Volume 16 - No. 1 - 1915 March
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.
Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:
Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones, U. S. A., 8 hrs. 53 min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. 10 min.
Motors Ready for Delivery
MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "0-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL., 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 160 H.P.
Practically every aeronautical record
was made possible by the use of the
That fact alone is conclusive proof as to the worth of Bosch.
Where you cannot take a chance there you must have Bosch.
Be Satisfied Specify Bosch
Correspondence always Invited
Bosch Magneto Company
201 West 46th Street
In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.
Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTTCS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St., New York
Telephone, Circle 2289 Cable. Aeronautics. New Vork
ERNEST L. JONES Editor
11. B. SELLERS Technical Editor HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor
FRANK CASH Ass't Editor
Entered as Second Class Hail Hatter. September 22. 1VUS. under the Act of March 3. 1879. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.
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Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.
NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS
With this issue is begun Vol. XVI, With No. 1. The issues for each six months have, heretofore, formed one volume. There should have been 12 is-
sues for Vol. XV, instead of the 8 zAiich have been published. Instead of continuing to name future issues consecutively, completing Vol. XV, to ovoid an anachronism, a new start is being
made with the current date, March 15, 1915.
All unexpired subscriptions are set ahead four months so that every subscriber tci7/ receive the full complement of issues due him.
AEROPLANES WITH VARIABLE INCIDENCE
By M. B. Sellers
A communication presented to the Russian Society of Engineers of Paris, by L. Kolpakoff-Mirochnitchinko entitled Anions a Incidence variables, is of considerable interest, in view of the success of the well known Paul Schmitt biplane. This machine, piloted by Garaix, made records of height and speed with 4, 5, 6 and up to 10 passengers. I shall give briefly the substance of this communication.
By "variable incidence" is here understood the property of an aeroplane to change the angle of attack of its planes without recourse being had to its auxiliary controlling surfaces. Two conditions must be realized: (1) The axis of thrust and the direction of the head resistance should be confused (i. e., in line) no matter what the incidence. (2) The centre of pressure (i. e„ support) of the machine should always be directly over the centre of gravity for any incidence.
As the centres of resistance and support are variable with varying angle of attack; it suffices to bring these back to their normal position by a suitable displacement of the lifting planes (as is done in the Paul Schmitt).
1—These conditions being reallized, the pilot can. at his pleasure, ascend or descend, without increasing the head resistance, and without employing the elevator, which often requires considerable effort; by simply changing the angle of the wings relative to the fuselage. Therefore, ascending, horizontal or descending path ivithout the use of the elevator.
2—In case the aeroplane should, from any cause, loose speed, the elevator would become inoperative; but, by changing the inclination of the wings, the speed could be quickly augmented, and the impending clanger averted; therefore, facility to rapidly regain the normal speed.
3—In leaving the ground the wings can be set at a zero angle during the run, till proper speed is attained; then the angle can be increased to that giving the most rapid ascent; hence: easy and rapid rise in starting.
A—Supposing that the normal (horizontal) attitude of the fuselage is the one of least resistance to penetration; then, in the ordinary aeroplane this resistance is greater when flying "cabre." Piut with the variable incidence aeroplane the fuselage may maintain its nor-
mal attitude while the incidence of the wings is increased, thus reducing resistance, and favoring slow flying (because the slowness of flight is limited by the increased total resistance due to increase in drift). Besides, the large angle of attack required for very slow flight is dangerous in the ordinary machine, but in the variable incidence machine, the fuselage being nearly horizontal and moving along its axis avoids the risk due to extreme incidence.
In the same way in augmenting the speed by reducing the angle of the wings, the body may he maintained in its normal attitude and the empennage will not act as a brake,—therefore, great variation of speed.
5—With the motor stopped, the descent can he made slowly with wings at maximum allowable angle of attack, the fuselage and chassis remaining horizontal ,and machine landing properly on its wheels; and on the ground it can be quickly stopped by extreme inclination of the wings. Therefore, sloiv descent, landing on even keel, and quick stoppage after landing.
Finally the axis of the propeller is always parallel to the trajectory, which is of some advantage.
ADVERTISEMENTS IN AERONAUTICS
Once and for all time let us announce that we do not publish advertisements free, nor do we print any advertisements on a basis of replies leceived from the same. Our representatives in soliciting for AERONAUTICS Lave been approached with such propositions, the inference being that aeronautical publications are doing this. Let us say that we value too highly the patronage of those firms and individuals who have persistently used our columns and paid therefor, to entertain any such proposition.
ADVERTISERS IN AERONAUTICS ARE PAYING FOR THEIR SPACE. When we sav that AERONAUTICS reaches tbe heads of the influential governments of tbe world we are making a statement
that is backed up by the subscription list and bv the results obtained. Advertising in AERONAUTICS makes an appeal to a larger buying power per paid subscription than that of all other aeronautical journals in the United States combined.
Established in 1907, AERONAUTICS has gained and maintained the confidence of all its subscribers and today its results gained for advertisers is testified to by the amount of PAID advertising that the magazine carries.
It is unfair to accept the advertisement of a big firm FREE for the sake of inducing smaller firms to sign contracts under the impression that the hig firm is paying for its space.
It is unfair to the subscribers to make them believe that AERONAUTICS supports a vast and varied number of industries.
A certain number of reliable firms have found it to their advantage to use the advertising columns of AERONAUTICS. Our subscribers have long since found that such advertisers as use AERONAUTICS are reliable. FOR THIS REASON WE DO NOT NEED TO PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS FREE. AERONAUTICS STANDS ON ITS MERITS. WE CAN CARRY AN ADVERTISER'S MESSAGE TO THE MOST IMPORTANT MEN INTERESTED IN AERONAUTICS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.
Results prove this.
NAVY OPENS BIDS FOR NINE HYDROS
Fourteen bids were opened February 27, 1915, for the furnishing of the U. S. Navy Aeronautic Station, Fensacola. Fla.. of two lots of hydroaeroplanes and motors, as below. Delivery of one hydroaeroplane of the first lot to be made not later than April 15, 1915, and the balance by June 15, 1915; delivery of the second lot to be made in pairs by the above respective dates. Alternate bids with greater time for delivery could be submitted, but the Xavy reserved the right to award on the time stated above.
The bids were as follows, with the items bid on mentioned by figures in parentheses which correspond to the schedule given below :
Aircraft Company: (1) $6962, (2) $5142, (3) $716. (4) $2760, (la) $7962 and $6780, (2a) $5000 and $4837, (3a) $725 and $716, (4a) $3000 and $2760. If automatic stabilizer accepted with eacli 'plane cost of Item 2 power plant in each case will be reduced $190.
P»urgess Company: (1) $6400, (2) $4325, (3) $280, (la) $5350. (2a) $4325, (3a) $280. Has inherent stability. Wireless outfit and lighting not included as no definite approved type specified.
