellers and accessories. Aircraft Co., Inc.. 1737 Broadway, New York City.

MANIMOTOR—6 cylinders, 72 H. P., used but one hour. Double ignition. Cost $1,700. Will sell to the first offer for $490 cash, as 1 need the money. Propeller included. Write L. W., Canton, O.

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OFFICIAL BULLETIN

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS MEETING.

A special meeting: of the Aeronautical Engineers Society. A. S. of A.. Charles W. Howell in the chair, was held on Tuesday evening, June 30, at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society of America, for the purpose of reviewing a paper presented by Mr. Charles R. Witte-niann. which had previously been discussed by the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society. The Engineers Society invited the Technical Board to join in its deliberations, resulting in an extremely interesting debate, which included a dissertation on the character of the turbulent motion of air created by a plane surface at a normal angle of attack in flight.

The Wittemann paper, which is devoted to a type of multi-plane machine, having large carrying capacity, capable nf making long sustained flights, received the approval of both the Technical Board and Engineers Society, and will now be printed and published in pamphlet form under the provisions of the Bur-ridge Foundation.

In the conrse of the evening a significant statement was made by Mr. Gold-merstein regarding the subordination of air craft to military needs, he saying:

"Stability is a secondary matter—efficiency also. The only reason for building an aeroplane now is for war purposes. The demand is for a machine to fly say a thousand miles and carry a large weight of explosives. If it is stable, all the better. If it is not we will put on it a more competent flyer, or a stabilizer. If it is efficient, very well. If not we will put more engine power into it. But it must answer the demand stated, that is the main point."

Members of the Aero. Engineers' Society in session at the above special meeting were: Frederick W. Barker, Merrill E. Clark. Lewis R. Compton. Leon Goldmerstein, Oscar Hermanson, Charles W. Howell and Walter V. Kamp. The Technical Board was represented by its members: Earl Atkinson. H. L. Coakley. Rudolph R. Grant, M. P.. Sellers and Charles R. Wittemann. Capt. W. I. Chambers. U. S. N.. also of the Technical Board, submitted

his views on the paper in writing. Other members of the society present were Edward 1 hirant and Ernest L.Jones.

Other papers are now in course of preparation, and will take the same course.

The general meetings of the Aeronautical Society for July will be on the first and third Tuesdays, and meetings of the Technical Board will be mi the second and fourth Tuesdays.

The regular meeting of the club was held at the Bellevue-Stratford Friday evening, June 18, President Joseph A. Steinmetz. chairman. There was a large and enthusiastic attendance. The chairman reported that a committee had visited League Island on June 16 for the purpose of inspecting a plot of ground that had been set apart by the government as the Pennsylvania Aeroplane Station and bad found it admirably adapted for the purpose.

An invitation from the commander, C. B. Price, lT. S. X.. to the members of the club and their friends to visit the Pennsylvania Aeroplane Station at League Island, July 3. by the government tug, was accepted and a committee was named to complete arrangements.

With the object of expediting the business of the club, sub-committees were outlined as follows:

Press

State

Municipal

Naval

Military

Legislative

Law

Finance

It was also decided to further stimulate Statewide interest by the appointment of club representatives in each county.

Pending the organization of a Pennsylvania National Guard and Naval Militia Aviation Corps, the generous offer of David H. McCulloch, of a Curtiss flying boat and his services as pilot, was accepted by the club on behalf of the State.

Increased interest in the club by additional enrollments was noted, and on motion duly seconded. Captain John J. Knapp. U. S. N., Commander C. B. Price, U. S. \\, and Lieut-Commander W. H. Hunt, U. S. N.. were unanimously

elected members Plans for a ladies auxiliary were also considered and proper action assured.

After general discussion of the current plans to raise a National Defense Fund to develop the Pennsylvania Aeroplane Station at League Island; increased membership; and the extension of the chili's influence throughout the State, in which every member present pledged his hearty co-operation, the meeting adjourned subject to the call of the president.

TEXAS AERO CLUB FORMED.

