Aeronautics

Volume 15 - No. 7 - 1914 October

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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XV. No. 7

OCTOBER 15, 1914

15 Cents

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li.'.l i II III Jllli I Ii ill 'I 'I I lll'l II11 III IE IliM plV litl'ii

We aim to keep constantly abreast of the latest demand in aeronautical motors. That we have succeeded is attested by these facts—Since 1908 Curtiss Motors have held all principal American records for duration, altitude, and speed: Curtiss Motors are the only American Motors accepted as standard by all the world powers.

The principal official Aaierican records are:

Duration: LIEUT. J H. TOWERS, IT. S. N., 6 hrs, 10 min. Distance: LIEUT. J. H. TOWERS, U. S. N., 390 miles. Altitude: CAPT. H. LEROY MILLER. I'. S. A.. 17.185 feel.

Leading Curtiss Motors

90 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., VEE TYPE, 4x5" 110 H.P. MODEL "C," 8-CYL., VEE TYPE, 4|" x 5V 120 H.P. MODEL "U," 6-CYL., VERTICAL, 5" x 7" 160 H.P. MODEL "V," 8-CYL., VEE TYPE, 5" x 7"

With each of these motors the maximum brake horse power is considerably above the rated horse power at normal speeds. We are in position to make early deliveries on any of above motors; write or telegraph us for detailed information.

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO

21 LAKE STREET HAMMONDSPORT, N. V.

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Confidence in Quality Products

WHAT is the reputation of the ignition system on your aeroplane? Getting your money's worth means more than getting one hundred cents intrinsic value for every dollar expended—it means satisfactory service from the product bought, service on which you can depend whether the test or work is severe or ordinary.

We BOSCH MAGNETO

is the quality system. That fact has long been established not by any one individual opinion, but by nearly two million users who use the Bosch Magneto and know!

Don't accept "magneto" as an ignition specification ; insist that it read Bosch Magneto, and then look for the name on your aeroplane's magneto.

Be Satisfied Specif]/ Bosch

Correspondence Invited

Bosch Magneto Company

201 West 46th Street : New York

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

THE HYDROAEROPLANE IN COAST DEFENCE RECONNAISSANCE

By Captain V. E. Clark, Aviation Section, Signal Corps.

In Kuropc, under actual war conditions, the aeroplane is daily proving its ability to pierce most effectually "the fog of war"—on land. The purpose of the present article is it point nut several practical uses of the hydroaeroplane as an adjunct to coast defense- to call to the reader's attention 'he possibilities in the use of this machine as a factor in the defense of our coast lines.

liy the general term "hydroaeroplanes." I mean all heavier-than-aif Hying craft capable of arising from ami alighting upon water, including so-called "flying boats," "aero boats/1 etc,

I n discussing the adaptation of the hydroaeroplane to coast reconnaissance, i will assume that the machine will always carry two men, w ho will divide betw een them the duties of pilot, observer, and signalman; and be provided with compass, other instruments, and a signal transmitting equipment. For some purposes the latter should be a wireless outfit; a:id for others, a smoke-puff device, such as a cylinder containing soot with apertures which can he opened and closed by the signalman. Practical tests in France l-ave shown that a compact wire-It s« outfit, weighing only about sixty pounds with antenna*, and not interfering vj.b the flight of the aeroplane carr dug it, is capable of sending messages sixty miles, under ordinal' ,■ conditions.

U KC ON N.USSANCi:.

( a) Discoverinty <;x pproaching Fleet.

Tn Fig. 1 have been indicated roughly three flight courses illustrating a plan by which, in case of an expected approach by hostile men-of-war or transports, three hydroaeroplanes might effect a more complete reconnaissance of our Xorth Atlantic coasi waters by making, back and forth, daily flights of three hours' duration, than would be possible by employing a score of the fastest destroyers.

It is not only possible, but highly probable, that, in the near future, hydroaeroplanes will he designed that will be able to "gel off," make extended flights during which implicit confidence mav he placed in the motor, and land without damage in almost any weather in which the navigation of a destroyer is practicable. There should, however, be some sort of break-water sheltering the get-away and landing water areas; and, in the plan suggested, the terminal points have been chosen with this in view.

In this connection, it must be rehiemhered that a strong wind, after having blow n over a large expanse of water, may be. to the occupants of an aeroplane flying in it, no more dangerous or uncomfortable than a dead calm. Strong winds over land become broken up by hills, cliffs, canons, and even trees or houses, until the air becomes very turbulent. On the other hand, there being none of these irregularities on the surface of the water, strong winds; will usnallv remain fairly constant in force and direction.

At each terminal point there

should he hangars, a machine shop, supplies*, extra motors, spare parts, and a force of mechanicians and relief pilots.

(hi a day of average atmospheric transparency, an observer in a machine riving at a height of two thousand feer could "make out" a fleei ot vessels at a distance of at least fifty nautical miles.

The shaded portion of Fig. I, then, indicates the area in \\ Inch the enemy would be visible to at least one of the flying scouts. After he had entered this area, the size of his fleet, the character of his vessels, and the direction of his movement would be reported to the wait-in;? coast defense commanders.

The report would, at the very least, give the ('oast Artillery personnel at New York, Fort M on roe. Huston, and Philadelphia fi ft ecu hours, and at the other fort ifled points within the zone, eight hours, in which to prepare pow der, fire trial shots, and even, possibly, move troops from the points not threatened to those that appear to he in danger. In the meantime, the eue-mv would tie utterly unawa e of the presence of the air scout. It is impossible to -ec or hear an aeroplane at a distance of even ten miles.

i b) "Run Hy" in a Fvg a tut Mo;-cnicnts Bchuui a Smoke Screen.

In many of our harbors, low fog banks, broken by many rifts, and extending only a short distance out from the fortilied shore, arc very common.

Should a coast defense commander have reason to expect an attempt to "run by," from hostile vessels behind such a fog bank, the service of a hydro might prove invaluable. The flagship would be located by circling over the harbor entrance', the observer would make a preparatory signal: and then the pilot should describe a series of regular circles, keeping his alt it ide constant, and passing, during the course of each circle, vertically over the target ship. The observer should cause a puff of smoke to be emitted when directlv over the target. There would be practically no danger to the aeroplane from the lire of the enemy's ships. It will be found that the only tire effective against an aeroplane is that of a regiment of infantry, in which there is a very large percentage of poor shots, the resultant wide distiersion increasing the probability of the aeroplane's being hit in a vital spot, despite the usual error in estimating range.

\Yhile the hydro is maneuvering as described above, the observers at the ends of horizontal bases on shore could, usinc azimuth instrumen ts capable of swinging through a large vertical angle, track, at least roucblv. the course of the target as indicated hv the path and signals of the aeroplane. While this method should prove particularly useful to mine commands. I believe that a snfficiently accurate track for the tiring of mortar and gun salvo* by '"ase HI might be >btained.

The movements of a fleet attempting m take advantage of a smoke screen might be followed and made

known to sNure obseners l>y an aeroplane using these same tactics.

(c) "Run-By" Xiqlit,

Should a coast defense commander expect a "rim-by" under cover of darkness, be would order one of his hydros to circle over the harbor entrance. Fven though the hostile vessels were running with "all lights doused." the observer in the aeroplane would be able to detect their approach by w a tching for the flames down in the smoke funnels and indicate the presence, strength, and direction of movement of a fleet by the use of Very pistol signals. Successive points in the course of a vessel might be indicated to those on shore hv dropping light bombs on the vessel when over it.

(d) I.veatiiui Submarines and .Submarine Mines.

It hac been found that, unless the water is \ ery muddy, at an altitude of about seven hundred feet submarine mines are distinctly visible from the air above: and that, from an altitude of two thousand feet, the movements of a submarine torpedo-boat may be easily observed.