Curtiss Aeroplane Company: (1) $10,500, (2) $7000, (3) $425, (4) $3000, (la) $10,500, (2a) $7000. (3a) $425, (4a) $3000. Informal—no guarantee.
Gallaudet Company, Inc.: (1) $1800; for one machine.
Grinnell Aeroplane Company: (1) $6500. (2) $8000, (3) $500.
Wm. C. Hurst: (1) $7500. (2) $3500; informal—no guarantee.
Peoli Aeroplane Corporation: (1) $3100, (2) $3700, (3) $500. (la) $3100, (2a) $3700, (3a) $500.
Shaw Aeroplane Company: (I) $4499,
(2) $3415, (3) $586; informal—no guarantee.
P.. F. Sturtevant Company: (2) $4325, (2a) $4325. Price does not include wireless and lighting outfits, but includes fitting such if furnished by Government.
Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Company: (I) $4600 and $5850, (2) $3550 and $6380, (3) $750. These prices for Type H.S. and S. respectively. Prices do not include wireless or lighting outfits.
The Tvgard Engine: (2) $14,000. (2a) $14,000. '
The Wright Company: (1) $9740. (2) $5200, (3) $60, (la) $7500, (2a) $4940, (3a) $60. Price does not include wireless and lighting outfits, compass, chart holder or sextant.
B. Stephens & Son: (1) $3000, (2) $3400, (3) $200: if Sturtevant motor is furnished Item 2 will be $4200.
G. H. Armitage: (1) $3800, (2) $4300,
(3) $250; informal—no guarantee. Prices were itemized as follows:
BID A—3 Hydroaeroplanes and 4 power plants:
I. Aeroplane—Includes the aeroplane proper, with stabilizers, controls, control surfaces and leads, armor, launching truck, engine covers, cockpit covers, etc., together with the necessary crating.
2. Power Plant—Includes motor, propeller, radiator, gasoline and oil tanks, piping, controls, gasoline and oil gauges, wireless outfit, lighting outfit, power transmission system and the necessary shipping crates.
3. Instruments—Includes instrument board complete, compass and drift indicator, lightweight sextant, chart holder, incidence indicator and necessary packing for shipment.
4. Automatic Stabilizers—If proposed. BID B—6 hydroaeroplanes and 8
power plants :
la. Same as above. 2a. Same as above. 3a. Same as above. 4a. Same as above.
QUICK DELIVERY A FACTOR.
Machines having characteristics differing from above will be considered under certain conditions. Bids will be awarded on merits of design, completeness of specifications and price and time of delivery.
Decision will be made as to design on the basis following, in the order given : Speed, radius of action, climb, glide and reduction of head resistance. The power plant will be considered from the view of propeller efficiency, fuel consumption, weight and compactness.
Two-seater, w'ith fullest practicable view in all directions for pilot and observer who are to be protected in a stream line body.
To have, with full load, speed range 50-80 miles per hour, and a radius of action of 4 hours at full speed.
Climb 250 ft. per minute for first 10 minutes.
Glide at least 6 to 1, still air, engine dead.
CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN.
Certain standard Government requirements must be adhered to. Information must be given as to material used in construction, grade, manufacture, breaking strength, clastic limit, per cent elongation; maker of motor, magneto and carburetor, with particulars.
Other requirements are:
Protection from weather and spray for all parts by the use of approved paints, metal plating or non-corrosive material.
Portable covers for cockpit and power plant.
All interior woodwork will be given protection against moisture.
The hull or boat structure should be utilized in reinforcing the main structural girders. The principal hulls shall be subdivided into water-tight compartments so arranged that the flooding of any one of them shall not seriously endanger the machine when adrift. Ready means of draining while afloat, which, if practicable, shall be operated from cockpit.
Suitable provision in fuselage for mounting the outfit.
The control surfaces to give positive
control when flying at slow speed. The controls are to be capable of operation by either person unassisted or in conjunction, and the pilot should be able to take charge from the other by force.
Duplicate leads are required to the ailerons or rolling rudders, to the warps, and to the steering and diving rudders. The duplicate leads should, so far as practicable, follow different lines from those of the principal leads.
The wings shall be capable of being readily and quickly removed, or closed or folded.
Suitable fittings for hoisting aboard ship from the water.
All parts, and particularly the power plant and wings, shall be thoroughly secured to withstand the impulse necessary to launch the machine from a catapult and to withstand the shock of rough landings.
A transportation truck is to be provided with each machine, with wheels to permit use on soft wet sand.
To be provided with starting means from either seat.
The carburetor provided with means for heating, and with means for muffling to prevent fire. Provision to prevent danger of fire in case machine should turn upside down.
Double independent ignition and double magnetos.
The motor protected from moisture and spray.
The ignition and auxiliary circuits must be thoroughly protected from short circuits from spray.
All aluminum parts to be given protection against the effects of salt water.
All oil piping annealed.
A positive system of pumping gasoline from the reserve tanks to the service tank shall be provided unless gravity feed from all tanks is used.
Gas, water and oil service pipes will lie protected against vibration.
A positive means of cutting off the gas at the service tank shall be readily accessible from either seat.
At least one reliable method of stopping the motor shall be provided, to be operated from either seat.
Fuel-tank capacity for at least 4 hours flying at full power, and provision for an additional 200 pounds of gasoline.
The service feed tank shall have a capacity for at least one-half hour's flight, and shall be so fitted as to prevent danger from fire in case the machine should turn upside down.
So far as practicable, the entire power plant should be assembled as a unit on a good rugged foundation, which can be readily removed or replaced with a minimum disturbance of connections.
Provision is desirable, on the engine shaft proper, for driving the wireless and lighting generators and stabilizer generators, but where this is not practicable rigid and substantial connections to the engine bed are required so as to preserve the proper alignment for driving these auxiliaries.
The motor shall, if practicable, be so installed as to permit of dropping the lower crank case without the removal of the motor from its foundations.
PROPELLERS. Efficiency should exceed 70 per cent. Protected from the action of spray and broken water. The hub face plates shall be thoroughly interconnected independently of the propeller bolts. A safety nut shall be provided, so that in case the propeller bolts carry away the propeller cannot come off the hub.
Before installation one motor to be selected, shall be put through the complete set of tests in succession as described herein. The remaining motors shall be put through test D. These tests shall take place before a designated Government representative.
Test A.—One-half hour run on the block to determine the maximum brake horsepower and the revolutions necessary to deliver the rated horsepower, to be followed by the calibration run for determining the b. h. p. r. p. m. curve.
Test B.—Motor and propeller to run one-half hour at full power while inclined upward at an angle of 10°.
Test C.—Motor and propeller to run one-half hour at low speed while inclined at an angle of 10' downward. The low speed should not exceed 25 per cent of the speed for full power.
Test D.—Four hours' run of the motor with calibrated moulinet at full power. After the 4-hour run the motor shall be disassembled and the motor and auxiliary parts shall be weighed. It will then be carefully examined and conditions within noted, particular attention being paid to the amount of wear and of carbon deposit. If the above tests and inspections are satisfactory, the motor shall be reassembled and given an additional 4-hour run, without any adjustments or replacements during same, and during which observations shall be made in exactly the same manner as in the previous 4-hour run.