The Texas Aero Club was formed June 10th by San Antonio business men and Army officers.

The meeting was called at the suggestion of Brig.-Gen. Robert K. Evans, who broached the matter to staff officers at Fort Sam Houston on his visit a few days before.

The establishment, of the Army's school of aviation at Fort Sam Houston and the development of a strong aero club in the State, with headquarters in San Antonio, will make San Antonio an aviation center for that State, and may lead to the building of aeroplane factories there.

In this connection others present brought out the fact that 200 acres of good manufacturing site are awaiting acceptance by an aeroplane company with the proper financial backing.

By unanimous motion it was decided to organize the club and obtain a charter. A committee of five was appointed to work out the details of the organization and report to another meeting. The committee is composed of Richard Xeg-ley, Franz C. Groos, Chester Terrell. J. H. Savage and James Kapp.

Among those who have signified their intention of membership in the club are: Maj.-Gen. Frederick Funston, Rrig.-Gen. James Parker, Brig.-Gen. R. K. Evans, Lieut.-Col. J. W. Heard. Capt. W. G. Ball. Col. W. S. Scott, Maj. Leroy S. Lyon, Lieut. John H. Read, Jr., Lieut. Hornsby Evans. Leon Walthall. N. S. Graham, J. H. Frost, Abe Wolfson. 11. J. Gutman, C. H. Jenkins, Claude P.irk-head, Albert Kronkosky, Fred W. Cook, Charles Graebner, Jake Wolff. D. J. Woodward. Franz C. Groos, Winchester Kelso. J. H\ Savage. A. B. Weakley, Richard Negiey. R. C. Jones. Harold Kayton. Phil Jackson. W. J Deniger and Chester Terrell.

Seventy-five members are expected to join the organization immediately.

Gyro Motor Company should now be addressed at 774 Girard street, Washington, D. C., as the New York office has been closed.

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MODEL NOTES

THE SCHOBER-FUNK COMPRESSED AIR-DRIVEN MODEL

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

3/16 in.; the rear wheels 2 x l/\ in.

The motor is a two-cylinder, horizontally opposed. The valve is rotary and the pistons are fitted with leather cups. The bore is 5-s x ss in. stroke. The motor complete weighs B}4 oz. The propeller is 15 in. in diameter. The complete machine weighs 2 lbs.

The model shown in the accompanying drawing was constructed by Messrs. Schober and bunk of the Aero Science Club. Many of the members of this organization have built compressed air motors and models for this type of propulsion. Recently Mr. J. MacMahon made a flight of 17 seconds with a com-

pressed air model, wliich is believed to be an American record for this type of model. The model herein shown was destroyed by the bursting of the reservoir before any extensive tests could be made. The constructors were positive that their model would have been a complete success but for this disastrous incident.

The model is a tractor monoplane as shown, entirely constructed of metal. The reservoir was of very best thin sheet bronze wrapped with thin piano wire and dome-shaped caps were soldered on each end. The reservoir also served as the fuselage, the tail and planes being elastically secured thereto.

The main plane had a span of 4 ft. 8 in., chord of 9V2 in. at the center, 8 in. at the tips, and had a slight dihedral angle. It was entirely constructed of flat steel wire with a bamboo main beam as was the tail plane.

The chassis was constructed of heavy piano wire built strong to protect the propeller, all joints on the chassis being wrapped with fine steel wire and soldered. Four steel rubber tired wheels were employed, the front pair being 1 x

TWO PASSENGERS KILLED

Ouincy, Mass., June 18.—An aeroplane plunged to earth with three men today, two of them dying as a result. George H. Hersey, Jr., of this city, a mechanician, was killed instantly, and William D. Ely of Providence. R. I., wdio was receiving flying instructions from Harry M. Jones, the operator of the machine, sustained injuries from which he died on the wa}' to the hospital. Jones probably escaped serious injury by falling on the bodies of the others.