IS'- employing the tactics outlined in (b), i. e.. describing regular circles at a constant altitude, and making smoke puffs when directly over i he target, the hvdro might render material aid to the mine command in its operations against submarines.

(el Reconnaissance Ayvinst Land-nit; Forces.

In (a) was described a method wheieby warning of the approach of transports might be given.

I'.ven after forces had landed at some point distant from coast fortifications, with ihe intention of operating against the defenses of the seaport from land, the movements of these troops might be followed from a hydroaeroplane as readily as from an aeroplane fitted with landing wheels. The hydro could start or land, for instance, at one of the terminal puints in Figure 1. or in the harbor of the city itself. The operations of the hostile fm-ce might bp reported daily from the time when the;- were several days" march distant.

Ft HE CONTROL.

< n Mortor Fire at c Target Obscure ti from Fnc 'Control St alio a hv a Fi oinout<<ry.

Should it be desired to fire on a vessel obscured from the observation of Are control stations by a high point of land, precisely the same system as has been suggested in (b) might used to direct observation and the ririntr of mortars. The- hvdro should maintain an altitude most convenient fur tracking b\ the base end azimuth inst ruin.' nls. A simple system of signals nit eh t be u^ed tn indicate to the loe cnmmandi r the relalive location ot the center of impact and the largi t. at all times during the firing.

(g) Indirect ]\Iortar and Hoiviiser Shrapnel Fire Against Land Forces.

Information, sufficiently accurate for indirect shrapnel fire, as to the position of the enemy "on the other side of the hill," might be obtained through use of the hydroaeroplane. Also, during this fire, corrections in elevation and azimuth might be made from information obtained from signals sent from the flying hydro.

(h) Spotting for Extreme Long Range Firing.

Suppose a fleet of the enemy's dreadnoughts should open a bombardment at a range of, say, twelve to fifteen thousand yards, against the protected city or against the fortifications. Should an attempt be made by the shore batteries to silence this bombardment, it would he next to impossible to determine, especially if the observing stations were located only a little above sea level, whether the center of impact were "over" or "short" of the target ships.

A hydroaeroplane, equipped with wireless, circling over a line normal to the line of fire drawn from the target, as close to the target as safety permitted, could, by using a simple code, keep the fire commanders on shore constantly informed as to the proper range corrections.

The observer could use, for determining range errors, a range rake the coss arm of which is capable of movement and adjustment along the beam "observer to target," which should be graduated. The distance from observer to target, to be laid off along this beam, may he obtained by short computation, from a table, or by a simple instrument. The two values required are: (1) the altitude of the observer, which may be read from an aneroid barometer; and (2) the angle, in a vertical plane, at the aeroplane, between the two lines; (a) vertical through aeroplane; and (h) aeroplane to target. The angle (3) may be obtained by an instrument, sheltered from the wind, consisting of a weighted arm which hangs vertically, with a graduated (sextant-like) arc attached, along which a simple sight (observer to target) may he moved; and the required vertical angle read.

offense.

(i) Dropping Bombs on Destroyers and Counter-Mining Craft Obscured from Shore Observation.

If, because of fog. darkness, searchlight out of service, or inconvenient location of mine field with relation to rapid fire batteries, these batteries should be unable to fire effectively on countermining craft or destroyers, the hydro might be of great aid to the

mine command by dropping explosive hombs on the hostile vessels from a low altitude.

(j) Attacking Dirigibles.

Should our coast forts ever be threatened hy bomb-dropping dirigible balloons, hydroaeroplanes should form an effective means of defense.

Possessing superior speed and mobility, and presenting a much smaller and more erratic target, they would he a constant menace to these monsters of the air. We have records of at least one, and probably two encounters, during the present Eu-opean war, in which patriotic French pilots have, by plungine their machines headlong into the envelopes of Zeppelins, demonstrated that, by the sacrifice of one man, a hostile dirigible, representing from twenty-five to one hundred and fifty men and hundreds of thousands of dollars in fighting material, may be rendered a complete loss.

Experience may prove that it is possdile to destroy a dirigible from an aeroplane by the use of a hand arm firing smail explosive shell, or hv throwing intn the top of the hal-loon a harpoon to which is attached a bomb with time fuse, diminishing, to snme extent at least, the danger to the pilot of the attacking aeroplane.—Journal of the U. S. Artillery.

WRIGHT COMPANY STARTS NEW INFRINGEMENT SUIT

On November 18. 1914. Judge Julius M. Mayer, of the U. S. District Court, sitting at Buffalo, signed two orders on motion of II. A. Toulmin and II. A. Toulmin, Jr., attorneys for The "Wright Company.

One order directed The Curtiss Aeroplane Company to show cause on or before November 30 (later extended to December 15) why a preliminary injunction should not be allowed: the injunction motion stands for hearing on December 22.

The second order of the court directed the defendant company, should it deny that its machines have heen "constructed in substantial accordance with the drawings accompanying the injunction motion." to produce drawings of its machines "correctly showing the construction and arrangement of the parts utilized in recovering lateral balance and employed in directing the machines in various directions of flight."

This is a new suit against a new company, with which Mr. Curtiss is connected, organized in 1910. The new bill of complaint sets out that The Curtiss Aeroplane Company, the new defendant, was organized by Mr. Curtiss during the pendency of the former litigation: that of the 200 shares of capital stock of this company 198 shares were subscribed for by Mr. Curtiss, one share by Mrs. Curtiss and one by R. G. Hall. Then the bill sets out that this new company has made and dealt in three types of machines:

"Type 1, in which the ailerons are attached to the standards which connect the supporting planes and which ailerons are operated in the same manner as in the Curtiss machine which the courts have held to be an infringement and have enjoined The Hernng-Curtiss Company and Mr. Curtiss personally from making, using, selling or exhibiting.

"Type 2, which also has ailerons, but which are attached to the rear margins of the upper supporting planes, yet are operated in the same manner as are the ailerons in Type 1, and with the same result, by recovering lateral balance.

"Type 3. which has the ailerons located and connected lo the upper main plane in the same manner as in Type 2, and in which, it is alleged by the defendant, the ailerons are not worked simultaneously, one upward and the other downward, but are operated one at a time, and are merely tipped up each time they are operated as distinguished from being tipped up and tipped down alternately."

The new bill of complaint sets out all that is stated above, and charges the new company with infringing the Wright patent, that was sustained in the other suit, by "making, using and selling the three types of machines, two of which types. Nos. I and 2, are substantially the same as the original machine, while the third type is a mere modification."

In the original suit injunctions were issued against The Ilerring-Curtiss Company, and Mr. Curtiss personally, and they were enjoined from making, using, selling or exhibiting infringing flying machines permanently.

Every move in this famous patent suit has been completely chronicled in AERONAUTICS, with court de-cisinns in full.

On Type 3 there is, however, a sufficiently new field opened up to bring into the new case one or more claims of the Wright patent not directly litigated in tile former suit. In this machine the ailerons are claimed not to present any positive angles to the line of flight, and, it is said, only one aileron is operated at a time, and then on the high side—to lower it hy creating a downward pressure, no attempt being made to life the low side by presenting the aileron to a positive angle. In this machine, should any tendency to turning about the vertical axis be noticeable, the vertical rudder would, theoretically, never-the less be turned, it is said, in a manner to prevent such turning.

The final determination of the new case on this point will be awaited with interest as the system so persistentlv urged by A. A. Merrill in AERONAUTICS and other journals is frequently claimed not to infringe the Wright patent.

Secretary of the Navy Daniels asks, in his report recently issued, $5,000,000 for naval air service for t!ie 1916 program.

The General Board in its endorsement of August 30, 1913. and accompanying memorandum, brought to the attention of the Navy Department the dangerous situation of the country in the lack of air craft and air men in both the naval and military services. A resume was given in that endorsement of conditions in the leading countries abroad, showing the preparations being made for air warfare and the use of air craft by both armies and navies and contrasting their activity with our own inactivity. Certain recommendations were made in the same endorsement looking to the beginning of the establishment of a proper air service for our Navy.

