Aeronautics

Volume 15 - No. 8 - 1914 October to 1915 February

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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VOL. XV. N >. 8

OCTOBER 30, 1914

Issued February 11. 1915

15 Cents

EROMITICS

 

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Hold the Principal American Records as Follows:

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones, U.S. A., 8 hrs. 53min. Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. 10 min.

Motors Ready for Delivery

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. MODEL "O," 8-CYL., 80 H.P. MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 160 H. P.

THE CURTIS S MOTOR CO. ha^IpW. v.

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics by AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th St.. New Ynrk

Telephone. Circle 22S** Cable. Aeronautics. New York

ERNEST L. JONES Editor

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor

HARRY SCI1ULTZ Model Editor

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22, 1V0S. under the Act of March 3. 187V. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy.

PGStatie free in the United States. Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 31th of each month. All copy must be received b days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must*be made for receipt and return.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

CARBURETORS FROM THE FUNCTIONAL STANDPOINT

The "Perfect Carburetor" is brought out so often, and in so many different forms, that the average person is absolutely at loss as to what to believe, and how to judge what he sees.

There are two ways to approach the carburetor question : first, the functional, and second, the structural. The logical method is to first consider the functions to be performed, and next, having these functions in mind, to consider the mechanism, and see whether all the functions are properly carried out. And this analysis is equallv beneficial to the inventor of a carburetor and to the prospective purchaser.

The function of the carburetor is to deliver to the engine a dry mixture of air and fuel, in "best mixture" proportions. Let us analyze this statement carefully.

(a) A "dry" mixture, because the completeness of combustion is only realized when the liquid fuel is wholly gasified, and not in drops, which give imperfect contact with the air. Also a wet mixture will be sure to condense out in part, in the transmission line, so that even if we start with the proper air-fuel ratio, we would not have it when it reached the cylinder. This especially true in the complicated forked and bent passages used on many of the multi-cylinder engines.

(b) A mixture, meaning an intimate contact, as near a molecular contact of air and fuel as possible, in order that when the time for combustion comes, each particle may have its air to combine with. This alone will give com3 plete and rapid combustion.

(c) Best mixture proportions. For js. every fuel there is a definite amount | of air necessary for complete combustion of any given quantity of fuel, and this ratio is a constant. For gasoline it is, by volume, 52.74 cubic feet of air per

j cubic foot of gasoline vapor at the same s temperature, and by weight, 15.24 pounds

of air per pound of gasoline. If more P than this amount of gasoline is used, it P cannot burn in the cylinder, and simply

goes out in the exhaust, where it may

burn at the outlet of the exhaust pipe.

Here there is plenty of air. But corn-

By Ralph S. Barnaby

bustion here does no good, and the fuel is wasted. If too little gasoline is used, the cylinder charge will be mostly air, and the power will fall off, or the charge may refuse to ignite at all.

This fact cannot be too strongly impressed, as it is not generally practised. If any have tried this constant best mixture plan and failed, the fault is not here but in some other part of the system. I shall speak of this point again later.

The first method of carburetion was to pass air over a pool or reservoir of gasoline, and allow it to pick up the fuel by evaporation, or. by brushes or mixers, to be saturated with it. This plan failed, as it permitted fractional, or selective distillation, i. e., the air picked up the lighter constituents of the fuel and left the heavier. Changes of temperature would cause different amounts to be picked up, and the whole system was without regulation. This brings us to the firs,t requirement.

1. There must be a method of measuring out the proper amount of fuel and air for complete combustion, and then, having the proper amount of each, provide a means of mixing them thoroughly, and a means of gasifying the liquid fuel. It makes no difference in what order these last two operations are done, but the metering must be done first.

Tn order to insure complete gasification of the fuel, the temperature must be high enough to vaporize the heaviest constituent of the fuel, and this temperature depends on the pressure and on how closely the air and liquid are mixed. If there is no mixture of the two, the temperature required is the boiling point of the liquid, at atmospheric pressure. If the liquid exists as spray or small particles having a large surface exposed to the air, or if the pressure is reduced by a Yenturi entrance or a similar device, the tempeature may be much lower. For gasoline, the average air temperature is sufficient, if thorough mixing is given at a slightly reduced pressure.

Kerosene, which will not all vaporize at 000 degrees F., will yield a dry mixture at under 300 degrees, if properly mixed.

Thus our functions to be fulfilled in the carburetor are:

1. Metering of air and fuel in constant proportion.

2. Preventing vaporization until the metering is completed.

3. Making maximum contact at a suitable pressure to produce complete vaporization.

The temperature consideration is a most important one. Xot only in the carburetor itself, but also in the passages connecting it to the cylinder. If there is only one cylinder and the carburetor is closely connected to it, the mixture leaving the carburetor need not be perfectly dry, as the inlet valve itself is a good heater and will dry it readily. If, however, the passage is forked and bent, or made in the various ways necessary to the multi-cylinder engines, a mixture, wet, and full of suspended particles of fuel, will not divide evenly at the forks, will deposit drops of condensate along the pipe, some cylinders will get more fuel than others and an unequal distribution of work will result. Any one who does not believe this, need only try running his engine on one cylinder at a time, or in combinations of pairs by disconnecting the spark-plugs of the other cylinders, and see if they all give the same horsepower on a brake. Of course, valve and spark timing must be the same on all cylinders in these tests or the power will vary regardless of a constant mixture.

Many readers will object to the definite air-fuel ratio which has been mentioned all. if you will notice on the side that more gasoline is needed. In the paragraph before we have one answer for them. They are probably not using all that they measure out. Even barrine the condensate issue, there is still another factor. This is air leakage. One of the greatest of these, or I may say the greatest of these is around the inlet-valve stem, amounting to a considerable percentage, as these stems are seldom, if ever, packed.

We are, therefore, making up in the carburetor for defects in the motor, at the cost of increased fuel consumption, and hence for the aeroplane, a decreased radius of action.

Burgess Latest War 'Plane Supplied U. S. Army

NEW DURATION RECORD.

San Diego, Cal.—Lieut. Byron G. Jones, army aviator, is to-day the holder of a new record for continuous flight. He remained in the air eight hours and fifty-three minutes on January 16.

The machine used was a Martin training tractor with Curtiss model "O" engine of 80 h. p. rating.

