Aeronautics

Volume 16 - No. 3 - 1915 April

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



VOL. XVI. No. 3

APRIL 15, 1915

15 CentB

ERONfflfflCS

mu iuu ui muuu nwm u h > t.....n 11 a in h rm f [ h i h n mm u t»m i iuk« 11 ht h : i if h 11 m u utti 11 iuhi i n knu m ^ mujj iut»

■ c......in—n:—ymrmmmmmmmmmmmmi m 'ami

llllli:illlll'III!l!!lllllll!IIM

Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy MuIIer, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones. U. S. A., 8 hrs. 53 min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. lOmin.

Motors Ready for Delivery

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., MODEL "O," 8-CYL., 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX MODEL "V" 8-CYL. 160 H. P.

90 H.P. 8-CYL., 100 H. P.

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO

21 LAKE STREET HAMMONDSPORT. N. Y.

BURGESS- Military Aeroplane DUNNE

Furnished to

United States Great Britain Russia

Self-balancing

Self-steering

and

Non-capsizable

Form of wing gives an unprecedented arc of fire and range of observation.

Par excellence the weight and gun-carrying aeroplane of the World.

Tail-less and folding.

Enclosed nacelle with armored cockpit.

Speed range 40-80 miles per hour.

Climb 400 feet per minute.

Borgeu-Dunne No. 3 Delivered to U. S. Army at Sao Diego. December 30

THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass.

Sole licensees of the American-Dunne Patents

You

Couldn't Expect More Value

You

Couldn't Get More Satisfaction

100 H.P. 200 H.P.

340 lbs. 690 lbs.

$1,250 $1,850

A "Q-D" Motor—Simple—No Vibration—10-Hour Test for Every Motor—Guaranteed to Stand More Abuse and Heavy Work with Less Attention than Any Other Motor.

All it Wants is Gasoline and Spark. Send for New Circular

Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company

300 ROBERTS MOTOR BLOCK Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A.

ROBERTS Motors

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St., New York

Telephone, Circle 22S9 Cable. Aeronautics. New York

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. 190S, under the Act of March 3. 1379. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

Postage free in the United States. Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERO NAUTICS PRESS.

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ Mod.-l Editor

FRANK. CASH Ass't Editor

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received b days before daie of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

THE FUTURE OF THE AEROPLANE INDUSTRY

By Leon Goldmerstein, Associate Editor A. S. M. E. Journal, Chairman Technical Board the Aeronautical Society of America

I have been asked several times, by several financiers on one hand, and by aeronantical engineers on the other, as to the probable demand for flying machines after the war is over, and the type that would find the readiest market. The following briefly gives an answer to these questions.

For quite a time to come yet, governments will continue to be the chief purchasers. In the present war the aeroplane has made good only in one of two possible directions, and still proved to be invaluable.

at present principally scouting m achines.

As a scouting machine, the aeroplane has not only entirely displaced cavalry but has changed the entire method of warfare. With the present extensive use of motor cars and tractors for the transport of troops, which permits the shift, in one night, of some 50,000 men from one place to another, 40 miles distant, the aeroplane reconnaissance is the only thing that protects an army against being surprised by superior forces of the enemy, and one without a sufficient supply of air scouts feels the lack of tlrmi most keenly.

the aeroplane thus far a failure in offense.

On the other hand, as a method of offense the aeroplane has, thus far, proved to be a failure. Brilliant dashes have been made, especially by British aviators, but in no case has anything been achieved that is of real and decisive importance. A couple of Zeppelins have been destroyed, a submarine base partly wrecked, an ammunition train blown up; not much to show after seven months of war.

Why this is so is due mainly to the flying capacity of the present-day machine. It has really (i. e., barring exceptionally daring exploits) an economical radius of but about 100 miles, which is sufficient for scouting purposes in as far as they cover what is known as tactical reconnaissance.

practical bomb-throwing.

On the other hand, bomb-throwing is efficient only- when the number of bombs thrown is so large that a few misses do

not materially affect the results, and that is exactly what the present-day machine is unable to do. If it is to be used as a bomb-thrower at all, it must be able to reach the vital spots far in the rear of the enemy's army, say 50 to 100 miles behind the actual battlefront line, and, of course, must have enough fuel to get back to within its own lines. That means 100 to 200 miles of flight which is, in its turn, equivalent to a maximum of 100 lbs. in projectiles. Well, nowadays, 100 pounds in projectiles, even with high explosives, means good newspaper stuff but rather indifferent actual results.

Nevertheless, the armies on both sides have used, as one may estimate from available data, since the beginning of the war, something like 10,000 to 12,000 machines, of which probably three-quarters are already out of business.

the offensive aeroplane.

What is required now is a large machine capable of carrying at least two men, fuel for a journey of 500 miles at 70 miles an hour, and in addition to that, about half a ton of useful load. It must be able to fly at a speed ranging from 40 to—at least for a short period—90 miles an hour; the main requirements, however, being an ability to fly for a long time at a moderate speed of, say, 70 miles an hour. Such a machine must be either inherently stable, or have some stabilizing device so as to relieve the pilot of the constant and intense stress on his attention. On the other hand, however, it is not necessary that the machine be absolutely foolproof as it will be always in the hands of an expert.

Of the engine, one thing above all must be required, and that is reliability in flight. No particular lightness is required as the machine must be able to stand some rough usage, but what must be made absolutely certain is that after the engine has started it will go through high and low, mist, snow and cold. The aeroplane engine of today is designed somewhat along the lines of that of a racing automobile. The proper example to follow for the military machine is the heavy duty engine of a fishing boat on Lake Michigan or Superior.

the future demand.

It is naturally difficult to say what the future demand for such machines when available may be, but some idea may be formed already. The basis on which the French artillery programme is established today is that of being able to discharge 200,000 shrapnel shells a day. Some data indicate that approximately 5,000 shells have been hurled b3' the Germans at the Russian fortress of Osso-wetz without having reduced it. These two figures show that in order to make aerial bombardment effective it must be done in huge quantities and a capacity of 10,000 shells a day is hardly too much. Now, 10,000 shells at 30 pounds per shell, mean 300.000 pounds, or 300 machines of large size. Considering that a flight of 400 to 500 miles in one trip in all kinds of weather is very hard on a machine, and that after each such trip it will have to go back to the shop to be overhauled and tuned up. one may safely assume that an engine will make not more than two such trips a month, which means that the army will have to have about 12 times as many machines, or 3,600 in all. Since, however, the condition of war service are extremely rough, a reserve of at least 50 per cent, will have to he maintained, bringing up the total to about 5.000 machines, apart from the small scouting aeroplanes and dirigibles of special service.

A large machine of the type described would cost about $25,000. Five thousand such machines will represent a market of $125,000,000 for an army of the size of the French ; or for the entire Europe, close to a billion dollars.

Is there any need to say more about the financial possibilities of the new industry'

NEW TREBERT ENGINE.

A novelty in rotative motors is to be on the market soon—the Trebert 8-cyl-inder revolving, connecting-rodless engine, air-cooled, of course.

Smile awhile; while yon smile, Another smile, and soon there's

Miles and miles of smiles; And life's worth while—

If you'll but smile.

NATIONAL NAVAL MILITIA AERO CORPS

Capt. Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, Navy Department, is organizing in the Naval Militia an aeronautic service that will reinforce the regular service in time of an emergency. The equipping, training and development of this service will as far as possihle he along the same lines as the regular Naval Aeronautic Service.

It is recommended that each Naval Militia organization consider at once the possibility of establishing an "Aeronautic Corps." For the present the "Aeronautic Corps" of the Naval Militia will be confined to the use of aeroplanes, although tlie establishment of dirigible and balloon divisions in the future should be collaterally considered.

The smallest tactical units for an aerial fleet are considered to lie a section of two aeroplanes, with spares and appurtenances, and this fact should be

considered in the formation of an "Aeronautic Corps."