Mr. Jones says that it was not a good flying day, and the machine did not have the usual lifting ability, although the motor was up to speed. He was attempting to carry an unusual load for the purpose of determining the maximum lifting capacity of his machine. It was necessary to make two attempts before getting off the ground and the machine climbed very slowly on a straight away flight for a distance of about one-half mile from the field. When he started to turn to the left and return to the field the machine dropped

rapidly on the turn and was seen to wobble considerably. Mr. Jones explains that he did this in an attempt to make his machine rise on the turn. Finding that he was unsuccessful he nosed the machine down for quick landing on the only suitable spot in the vicinity which was 75 ft. below and directly beneath him at the time. The machine continued in this dive until it struck the ground on a hillside and overturned.

Mr. Jones has no recollection of the happenings during the few seconds following his decision to make a hasty landing. Witnesses state, however, that the machine appeared to be coming out of the dive and expressed the opinion that if he had been at a higher altitude he would have made a successful landing. Mr. Jones either misjudged the distance or when he nosed the machine down the two passengers, one of whom was sitting on the other's lap, were thrown forward in the cockpit which threw the centre of gravity of the machine so far forward that it would not respond to the controls as readily as the operator has been accustomed to.

The aeroplane was inspected immediately after the accident by George H. Armitage, an intimate friend, who has made several cross-country flights with Mr. Jones during the past few weeks and was very familiar with the action of this machine in the air. Mr. Armitage states that the control wires were all intact and the only broken wire was one of the cross wires between the skids and he believes that the accident was caused by no failure of the machine. He further says that the motor was running at the time.

Jones had started a school at Squan-tum and since finishing his machine on June 1st he had made over thirty flights, the two most prominent being a flight with a passenger at a high altitude over the City of Boston on June 10th and from Boston to Providence and return on June loth, a distance of 90 miles. He never indulged in spectacular stunts, his bent being "straight" flying and all that knew him were impressed with the great care which he exercised. He is recovering rapidly and expects to leave the hospital within a few days.

In reference to Mr. Noble Foss' connection with the design of the machine it should be explained that this was confined to the motor only, which was a six-cylinder SO H. P. Sturtevant engine built by the B. F. Sturtevant Co. with which Mr. Foss is connected. The aeroplane was designed and constructed jointly by Mr. Fred S. Channinghouse of Quincy, Mass., and Mr. Jones and was a tractor biplane with (he Wright wing surface and warping control.

_

Aeronautics

Page 125

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Page 126

aeronautics!

INDEX TO VOLUME XVI.

Note. Volume I!started with the first issue, thru of July, 19!>7; Volume II started with the issue nf January, 190S; Volume f J J, with the July. 1908, issue; Volume IV, with the January. 1909. number; Volume V. with the July, 1*/09, number; Volume VI. with the January, l'Mo. issue; Volume Yll. with the July, 1'UO, issue; \'olume VIII. with the January. 1^11. number; Volume IX, with the Julv, 1911. issue; Volume X. with January, 1912; Volume XI, with Tulv, 1912; Volume XII. with January, 1913"; Volume Mil, with July, 1913; \'nlume XIV, with Tanuarv 15, 1914, and Volume XV. with July 15, 1914.

There are only eight numbers in \*olume XV. as explained in the issue of March 15. 1915, and in Volume XVI, as explained in the June 30, 1915. issue.

<July principal articles a*e indexed. Xew s notes in general and smaller mentions are not indexed. Page.

Accidents, Fatal:

Reachey, Lincoln...................23, 43

Xewberrv, Geo. L.................... 85

Peoli, Cecil........................... 38

Stites, Frank......................... 23

Stnltz. Ensign M. 1.................78. 94

Two Passengers with Harry M. Jones. . lib Aeroplanes with Variable I ncidents, by

M. P.. Sellers ........................ 3

Aeroplanes:

Sloane Tractor........................ 8

1 leinrich Tractor...................... 21

Huntington Tractor................... 25

Chris toff erson Tractor ................ 37

Rumpler ............................. *10

Bristol .............................. 55

Goupy ............................54, S7

Clement-Boy ard Armored.............. 68

Xieuport Armored.................... ''8

l'arisano ............................. 85

Nieunort <>nc-Seater.................. 8t

R. E. P. Monoplane.................. 87

Aircraft and Pence Treaties.............. 44

Aviators, Status ot Captured............ 75

Army:

Curtiss Tracings for Signal Corps. . . . 8(-, 101

IT. S. Military Aviation............104. 127

Contracts for Sheds................... 105

Articles, Principal (Nut Otherwise Indexed:

Aeronautical Reserve 1 Mans............ 126

Aeroplanes with Variable Incidents, bv

M. IV Sellers......................... 3

Aircnft and Pence Treaties........... 44

Are We to Rem tin a Minor Air Power? llo Elements of a Gyrocopter, by Emile Berliner.............................. 51

Future of the Aeroplane Industry, by

Leon Goldmerstein.................. 35

Holes in the Air. bv \V. J- Humphries,

Ph. D.....................3y

Conference. First Joint, on Aviation.. II

Navy Dirigible Specifications.......... 20

Navy Opens Bids for 9 Hydros........ 4

Offset Planes; Cunstautin Profile, bv M.

P.. Sellers ....................____ 67

Wing Profile of Great Unit Lift, by

M. R. Sellers ...................... 67

Colt Automatic ' Inn................... 10

Eiffel's "Xouveiles Kecherches," bv M'.

B. Sellers.......................... 8S

Data on Turnbuckles.................. 117

Dropping Messages from Aeroplanes.... 1-* Eiffel's ''Noilveilcs Recherche s," by M.

B. Sellers ......................... 101

Resistance of Bodies in Motion in a

Fluid, by M. P. Sellers............ 19

Our Tutors in the Art of Flying, by

Prof. J. J. Montgomery.............. 99

Story of Flight, by Wilbur Wright... 52. (19

Aviators, Status of Captured........... 75

The First Flying Model, by Wilhelm

Kress and * >. Chanute.............. 83

The Will to Fly in Literature, by P.

P.uranelli .......................... I0l>

When Will the Ocean Be Crossed? by

Joseph Brucker .................... 115

Zeppelin, The, as an Offensive Weapon. 118

Balloon Ascensions ..................7 6, 120

Rurridge, Lee S., Death of.............. 71

Clubs:

Aeronautical Society Bulletins........

................'.. 28, 46. 56, 71. 90, 105

Aeronautical Engineers Society......28. 122

Aero Science Club..................2S, 71

Aero Clubs of Pennsylvania,

46. 56, 90, 105, 122

Peoria Aero Club..................... 90

Philadelphia Aero Club................ 105

Texas Aero Club..................... 122

Harlem Model Aero Club............. 127

Colt Automatic Gun..................... 10

Conference on Aviation, First Joint....... 11

1 lata Sheets:

Guy Wire and Cable Data (1)......... 42

Guy Wire and Cable Data <2>......... 46

Official World Records (3 and 4)..58. 60 Trade Directory. 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10, 11, 12,

13, 62. 63. f-6, 74. 76. 78, 79. 88, 94 Compression Strengths ot Sheeting Tubing (16)........................... SS

Pounds (Avdp) in Kilagrams (16)...... 8S

Compound Units...................... 92

Influence nf Side Wind and Velocity

and Direction of Flight (14 and 15).. 95 Coefficient of Resistance of Symmetrical

Bodies (Eiffel), by M. IV Sellers (18). 98 Speeds in Miles Per Hour Reduced to

Feet and Metres Per Second (IS)---- 98

"Airhole" at Landing (19) (20).....98, HI

Density of Gas (22)................... 108

Horsepower Formulae (23)............ 110

Aerial Bombs and Projectiles (20) (21). Ill

Weights of Sbelbv Tubing (24)........ 114

Speed Table (25)..................... 114

Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power of Balloons (26)....................... 127