ARMY WANTS AN AIR ENGINEER.

The U. S. Civil Service Commission announces an open competitive examination for aeronautical mechanical engineer, i.e., a M.E. who has specialized on aeronautical motors. From the eligi-bles evolved by this exam, a vacancy at $2400 a year will be filled in the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego, and other vacancies as they occur in other branches of the service. For the present this man will take up the motor end of Colonel Reker's experimental plant, while G. C. Loening will handle the aero-dynamical part of it.

Technical education will count 30 weights: experience and fitness 70 weights.

Applicants must be graduates in mechanical engineering of some reputable school, familiar with the theory and practice of engineering as applied to internal combustion motors and have practical experience in the design and testing of such machinery. Additional credit given for experience in mechanical engineering as applied to aviation

motors and machinery. Other requirements are discreetness, moral fitness, et cetera.

Persons desiring to meet the requirements and desire this examination should at once apply for Form 1312, stating title of the examination for which the form is desired, to the U. S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C. Application must be filed with the Commission at Washington prior to close of business February 10.

NEW FIRM TO BUILD WAR AERO MOTORS.

Dusenberg Brothers have opened a new motor building plant at 2654 University avenue, St. Paul, Minn. Machinery has been installed the past week and has been removed from Des Moines, Iowa: Jackson, Mich., and Dallas, 111.

"One of the first propositions to be taken up by the new St. Paul firm will be the building of 200 aeroplane motors for Russia and France. Both of these nations have made an urgent request on the Dusenberg Brothers for early shipments," according to the St. Paul Pioneer Press.

JANNUS' BUSINESS GROWING.

The Jannus Brothers factory is busy and they are anticipating the delivery of the new 8 cyl. Maximotor about Jan. 15. The new machine should carry five passengers and fuel for four hours. A

useful load of 1200 lbs., they figure, will make them a formidable contender for military business.

Roger Jannus and Knox Martin are doing well at San Diego and although not within the Exposition grounds, they have a central location that should enable them to do a capacity business.

NEW CORPORATIONS.

Polyplane Motor and Metal Mfg. Co., St. Louis, Mo. Capital $100,000. Incorporators : W. P. Morgan, Jesse M. Neff, Charles Klein, F. P. Smith. Gus Stalhopoulis and S. H. Reynolds.

The Laq Aeroplane Company. Gibson, City, 111., capital, $2,500; general aviation business; incorporators, Andrew Miller. C. C. Harry, G. H. Bloom.

Judgment has been rendered in the First District Court of the City of Newark. Xew Jersey, on the twenty-first day of November, 1914, against Charles B. Kirkham in favor of Aeronautics Press. Inc.. for $350.90, with costs amounting to $21.70 additional.

William B. Atwater. the aviator, was recently adjudged in contempt of court by Judge Hough in the United States District Court for refusing to obey a ruling by Referee Anthony at a hearing on a petition by Atwater to be adjudicated a bankrupt.

FRONT ELEVATION

ARMY'S FIRST WAR 'PLANE.

The Burgess-Dunne Xo. 3 was accepted by the Signal Corps Board after successful tests at San Diego, December 30, 1914. It is equipped with a 135 h.p., 9-cylinder Salmson motor. The machine developed a speed of 75 miles per hour with full load, consisting of two passengers, four hours of fuel. In this condition it climbed 350 feet a minute.

This machine was built as an experimental type subject to further development. The wings are of the same dimensions as the original Burgess-Dunne aeroplane. See p. 83, March 31, 1914, Aeronautics. "The machine is inherently stable in the broadest meaning of the term."

Scale Drawing of the Burgess-Dunne, No. 2

During the tests Mr. Webster allowed the machine to fly by itself for long periods, and demonstrated that it could not be stalled even with the levers pulled back and the motor suddenly shut off. It was not expected that this aeroplane would develop anything like the speed or climbing power shown in the tests and its success demonstrates beytond doubt that high efficiency may also be obtained in the inherently stable type of aeroplane. The machine is shown

equipped with a Turner aviaphone and a Benet-Merciers rapid firing gun. Burgess supplied the Canadian contingent in the big war.

Burgess has so built this type that its upper and lower wings by means of hinged struts are capable of being folded one against the other. The flying wires remain at all times intact and the wing supporting wires alone need be cast off for disassembling. These features together with the entire absence of tail and tail surfaces make this aeroplane compact and easy to handle.

Wing spread, 45 ft.; length over all, 26 ft.; height, 10 ft. 11 ins.; weight, net, 1250 lbs.; fuel, oil and water for 300 miles, 420 lbs.; armor, 100 lbs.; useful load, 420 lbs.; total, 2140 lbs.

NAVY WILL SOON

In tlie statement of the Hon. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, before the House Naval Committee, December 11, 1914, Air. Buchanan introduced in the record a letter prepared by Captain Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, reviewing progress made in naval aeronautics during the year. Plans are under way for a big Navy sea 'plane competition and bids on dirigibles are being received.

Secretary Daniels said that last year there were $1,000,000 which could have been spent for aeronautics but there were no suitable aircraft to buy and this money was turned hack into the Treasury. At the present time, if nothing is appropriated there would be but $200,000 or $300,000 available. (See Aeronautics, p. 9. July 15, 1914.)

This letter of Captain Bristol follows, practically in full :

The plans for development of aeronautics in the Navy are those that were recommended by the Board on Naval Aeronautics (see Aeronautics, p. 19. Jan. 31. 1914). modified as we proceed in accordance with the experience obtained in actual practice.

Thus far the recommendations of that board have been realized to a great extent. An officer of naval aeronautics, with a director of naval aeronautics, has been established in the Navy Department. Each bureau of the Navy Department concerned is giving special attention to aeronautical development. An aeronautic center has been established at Pensacola, and designated the United States Navy Aeronautic Station, where all kinds of experiments are being carried out and classes of officers and men are being trained for aeronautical service in a flying school under a comprehensive course of instruction. A wind tunnel has been constructed at the Washington Navy Yard to be used, together with the water model basin (see Aeronautics, p. 133, May 15, 1914) for experiments with all kinds of models for aeronautical development. An aeronautic ship has been detailed for experimental work and the training of officers and men in handling aircraft for the purposes of war. Designs for a dirigible shed have been prepared and construction will begin when the first dirigible is ordered. Every point covered by the above board has been given consideration.