The crew for each aeroplane will consist of two officers and six mechanicians, and an additional officer should be in command of each section.

In establishing such an "Aeronautic Corps" it is believed that the first step should be to interest those officers and men who are already fliers, or who have had previous experience in aeronautics, and to enroll these members of the Naval Militia in the Aeronautic Service; also to enlist officers and men for this service who arc experienced in handling aeroplanes.

The course of instructions and training in aeronautics will be in general accordance with that prescribed for the regular Navy.

The Office of Naval Aeronautics, Navy Deartment, will co-operate in drawing up a course of instruction and

training for any "Aeronautic Corps" that may be established as a part of any Naval Militia organization.

It is requested that this subject receive the earliest possible consideration, and that the Division of Xaval Militia Affairs be informed of any steps taken, or that will be taken, toward the establishment of an "Aeronautic Corps."

Captain Bristol is very much pleased at the response from the country at large. Its primary object is, of course, to form a reserve for the Navy, but this service should also stimulate interest in Naval Militia, give a number of men who are interested in aviation a chance thus to gratify their interest and at the same time serve their country, the latter being the desire of every one who has the national spirit.

There are 22 States and the District of Columbia that have Naval Militia organizations.

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

The Naval Appropriation Act, approved March 3. 1915, provided for and established a N'ational Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the President to appoint not to exceed twelve members, to consist of two members from the War Department, from the office in charge of military aeronautics; two members from the Navy Department, from the office in charge of naval aeronautics; a representative each of the Smithsonian Institution, of the United States Weather Bureau, and of the United States Bureau of Standards; together with not more than five additional persons who shall be acquainted with the needs of aeronautical science, either civil or military, or skilled in aeronautical engineering or its allied sciences. The members of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, as such, shall serve without compensation. It shall he the duty of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to supervise and direct the scientific study of the problems of Might, with a view to their practical solution, and to determine the problems which should be experimentally attacked, and to discuss their solution and their application to practical questions. In the event of a laboratory or laboratories, either in whole or in part, being placed under the direction of the committee, the committee may direct and conduct research and experiment in aeronautics in such laboratory or laboratories. Rules and regulations for the conduct of the work of the committee shall be formulated by the committee and approved by the President.

The sum of $5,000 a year, or so much thereof as may be necessary, for five years is appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated to be immediately available, for

experimental work and investigations undertaken by the committee, clerical expenses and supplies, and necessary expenses of members of the committee in going to, returning from, and while attending, meetings of the committee. An annual report to the Congress shall be submitted through the President, including an itemized statement of expenditures.

Mere is the committee:

Ccn. George P. Scriven, Chief Signal Officer and Lieut-Col. Samuel Reber, aviation section. Signal Corps, representing the Army; Capt. Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, Navy Department, and Naval Constructor Hold-en C. Richardson for the Navy; Dr. Charles D. Walcott. secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; Charles L. Marvin, Chief of the Weather Bureau-, Dr. S. W. Stratum, Chief of the Bureau of Standards. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury liyron R. Newton, Prof. W. F. Durand, Stanford University; Prof. Michael 1. Pupin, Columbia University: Prof. John F. Hayford, Northwestern University, and Prof. Joseph Ames, Johns Hopkins University, represent the contingent of "additional persons who shall be acquainted with the needs of aeronautical science, or skilled in aeronautical engineering or its allied sciences."

Dr. A. F. Zahm is Recorder of the Advisory Committee.

FLYING AT SAN DIEGO

The summary of the flights at San Diego January 1st to March I3th, is as follows: blights, 027; time in air, 227 hours and 52 minutes: passengers carried, 376.

The fiscal year of the government begins on July 1st and the Army Appropriation Hill carrying the appropriation of $300,000 for aviation purposes is not effective until that date. The present fiscal year ends June 30th.

NO AEROPLANES FOR COAST GUARD

It is regrettable to state that there are no plans in contemplation at the present time for the use of land or water aeroplanes in connection with the Coast Guard, because there is no appropriation available for this purpose.

NAVY INTER-AEROPLANE 'PHONE

The Navy is experimenting with some instruments at the present time for communicating between the operators of an aeroplane when in flight. It is not yet decided as to the value of these instruments.

The Hague, March 29.—Herr Hoog-straen, the noted bird trainer of Delft, solemnly assured newspaper correspondents to-day that he is training a great flock of pelicans to attack military aeroplanes.

"The experiments have been proceeding ever since the war broke out," said Herr I loogstraen. "The pelicans fear a German Taube no more than a fish. They are exceptionally clever. With their sharp, pointed beaks they will constitute a real menace to air pilots."—The Sun.

The helican!

"I have received an astonishing number of replies from your readers and feel that my ad. is worth the reasonable rates you charge for it."—Aeroplane Advertiser, April, 1915.

CHRISTOFFERSON MILITARY BIPLANE

Silas Christofferson has been making rapid strides on the Pacific Coast and his machines have made some corking flights.

In the 1915 military tractor the fuselage is divided into two sections, the front section being 10 ft. 6 in. in length and the rear one 9 ft. 6 in. The rear portion is oval in shape, while the front it square, gradually rounding off at the rear end to correspond with the rear section. The rear section is solidly braced with wooden truss membqrs, while the front is solidly braced with wire trussing. The entire fuselage, with the exception of the motor section, is covered with a thin veneering of wood, which retains the streamline shape and greatly increases the strength.

The motor section is fitted with sheet-metal covering similar to that of an automohile hood. The occupants' cockpits, oval in form, are 20 in. in width. The passenger's cockpit is 27 in. from front to back, while the pilot's is 24 inches. There is a 2 ft. space between the pilot's cockpit and the observer's, which could be utilized for wireless instruments, bomb-dropping apparatus.

photographic apparatus or reserve tanks. From the passenger's cockpit to the engine hood there is an 18 in. space which could be utilized for a reserve oil tank.

The fuselage conforms to the latest ideas in regard to streamline shape. The bottom portion of the fuselage, underneath the engine, is used for the radiator, which conforms in shape with the fuselage, thus doing away with a large amount of head resistance.

The main gasoline tank is located underneath the observer's seat. The gasoline is forced by air pressure to a "gravity" tank, which supplies the carburetor.

Where the two sections of the fuselage join special fittings are used, which facilitate rapid assemblage.

The top plane proper measures 22 ft. 6 in. for each section, of which there are two (47 ft. 10 in. total). The sections are attached to special steel tubing supports by means of steel pins, which can be quickly removed. The outer ends of the top section curve toward the back beam from the last strut out.

The ailerons are a continuation of the

plane and are attached to the rear beam of the plane by special steel hinges.

The two sections of the hottom plane each measure 15 ft. 3 in. in spread, and are attached to the fuselage by means of quick-detachable steel sockets.

The upper and lower planes are separated 5 ft. 9 in. by means of laminated streamline struts, which fit into special patented sockets that serve as a support for the guy wires. These sockets are so constructed as to allow the top and lower planes to be folded together. This arrangement makes it possible to set up the machine very quickly, as there is no "lining up" necessary. This latter feature is accomplished by the use of patented quick detachable turnbuckles constructed of chrome nickel steel and tobin bronze. These turnbuckles are so constructed that by pulling back a metal sleeve a lever is released, which in turn releases the guy wire. This lever is so constructed as to automatically tighten the wire as it is pulled back into place upon reassembling.

The beams or spars of the main planes are of the "I-beam" type, built

up of laminated spruce. These beams are spaced 3 ft. 6 in. apart.

The ribs are spaced according to their relative location to the fuselage, those up close being nearer together and those away from the fuselage being further separated. The ribs are constructed of selected Oregon spruce and basswood, and are also of the "I-beam" type.

The entering edges of the planes are fitted with strips of walnut, so made that a neat, sharp, efficient nose is obtained. The planes are interbraced by means of wooden rods, both laterally and crosswise. This wood bracing is glued to each rib it passes through, and makes practically a solid mass in point of strength and durability. The cross section of the surfaces is especially shaped to obtain the highest possible speed, greatest lift and least drift.