The result was the appointment of a Board of Aeronautics in October, 1913 (all dulv recorded in AERONAUTICS). That board made further recommendations, among them the establishment of an aeronautic school and station at Pensa-cola and the purchase of 50 aeroplanes, 1 fleet dirigible and 2 small dirigibles for training.

At the present time all the Navy owns is 12 aeroplanes, "not more than two of which are of the same tvpe and all reported to have too little speed and carrying capacity for service work," according to a statement of the General Board of the Navy in November, 1914, to the Secretary of the Navy.

"In viezi' of the advance that has been made in aeronautics during the Past year, and the demonstration no-n1 being 7nade of the vital importance of a proper air service to both land and sea warfare, our present situation can be described as nothing less than deplorable. As

now deevloped, air craft are the eyes of both armies ■ and navies, and it is difficut to place any limit to their offensive possibilities.

"In our preset!t condition of utt-preparcdness, in contact with any foe possessing a proper air scri'ice, our scouting would be blind. IVe would be without the means of detecting the presence of submarines or mine fields or of attempting direct attack on the enemy from the air, zchile our own movements would be an open book to him. The General Board can not too strongly urge that the Department's most serious thought be given this matter, and that immediate steps be taken to remedy it, and recommends that Congress be asked for an appropriation of at least §5,000,000 to be made available immediately for the purpose of establishing an efficient air service."

When the fleet was ordered to Mexican waters in April two aeroplane sections of two aeroplanes each, completely manned, with full outfits each, were sent on the Mississippi and Birmingham to Vera Cruz and Tampico respectively.. Tbert was no occasion for the use of aeroplanes at Tampico, but those at Vera Cruz were used continually and though the machines were not fitted for land work they did, for 43 days, a good deal of scouting over the trenches protecting Vera Cruz. There were daily flights without regard to weather or other conditions. Their scout work assured the Commander-in-Chief that no mines had been planted, enabled him to locate sunken works, and was of inestimable value in the combined operations of the Army and Navy.

The recent wars have demonstrated the inestimable importance of scouting. Air craft on land prevent surprises of the kind which

have determined most military victories. They provide the best means for discovering submarine mines and submarines and have now become an indispensable naval adjunct.

DANIELS HITS LOCAL TALENT.

The orders given early in the year for some foreign-built aeroplanes have not been filled, owing to the war. These were for testing that the Navy might adopt those best fitted. "The best types of American manufacture have been ordered and the department will develop this modern branch of the naval service steadily and rapidly. Indeed, it has been more ready to develop it during the past year than the manufacturers of this country have been to supply the demand for craft of approved design," says Secretary Daniels.

The Navy is conducting a large number of experiments with models of floats and pontoons for aeroplanes at the Washington Navy Yard; also, at the same place, in the wind tunnel with aerofoils and models of aeroplanes. A number of different experiments are being carried out at the present time, mostly of a minor importance, at the U. S. Navy Aeronautic Station, Pensa-cola, Fla. In addition to the experimental work and the flying school the Pensacola Station is carrying on repairs of machines in use. Recently a new picket boat was received at that station. It is of the Viper type of hydroplane, and has a speed of about 35 miles an hour. It is used for patrolling the course while flying for experiment and instruction is going on.

Captain Mark L. Bristol is in charge of the "Office of Naval Aeronautics" ^ in Washington, with the title, "Director of Aeronautics."

U. S. NAVY ORDERS SECOND BURGESS-DUNNE.

The second Burgess-Dunne has been ordered from the Burgess Company at Marblehead and from this it would be assumed that the previous one has been found of advantage. Full details of this type of machine, the claims made therefor and performances have been chronicled in AERONAUTICS.

This new one will have an American engine, a Curtiss O-X. The general characteristics are: biplane of the inherently stable type, carrying a pilot and passenger side by side. The pilot and passenger, motor and instruments are protected by a stream line hood. There are duplicate controls. The full load will be fuel, oil and cooling water for four hours' flight with 350 pounds additional. Tt is to get away in 2.000 feet at a speed of not over 50 miles an hour with full load and climb at the rate of not less than 100 feet per minute, glide not less than 5 in I, and have a speed range of from 60 to 40 miles an hour, or better. It will be readily handled and maneuvered on the water and be fitted for hoisting on board ship

and so arranged as to be quickly assembled or broken down. It will have one main pontoon and two auxiliary pontoons.

NAVAL REQUIREMENTS.

A naval authority has recently stated to the editor that manufacturers of aircraft have not developed these craft so that they would be used by armies or navies, especially navies, though late products have come nearer satisfying the demands of an army. The use of aeroplanes on water has been mostly confined to rivers, lakes and inland waters and the future naval air and water machine must be suited to the open sea. It is argued by the manufacturers, on the other hand, that the governmental demand, as far as this country is concerned, is so small that it is out of the question for manufacturers to do all the experimenting at their own expense with only a possibility of selling the products to the government. At any rate, our "well known" army and navy is more or less handicapped by the slowness of Congress in realizing the necessity of an aeronautical branch.

The aeronautic officers on board the "North Carolina" in Europe

are returning home and will go to the Navy Aeronautic Station at Pensacola and then a great deal more work will be done. These officers returning are: Lieutenant-Commander H. C. Mustin, Lieutenant P. N. L. Bellinger, Lieutenant R. C, Saufley and Ensign W. Cape-hart. The work at Pensacola at the present lime consists in instruction of the new class of officers that has heen detailed. There will be 10 officers in this class when finally assembled, of which eight have already been detailed.

NAVY MAY BUY DIRIGIBLES SOON.

The Navy has asked for bids on two small dirigibles, but the contract has not yet been let, nor, as far as one knows, has it been definitely decided what type or size will be used.

The newspaper story recently published is quite untrue. No one at the present time is making any dirigibles for the government, nor have any orders been issued.

$5,000,000 RECOMMENDED FOR AIR NAVY

NEW CORPORATIONS.

Ascension Manufacturing Company, Sparta. Wis., by Nathan Steele.

The Circular Monoplane Company, Rochester, N. V., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000 and will begin business with $1,000. The directors are Joseph F. Claes-gens, George A. Glaesgeus and Agnes II. Claesgens, all of 246 Avenue C; Walter P. Davis, of 551 Plymouth Avenue South, and Frederic A. Geiger, of 292 Seyle Terrace. Joseph Oaesgens is the inventor of a monoplane of a new type.

SPEEDS

Miles per Feet per

Hour Second.

1 ....... 1.4?

2 ......... 2.93

3 ......... 4.41

4 '......... 5.87

5 ......... 7.33

6 '......... s.yr

7 ......... 10.29

8 ......... 11 "6

9 ........ 13.23

10 ....... 14.66

11 ......... 16-12

12 ......... 17.59

13 ......... 19.06

14 ......... 20.53

15 ........ 22.00

16 ......... 23.47

17 ......... 24.94

IS ......... 26.41

19 ......... 27.88

20 ......... 29.35

55 ......... 36.70

30 ......... 43.28

35 ........ 51.32

40 ......... 58.08

45 ........ 66.01

50 ......... 73.34

55 ......... 80.67

60 ......... 87.96

65 ......... 95.29

70 ........ 102.62

75 ........ 109.95

80 ......... 117.28

85 ......... 124.61

90 ......... 131.84

95......... 139.27

100 ......... 146.60

THE TURNER AVIAPHONE IN USE

We take the following from the San 1 >iego Union San ) Jiegn, California, September 20. 1 ('14 :

"Interest in the war department competition is growing hourly as the time for the contest approaches. The greatest fliers in America are now at North Island preparing for the competition. Pitted against each other will be Raymond Morris and Francis Wildman of the Curtiss School, probably assisted by Glenn Curtiss; Oscar Uiindley of the Wright School; Glenn Martin, regarded as the most sclent'lie flier in America; Silas Christ off erson. and the entry of the Benoist company not yet named.