The aeroplanes for the fleet for war purposes will be purchased or constructed as soon as a type suitable for the purpose is developed. Proposals for a number of aeroplanes will be submitted to the manufacturers in this country in the immediate future.

In an endeavor to obtain a proper type of sea aeroplane manufacturers have been given a trip at sea on the aeronautic ship and constantly given every information we have. It is to be regretted that only a few of the manufacturers of aeroplanes, aeroplane motors, and propellers have scientific engineers capable of evolvinsr correct designs. Where the designs of aeroplanes have shown material merit orders have

BUY AEROPLANES

been given for machines, and under specifications prepared by the manufacturers themselves.

* * * The "flying boat" type * * * is not satisfactory for a sea aeroplane.

The Navy Department is now going to try to obtain a proper sea machine by advertising for a comparatively large number. It is hoped we will obtain better results than the Army.

Orders were placed in Europe last June for two machines of the latest types developed there. The breaking out of the war prevented the delivery of these.

The manufacture of dirigibles in this country is in such an undeveloped state that proposals sent out October 2, 1914. have only been responded to by three different concerns, and one of these replies was only received two weeks ago, and one concern that has been very active in advocating Government encouragement is still asking for an extension of time. This proposition is for the simplest kind of a dirigible with only general characteristics. If this war had not occurred, an order for one or two dirigibles would have been placed abroad before this time.

The plans for a captive balloon are being prepared and estimates drawn up.

A list of volunteer aviators has been prepared and is kept in the department ready for use in time of emergency.

A circular letter has been prepared and will he issued to all Naval Militia organizations to organize an aeronautical service.

* * * The development of aeronautics has been impeded by the difficulties that beset the path of any new thing; by the breaking up of the work at Pensacola when the aeronautic ship Mississippi and "aeroplane sections" were sent to Vera Cruz (see Aeronautics, p. 101, Oct. 15, 1914) ; by the sale of the Mississippi, and by the urgent necessity of sending the new aeronautic ship North Carolina to Europe for the relief of American citizens in the warring countries. These difficulties have not, however, prevented satisfactory progress.

In the aeronautic service of the U. S. Navy at the present time there are IS officers and 77 men and 12 machines, covering: 6 hydro-aeroplanes, 5 boat aeroplanes and 1 boat and land aeroplane.

NAVY TO HAVE AEROPLANE COMPETITION.

American manufacturers of aeroplanes will shortly have another chance to spread themselves in a competition—this time under the wing of the Navy. Captain Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, will soon announce the terms and conditions. It is to be hoped that this competition will develop more than did that of the Army, in which but one aeroplane was duly entered, although eight different companies signified their intention to enter in the first place.

More aeroplanes and less grape juice!

NAVY'S TEST HYDROPLANE.

Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, U. S. N., has introduced the hydroplane glider as an apparatus for testing motors and propellers. A glider has been built for the purpose of determining experimentally whether or not it would be feasible to use such a glider for these tests. Preliminary experiments indicate that this can he done, but there are difficulties to overcome and results are being held secret for the time being, at least.

The dirigible specifications have not vet been issued.

Lieutenant Commander H. C. Mustin, Lieutenants P. X. L. Bellinger and R. C. Sanfley. and Ensign W. Capehart have returned from Europe; and Lieutenant Bellinger and Ensign Capehart have gone to Pensacola to the Naval Aeronautic Station. Lieutenant Commander Mustin is on temporary duty in the Department for a while before going to Pensacola to take charge of that station. Lieutenant Saufley is going to the works of the Sperry Gyroscope Company for temporary duty in connection with aeroplane stabilizers.

It is expected that a new Burgess-Dunne aeroplane will be delivered at Pensacola early next month. This machine has some improvements over the first one that was obtained.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

IMPORTS.

November, 1914 ............... none

Same period, 1913 ............. none

11 mos. ending Nov.. 1914. 1 aeroplane ($1856) and parts ($12,054), total................... $13,910

Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane ($900) and parts ($18,725),

total........................ 19,625

Same period, 1912, 16 aeroplanes ($61,100) and parts ($1776),

total......................... 62,876

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. November, 1914. 1 aeroplane

($3000) ; parts ($28,935)...... 31,935

Same period, 1913, 2 aeroplanes

($6050) ; parts ($9,329), total. 15,379

11 mos.. ending Nov., 1914, 34 'planes ($189,999) ; parts $55,993), total ................... 245,992

Same period, 1913, 18 'planes ($54,950) ; parts ($24,604),

total ........................ 79.554

Same period, 1912, 32 'planes (103.751); parts ($9,390),

total ........................ 113,141

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

November, 1914 ............... none

11 mos., ending XTovember, parts

only........................ 207

Same period, 1913, 2 'planes

($10,332) ; parts ($900), total. 11,232

IN WAREHOUSE NOVEMBER 30.

1914. 1 aeroplane .............. 1,856

1913, 3 aeroplanes ............. 7,623

DE VILLERS CONVICTED.

Yves de Yillers, who lias become quite notorious through his business relations in the aeronautical held, was convicted on January, 1915, of grand larceny and sentenced to a term of 2l/2 to 5 years, by Judge Swann, Court of General Sessions, New York. The case was prosecuted in behalf of the People by District Attorney Arthur C. Train.

The indictment on which he was convicted alleged that a contract was entered into in March, 1913. between de Yillers, representing the Aeroplanes Motors and Equipment Co., a company formed by de Yillers, subsequent to the dissolution of the Aeroplane Motors & Equipment Co., (with which J. A. D. McCurdy was connected a short while) and the Curtiss Aeroplane Co., by which de Yillers agreed to deliver to the latter company a 160 h. p. 14 cyl. Gnome motor to be used in a Curtiss tractor which the Signal Corps had ordered, the engine of which was to deliver 150 h. p. on test in the Bureau of Standards. The price was $7960 with propeller, and de Yillers undertook to guarantee 150 h. p. on test or refund the purchase price. Some $2672 was paid in advance, and the balance was also paid prior to deliver\- at Annapolis for test, as de Villers demanded full payment in order to release the motor from customs duty and charges said to he due on the motor which de Yillers claimed was imported on part payment by him. On the witness stand, Glenn H. Curtiss testified de Yillers gave him and his representative, H. C. Geinuig, to understand the motor was to come direct from the Gnome factory.