The entering edge turns up slightly, as also does the controlling edge. The section is set at an angle of incidence of two degrees, which gives a rise of 4's in. from the controlling edge to the entering edge. The planes are set at a positive dihedral angle of 1 1/20".

The wire bracing used is Roebling's steel cable, 2,300 to 4,000 pounds tensile strength. Where the wire passes around turnbuckles and through sockets it is protected by a copper sleeve.

The surfaces are covered with a very high grade of frish linen, heavy weight, tested as to strength and treated.

The elevator flaps are 9 ft. 6 in. spread, 2 ft. 7 in. from front to back,

LONDON RAID SURE.

Paris. April 13.—Count Zeppelin's secretary is said to have stated:

"Our air lleet now comprises 1,366 units, of which 36 are dirigibles. We have had far heavier losses than anticipated, nine dirigibles having been put out of action since the beginning of the war. But the destroyed units have been replaced by new types, armed with long-range cannon and mitrailleuses.

"By July 15th we are to deliver fifteen airships of a greatly perfected type, each being armored aand capable of carrying two tons of explosives. With these we shall be able to undertake safely the London expeditions in the thickest fogs and on the blackest nights.

"We shall employ a new process of causing atmospheric perturbations, which will make it impossible for enemy machines to cross German lines without dropping like flies."

PEOLI IS KILLED IN NEW BIPLANE TRIAL.

Washington, April 12.—Cecil M. Peoli was killed at College Park, Md., to-day when a biplane of which be was the designer fell a distance of about 100 feet in a trial flight. He had been expecting to demonstrate his machine by flying from Washington to New York.

Peoli, but 21 years old, was at the head of the Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, which had its main office at 31 Nassau street, New York. The company was formed last January to back Peoli in the building of aeroplanes of

with an area of about 22 sq. ft. It is constructed in the same manner as the main planes, with 1-beam ribs, beams and cross trussings. The corners are rounded.

The rudder is somewhat oval in shape, 3 ft. 8 in. long, 3 ft. 4in. high, and is constructed in the same manner as the elevating planes. The stabilizer is built in one piece, and attached to the fuselage by means of special clips. In packing it comes off in one piece with the elevating plane. The vertical fin, attached in the same way as the stabilizer, is taken off in one piece with the rudder.

The ailerons operate together and by means of a special lever device, which enables all control wires to pass along the lower beam, thus facilitating inspection. The ailerons are attached to the main planes by special steel hinges. The construction of the ailerons follows generally the main plane construction, except that a steel tube is used as the front beam. The ribs are set into steel sockets brazed to this tube, thus making a very strong structure.

The landing gear is of an improved type, consisting of three wheels, one in front under the motor, and two back a short distance behind the center of gravity.

The rear wheels are 26 in. in diameter, and fitted with 4-in. aeroplane tires, and are spaced 5 ft. apart. The spokes of all of the wheels are encased in a metal covering, which tends .to cut

his own design. The company was a bidder under the recent navy specifications.

Among the principal stockholders were Joseph P. Day, real estate dealer; Nicholas F. Bradjr, son of the late Antony N. Brady and president of the New York Edison Company; Hugh L. Cooper, consulting engineer, of 101 Park avenue; J. Clarence Davies, real estate dealer, of 156 Broadway, and Harold Roberts, president of the American Real Estate Co., 527 Fifth avenue.

Peoli, a former model flyer, induced Captain Baldwin to teach him to fly, and under Baldwin's management made many exhibition flights in this country and Canada with invariable success. His loss is keenly felt by all who knew him.

NEW COMPANIES.

The Cooper Aircraft Company has been formed and is now located at Bridgeport, Conn. The officers are John D. Cooper, president; J. H. Cross-ley, vice-president, and R. N. Blakeslee, secretary-treasurer. John D. Cooper will be remembered as foreign representative for the Curtiss Aeroplane Company and Blakeslee is another pilot of note, hailing from the Pacific slopes. The company sets out to manufacture seaplanes, submarine destroyers and military tractors. The first machine will be completed about the first of May.

Standard Ordinance Corporation, armament, munitions of war, armored cars, boats, aeroplanes, food supplies, corn-

down the head resistance. The back wheels are equipped with spring shock absorbers of special design, and are supported by a "tj" shaped wood structure, very strong and solid. This wood frame is laminated. The front wheel is 20 in. in diameter, fitted with a 4-iti. tire. It is braced to the rear "U" frame by means of wooden beams and to the fuselage also by means of wooden beams.

The motor is a Curtiss 100 h.p. The radiation system is very efficient in cooling and reduction of head resistance. The radiator takes the place of the bottom of the fuselage under the engine. There is a reserve tank for a large amount of water.

The climbing speed with 100 h.p. (with full load, consisting of pilot, observer, fuel for five hours, and 150 lbs. additional weight) is 400 to 500 ft. per minute. The speed range is from approximately 45 miles per hour, minimum speed, to S5 miles per hour, maximum speed.

The type of control is left to the selection of the purchaser, and any desired system will be installed.

During the year 1914 H. E. Honeywell made seven ascensions, using two balloons and 400,000 cu. ft. of gas. One ascension was made with oil gas. Twenty-two passengers were carried. On November 1 he made his 204th ascent. Honeywell states "things look pretty good for the new year."

mission, brokerage; $50,000; S. L. Cohen, R. O'Rourke, M. Sundheimer, 31 Nassau street.

AT ITHACA, N. Y.

Practically established in their new factory at Ithaca, N. Y., the Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. are showing considerable activity.

The new Military Tractor, under the skillful pilotage of Frank H. Burnside, has to its credit some very remarkable performances; climbing with pilot and passenger 700 feet in one minute. Fully loaded with gasoline and oil for four hours' flying (280 pounds), and with three people aboard, the climb was 4,000 feet in ten minutes. Speed range was from 38 to 81.1 miles per hour.

During the week ending March 26th Burnside put the machine through some very rigorous tests, carrying a passenger on each flight; incidentally giving the students their first instruction in the tractor type.

Col. B. M. Brower, of the Cornell University Cadet Corps, was taken up several thousand feet for reconnaissance, the Corps at that time being out on field duty.

Despite the cold weather, training has been carried out on the frozen surface of Cayuga Lake, and considerable progress has been made. Lawrence Lyon, William S. Brock. B. C. Harrington, Stanley S. Boxhall and Frank King all show exceptional ability in handling the Thomas control and should be ready to fly for their pilot's license soon.

"HOLES IN THE AIR"

By W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D.

"The bucking and balking, the rearing, plunging, and other evidences of the mulish nature of the modern Pegasus," rhetorically states W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D., of the U. S. Weather Bureau in the Smithsonian Report, "soon inspired aerial jockeys to invent picturesque terms." "Holes in the air" is one of these. This expression covers real conditions met but an actual hole in the air is impossible for, did this occur, the surrounding air would rush to fill this space at a rate of 750 miles an hour so that an aviator could scarcely be expected to get into the hole. The claim that there are spots where the density is less than the surrounding air, on encountering which the aeroplane drops suddenly, the "half-hole," is likewise held to be a friction. "Along with these two impossibles, the hole and the half-hole, the vacuum and the half vacuum, should be consigned to oblivion that other picturesque fiction, the 'pocket of noxious gas'" which one of our foremost pilots claims overcame him temporarily while flying.

