Volume 16 - No. 4 - 1915 April
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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APRIL 30, 1915
Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:
Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRq£ Milller^ U.S.^s, 17,185 feet. Altitude, witlvone passenger, Lieut. J. C.'gart^r/ft ifsljfc) 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron O.^Ones, UrS 8 hrs. 53 min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. To#er§rU.S.''N., 6 hrs. 10 min.
Motors Ready for Delivery
MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL., 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 100 H. P. MODEL "V" 8-CYL. 160 H. P.
THE CURTISS MOTOR CO
21 LAKE STREET HAMMONDSPORT. N. Y.
U. S. Government Uses Goodyear Balloons
Every balloon purchased by the Government in the last three years has been Goodyear-made. A Goodyear balloon won the American
National Elimination Race out of Kansas City in 1913, the International Race out of Paris in 1913, and the American National Elimination Race out of St. Louis in 1914. Such successes have given to Goodyear an International reputation for the quality and dependability of Goodyear balloons.
Balloon Bags—Any Size
Goodyear makes dirigible balloon bags in sizes from 75,000 cubic feet capacity up to 500,000 cubic feet. Also complete spherical balloons, any size, for captive or free flights. Goodyear balloon fabric is thoroughly impregnated with rubber, not merely coated. That keeps dampness away from the fibre and adds to its strength and gas tightness.
Aeroplanes have been built larger and heavier the past few years to carry increased loads. Goodyear has met the need for stronger tires with two new sizes, 26x4 inch and 26x5 inch.
€»r AKRON. OHIO ' Rubberized Balloon Fabric and Accessories
Let Us Help You Solve Your Balloon Problems
The Goodyear organization includes men thoroughly experienced in the manufacture and handling of balloons. We build balloons to your specifications or design them ourselves. We design fabric for unusual conditions.
If you have balloon problems write us. We gladly answer all your questions, without obligation to you.
Address Balloon Desk, 136.
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
Mokers of Goodyear Automobile Tires New York Branch, 1972 Broadway
The Ball-bearing Motor
MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P.
THE MAXIMOTOR has always been sold at a price that put it within the reach of all.
WE have been enabled to give Sterling Worth at Maxi-motor Prices because of the simplicity of design, and the ease and rapidity with which these motors can be built.
MANUFACTURING in Detroit, the home of the gas engine, has played no small part in reducing the cost of production.
Let Us Send You Our Catalogue and Prices
1530 Jefferson Ave.
THE ELEMENTS OF A GYROCOPTER—By Emile Berliner
The Gyrocopter is a variation of the helicopter operated by a rotary motor. Its special feature is a small anti-torque propeller, taking the place of the usual second lifting propeller, which in the past it was found necessary to provide in order to counteract the torque movement of the machine.
The following are the elements of the Gyrocopter: 1, lifting propeller, L; 2,
able joints until the torque of L is counterbalanced. Any slight difference is neutralized by an ordinary rudder, not shown in the drawing.
Another method of regulating the anti-torque pressure of T would consist in a movable shield directly in front or he-hind it, which would reduce the latter's efficiency by making the access of the air to this propeller. This device could
motor, M; 3, anti-torque propeller, T; 4, frame work with platform, P.
The propeller T is located 10 feet or more from the mainshaft S, and its efficiency is approximately calculated to be equal to a pressure obtained by dividing the torque of propeller L with the distance a. b. The wings of propeller T can be shortened or lengthened by mov-
be used as a rudder to the apparatus.
The Gyrocopter is propelled forward by tilting it. To do this the operator steps forward on the platform P and the apparatus will then move in the direction of the tilt. A tilt of 10 degrees will reduce the lifting power of L about 1/4 per cent, and impart to the whole machine a forward pressure equal to
INDEX TO ADVERT
The Aircraft Co.—1737 Broadway, New York City.
Benoist Aeroplane Co.—341 S. St. Louis Avenue, Chicago, 111.
The Burgess Company—Marblehead, Mass. Sole builders under the Dunne patents in America.
The Curtiss Aeroplane Company— Buffalo, New York.
Jannus Brothers—Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md.
Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of America. Inc.—220 West 42d Street, New York City.
Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company—Ithaca, New York.
The Wright Company—Dayton, Ohio.
The Curtiss Motor Co.—Hammonds-port, New York.
The Gyro Motor Company—774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C. New York office, 331 Madison Avenue.
Kemp Machine Works—Muncie, Ind.
Maximotor Makers—Detroit. Mich.
Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company—Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A.
B. F. Sturtevant Company—Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.
The Wright Company—Dayton, Ohio.
The Ilerfurth Engine Co.—Alexandria. Va„ makers of "Emerson" motors. BAMBOO.
J. Deltour—S04 Jefferson Street, Ho-boken, N. T.
L. W. Ferdinand & Co.—201 South Street, Boston, Mass.
Bosch Magneto Company—201 West 46th Street, New York. Makers of Bosch magnetos
AERONAUTICAL CLOTH AND VARNISH
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.— Akron, Ohio.
The C. E. Conover Co.—101 Franklin Street, New York City.
BALLOONS AND DIRIGIBLES.
T. S. Baldwin—Box 78. Madison Sauare P. O., New York
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.— Akron, Ohio.
Honeywell Balloon Co.—44o0 Chouteau, St. Louis, Mo.
about 17/100 of the total lifting power. Supposing the latter be 1.000 pounds, then with a tilt of 10 degrees the loss in lift will be 15 pounds and the forward pressure will be 172 pounds. With a tilt of 25 degrees the loss in lifting is about 10 per cent, and the forward pressure 44 per cent, of the total lift, and with a tilt of 45 degrees the loss in lifting will be about 30 per cent, and the forward pressure 70 per cent, of the lifting pressure.
From this it can be seen that by stepping forward or backward, the operator can keep such a machine moving comfortably at any level, provided that the surplus lifting power (meaning total lifting power, less weight of machine and operator) does not exceed about one-fifth of the weight of the apparatus. Within this limit the operator will have a tilting between, say, 10 to 40 degrees for navigating the machine. It also becomes clear that the propeller L is to be designed for lift and not for speed, as the latter develops from the tilting of an apparatus having small head resistance, which can be reduced still more by a streamline enclosure.
The Gyrocopter is intended in its primary stages to fly close to the water and to float on it when at rest. Two hollow aluminum cylinders F F act as floats. Collapsible planes or parachutes might be added for modifying a fall from greater heights.
Preliminary experiments with a full-sized apparatus anchored to the ground by ropes were begun over two years ago, but were interrupted by work on the Gyro motor. It is the intention of the writer to resume experiments at an early date.
I S E R S
A. Leo Stevens—Madison Square Box 181, New York.
American Propeller Co.—243-249 East Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md.
The Aircraft Company—1737 Broadway. New York City.
Watson E. Coleman—624 F Street, N. \V„ Washington, D. C.
Frederick W. Barker—P. O. Box 139, Times Square Station, N. Y.
C. C. Parker—30 McGill Bldg., Washington, D. C.
Victor J. Evans & Company—771 Ninth Street. N. W., Washington, D. C.
Wni. N. Moore—Loan and Trust Bldg.. Washington, D. C.
WIRE AND CABLE. John A. Roebling's Sons Co.—Trenton, N. T.
MODELS. Wading River Mfg. Co.—Wading Ri\er. N. Y.
RADIATORS. El Arco Radiator Company—64th Street and West End Avenue, New York.
the story of flight
By Wilbur Wright
The "inside story" of the experiments of Wilbur and Onnllc Wright lias never before been published to the world. Just ho'W they came to fly is as interesting as the fact that they did.
Bicycle makers of Dayton, Ohio, they took up the subject of dynamic flight in 1899 as a pastime.