The motor delivered but 101 h. p. on test and a demand for the return of the money was made by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. The money was not forthcoming. Shortly thereafter the motor was replevined by Norman Prince, of Boston, and it turned out that de Villers had attempted to palm the Prince engine off on the Curtiss company as the latest type motor and one direct from the factory. Testimony was offered to the effect that markings on the box "Burgess Co. S: Curtis. Marblehead,'' etc.. were erased by de Yillers before delivery was made at Annapolis.

The order was placed by Curtiss with de Villers in March, 1913. and the motor which was delivered in May, was one made up of various misfit parts, which motor Norman Prince had imported under an exhibition bond in 1912 and which had been installed in the Burgess racing monoplane which was to have defended America in the Gordon-Bennett race at Chicago in that year, but which never was even flown through a disagreement in the matter of a pilot.

An arrangement appeared to have been made between de Yillers and Prince to sell the Prince motor and it appeared that Prince could not collect from de Yillers for the motor and so replevined it. The motor finally went back to France and Prince saved the pavment of 45 per cent. duty. Curtiss, however, paid not only the before-mentioned sum,

which price included 45 per cent, duty and transportation, for the motor which failed to meet the requirements and lost the sale of a tractor to the Signal Corps, but lost the motor as well. Curtiss has neither the motor nor the money.

RECOGNITION FOR GARDNER.

Tony Jaiinus and Spencer Heath of the American Propeller Co.. have inaugurated a movement in which manufacturers and all others interested in aeronautics are urged to write letters to their Senators and Representatives commenting on the alertness and capabilities of our army and navy officers with the appropriations that have been at command, and urging more liberal appropriations which will produce domestic machines entirely suitable to military needs.

These gentlemen also urge the commending of Representative A. P. Gardner for his active work in behalf of aeronautical preparedness.

The watchword is: More Aeroplanes and Less Grape Juice! Readers of Aeroxautics are appealed to in this matter. Get busy.

GERMANY'S PROTEST AGAINST BOMBS AND AERIAL COMBAT.

In view of the interest attached to the air raids being made daily in the great European conflict, is worthy of noting the proposal made by Professor Richard Eickoff, President of the German group, to the 19th Interparliamentary Conference, held at Stockholm, August 1920, 1914, which Conference drafted various resolutions and proposals for inclusion in the programme of the Third Peace Conference with a view to the final establishment of <i permanent international judiciary.

Professor Eickoff's resolutions urged a unanimous renewal of the Declaration of 1899 (See Aeronautics, p. 35, August 15, 1914) prohibiting the throwing down of explosives from apparatus for aerial navigation and the limiting of such ap-parati to operators of reconnaissance, investigation and sanitary service.

ARMY ACCEPTS AUTO-STABLE.

The BD-3 Salmson motored Burgess-Dunne was accepted on December 30 by a trial board of the Army, consisting of Lieutenants Fulois, Milling and Car-berry. Webster flew the machine both on land and water with full load and his control of the machine both on the ground and in the air was a great surprise to all who witnessed the flights.

AEROPLANE CLUB IS BUT A MEMORY.

With 51 cents in the hands of Frank Hamburger. West Side hardware dealer, and treasurer of the organization, the International Aeroplane Club, of Dayton, O.. is destined to be but a memory.

Last December, 1914, members of the organization that started out to per-

petuate the memory of Wilbur and Or-ville Wright admitted that there is no probability of re-establishing the club and putting it on a permanent basis. —Dayton Journal.

CURTISS ENLARGES FACILITIES.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Company will occupy about one-fifth of the space of the Thomas Power Buildings, No. 1200 Niagara Street. Buffalo, N. Y. The space to be occupied by the Curtiss Company will not interfere with the business of the E. R. Thomas Motor Car Company, which will occupy the same quarters as formerly. The Curtiss plant in Hammondsport will not be abandoned, but will be employed to its capacity, and the l'.uffalo branch will be used to assemble the parts made in Hammonds-port, and by other firms on contract, this branching out being the only way open to the Curtiss company to keep abreast of its rush of orders, occasioned by the European war.

FAILURE OF THE ZEPPELINS.

The London Engineer condemns Zeppelins as having done nothing that an aeroplane could not have done better, according to the Army and Navy Journal. A few desperate pilots who were willing to throw their lives away could successfully ram and destroy any airship that has ever sailed. Speed and maneuvering powers of the aeroplane are far greater than those of the Zeppelin, and such guns as the latter carry would find the greatest difficulty in bringing down every one of a covey of aeroplanes before one had got sufficiently close or into such a position as to ram with certainty.

It is becoming more and more abundantly clear that as far, at any rate, as the present war is concerned, the function of bomb dropping has been shown to be wholly insignificant in its power of destruction, as much from a Zeppelin as from an aeroplane, and is no longer the dreaded thing it was. If more serious attacks should be attempted by the remaining Zeppelins that Germany possesses they will be met as those already made have been met, or, as a last resort, by the concerted action of a handful of aeroplanes. The great duty which the aeronaut can perform is to spy out the enemy's position, and in doing this he is no doubt rendering signal service. For this work the aeroplane is better than the airship in every respect save one. It is less visible, it is faster, it is a smaller target, it carries fewer men, it is readily transportable, requires no gas plant to charge it, costs but a fraction of the price of a Zeppelin, and, finally, can fly at a higher altitude. It suffers only from the fact that it cannot remain at rest in the air, but this is a very small disadvantage when set against the many that the airship presents. To sum up, while the aeroplane has done brilliant work during the last three weeks, the Zeppelins have proved a hopeless failure.

U. S. ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN SECRET.

The Bureau of Ordnance, of which Admiral Strauss is the Chief, does not consider it advisable to make public data relating to the anti-aircraft gun recently developed.

ARMY'S ANNUAL FLIGHT COMPETITION.

Six Army aeroplanes left San Diego, Calif., for Los Angeles, a distance of some 108 miles, on December 21, with the intention of flying back the following day in competition for the Mackay Trophy. This trophy is offered annually for accuracy in locating the main column of the "enemy," accuracy in reporting strength of regiments, squadrons, etc. Six started, two arrived at Los Angeles and one finished. The two, pilots Dodd and Morrow, which arrived at Los Angeles, weathered the severe storm and the one that failed to reach San Diego after leaving Los Angeles was forced to land only through motor trouble. Bad weather intervened and the return Might and competition was held on the 23rd.