During the above trials records of the revolutions obtained and the corresponding power developed shall be made every 10 minutes, together with notes as to the general action of the motor while running. The engine shall be thoroughly balanced and vibration shall be a minimum. Oil and gasoline consumption will be measured for each of the above trial runs, and notes made as to the temperature of the circulating water at the inlet and outlet. No adjustments or replacements are to be made during the above trials. Special attention will be paid to making certain that during the inclined runs the lower cylinders are at no time being flooded.
"Full load'' comprises the machine complete in order of flight, including in addition 380 pounds for pilot and observer ; fuel oil and water for at least 4 hours' flight at full power; and the
outfit and equipment; or an equivalent load in place.
Outfit and Equipment.
Machine gun and mount............. 30
Box of ammunition................. 60
Instrument board .................. 20
(The instrument board to include a watch-chronometer, an inclinometer, a tachometer, a barometer, and a speedometer.)
Armor protection for engine and crew 40
One compass and drift indicator..... 6
Sextant ............................ 2
Chart holder ....................... 2
Incidence indicator................. 2
Emergency rations, including drinking water ......... ............... 20
Tool kit ........................... 10
Fire extinguisher................... 8
Sea anchor and line................. 6
First-aid kit........................ 8
DEMONSTRATION TRIALS. Before entering the prescribed acceptance test, each machine shall be flown by a representative of the builder. During these trials the machine shall carry the specified full load, and demonstrate to the satisfaction of the inspector that it is capable of meeting the requirements.
ACCEPTANCE TRIALS. Then the machine will be given acceptance trials at United States Xavy Aeronautic Station, Pensacola, Fla. Each additional machine must perform consistently with the original of its type.
The machine must ride at anchor or adrift in a 25-mile wind in open water for 4 hours without danger of capsizing.
When adrift, it should normally head into the wind.
Under way at low speeds, it should steer readily.
It should be provided with a bow chock and cleat for towing and mooring purposes, and with means for steering while being towed.
With "full load":
The machine shall be capable of getting away in a calm in smooth water in a distance of not over 1500 feet (from a start with the engine throttled down to one-quarter of the full speed revolutions at the starting mark).
It should also be capable of_ getting away and of alighting in a 25-mile wind in rough water in the open sea.
It should be capable of landing at high speed before the wind without danger of nosing under.
The hull should, to as great a degree as possible, combine the following qualities :
Begin planing at or below 20 miles an hour in rough water.
Be free from suction effects.
Have in general a skid-form profile.
Have a sufficiently easy bow to allow of plowing through a moderate sea without undue pounding or wetness.
Have a sufficiently strong bottom to sustain punishment at high speed.
The machine should not capsize on a skidding landing or when running at
high speed on the surface with wind and sea abeam.
To have efficient longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability in strong and variable winds up to 35 miles per hour and to be capable of banking steeply without danger.
Longitudinal control shall be such as to enable recovery after a steep glide, and to enable the machine to readily assume the gliding attitude in case power should fail while climbing.
Any machine proposed shall have initial or natural lateral, longitudinal, and directional stability in flight, such that moderate variations from the neutral attitude shall produce positive righting moments. Any special arrangement of the planes as to their plan form, dihedral angle, or the adjustability of the angle of the main planes or of the stabilizers for this purpose shall be clearly described, together with the effects produced.
Inherent or natural stability will be demonstrated by steadying the machine in horizontal flight and then holding the controls in a fixed position. Under such conditions the machine should hold its course and trim for an appreciable period without requiring correction or involving the machine assuming a dangerous attitude.
Automatic stabilizers, if used, must be of demonstrated efficiency and reliability. They must be sensitive, capable of adjustment, as small and light as practicable, and should be applicable to any standard type of control without requiring undue rearrangement. They should be capable of being instantly thrown into or out of action as required. They should not interfere with the directional control of the machine. When the automatic stabilizer is in operation, the control of direction should be attained either through the regular controls or in a manner exactly similar to that ordinarily employed. If such an installation is proposed, it should be made a separate and independent item and be accompanied with complete plans and specifications, with price, and price list of spares.
The lower limit of speed should be attained at an angle which is not in dangerous proximity to the stalling angle, and without the use of the "reverse control" or the jockeying of the engine power.
Climbing, turns, fuel and oil, speed range and gliding tests will be made.
Bidders will submit following data with their proposals: Full particulars of their machines, with power curves, drawings, etc.
WHO GOT THIS ORDER?
The Chinese Government has decided to give rewards to Chinese inventors of airships, says the Peking Daily Nczvs.
A Canton telegram to the Shun Pao reports the Chiangchun Lung Tsi-kwang, of Canton, has arranged to buy two aeroplanes from an American firm at a cost of $32,000. The aeroplanes have arrived, and the trials are being arranged for.—Consular Report.
NEW 140 H.P. STURTEVANT MOTOR
The latest motor especially designed to suit aeronautical requirements by the B. F. Sturtevant Company is of the eight-cylinder V type, four-cycle, water-cooled; bore 4 inches, stroke inches; normal speed 2000 r.p.m. The propeller shaft is driven through a reducing gear which can he furnished in different gear ratios so that the propeller turns at any desired speed between 1000 and 1500 r.p.m.
Cylinders, of the L head design, exhaust and intake valves on same side, are cast in pairs of semi-steel with integral water-jackets. Large openings in the back and top, closed by aluminum cover plates, enable very accurate moulding and thorough cleaning.
Valves, hardened tungsten steel, heads and stems from one piece; large diameter and easily removed for inspection or grinding without disturbing any other part of motor. They are operated direct from one central camshaft which lies between the two groups of cylinders above the crankshaft.
Pistons are of same material as cylinders, ribbed in the head for strength and cooling; three compression rings. The piston pin is chrome nickel steel, bored hollow and hardened.
Connecting rods are of H section, machined all over from forgings of a special air-hardening chrome nickel steel, which after being heat-treated has a tensile strength of 250,000 pounds per square inch. They are, consequently, very strong and yet unusually light and, being machined all over, are of absolutely uniform section, which gives as nearly perfect balance as can be obtained. The big ends are lined with Sturtevant white metal and the small ends are bushed with phosphor bronze. The connecting rods are all alike and take their bearings side by side on the crankshaft.
Crankshaft is machined from a billet of the highest grade chrome nickel steel
weight. It is carried in three large bearings lined with renewable bushings of Parson's white brass.
and is ribbed on the bottom to assist in cooling the oil. The camshaft is contained within the
The base consists of two castings of a special aluminum alloy. The upper half is designed with a view to strength and rigidity rather than extreme lightness. It extends considerably below the cen-
properly heat-treated to obtain the best properties of this material. Large diameter and bored hollow throughout, insuring maximum strength with minimum
tre line of the crankshaft to further increase its strength. The lower half is of light construction, designed for the purpose of containing the lubricating oil
upper half of the base between the two groups of cylinders and is supported in six bronze bearings. It is bored hollow throughout and the cams are formed integral with the shaft and ground to the proper shape and finish. The gears operating the camshaft, magneto, oil and water pumps are contained within an oil-tight casing and operate in a bath of oil.