"With these famous and expert hirdmen putting their planes through the difficult maneuvers prescribed by the war department, spectators, it is said, will witness some of the most

thrilling flights ever seen in this country.'1

When, O Lord, will aviation in this country cease to be ridiculous? Contemplating the far-flung publicity given to the Hearst Transcontinental "Flight," the Gould "Prize" and the Panama-Pacific "Around-the-World Race," not to mention a score of other similar fiascos, it is small wonder that that shrewd old gentleman, the American Puhlic, regards us more or less as a bunch of fakers.

THE TURNER AVIAPHONE.

Further experiments have been conducted with the K. M. Turner "a via phone," described in AERONAUTIC S some time ago, and recently a test was made on a Thomas flying boat at Stamford and in the 1 'eoh machine on Long Island, by Wilbur R. Kimball, representative of the General Acoustic Co.

The Turner aviaphone has been pioduced after some years of experiment, and is now offered to aviators and aviation schools as a practical instrument by which communication may be had during flight. 11 is especially valuable to governments for use in the aviation corps of the armies and navies. Officers living with a pilot can direct scouting movements, leaving both hands free for making notes, taking pictures, etc.

The instrument consists of two helmets or caps, two specially wound receivers for each user, breastplate, connecting cords, battery weighing hut 5 ozs, plugs and jacks, the entire outfit weighing but 5 lbs. 5 ozs. We furnish regularly caps as shown in the illustration; the receivers, however, can be adj usted to any type or size of helmet or headgear. The mouthpiece, extending from the specially constructed breastplate transmitter, is in position only during conversation.

DE KOR LATEST TO prompted the use of wood and cloth

LOOP "]t-h w're -ant* turnhuckles to obtain rigidity. The linen was given six

This photo is of Fied De Kor and coats of Emaillite, which upon ad-

his new tractor biplane equipped vice was not varnished. The prep-

\\ith an 80-h.p. Duplex Gyro and aratiou not being waterproof this

a Simmons propeller. This ma- oversight caused trouble, the upper

chine was built and flown at Los surface of wings having to be re-

form showed general superiority and greater freedom from the evils of discontinuity,

"In larger models observation will be made from windows along either side and under wings, the body being entirely enclosed.

"Patents on the entire design of the Airbirde Flyer (trade mark name), have been issued and median ical patents on wings, body form, and method of lateral control have been fully allowed."

Lateral stability is designed to be effected by the vertical fins. "In two trial flights of 5 and S minutes each, the bus proved superior to wing warping, though on a rectangular lifting surface they would not do."

Angeles, Cal.. and gave excellent covered. For the wheels special

results. De Km- on his first flight huhs and spokes were made, taking

made 2 loops. This is the first time 20x4 Goodrich tires and rims. The

that he has ever looped. lie states high carbon steel Shelby tube axle

that it is the best motor he has suspends from steel spiral springs ever sat behind.

THE MERRY

PARACHUTE

She called him her Darius Green, And donned her widow hat,

Then jumped aboard his aeroplane—-Now what do you think of that?

She was so charming that the wheels Began to buzz around,

And in a jiffy the machine

Was lifted from the ground— Now what do you think of that?

THOMAS BROTHERS MOVE TO ITHACA FOR ROOM.

The recent great impetus given to aviation by the present European war has, to some extent, been responsible for the move of the Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Corn-pa ny to Ithaca, X. Y.. where they have secured a factory, giving approximately three times the former capacity: and, in addition, excellent facilities for vtater flying over the beautiful Cayuga Lake, which is approximately forty miles long, with an average width of two miles. At the head of the lake they have an excellent flying field for land school work, and for demonstrating. In addition to this Cornell University offers considerable opportunities for research w ark.

Ithaca is an exceedingly pleasant ami live little city of 15,000 population, offering excellent hotel accommodations, and many diversities,

the whole being carried by light Shelby tubing bent to appropriate ^5* Lorus kissed her on the cheek, form as shown in illustrations. Which made the Chauffeur sigh;

"The control rudders operate by Socas a Sentle hint, of course,

means of flexible wire cables car- She leaned up to Dar ried into body to foot and lever control.

A /0-h.p. water-cooled motor of But

Now what do you think of that?

four-cylinder overhead struct ion was installed.

/alve con-driving a

'twixt the lips and stealing ships.

They bumped up in a cloud,

three-hladed flexing type Paragon

and on the whole is an ideal spot propeller of beautiful design. For

in which to take a course in aerial training.

A new military tractor biplane is at present under construction to be tested before the first of the year.

"The prospects in aviation have never looked brighter, and we believe that within a year aeroplanes will assume a position of immense importance in already have abroad, Thomas Brothers

protection on the flying field a circus tent was obtained but a severe storm disagreed emphatically with this procedure. Altho now consigned to the experienced handling of Mr. Allan S. Adams persistent motor trouble caused a postponement of extended trials until spring, when a dependable motor of another country, as they make wij, be instanej. The total say the area of tjje mac]inie js 300 sq. ft., weight 900 lbs. (which will be rein next mod-

And knocked the jibboom from the fore.

And tore the mizzen shroud— Xow what do you think of that?

And they were falling, when she cried;

"Oh catch my merry hat!'* They used it for a parachute— Xow what do you think of that? —Walter Scott Haskell.

Mr. J. Madison Thorp, of Ala-

R.

luced ahout 200 lbs.

els), spread of wings 40 ft., total meda, California, is the inventor of

length 35 ft., body 5 by 20 ft., an aeroplane launching and landing

wings 10 ft. deep along body, mean device for ships which seems to

aspect ratio 6 to 1. camber ratio have much merit. The device con-

1-20, greatest sectional wing depth sists essentially of a launching and

6 in. An interesting coincidence landing car mounted upon two cable

ear with the machine illustrated in the wing section form noted is ways and of means by which these

that while constructed to require- ways are maintained in a horizontal

D. BRUCE BUILDS NOVEL FLYER.

Robert D. Bruce, of Pittsburgh, Pa., has been experimenting the past

here, which be calls the "airbirde

After experimenting with models ments of the mechanical key de- position, no matter how the ship

in flight, this large machine was vised, the outline form is an exact rolls. The apparatus is light, occu-

built to scale. duplicate of that designed by M. pies little space and is capable of

"Laminated wood construction is Eiffel (Resistance of the Air & being readily dismounted and put

of course preferable but the factors Aviation-Eiffel, P. S4, wing S, plate aside when not required for imme-

of time and financial consideration II). The experiments with this diate use.

Page 104

NEW CURTISS MILITARY TRACTOR.

"Model N" is the latest military tractor from the Curtiss plant in Ilammondsport, with a range of speed, with two people up and five hours' fuel, of from 40 to 75 miles an hour, climbing 4,000 ft. in 10 minutes, using a 100-h.p. O-XX motor, a refinement of the O-X 90-100-h.p. motor which is now standard in Curtiss machines.

AVIATOR IS FINED UNDER RULING THAT HYDROAEROPLANE IS MOTORBOAT.

Under an opinion handed down by the Solicitor-General of the United States, holding that hydroaeroplanes are subject to all of the regulations governing the oneration of motorboats. Collector of Customs William F. Stone to-day imposed penalties totaling $550 upon Dean R. Vankirk, of Washington, owner of the flying boat Columbia.

So far as is known the imposition of the fines upon Mr. Vankirk is the first time the Government has ever sought to penalize an aviator. Tie was fined $100 for navigating after sunset, $100 for running without lights, $100 for having insufficient life-saving devices aboard bis flying boat and $250 for not having copies of the pilot rules aboard.

Only a few days ago Collector Stone had the hydro-aeroplane of the Jannus brothers, in this city, inspected, and found that it was fully equipped in accordance with the mo-torboat regulations.