Captain Dodd and Lieutenant Fitz Gerald won the trophy, through skill, attention to detail and care displayed in the preparation for and during the entire contest.

The following are the facts with respect to the flight of the machines taken from the report of flights. All the machines left North Island, San Diego, as follows:

Captain T. F. Dodd, pilot, with Lieutenant S. W. Fitz Gerald as observer, left the ground at 8 a. m., December 21, 1914, in a Burgess tractor with 70 h. p. Renault motor, and reached Los Angeles, landing about four miles southeast of designated field at 10:30 a. m. on account of exhaustion of oil supply. Oil obtained, and leaving the ground at 12 m., reached the field at 12:08 p. m. Sufficient oil had been taken to allow for the time necessary to reach the field and a half hour more. The flight was made by map and compass, and at 10:16 [2 h. 16 m.] the machine had arrived close enough to the field for the spectators to read the number painted on lower planes. The pilot and observer could not see the landing signal. The machine was flown westward to the edge of Los Angeles, then circled back, and east to near Whittier, following the Whittier Boulevard to search for the landing signal. The oil was becoming low and at 10 :30 landing was made. December 22 storm conditions prevailed.

December 23. The machine left the field at Los Angeles for Mackay Trophy Contest at 9:44 a. m., and after completing the reconnaissance made landing at North Island at 1 p. m.

Lieut. J. C. Morrow, pilot, with Lieut. R. C. Holliday as observer, left North Island in a Burgess tractor with a 70 h. p. Renault motor at 8.02 a. ni., and landed at designated -point near Los Angeles at 10:22 a. m. [2h. 20m.] Left Los Angeles for the return trip at 9:48 a. m. December 23. The gas lead breaking, was forced to land near Oceanside, about 35

miles from start. In landing, a puff struck the machine, damaging it.

Lieut. T. DeW. Milling, pilot, with Captain \Y. L. Patterson, observer, left North Island at 8:20 a. m., in a Burgess tractor, which had been rebuilt by the Signal Corps, with a 70 h. p. Renault motor. Forced landing due to motor trouble was made in the vicinity of Agra, about 35 miles from start. Owing to soft, bad ground in which the machine landed, it was damaged.

Lieut. W. R. Taliaferro, pilot, with Captain B. D. Foulois as observer, left North Island at 8.24 a. m., in a Martin tractor with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine. Landed near Pacific Beach about 9 miles, at S:40 a. in. Upon landing report was made by telephone to North Island, and another machine (Martin tractor with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine) was flown to Pacific Beach and turned over to the pilot. At 10:20 a. m. another start for Los Angeles was made and at 11:00 o'clock a forced landing was made at the foot of the San Onofre Mountains, about 54 miles from San Diego. Cause of forced landing, a small particle of glass in the eye of the pilot, and as the wind was blowing over sixty miles per hour, it was too dangerous for the pilot to slow down and lessen the noise of the motor sufficiently for him to notify the observer of his trouble. The machine landed under very unfavorable conditions in soft ground, damaging the landing gear and propeller.

Lieut. J. E. Carberry, pilot, with Lieut. A. R. Christie as observer, left North Island at 8:29 a. m., in a Curtiss machine with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine. Forced landing. Machine damaged. Impracticable to make repairs to motor in time to continue flight. Machine dismantled and shipped to North Island.

Captain H. LeR. Muller, pilot, with Lieut. F. G. Gerstner as observer, left North Island at 8:32 a. m. When opposite the San Onofre Mountains, caught a terrific gale, and after a most exciting experience made a normal landing a half mile from shore in the Pacific ocean. Lieut. Gerstner was drowned while trying to swim ashore. The machine was a Curtiss tractor, with Curtiss 90 h. p. motor.

On the 21st all of the contestants encountered one of the worst storms off the San Onofre Mountains. Dodd and Morrow were both fortunate and skillful enough to get through to Los Angeles without accident.

DEATH OF LIEUTENANT GERSTNER.

Los Angeles, Dec. 21.—Lieut. Frederick J. Gerstner of the United States Army Aviation Corps was drowned while swimming ashore after a descent into the ocean during the race from San Diego to Los Angeles.

Capt. William L. Patterson, observer on a Burgess tractor, who with his pilot, Lieut. T. D. Milling, had landed near Oceanside, went to the rescue of Lieut. Gerstner and bis pilot, Capt. H. L. Muller, but failed to save the life of Lieut. Gerstner.

The military authorities do not believe

that the fatality can be attributed directly to aviation.

About opposite Oceanside, Pilot Muller, with Lieut. Gerstner as observer, at 6000 feet altitude, encountered very puffy air, which compelled him to work his controls all the time.

A bad puff struck him under the right wing and the machine side-slipped about 300 feet by the aneroid. He righted the machine, put on full throttle, and pointed slightly down, when a puff struck the plane in the same manner.

As quick as lightning the right wing went over his head, the ship dived vertically from that position downward, then upside down. He pulled the machine up very gently, being cautious not to overcontrol. as in the dive the machine had gained a tremendous speed. The machine responded to his control and shot out of the dive until the nose was vertically upward. She then fell on her left side, giving the impression that she was tailsliding, until the left wing seemed to sink out from under and the machine went into another nose drive.

This second dive appeared to be fully a thousand feet. The machine was wobbling badly, as though the angle of incidence was changing rapidly and uncontrollably. When the machine was pulled out of this dive it made a partial loop, the left wing being lower than the right.

After the imperfect loop he regained partial control, but the machine did not hold any definite angle. The machine being very unstable, it followed an undulating course up and down like a runaway roller-coaster.

In the meantime Capt. Muller had been working to throttle the motor, but could not reach the hand-throttle at first without getting out of his braces, as the throttle had stuck. The machine then made two loops without any control whatever.

It then came down almost vertically, sliding to the left, but about 300 feet from the water Capt. Muller cut his switch and obtained full control of the machine when between 50 and 100 feet above the surface. A normal landing was made on the water.

