Volume 15 - No. 6 - 1914 September

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Curtiss model "J", two-passenger Military Tractor Biplane. The last word in all-round efficiency. Speed range 40-90 miles per hour with 90 h.p. Curtiss O-X Motor. Climbs 1,000 feet per minute, flying light; 400 feet per minute with two men and four hours fuel. Adopted by U. S. Army.


90 H. P. "O-X" MOTOR Curtiss Model "N", two-passenger Military Tractor Biplane, combines unusual 1 efficiency with highly developed inherent stability. Planes are staggered and have = adjustable dihedral angle. Speed range with Curtiss "O-XX" Motor, 40-80 miles ft per hour.

Further information concerning: these, or new models of Curtiss Flyine Boats and Hydroaeroplanes, will be sent post free on receipt of request




Altitude Record!


Kansas City, Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas. made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.


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By Albert Adams Merrill.

The value of the longitudinal dihedral as a means of obtaining fore and aft stability has been known to students of aeronautics for a long time. Its value was shown first by Penaud in 1871. All monoplanes and biplanes, with the exception of the Dunne, introduce this dihedral between the main surface and a horizontal tail, either front or rear. This tail is small, relative to the main surface, and since the righting couple is a function ot" the product of area and horizontal gap a small tail necessitates a large gap. I believe that a large horizontal gap is had because it causes a time lag in the introduction of the righting coniile which will tend to set up oscillations. The first effect of a

CP. for each surface at 0. 13, 3.4, and 15.4 degrees are plotted. Taking X and V moments about 0 degrees we get A, which is the CP. for 0 and j.4 degrees. Increasing the in-cdence 1.2 degrees and taking X and V moments about 12 degrees we get P.. which is the CP. at 12 and 15.4 degrees. We need go no higher he-cause above 15 degrees the CP. moves in the right direction on each surface. Plotting the values of Kx and Ry at 1> we get R. the new lesultant which passes back of A and produces a small righting couple.

Manifestly, knowing the characteristics of any given surface we can combine two of these surfaces so as to get any righting couple we desire. This method is sound when-

gust on the front main surface is to upset the machine, since all single cambered surfaces are unstable, and only when the gust strikes the rear surface will the righting couple come into action. Manifestly then the shorter the distance between the two surfaces the less time will there be for the upsetting gust to start oscillations. This is proved by the admitted fact that a monoplane is steadier longitudinally at high speed than at low speed and this is simply because the time lag mentioned above is reduced.

Starting with a righting couple of a fixed magnitude, such as exists in a monoplane, to reduce the time lag wc must move the tail forward, but if we do this we must increase its area to keep the magnitude of the couple constant. As we bring the tail forward we must move it away from the slip stream of the main surface if we are not to lose efficiency and we arrive al the form show n in Fig. 1. This type may be called a staggered converging biplane and it is with this type that I have been experimenting.

The difference of incidence between the two surfaces is 3.4 degrees, the larger angle being in front. The surfaces used are Eiffel's No. 3. single covered, and the method of computing the righting couple is as follows: The surfaces are drawn I to scale and the positions of the

ever the amount of stagger is enough to prevent interference between the surfaces. A full stagger seems to do this.

My machine, which is a tractor, was constructed in lioston last March and my first flights were made in

Squantum, where I succeeded in making several good straight flights. On laud there was not the slightest trouble in rising, in fact to keep the machine from climbing fast we had to throttle the engine. The machine was very sensitive to its elevator, but it would climb or glide without moving the elevator simply by altering the thrust. This proved that the righting couple resides in the supporting surfaces.

To continue my experiments with the least danger to my pilot I decided to put the machine on pontoons. I spent a lot of time over t he problem of the proper adjustment of the C.G. to the center of lift and center of buoyancy, but finally got what I wanted so that the machine would rise and act over water as it did over land, except that the weight of the pontoons lowered the C.G. and made the moment inertia of the machine greater, and hence the flights steadier. I have made only short straight flights over water and only in winds. In a calm the engine seems not to have the power to overcome the water resistance. 11 is an old rotary rated at 50.

The photographs sliow the machine with no horizontal tail. These flights demonstrate that safety can be obtained without the use of an auxiliary surface either front or rear, and without the use of negative tips as in the Dunne. lJoth of my surfaces are lifting surfaces throughout their entire area. It may not be wise to fly this type of biplane without giving the elevator a longer moment arm, but nevertheless my pilot had no trouble in producing an undulating flight with ailerons placed at the rear of the lower surface. However, L would advise in practice a fuselage have a vertical and horizontal rudder hut no fixed horizontal surface, as the hitter is not needed.

In these experiments I have paid no attention to the problem of inherent lateral stability, but have used ailerons working on the reversed Farinan principle, a system which 1 have advocated for years and which now, I think, M r. Glenn Curtiss is using. I have borne, myself, prac-

June. For an elevator I use ailerons tically the whole cost of these ex-

on the trailing edge of the lower periments and cannot carry them any

rear surface. The machine at first further at the present time. I feel

was a land machine and the experi- sure that the idea underlying this ments were made on the field at {Continued on paue 0ft)


The much-heralded competition of military aeroplanes at San Diego. California, which was scheduled to commence October 20th. proved to lie more or less of a farce—more rather than less. The $30,000 infant, whose coming was hailed with such delight by the hungry Aviation family, passed away shortly after birth, and has been laid to rest with many tears in the graveyard of American aviation, where repose so many Inst hopes. Tombstone there is none to mark its last resting place, for the frail mother who gave it brief being, Mrs. Sig. Corps, is ton poor to buy even a wooden headpiece to mark the lonely grave.

In other words, in the parlance of the highbrows, the Competition for Avions was called off—pardon, rescinded—on account of the failure of tke contestants to comply with the technical regulation requiring them to file by October 1st drawings to scale of aeroplanes and motors and certified test sheets of motors, That was the official reason given, but the real reason, according to the Chief of our Aerial Detective Bureau (transmitted to us by private leased wire, the shortest in the world 1. was that the powers that be, armed with long-range telescopes, couldn't find enough competitors to make a competition.