They wanted something to occupy their minds, and they turned to the flying machine as something worthy of their aeal.
By common consent men had adopted human flight as the standard of impossibility. When a man said: "It can't be done; a man might as well try to fly" he -was understood as expressing the flnol
limit of impossibility. The science of flight was a paper science. Flying proposals were legion; flying dogma, contradictory, impossible, plausible, was rife; but of ART, there was nothing—only a long, unbroken, barren field, with not a suri'iving usable thing to mark the way. nothing save here and there a broken wreck of failure.
My brother and I became seriously interested in the problem of flight in 1899. Some three years before this the death of Lilienthal, which was mentioned in the newspapers of that time, had brought the subject to our attention and led us to make some inquiry for books relating to flight. But the only serious books we found were by Professor Marey, and these related to the mechanism of bird flight rather than human flight. As our interest at that time was mere curiosity as to what had been done, we did not pursue the subject further when we failed to find books relating to human flight
Several years later, while reading a book on ornithology, we became interested in studying the appearances and habits of birds, and it occurred to us that the really interesting thing about birds was their power of flight. This was a power which seemed almost in contradiction to laws of nature. The hirds performed such wonderful feats, feats apparently many times more difficult than ordinary flight, and we could not help wondering why it was that men could not imitate at least the more simple maneuvers.
Our own growing belief that men might nevertheless learn to fly was based on the idea that while thousands of creatures of the most dissimilar bodily structures, such as insects, fishes, reptiles, hirds and mammals, were every day flying through the air at pleasure, it was reasonable to suppose that men also might fly. Of course, there might be, and doubtless would be, many serious difficulties to be overcome, but we thought that by learning what these difficulties were and finding methods of overcoming them, the problem of human flight might be solved, and we thought that probably the cheapest and best way to take up the subject would be to acquaint ourselves with the troubles which others had met in attempting to solve the problem. We accordingly decided to write to the Smithsonian Institution and inquire for the best books relating to the subject. We had heard that the Smithsonian was interested in matters relating to human flight. In response to our inquiry we received a reply recommending Langley's "Experiments in Aerodynamics," Chanute's "Progress in Flying Machines," and the "Aeronautical Annual" of I89S, 1896 and 1897. These last were yearly publications, edited by James Means, giving
from year to year reports of efforts being made to solve the flying problem. The Smithsonian also sent a few pamphlets extracted from their annual reports, containing a reprint of Mouillard's "Empire of the Air," Langley's "Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight," and a couple of papers by Lilienthal, relating to experiments in soaring.
When we came to examine these books we were astonished to learn what an immense amount of time and money had been expended in futile attempts to solve the problem of human flight. Contrary to our previous impression we found that men of the very highest standing in professions of science and invention had attempted the problem. Among them were such men as Leonardo Da Vinci, the greatest universal genius the world has ever known; Sir George Cayley, one of the first men to suggest the idea of the explosion motor; Professor Langley, Secretary and head of Smithsonian Institution; l)r. A. Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone; Sir Hiram Maxim, inventor of the automatic gun; O. Chanute, the past president of the American Society of Civil Engineers ; Dr. Charles Parsons, inventor of the steam turbine; Thomas A. Edison; Herr Lilienthal, M. Ader, Phillips, and a host of others.
The period from 1889 to 1897 we found had been one of exceptional activity, during which Langley, Lilienthal, Chanute, Maxim and Phillips had been feverishly at work, each hoping to win the honor of having solved the problem; but one by one they had been compelled to confess themselves beaten and had discontinued their efforts. In studying their failures we found many points of interest to us. At that time there was no flying art in the proper sense of the word, but only a flying problem. Thousands of men had thought about flying machines and a few even built machines which they called flying machines, but these machines were guilty of almost everything except flying. Thousands of pages have been written on the so-called science of flying, but for most part the ideas set forth, like designs for machines, were mere speculation and probably 90 per cent was false.
Consequently, those who tried to study the science of aerodynamics knew not what to believe, and what not to believe. Things which seemed reasonable were very often found to he untrue, and things which seemed unreasonable were some-
times true. Under this condition of affairs students were accustomed to pay little attention to things that they had not personally tested.
The condition which Professor Langley found in respect to aeronautical science was even more true as regards what had been written regarding proposals for the conversion of speculation into actual machines.
Only a slight examination of Mr. Chanute's hook, which contained hundreds of these speculative proposals, spread over several thousand years of time, was necessary to convince us that the only things in the literature of the subject which would be of any value to us were the accounts of actual experiments by men of recognized ability, like Langley, Lilienthal, Maxim, Chanute, etc. from the writings of these men we obtained the best knowledge we could of the laws of aerodynamics, but as we went on we found that many things which we at first supposed to be true were really untrue; that other things were partly true and partly untrue, and that a few things were really true.
As to the state of experimental knowledge at the time we began our experiments, we reached the conclusion that the problem of constructing wings sufficiently strong to carry the weight of the machine itself along with that ol the motor and of the aviator and also that of constructing sufficiently light motors were sufficiently worked out to present no serious difficulty; but that the problem of equilibrium had been the real stumbling block in all serious attempts to solve the problem of human flight; and that this problem of equilibrium, in reality, constituted the problem of flight itself.
We, therefore, decided to give our special attention to inventing means of retaining equilibrium, and as this was a field where mere speculation was of no value at all, we made a careful study of the state of experimental knowledge. We found that prior to Lilienthal no one had made any serious attempt to leave the ground in a flying machine. All experiments in the air had resulted in such immediate disaster that the first trial was not usually followed up. But Lilienthal constructed several motorless apparati and with them began a study of the problem by actual experiments in the air. By this means he studied the carrying capacity of wings, and investigated the various disturbances of equilibrium to which machines in the air are subjected, both as regard to disturbances due to
the direction and speed of the motion of the machine through the air and also the disturbances produced by variations in the direction and speed of the wind itself.
The studies were continued for several years, but he met with a fatal accident and was killed before having found the solution. * * * His example. in adopting this (his) method of experimentation, was followed by Mr. Chanute and his assistants, and by Mr. Pitcher. After the death of Lilienthal, in 1896, Mr. Chanute discontinued his experiments, and. after a time, Mr. Pilcher fell and was killed. The efforts of Mr. Maxim. Mr. Phillips and Mr. Adcr, the latter with the financial assistance of the French government, to construct motor-driven aeroplanes had resulted in the abandonment of the experiment swithout flight having been attained. So that the period of unexampled activity, which extended from 18S9 to 1897, was followed by one of complete collapse and despair, during which the attention of the world was turned entirely to dirigible balloons, which at this time were being brought into prominence by Santos Dumont.
During the "boom" period fully a half-million dollars had been expended urder the direction of some of the ablest men in the world and two lives had been lost. When one studied the story of loss of life, financial disaster and final failure which had accompanied all attempts to solve this problem of human flight, we understood more clearly than before the immensity and the difficulties of the problem which we had taken up.