This ruling was agitated by AERONAUTICS some time ago and an opinion similar to this .was rendered by the Solicitor General on a supposititious case. This view is heartily in accord with the opinions of aviators who are strong for Federal control of flying.

"The present government license for motor boat operators is a thing that has proved very sensible, as

well as formidable, and we believe that both the Aeronautical Society and the Aero Club of America should combine in an effort to regulate legislation so that the Department of Commerce will have comprehensive laws governing aircraft on both land and water and in the air."

Jannus Brothers.

ELTON AVIATION COMPANY ORGANIZED.

The Elton Aviation Co., Youngs-town, Ohio, has been organized by Albert Elton, H. P. McQuiston and II. M. Rinebart to give exhibition flights. While making a flight in a Model 11 Wright at Lynchburg, Virginia, October 9th, Howard Rine-hart, the aviator, fell a distance of 1.800 ft. The accident was caused by the elevator not being properly wired up, causing same to collapse in mid-air, causing subsequent loss of control of the machine. In his downward descent he turned completely over twice, the motor stop-

ping on the first turn, and after she settled on the second turn up side down she drifted on down to the ground like a large piece of paper, and falling into a cemetery near the flying grounds. Rinebart received an injured sciatic nerve which is about the total amount of his injuries. All things considered, it was a miraculous escape from death. We have had the Model B completely rebuilt by The Wright Company and have purchased the Model E single propeller exhibition machine.

. The Lorain (Ohio) Hydro

S: Aerial Co., composed of Lorain men, has received two car loads of aeroplane parts and at once will engage in the business of manufacturing aeroplanes and accessories and also will book exhibition flights. Several contracts have heen signed.

The company and its officers are J. E. Peppin, president; J. J. Kelly, vice-president; K. F. Banning, secretary and treasurer; K. F. Walzek, designer and builder.

JANNUS TO JOIN IN OPENING SAN DIEGO EXPOSITION.

Roger Jannus, of Jannus Brothers, Baltimore, arrived in San Diego December 13th. Knox Martin left for the same destination December 15th. The two flying boats belonging to these gentlemen left by freight December 15th, and are due in San Diego the 28th inst., and should be flying on the opening day of the Panama-California Exposition.

The construction of the Jannus Brothers' new "Exposition Model" four-passenger flying hoats continues briskly, and one should be ready for a test by January 5th. Tony Jannus leaves for Detroit Tuesday, December 15th, to purchase Maxi-motors for the season's output. Incident to this trip will be several prospects who have expressed their desire of going to San Diego on the co-operative taxi plane proposition. It is expected by those who are posted on the matter that the height of the season at San Diego will be in February and again in October. The Jannus Brothers will supply flying boats for the passenger carrying trade at this Exposition.

Curtiss Model N

JANNUS BUILDING NEW FLYING BOAT.

After six weeks in Baltimore the Jannus Brothers have now three more pilots in their camp, and two flying boats in excellent condition. The most active of the pilots has been Roger Jannus, well-known for his good work in Florida, Duluth and the Mississippi Valley. In the last few days (he aviator, Knox Martin, who formerly spent a year doing exhibition work in South America with aeroplanes, is now a confirmed flying boat pilot, having joined the Jannus Brothers and bought Tony Jannus' St. Petersburg Tampa flying boat. The students, J. D. Smith and Fritz Eric-son, are both flying alone, and are practically ready for pilot's license test after 12 lessons apiece. These men hoth learned under the new system of one-half hour lessons at $20.00 apiece. Alfred W. Harris, of Peoria, is taking a few lessons in anticipation of the completion of a new machine t which is being huilt to his order in St. Louis. Mr. Harris has flown with Tony Jannus on numerous occasions in Peoria and Cedar Point, and is a warm personal friend of De Lloyd Thompson.

The Knox Martin machine is an extra good job. looking better than ever before, having been re-designed

and re-built from stem to stern. This machine carries three people easily, and is a good rough water fighter. Roger Jannus and Knox Martin will open their winter season at San Diego, January 1st, carrying passengers. The factory is working on a new Exposition Model, a three-passenger flying boat, and this machine is expected to be a winner. There is also in work a new monoplane designed for a 6-cylinder radial motor.

The new Jannus Brothers* factory in Baltimore has been a source of local interest, and it is an astonishingly complete place considering the length of time given to this end of the business. In the course of the next six weeks a complete outfit for machine work should perfect the equipment.

Clarke Thomson, pilot and sportsman, indulged in two hours and seven minutes flying recently with Tony Jannus. They nosed in and out of every cove and river between Baltimore and Havre De Grace. "Millions" of ducks were encountered in the famous Susquehanna flats. The trip was made purely one of observation and no guns were carried. Mr. Thomson is a sportsman who has frequently patronized aviation, having received his pilot certificate under George Beatty. M r. Thomson has flown in other machines, but "his last and

longest trip with Tony Jannus was the most delightful and thoroughly satisfying of any; although a strong wind prevailed the entire day." M rs. Gwendolyn Whistler 1 laugh-ton, wife of Percy D. Haugliton, the famous Harvard football coach, was Mr. Thomson's guest. All of the guests at the Grace's Point Ducking Club were very enthusiastic, and expect to fly with the Jannus Brothers later in the season at San Diego and San Francisco.

The Jannus Brothers find their methods of extracting coin very effective. One machine has just been sold and they have taken in $2,000 in passenger money since we have been here. Considering the season and the fact that only one machine has been working, one would not call this poor.

The specifications of the new Jannus hoat are as follows: Total area, 4S0 so., ft.; spread. 45 ft. 10 ins.*, chord. 5 ft. 6 ins.; hull, length over all, 25 ft.; hull. beam. 3 ft. 10 ins.; Paragon propeller, 9 it. 6 ins.; geared. 3-4; motor, now a Roberts, but a Maximotor is now being hought. of 75 h.p.; carrying capacity, 3; speed range, 30-65 m.p.h. is claimed.

KILLED IN THE LOOP.

Venice, Cal., Dec. 3.—Thomas J. Hill, an aviator, was killed here today attempting to loop the loop over this city. It is reported a guy wire supporting one wing collapsed. Glenn Martin has stated that the guy wires were standard and that the monoplane 11 ill used had not been especially strengthened for this feat.

TERRELL DIES TO SAVE CROWD.

Chesterfield, S. C, Nov. 13.— Frank P. Terrell was killed in landing when he swerved his machine to avoid the crowd which had surged on the track after he had ascended. It is claimed his engine stopped and he was endeavoring to land and in had to choose between hitting the $ crowd or endangering his own life in making a landing in a spot safe 5 for the crowd. He paid for his heroic act with his life.

DEFINES "AERONAUTICAL."

The Chairman of the Congressional Committee, before which Captain Mark L. Bristol has recently appeared, has settled the status of "aeronautical."

"For instance, we have the aeroplane, and we have also the hydroaeroplane, and that connects it with the water. We have in the word 'aeronautical'—'aero,* which relates to the air. and 'nautical.* which relates to the sea, have we not?"

UNCLE SAM USES JEFFERY'S.

Teffery's Waterproof Liquid Glue. C Quality, has been adopted by the United States Aeronautic Stations and the United States Navy Department.

I can hardly wait from one issue till another to get AERONAUTICS, I like it so well.—N. L., Ohio.

Pa?c 106

AERONAUTICS. October IS, 1914.

THOMAS MILITARY, TWO-PLACE, TRACTOR BIPLANE

This new machine has been designed to supply the demand for a well built, speedy, and safe two-passenger machine, having a large speed range, and capable of flying with ample reserve when carrying two people, gasoline, oil, etc., for a flight of from four to six hours.

Over-all dimensions: Length overall, 26 ft.; span. 36 ft.; chord, 5 ft.; gap, 5 ft.