With the exception of a few wires in the wing section streaming in the wind the machine landed undamaged on the water and came to a stop with the nose down and Lieut Gerstner under the water. Capt. Muller pulled him up on the rear seat, and they both got out, standing on the running gear. Lieut. Gerstner insisted that one of them ought to go ashore. Lieut. Gerstner claimed that he was an experienced swimmer.

After having been in the water for a considerable period, Lieut. Gerstner informed Capt. Muller that he was going ashore. He continued swimming, and when about a half mile away disappeard from Capt. Muller's sight.

Lieut. Gerstner's body was found in a kelp patch a short distance from the shore. It is considered regrettable that Lieut. Gerstner did not stay with the machine, as it is certain that, had he done so, he would have been saved with Capt. Muller.

THIS BIPLANE HAS 125-MILE SPEED, CARRIES 4-INCH GUN.

At the military camp at Vizzola Ticino, Italy, the authorities have been experimenting with a new biplane, whose inventor is not known, though it is supposed that Pilot Pensuti, who has been taking it up during the experiments, is responsible for its construction. It is larger than any other aeroplane in Italy, measuring seventy feet from wing to wing, and has 300 horsepower distributed among three rotary motors so placed that the pilot can repair any two while the plane is in motion. There are armored seats for three men and a 4-inch gun.

The machine went up a mile and a quarter with complete success recently. It is able to stay in the air twenty-five hours and can carry a cargo weighing about a ton. Its average speed is 125 miles an hour.—X. 3'. World.

Riley E. Scott. ex-Lieutenant U. S. Arm)', whose fame introduced bomb-dropping, or vice versa, left some time ago for the seat of war, or thereabouts. Not knowing his future address, he failed to disclose it upon his sudden and surreptitious departure. He left behind him, however, some holes in the aviation field at San Diego caused by the impact of his bombs filled with a secret explosive developed in the Ordnance Department.

Paris. Jan. 4.—William Thaw, J. J. Bach and Weston Hall, three members of the American volunteers, who were attached to the Foreign Legion and who have been definitely accepted for service with the French aviation corps, will be sent to the front after a few weeks service at the military school at St. Cyr.

These men are the first foreigners ever admitted to the French Aviation Corps. —The Sun.

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ANOTHER AVIATOR NOW HAS NATIONAL LICENSE.

The Department of Commerce, Steamboat Inspection Service, at Ealtimore, has issued to A. C. Beech a license to operate and navigate a motor vessel, under Motor Boat Act approved June 9. 1910.

Flying machines that have combined with and in their construction a vessel, if such machine is propelled by machinery, becomes a motor vessel when in the water, and for that reason it was

necessary for Mr. Beech to procure a license.

The same form of license was issued as those to all other motor vessels less than 65 feet in length carrying passengers for hire. The license was issued Nov. 20, 1914, by Charles W. Wright and Edwin F. White, members of the Board of Local Inspectors.

Aeronautics has continuously urged that registration of aircraft and licensing of operators should be under Federal control and it would seem, in view of the obvious advantage of such control, that all aeronautical organizations formed to really advance the interests of flying would devote some energy towards this end, rather than to sit idly by and allow individual states to pass conflicting and onerous statutes. With machines tbat operate from the water, of course, Federal control is already an established fact but land machines are

AIR NAVY MAY GET $1,187,600.

If the pleadings of Naval officers do any good, the House of Representatives may consider the appropriation of $1,187,600 for aeronautical work appropriate for argumentation in Congress and it might even come to pass that the House will suggest to the Senate, etc.

At any rate. Captain Mark L. Bristol put his best aileron forward in the hearing before the House Naval Committee and explained that this $l,i87,000, if re-

still in danger of being restricted by foolish laws.

"Tony" Jannus was the first in this country to secure a Federal license. In the winter of 1913-1914. at the time of the agitation by Aeronautics of this subject, Jannus applied for license at Tampa, Fla. In the course of time, a delay being unavoidable by his movements about the countrv, the boat was inspected and finally Jannus got his

license, dated Aug. 10, 1914, the first ever issued for a hydroplane. On this subject Jannus advises: "For the benefit of your readers let me say that they must do the things the Department requires for boats. No anchors or lights to be carried by day are required and the special style of life preserver will eventually be allowed but in the meantime all pilots are liable to heavy fine for not complying. This applies to hydros and boats both. You must have motor vessel operator's license, one cork steamboat inspected life preserver for every soul aboard on each trip, two copies of the pilot's rules, a whistle, and a fire extinguisher capable of putting out burning gasoline. There is no charge for any of the services of the department for furnishing the license, rules or the information, but the applicant must appear in person at the Steamboat Inspectors' office in any of the towns that are ports.

ceived for the fiscal year of 1916. would

be expended about as follows:

48 aeroplanes .............. $525,000

1 dirigible ................... 174,600

1 hydrogen set .............. 17,000

1 floating shed for 2 dirigibles 90,000

1 mooring mast.............. 1,200

2 dirigibles for school........ 85.000

1 kite balloon ............... 800

Sheds at Pensacola........... 150.000

3 picket boats............... 31,000

Gasoline storage............. 4,000

Maintenance ................ 109.000

$1,187,600

Captain Bristol estimated the cost of a suitable aeroplane at $11,000. "The aeroplane industry in this country," Captain Bristol said, "is looking up, also the manufacture of dirigibles, and if you should appropriate a good sum of money to be expended on air craft our manufacturers would be encouraged then to go into the development of air craft with more serious consideration than they d < at present. The manufacturers in this country lack good engineering knowledge, and you cannot get a good engineer without paying him a good salary, and they do not feel like doing that unless they see some way of paying for that engineer, both as regards his actual salary and making some profit beside on his work. We have been doing everything we could to encourage them with what money we have had thus far, but they knew the amounts available and naturally don't see much money in it."

At present, of course, manufacturers cannot be sure of getting a contract even if they do come up to specifications, due to the lack of funds.

At the hearing, also, Captain Bristol presented the draft of a law to increase the pay of officers of the Navy and Marine Corps who are detailed on aeronautic dutv by 35% and to increase the pay of Navy pilots by 50%. The 35% to be allowed only when the men are detailed to actually make flights and the 50% likewise. The proposed law also provides that no more than 48 officers of the Navy and 12 officers of the Marine Corps be detailed for actual flying: that one year's pay be given a beneficiary in the case of a fatal accident not attributable to the aviator's own negligence and that the pension now provided by law for a widow be doubled; that enlisted men receive 35% increase in pay under thj same conditions as above; that no more than 90 men of the Navy and 24 met', of the Marine Corps at any one time shall be detailed to aeronautic duty; that a year's pay and pension be given a-> above stated.