But as we studied the story of these troubles and considered how and why they failed, we could not help thinking that many of the troubles might have been avoided and that others might have been overcome by the adoption of more adequate methods. We began to study the flight of birds to see whether they really used the methods of maintaining equilibrium which Chanute and Mouil-lard had represented the birds as using. They had represented that the birds maintained fore and aft balance by moving the wings forward and backward so as to bring the centre of pressure of the wings to the front or to the rear of the center of gravity, and thus tilt the bird upward in front or upward at the rear, as occasion required. They represented that lateral balance was maintained by drawing inward one wing so as to reduce its area as compared with the wing on the other side, so as to reduce the lift on the side which tended to rise. They also said that the bird sometimes rocked its body over toward the high side in order that the increase of weieht on that side might help bring the high wing down. But. in watching the flight of some pigeons one day, we noticed one of the birds oscillate rapidly from side to side: that is, it tilted so thar one wing was elevated above its normal position and the other depressed below its normal position, and then tilt-eel in the opposite direction. These lat-
eral tiltings, first one way and then the other, were repeated four or five times very rapidly; so rapidly, in fact, as to indicate that some other force than gravity was at work. The method of drawing in one wing or the other as described by Chanute and Mouillard, was, of course, dependent in principle on the action of gravity, but it seemed certain that these alternate tiltings of the pigeon were more rapid than gravity could cause, especially in view of the fact that we could not detect any drawing-in first of one wing and then of the other.
In considering possible explanation of the method used by the bird in this instance, the thought came that possibly it had adjusted the tips of its wings about a lateral transverse axis so as to present one tip at a positive angle and the other at a negative angle, thus, for the moment, turning itself into an animated windmill, and that when its body had revolved on a longitudinal axis as far as it wished, it reversed the process and started to turning the other way. Thus, the balance was controlled by utilizing dynamic reactions of the air instead of shifting weight. So far as fore and aft balance is concerned, this seemed to be accounted for by fore and aft movements of the wings, as claimed by Chanute.
In speculating on possible methods of constructing a flying machine to carry a man, we hit on the idea of providing a structure consisting of superposed surfaces rigidly trussed along their front and rear margins, somewhat after the general style of the Chanute "double-decker," but not trussed from front to rear. The connections of the uprights joining the two surfaces were to be hinged so that the upper surface could be moved forward or backward, with reference to the lower surface. This would have an effect on fore and aft balance similar to that produced hy the fore and aft movement of the wings of birds. I refer, of course, to the slight fore and aft movement of the wings of a soaring bird, like the buzzards and hawks, made for the purpose of balancing. It is an entirely distinct thing from up and down flapping. It was designed to move either end of the upper surface forward or backward by a separate lever, one controlling one tip and the other, the other. If both levers were Dressed forward the upper surface would be moved bodily forward and the machine would turn upward, hut if one lever were thrown forward and the other backward, one tip of the upper surface would move forward and the other backward. Thus there would he no change in the general position of the upper surface to the front or rear of its normal position, but the entire structure, consisting of both the upper and lower surface would be given a warp. We reasoned that by imparting such warp we could control lateral balance of the machine, either for the purpose of balancing or steering, as we had noticed that when the birds were tilted they circled around
the depressed wing. In this design it was not intended to use either vertical or horizontal vanes or rudders of any kind. We reasoned that all the evolutions of flight could be obtained by the various combinations of movement of the two levers controlling the two ends of the upper surface.
This speculation was very interesting from a theoretical standpoint, but when we came to consider it from the standpoint of practical invention we were convinced that without any supplementary horizontal surface the machine would be too erratic to be controlled by an aviator and, besides that, it would call for an exertion of strength much beyond that possessed by a human being, both during flight and in landing.
Before attempting to construct a glider on this general principle, we worked out the construction of the supporting planes and a mode of flexing a forward horizontal rudder. The horizontal rudder was placed at the front. There was no tail of any kind either vertical or horizontal.
With machines of this description we made experiments in the years 1900 and 1901 on the seashore near Kitty Hawk. It was our idea that the method of experimentation by gliding had heen so die-credited by the deaths of Lilienthal and Pilcher that we intended to practice with this apparatus by attaching it to a short horizontal rope and letting it float in a strong wind a few feet from the ground while we practiced the manipulation of the horizontal front rudder and the warping of the wings to maintain the apparatus in balance. But we found that a stronger wind than the scientific calculations of other experimentors indicated was necessary in order to sustain this machine. It was. therefore, necessary to resort to gliding in order to at tain a relative wind strong enough to sustain this apparatus. We experimented first with the warping wires fastened tight and used the front rudder only. We feared that if we attempted to control both, we would not properly control either, as we were without any training. We, therefore, glided down a slope, controlling our up and down movement and balance by adjustments of the horizontal front rudder. If the machine attempted to turn over sidewise, we brought it to the ground. The flights were made at first at a height only of one or two feet.
We found that a flexible front rudder was very efficient in controlling the fore and aft balance. We also found that frequently we could make glides of IS to 20 seconds without being tilted laterally sufficiently to necessitate landing. If the tilting were bad, we immediately brought the machine down. After we had acquired some skill in handling the horizontal front rudder, we loosened the warping wires and attempted to control the lateral balance also, but when we did this we found ourselves completely nonplussed.
The apparatus did not act at all as we expected. At first we were not able tg
t Continued on page 6?)
1915 j annus flying boat
The accompanying photo of the Jan-tuis flying boat will serve to tell the story of the new and efficient design. For rough water, ready assembly and disassembly, inherent stability, wide range of flying speed, waterproof construction of wings, enormous margin of safety, comfort for pilot and three passengers, and a dry, clean place for them to sit, this new model is ideal.
The rough water ability is obtained in two principal ways: first, by the
factor made it impossible to assemble all at once. All the wing attachments arc independent of the motor and propeller shaft, so that any punishment of one is not transmitted to the other. No matter what rough seas may strain the wings the motor and propeller shaft do not change their alignment. No matter how severe the missing of the motor or other trouble that might occur the flying equipment cannot be wrecked thereby. The strut construction and other con-
great freeboard and other points in the design of the hull; and. second, the low center of gravity. Of special interest are the Japernig end floats that are nicely designed and never pound or jerk the wings. These taper from three inches wide across the bottom to a foot across the top. The taper has the advantage of reducing the planing surface, which at high speed would be sufficient to ponnd the wings badly, but when called upon as floats are quickly displacing water at an increased rate, easily combating the heaviest side lurching or listing or yawing tendency.
The removability of the tail for shipment has many advantages in construction and in simplicity of shipment for compactness. The motor remains in the front half of the hull with all controls intact. The control cables going to the tail and rudder all pass through indi-\idual leads in a conduit that is made of heavy steel as a protection against the propeller breaking or throwing anything with sufficient force to sever them. Between the conduit and the controls the cables are supplied with the J annus type sister hook, which locks the cables together in a permanent fashion quickly, and without additional safety wire or other auxiliary being necessary.
The wings arc assembled in their entirety before being attached to the hull and, when on, cannot fail to align properly if reasonable care is taken. Where desirable they can be put on half at a time, hut this would only be of advantage if hangar space or other limiting
sidcrations for clean lines and reduced head resistance have resulted in a flyin boat operable on very low power. To date the best record shows a total load of 2.200 lbs. carried in flight at 22-55 m.h.p. with an indicated 6TJ h.p. With full power it will be easy to exceed the useful load specifications for this model.
Tests in the lee of large vessels, along windward shores ami in other extreme conditions of gusty wind and treacherous obstacles prove that the new struts and the staggered planes are serious contenders for the inherent stability honors. The pilots reported that in no case was there any rapid inequality developed nor did the machine make any appreciable variation from its course due to these unfavorable conditions.
The tests have been very thoroughly conducted by Mr. Fritz G. Ericson and Mr. Antony Jannus. To Mr. Ericson the Jannus Brothers' Company are very deeply indebted both for the encouraging way in which he learned to fly last fall, while a pupil of Roger Jannus, and for the way in which he has been able to apply his highly developed training as a designer and inventor to this particular science. Mr. Ericson is a friend of the late Max Lilly, having attended school with him in Stockholm. At home he is noted for his early connection with motor boats and later automobiles and ice boats. As the inventor of the Ericson four-cycle reversible motor, the first heavy duty marine gasoline engine to spring into use in the world, he rates back rather far in the evolution of the
applications of internal combustion. During the entire winter, with both the Jannus Brothers rather active in other parts of the country than Baltimore. Mr. Ericson has produced the desired result.