Which is as was to be expected. As our office boy sometimes opines, facetiously we suspect, "What do you want for thirty cents?" In this seventh year of military aviation in America, the government suddenly wakes up to the fact that the aeroplane industry is languishing and decides to hold a big competition. It is not yet fully known just how the authorities came to this important conclusion, unless perhaps some member of the National Board of Air Strategy eaught a casual glimpse of the south side of an aeronautical editor going north or observed the abbreviated family wash of one of our noted constructors hanging on the line. However that may be, it was decided to hold a big competition. That decision having been reached, after long and careful consideration, someone suggested


that it might be a good idea to offer prizes. Of course, that was an entirely new idea and had to be carefully threshed out. Finally, however, it was decided to offer prizes.

Here is where the excitement begins. Someone suggested that the prizes be made large enough to make it worth the while of every constructor in the country to enter the competition, lie was promptly thrown out of the window. Then the (lour was locked, the blinds were drawn and the authorities went into executive session. An ancient sock was carefully withdrawn from behind a faded likeness of C Washington, Esq., and with bated breath the available funds were counted. Clink, clank, clink, the tarnished coins dropped upon the table. There was found to he just sixty-seven cents and a pewter nickel. After looking up the aeronautical appropriation of Montenegro for the current year and reading the digest of an opinion rendered by the Ahkoond of Swat on the value of aeroplanes in warfare, it was finally decided to rehabilitate the art by offering thirty cents in prize money and, as a fmther incentive, to decorate the winning aviator with the pewter nickel. The final scene was enacted amid great applause.

It is, of course, difficult to understand why, in the face of such munificence, the constructors of the country didn't fall over one another, figuratively speaking, trying to get a piece of the change. It has been suggested to us that maybe they couldn't figure how they were going to make any money out of the competition, but we indignantly spurn such a suggestion. It is impossible that our patriotic constructors take such a sordid view of the matter. We are inclined to believe that the stupendousness of the competition and the size and variety of the prizes so flabbergasted them that they have not yet recovered from the shock. Something like the old lady of Yonkers who saw a dollar bill in the street, and fell dead from heart failure. At least, let's give them the benefit of the doubt.


This magazine endeavors to keep its readers informed on all new developments in the aeronautical world, especially in America, and is always glad to print descriptions and sketches or drawings of new machines and worthy inventions. It is impossible, however, in the present state of aeronautics in America, to have paid correspondents at the various centers of interest throughout the country, and we have to rely largely upon the good will of our friends and those interested in the welfare of the art to keep us in touch

with new developments. Won't you, gentle reader, help out by sending in a description of any worthy new thing that you may know about, whether your own or somebody else's? This especially applies to established constructors and to builders of new machines and appliances. Unfortunately, the editor of this magazine is neither a millionaire or a mind-reader, and unless you send in the material we have no means of getting it. The magazine is published for you. and it's up to you to help out. Giddap i

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—- s- » ^ - A. f. BONNALI6 >«« «


It is general practise for individuals, partnerships, companies and the like to maintain offices for the transaction of business. This is done for the purpose of having a fixed and convenient place where the person engaged in business may be found by those who would fain do business with him. Few there be in business so humble that the}' have not some place that they dignify with the designation, "my office."

Now, the twin-brother of the office is the advertisement. The one is the complement of the other. Unless people know that you are ready and willing to supply certain commodities, they will get them somewhere else. An advertisement in your trade journal is just as much of a necessity as a place in which to do business. If a man doesn't happen to know what you are selling, or where your office is, he is not likely to engage a detective

to lind out. If he wants to buy a carload of razors, he naturally consults the Daily Close Share, and if his mind hankers for power plants or other aeronautical provender, he most likelv buys, borrows or steals a copy of AERONAUTICS.

While this was being written a man came in and asked for a copy of this magazine in order to look up a place where he could buy certain aeroplane accessories. This not only happens occasionally, but nearly every day, and sometimes several times a day. Still there are those who do not believe in advertising— who hide their light under a bushel, so to speak. It may be remarked, however, that the top-notchers are the ones who do advertise. They are the leaders. Anybody from John Wanamaker to John the llootblack will tell you that.

"There's a reason."


Optimistic students of human nature are recommended to the aeronautical business for their postgraduate course.

If optimism still prevails after juggling with delinquent subscribers, debtors and the all-around crooks, its possessors must have the "faith that moves mountains."

Witness the latest example of air-trading! One of America's well-known aviators—one who has long been held up as an exception, universally liked and admired, a man who has held the friendship and confidence of all, who some time ago started in business for himself—has apparently left for parts unknown, as Uncle Sam fails to lind him in the locality in which he has made his home for many years past.

One doesn't mind so nincli being tricked by those who have the reputation of being out-and-out bunco men, by those who are known to be in the questionable class, or by strangers who "put it over"—the creditor himself is the one to be blamed fur his trustfulness; but to be defrauded by one's own friend, who has always been held in the highest esteem, is quite annoying.

Adverse criticism does not always attach itself to the man who honestly starts in business with small capital, tries as best he may to arrive somewhere and then fails, when he admits his debt and frankly makes a plain statement of his situation. One has much

lT" swindler


sympathy for the men who legitimately try and fall back in honest endeavor.

lint the man who, with his property judgment-proof and his assets hidden away, from the start conducts his affairs by deception, with easy promises and easier forfeitures, with the sole idea of getting as far as possible before the crash, is he who can not be too strongly condemned. He meets his debts by notes and his notes hi' honor-sworn promises (as if he had honor) and other notes, both of which are as valueless as the man himself is false. And in the end, which comes sooner or comes later, he merely walks out, sans soiiei, and launches himself in some other budding industry, there to repeat the operation with a new crop of suckers.

We have noted one example of such men— parasites on the struggling shoots of an industry—a man whose history began in the early days of the automobile, with a quick-change to aviation, and latterly attempted to skim some cream from the cyclecar trade. Where he will cling next remains to be seen.

Such men are pirates. They fraudulently trade upon the popular interest in a new thing. They rob the public, they steal the deserved profits of the earnest worker who actually adds to the human store, they cast discredit upon the industry they swindle which only years of continued struggle and investment by the legitimate houses will restore to its proper plane.