AerM Fountains. If a mass of air becomes warmer than the surrounding air at the same level, an upward current is at once started, sometimes at a velocity of even 10 feet a second. These vertical current occur principally in warm, clear weather. The long columns of smoke from chimneys is an illustration. Crossing such a column with one wing, with the other in stationary air, lateral stability is affected and shocks felt on entering and leaving. On squarely entering the column, the angle of attack is suddenly increased, the pressure on the wing and the angle of ascent. On suddenly leaving the column there is an instantaneous decrease in supporting power. If the elevator is operated in the column to prevent the machine rising to higher levels, there is a rapid descent on leaving and "the half hole is met. This is not necessarily harmful. Probably the real danger arises from over adjustments" in too hasty attempts to correct for the abrupt changes. "Such an adjustment might well cause a fall so sudden as to strongly suggest an actual hole in the air." An evidence of these columns which attain greater heights is the rolls and billows of the cumulous clouds they produce.

Aerial Cataracts. One kind of cataract is a counterpart of the aerial fountain, likely to occur at the same time, but in the opposite direction from that of the rising column. Another kind is a flow of a heavy surface layer of air up and over a precipice and found among barren mountains in high latitudes where, cooled by the snow, these cataracts "rush down the lee side of steep mountains with the roar and force of a hurricane. Where such conditions prevail the aviator should keep well above the drifting snow and avoid any attempt to land within the cataract itself."

Aerial Cascades. This term is applied to winds which, following the surface contour, sweep down to the lee of a hill but at a considerable elevation, with frequently a counter current at the ground. This might lead a

AERONAUTICS

does not print advertisements free, a practice that is unjust to other advertisers — advertisers who pay.

AERONAUTICS'

editor is not employed as paid press agent by competing concerns.

AERONAUTICS

does not print the advertisements of fake concerns — neither does it print fake advertisements.

AERONAUTICS

has a bona fide subscription list. It goes to every civilized country on earth— paid for.

AERONAUTICS

prints all the articles space allows for the benefit of readers. No product is barred from its columns because it is not advertised. Reading notices — or the absence of them —are not used to force advertising.

AERONAUTICS

maintains a free service bureau for the help and convenience of all — subscribers, advertisers, or not. Any aid that can be given is free for the asking.

AERONAUTICS

is theoldest aeronautical journal in the Western Hemisphere —established 1907.

pilot to think of another hole but these Professor Humphreys considers harmless if the pilot keeps his machine well above the surface.

Wind Layers. Layers of air differ in intensity and glide one over the other as air flows over water, with the same wave-producing effect. Gliding down, with power shut off, from one layer to another, say into a layer moving in the same direction as the machine and with the same velocity, instantly dynamical support ceases, power of guidance is lost and a drop for some distance is inevitable. The machine "must inevitably fall to ruin unless rare skill in balancing, or, possibly, mere chance should bring about a new glide after additional velocity had been acquired as the result of a considerable fall. Warping of wings, turning of ailerons, dipping and twisting of rudders, would be utterly useless at first, totally without effect so long as wind and machine have same velocity. A skilful pilot may secure a new glide with a properly constructed machine, and, finally, if high enough, make a safe landing." However, this is an extreme case and of rare occurrence but none the less it may be met with. If the new layer is in the opposite direction an increase, instead of a decrease, in the lift is found. Ordinarily these layers flow more or less across each other and the pilot has to contend with abrupt changes and experiences a "choppy aerial sea, in which his equilibrium is by no means secure—in which 'holes' seem to abound everywhere." When fine weather, if changing for a storm, beware of these conditions and always land head-on in the surface wind.

Wind Billows are caused by layers of air of different density and these billows are set up between the layers. Meeting these sudden changes in velocity and direction of wind more "holes in the air" are encourrtered. There is risk passing from one layer to the other.

At the surface the wind is tumuluotis due to friction and obstacles and there are swirls and gusts. If violent it is difficult and dangerous to fly but the turmoil decreases with altitude and the pilot should fly the higher the windier it is. In strong winds the pilot should not land on the lee sides of or close to steep mountains and hills or even large buildings. Land in an open place a distance away or on top of the hill itself. If landing on the hill is necessary, take the windward side. If necessary on the lee side, head into the axis of the eddy. On clear, still nights there are cool currents flowing down valleys and in landing one must head up the valley.

All these sources of danger are less effective as the speed of the aeroplane increases.

The experiences of the Turks in the Balkan War proved the sensibility of wooden aeroplanes to the influences of the weather, making necessary steel machines for military purposes.

RUMPLER MONOPLANE

The world's record for altitude made by Lirmekogel on a Rumpler monoplane attracted wide attention to this new machine, the construction of which shows the recent progress made in aviation in Germany: now these machines are being used in the war.

For a long time the Rumpler establishment has championed the type "pigeon." which offers the great advtantage of a stability almost automatic, due to the special form of the wings (Xanonia-form, so-called) ; on the other hand, the superabundance of bracing (notably the girder under the wings) offered too much resistance to advance to the extent that the speed hardly exceeded 100 kiloms. per hour (62 m. p. h.).

In the monoplone type of 1014 the classic form of the wings has been re-

tained while reducing the bracing to what was strictly necessary, viz.. four cables above and four below for each wing. At the same time, the flexible ends of the wings and tail have been replaced by flaps of the ordinary type. The wing surface of the new monoplane is 29 sq. m.; its weight empty, 650 k. g.

The incidence of the wings diminishes from root to tip. which attacks the air at a decidedly negative angle. The lateral balance is definitely assured by ailerons having 1.40 sq. m. surface each. Their operation is such as to give only a reaction dowmvard and not upward, so that the additional resistance is always on the side of the higher wing. The lower hraces are fastened to bracing post entirely independent of the chassis.

The fuselage of rectangular section has a length of 9 m. at largest part, giving plenty of room for the pilot's seat and that of the observer, as well as for all the instruments needed.

The empennage comprises a fixed triangular surface, terminated by an elevator in two parts, a vertical keel and rudder.

The motor group comprises a 6 cylinder Alercedes motor, water cooled, of 115 h. p. at 1400 r. p. m.. driving a Resehke propeller 2.70 m. diam., 1.48 m. pitch. The cylinders are of cast steel with autogenous-welded water jacket. Cooling is by radiator, system Wind-lioff.

This radiator of aluminum tubes is fastened directly to the motor so that the water in the cylinders is always

under pressure which prevents pockets of vapor; and, further, in case of leakage of water there remains always water in the cylinders.

The landing gear is formed by two lateral triangles of steam-line section steel tubes, to which are attached by means of elastic, an axle carrying two disc wheel (wheels with spokes covered with cloth). A powerful brake fastened to the anxle, permits landing in 50 metres or so.

The controls are of the military type, the elevator is operated by fore and aft motion of lever, lateral balance by rotation of wheels, and direction by pedals. All the control cables are carefully guided by bronze pullevs in fibre blocks.

The chief materials used in this machine are ash and American white pine for the framework of wings and fuselage steel in form of pressed sheets, formed tubes, and cables, and cast aluminum

LODGE WANTS AIRSHIPS TO BE DIRIGIBLE.

Senator Lodge, complaining of the lack of aeroplanes, says:

"I refer, of course, to what are generally called air craft, or, more specifically, aeroplanes and hydroplanes, (sic.) * * * * In the army we have at this moment thirteen aeroplanes and no Zeppelins or dirigible airships, (sic.)

"The money appropriated for this branch of the service in the navy, I am informed, has not been expended, and it is stated that the delay has been owing to the failure of the American manufacturers to furnish aeroplanes, to the differences of the experts as to the best type, and to the fact that we are waiting to get some aeroplanes from abroad in order to test them."

Naturally, we desire our airships to be dirigible but we have not yet heard of any hydroplanes in full flight. Evidently Senator Lodge got his technical knowledge from the Arm-Chair Aviators' Home Companion.

FREE AERONAUTICAL PAMPHLETS.

Among the publications of Smithsonian Institution are a number devoted to aeronautics. These following may be had free upon application to Smithsonian Institution, Washington. D. C. (for other aeronautical works see the book catalogue published by Aeronautics) : Recent Progress in Aviation-. Bv Octave Chanute (1910). Traveling at High Speeiis on the Surface of the Earth and Above It. By H. S. Hele-Shaw (1911). Aviation in France. By Pierre-Roger

Jourdain (190S). International Air Map and Aeronautical Marks. By Cb. Lallemand (1911).