The propeller shaft is carried on two large annular ball bearings and driven from the crankshaft by hardened chrome nickel steel spur gears. These gears are contained within an oil-tight casing integral with the base on the opposite end from the timing gears. A ball thrust bearing is provided on the propeller shaft to take the thrust of a propeller or tractor as the case may be.
Lubrication is of the complete forced, circulating system, the oil being supplied to every bearing under high pressure by a rotary pump which is operated by gears from the crankshaft. The oil passages from the pump to the main bearings are cast integral with the base, the hollow crankshaft forming a passage to the connecting rod bearings and the hollow camshaft distributing the oil to the camshaft bearings. The entire surface of the lower half of the base is covered with a fine mesh screen through which the oil passes before reaching the pump. About two gallons of oil are
contained within the base and this is replenished as fast as used by a secondary oil pump operated by an eccentric on the camshaft. This draws fresh oil from an external tank which can be made of any capacity desired.
The carburetor is of the Zenith type especially designed for this motor. It is of the double horizontal design with one float chamber and two jets, each supplying one group of four cylinders. It is located between the cylinders and supplied with a liberal amount of hot air from the exhaust so that the mixture is not affected by changes in weather conditions.
Ignition is by two Bosch or Mea water-proof magnetos placed face to face on each side of the carburetor between the two groups of cylinders. The spark plugs are located in water-cooled bosses in the centres of the cylinder heads.
The water circulation is accomplished by a centrifugal pump which delivers a large quantity of water through the cylinder jackets and maintains a uniform temperature around all parts of the cylinders. The screw caps over the valves
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RECORD FOR NEW THOMAS TRACTOR.
The illustration is of the new Thomas pilot, passenger and 15 gals, of gasoline
military two-place tractor, which was de- was 81.1 m.p.h. over a measured course,
scribed in the issue of "October 15, 1914." Climb with pilot, passenger and 15 gals.
The Thomas brothers have been thor- of gasoline for the first 1000 ft. 1 minute
oughly testing on the head of Cayuga Lake, and they believe they have accomplished an American record for a quick rate of time with pilot and two passengers, besides a heavy load of gas. The figures are as follows:
Machine loaded with 40 gals, of gasoline, 3y? gals, of oil, pilot weighing 165 lbs. and two passengers of 170 and 155 lbs. respectively, besides the regular equipment of instruments required by the army, the climb in 10 minutes was exactly 4000 ft. Also the speed with
25 seconds: 4000 ft. 7 minutes 35 seconds. A 90 h.p. Austro-Daimler engine is fitted. The machine lists at $8000.
With a 100 h.p. Sturtevant or Curtiss motor, the price on this would be $6500.
A scout racette type biplane with 60 h.p. Sturtevant or Curtiss engine sells at $5500. An exhibition machine with same motors sells for $4500. The new 1915 flving boat with same engines brings $6500.
The Thomas company is bidding on the Navy specifications.
"Within two years, in my opinion, the postal aviator will be as common a sight in this country as the railway mail clerk is now."—-Assistant Postmaster-General Wood, January 14, 1915.
* * * If the club goes in for aviation, I'm going to resign."—Statement of same man in 190S.
Aero Club President Takes Flying Boat Trip.—Headline in a 1915 newspaper.
"I'm opposed to the club's going in for aviation; this is a balloon club.
Palm Beach, Fla., February 3.—E. K. Jaquith, accompanied by Lionel Armstrong, of Pasadena, Cal.. made a trip in an aeroplane from here to Miami in an hour and five minutes this afternoon. Mr. Armstrong made an altitude flight of 2000 feet with Jaquith this morning.
uncooled. Information concerning the radiator is not given as the requirements are usually different in each installation.
A starting crank is provided by which the motor can be readily started from the machine. The crank handle can be extended to pass through a control board if desired.
Light weight and extremely efficient mufflers can be supplied also, one for each group of four cylinders which effectively silences the exhaust with only a slight loss of power.
Every motor is first coupled to a dynamometer and required to show its rated horsepower. It is later subjected to a rigid test with a propeller under the same conditions which it operates in actual service.
The weight of the motor complete with carburetor, magnetos, starting crank, propeller hub, bolts and front plate, but without radiator and propeller, is 550 lbs.—3.9 lbs. per b.h.p. The price of this motor is $4,000.
Another model, a six-cylinder, 80 h.p., is sold at $2,400.
EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.
December, 1914 ......:......... none
Same period 1913, parts........ $1,865
12 mos. ending Dec, 1914, 1 aeroplane ($1,856) and parts
($12,054)—total ............. 13,910
Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane ($900') and parts ($20,590) —
Same period, 1912, 16 aeroplanes ($61,100) and parts ($1,776) —total ...................... 62,876
December, 1914, 6 aeroplanes ($63,500) and parts ($90,004) —total ...................... 153,504
Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane C$6,375) and parts ($1,002) — total ........................ 7,377
12 mos. ending Dec, 1914, 40 'planes ($253,499) and parts ($145,997)—total ............. 399,496
Same period, 1913. 19 'planes ($61,325) and parts ($25,606) —total................... 86,931
Same period, 1912, 35 'planes ($113,251) and parts ($13,176) -total ...................... 126,427
December, 1914 ............... none
December. 1913. 1 aeroplane____ 4,049
12 mos. ending December, parts
only ........................ 207
Same period, 1913, 3 'planes r$14.381) and parts ($900) — total ........................ 15.2S1
IX WAREHOUSE DECEMBER 31.
1914. 1 aeroplane............... 1,856
Forty aeroplanes, with a total valuation as above, figure $6,337.47 each. If the parts were made up, at this rate, the number of additional aeroplanes would amount to over 23, making 63 the total exported for the year.
THE 1915 BENOIST BOAT
The Benoist airboat for 1915 is being made in two standard models, as follows, by the Benoist Aeroplane Company, of Chicago, 111.:
Model "A'' is a two passenger machine requiring 75 h.p. for efficient service. It has a spread of 36 ft., chord of 5 ft., and a gap of 6 ft. The standard machine is constructed with a spruce hull of the following dimensions : Length, fore and aft, 23 ft.: width at passenger seat, 38 in.; step situated 30 in. back of front strut, and is 5 in. deep. The part of the bottom in front of the step is doubled Va in. spruce, while the rear bottom is single ii in. spruce. The sides are made
of }i in. spruce. The complete hull is finished in Valspar varnish, three coats on the inside and six coats outside. This year the standard boats may be equipped with the motor set in the hull of the boat or up between the planes, as preferred by the purchaser. The area is 365 sq. ft. Weight, with 75 h.p. motor, 1180 lbs. Useful load. 650 lbs. Farman-type lateral stabilizers, 16 sq. ft. Fixed tail stabilizer, 10 sq. ft. Elevator flaps, 18 sq. ft. The wings are covered with Irish linen, treated. The upper works of the boat are of mahogany. The controls may he the Benoist modified Far-
man or Deperdussin type, as preferred.