The wings are built up in five sections. The four large sections comprise practically the entire lifting surface of the machine. The small section fits over the fuselage. The wing curve is designed from data obtained from JM. Eiffel's experiments in his Paris laboratory, and is especially selected so as to have not only an extremely low lift to drift ratio, but is also especially adapted to fast climbing with load, and also being capable of sustaining the machine in flight, fully loaded, at a comparatively low speed. Most of the wood used in the wing construction is clear, silver spruce, and all the beams, ribs, etc., are of the lightest sections possible consistent w ith the strength required in each member. All ribs are built up in such a way as to assure their perfect alignment, and are proof against warping, and also weakening, due to exposure and weather conditions.

The fuselage is made up largely of white ash. All longitudinal members are channeled out and tapered for lightness. All clips are of steel, and are so designed that they do not pierce the longitudinal members.

Running gear is of the two skid, two-wheel type, having two 26-in. by -4-in. wheels and specially made Goodjear tires, mounted on a transverse axle, which axle is in turn carried on the skids through the medium of rubber shock absorbers. All running gear members are of streamline section; also the axle is streamlined by a channeled member joining the skids.

The power plant is completely enclosed, and is mounted in the front of the fuselage, having the radiator immediately in front of the engine, and] a light weight, aluminum, folding hood effectively shielding the former and preserving the streamline form of the fuselage. A service gasoline tank is mounted in front of the passenger's seat, and a storage tank, holding twenty gallons, is fitted under the pilot's seat, and, through a pressure pump, sup-lilies the storage tank.

Elevator operated by pull and push on steering wheel, which is mounted on a substantial, pivoted post. The movement is conveyed to two sturdy, all steel, flaps, hinged to the stabilizer.

Rudder is operated by a rotation of the wheel, the rudder itself being of all steel construction.

Aileron5 are four in number and are hinged to the outer extremities df the rear wing spars. They are operated by a leaning shoulder bow, or, as an alternative, by foot pedals, mounted in the front of the pilot's compartment. All the controls are very strongly constructed, and are made largely of steel tubing, with all joints wrapped and brazed; they are of ample si7e to take care of their requirements.

All fittings are made specially for their places, and such articles as turnbuckles, eyebolts. etc., are of the latest and most accepted design

and quality. All holts, clips, etc., are made of steels having a high tensile strength.

The fabric used is a high grade, imported. 1 rish linen, sewn on to the machine, and the n treated with from five to nine coats of a special "dope" solution.

The factor of safety on this machine is "seven." Wires are of ample strength and are of Koehling

lution counter. showing engine speed (Tel. Manufacture); inclinometer, showing angle of flight; clock, barograph, showing height; Pitot tube, giving air speed; switch, gasoline shut-off, magneto advance. The seats are of the aluminum bucket type, and are fitted with a 3-in. curled hair cushion, upholstered in a serviceable gray cordu-

manufacture, and doubled for safety. Each part is easily accessible, and such parts as strut connections and wing fastenings can be very quickly assembled or taken down.

In front of the pilot's seat is fitted a substantial mahogany dashboard, having the following standard equipment: instruments let in flush, gasoline preserve gauge, revo-

Thomas Military Tractor,

A Thomas propeller is used in conjunction with the 90-b.p. Anstro-I laimler motor.

The gasoline consumption is approximately nine gallons per hour, under full load, and the oil consumption is less than one-half gallon per hour.

Weight of machine, empty, 1,075 lbs., approximate!/.

WARRING COUNTRIES HAVE 6,000 PLANES.

A table has been made up by Captain Mark L. Bristol. Director of Aeronautics in the Navy, showing the estimated machines on hand on December I, 1914, among the foreign powers, as follows:

Austria-Hungary ....... 600

Belgium ............... 60

Great Britain .......... 900

France ................ 1,400

Germany ............... 1,400

Italy .'................. 300

Ta^an .................. 20

Russia ................. 1.000

5,6SO

Dirigibles are figured as follows:

Austria-Hungary ........ S

Belgium................

Great Britain .......... 12

France ................. 30

Germany ............... 60

Italy .'................. 4

Japan ................. 2

Russia ................. 20

136

At the beginning of the war the United States had 23 aeroplanes in both Army and Navy. A recent despatch says Italy has 10 dirigibles and 11 6 aeroplanes.

the Signl Corps. lie has been for eight months at the flying school at San Diego and has become skilled in the management of aeroplanes.

The new course at Tech, which has been open only this term, is beginning auspiciously, according to Lieutenant 1 lunsaker, who has charge of the instruction. Besides Captain Clark. M. S. Chow, one of the M. I. T. graduates in naval architecture, is making the study of the subject leading to the degree Master of Science; three other Chinese are taking the work in their regular institute courses and one senior in mechanical engineering is specializing in aerodynamics.

M. I. T. COURSE OPENS.

One of the students recently registered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is Captain V. E. Clark, of Uniontown. Pa., who has joined the institute for the benefit of the special post-graduate work on aerodynamics. Captain Clark is a graduate of Annapolis who has been transfered to the army and is attached to the Aviation Section of

TEN MONTHS' EXPORTS, $214,057.

IMPORTS.

For October .............. None

For 10 months ending October. 1 aeroplane......... $1,856

For 10 months ending, October, parts ............... 12,054

EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC. For October, 3 aeroplanes.. $1 7,000

For October, parts......... l.n6S

For 10 months ending October, 33 aeroplanes .......

For 10 months ending October, parts ............... 27.058

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN.

For October .............. None

For 10 months ending October, parts .............. $207

IX WAREHOUSE.

On < >ct. 31, 1 aeroplane and

parts ................... $1,856

IF1

Combined with "FLY"

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

■ y

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

ERNEST L. M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BE1ER,

JONES

Editor Technical Editor Model Editor

Advertising:

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 2z, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a Copy.

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allow ance must be made for receipt and return.

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Paten(s)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON. OHIO New York Office: 11 Pioe St.

AVIATORS, NEAR AVIATORS A Nil STUDENTS SHOULD INVESTIGATE OUR PROPOSITION FOR PARTIALLY FINANCING AND MANAGING AT FRISCO FOR 10 MONTHS. $3,500 REQUIRED. $20 PER LESSON UNTIL SUCCESS IS ASSURED. ADDRESS I ANNUS P.ROT11ERS. HATTERY AVENUE AND IIAM-UURG STREETS, BALTIMORE, MD.

WILL RENT my double covered 26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a reliable party. Address E. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

c^lERO MART

P.ARGAIN IN r.OOKS—Will sell folio wins hooks: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual. 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $.50; Art of Aviatiun (Hrewer) $1.50; Airships Fast and Present i Ilildtbiand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1S93, $5; various other books thrown in to purchaser of the lot. L. E. Dare. 216 West 104tli st., New York.

WRIGHT Model P. for sale as it stands; $50 will put it in perfect condition; engine in first-class shape. Met with slight accident in landing. Price $1,000 cash. Address S., care AERONAUTICS.

WANTED—Party with $2,500 to take half interest in Airbirde Exhibition Co.: can book machine solid season 1915: will give same interest tu flyer having SO-h.p. Gyro motor, or to manufacturer of financial responsibility who can assume the manufacturing license; will furnish the machine for affirmative tests. Robert D. Bruce, 33S Hastings St., Pittsburgh, Pa.

ADVERTISEMENTS IN AERONAUTICS

Once and for all time let us announce that we do not publish advertisements free, nor do we print any advertisements on a basis of replies leceived from the same. Our representatives in soliciting for AERONAUTICS have been approached with such propositions, the inference being that aeronautical publications are doing this. Let us say that we value too highly the patronage of those firms and individuals who have persistently used our columns and paid therefor, to entertain any such proposition.

ADVERTISERS IN A E R O-NAUTICS ARE PAVING FOR THEIR SPACE. When we say that AERONAUTICS reaches the heads of the influential governments of the world we are making a statement that is hacked up by the subscription

list and bv the results obtained. A d v er t i si n g in A E R O N A UTIC S makes an appeal to a larger buying power per paid subscription than that of all other aeronautical journals in the United States combined.