Langlev Aerodynamical Laboratory.

Advisory Committee on the (1913). Research and Experiments in Aerial

Navigation. By Samuel P. Langley

(1897, 1900, 1901, 1904). What Constitutes Superiority in an

Airship. By Commandant Paul

Renard (1909).

for the support of controls. Autogenous welding was employed for all pieces which are not subject to tension.

This monoDlane has given the following results : With full military load, comprising fuel for 4 hours' flight besides 200 kg. useful load, it climbs 800 m. in 6 inin. The maximum height attained was 6300 m. for the oilot alone and 5500 m. with passenger. The normal speed is 120 kiloms. an hour.

Finally it was endeavored in the mode of construction to facilitate dismounting and erecting.

RUMPLER BIPLANE.

The machine on which Basser established the world's record of duration with 18 h. 12 min., is the first biplane put out by the Rumpler establishment. In construction it shows much similarity to the monoplane type 1914; thus, the fuselage, the tail, the moto-propulser

Hydromechanic Experiments with Flying Boat Hulls. By Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson (1914). Price, 10 cents.

The Flying Apparatus of the Blowfly. By Wolfgang Ritter (1911).

The Exploration of the Free Air by Means of Kites at Blue Hill Observatory. Bv A. Lawrence Rotch (1S9S).

The Greatest Flying Creature. By S. P. Langley (1901).

Relation of Wing Surface to Weight. By R. Von Lendenfeld (1904).

The Present Status of Military Aeronautics. By Dr. George O. Squier, Major, Signal Corps, U. S. Armv ( 1908).

Review of Applied Mechanics. Ey L.

Lecornu (1912). Holes in the Air. Bv W. J. Humphreys,

Ph.D. (1912). Report on European Aeronautical

Laboratories. Bv A. F. Zahm, Ph.D.

(1914).

Experiments with the Langley Aerodrome. By S. P. Langley (1904).

Samuel Pierpont Langley. Memorial Meeting (1906).

Count von Zeppelin's Dirigible Airship (1899).

The American airman Wright was the first in the whole world to build an aeroplane which would actually fly, and ever since that time we have been experimenting and inspecting and reporting and contracting and considering; in fact we have been doing everything except building aeroplanes. On July 1 last France owned 1,400 aeroplanes, while Uncle Sam owned 23, all of them out of date. However, we recently ordered from abroad an up to date French aeroplane with two Salmson motors and an up to date German aeroplane with two Mercedes motors. We were in hopes that at last we were in a fair way to establish a little brood of aircraft; but just then the European war broke out. Wicked foreigners commandeered our purchases, so here we are again just where we started.—Representative Augustus P. Gardner.

group and the body are identical with the corresponding parts of the monoplane.

The principal cell presents the characteristics of the "Arrow" biolane: the V horizontal and the vertical dihedral angle are both 3°. The incidence of the wings diminishes progressively toward the tips (extremities). The lateral balance is assured bv ailerons controlled (or operated) in both directions.

The characteristics are as follows: Surface, 38 sq. metres; spread, 13 m.; height. 3 m.; total length, 8.65 m.; 6 cylinder Mercedes motor. 105 h. p.; hourly fuel consumption, 38 litres, oil 2 kg. Chauvier propeller, 2.7 m. diam. by 1.48 m. pitch. Fixed empennage, 2.8 sq. m.; elevator, 1.4 sq. m.; vertical keel, 1.3 sq. m.; rudder, 8 sq. m.; ailerons, 2.4 sq. m.; vt. empty. 650 kg.; speed normal, 105 k. p. h.; climbing rate (11 minutes, full load), 800 m. Useful load, 740 kg.

Lieut. Saufley, U. S. Navy, has been on duty at the works of the Sperry Gyroscope Company to study the theory and construction of the Sperry stabilizer and observe any trials of this device the manufacturers desired to make for their own purposes in getting it ready for the tests that will be carried out at Pensacola.

Almost any arms manufacturer in this country could build guns for aeroplanes if they were given the plans. The Navy has not yet decided on the type of gun for this use. In fact, confidential information from abroad points to great difference of opinion amongst the nations of Europe using guns in aeroplanes.

■ There are now at the Aeronautic Station. Pensacola, eight officers of the new class of student air pilots, and during one week 1.133 miles of flight were covered by the different machines. The longest continuous flight during the week was 3 hours and 5 minutes.

Aeroplanes were detailed to take part in the festivities at Pensacola and Mobile in connection with Mardi Gras. Aeroplane AB3. with Lieutenant Bellinger in charge, and Ensign Bronson as observer, made the flight to Mobile on February 13th and remained there, returning on the 18th. Exhibition flights were made during the stay at Mobile and people taken up. There were over 1.200 miles flown in 24 hours of flying, not counting the Mobile flight.

"Billy" Robinson, the bird-man, has put Grinnell on the map in the aviation line and spread the name of the Grinnell Aviation Company by his flight of 375 miles from Des Moines, la., to Kentland, lnd. At a recent meeting of the stockholders of the company it was decided to increase the capital from $10,000 to $50,000.

o

DATA SHEET

No. 1

GUY WIRE AND CABLE DATA.

Aeronautical cord consists of a number (usually 19) of fine wires of great strength stranded together. It is furnished in five diameters, with a minimum thickness of 1/32" and a maximum of 1/8". The strengths of the different sizes run, approximately from 200 tc 2,300 pounds.

For steering gear a more flexible cord is provided. This is composed of six strands of seven wires each, with a center of either cotton or wire, as ordered. The cord with the cotton center is considered more pliable than that with the center composed of wire.

The standard sizes for the flexible cord are 1/16", 3/32" and 1/8", other sizes being made to order.

Wire differs from cord in that it consists of a single wire instead of a number of wires twisted together. Like the wires in the cord, it is made from the highest grade of steel and given a plated finish that secures best results in soldering. This wire is made in 12 sizes. Care should be taken by users to make good connections, so that the entire strength of the steel can be developed. The following tables (Roebling) give information as to strength and weights:

O

GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD

Diameter.

No. of Wires.

Approximate

breaking strength in pounds.

Weight in pounds per 100 teet.

w

19

8,300

13.80

S/l6"

19

3,500

7.20

%s"

19

3,000

5.50

V"

19

2,300

3.60

%i"

19

1,465

2.80

3/So"

19

800

2.00

Me"

19

500

0.96

V32"

7

200

0.35

o

EXTRA FLEXIBLE GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD

6x7 Cotton Center.

Size.

Approximate breaking strength in pounds.

Weight in pounds per 100 feet.

3/I6"

3,000

5.35

X"

1,015

2.35

 

780

1.50

Me"

420

.84

V_

TO FLY FOR VILLA.

W. Leonard Bonney has left for Mexico to be chief of General Villa's aviation corps. Bonney has recently been flying at Hempstead. Bonney is well known in aviation circles.

Charles S. Niles, a friend of Bonney. is chief of General Carranza's aviation corps and has under him several monoplane fliers, most of whom learned at the old Moisant school at Hempstead. The success of Carranza's fliers in bomb dropping and scouting recently induced General Villa to buy six Wright biplanes.

_J

DENINE CLAIMS AUTOSTA-BLE MACHINE.

The Denine-Deuthcr Aeroplane Company, of Spokane, Wash., has been experimenting with an inherently stable monoplane which has been patented in the United States in monoplane, biplane and multiplane forms. Construction was commenced on the monoplane in the spring of 1914 by Martin A. Denine and Harold C. Deuther, and tried out during the months of August and September on the Parkwater aviation field, Spokane. Wash., with complete success. H C. Deuther, the aviator, states at no

time was he troubled with either fore-and-aft or lateral stability; in fact, during the last few flights he released the controls altogether, only taking control on leaving and making landing. There is said to be an entire absence of rolling and pitching of this plane during gusty weather.