An American consular officer in southern Europe advises that a nrni in his district desires to communicate with American manufacturers of aeroplanes, gasoline motors, propellers, magnetos and spark plugs, etc., and with manufacturers of all material for building, equipping, and repairing aeroplanes. Price lists and c-stimates should be f. o. b. any American port having direct connections with destination. Correspond-

ence and catalogues should be in the Spanish language. Address Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C.

" 'You can't imagine how easy it is to pilot an aeroplane,' said a lecturer at South Orange, N. J., recently. 'It is too easy to fly. I never felt safer than when I was in the air. The air is safer than the street.' The lecturer declared

he would not drive an auto across Fifth Avenue at Forty-second Street, New York, but would fly an aeroplane anywhere

The Jersey apple-jack season is open.

With the European war being decided hy aircraft, one wonders when Congress will see fit to interest itself in appropriating some liule money for aeronautics.


By George P, Scriven, Brigadier-General, Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army.

Existing conditions show that whatever may be the conclusions drawn as to the use of air craft for offensive purposes in warfare, and as to the importance of the dirigible* there can be no doubt of the value of the aeroplane in rapid and long-range reconnaissance work, and of its power to secure, and to transmit by radio, visual signals, or direct flight, information of importance to armies in the field. So true is this that it seems probable the aeroplane and, to some smaller degree, all air craft have altered, not the principles of strategy, which are immutable, but the theory and application of grand tactics, ft now appears that the actual game of war is played openly w ith cards laid on the table, and opportunity no longer is given for inference as to concealed movements or fur surprise, perhaps not even for the exercise of the high military quality of anticipation of the unseen movements of the adversary. It is now recognized that the possibility of brilliant and unexpected blows and surprises by enterprising commanders has been largely eliminated from modern operations of war by the information supplied by aviators. It is proved that the modern air craft lays open to the field of mental view the whole of the immediate theater of war and that the commander's view reaches far beyond the limits of actual vision of troops. The air craft sees and indicates the larger operations of war and points out to the slowly moving troops on the ground not only the points to be attacked or defended, but to reconnaissance troops, especially the cavalry, the objective to he sought, the localities to be searched, and the character of information to he obtained.

By no means does the air craft supersede, nor can it ever supersede, detailed information which can be acquired only by close observation, by contact, and by development of the enemy's forces and positions. This is the work of the troops in the field; but the air craft does indicate to either commander the character, location and general disposition of opposing forces.

Not only is the aeroplane invaluable in locating the position of the enemy, but it has especial value to a commander in finding his own troops, in keeping him informed when movements are taking place, of the position of his flanks and center, his outposts, his cavalry, of the positions attained by any detached body —in short, of keeping him constantly in touch with the locations and movements of all of his troops under the changing conditions of war.

This much is proved; but it does not follow that the air craft curtails the work of reconnaissance of other arms of the service, the infantry, the signal corps, and, more especially, the cavalry. On the contrary, it extends the usefulness and power of all, for if the general field of reconnaissance is outlined, it is obvious that the cavalry or infantry can more readilv strike its objective and more quickly and accurately obtain information regarding any particular point than if obliged un-seeingly to search the whole field of operations for locations and forces regarding which an intimate knowledge is desired. In other words, by

aid of air craft, and more especially of tlie aeroplane, a reconnaissance by troops moves less in the dark, knows better what to look for and learn in detail, and loses less time and effort in accomplishing the object sought. No move of concentration from flank or center, no envelopment of a wing nor reinforcement of a weak position should remain unknown to the adversary in the case where he possesses a thoroughly efficient flying corps. It would seem, therefore, that not only has the power of all reconnaissance troops been increased by the air craft, but the need and importance of the cavalry in reconnaissance work has not been lessened, but, on the contrary, has been greatly increased by the aeroplane.

In addition to the influence now exerted by air craft on grand operations, events now appear to show that its value in more detailed operations is great and may increase in the future to enormous proportions. It is now well established that the accuracy, value, and power in warfare of field and siege artillery have been greatly increased by this agency, and it may almost be said that guns are fought by means of the eyes of the aviator. It should be self-evident that the same is true of guns of the seacoast and land fortifications. So clearly has this been shown that there now appears a noticeable change in artillery tactics. Instead of the old-fashioned system of range finding by experiment, the exact range is now found with the help of aeroplanes. No doubt artillery fire direction has been enormously increased in accuracy by the aeroplane, and infantry fire largely improved in efficiency by the same means.

Hut besides influence of this character the aeroplane has undoubted use in the finding of concealed positions, in the location of ships at sea or at anchor within defenses, possibly in the detection of submarine mines, and certainly in the enormous increase of efficiency given to fire and in many other details of observation,

lint the useful, approved, and most important work of air craft is probably to be found chiefly in reconnaissance and the collection and transmission of in formation in the theater of military operations; for this reason aviation must be reckoned as a vastly important branch of the Signal Corps of the Army, The use of air craft for these purposes cannot be open to the charge of inhumanity and cruelty. But as to the service and value of air craft in offense, much doubt remains, except where an overhead attack upon troops can be made effective—a condition that probably does not often arise, although many isolated instances of its value in attack are cited. When used in general destructive work against non-combatants, dislike to this method of attack must always exist. A fire sown broadcast upon the earth or employed under conditions which make specific aim useless is at least distasteful. But beside this feeling, it now appears that as a weapon capable of injuring an enemy by the dropping of bombs and other missiles, little of importance lias been proved. In real-

ity little is known of this power of air craft, though much is guessed and more feared. It seems probable, however, to judge from existing conditions, that the effect is largely moral, and that physical results heretofore obtained from this method of attack have been far too meager to warrant the cost, effort, and risk called upon to produce them.

* * * Of the attack by aeroplane, however, although I believe its importance is exaggerated, it is admitted that it may prove useful at times, and may be resorted to against proper objectives when needed, if the aeroplanes are available. On the other hand, it may later be show n that aerial offensive flights, especially in conjunction with sea operations, may prove important; but it is useless to prophesy, and 1 believe the only safe conclusion at this time regarding the value of aerial offensive is the verdict, "nut proven."