The designers did not stagger the planes in this model for other than structural advantage, although this practice is credited with considerable improving effect. The design is intended to produce inherent stability through the proper construction and distribution of weights and surface and the results amply testify to the effectiveness of this effort. Such is the result that in gusty winds and when flying in any evolution there is practically no use of the ailerons
The internal construction of the wing is free from ordinary glue and is amply strong without any adhesives, although liquid marine glue is used in all joints to maintain rigidity under severe stress and to prevent rotting. All bolts go on each side of the beams, through end grain blocks that are brass covered outside of the fabric. The upper and lower wings sections of the opposite sides are alike reducing the number of extras to a minimum.
The pilot is seated in front, leaving a seat behind for three large passengers as in the stern sheets of a cat hoat. The ample foot space is well above the ribs of the bottom and made in the form of a grating that is removable for cleaning the bilge scuppers or any other purpose. The motor compartment is segregated from all other parts of the boat, so that no oil or grease can be distributed. As a result the passenger compartment is a= clean as a new pin and is easy to maintain so.
The ample sheer of the sides of the hull, the great width, the bow shape, and all other considerations make a dry. clean hull. The public demands this for commercial passenger carrying, and it is good business to follow the motto, "The public be served."
THE GOUPY THREE-PASSENGER BIPLANE
The Goupy biplane, type 1914-B, resembles in general construction other machines of this firm. The cell is composed of two staggered planes of unequal length: chord 1.6 m.. top plane 1975 m. long, lower one 10.35 m. long. The cell is rigid and lateral balance is obtained by powerful conjoined ailerons. The fuselage is of quadrangular section. The monoplane tail is slightly lifting and approximately rectangular, terminated by a flap 3.1 by .7 m.. serving as an elevator. The quadrangular rudder, above the tail, is partly balanced and in front of it is a small vertical fin. The 100 H. P. Gnome supported between two bearings turns a 2.8 m. propeller, the axis being 1.8 m. above the ground. The chassis is of the usual type, skids and wheels: the wheels are far enough forward to prevent "capotage." The skids, however, do not seem sufficient to protect the propeller in a had landing on rough ground.
This is a tractor biplane having its upper and lower planes equal, directly superposed, and connected by 6 struts. The front struts are rigidly braced by cables; the rear ones free for warping. The fuselage is of quadrangular section. The chassis, which has four wheels, is
of the Gabriel Voisin design. The two rear wheels are nearly under the center of gravity and the others are placed well out in front to prevent "capolage." When the tail is down it is supported by a small skid, which also acts as a brake.
The bomb-dropping device has a rotating barrel holding 12 bombs, which can be fired in succession. A strong spring gives each bomb a forward impulse when fired, so that its speed is greater than that of the aeroplane. By an ingenious device a hard steel blade, operated by the marksman, cuts the metal fastening which holds the bomb to the revolving barrel.
The Coanda bomb is fusiform, having a cross-shaped guide vein at its rear, and a small propeller which is rotated by its motion through the air when falling. At the start the firing device is locked and the bomb can not
explode. But when the bomb is released the rotation of propeller unlocks the firing deuce after the bomb has travelled 200 m.
This machine spreads 11.3 m., its length is 9.05 m. and supporting area 40 sq. m. Motor is Gnome 80 H. P.; speed about 100 K. P. H.
THE ABC AEROPLANE COMING
A machine of true design and excellent construction, to be known as the A B C Military Biplane (pusher"), will make its debut shortly. The rationale of the name, A B C, is. firstly, that it
contains the initials of those associated in the development of the machine; and, secondly, that it expresses the constructional simplicity, which is a prominent feature of the machine.
Mr. Robert S. Anient, a well-known newspaper artist, will direct the exploitation, and Messrs. John Carisi and Vincent J. Buranclli are responsible for the design and construction of the machine. Same is designed to especially facilitate quick assembling, and many original details are embodied to effect that end. The machine, being a pusher, has a splendid range of vision, and for military work gives the gunner a sweep of 180 deg.
The machine is a two-seater, seats arranged side by side, and double controls are provided. The fuselage is very roomy and is covered entirely with duralumin. The color of entire machine is gray, and fuselage has motor car finish. Landing chasis has four wheels, two in front, to facilitate running over rough ground.
The machine is of the deck and a half type, the top wing warps from the end uprights out, similar to a monoplane. The removal of extension considerably reduces spread, permitting the apparatus to be towed along a road much more easily, a valuable military asset.
The power plant will consist of a 100-h.p. specially built A B C aviation motor, which during tests flew a large Ii3'-droaeroplane. Messrs. Carisi and Bura-nelli expect to do some coursing during the summer.
Aside from the machine under construction, designs are complete for a tractor biplane to be equipped with a special variable speed device and a monoplane flying boat, which, in so far as the boat is concerned, seems to be in a class by itself.
the bristol military biplane
OF AMERICA 2» West 39th Street, New York
At the weekly Round Table Talks in the latter part of April a variety of interesting subjects have received attention, notably among these being an address by Mr. Rudolph R. Grant on a novel, economical form of cylinder construction, of which an account will be printed in a subsequent issue. Also Mr. Millard L. Dunham explained to the members at the meeting on April 29th, the construction and operation of his new twin piston ring, showing it to possess the characteristic of exerting truly concentric outward tension, wbich he described as of a spiral nature, whereby these rings are said to form gas tight packings, thus increasing the cylinder power.
It has been decided to change the regular meeting night for the Round Table Talks to Tuesday in each week, instead of Thursday, as heretofore. The change will begin the second week in May, so that the meeting will be on Thursday, May 4, the first week in May, and following that, the next meeting will be on Tuesday, May 11th, the succeeding meetings to he nil on Tuesdays.
The change was made by resolution, unanimously adopted, for the reason that Thursday evenings are used for meetings by other kindred societies, and it is desired that the dates of meetings do not conflict, that all members may be able to attend.
THE PENDULUM STABILIZER
March 23. 1915. With the meeting of the "First Joint Conference on Aviation" a decided advance was made tov\ard the systematic solution of aeronautical problems. It is to be hoped that a full account of the discussion of the various types of stabilizer will be published, as without it the deductions and resolutions are rather vague.
I am glad to see the pendulum device's fallacy as a stabilizer brought to light in forcible, if not strictly accurate, manner. Not accurate, because, if a device were controlled by a pendulum which, as the delegate was quoted, "would invariably do what was not desired," all that would be necessary would be to reverse
the connections to the pendulum to have the device invariably right. Of course, what was meant was that one could not tell whether it would do the right or the wrong thing. This element of uncertainty bars it from stabilizing devices.
Whether or not a device which reduces the speed—i. e., increases the resistance cither permanently or while in action—is or is not permissible is a matter of question. No matter what the type of stabilizer, the balancing of a machine can only be accomplished by the exertion of a force. If no automatic device is used, the aviator must exert this force; if some device which presents a retarding element to the speed is used, the motor must do it. Does it not seem advisable, in the long run, to give the motor enough power to make up for any small loss in speed incurred and ease up a bit on the man at the wheel?
At the present time I cannot think of any device, automatic or otherwise, which does not actuate with a corresponding change in resistance and consequently speed, except a sliding weight, which is not practical for many reasons. In fact any stabilizer employing the air as a medium from which to obtain the force necessary to tip the machine one way or another must be accompanied by a change in resistance. I say "change in resistance" rather than "increase in resistance" because in some cases, such as normally negative flaps, there is a resistance when not in action which is reduced on one side or the other to produce the desired effect. As the air and gravity are the only two sources of forces that we can resort to, with the possible exception of a hnilt-in gyroscope, and as the use of gravity by means of a shifting center of gravity (which is the only possible way) is mechanically unequal to the work, it seems to me that the statement of the conference should be modified.