The Denine-Deuther Aeroplane Company will manufacture both single and passenger carrying machines of both monoplane and biplane types, and do exhibition work during the season of 1915 and thereafter.

The planes cant forward from body for the first part of the spread and then cant back for the balance of the spread, terminating in the flexible portion or aileron. The wings are attached to the body by sockets, which can be shifted to change the angle of incidence.

"Only the most careful diplomatic procedures have kept the United States a neutral nation. With the palpable efforts that grow greater each day it may be but a question of time before this country is compelled to take up arms. It is conceded that the aeroplane has made surprise attacks impossible. It has made necessary a readjustment of military tactics. Where would the United States be if plunged into war? What is the total production of our factories? What is the number of efficient and capable military aviators ? A hundred aeroplanes and aviators would be but a drop in the sea should we become involved in war. Neither aeroplanes nor aviators are made in a day, or a week."

Charles B. Kirkham, who has been identified with the aviation motor industry in this country since 1910, is now connected with the Curtiss Motor Co., at Hainniondsport, as chief engineer.

CORRECTION.

In our issue of March 30 the Burgess Company's advertisement reads: "Burgess-Dunne Three Delivered to U. S. Army, San Diego, December 30."

It should be Burgess-Dunne No. 3.

AERO MART COLUMN.

GET world's largest aeronautical catalogue, 6 red stamps, or our aeronautical motor catalogue just off the press, 4 red stamps. Blue prints $1.75, all standard aeroplanes. "Heath" propellers for air. water and land represent the survival of the fittest. Six years' propeller production proves perfection. 3 red stamps for propeller catalogue. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co.. Chicago.

WILL sacrifice latest flying boat, $775. Completely equipped. Also 30-h.p. Water-Cooled Curtiss Motor, $250. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago.

WANT TO BUY an 80-h.p. Gnome or an 80 or 90-h.p. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics.

FOR SALE—Roberts 50 h.p. motor, almost new. Oscar Solbrig, 707 W. 7th, Davenport, Iowa.

ON THE DEATH OF BEACHEY.

Our representative witnessed the last two llights made by Beachey. and is thereorc well acquainted with the real facts of the great aviator's death. His report did not reach us in time for the previous issue.

I was very interested in Beachey's flights at the Exposition, and upon learning that Warren Eaton had constructed a small monoplane for Beachey, took a great deal of interest in the first flights. Beachey had flown this monoplane four or five mornings at the Beach, some five or six miles from the Expositon Grounds. This was done by Beachey flying from the Exposition Grounds to the Beach after his exhibition was finished. He took out the biplane's Gnome and installed it in the monoplane for each flight.

The monoplane had but 20 feet spread, was an excellent job, and one of the neatest 'planes I have ever seen. It was staunch in every detail, and the whole thing weighed but a little over 400 pounds. The 80 Gnome drove this plane more than 95 miles an hour. Beachey. being confident of his ability to drive this monoplane after his trials at the Beach, decided to fly it instead of the biplane at the Fair Grounds where he was under contract. This was done safely one day previous to the Sunday he met his death. During this first exhibition flight, no special stunts were tried, but simply a beautiful straight away flight.

Sunday. Beachey's first flight was started off poorly. The Gnome did not work very well, and when his start was made, stopped with him in the air just after he had crossed a pile of lumber that was thrown on the turf from where he started. He glided down safely and ordered the machine to be taken back for re-start. This was done some twenty minutes later, and he shot straight up into the air. climbing to about 5,000 feet before leveling off. He made a trip o\er San Francisco, then turned around and crossed the Bay to Sausalito. after which he made three or four excellent loops, and glided down to the Grounds at a slow angle and landed safely. The monoplane was a beautiful sight in the air, having graceful lines, and very fast. His last flight was started half an hour or so later, in which Beachey went up approximately 4,000 feet, made several loops, and then circled up until he had gained approximately 5.000 or 6,000 feet altitude, made another loop and then started for the ground perpendicularly. Lots of people state Beachey's engine stopped on him and prefired. but this is incorrect in every way. The actual cause of Beachey's death is due solely to the aviator's inexperience in flying such a light monoplane. As you know, this was the first time that Beachey had ever been back of the motor, concealed entirely excepting his head, so that the wind could not blow against him and give him an idea

as to how fast he was dropping. The machine dropped at the rate of fully 250 to 300 miles an hour, and it was a wonder that the wings did not collapse nearer the first of the drop. When Beachey started to level out, approximately 500 feet from the ground, one wing simply folded straight back and exploded like a prefire of the motor. It was not long before the other did the same thing. Luckily, the machine dropped along the side of United States transports in a little harbor not over 100 feet wide. It was fully two hours before the plane was found by a diver from the battleship Oregon, being located by the gasoline that came to the surface. It was hoisted in shreds, Beachey taken out and placed in a naval bearing sack and hoisted to a waiting ambulance.

Beachey appeared to have excellent control over the monoplane, and flew it wonderfully well, but being covered up as he was, and his not being allowed to feel or see how fast he was really dropping, was the direct cause of his death. In my mind no monoplane or biplane built could have withstood the strain of such a tremendous falling force through the air.

INVISIBLE RAYS TO DESTROY ZEPPELINS.

"Since the war began, there have been many important developments in aerial defense and offense. Recently the discovery of a combination of infra red and electric waves shot from a mica tube in the form of a gun have, on actual tests, proved to be such a certain means of causing all forms of balloons to explode," says William Russell, "that the British, French and German Governments have, under the threat of severest punishment, forbidden any news of the experiments to be published.

"Through an accidental observation of a press representative, news of these experiments have reached this country, and several of the papers have published accounts stating that the invention has been confirmed by high military officials.

"For several years many scientists have been conducting experiments in the radiation of infra red and electric waves of various kinds for causing destructive effects on submarines and air-craft and have found that, under the proper conditions, destructive effects of greater power than any other method known could be caused by these rays which have such terrific force that if they are perfected to a degree that will be capable of liberating their full force in a beam of energy that can be controlled with the accuracy and certainty of gun fire we will have a means of destruction far more appalling than the great German siege guns.

"To people unfamiliar with science, the statement that an invisible radiation of electric waves similar to wireless waves could possess more destructive power than gunpowder charges which hurl enormous missives of steel weigh-

ing many hundreds of pounds appears incredible.

"The study of periodic law shows that all of the invisible forces in electric wave form possess great energy and the stud}- of radio activity has proved that all forms of matter, even to the smallest particle conceivable, contains an amount of force which, if it could be liberated in an explosive discharge similar to the explosion of dynamite, etc., would greatly exceed in power many pounds of the most powerful explosive known to us.

"The most salient point in the effective use of this silent, invisible, destructive force is that it can be used without detection no matter how near a person might be to it; for being invisible and absolutely noiseless it cannot be detected by our senses even though we were to stand alongside of it as it is shot forth on its errand of destruction."

William Russell, formerly chief of the Wireless Division, Seventh Regiment, New York National Guard, has been conducting experiments in these destructive electric radiation and expects soon to give a demonstration of the practical reality of this form of energy.

A military authority states: "I know nothing more on the subject than the various newspaper yarns which have appeared from time to time for the last three years about the ultra some kind of ray which is alleged to possess marvelous destructive properties. There has been no record of any such discovery in any of the scientific journals, and I am inclined to believe the existence of these rays is a myth of the same character as the alleged wonderful gas many times lighter than hydrogen said to have been discovered and used by the Germans in filling Zeppelins, when we know that the}' are using hydrogen for this purpose." _

couldn't even fly straight.

After doing the dip, the spiral glide and al! the stunts that were Beachey's delight, and landing he heard a sneering voice at his side.

"Say, are you Beachey?" a tough looking guy asked.

"Yes," was the reply, "Why?"