It may be said, however, that iI the future shows that attack from the sky is effective and terrible, as may prove to be the case, it is evident that, like the rain, it must fall upon the just and upon the unjust, and it may be supposed will therefore become taboo to all civilized people; and forbidden at least by paper agreements. Be that as it may, in view of present conditions it appears that the use of air craft for attack alone does not warrant the expense of production of air craft fur this purpose; and no recommendation for the construction and adoption of dirigibles on a large scale is made at the present time. The aeroplane should continue to be our main reliance for aerial work at present, and the dirigible as a service unit may well he placed on the waiting list.

Bui it should be noted and recalled later when economic conditions are more favorable, that both the aeroplane and the dirigible have proved successful in coast patrol, and will he equally so for frontier guard purposes. In this service the dirigible, especially of the smaller type, will be the more valuable machine, as from its leisurely flight, its power to keep the air at night and to use the searchlight, and especially on account of its ability to hover and to examine carefully the world beneath, it may become useful as a border patrol when freed from the danger of gunfire and from hostile aeroplane attack. But for the present it is believed that the Army should rely upon the aeroplane and the hydroaeroplane for the pati ul of sea coast and frontier, and lor use in its island possessions and exposed positions. One or two dirigible, if of American manufacture and design, might well be purchased when money is available for experimental purposes and to encourage our manufacturers i:i endeavor along this Hue of work; but I am not yet prepared to recommend that the Army take up the dirigible seriously, as its value is still believed to be indeterminate; it requires the co-ordination of too many favorable conditions to insure success, and its cost is comparatively yreat.1 Should large appropriations be made in the future for the avia-

1 Probably in proportion of about 1 dirigible to 35 aeroplanes of the best type.

tion service the question of the war and for the accumulation of vation from captive balloons, which

dirigihle will appear in another light, spare parts. must necessarily he sent up some dis-

but the time is not thought opportune Once the type of military machine tance in the rear, is a poor substi-

to pass beyond the experimental stage is determined it will be an easy and tute for the direct overhead recon-

in regard" to other air craft than comparatively inexpensive matter to naissance obtainable from aeroplanes

the aeroplane. It is doubtful whether maintain a considerable reserve of or dirigibles.

the dirigible is worth its cost as an parts in storage, with mannfactur- In addition it is asked that con-offensive machine, and for recon- ers or elsewhere, ready to be as- sideration be given by the War L)e-naissance or defense it seems to be sembled as needed, should the policy partment to the training of men of of far less value than the aeroplane, of supplying a large reserve be the National Guard in the work of The dirigible is seemingly useless in deemed unwise. aviation, and to the establishment of defense against aeroplane or gunfire, The captive halloon. too, has its a reserve corps of flying men and its attack may be safely left to uses, but they are limited. Obser- throughout the country, the care of fire from the ground and to the aeroplane. The value of tbe dirigible as an observation station is

obvious, and is no doubt very great AVIATION IN THE U. S. SIGNAL CORPS

under circumstances which prevent

its destruction from below or by From June, 1913, to February, been returned to their branch of the

aeroplanes, but such conditions will T' 14, an amount of flying quite service and unsuitable enlisted men

probably rarely be met. and at pres- unprecedented in the history of avia- have been assigned to other duties,

ent it is believed that the use of tion in tbe United States was carried It is the intention to establish a

the dirigible in offense, defense, or on at the Signal Corps Aviation high standard of efficiency for both

reconnaissance is so limited that its School, San Diego, Cal. Unfor- officers and enlisted men on aviation

adoption now for these purposes is tunately there were three accidents, duty and to see that this standard

not worth while. Its power of gen- resulting in the death of four offi- is maintained. Valuable experience

eral destruction when no resistance cers. While it could not be estab- has been gained during the year by

i> offered is tremendous, but for this lished that these accidents were due the officers conducting the aviation

work it is not believed that prepara- lo faulty construction or design of work of the Signal Corps. With lit-

tion should be made. the machine, the result was a loss tie or no previous experience and

The continued development of the of confidence in tbe "pusher" type of no precedents to guide them, they

aeroplane in our service, by the en- machine m which all these accidents have had to train themselves and

couragement of Congress in granting bad occurred, and a decision made their subordinates at the same time,

men and money to an extent war- to abandon that type. This, reduced great deal of this work is of a

ranted by the size of our Army, is the numher of machines considered character entirely different from any-

strongly * urged. To this goal* the suitable for service to four Burgess thing else in the service. To suc-

Signal "Corps is bending its best ef- tractors and one Curtiss tractor. This cessfully adapt it to the needs of

forts change caused considerable delay the service will require the best

It is believed, however, that aero- the ?°Jk\ as on,X °"e or two tho»fht and the most careful study

planes, their accessories, and the offi- omcers had, >«» Gained to fly a on the part of those officers charged

cers and men to use them should tfactor ""chine; but instruction on with this duty, be liberallv supplied. these machines was pushed forward

As to tbe genera, type of aero- ^ten ^^^^^ PRESENT CONDITIONS, plane, a word must be said. In the a detachment, with three of the best present time the aviation United States we have for military mac),;nes at San Diego, was ordered work of the Signal Corps is on a purposes stood by the biplane, and to Galveston, Tex. This detachment very satisfactory basis. There are events are now proving the wisdom returned t0 gan Diego on July 17, 24 officers, 115 enlisted men and 7 of this attitude. It is believed that j9jj civilians performing aviation duty at the present practice points strongly Considerable equipment has been the Signal Corps Aviation School at in favor of the biplane over the added to the Signal Corps Aviation San Diego. Cal., and in the Philip-monoplane as a war machine. In- sc|100] 3, gan Diego, both in the l"ne Islands. Applications of offi-deed, there is little doubt that the waj, of machines and apparatus nec- cers for detail as aviation students types of machines now used by the essary ior tneir maintenance. Five are beinS regularly received. * * * aviation section of the Signal Corps of tlle maci,jnes now jn service rep- Uunng the year the policy has are the best which are known for resent tile vtry highest development keen adopted of employing expert military purposes. I speak of types, o( aeroplane " construction in the civilian instructors to give the pre-not details, and refer especially to United States, and will compare very I'minary instruction in flying. The the biplane tractor. This Army ma- fav-orahle with anything that has been "esults obtained have demonstrated chine has resulted from close study done abroad.2 beyond a question of doubt the wis-and experiment, and is the product . « . « dom of this policy. There are now of long trial, from which the con- a number of expert aviators in the elusion is reached that the machine file present outlook for securing service, hut expert aviators are not with propeller action—that is. the satisfactory aeronautical engines in necessarily competent instructors. In-puller—is superior and safer than the t]le United States is very encourag- structors must have special qualifica-pusher. Evidently, in case of acci- ;ng ... Tne American manu- tions in addition to being expert dent with the former machine, the facturers have recently shown a very aviators.