1 f the aeroplane must be balanced by the reaction from the air, the best device will be that one which will accomplish the desired result with the least added resistance, either as a constant value or as a momentary value while in operation.
The warning against the placing of undue confidence in the action of small models is especially important. Much waste of time and money would be prevented if many of the would-be inventors would pay more heed to it. It is not. however, to be assumed that models are useless for experimental work, for they have a field, and if judiciously used may be of great aid.
In closing let me say that the importance of a completely automatically stabilized or so-called fool-proof machine has been greatly overestimated. In the aeroplane we have three axes of rotation: the vertical, controlled by the rudder; the axis coincident with the line of flight, controlled by what is called the lateral
The present activities at the works of the B. F. Sturtevant Company of Boston, Mass., indicates the most prosperous season according to Mr. Noble Foss. manager of the Aeronautical Department. He states that the present volume of orders for the eight-cylinder 140-H. P. aronau-t'cal motors is the largest in the history of the department.
Tn order to insure early deliveries it has been necessary to greatly enlarge the Aeronautical Department; many new machines and tools are being installed, and additional men have been employed for the manufacture of the engines. The production will be at the rate of one motor per day in a short time.
The Texas School of Aviation, Dallas ; capital stock, $8,000. Incorporators : Lester E. Miller. Paul Van de Velde, Currie McCutcheon. Purpose, to support the education and training of men and women in the science of flying in the air.
ASTOR'S FLYING BOAT
Vincent Astor witnessed the first two flights of bis new Burgess flying boat at Marblehead on April 27.
Tt is said that Mr. Astor will pay $14,000 for the machine and he intends to remain until he can rim it himself.
Clifford L. Webster demonstrated the flying boat.
stahilizer; and the transverse, controlled by the elevator. In some cases the first two are combined and controlled by one device, as these two are more closely related to one another, a rotation about either of them being accompanied by a rotation about the other. If an automatic device will look after any two of these three axes, leaving only one for the aviator, preferably that controlled by the rudder, the operation will be brought to the level of the automobile or boat, as far as ease of control is concerned. In the case mentioned, where the lateral balancing and rudder actions were combined, only one of the two functions need to be automatically performed to reach this level, he climbed 6,200 feet.
Nothing is fool-proof—even the innocent hammer may become dangerous if not used properly—so let us not try to design an aeroplane for the fool, but for people of average intelligence, so that they may, with a reasonable degree of safety, enjoy the pleasures of air travel. Ralph S. Barnaby,
A.S.M.E., Columbia Section.
The following was adopted at the stated meeting of the Aero Club af Pennsylvania on April 16th, 1915:
It is with profound sorrow, and with the most heartfelt regret, that the Aero Club of Pennsylvania has learned of the unexpected death on April 15th of its first President, MY. Arthur L. Atherholt.
As one of the founders of the club, and its President for two successive terms, he was most active in its organization, and worked indefatigably for its interests and progress. After his voluntary retirement from the presidency he continued as a member of the Poard of Directors, and was at all times active and enthusiastic in its work. At the meeting of the club in March he outlined the plans for a balloon race to be held by the club early in May, and which was planned to be the greatest ballooning event ever held in Philadelphia.
The navigation of the upper air in the free balloon was his specialty and his greatest delight. He was the first Pennsylvania to obtain from the Aero Club of America a balloon pilot's license, and took part in many national and international contests, either as pilot or as aide. He was skillful in the handling of balloons, and always held that ballooning is one of the best and most exhilarating of sports.
His open, genial and wholesouled manner won for him a large circle of devoted friends to whom the news of his sudden death at the early age of forty-eight comes as a most sorrowful surprise. Alas that we shall see his face on earth no more.
NEW RECORD FLIGHT
PENSACOLA, Fla., April 24.—A new world's record altitude flight of 10,000 feet in a hydroaeroplane was made at the Navy Station at Pensacola on April 24th, by Lieutenant P. N. L. Pellinger.
In one hour and twenty minutes Lieutenant Pellinger made his ascent, which so far as official data shows, never has been equaled, and he took sixteen minutes gliding back to earth. On June 13, 1913, Lieutenant Pellinger made the best previous record for an altitude flight in a hydroaeroplane at Annapolis, when
zA • E • R • O • cTW-A-R-T
YOUNG MAN desires to dispose of the patent rights to the following inventions :
(1) A device whereby the camber of the supporting plane can he readily changed from deep to flat during flight, this device being at all times under the control of the pilot; enabling landing at comparatively low speed. (2) An automatically adjusting tail device for maintaining longitudinal stability by automatically decreasing the angle of incidence on a sudden increase of wind velocity; means being provided to prevent this device causing the aeroplane to stall in climbing. (3) A connection between an automatic device for maintaining stability and the usual mannal control means so that banking or other manouvrcs can be effected without interfering with the action of such automatic device. (4) A means for obtaining lateral balance without any change in the angle of incidence of the sup-
porting planes. (5) A compact form of mounting for the supporting planes of an aeroplane whereby such planes are given resiliency while at the same time securing the utmost strength. (6) A means for getting an aeroplane into the air with a very short initial run without external assistance. (7) A device for giving a differential movement to the ailerons, or wing extremities, on opposite sides of an aeroplane. By this means the ailerons can he adjusted in unison to equal degrees or either aileron can be given any desired adjustment greater than the other one. (S) A means for rendering the operation of ailerons or warping wings easier so that large machines can be more easily controlled.
WANT TO BUY an SO-h.p. Gnome or an SO or 90-h.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics.
FOR SALE—Roberts 50-h.p. motor, almost new. Oscar Solbrig, 707 W. 7th, Davenport, Iowa.
6-CYLINDER SO-h.p. Maximotor in line condition. Complete with Mea magneto and propeller hub, $525.00, taken in trade on a new Roberts. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t
4-CYLINDER 50-h.p. Roberts with propeller hub and Bosch magneto, $-150.00, thoroughly overhauled and guaranteed. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t
Yeggs Get $1000 from Chicago Newspaper Office.—Headline.
Upon investigation, find the sufferer was not Aero and Hydro.
"All things come to him who waits!" "Yes; especially if he's waiting in a trench !"—Puck.
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We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS
John A. Roebling's Sons Co.
TRENTON, N. J.
Continues to Make Records
On February 27, at Ithaca. N.Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane, with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed~8I-I m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.
Offers exceptional facilities — land and water. Best of instructors and equipment. Write for "Opi>ot tunity" Booklet Xo. 12.
THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO.,inc., Ithaca, N.Y.
Safest and Most Practical
A few ol its patented (U. S. and foreign) features: — Inherent Stability, Dual Motors, Controls and Propellers which can be worked independent of each other. Propellers and Control so arranged that machine will fly just as readily with a single Propeller, Greater Lifting Power, Changeable Angle of Incidence.
Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use Literature on request PAR1SANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA, INC.
220 West 42nd Street New York City
THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES
For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.
THE WRIGHT FLYING SCHOOL
Located at Dayton opena May 1st, for the season of 1915. Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind Enroll now. Booklet on request.
The Wright Company
DAYTON, OHIO New York OHics: 11 Pima St.