"Gee!" laughed the fellow. "I t'ought youse was some crack flyer. Say, dese odder guys has got it all over yous-; when it comes to flyin'. Why. youse can't even fly straight."

landed at the insane asylum.

One day Beachey was compelled to land quickly and he decided on a nice flat field, surrounded with a fine wall and enclosing some imposing looking buildings. He miscalculated and came to earth just outside the wall and in front of a large iron gate. A lot of nondescript looking people came running down to the gate and as Beachey dusted himself off one old fellow, grinning broadly, exclaimed mockingly:

"Say, you feller! Ye lit on the wrong side o' the fence, didn' ye?"

AIRCRAFT AND PEACE TREATIES

Neutrality and Trade in Contraband

Referring to tile recent German protest to our Government regarding the exportation of hydroaeroplanes on the ground that such are construed, by Germany, to be vessels, and the reply by the Secretary of State that "both the hydroaeroplane and the aeroplane are essentially aircraft; as an aid in military operations they can only be used in the air; the fact that one starts its flight from the surface of the sea and the other from the land is a mere incident which in no way affects their aerial character," and that, consequently, this Government does not regard the obligations imposed by treaties or the accepted rules of international law as applicable to aircraft of any kind, it may be of interest to call attention to the article published in the August 15, 1914, issue of Aeronautics relative to the discontinuance of the prohibition accepted by the Powers after the first Peace Conference against the throwing of explosives from aircraft.

The first Peace Conference passed the above resolution and it was accepted. The five-year period expired July 28, 1904. At the second Hague Conference, concluded October 18. 1907, the declaration was passed in the same terms as that of the first conference. Great Britain, Austria and the United States, among others, ratified this. The period for ratification expired June 30, 1908, and seventeen other nations failed to give assent, among whom were Germany, France, Japan, Italy, Mexico and Russia. In the absence of no prohibition, aerial warfare would seem a legitimate operation of war.

Aircraft appears on the German. French and English lists of contraband material.

Germany sought to construe hydro-

aeroplanes as vessels so as to bring them under the provisions of Article S of the Thirteenth Convention Concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War. which provides as follows:

"A neutral Government is bound to employ the means at its disposal to prevent the fitting out or arming of any vessel within its jurisdiction which it has reason to believe is intended to cruise, or engage in hostile operations against a Power with which that Government is at peace. It is also bound to display the same vigilance to prevent the departure from its jurisdiction of any vessel intended to cruise, or engage in hostile operations, which has been adapted entirely or partly within the said jurisdiction for use in war."

Aeroplanes, land and water, arms, etc.. however, may be sold to belligerents without hindrance.

In the first place it should be understood that, generally speaking, a citizen of the United States can sell to a belligerent Government or its agent any article of commerce which he pleases. He is not prohibited from doing this by any rule of international law, by any treaty provisions, or by an}- statute of the United States. It makes no difference whether the articles sold are exclusively for war purposes, such as firearms, explosives, etc., or are foodstuffs, clothing, horses, etc., for the use of the army or navy of the belligerent.

Furthermore, a neutral Government is not compelled by international law, by treat}-, or by statute to prevent these sales to a belligerent. Such sales, therefore, by American citizens do not in the least affect the neutrality of the United States.

It is true that such articles as those mentioned are considered contraband and are, outside the territorial jurisdiction of a neutral nation, subject to seizure by an enemy of the purchasing Government, but it is the enemy's duty to prevent the articles reaching their destination, not the duty of the nation whose citizens have sold them. If the enemy of the purchasing nation happens for the time to be unable to do this that is for him one of the misfortunes of war; the inability, however, imposes on the neutral Government no obligation to prevent the sale.

Neither the President nor any executive department of the Government possesses the legal authority to interfere in any way with trade between the people of this country and the territory of a belligerent. There is no act of Congress conferring such authority or prohibiting traffic of this sort with European nations, although in the case of neighboring American Republics Congress has given the President power to proclaim an embargo on arms and ammunition when in his judgment it would tend to prevent civil strife.

For the Government of the United States itself to sell to a belligerent nation would be an unneutral act, but for a private individual to sell to a belligerent any product of the United States is neither unlawful nor unneutral, nor within the power of the Executive to prevent or control.

The foregoing remarks, however, do not apply to the outfitting or furnishing of vessels in American ports or of military expeditions on American soil in aid of a belligerent. These acts are prohibited by the neutrality laws of the United States.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The Thomas

Continues to Make Records

On February 27, at Ithaca. N. Y., the Thomas Tractor Biplane. with three men and four hours' fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 min. Average speed—81-1 m.p.h. Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. Showed high degree of inherent stability.

Thomas School

Offers exceptional facilities — land and water. Best of instructors and equipment.

Write for "Opportunity" Booklet Xo. li

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO.f Inc..

Ithaca,N.Y.

6-cylinder, 100 H. P.

Builders as well as Aviators are

MAXIMOTORS'

most ardent supporters Built in Four Sizes from 50-150 H.P.

DFTfcOIT

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.

THE AERONAUTICAL BOOKSHELF

Epitome of the Aeronautical

Annual By James means

In one volume is contained the principal articles from the three annuals of 1895, 1896 and 1897, published hy Mr. Means. Contains the theories and experiments of Cayley. Wen ham, Li lien thai, Maxim. Langley and others, written by themselves. Fundamental facts are si veil. One of the absolutely necessary volumes. 224 pp., $1.12

The Problem of Flight

By HERBERT CHATLEY

A strictly technical book for the engineer.

III., 119 pp., $3.50

The Conquest of the Air

By the Late Prof. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH

A popular but authoritative book on the Ocean of Air, History of Aerostation, Dirigible Balloon, Flying Machi ne, The Future of Aerial Navigation. 111., $1.10

Aerial Navigation

By DR. ALBERT F. ZAHM

In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays the progress of aeronautics,.ea ving ou t unproductive experiments. The pilots of today know little of the history of the machine they use daily. The percent;! ee of those who are familiar with progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an absorbing volume which must take its place on every bookshelf.

III., 486 pp., $3.00

Art of Aviation

Bird-flight as the Basis of

Aviation fiy gustav lilienthal

Covers the gliding work of O. and G. Lilienthal.

III., 166 pp., $2.50

The Aeroplane in War

By C. GRAHAME WHITE and H. HARPER

A book with prophecies of the future. 111.. $3.00

Experiments in Aerodynamics By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY

This with the other Langley hook forms the keystone of the aeronautical library. Pnrvly technical. Details of the experimental machines of Professor Langley. The

indispensable book.

III. $1.50

Indispensable Books

MEMOIR" EXPERIMENTS"

By ROBERT W. A. BREWER

One of the best handbooks on aviation. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for the amateur, experimentor and pilot. 111., 266 pp., $3.50

Langley Memoir on Mechan-

El:„Ll By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY lCai r llgnt and CHARLES M. MANLY

In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor Laogley's previous work and contains wonderful photographs and scale drawings of all of the models and the engine*, constructed and tested by Langley and his assistant. Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight in the formulae and the practical man will find a vast amount of data. One of the scant dozen "best books."

Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50

Curtiss Aviation Book

By GLENN H. CURTISS and AUGUSTUS POST

A popular hook. Describes Curtiss' flights, his early life, how he plaoned and worked out his machine—close view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck, I.t Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. III., 307 pp., $1.49

Langley's Langley's

Maxim's "ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLIGHT"

Loening's "MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES"

Means' "EPITOME"

Brewer's "ART OF AVIATION"

Hay ward's "PRACTICAL" AERONAUTICS

Artificial and Natural Flight

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM

Concise history of development of flying machines and Maxim's own ex perimental work. There are but few worth-while technical hooks on aviation. This is one. Ills., 172 pp., $ 1.7S

Monoplanes and Biplanes

By GROVER C. LOENING

Covers design, construction and operation. The author has taken the work of the best knriwn ex peri mentors and analyzed the results, comparing them and averaging. Another necessary book. III., 345 pp., $2.50

How to Build an Aeroplane

By ROBERT PETIT

A handbook for the young man in school, or beginning building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply written. III., 131 pp., $1.50

Building and Flying an Aeroplane By chas. b. hayward

A practical handbook, covering construction of models, gliders and power machines. III., 160 pp., $1.00

Practical Aeronautics

By CHAS. B. HAYWARD

Treatise on Dirigibles, Aeroplanes, Motors Propellers. Practice, Future, etc. III.. 800 pp., $3.50

AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York

o

DATA SHEET

No. 2

EXTRA FLEXIBLE GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD

6x7 Wire Center.