The Model "B" has the following specifications : Spread, 51 ft. 6 in.; chord, 5 ft., and a gap of 6 ft. The hull is 42 in. wide and 24 ft. fore and aft. This model requires 100 h.p. The motor may be placed either in the hull or up between the planes, according to the wishes of the purchaser, the same as in Model "A." Area, 497 sq. ft. Weight, with 100 h.p. motor, 1390 lbs. Useful load, 800 lbs. Stabilizers and elevators, same as in Model "A," 16, 10 and 18 sq. ft. respectively. Other specifications are practically the same as in Model "A."
SLOANE TRACTOR BIPLANE
The Sloane "E-2" Tractor Biplane has been developed to meet the leading military specifications.
This model can also be furnished as a hydroaeroplane.
This model is arranged for pilot and observer seated in tandem and is equipped with either double or single control. It is equipped with 80 H.P. Gyro motor. It has a flying range of from 40 to just over 75 miles an hour. Its guaranteed
climbing speed with full load is 4,000 feet in 10 minutes.
The planes are similar in design and construction to monoplane wings. The frame-work is built up of ash and spruce; the front main beams measuring 2Y% in. deep by l}i in. thick. Ribs close together, joints securely mortised and fastened; internally braced with heavy wire; unbleached linen treated with Naiad aero varnish; spread is 36
ft. 6 in, chord 5 ft. 6 in., the supporting surfaces being 400 sq. ft. Bottom set of planes are attached directly to the fuselage; upper planes are attached to short uprights mounted on top of fuselage.
The fuselage is of rectangular section, 30 in. wide hy 35 in. deep; cockpit tapering longitudinally to a flat horizontal pointed section 15 in. wide at the rear. Ash longitudinals 1j4 in.
square in front, tapering to 1 in. at rear. Braced by 8 sets of uprights, joined and fastened by special clamps without weakening longitudinals. Strongly cross wired and braced with additional wooden diagonals at points of greatest stress. Streamline effect of fuselage is preserved by enclosing the whole nose, with motor, and mounting in a round streamline aluminum cowl. Additional streamline wind shields protect cockpits.
The Gyro motor is mounted in special ball-bearing brackets in extreme nose, partly covered by oil shield, readily detachable for inspection or removal of motor.
Landing chassis consists simply of two pairs of struts arranged V fashion carrying two 26 in. by 3 in. streamline disc wheels mounted on opposite ends of a tubular axle, together with a single wheel located well forward and similar-
ly supported. Wheels attached by rubber band shock absorbers. Tail is supported by an ash skid sprung on with rubber shock absorbers.
Control is the regulation Deperdussin wheel and foot bar type, which operates by a turning of the wheel the ailerons, by a fore and aft movement of the elevator and by foot bar the rudder.
The drawing to scale shows dimensions of various parts.
SLOANE TARCTOR BIPLANE
The new suit of The Wright Company against the Curtiss Aeroplane Company is not yet set down for hearing on the motion for preliminary injunction. The answering affidavits of The Wright Company are not yet filed, and when they are the date of hearing is to be agreed upon. A month or two may elapse before the case comes to hearing.
The defendant has filed in court a number of affidavits in opposition to the granting of a preliminary injunction by the court. These affidavits cover:
A denial of infringement, somewhat of a repetition of the same defense that was made in the former suit, and a statement about the old Langley machine of 1903. which the defendant claims flew in 1914.
The plaintiff will claim that the Lang-
MOUNTING A GYRO MOTOR
ley machine in 1914 was not the Langley machine of 1903.
The rebuttal affidavits on behalf of The Wright Company will be duly filed in the near future, after which the hearing will be had on the injunction motion.
MOUNTING A GYRO MOTOR
The drawing shown herewith shows the mounting scheme for tractor biplanes, using the 90 H.P. Gyro Duplex Motor, Model "K," 4JA in. by 6 in. bore and stroke, 7 cylinders, 215 lbs. The diameter of this motor is 35j^ in.
The next higher power model is the "L," 110 H.P., 9 cylinders, same bore and stroke, weight 270 lbs., 37lA in. in diameter.
TWO NEW ROBERTS MOTORS
The Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company, of Sandusky, Ohio, announces
simply giving it plenty of gasoline.'' As in all Roberts two-cycle motors,
two new models to supplant the 50 h.p. and 75 h.p. models formerly made and meet the present demand for higher power.
A new departure for this company is the use of iron cylinders instead of aerolite. The 100 h.p. is known as the "1915 6-X'' model. The six cylinders are 5x5 in., iron, with aerolite base and manifolds. The weight is 340 lbs. Two 2-in. Kingston carburetors are used and any make of magneto desired. For the motor a speed variation of from 200 to 2600 is claimed. The normal speed is 1400 to 1600. At 2000 r.p.m. the load curve drops to 6 per cent, and the full horsepower is obtained at 1400 to 1600. "In our recent tests the motor showed absolutely no vibration and ran for 10 hours without any attention whatever,
the oil is mixed with the gasoline. The gasoline consumption was found to be .8
of a pint per horsepower hour. The motor is guaranteed to stand more abuse or heavy work with less attention than any other motor on the market. Every motor is given a 10-hour test. It is claimed that the motor can be taken apart and fully reassembled in one hour's time. The timing system is so simple that it can be entirely removed and replaced in one minute. The Roberts plant has a capacity of 50 motors per month for the next 60 days. This model sells at $1250.
The 200 h.p. motor is of the same design, but the bore and stroke are &/2 and 6 in. respectively. This motor weighs 690 lbs. It is known as the "1915 6-XX," and sells at $1850.
These prices include carburetor, magneto, grease cups, spark plugs and necessary wire.
COLT AUTOMATIC GUN.
The Colt automatic seems to be the only gun on the market in the United States suitable for mounting on aeroplanes, land or water. The Benet-Mer-cier gun, shown in the issue dated October 30, 1914, on the latest Burgess-Dunne, was built by the Colt people to U. S. Government specifications. The Ordnance Department of the Government is known to be working along this line and has been conducting tests recently at Sandy Hook.
"1 do not know of any trials of the Colt automatic gun on aeroplanes, for there is no reason why they should be used for this purpose, that is, unless you want an automatic gun on an aeroplane. Such information as we have received seems to point to the fact that guns mounted on an aeroplane are not considered desirable abroad in this war, and the aviators use rifles and revolvers by preference. Of course, such news at the present time is not to be depended on entirely," advises a high naval aircraft authority.
The Colt consists of a detachable barrel connected with a breech casing in which the mechanism for charging, firing and ejecting is contained.