31 Mill! Hlllllllllllllllia
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET
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mitted. A tractor aeroplane is not as well suited for naval purposes as a pusher type. It was hoped that the requirements of the specifications for these hydroaeroplanes would be exceeded by the bidders. They represent a type in advance, but are not equal to what is considered desirable in the light of developments due to the war in Europe. A machine is required having a speed of eighty miles an hour or better, with a radius of action of at least seven hours, and ability to climb with full load sixty-five hundred (6500) feet in twenty minutes. Thus it was considered inadvisable to buy more than three hydroaeroplanes in this lot. It is recognized that the development of the aeroplane in this country is retarded by the backward development of aeroplane motors. It is hoped that this advertisement and purchase of hydroaeroplanes will tend to encourage the designers and manufacturers of aeroplanes and aeroplane motors to further development to meet the immediate needs of the Navy. Proposals will be issued in the near future for more hydroaeroplanes."
The unit price bid by The Burgess Company for the hydroaeroplane, motor and instruments was $11,005.
EXPORTS AND IMPORTS
February, 1915: parts............ $52
Same period 1914................ None
8 mos. ending Feb., 1915; parts
Same period. 1914; parts only... 26,233 Same period, 1913; 12 aeroplanes (50,020) and parts (1,776) ; total................. 51,796
February. 1915; 2 aeroplanes
(6,000), parts (24,093); total.. 30,093
Same period, 1914: 4 aeroplanes
(20,000), parts (1,466); total.. 21,466
S mos. ending Feb., 1915; 25 "planes (182.915), parts (167,723) ; total....................350.638
Same period, 1914; 18 'planes (73,525), parts (17,060) ; total.. 90.585
Same period, 1913; 23 'p'anes
(66,950), parts (22.147); total. 89,097
EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.
February. 1915 ................. None
8 mos. ending Feb.. 1915......... None
Same period, 1914; 1 aeroplane
(4.049), parts (900); total.... 4,949
IN WAREHOUSE FEBRUARY 28.
1915, 1 aeroplane ............... 1,856
1914 ........................... None
"The first contract for hydroaeroplanes since the appropriation by Congress, upon the recommendation of Secretary Daniels of a million dollars for aviation, and provision for the organization of a Navy Aeronautic Advisory Committee, will be awarded to the Burgess Company. Bids for these hydroaeroplanes were received February 27 of this year. (See Aeronautics, March 15. for full specifications and bids.) It has been decided to place a contract for three
machines. The proposals were invited upon supplying three or six machines. The specifications stated that the award of contract would be based upon the completeness of the proposals received as regards the data furnished and the extent to which the designs conform to or exceeded the requirements.
"The data furnished by the Burgess Company is complete, and the design conforms nearer to the requirements than in any other of the proposals sub-
DEFENCELESS AMERICA, by Hudson Maxim. Here is a new and absorbing book which appeals to every red blooded citizen. It is written to arouse American people to the imminent danger in unpreparedness. If only the people will read it the work will be accomplished, except where the book may fall into the hands of some "dub of peace" wdiose pacifism has gotten to the last and hopeless stage. Sold for $2 by Hearst's International Librarv Company, 119 West 40th Street, New York.
This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions. f;>
INFORMATION ON REQUEST
he Curtiss Aeroplane Cq?
\ Buffalo, New York^^^
■J£> THE COAST LINE TO ««a
DETROIT, L TOLEDO, CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, [PT. HURON, ALPENA, -NIAGARA FALLS. I ST. IGNACE.
A LAKE TRIP FOR REST AND RECREATION ^ Have a real vacation on the Great Lakes, the most enjoyable and economical outing in America. The cool like breezes, the ever-changing acenes along the shore, and the luxurious steamers of the D. & C. Line are positive guarantees that you will enjoy every minute of your trip, and return home refreshed and glad you went. Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland and Detroit and Buffalo. Four trips weekly from Toledo and Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Two trips weekly, special steamer, Cleveland to Mackinac Island, no stops enroute except Detroit and Alpena. Special day trips between Detroit and Cleveland during July and August. Daily service between Toledo and Put-in-Bay. RAILROAD TICKETS AVAILABLE FOR TRANS PORT ATI ON on D. 6t C. Steamers between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland either direction. Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet and Great Lakes map. Addresa L. G, Lewis, G.P.A..Detroit.Mich.
Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company Philip H. McMillan. Prea.. A. A. Schantz. V. P. & G. M. All Steamers arrive and depart, Third Ave. wharf. Det.
We were the first in the field, *
and the test of time is proving + that our product is the best. *
+ Sample Book A-6, Dala and Prices on Request
! The C. E. Conover Co.
% 101 Franklin Street, New York ^
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET
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THE NAVY'S NEW AIRCRAFT
Bids for the dirigibles for the Navy were opened at the Navy Department on April 20th. This marks another step in the development of our Air Navy. The Office of Naval Aeronautics considers that the dirigible is to be the kingfisher of the submarine. The aeroplane rapidly scouting the seas off our harbors and around our fleet discovers the enemy's submarines lying in wait for innocent merchant ships or attempting to creep up on our fighting ships. The
dirigibles from the shore stations or from the dirigible ships of the fleet thus warned by the aeroplane scouts proceed to the attack of the submarines, dropping on them heavy bombs fitted with fuses to explode on hitting or after sinking to a certain depth. A fifty pound bomb successfully hitting a submarine or exploding under water near one will destroy these underwater craft. The dirigibles will also in a similar manner countermine the mine fields of an
enemy. Our destroyers and scouts must protect the dirigible from the anti-aircraft guns of the enemy's ships; also our aeroplanes must fight off the enemy's aircraft that wants to attack our dirigible. These two first dirigibles are of the smallest size that will be serviceable for training and experiment to develop officers and men for this service and obtain the necessary experience to produce a large fleet dirigible. These small dirigibles will also develop the manufacture of modern dirigibles in this country, which is a new departure for our aircraft designers and manufacturers.
The bids for dirigibles opened were requested on the basis of furnishing one or two dirigibles, the right being reserved by the Government to accept bids on either basis. The general specifications required that the dirigibles should be of the non-rigid type and should be about 175 feet long by 50 feet high and 35 feet wide, with a useful load of about 2,000 pounds. It is specified that the dirigibles must have a speed of 25 miles per hour or more, and to be capable of rising 3,000 feet without disposing of ballast.
The following bids were received:
Stanlev Yale Beach, 125 East 23rd St., New York, N. Y.—One machine, $29,876; two machines, $58,552. (This bid was submitted without a guarantee.)
American Dirigible Balloon Syndicate, Inc., 299 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.—One machine, $41,000; one machine (larger), $45,000.
The Connecticut Aircraft Company, 42 Church St., New Haven, Conn.—One machine, $45,636.25; two machines, $82,215.12.
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio.—One machine, $200,000. (This bid is subject to a reduction which will make the total cost to the Government equal to the cost of the machine to the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company plus 50 per cent. The amount entered as the bid is the maximum to be charged under any condition.)
See issue of March 30th for full specifications.
After a great many experiments, it has been found that cedar is the one wood which conforms most nearly to the requirements of flying boat work, owing to its extreme lightness, its pliability and toughness, as well as its ability to hold its shape both in and out of the water, and the fact that it absorbs practically no moisture, makes it an ideal wood for this work.
The large demand for flying machines, that are adapted for both land and water service, which has been created by the present war, demonstrates very plainly that cedar is more desirable than any other wood for this work.
This can be supplied by Jordan Bros. Lumber Company, Norfolk, Va.
Robert N. Wilson, Port Jefferson, _N. Y., has renewed activity in the building line and has on hand one flying boat ready for the power plant.
THAT PROTECT AND PAY
Books and Advice Free
Send sketch or model for search. Highest relerences. Beet Results. Promptaess Assured.
WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer
624 F Street. N. W._Washington, D. C._
Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and I will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether I can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.
WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.
Box 78. Madiaon Sq. P.O.. New York
Antony Jannus Roger Jannus
NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENGER FLYING BOAT now being tested. Design based on nearly 200,000 miles of pioneer flying. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern Hotel, San Diego, Calif. Continuous Passenger Carrying and School Work with two Flying Boats. Florida course announced later. NEW FACTORY
Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md. Booklet on Request
New tad EaUrted Edition, Cammeacinr Jaoairr. 1914
The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics
(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighty-fire Cent* : Post Free (Mono/ Orders Only)
Nrtf _A specimen copr v ulc • freo oa receipt of
-Head O/TYc..- -
170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C. Americao Olficc: 2S0 Welt 54th Slr.et, New York
II be moilod
PATFNTS Frederick W.Barker
* * Ull 1 fcj Attorney and Expert in
PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS
Cases prepared and prosecuted i 28 Years in Practice
with the greatest eare and I
thoroughness, to ensure broad Direct Coanectiant ia all
scope and validity \ Foreign Co on tries
P. O. Box 139, Times Square Station, New York City
C. L. PARKER
Ex-member Examining Corpi, U. S. Patent Offlee
Attorney-ot-L*w and Solicitor of PtleoU
American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legat protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGitl Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C.
Military and Naval Types
Our New Military Tractor also was demonstrated successfully
the very first time it was taken out for trial. THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York
Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes
Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs. Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Steven*' balloons used by Q5fo of American and Canadian clubs.
Madison Sq, Box 1Bl,NewYork
Records prove we build the best Balloons iQ America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen "World-wide Contests.
Write for prices and particulars.
HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo.
- < BEN0IST
AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS
Factory and Office
341 S. St. Louis Avenue
THE U. S. NAVY USES
4 Because they are the best by a large measure and ProvedI Bal.by test and official report. ^O.h.r. use Pl.i. P.r.,o» because they are not only best but also f'"™^,
For Eroomy, investigate P.r.«.». No charge for informa ,on - No pa> bu_ for r«ult.. «J\Ve have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments. AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.
PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 5
Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co., Avondale, N. J. Aircraft Co., 1737 Broailwav, New York. (Sloane.) Baldwin. Thomas S., P. O. Box 7S. Mailison Sq. P. <">.. Npw York.
P.enoist Aeroplane Co., 34 1 S. St. Louis Ave., Chicago, 111. Burgess Co., The, Marhlelieatl, Mass.
Christofferson Aviation Co., 1417 Van Ness Ave., San Francisco, Cal.
Connecticut Aircraft Co., New Haven, Conn.
Cooper Aircraft Co., Bridgeport, Conn.
Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo. N. V.
Gallaudet Co., The, Norwich, Conn.
Grinnell Aeroplane Co., Grinnell. Iowa.
Heath, E. B.. Aerial Vehicle Co., 1227 School St., Chicago, 111. Heinricli Aeroplane Co., 331 Madison Ave., New York. Huntington Aircraft Co., IS E. 41st St., New York. Jannus Brothers, Battery Ave. and Hamburg St., Baltimore, aid.
Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.
Parisano Aerial Navigation Co., Inc., 220 \V. 42d St., New Y'ork.
Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, 31 Nassau St., New York. Schmitt, M., Aeroplane Co., 96 Dale Ave., Paterson, N. J. Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co., Ithaca, N. Y\ Washington Aeroplane Co., SOU Water St. S.W., Washington, D. C.
Wilson. Robert N., Port Jefferson, N. Y. (Flying Boats.) Wright Co., The, Dayton, O. ATTORNEYS (PATENT)
Barker. K. W.. Box 139, Times Sq. P. O., New York. Coleman, Watson E., 024 F St. .WW., Washington, I>. C. Dieterich. F. G., & Co., S03 Ourav Bldg., Washington, D. C. Evans, Victor J., 771 Ninth St. N.W., Washington, D. C. Hill, Thomas A.. Woolworth Bldg., New Y'ork. Moore, William N., Loan & Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C. Parker, C. L., 30 McGill Bldg., Washington. D. C. Robh * Kobb, Southern Bldg.. Washington, I). C. Seifert, Jno. O., 50 Church St., New York. Shoemaker, George C, 91S F St., Washington, D. C. Woodward, Horace L., .WW. cor. Ninth and G Sts., Washington, D. C. AXLES
Aircraft Co., The, 1737 Broadway, New Y'ork. Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y'. Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.
BALLOONS AND DIRIGIBLES
Baldwin, Capt. Thomas S., P. O. Box 7S, Madison Sq. P. u.. New Y'ork.
Connecticut Aircraft Co., New Haven, Conn. Goodyear Tire &. Rubber Co., Akron, O.
Honeywell Balloon Co., 44GO Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Stevens, A. Leo, 2S2 Ninth Ave., New Y'ork. BALL BEARINGS (BALL AND ROLLER)
Bretz, J. S., Co., 250 W. 54th St., New York. IF. & S.) Marburg Bros., 1 790 Broadway, New Y'ork. (S. It. O.) New Departure Mfg. Co., Bristol, Conn. (New Departure.) R. I. V. Co., 254 W. 57th St.. .New York
Hess-Bright Mfg. Co., Front St. and Erie Ave., Philadelphia.
S. K. F. Ball Bearing Co., 50 Church St, New Y'ork. Standard Roller Bearing Co., 50th and Lancester, Philadelphia. Pa.
Timken Roller Bearing Co., Canton, O.
THE STORY OF FLIGHT
(Continued from page 53)
determine exactly what it did do. but it was clear enough that it was not what we wanted in all respects. We repeated the trials for the purpose of determining, if possible, exactly what happened, but found this no easy task. To the person who has never attempted to control an uncontrollable flying machine in the air, this may seem somewhat strange, but the operator on the machine is so busy manipulating rudder and looking for a soft place to alight that his ideas of what ac-
tually happens are very hazy. It is much nicer to sit before a pleasant fire and speculate than to work out, at the risk of life and limb the constructions necessary to reduce speculation to practical invention.
We repeated this experiment time and again and several times barely escaped disaster. We found that if we jerked the warping cradle back and forth rapidly, the machine would make its way down the hill, but if we persisted in the
movement long enough to determine its real effect, the machine quickly acquired such a peculiar feeling of instability that we were compelled to instantly seek the ground. After repeated experiments we began to perceive that in landing the machine was skidding somewhat toward the wing having the smaller angle and was facing somewhat toward the wing having the greater angle, and the wing having the greater angle seems to touch lirst.
As our season was at a close, we were compelled to leave the problem in this condition.
These experiments constituted the first instance in the history of the world that wings adjustable to different angles of incidence on the right and left sides had been used in attempting to control the balance of an aeroplane. We had functionally used them both when flying at the end of a rope and also in free flight.
When we left Kitty Hawk at the end of 1901 we doubted that we would ever resume our experiments. Although we had broken the record for distance in gliding, so far as any actual figures had been published, and although Air. Chanute, who was present part of the time, assured us that our results were better than had ever before been attained, yet when we looked at the time and money which we had expended and considered the progress made and the distance yet to go, we considered our experiments a failure. At this time I made the prediction that men would sometimes fly, but that it would not be within our lifetime.
In view of our own experience, and in view of the experience of men like Langley, Lilienthal, Maxim, Chanute and Ader, men almost ideally fitted in mental equipment and training for such work, and having at their command hundreds of thousands of dollars, all of whom, like ourselves had found the results attained too small for the effort and money expended, and who had, one by one, abandoned the task before we had taken it up, we felt that similar conditions would probably prevail for a long time, as the problem of stability, which had cansed all these men to drop the problem, was vet seemingly untouched so far as the practical solution was concerned.