Established in 190", AERO-NA UT1CS has gained and maintained the confidence of all its subscribers and today its results gained for advertisers is testified to bv the amount of PAID advertising that the magazine carries.

It is unfair to accept the advertisement of a big firm FREE for the sake of inducing smaller firms to sign contracts under tile impression that the big firm is paying for its space,

It is unfair to the subscribers to make them helieve that AERO-

NAUTICS supports a vast and varied number of industries.

A certain number of reliable firms have found it to their advantage to use the advertising columns of AERONAUTICS. Our subscribers have long since found that such advertisers as use AERONAUTICS are reliable. FOR THIS REASON WE DO NOT NEED TO P R I N T ADVERTISEMENTS FREE. AERONAUTICS STANDS ON ITS MERITS. WE CAN CARRY AN ADVERTISER'S MESSAGE TO THE MOST IMPORTANT MEN INTERESTED IN AERONAUTICS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

Results prove this.

29 West 39th Street. New York *

THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN.

The first three Round Table Talks were held on Nov. I9th, Dec. 3rd and Dec. 10th and proved to be a success, both as to the number of members present and to the interest displayed in the subjects discussed ami there is no dnuht but that these Talks will be become a permanent and important feature in the Society's work.

The informal manner in which these meetings were conducted brought out a diversity of subjects and spirited debate which furnished intellectual enjoyment perhaps unattainable in a formal public meeting.

Among the subjects discussed were: the Stagel Semi-Rigid Dirigible; a Process of Purifying Hydrogen Gas by Electrified Iodine; the Con ill Rotating Cylinder and Crank Shaft Motor; the Sherwood Non-warping Biplane; a System of Sky Rockets for Aerial Defense; the Mezzatesta Float less Type of Carburetor; the Pollizzi Tandem Surface Monoplane with Dual Motors; the Demand for a Small Type of Aeroplane Capable of Starting from a Country Road; Friction Losses in Universal Joints; the Proposed Xilson Type of High Powered Gasolene Motor; the Most Useful Power Range for Future Progress in Aeroplane Development; a Process for Uuilding up Cylinders for Aeroplane Motors by Oxy-acetylene Welding; Prof. Michel son's Work in Producing Exceedingly Tough Steel, and the Ionic Theory of Matter

The subject of Aerial Defense was debated with the result that it was deemed the duty of the Society to offer its services to responsible defense societies and leagues and to assist thin in the preparation of plans involving the use of aircraft.

SPECIAL NOTICE.

The Round Table Talks will be continued on Thursday evenings except those falline on Christmas Eve and New Year's Eve when the meetings will be held on Wednesday evenings. Pec. 23rd and 30th respectively. Members will please take notice of these two special dates. The regular Thursday evening meetings will be resumed in January.

A well-known aviator was not feeling verv well, so be thought he would consult a physician, to whom he was a stranger. He told the doctor his symptoms. The doctor examined him carefully and said:

"My dear sir. von are all right. What von want is plenty of fresh air."—Globe.

BULLETIN.

This organization desires to thank the Society of Municipal Engineers of New York City for their hospitality and the courtesies extended to this cluh at the recent visit to Mineola on Saturdav, November 7th, 1914.

The Milwaukee Model Aero Club has hecume affiliated with it, forming the Milwaukee branch ot The Aero Science Club. The officers of this branch are as follows: Lynn

E. Davis, president; Raymond Maas, vice-president; Gilbert Counsel!, secretary and treasurer; Walter Lohn-dorf, director of i-ou tests.

George F. McLaughlin has been appointed recording secretary of The Aero Science Club.

The club desires to extend a vote of thanks for the very excellent trophy offered by Mr. Henry S. Willard for open competition. Rules regarding the contests to he held for this trophy will be furnished on application.

The club also extends thanks to the Aero Cluh of America for the kindness accorded to its members on their visit to the Aero Club on November 21st.

At a supplemental gliding contest, in preparation for the contests as arranged for by M r. Hart of the Aeronautical Society. Mr,

F. M Broomliehl was a winner, having a percentage of 61. The content was for stability.

Club pins of sterling silver have been obtained ami all members desiring same will please remit to the secretary.

At Van Cortlandt Park on Saturday. November 21st, the world's record fur R. O. G. models for distance in competition for the Herres-hoff cup, was broken by Fred Wat-kins, with a flight of 1,761 ft.

After January 1st, 1915, the Long Island Model Aero Club will become a section of this organization.

The following are the results ot the contest held for the prizes kindly offered by Mr. Charles 11. lleitman:

R. Funk and A. Barker, 73 */2 seconds; W. Bamberger, 62 seconds; C. Freelan, 49 seconds. This contest was held on the afternoon of October 11th, at Liberty Heights, and was the largest contest of its kind held in some time. Fourteen of America's best model flyers competed for the prizes and a considerable number of flights were made by the many model enthusiasts not entered in the contest. The number of official flights made has been estimated to be over two hundred. With the ideal weather conditions prevailing, excellent flights were made by every model flyer and many times three or more machines were in flight at once.

Promptly at 2 p. m. the contest was opened, and continued until 5 p. m.. being judged by Mr. Edward Durant, director, and M r. C. V. Obst, president of the Aero Science Club. A very large number of

model flyers were on hand to witness the flying. Among the spectators was Archibald Hart, a Director of The Aeronautical Society of America, whose interest and support arc highly appreciated by all the members of this club. The start was made from the L. I. M. A. C. launching platform which was very kinaly offered for this special event. For the first time in any event two flyers won, both R. Funk and A. Barker, making the same duration of 73>2 seconds in their last flights. Directly after the meet closed a flight of 78 seconds was made by Barker, this being but 3 seconds below the American record.

It is interesting to note that this contestant's machine was smashed four times in succession during the competition, and he was handicapped by a broken finger, which was in splints and greatly interfered with him repairing big models.

Attention is called to the gliding contests to be held at Highland Park, Brooklyn, N. Y., as follows: December 6th, Duration; December 13th, Stability, and December 20th, Weight-carrying. All gliders must be thirty inches in span. No entry fee. The prizes for these contests are kindly offered by Mr. A. 11 art of The Aeronautical Society.

Attention is called to the contests for the Herreshoff year trophy competed for every Saturday afternoon at Van Cortlandt Park. No entry fees charged.

Each of the Directors of The Aeronautical Society of America paid respectively Ten Dollars into the Treasury of The Aeronautical Society of America, making a total of Thirty Dollars, to be competed for in model contests to be conducted under the auspices of the Aero Science Club of America. Each of the three respective winners ill be entitled to all privileges of The Aeronautical Society for one year.

For further particulars address the Secretary. 1 Iarry Schultz, at the rooms of The Aeronautical So-cietv. 29 West 39th Street, New York City.

AERO CLUB OF PENNSYLVANIA.

Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 1, 1914.

A stated meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania was held at the Bellevue-Stratford. Friday evening, December 4th, 1914, at 8.30 p. m. Meeting of the Board of Directors at 7.30 p. m.

Mr. E. C. Malick, a former member of the club, who has been flying in the West during the past summer, gave an informal talk on bis experience.

Clarence P. Wynne,

President.

George S. Gassner,

Secretary.

NEW BOOKS.

GAS. GASOLINE AND OIL ENGINES, by Gardner D. Hiscox, 1915 edition, revised and enlarged by Victor W. Page; 8vo, cloth, 640 pp. 435 ills., published by Norman W. Henlev Publishing Co.. 132 Nassau St.. New York, at $2.50, Copies inav be had through AERONAUTICS.

B A J. I. OO I* S DIRIGIBLES

Records prove we liui[<i the best Balloons in America. Nine 1st prizes. Three 2nd, ami Two 3rd prizes out of fourteen World-wide Contests.