The cartridges, of any caliber desired, are automatically fed to the gun by means of belts from left to right. The belt containing 250 cartridges lies in a
quick detachable box attached to the breech casing.
The automatic action of the gun is effected by means of the pressure of the powder gases in the barrel. To operate, the feed belt is entered; the lever is thrown downward and rearward once (by hand) as far as it will go; this opens the breech and feeds the first cartridge from the belt to the carrier; the lever is then released, and the spring causes it to swing forward, close the vent and transfer the cartridge from the carrier to the barrel; also cocking the hammer, closing and locking the breech.
On pulling the trigger the cartridge is fired. After the bullet has passed the vent and before its exit from the muzzle, the powder gases expand through the vent upon the piston and gas lever, which in turn act on the breech mechanism, opening the breech, ejecting the shell and feeding to the carrier another cartridge. The gas lever, returning, under the action of the retractor spring, forces the cartridge into the chamber, closing and locking the breech. If, instead of releasing the trigger, it is held back, the same operation will be repeated as long as cartridges are supplied, producing a continuous fire at the rate of four hundred shots or more per minute.
Changes of elevation are made by means of the worm gear, which engages in the teeth of the arc, and is operated by means of the hand wheel. The gun may be secured at any desired elevation by the arc clamp.
The gun weighs about 35 lbs., the mount weighs about 28 lbs. At 200 yards for accuracy, 100 consecutive hits were made in 16 seconds.
This gun will swing horizontally through a complete circle of 360°. The muzzle may be depressed 39° and elevated 31°, giving a vertical range of 70°. By changing position of mount, the gun can shoot almost perpendicularly downward.
The length of barrel is 2S in.
AIRCRAFT IN WAR. By Eric Stuart Bruce, M.A. 12mo, cloth, 177 pp., illustrated. Published by George H. Doran Company, New York; or obtainable through Aeronautics. Price, 50 cents.
Here is an absorbing little book covering the development of aircraft, the types of modern airships in various principal countries, the German airship fleet, advantages and disadvantages of airships, types of aeroplanes in the big armies of the world, Germany's aeroplane equipment, the first use of the aeroplane in war, the new arm in Armageddon and the present deficiencies and future possibilities of the military aeroplane.
THE FLYING BOOK; The Aviation World, Who's Who and Industrial Directory. Small Svo, paper, 173 pp., illustrated. Published by Longman's, Green & Co., New York; or obtainable through Aeronautics. Price, 60 cents. This little book, besides two articles of interest, contains drawings and principal details of the best known aeroplanes and motors of every country, a trade directory of principal firms all over the world dealing in aeronautical material, a "who's who" of prominent aviators and some notes on the organization of military aviation in the armies and navies of some of the principal countries.
ization was considered inefficient owing to its speed reducing feature.
Permanently fixed vertical vanes, or vanes normally presenting an actuating surface for the purpose of preventing side slip or overhanging on turns, were considered as introducing such a dangerous element as to call forth unanimous condemnation.
The following resolutions of a general technical nature were adopted:
"That it be recorded as the opinion of the Conference that a free pendulum stabilizing device is not practical.
"That it is the opinion of the Conference that any stabilizing device which would reduce the cpeed of the machine either permanently or when in action is not to be approved of.
"That it is the opinion of the Conference that vertical vane actuated devices introduced to counteract side slip or overhanging on turns is likely to produce exactly the wrong result when acted upon by side gusts.
"That the Conference warn inventors against injudicious deduction from the action of small paper models of the behavior of a full size machine.
"That the Conference expressly abstains from endorsing or condemning any individual invention presented before it.
"That the Conference recommends the calling of a similar conference next year, by the Aeronautical Society of America, the program for such conference to be established during the intervening period.
Resolutions of thanks to the Aeronautical Society of America and especially to Mr. Leon Goldmerstein, Chairman of the Technical Board, for their pains taken in the organization of the Conference; to Mr. Elmer A. Sperry for his courtesy in showing the Conference the extremely interesting work being done at his plant in Brooklyn; to Mr. E. D. Anderson for his kindly placing automobiles at the services of the Conference and for his arranging the special Choralcello Concert, and to Mr. Louis R. Adams for his procuring the services of the moving picture photographer.
After the meeting on the 5th, the Conference inspected Mr. Hammer's noted collection, showing historically the development of the incandescent lamp. Luncheon was served in the Society's rooms and the delegates, on leaving the building, were photographed by a moving picture operator. The Conference then visited the Sperry Gyroscope factory in Brooklyn, where many scientific devices were inspected and their manufacture witnessed. In the evening the Conference attended a dinner tendered by the Aeronautical Society and a concert at the Choralcello Studio.
An exhibition of books on aeronautics and kindred subjects was arranged by Mr. W. C. Cutter, Librarian of the Engineering Societies, and was inspected by the Conference on the 6th.
TROUBLES OF AN EDITOR.
To the Editor:
The writer, who although associated with the aeronautical industry for the past four years as sales manager of the * " aeroplane and
motor company, and later as sales manager of the * 'plane and motor company, while
never having the pleasure of meeting you personally, is undoubtedly known to you through his former connections.
Since severing my connection with the (latter) company, last November, "* * 1 have heen in touch with a numher of motors companies and at the present time am negotiating with two well known motor manufacturers with the view to interesting them in the aeronautical field, and it is with reference to this matter I am writing you.
Personally the writer helieves that the present time, owing to the European War, and also to the lack of high class American aviation motors, offers exceptional opportunities to the motor manufacturer who can produce a high class motor suitable for aeronautical use which is really fit to he called an aviation motor. We all know that there is a dearth of high class aviation motors on the American market, and what motors we do produce in general do not compare very favorably with the European makes.
It is true that the * * * motor has done some very good work, but it is not exactly satisfactory as it gives considerable trouble, and besides does not deliver the power it should for its size. The writer also understands tliat the * * * are not satisfied with
THE FIRST JOINT CONFERENCE ON AVIATION.
United States Navy, and William J. Hammer, the Aeronautical Society and the American Society of Electrical Engineers.
The conference was opened by Acting-President F. W. Barker, of the Aeronautical Society, and organization was effected with Prof. Arthur Gordon Webster as permanent Chairman.
The members of the Technical Board presented the following inventions to the conference for consideration, a number of the inventors being present with models for demon-tration:
Henry Morse, pendulum device for stabilizing. Theodore Gibon, indirect pendulum device for stabilizing.
Thomas L. White, air velocity device (Ven-turi tube) for stabilizing.
J. M. Davis, inherently stable design of aeroplane.
John Roche. -.
George Bold, universally mounted aileron, pendulum controlled.
Theodore Windell, pressure plates to offset banking.
E. Ebbinghaus, general design and pendulum device.
M. E. Clark, collapsible vane stabilizer, compressed air control.
R. R. Grant, utilizing side wind gusts to alter wing curvature for stabilizing.
Prof. Allila Pedery, mercury damped pendulum device.