aviator falls ahove rather than under encouraging activity in the matter of ' In addition to the regu-the weights. It is probable that the producing "first-class aeronautical en- lar instruction in flying, in the care s,ize and power of aeroplanes will g;nes, aIId at least one American- and repair of aeroplanes, and the be enormously increased in the fu- made engine will compare very fa- operation, care, and repair of aero-ture. vorably with those manufactured nautical engines, courses of lectures The aeroplane is not in itself an abroad. were delivered on the subject of expensive machine; but the cost as a ..... meteorology and meteorological in-whole will not be small. It has been struments, aeronautical engineering, noted that the wastage in aeroplanes, PROGRESS. propellers, and on mternalcombus-as shown by notes from abroad, is Under the act of July 18, 1914 uorl engines by eminent authorities enormous; and with the appropria- [see AERONAUTICS, April 15], tbe on tl,cse subjects, tions for the aviation service of the worij 0f aviation was' given a great ..... Army it is especially desired to em- impetus, the work of the Signal _ , . , phasire the fact that the life of an c/s \viation School, at San Diego, , Experiments ill dropping bombs aeroplane is short and decreases <-al.P was reorganized and much ir0 a» aeroplane were begun early rapidly with use. and especially with „roaress made 111 A?nl 1914' at. San Dieg,°- Ah,es<; use in the field. Unlike; the long 1 f,iere ]ias been a very marked im- experiments were interrupted and had service of ordinary war machines, ,)rovement in tbe personnel of the 0 b,e '"definitely postponed when such as rifles, field and siege guns. !,\riatlon section during the year. Of- he detachment was sent to Galves-the life of the aeroplane under the ncers unsuited to this work have t0"- „ . . , . ,. vicissitudes of actual operations is Sufficiently satisfactory results

brief, like that of an insect, which - "ere obtained, however, to warrant

it resembles. It follows that a suffi- 2 Editorial Note.—The aeroplane continuing these experiments at the

cient supply of aeroplanes will be competition was expected to bring earliest opportunity,

required upon the outbreak of hos- out information sufficient for the There were also conducted at San

tilities for both Regular and Volun- school to decide on a standard ma- Diego experiments in observing sub-

teers, and means should be provided chine. All conditions for the contest marine mines from aeroplanes, which

for their rapid manufacture during were printed in the July 15 issue. were continued from time to time

with interesting results, and a demonstration was given of a parachute pack designed for use by aviators. This parachute is packed in a compact bundle and carried on the back of the aviator. This device weighs about 8 pounds. At a height of about 1,200 feet the demonstrator jumped from the aeroplane, and the parachute opened promptly and lowered him gently to the ground. It is believed that as a life-saving device this parachute pack has considerable merit and warrants its development for use in our service.

The First Aero Squadron was organized at San Diego, Cab, during September, 1914, in accordance with General Orders, No. 75, War Department, December 4, 1913. This squadron consists of 16 officers, 77 enlisted men, and S aeroplanes, and is ready for field service. It is expected that a second squadron will soon be organized.

During the year [ending June 30] there were a total of 3,340 flights made, with an aggregate time in the air of 747 hours and 50 minutes, 796 passengers being carried. Among the best performances of the year were the following:

From San Diego, Cab, to Venice, Cal.; distance, 115 miles.

From Venice, Cal., to San Diego, Cal., via Cienga, Cal.; distance, 134 miles.

From San Diego, Cal., to Elsinore, Cal., via Pasadena, Cal.; distance, 220 miles; duration, 3 hours and 39 minutes.

From San Diego, Cal., to Bur-bank, Cal., and back to San Diego; distance, 246 miles; duration, 4 hours and 43 minutes. This flight established new American cross-country distance and duration record for machine carrying pilot and one passenger.

A great many flights were made during the vear at high altitudes ranging from 5,000 to over 12,000 feet.

Altitude and cross-country work is the very best training for service in time of war and should be undertaken by only the most experienced aviators.

The Signal Corps Aviation School is now located at North Island, in San Diego Bay. All of the conditions for a suitable training station are more completely fulfilled at San Diego, Cal., than at any other point in the United States. This locality lias been used as a training station at some time during the past four years hy the Army, the Navy, and several civilians. All agree that for training purposes it is unexcelled.

It is requested by the commanding officer of the training school that land be secured at San Diego. It is therefore recommended that steps be taken at once to secure a permanent location for the Signal Corps Aviation School on or near North Island. This island is the best place known for preliminary training, and it is recommended that an effort be made to secure land here for use as an aviation training station and that the Signal Corps Aviation School be permanently located thereat.


An aviation school was opened at Fort William McKinley March 10. 1913, with four officers and a small detachment of enlisted men. During the following July three of the offi-

cers fulfilled the requirements of the War Department and were rated as military aviators. In August, 1913, the school was transferred to Pasay, arrangements having been made for a temporary hangar on the beach at the Manila Polo Club. As this was the rainy season, tbe Fort William McKinley flying field was frequently covered with water and deep mud, but at Pasay hydroaeroplane flying over Manila Bay was continued during all favorable opportunities between typhoons. Three accidents occurred, in which three aeroplanes were wrecked and one officer killed. After these accidents the aviation school was discontinued on account of the lack of training machines.

From March 24 to November 14, 1913, the aviation school made 696 flights, the total duration being 7S hours and 57j^ minutes, not including short runs on the ground during the instruction of students.