Write for prices and particulars. HONEYWELL BALLOON CO

4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo.

WHEN in California look for Jannus Brothers' EXPOSITION MODEL, passenger carrying "taxiplane." Two men now ready to go to San Diego for the opening and more training. Special proposition offered to sportsmen or professionals. Ask for booklet.

TONY and ROGER JANNUS NOW CALLKH THE

JANNUS BROTHERS

Factory: Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md.

AERONAUTICS

New aod Enlarged Edition. Coromeociog January, 1914

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? (FOUNDED 1907)

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THE BEATING WING MACHINE.

Evety once in a while someone announces the discovery of a wing movement that rivals the bird's in results. We have heard lately from Edison, in the public press, about the speed of the bumble bee's wings.

According to Spencer Heath, there is nothing in it. "The bee's wing seems to move with incredible swiftness because we consider only the number of pulsations per minute, or per second, and wholly forget the fact that the length of movement of the wing tip in each pulsation is only the fraction of an inch. The eye cannot follow the blades of an insect's \\ing but I think it has still less chance to follow the blades of an aeroplane propeller. I haven't the data at hand to figure it out but f think if we multiply the vibrations of the bee's wings by tiie sweep of its tip in one vibration, we will get prohahly a less tip velocity than we have in some aeroplane propellers. If an aeroplane propeller could be as large relatively to the size of the machine as an insect's wings are to its body, there would be no need of any planes. Prof. Petti-grew proved (and he was afterwards corroborated by Prof. Marey) that the action of a wing, whether of bird or insect, is identical with the action of a screw. The wing of a bird does not in any respect resemhle, in its operation, the wing of an aeroplane. It is only the gliding animals' like flying squirrels, lemurs and flying fish, that have any organ resembling the wing ol an aeroplane, but, of course, the soaring birds use their wings in this way part of the time."

DEPOSITION OF

METAL UPON WOOD

It is now generally acknowledged - and the decision made has been the result of disastrous ex per i-tnces that it is absolutely essential that the tips of propellers on hydroaeroplanes in any hut the smoothest \\ater should in some way be protected by a sheet-metal covering, says Bti'tish Aeronautics. Let us examine the only methods by which this has hitherto been accomplished.

A Mr. Barber, we understand, was the first to use a metal-sheathed propeller, the covering being ob-ta;ned merely by depositing copper in a bath on a wooden propeller, which had been prepared fur this by means of the application of finely powdered plumbago, which converted the wooden surface into the conducting medium necessary. The Chauviere Co. then introduced propellers of \\hich the tips were covered with sheet-copper, this being attached by means of multitudinous rivets. This is the seaplane propeller most largely in use at the present time, but would seem to suffer from (he disadvantages that, in the first place, it is considerably heavier owing to the presence of so many rivets than would be one covered only with the sheeting; secondly, the rivets are liable to increase the size of the holes drilled in the wood through which they pass, and thus tu wcakeii the blade by the shocks which would be occasioned by occasional on it net with spray or crests

of waves; and thirdly, perfect evenness uf surface after lengthy use is difficult to retain.

An excellent solution to the difficulty was finally arrived at by M. [.any, who was aware of the tendency of a sheathing by Mr. Barber's process to fly off through cen-tri f u sal force at the slightest opportunity. By bis process a thin strip uf copper is firmly embedded m the blade at the required distance i rum the tip, and the wood between these two is prepared in order that copper may be deposited upon it. *] Ins certainly si-eni> In be the most satisfactory method of surmounting the difficulty, ior the "anchoring strip" and sheathing become one and the same thing, disintegration being highly improbable.

Another method by which the attachment could be effected has lately come tu our notice, and may here be briefly described. A paper was recently read by I Jr. Each on the subject of tlie pulverization and spraying of metals, a process which would seem to be singularly suitable for attaining the end in question. The apparatus, evolved by Sehoop. is so designed that jet* uf oxygen and hydrogen stream out at a high speed and are minted on emergence, thus constituting the ordinary oxy-hydrngen blowpipe The intense fl'me resulting inelts a projecting piece of metal, pulverizes it, and ihrows the pai tieles t rward under pressure. The deposition of this onto anylli ng suitably placed will then result, and the thickness of the coating may vary hetween a few thousandths of an inch Lip lo more than half an inch.

This process, need1 ess to say, finds many applications other than that suggested for propeller blades. Aluminium, the one metal that up to the present has not been available for treatment by the electro-deposition, can be utilized by the spraying process. Its vise ha sheen suggested as a means for rendering dirigible and balloon fabrics more impermeable to gas. and the possibility of protecting all wooden portions and the fahric of aeroplanes against the weather would seem perfectly reasonable.

An American inventor, A. G. Wat kins, of Philadelphia, lias patented a system for the deposition of copper upon wood and other materials to any thickness desired, and samples of this work have been shown in the office of AERONAL1-TlCS. A note on this suhject has previously appeared in AERONAUTICS, and it is interesting to note that some definite use has been made of copper-deposited propellers.

PENDULUM STABILIZERS.

To the Editor:—

Noting in your March 31st issue an article on "The Fallacy of Pendulum Stabilizers." in which quotations are made from a lecture by II. R. A. Mallock. F. R. S.. to the effect that "It is essential to the success of any automatic control that the forces called into play to make the correction of trim should not react on the director of those forces, whether this is a pendulum nr gyroscope or any other equivalent device," and that "any device in which the correcting force tends to niter the position of

the corrector is more likely to do harm than good," thewriter ventures the opinion that although the above expressions may put it a little too strongly, there is nevertheless much truth in the lecturer's contention, and several years ago—on May 5th. 1910. to be exact, before cav-eating was abolished—I filed a cay-eat on a device to overcome this reaction of the balancing devices on the pendulum or gyroscope or combination of the two. It is evidently essential for the purpose to avoid all frictional contact—even that necessary for making electrical connections—between the balancer and the corrector, and this I proposed to accomplish by means of a selenium cell in connection with an electrically controlled balancer, the preferred form being a pendulum steadied by gyroscopes in balanced relation, an arc or semi-circle on the pendulum opaque at the center and gradually shaded lo transparency at each end, and a fixed, steady light shining through this translucent arc to the selenium cell. Then, as the pendulum changes its position relative to that of the fixed light and selenium cell, the amount of light shining through this shaded arc varies, and this varying light wave falling on the selenium ell varies accordingly the latter's electrical conductivity and hence the strength of the electrical current passing through it to operate the controls. Separate devices would of course be used for lateral and longitudinal balancing. The pendulum might be arranged to sw ing outw ardly by centrifugal force in order to balance while turning, only the variations from normal banking ihen affecting the selenium cell's electrical conductivity and hence the balancing devices. Also, instead of selenium, natural or absolutely pure antimony sulphide (also known as antimonite, stibnite and gray antimony) could be used, as according to a scien tific journal of March 2d, 1912, this substance "has been found to possess a photo-electric sensitiveness similar to that of selenium but for there being no troublesome inertia," both of these minerals possessing the remarkable power of heing very good electrical conductors while in the light and very poor ones in the dark.

The writer has not patented these ideas, and anyone is privileged to make use of them.

ELMER G. STILL.

Livermore, Cal., May 31, 1914.

P. S.—tn my next communication I will reveal my ideas on how vertical, hovering and slow flight may be accomplished, demonstrating the method by means of aerodynamic experiments already made, w hose full significance has evidently been overlooked, and also showing the several principles that render bird flight so efficient.

To the Editor:—-

There is one thing which you left out in the July 31 st issue of AERONAUTICS. ' Under the heading, page 25, "What American Aviation Needs." von forgot on** most important thing. I will acknowledge that American Aviation needs what yon have suggested, but in addition it needs that that pioneer among aviation journals. Ahronal'TKs. soon comes into its own! 1 sincerely hope that day is not far distant.

—Earle L. Ovingto.v.

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GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City, Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas, made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

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