At the present time non-commissioned officers and men receive no extra pay for aeronautic duty and enlisted men have been required to take flights without any extra compensation.

In a report to the House on December 29 by the Military Committee and by the action of the sub-committee of the House Naval Committee in recommending that $1,000,000 be appropriated for naval aircraft, aeronautics mav have $1,300,000.

The military bill authorizes $300,000 for aircraft for the Army.

Representative Mann, on Feb. 2, 1915, fought the $1,000,000 appropriation, and on his motion the amount was cut to $500,000.

The term "aeroplane" as used in Consular reports relates to any heavier-than-air flying machine, whether mono-nlane. biplane, etc., as distinguished from dirigible and ordinary balloons. Under the term "parts" are included motors, chassis, wings, etc., not shipped in conjunction with a complete machine.

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AERONAUTICS.

Page 123

PATENTS

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Send sketch or model for PRE K opinion as to Patentability. Write for our Goide Bonks and What to Invent with valuable Liit of Invenliaoi Wanted s.-nt Free. Send for cur special list of prizes offered for Aeroplnnes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are KxperN in Aeronautics and have a special Aernoantical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships. lOcents each.

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CONSTRUCTION DETAILS.

In the winter when the enthusiasm of most model flyers is at a very low ebb, there are, however, a great number of them who still remain true to the sport in spite of the cold and inclement weather. The device shown in figure 1 is the idea of A. K. Barker, and is adapted to be attached to the skids of the model in place of the wheels, or pontoons, if the model happens to be a hydro. These little "skates" enable a model to rise very quickly from the frozen surface of a lake or pond or from any short stretches of ice. These tiny "skates" create less friction than wheels; allow the model to rise with a shorter run. and weigh less. While attachments of this kind have been made before, we

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor.

wire for the shaft with a hook formed at one end as shown, for the reception of the rubber motor. A half-inch piece of brass tubing is bound and glued to the rear member of the fuselage as shown. It will be noticed that the tubing is bound to the under side of the propeller bar, and in order to make a very secure joint it is advisable to cut a small recess in the propeller bar in which the tubing is bound. A small strip of brass or any other like material is cut as shown and slipped over the hub of the propeller. A hole is drilled through the hrass strip as shown. To assemble the bearing, the piece of steel wire is passed through the tubing and through the hole in the brass strip and

In figure 4 is shown a simple method of constructing a bent wood propeller. It will be seen that the entire propeller is made in two parts, one blade being made at a time.

In this manner both blades can be carefully compared and both blades easily made to have the same pitch, by an application of steam and boiling water. When the blades are bent to shape they are joined at the center. Some model builders make this joint by binding and gluing, but the preferable method of making the same is by gluing and drilling four small holes through the thickened portion formed by the overlapping ends, and inserting small brads in these holes as shown. The hole for the propeller shaft is readily drilled through the thickened portion formed by the overlapping ends of the two blades.

In figure S is shown the method of joining the two members of a triangular frame at the front end, and the method of attaching the rubber hooks thereto. It will be seen that the inner sides of the sticks are tapered as shown so that when the two sticks are brought together a point is formed. A double hook is formed of a small piece of piano wire and bound and glued over the end.

have never seen them constructed in substantially the same manner as shown herein, which consists of a small section of safety razor blade shaped to the outline of a sled-runner and inserted and glued in a slot in a small piece of spruce. Two small holes are drilled through the spruce block so that the entire "skate" can be "sewed" to the skid on the model.

Figure 2 shows a simple method of making a propeller bearing. It merely consists of a short piece of steel piano

propeller, and the outer end of the wire is bent around the end of the propeller so that the propeller will turn with its shaft. The drawing shows the assembled bearing.

Figure 3 shows a well known English tractor model in flight, particulars of which have not been obtained at the present time.

Those who have made propellers of twisted wood will realize the difficulty of obtaining the same pitch in each blade.

ASHMUSEN 12-CYL. ENGINE.

Things are brightening up for the Ashmusen Mfg. Co., of Woonsocket, R. I.

They are now specializing on an 8-cylinder, 70 horse power, and a 12-cylinder, 105 horse power, aircooled aeronautical engine. These are both of the geared propeller type. They have now made manufacturing arrangements at Woonsocket, and have facilities in one of the largest machine shops in the country equipped for this class of work.

Page 125

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GERMANY PROTESTS CUR-TISS MACHINES.

A protest has been made by the German Ambassador to this country alleging the exportation of Curtiss machines to France, England and Russia to be an infringement of the obligations binding upon a neutral country, claiming them to be contraband.

When the matter is taken up with the Curtiss Aeroplane Company officially, the contention will be that hydro-aeroplanes are not vessels of war, are not fitted with guns for war purposes and are not sold to belligerents.

WHO INVENTED THE HYDRO-AEROPLANE?

Announcement lias just been made of the result of an interference suit in the Patent Office in which Albert Janin

OF AMERICA

29 West 39th Street. New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

The members aie keeping up their interest in the Round Table Talks, now the feature of attraction at the Thursday evening meetings— 8:30 p. m.— every week, the number of members attending being steadily on the increase.

The undertakings of the Technical Board and various committees always claim attention: and general discussions have followed. During the past few weeks, the presentation of certain novel methods of stabilization have been included among the subjects that have come up for consideration.

On January 7, at the invitation of Mr. A. Leo Stevens, the members of the Society gathered at the Sportsman's Show, held at Madison Square Garden, where Mr. Stevens bad an aeronautic exhibit including two large and one small inflated passenger-carrying balloons with their full equipment; Mr. J. J. Curran also exhibiting his Queen monoplane.

An informal meeting of the members present was held at the close of the evening, when a vote of thanks was given Mr. Stevens for his hospitality.

On January 14th, Mr. A. J. DeVoe, the well known weather prophet, addressed the members at tiie rooms of the Society on his conception of meteorological laws and the governing of weather conditions by the moon. Members, keenly alive to the value of practical forecasting, plied Mr. DeVoe with numerous questions, bringing out useful points from which they might make their own deductions for use in aerial undertakings.