Dropping Messages from Aeroplanes..... 14

Eiffel's "Xouvelles Recherches," bv M. B,

Sellers........................____88, 101

Elements of a Gyrocopter, by Emile Berliner ................................ 51

Exports and Imports........7, 23, 58, 76. 120

First Flying Model, by Wilhelm Kress and

O. Chanute........................... 83

Future of the Aeroplane Industry, by Leon

Goldmerstein ......................* •. 35

Holes in the Air, by W. J. Humphries,

Ph. D................................ 39

11 vdroaeroplnnes and Fying Boats:

"Benoist Boat, 1915..................8, 86

Christofferson Boat, 1915.............. 22

Jannus. 1915 ......................... 54

Curtiss Flying Boat Patent............. 102

Libellous Letters of Henry Woodhouse. . 70

MacMecben- Kamp Dirigible.............. 84

Models:

Schober Glider........................ 2(>

Obst Monoplane Flying Boat.......... 72

Schober-Funk Compressed Air.......... 124

Motors:

Sturtevant, 140 H. P.................6, 76

Mounting a Gyro..................... 9

Roberts 100 II. P..................... 10

Roberts 200 11. P..................... 10

Maximoior. 110-120 II. V.............. 20

Frederickson Two-Cycle............... 24

Rausenberger 12 cylinder.............. 119

Navy, United Slates:

Opens Bids for Hydros................ 4

Appropriation ........................ 14

Dirigible Specifications................ 20

Naval Militia Aero Corps...........36, 86

Inter-Aeroplane "Phone................ 36

Pensacola News....................... 41

Awards Contract to Burgess Co.,...... 58

Navy's Xew Air Craft................ 60

Buys Airship......................... 74

Equipment at Pensacola................ 104

Starts Class .......................... 121

National Advisory Committee............ 36

Offset Planes: Constat!tin Profile, by M.

IV Sellers............................. 67

Our Tutors in the Art of Flying, by Prof.

J. J. Montgomery.................... 99

Records:

New Record for Thomas Tractor...... 7

Endurance, by Lieut Jones........... 29

Hydroaeroplane Attitude, by Lieut. Bellinger ............................. 57

Official World Records..............58, 60

Xew Navy Record..................... 121

MacGordon and Two Passengers....... 121

Resistance of Bodies- in M otion in a

Fluid, bv M. B. Sellers................ 19

Stewart Vacuum Gas System............ 120

Story of Flight. The, by Wilbur Wright. 52, 09

When Will the Ocean Be Crossed? by

Joseph Brucker ...................... 115

Will, The. to Fly in Literature, by Prosper P.uranelli......................... 100

Wing Profile of Great Unit Lift, by M.

B. Sellers ............................ 67

Wrigbt-Curtiss Suit ...............9, 92, 121

AERONAUTICAL RESERVE PLANS

Plans of the War and Navy Departments for the eventual organization of fifteen aviation squadrons for the National Guard of the States and twenty-two squadrons for the Naval Militia have been formulated.

The Navy Department offers to loan aeroplanes to the Naval Militia, and the realization of the plan depends now almost entirely upon how quickly there can be gotten volunteers to form the corps. The Secretary of the Navy has authority to establish an aeronautic force for the Naval Militia, but there is not available the necessary fund to organise full size aviation squadrons. The Navy Department also offers to train the officers and men of the Naval Militia enrolled for aeronautic duty, and urges that they be sent to an aeronautic station of the

Navy, or to an aeronautic ship for training.

"It must be borne in mind." the letter states, "that there are not enough aeroplanes now available for this purpose." therefore it urges the Militia authorities to encourage public subscription to develop aviation corps for the Militia. This movement has resulted in securing aeroplanes for different States, as follows: A Curtiss flying" boat for Naval Militia of New York; a Curtiss flying boat for Illinois Naval Reserve: use of Curtiss flying boat and two biplanes for Naval Militia of Pennsylvania; use of Thomas and Sloane tractor biplanes for National Guard of Oklahoma; use of two Curtiss biplanes for the National Guard of New-York: use of Schmitt biplane for National Guard of New Jersey. The cash subscriptions received by the Aero Club

of America, it is announced, amount to almost $8 000.