An officer and a small detachment of enlisted men were sent to Fort Mills in October, 1913, for hydroaeroplane work. The first flight at this point was made November 6, and from that date to the following June 7S flights were made, the total time in the air being 37 hours and

47',^ minutes. The longest flight was 2 hours and 5 minutes, and the highest altitude reached, 5,500 feet. At this point flights were made to observe the results of mortar fire, for practice in locating targets, and in observing the result of siege-gun fire from Corregidor at targets on the Mariveles shore. During these flights various means of signaling from the aeroplane were tried, and the work was all of a great practical value.


The aviation station was established at Fort Kamehameba on July 14, 1913, with 1 officer in charge, a detachment of 12 enlisted men, and 1 civilian aeronautical engine expert. Two machines were set up and flights made by the officer in charge up to November 23, 1913. The tent hangars first used being unserviceable, were replaced with more substantial hangars of wooden frame with galvanized iron covering. This detachment has been transferred to the school at San Diego, and reached the latter point in the middle of August, 1914.—From the Annual Report of the Chief Signal Officer, Brig.-Gen. George P. Scriven.


One will notice the 120 h.p. Salm-son motor and the new type radiator, designed by W. Starling Burgess, in the new Burgess-Dunne aeroplane recently built for the War Department.

This machine with the heavy hydroplane equipment, weighing over 317 pounds, developed a speed in the air with two passengers of 75 miles per hour and climbed at the rate of over 300 feet a minute. The aeroplane has been shipped to San Diego for active service. This is the first Burgess-Dunne to be de-

livered to the War Department. The aeroplane is very heavy and built for real hard service.

On the initial trip on October 10 of the new Dunne biplane built at Marblehead for the United States Government an average speed of 75 miles an hour was reported. A feature of the new machine is a nickel steel armor plate l/% inch thick to he installed in the operator's car. This new type of war machine is the heaviest Dunne machine ever built. It weighs 1,700 pounds and has a carrying capacity of 2,300 pounds.

AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 191|& £ R S O NAL PROPERTY Page 89


The first model aeroplane speed contest ever held was held with great success under the auspices of the Aero Science Club at Van Cortlandt Park, New York City, on Sundav, September 20th, 1914.

The wind velocity was very small, so that the flights were very slightly, if at all effected by the wind.

The contest was held over a course of 528 ft, or 1/10 of a mile, the models rising from the ground under

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor


At the speed contest recently held by the Aero Science Club, the results of which appear above, the model constructed by R. Funk, and shown in the accompanying drawing, demonstrated its superiority over the other models entered by winning the contest, flying the distance of 528 feet, or 1/10 of a mile, in 14 2/5 seconds.

The fuselage, or main beam, of this model consists of an I-heam of spruce, measuring \\ by 3g of an

j^'as^r reacted

treated with Ambroid is secured to the front of the model as shown.

The chassis is constructed entirely »f 1 /32 in. steel wire. It consists of a central skid, the front upper end of which is bent into a square to fit the main stick. It extends downwardly, and then rearwardly where it is bent slightly to form a support, and act as a skid, for the rear portion of the model. Extending upward near the rear of this skid the upper end of which is looped about the main stick is a wire brace. The portion of the chassis to which the wheels are attached is of a triangular form, the upper end of which forms a square through which the main stick passes. The entire chassis is removed by simply withdrawing the main stick from the three square portions of the center skid, wheel portion and brace.

The propellers are 7 in. in diameter and of rather low pitch. They are constructed of thin birch steamed to shape, each half of the blade being made separately, and then the two halves constituting the entire propeller being joined at the center, thus forming a thickened portion through which a perforation can be drilled for the reception of the propeller shaft.

Each propeller is driven by S strands of Vs-in. flat rubber. The entire model weighs slightly over 2 ounces.

their own power. With a very straight and speedy flight R. Funk annexed first prize, doing the course in 14 2/5 seconds, or at the rate of approximately 26 miles per hour.

The writer took second prize, after strenuous attempts to persuade his model to fly straight, doing the course in 16 seconds, or at the rate nf 22l/2 miles per hour.

Carl Trube, a youngster from Yqnkers, N. Y., whose models are noted for their fine flying, was third, doing the course in 20 seconds.

Many interesting events took place and the air was continually full of models.

Probably the most overworked persons on the field were Messrs. Edward Durant and George Bauer, the judges. Mr. Durant acted as timer and Mr. Bauer as starter.

The prizes were cash, offered by the club, and aeronautical publications kindly donated by Harper and Brothers.

inch at the center, and tapering towards the front and rear ends. In order to strengthen the same it is covered with fibre paper and treated with Ambroid varnish. Extending upwardly from about the center of this stick is an upright of wire, looped at its upper end, and passing from the front of the stick, through the loop, and to the rear of the stick, is a single strand of very fine steel wire. At the rear and fitted into a slot in the stick, is the propeller bar measuring 7 '4 in. in length, and \\ in. wide by !4 in. thickness.

The main planes are entirely constructed of 1 /32 in. flat steel wire, the main plane measuring 19 in. in span and 2 in. in chord at the center. The elevator measures 6 in. in span and has a chord of IM in. at the center. Buth planes are covered with China silk and treated with Ambroid. A small fin constructed of steel wire and covered with silk,


The above model was constructed by the writer and won second prize in the speed contest above mentioned, doing the course in 16 seconds.

The fuselage is constructed of J4 by 3/16 spruce and is 30 in. in length. As shown, it is of the usual triangular farm and is braced by two bamboo strips, the front one being 9 in. from the apex of the triangle and the rear one being 10 in. from the rear of the frame. The propeller bar is of bamboo and is 7Vj in. in length and V* by % in. in thickness. The bearings, which consist of Vz lengths of tubing, are secured to the propeller bar by binding very tightly with silk thread, then coating with Ambroid glue.

The tail plane, is constructed of Ts in. square bamboo and is of a triangular form, the triangle being formed by strips extending from the propeller bar to the rear brace and being secured thereto as shown. The front plane is constructed of 1/16 in. flat steel wire and has a main lu~ am extending across the same on the under side, of spruce 3/16 by 13 in thickness.

Both planes are covered with goldbeaters skin, sometimes known as Zephyr skin and treated with Ambroid.