Walter H. Phipps, hinged aileron. H. L. Coakley, rudder at an angle to offset banking, manually controlled.
Louis R. Adams, trussed framework for aeroplane.
Charles Colhona. device for varying lift of dirigihle balloons by compression of the hydrogen.
David H. Coles, device for utilizing exhaust gas of engine, in dirigihle balloons.
F. A. Peterson, propelling wings with feathering device.
The principles of these inventions were thoroughly and ably discussed by the delegates and it is believed that the several recommendations made by the conference will assist materially in the perfection of practical and commercial stabilizers.
Stabilization by means of devices controlled or actuated by free pendulums was exhaustively discussed and it seemed to he the concensus of opinion that the free or undamped pendulum was a totally unreliable means for the purpose. The conference was fortunate in having present a delegate who had experimented exhaustively with the free pendulum and found it could not be relied upon to do what was desired, but, on the contrary, would invariably do what was not desired.
The Venturi tube principle in combination with servo motors was debated at length and doubt was expressed that as this is a constant speed device it might fail to produce the desired effect, and while no strong objection was made to the principle it seemed to be the opinion of most of the delegates that it would have to be more thoroughly tested to ascertain its true worth.
The principle of presenting normally negative angles of incidence in devices for stabil-
OF AMERICA 29 West 39th Street. New York
President T. R. MacMechen, who recently returned from England for a short visit has given some highly interesting talks at the Regular Thursday Evening Round Table Meetings, at which he described the work upon which he is engaged, and also generally reviewed the operations of aeroplanes and dirigibles in Europe, affording the members in this manner an insight concerning actual aeronautical conditions in warfare such as has not been obtainable through published accounts.
At the meeting on February 11th Mr. E. C. Mulligan described and invited discussion on the nniflow steam engine with relation to its possibilities for aeronautical use, and with a view to the co-operation of aeronautical engineers in adapting this type of steam engine for the piopulsion of aircraft.
Among other subjects that have so far had some preliminary discussion at the Round Table Talks are the Senrab Kerosene Carburetor and the Acme Slide Valve Internal Combustion Engine, to which devices further consideration will be given at future meetings.
The Aeronautical Engineers Society, which is the engineering branch of the A. S. of A., will hold its first business meeting, for the purpose of electing officers, on Thursday evening, the 4th of March, at S o'clock, or Just before the opening of the Round Table Talk.
New members who have been duly elected, subject to the Rules of the By-Laws, are A. J. Spain and George A. Black.
The First Joint Conference on Aviation was called to meet on February 5th and 6th in New York at the Aeronautical Society of America's rooms in the Engineering Societies Building. 29 West 39th Street, through the initiative of the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society of America.
The delegates present were: Leon Goldmerstein. Lewis R. Compton, Earle Atkinson and Charles W. Howell, representing the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society; Prof. Arthur Gordon Webster (Clark University), American Mathematical Society and American Physical Society: Prof. E. V. Huntington (Harvard University), American Mathematical Society; Dr. Edgar Buckingham (Bureau of Standards), American Physical Society, Elmer A. Sperry (Honorary Vice-President), American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Lieut. Commander P. E. Dongan and Lieut. C A. Blakely, the
the * * * motor and are looking for something better.
The * * * motor is a good motor and, by many, is considered the best American aviation motor; but it also has its troubles. These troubles, however, could be eliminated if there were sufficient capital behind the motor and with proper management undoubtedly would come to the fore. But as long as the motor remains in the present hands it will not become a serious contender in American aeronautics.
As to the * * * , the old * * * did good work and was a satisfactory motor, but the * * * gave a lot of trouble; and as to the new * * * there is not much known as yet. Although the writer understands that it is doing some good work, it is still an uncertainty and must be proven before it can receive serious consideration.
The * * * is a motor which appeals to amateurs because of its low price, but it will hardly receive serious consideration from the better class of aviators or the Government in its present form because of its inability to stand up under service.
The * * * motor, as far as the writer knows, has never been sold to any but * * * and besides it is too small a motor for the average plane.
The * * * motor, while a very good motor, has not become very popular undoubtedly because it is a type which does not permit the
highest efficiency in motor construction and therefor does not appeal to the aeronautical world.
The * * * motor has done some very good work of late but it is still somewhat of an experiment. Its scope also is limited in that air-cooled motors made in sizes over 100 H. P. have not exactly proven satisfactory owing to difficulties in cooling. The general tendency is towards larger, higher powered motors, and when it comes to this type the water-cooled motor seems more desirable. I also understand that the Government is not favorably inclined towards (this type of) motor.
The * * * motor is a newcomer and, therefore, must be proven before it will receive serious consideration. Being an air-cooled motor its scope like the * * * is also limited.
If the market is as I believe and the American aviation motor situation as I stated, it seems to me that there really is a need for another high class aviation motor witb a very good market for a motor that will do the work and stand up under service.
Both of the parties with whom I am negotiating have been very successful in the automobile racing game, the one party producing nothing but racing motors, and either one, I believe, with what assistance I can give them, is capable of producing a high class aviation
motor. Their entering this field, however, depends upon my ability to convince them of the possibilities of this industry and the demand for such a motor, and this is the reason I am writing you.
In order to substantiate my views, and also to assist me in convincing my parties that there really is a demand for a high class aviation motor. I would like to have an expression from you giving your views of the American aviation motor situation. I would also like to have you advise me as to what type, style and size motor you believe to be the most desirable and best suited to meet all the requirements; in fact any suggestions or recommendations you care to make will be gratefully received.
I have appointments with both of my parties during the Chicago Automobile Show, whicb opens in about a week, so would consider it a great favor if you would let me hear from you at an early date as I would like to have what information you see fit to give me to use in trying to win my parties to the cause of aviation.
Thanking you in advance for your kindness and hoping to he able to reciprocate in the near future in the way 01 advertising, etc., I am, Yours very truly,
Xow, what would yon answer this gentleman; and how?
MANUFACTURED SOLELY BY
The Aircraft Company, Inc.
1733 Broadway, New York
THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES
For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.
The Wright Company
DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Piee St.
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WANTED—50 to 60 H.P. aeronautical motor in good condition; no junk. Arch. Irwin. General Delivery, Topeka, Kans.
A BEGINNER in aeronautics wishes to buy a second hand aero motor for my own made monoplane of approximately 50 H.P. It must he reasonable and in good working order. G. Muller, 1633 N. I5th st., Philadelphia, Pa.
WANT TO BUY an 80 H.P. Gnome or an 80 or 90 H.P. Curtiss. Address John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics. (3x)
FOR SALE—On account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Norwood av., Toledo, O.
MUST SELL—Practically new 30 H.P. 4 cyl. water cooled Curtiss motor complete with propeller; Shebler carburetor and Bosch magneto, $275. Demonstration given. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago, 111.
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Manufacturers wan! me to send them patents on useful inventions. Send me at once drawing and description of your invention and 1 will give you an honest report as to securing a patent and whether I can assist you in selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. Personal attention in all cases.