After our return home we could not keep our minds off the puzzling things we had observed, nor keep from studying possible solutions of our difficulties, and before long" we were as deeply interested as before. In studying our troubles relating to lateral balance, we reasoned that possibly the trouble might be due to the fact that the wing to which an increased angle of incidence had been imparted would receive not only an increased lift, but also an increased backward pressure,or resistance and that this might sodecrease the speed of that wing that its lift would he reduced sufficiently from this cause lo wipe out the increase in lift, due to its greater angle of incidence. It is a well known law of aerodynamics that the lifting pressure varies as the square of the speed at which the aeroplane and wind strike each other so that if the wing of the greater angle lagged behind while the other wing gradually forged
AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 6
Deltuur, J., S04 Jefferson St., Hoboken, N. .[. BATTERIES
Apple Electric Co., Dayton. O. (Storage.) H. \V. Johns-Man ville Co., 41st St. and .Madison Ave., Xew York.
Vesta Accumulator Co., 2100 Indiana Ave., Chicago, 111. (Storage.)
Willard Storage Battery Co., 5718 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, O. (Storage.)
BEARINGS (PLAIN) AND BUSHINGS
American Bronze Co., Berwvn, Pa. ("Xon-Gran" bronze.)
Atkinson Co., The, 575 Lyeil Ave., Rochester, X. V. ("Superior" babbitt.)
Cramp, William, & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., The, Beech and Ball Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.
Fahrig Metat Co., 34 Commerce St.. New York.
Levett, Walker A]., Co., lflth Ave. and 3Cth St., New York. I "Polar" metal.)
Magnolia Metal Co., 113 Bank St., New York.
Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal.
Merchant & Evans Co., 517 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. BRAKES
Aircraft Co., The. 1737 Broadway, New York. Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo. X. Y. BRASS, BRONZE AND COFFER
American Brass Co., Waterbury, Conn. (Brass, copper, German silver: sheet, wire, rods and tubes.)
Bridgeport Brass Co., 100 Crescent Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. (Sheet, tube and wire.)
National Tube Co., Prick Bldg., Pittsburgh. Pa. (Brass fittings.)
Kandolph-CIowes Co.. Waterbury, Conn. (Sheet, rod, tubing.) BRAZING AND WELDING
A-Z Co., 527 W. 50th St.. New York.
American Tube & Stamping Co., Bridgeport, Conn.
Boston Brazing & Welding Co., 7S2 Eighth Ave., New York. (Oxy-acetvlene.)
Crosby Co., The, 171 Pratt St.. Buffalo. N. Y.
Pore River Ship Building Co., Quincv, Mass.
National Welding & Mfg. Co., 527 W. Jackson Blvd.. Chicago, 111.
Smith, William It., & Co.. 306 W. 52d St., Xew York.
Springfield Brazing & Welding Co., 10 Willow St., Springfield, Mass. BUMPERS
Goodrich, B. F., Akron, O.
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, O. CARBURETERS
Breeze Carbureter Co., 250 South St.. Newark, N. J. (Breeze; also air hose, flexible shafting, tire inflating tubing, check-valves and connections, carbureter tubing and push and pull coils.)
Byrne-Kingston & Co., Kokomo, lnd. (Kingston.) Pindeisen & Kropf Mfg. Co., 2100 S. Rockwell St., Chicago,
111. (Rayfield.) G. & A. Carbureter Co.. 142 E. 14th St., New York. (G. & A.) Holley Bros. Co.. 131 Rowena St.. Detroit, Mich. (Holley.) ltoltzer-Cabot Electric Co., 14 Station St., Brookline, Mass.
Master Carbureter Co., 944 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. (Master.)
Wheeler* Schebler, Indianapolis, lnd. (Schebler.) Zenith Carbureter Co., foot of Vanda Ave., Detroit, Mich. (Zenith.)
(To be Continued)
ahead one wing would be moving at a different speed from the other and by reason of this speed would have a different lift; the slower wing of course having the lesser lift. We reasoned that if the speeds of the right and left wing could be controlled the advantage of the increased angle of incidence of one wing and the decreased angle of the other could he utilized as we had originally intended. Two ways of controlling the relative speeds of the wing tips were open to us; one consisting in providing means for creating variable resistance a; the wing tips at the will of the operato, so that the wing which tends to forge ahead could be retarded; the other consisted in providing a surface at the rear with which a torque about a vertical axis could he created to counterbalance that produced by the difference in resistance of the wing tips. We decided to use a surface at the rear on account of its greater dynamic efficiency since every pound of push in the propeller while with the surface at the rear exposed almost edgewise eight or ten pounds of turning power could be obtained at an expenditure of one pound backward resistance or one pound of propeller thrust.
And for the sake of simplicity we decided to use a fixed vertical vane as we reasoned that if the machine attempted to turn on a vertical axis the vane at the rear would be exposed more and more to the wind and would stop further turning of the machine as soon as the vane was exposed enough to receive a turning pressure equal to that produced in the opposite direction by the difference in the resistance of the wing tips when adjusted to different angles of incidence. Thus the vane would he exposed to the wind on the side towards the wing having the smaller angle of incidence. In the fall of 1902 we returned to Kitty Hawk with an apparatus fitted with a fixed vertical vane at the rear. When we tried the apparatus we found that under favorable conditions the apparatus performed as we had expected, so that we could control lateral balance or steer to the right or left by the manipulation of the wing tips. This was the first time in the history of the world that lateral balance had been achieved by adjusting wing tips to respectively different angles of incidence on the right and left sides. It was also the first time that a vertical vane had heen used in combination with wing tips adjustable to respectively different angles of incidence, in balancing and steering an aeroplane. Rut, as we proceeded with our experiments, we found that the expected results were not always attained. Sometimes the machine would turn up sidewise and come sliding to the ground in spite of all the warp that could be imparted to the wing tips. This seemed very strange. The apparatus would sometimes perform perfectly and at other times, without any apparent reason, would not perform at all. Every now and then it would come tumbling to the ground and make such a rough landing that we often considered ourselves
lucky to escape unhurt. By taking the chance over and over we finally began to notice the conditions under which the difficulty was liable to occur. It seemed that when the machine was tilted laterally it began to slide sidewise while advancing, in accordance with the well-known law of gravitation, just as a sled slides down hill or a ball rolls down an inclined plane, the speed increasing in an accelerated ratio. If the tilt happened to be a little worse than usual, or if the operator was a little, slow in
getting the balance corrected, the machine slid sidewise so fast that the side-wise movement of the machine caused the vertical vane to strike the wind on the side toward the low wing, instead of on the side toward the high wing, as it should have done. In this state of affairs, the vertical vane instead of counteracting the turning of the machine ahout a vertical axis, as a result of the difference of resistance of the warpea wings on the right and left sides, on the (To be Continued}
HEINRICH ARMORED MILITARY BIPLANE
EQUIPMENT 110 H. P. GYRO"DUPLEX"
ADOPTED BY LEADING CONSTRUCTORS
110 H. P. Gyro, 9 cylinders, weight 270 pounds 90 H.P. Gyro, 7 cylinders, weight 215 pounds
GYRO MOTOR COMPANY
N. Y. Office: 331 Madison Avenue 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.
BURGESS- Military Aeroplane
United States Great Britain Russia
Form of wing gives an unprecedented arc of fire and range of observation.
Par excellence the weight and gun-carrying aeroplane of the World.
Tail-less and folding.
Enclosed nacelle with armored cockpit.
Speed range 40-80 miles per hour.
Climb 400 feet per minute.
Burgeii-Doone No. 3 Delivered to U. S. Arm, at Saa Dieio, December 30
THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.