(Continued on page 9U)


After the "competition" at San Diego was called off, Glenn L. Martin put his machine through the paces on Oct. 29th, with the result that he climbed 4.170 ft. in ten minutes, and 4,500 ft. in 11 minutes,

the American cross-country record by carrying two passengers, besides himself, a distance of about 110 miles.

These two machines are worthy in every way of the best traditions of American workmanship, and their designers and builders deserve great credit for what they have done.

and party, consisting of his family, Robert Nolker, president of the St. Louis Aero Club, and members, were waiting to christen the new balloon. The Mayor's daughter, Edna, broke a bottle of Mississippi River water over the anchor and then took her place in the basket for her first ascent. Both river banks were crowded with people, watching the spectacle, which marked the start ot a river pageant.

Leaving the boat's deck, the balloon slowly drifted over the river to the shore, above the crowds and the city to the northwest, where luncheon was enjoyed 7,300 ft. above terra fir ma. Landing was later made on the historic farm of General Grant, now owned by Augustus A. Busch, the brewer, who was the first to arrive with his car and assist in tbe deflation. Hugh Wagner brought Mr. Honeywell and Miss Kiel back to the boat for dinner.


With a change in tbe distribution of stock of the French-American Balloon Co., of St. Louis, the name becomes the Honeywell Balloon Co., with Capt. II. E. Honeywell as president and general manager, as a reward for the long list of achieve-m nts to which Honeywell points with pride.

Honeywell balloons were entered in 14 big races and 9 first, 6 second, and 4 third places were obtained. In 1908 a trip of 870 miles was made, making a new American record for distance and duration. In the international race from Stuttgart. Germany, 1912. a distance of 1.200 miles was covered, with the balloon landing near Moscow, Russia, winning third prize. In the international race last year Honeywell, in his own balloon, obtained second place for America. In the international race in 1911 at Kansas City, Honeywell's balloon, non-contestant, beat in distance the German winner of the race. In the international contests, of course, the best products of foreign countries were represented.

carrying the full required load consisting of 450 lbs. of sand attached to the fuselage, gasoline and oil for four hours' flight and one passenger, lie afterwards broke the American passenger record by flying for five hours and fifteen minutes with the full Army load, as above stated. These remarkable flights were made with the new Martin speed scout which was entered for the competition and which is equipped with the new Mall-Scott Type A-4. 100 h. p. motor.

The engine swings a 8 ft. 4 in. by 5 ft. 9 in. propeller at 1,500 r. p. m. in the air. giving a speed of 90 miles per hour for the machine.

Christofferson's machine was not on hand on the day set for the beginning of the competition on account of continued motor trouble. 1 le bad taken it to Los Angeles several days before, and, after trying two motors, shipped it back to San Francisco. Before leaving San Diego, however, be unofficially fulfilled the requirements by climbing 4.000 ft. in ten minutes with full load. On tbe trip between San Diego and Los Angeles, he broke

They have really produced machines which compare favorably with the best products of European constructors, and that without one-tenth of the encouragement that European constructors receive. In plain English, it will be a damshame if the government does not recognize and adequately reward their efforts.


Capt. II. Eugene Honeywell of the French-American Balloon Co.. has finished a new balloon of silverized fabric, which made its initial esccnt on October II. The new bag, the "New St. Louis." of 40,000 cu. ft. capacity, was inflated in St. Louis and towed over thousands of wires, over factories, railroads and other obstacles a half mile to the Mississippi River where a tug boat was waiting to tow the balloon up the river, under the free bridge, to the harbor boat "Rastus Wells," which was anchored in mid-stream about a mile distant, where Mayor Kiel


The Aero Club of America has been notified that the British Government has officially recognized the Wright Brothers' patent and has paid to the British Wright Company $75,000 in settlement for the past, present and future use of the Wright patent in Great Britain.

This still leaves the patent in the possession of the British Wright Company, which can collect royalties from other users of the invention in England. This is in settlement of the sued claim for $375,000 which has heen in the British courts for the past year.

Old subscriber writes in to say:

"Stop Miss -'s subscription at

once and send me bill. After talking it over we have come to the conclusion that it is no use paying six dollars a year when by getting married we can both use the same copy and save 50 per cent, on the damhighcostof living."

Never looked at it that way, but the idea is brilliant, just tbe same.

UIRO-VAVTICS, Sept. 30, 1914.

Page 91


A new American record for nonstop cross country flight was established on < Mober 17th by W. C. Robinson, of Grinnell, Iowa, in his flight from Des Moines to Kentland, Ind., a distance of 375 miles, in four hours and 44 minutes.

Robinson bail intended to fly to ('hicago, following the railroad all of the way. When he reached near Clinton, low a, however, he was forced to ascend above the storm tiouds. and lost his way. lie left Des Moines at 10.56 in the morning and alighted in Kent land at 3.40 p. in. lie was timed passing over

vision. The dimensions of the machine are: Span, 35 ft.; chord, 7 ft.; length. 25 ft. The motor is a radial type, also designed by Robinson, 6 cylinder, 5-in. bore, 6-in. stroke, developing 100-b.p. and turns an S-ft. propeller, dy2 ft. pitch at 1,250 r.p.m. Gross weight, 900 lbs. Forty-five gallons of gasoline and 7 gallons of oil were consumed on the long trip. The distance actually flown is said to be 400 miles, which figures an average speed of 84 miles per hour. Xot a little of the success was due to the use of Bosch magneto rnrl plugs.


"Tony" Jannus, writing from Baltimore says, "We have made a killing here. In fact, ever since my machine w ore out on me at Cedar Point I have kept my brother busy with bookings, and our first w eek here, although we had expected to do practically nothing, netted $745.00 in passengers alone."

The pioneer flying boat pilot has combined with his brother, Roger Jannus, in business, with offices and factory at Battery Ave. and Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.. where they are busy filling contracts for exhibition flights and passenger carrying and are taking orders for the designing and construction of flying boats and land machines.

Construction work is to be begun on a 3-passengcr flying boat, known as the "Exposition Model" and two more of the same type have been ordered. "Tony" will go to Florida for about two weeks to fill some contracts and return to Baltimore, preparing every possible apparatus new orders will j nstify and have the tir»<t contingent of three flying boats and one fast monoplane ;irrive at San Francisco hy the 2uth.