3/l6"

3,200

6.15

V"

1,235

2.65

 

930

1.70

W

530

1.03

o

SPECIAL HIGH STRENGH PLATED AVIATION WIRE

No.B. CB.S. Gauge.

Diameter.

Approximate breaking strength in pounds.

Weight In pounds per 100 feet.

10

.102

2,000

2.91

11

.091

1,620

2.27

12

.081

1,300

1.82

13

.072

1,040

1.45

14

.064

830

1.13

15

.057

685

.891

16

051

540

.718

17

045

425

.555

18

.040

340

.436

19

.036

280

.355

20

.032

225

.264

21

.028

175

.227

o

I_

AERO CLUB OF PENNSYLVANIA.

A stated meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania was held at the Bellevue-Stratford Friday evening. April 16, 1915. Tickets for the Sperry lecture, on April 23rd, will be mailed in a few days.

Messrs. J. C. Pepin, W. T. Banning, and J. J. Kelley, of the Lorain Hydro and Aero Company, visited the Roberts plant a few days since and left their order for two of the new 100 h.p. six-

cylinder Roberts aviation motors, described in Aeronautics of March 15th.

The engines are to be shipped to the Benoist Aeroplane Company for installation in two outfits which the Lorain Company will put into service early this season. •-•--

IN AIRSHIP DAYS.

The wooden-legged cap'n of the airship Wilbur Third

Comes a-steppin' down the ladder like a limpin' lulu bird.

And reporters from the papers crowded round him thick as bees

OF AMERICA

29 West 39th Street. NtW York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

It is noted with respectful and deep regret that Mr. Lee S. Burridge, Founder and Past President of the Society, has through sickness been absent from the meetings the last few weeks. Mr. Burridgc had not previously missed a single meeting of the Society since the time of its organization in 1909, and all members join in the sincere hope that he may soon Lie restored to good health and again appear in their midst.

ROUXD TABLE TALKS Mr. A. M. Herring gave an interesting talk on the peculiar manifestation in aerodynamics known as the Two-Foot Constant "K" or Vortex effect, which dominates when peripheral speed of a propeller is approximately 1, 100 feet per second. lie also indicated a method for readily determining the efficiency of a propeller.

Mr. Charles B. Brewer exhibited an electrically treated cloth, under a process invented by Mr. A. \V. Carroll, which is impervious to water while being permeable by air. This, it is thought, may prove of value in the manufacture of dirigibles, because less than one per cent, of weight is added to the material in the process of treatment.

Mr. P, A. Peterson exhibited a large variety of insects, having weights attached which they had carried in flight, proving that, as a general rule, insects are capable of carrying loads greater than their own weights.

Mr. H. L. Coakley explained a stabilizing device of his own invention, showing a model thereof patterned after a dove. With this device a vertical keel is provided at the rear.

The new Technical Board has been appointed and held its organization meeting on Monday, April 11. It is coniposd of: Rudolph R. Grant, Chairman; Earle Atkinson, William J. Hammer, Rudolph Hanau, C. W. Wurster, Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin, Henry L. Coakley, M, B. Sellers, Chas. R. Wittemann, A. Leo Stevens, Capt. W. I. Chambers. U. S. N.

The Society deeply deplores the death by accident in flight on April 11 of its member, Cecil Peoli, who fell at College Park, Md., while making a trial of his new machine. Suitable action will be taken at the meeting on April 16 to express the sense of bereavement felt by the members and their sympathy with his relatives.

But he waves 'm off, impatient, and

he says in tones that freeze: "There is simply nothin' doin' in the

interview in' line. Though I'll own up I'm loaded with

some dope that's right down fine; I'll admit that we've been cruisin'

jest above the Polar Sea, But nary hint, reporters, will you

git of it from me. "I will merely pause to mention

that we found a brand new race. That never seen an airship nor a

bloomin' white man's face— That we found the Borealis, and

it's nowt but striped cheese. But not a word I'll give you, so

just ask no questions, please. "And furder, I could tell you, if I

only up and chose, That we anchored to the North

Pole till our wings was nearly

froze;

But you'll waste your breath with

questions all I've got to say. So trot along, reporters—jest be

movin' on your way." And when the city papers had ten

columns each next morn This most secretive captain's hair

in wrath was sadly torn; "Some one has been a-peachin' on

this airship Wilhur Third; They didn't git it out of me—1

never said a word!!!

—Dcti vcr Rep ii blica >i.

CURTISS FACILITIES

This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions.

INFORM A TION

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Pslents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pica Si.

The 8-Cylinder 140 Horse Power

Slurlevanl

{REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)

Aeronautical Motor

is the most powerful motor in the country that is thoroughly perfected and tried out. Sturtevant motors are used by the U. S. Army and Navy and all the leading aeroplane builders.

rwi. • f 4-cylinder, 50 H. P. Other "sea {6_cylinder( 80 H. P.

Specifications upon request B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY Hyde Park, Boslon, Mass.

U ami all principal cities of the world

nikrozrusTLe

BALDWIN

rp\ Balloons !&§ Dirigibles 83 Fabrics

Motors

Box 78, Madiaon Sq. P.O., New York

PATENTS

Manufacturers want me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and I will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether 1 can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.

WM. N. MOORE Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C.

DON'T w"te us u"'ra

a-*"*" * you are interested in a reliable, efficient a nc1 economical power plant. That is the cnly kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, Ind.

• < BENOIST

AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS

Factory and Office

341 S. St. Louis Avenue

Chicago, 111.

AEROPLANE COMPANY

INCORPORATED

SLOANE AEROPLANES

Military and Naval Types

Our New Military Tractor also was demonstrated successfully the very first time it was taken out for trial.

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids 1! i diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. ^ff™*

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY

Books and Advice Free

Send sketch or nioilel fnr search. Highest references. Rest Results. Promptness Assii ml

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer

624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 95% of American and Canadian clubs.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq. 8ox181,NewYork

LEO STEVENS

r

BALLOONS DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we build the best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes, Tbree 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars. HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 4460 Chouteau St. Louis Mo.

THE U. S. NAVY USES

<JBecause they are the best by a large measure and Proved Best by test and official report. <|0tbers use Plain Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. *]] For Efficiency— For Economy, investigate Paragons. No charge for information — No pay but for resnlti. <J\Ve have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg Si., Baltimore, Md.

PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY

AERONAUTICS

New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1914 J^

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to theTechnique and Industry of Aeronautics

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighly-five Cents : Posl Free (Money Orders Only)

-^t — •_A specimen copy will be mailed

ilUlC free on receipt of IS cents -Head Office: -

170 Fleel Slreel - - London, E. C. American Office: 250 Weal 54th Street. New York

Safest and Most Practical

THE PARAPLANE

A few of its patented (U. S. and foreign) features: — Inherent Stability, Dual Motors. Controls and Propellers which can be worked independent of rach other. Propellers and Control so arranged that machine will fly just as readily with a single Propeller. Greater Lifting Power. Cli.myeable Ancle of Incidence.

Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use Literature on request PARISANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA, INC.

220 West 42nd Street New York City

ALL AERO BOOKS FOR SALE BY

AERONAUTICS

250 W. 54 St.. New York


PDF Document