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Antony Jannus Roger Jannus
NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENGER FLYING BOAT now being tested. Design based on nearly 200,000 miles of pioneer flying. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern Hotel, San Diego, Calif. Continuous Passenger Carrying and School Work with two Flying Boats. Florida course announced later.
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DROPPING MESSAGES FROM AEROPLANES.
PEOLI HEADS NEW COMPANY
Joseph P. Day, with several New York men of means, has formed the Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, and it has now built an armored war aeroplane in Washington, D. C. Cecil Peoli, the constructor, promises a sensational long distance flight soon. A motor hitherto unknown on the aero market is to be used.
Among the stockholders are Nicholas F. Brady, son of the late Anthony N. Brady, and president of the New York Edison Company; Hugh L. Cooper, a consulting engineer of 101 Park avenue ; J. Clarence Davies, a real estate dealer of 156 Broadway, and Harold Roberts, president of the American Real Estate Company, 527 Fifth avenue.
Peoli is a graduate of "Captain Tom" Baldwin's famous school for fledgeling man-birds—and one who reflects honor on his tutor.
Notices are being sent out for a meeting of creditors of the Moisant International Aviators to be held March 9, 1915, at the office of Charles A. Tipling, 1 Bridge Plaza, L. I. City, N. Y. This company was adjudged bankrupt on February 18, 1915.
It will be welcome news to owners of aeroplanes and aeroplane manufacturers to know that insurance can be written on aeroplanes stored and in course of manufacture.
This fact has come out in connection with the fire sustained November 21, 1914, by Mrs. Eva M. Shneider, at Hempstead, L. 1., when some aeroplanes and tools, comprising all the contents of the Shneider shed, were destroyed. It has developed that these machines, parts and tools were insured for a period of two months by the Century Insurance Company, the face of the two policies being $2500 each. The insurance was to have expired naturally on November 25th. The loss claimed by Mrs. Shneider was $702S.35. Mrs. Shneider is alleged to own the machines with which business is done under the name of "Fred Shneider." with an address at 1020 East 178th Street, New York, after a bill of sale involving $5000 was executed by Fred Shneider to his wife, March 25, 1912. in consideration of the sum of $1 paid Shneider by his wife, according to a sworn statement of Shneider's in supplementary proceedings.
NAVAL AIR APPROPRIATION $1,000,000
The air appropriation for the Navy has again been set back to the $1,000,000 mark and this amount is now assured for Naval Aeronautics.
Proposals will be issued shortly inviting bids for dirigibles.
A considerable number of ways have been suggested for an aviator to signal his side when on reconnaisance flights or in directing fire; wireless telegraphy, and various systems of optical telegraphy, such as the Means Smoke Signal Service, have been experimented with.
Additional difficulties are met in delivering messages with sketch maps
showing the position of the enemy's troops, guns, etc. This can be done by returning to the base and alight for the purpose of delivering the same, but oft-times it may be desirable to save valuable time by dropping messages or maps without alighting.
A weighted pouch is often used, but a more elaborate apparatus is illustrated in the accompanying sketches from Flight. French aviator, Paul Fugairon, has invented and tested the same with good results near Brest. It consists of a hollow cylinder pointed towards the lower end and fitted at the top with a lantern-shaped cap. Into the lower, pointed end of the cylinder has been poured an amount of lead through a passage in which passes the needle, T. The top of the needle is connected_to_a small crank lever, which engages with collar, E., on the firing pin, B. The coil
"HOW TO RUN AND INSTALL GASOLINE ENGINES"
By C. Von Culin.
The instructions given in this book will enable any person to properly install, care for and operate his own engine. The book contains much valuable information and is sold for 25 cents by The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co, 132 Nassau St.. New York.
spring. R, retains the firing pin, B, in its position, the two brackets, S, serving as guides. Over the top of cylinder is fitted a cap, L, the top of which is formed lantern-shaped with four open windows, C. Held by four clamps inside the cap are materials for a Bengal fire, which is ignited by the explosion of a cap of mercury fulminate placed
in the outer end of the bent tube, U. The needle, T, striking the ground, is forced up against the action of the spring, thus pulling down the firing pin, B, by means of the crank lever resting on the collar, E. The crank lever, having moved down sufficiently, releases the firing pin, B, which driven upwards by spring, R. strikes and ignites the cap of mercury fulminate, from which the fire is transmitted to materials for the Bengal fire through the bent tube, U.
The result is a bright Bengal fire which is visible not only at night but in the day time as well, which burns long enough to enable a soldier on the lookout to locate its position.
There might be attached to the cylinder some form of parachute to retard the fall enough to render the dropping cylinder • harmless to those beneath, yet allow sufficient forcible contact to operate the needle, T.
SPAIN NEW AIR MARKET.
A military aviation camp will shortly be established on municipal property at Tabladilla, about a mile outside the city limits of Seville, Spain.
It is suggested that manufacturers of aeroplanes and motors send copies of their catalogues, terms, prices, etc., to the American consulate at Seville in duplicate: one copy will be kept on file and the other sent to the parties interested.
100 H.P. - 340 lbs. - $1,250 200 H.P. - 690 lbs. - $1,850
A "Q-D" Motor—Simple—No Vibration—10-Hour Test for Every Motor—Guaranteed to Stand More Abuse and Heavy Work with Less Attention than Any Other Motor.
All it Wants is Gasoline and Spark. Send for New Circular
roberts motor manufacturing company
Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A
Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors
Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs
el arco radiator company
64th St. & West End Ave., New York City Abo Maoofaetorars of Automobile Radiators of all types
We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS
John A. Roebling's Sons Co.
TRENTON, N. J.
6-cylinder, 100 H. P.
Builders as well as Aviators are
most ardent supporters Built in Four Sizes from SO-ISO H.P.
1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.
FOR FLYING BOATS USE
JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE
Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Giue for waterproofing tbe canvas covering" of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas hut attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.
For use In combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and (or waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.
\ W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Ma... U. S. A.
Iu anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.
FOR SPRING DELIVERY
90 H.P. Gyro "Duplex
(Cut shows 110 H. P. Motor)
Best Motor For Exhibition, Loop • t he - Loop and All Practical Flying
Orders Filled in Rotation as Received
The Gyro Motor Co.
774 G1RARD STREET WASHINGTON, D. C.
NEW YORK OFFICE 331 MADISON AVENUE
iltEQ. U. S. PAT. OFT.)
140 H. P. Aeronautical Motor
The latest addition to the Sturtevant line, embodying the most advanced European practice.
Eight cylinder, high speed type with propeller driven at slower speed through a reducing gear.
Extremely compact design. High volumetric efficiency.
Low fuel consumption.
Weight 4 lbs. per horsepower.
Constructed entirely of domestic materials.
The largest manufacturers of aeronautical motors in the country. Prompt deliveries in any quantity.
COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS ON REQUEST
B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY
Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.
In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.