The War Department's organizational plans call for the maintenance of an aero squadron of organized militia in each of four States, viz.. New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Texas. This number, the authorities urge, should eventually be increased to one for each tactical division, fifteen in all. An aero squadron consists, according to the Tables of Organization, of twenty-one officers and ninety-three enlisted men, operating eight aeroplanes.

Volunteers—men with knowledge of aeroplanes or gas engines and electricians with knowledge of radio as applied to aeroplanes—are urgently needed to make the realization of all these plans possible and to form the corps. Apply direct to the commanding officer of the Militia of your State.—Army and Xcivy Journal.

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AVIATION NOTES.

Signal Corps Aviation School, San Diego. Cal.. June 17, 1015.

June 8, 1915, was Admiral Howard's Day at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, in honor of Admiral Howard, commanding the Pacific Fleet. The ceremonies included a parade in which Cavalry, Coast Artillery and Navy contingents participated. During the parade three Army aeroplanes Hew over the city and the exposition.

During the past week Lieuts. Mac Dill and Christie undertook their J. M. A. tests. Lieut. Christie completed his tests without incident. Lieut. MacDill on his 90-mile straightaway encountered such strong head winds that it took him three hours to cover 88 miles. Within two miles of his destination he was required to make a forced landing with a dead motor and to land in a ploughed field. The machine was unable to get a footing in the soft earth and went over on its nose, dishing a wheel and damaging the planes.

Lieut. FitzGerald, piloting aeroplane No. 38 (Martin tractor), with Lieut. Ciorrell as passenger, Saturday, June 12, made a flight to Long Beach. Lieut. Christie piloted the machine on the return flight for an official J. M. A. test.

The House Appropriation Committee visited the aerodrome last week. Each member made a flight in (he living boat No. 34. with Mr. Francis Wildman. the flying boat instructor, piloting.

A new water hangar is being constructed to house the Burgess-Dunne (S.C. aeroplane No. 361, which will be equipped with pontoons and assigned to hydro duty. The machine will be used for experimental work in connection with Coast Artillery service. Plans are now contemplated for further extension and development of the hydro organization.

Two new OX motors and two new Martin machines, type TT (military tractor) have been ordered delivered on July 1 for the training department. At the present time there are thirteen student aviators (officers) and eight enlisted men under training.

Lieut. Chapman flew from Xorth Island to Long Beach June 16, piloting S.C. aeroplane No. 37. Lieut. MacDill flew the machine back on his official J. M. A. ^'O-mile cross-country flight on June 17.

Mr. Raymund Y. Morris, chief pilot and general manager of the Curtiss California company, was married to Miss Grace Gibson at Coronado, Cal.. June 12. at noon. The bride and groom departed that afternoon for Los Angeles, and the following day left for a honeymoon trip to New York.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Company has •-tarted work on a steel frame paint shop in connection with its plant in Churchill street, Buffalo, to cost $4,000.

HARLEM MODEL AERO CLUB FORMS.

On the 25th of June, 1915, the Harlem Model Aero Cub formed. The following officers were elected : Harry Schultz, President; Alfred K. Parker, Vice-President; George A. Cavanagh, Secretary; George Bauer, Treasurer.

Immediately after its organization a great number of applications for membership were received and which will be given attention in due course.

The purpose of the organization is to promote model Hying and experimentation of all kinds, to engage in model contests, hold model contents of all kinds and to enter competition with other clubs.

The club announces its intention to enter the coming National and Inter-Club contents, its representatives in those contests being Messrs. Marker. Bauer, Cavanagh and Schultz and possibly several other well known model flyers connected with the club.

Further information regarding the Club will be furnished by Harry Schultz. President. No. 23 West 106th Street. New York City.

I beg to advise you that the advertisement (one insertion) inserted in your magazine has brought in about 10 to 12 replies; and in that lot were two parties with just what was needed. —An Advertiser.

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