The strong evidenee of awakening interest in the Government for a fairly liberal employment of air craft in the Army and Navy services is giving renewed hope to inventors, designers and manufacturers of promising activity, the consummation whereof will mean an increased scope for the useful functions of the Aeronautical Society of America. Every member of the Society, therefore, is requested to lose no opportunity of bringing, as new members, men who they believe will be of benefit to the organization and who may themselves profit through its operations.

Also, at this important epoch in the art of aviation in America, when it really appears to be about to expand, perhaps in the manner of its extent in Europe—though possibly on different lines—it is incumbent on every member to stand by with full support, keeping in as

claimed priority over Glenn Curtiss in the invention of the hydro-aeroplane.

In response to the published story of the Patent Office's award to Janin in the suit. Air. Curtiss states:

"Air. Janin and his attorney are quite premature in announcing the award of invention of the hydro-aeroplane to Mr. Janin. The interference with Mr. Janin involves one claim. The claim involves the use of the small side floats which are in action when the machine operates on the surface of the water as a hydroplane. It does not involve the features which made the hydro-aeroplane a successful flying machine, or the features of the flying boat. The decision in question is but a preliminary one of one of the three Patent Office tribunals. It is not in the United States courts. This is the second decision to be rendered by the Patent Office. The first of them

close communication as possible, that all may profit.

If behind in dues members should not delay in remitting, for the Society needs its revenue lo carry on its important work.

As regards the First Joint Conference on Aviation, to be held in the Engineers Building, February 5 and 6 next, a number of interesting inventions and devices for insuring a higher safety of flight have been presented and everything points to this conference being a real step forward in the understanding of the proper designs of aireraft which is especially important at the present time in view of the strong revival of interest in matters aeronautical.

All city members, also country members on visits to town, should call at the Society's rooms when able, so that they may keep posted in all aeronautical matters. The office of the Society is open daily from 10 to 5: Saturdays, 10 to 1. Members are also entitled to free use of the library, on the 13th floor of the building, open from 9 a. m. to 9 p. m. daily, and comprising the most eomplete engineering library in America, with all it. S. and foreign paten ts.

At the fifth annual meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania January S in the Bellevue-Strat ford, the following officers were elected: Joseph A. Steinmetz, president; W. D. Harris and \Y. J. Shedwick. vice presidents; George S. Gassner, secretary: L. M aresch, treasurer, and A. t. Atherholt. Henry F. Bamberger, \Y. if. Shehau. C. P. Wynne, II. H. Knerr and W. S. Wheeler, directors.

Clarence P. Wynne, who has served the club as president so untiringly for the last three years, declined re-election on account of pressure of business engagements.

The club is negotiating for the use of an armory for an indoor contest. It has been decided that this contest will be for controllabil-

was in my favor, and I might at that time have made the same announcement which Air. janin has now made, and it would have been equally premature. Vet another Patent Office decision is to be made by the Commissioner of Patents himself before the Patent Office concludes the matter. The final decision which determines the award of this particular claim is in the province of the United States Court of Appeals. When this final decision is rendered and not until then will any statements of Air. Janin's concerning the award of invention be entitled to serious consideration."

Wilbur R. Kimball and T. R. Alac-Alechen are at 66 Victoria street. Westminster, London, working on a dirigible, it is assumed.

ity of flight. The date for the contest has not been decided upon, but this matter will be taken up as soon as it can he ascertained for what date the armory can be secured.

Mr. Henry S. Villard has kindly offered a very excellent trophy for competition by the club. The form of contest is being decided upon and the rules and place of competition will be announced later. This trophy is now on exhibition at the Aero Club of America.

The following persons have been admitted to membership:

Edward P. Warner, Concord. Mass.

Walter II. Phipps, New York City. N. Y.

Raymond M. Zimber, New York City. N. Y.

Frank Schober, Brooklyn, N. Y.

A donation of three prizes has been made to the Milwaukee branch of this club for competition as soon as the weather improves.

The Long Island Model Aero Club has formed the Long Island section of the Aero Science Club. Election of officers has taken place.

On December 27, 1914. the final glider eon-test of the recent series was completed, and A. K Barker proved to be a winner with 70 points. The contest was for weight-carrying.

Club flags have been made, the colors of the same being red and blue. These can be obtained at a reasonable price by applying to the Secretary.

Mr. Edward P. Warner, the representative of this club at Coneord, Mass., desires to announce that a series of model aeroplane contests will be held at Concord, Mass., during the spring of 1915, the events being held on the following dates:

March 13.—Distance, launched from the hand.

March 27.—Duration, launched from the hand.

April 24.—Distance, rising off the ground.

May S.—Duration, rising off the ground.

May 22.—Duration, rising off the water.

These contests will last from 2:15 to 5 p. m. and each contestant may have as many trials as he desires during that time. The contests are open to any rubher driven model and the models need not be constructed by the entrant himself. At each contest there will be awarded to the winner a silver medal and a bronze medal for the best record by a boy under sixteen years of age. using a model constructed by himself. Several cups will be given to those securing the greatest number of points in the four contests in which he makes the best showing; that is, those who compete in all five contests will have their worst score omitted. Points will be given to every competitor on a percentage basis. A small entry fee is charged and all entries should be made before March 1. Further information can be supplied by Air. Edward P. Warner, Concord. Mass.

At the meeting held on January 9, Messrs. Schober and Funk exhibited the compressed air engine constructed by them. The engine proved to be a great success and it worked excellently.

For further information apply to the Secretary, Harry Schnltz. at the rooms of the Aeronautical Societv. 29 West 39th Street, New York City.

•AERONAUTICS

Page 127

GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City. Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas, made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

New Gyro "Duplex"

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U.S. Government Depends on Goodyear Balloons

Every balloon bought by the government the lasl three years has been made by Goodyear. Goodyear balloons won the American National Elimination Race out of Kansas City in 1913, the International Race out of Paris in 1913, and the American National Elimination Race out of St. Louis in 1914

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The Goodyear organization includes men thoroughly experienced in the manufacture and handling of balloons. Also engineers who know the scientific details of design and construction. They have been the exclusive balloon builders for the government. They can build for you, too.

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Tell us your particular problems, whether balloon or aeoplane We can help you solve them. Write us today for further details. Address desk 136.

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