Grinnell at 11.37 a. m., having made the 56 miles fron the starting point in 4 1 minutes and at noon he w as sighted over Marengo, a distance of 'Hi miles from Des Moines. Rochester, la., was passed at 12.57 p. m., after which point he began ascending to an altitude of 7,500 ft. and flving above the clouds for some three hours the remainder of the distance, llis course was due east, but a strong w ind blew him tow ard the south. "During the la-^t half hour of the flight," says Mr. Robinson, "the clouds below me began breaking up and gave me a sight of the ground. My gasoline ran out and I descended slowly and found myself in Kentland."

The machine used was a two-seater, side by side, monoplane of Mr. Robinson's own design and built by the Grinnell Aeroplane Company, of Grinnell, la., under his super-

The Jannus brothers—Roger and Tony made spectacular flights over \he l'atapsco beginning November 1. taking with them in their giant bydro-^ biplane several Raltimoreans as pas-

sengers. The first two to make the Mr. Robinson stated that before he flights were Richard Clapp and started he had some apprehension Spencer Heath, the maker of "Para-abnut being able to get out of the gnu" propellers, while a waiting list small field in which he started with of some half dozen others was on tin large gasoline tank, but that he hand to make up the day's enter-found that the machine rose from tainment,

the ground as easily with the large —■--—

tank as it did with the small 5-gal- „T „ KT rAM1i.rDrr , Kr

Ion tank, and that he as yet does FOREIGN COMMERCE IN not know the lifting power of the SEPTEMBER,

machine. Robinson intends to keep [MPORTS.

increasing the size of his tank and Aeroplanes .............. None

gasoline until he discovers how much parts ................... $13,548

it will carry, and it would not be <> mos., ending Sept.,

at all surprising to see him double 'planes and parts........ 13,910

the capacity be used in his trip to EXPORTS,

Kentland and go with the wind for 5 aeroplanes ............. $lb,600

a world's record. Parts.................. . 89

After several setbacks owing lo , "'"^ 5ndmS ^ePl- 1Q-nyo

j ,- * . . planes and parts........ 195,0S9

poor gasoline and a slight injury to EX PORTS OF FOREIGX MAKE.

the 'plane in landing at Momeuee, Aeroplanes .............. Xoue

111., Robinson completed the trip to parts ................... None

Chicago on October 20th. ') inos., parts only........ $207


- 1 aeroplane .............. $1,856


Captain 11. L. Mullei, of the U. S. Signal Corps birdnien, on < >ctoher S made a new American altitude record of 17,185 feet, using the new Curtiss Model I tractor, described in the last issue. The Curtiss 90-100 OX motor was fitted, of course.

It's now up to Thompson and his Gyro-motored machine to again break this new figure.


Capt. H. E. Honeywell broke two American records in the balloon. New St. Louis, on Nov. 1st. He increased the distance record for four passengers in a balloon of 40,000 cu, ft. capacity from 77 to 85

miles, and the altitude record from 7,300 ft. to S.0U0 ft.

With Honeywell were Miss Estelle Lilich. 3515 Tenessee avenue, and her fiance. Edwin C. Knenig, vice-president of the Missouri Press Brick Company, and William II. Threfts, J r., a photographer. The party started from Priester's Park and landed at Kinmundy, 111.

Honeywell sailed without a drag rope because of the weight of the load. He bad difficulty in landing and part of the basket dragged through a pond, wetting its occupants. Farmers near Kinmundy seized the balloon and held it until it could be tethered.

Honeywell male the previous record with four in the "Missouri."

The Macv stabilizer will be tried out shortly at the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego,


In noting the death of Weldon Cooke last issue, an error was made in staling the machine was a tractor, lie, it seems, changed from the tractor described in full in AERO-XAUTICS at the time, and built a Curtiss-type pusher, with Roberts 6-cylinder motor, ailerons on upper plane. Double surfaced Irish linen, treated with home-made "dope," which Cooke said cost 20 cents a gallon to make. His seat was on brackets bought for 10 cents at a Woolworth store. Xot a turnbuckle or lock nut on the machine, Tbe left aileron bad a broken rib. Cooke sai«l he had flown it that way till "now (Pueblo) and gotten by with it-—guess" he could now. The gasoline tank had a leak and Cooke drove in a wooden plug as big as a lead pencil to stop the flow.


The inventors, after the Confer-^t^riN^/^NNv ence, may be given a certificate

^i^-r^^\\ showing that their invention has been

submitted to the Joint Conference. 1 f the .Joint Conference so decides, the opinion passed on the invention may be included in the certificate.

There will be no charges for the consideration of the inventions, but the inventors w ill fully prepay all mail matter addressed to the Society, as well as all express charges for drawings, models, etc. Should a demonstration of apparatus be arranged for, the inventor will bear the cost of it.

All inventors wishing to submit _ their inventions are invited to communicate with the Technical Board The Aeronautical Society of Amer- of the Society 29 West 39th Street

Mr. Daniel L. Braine, 185 Madison Ave., New York City.

Mr. Walter L. Post, 50 Church St., New York City.

Mr. Joseph Barbato. 11 Pine St., New York City.

Mr. George Adams, 113th St. and Riverside Drive, Riverside Mansions, New York City.

Mr. Leroy M. Whetstone, 3820 North Franklin St.. Philadelphia, Pa.

Mr. James Mitchell Beck, St. James Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa. Elected Nov. 5th.

29 West 39th Street. New York


in collaboration with many na-


New York City, and to submit to it all data in their possession, such

tional engineering S**]S £ as patents, descriptions, data of tests,

this country, will on Febiuary 5tli i inventor Is in a position

mid 6th 1915, consider the inven- ttc- 11 \nc mvemor 15 in d position

ana oui. , etahilitv t0 submit a model, or can show an

turns tending tc» increase tl«■ ^bil.ty f worki size> he should

and safety of flight in heaver-than ^ ^ tQ the Tcchsn;cal Board. It

air machines. nu]St be c]early understood that all

In addition to the Technical Boaid information so submitted may he prc-

and representatives of the Ae


nted in public meeting of the So-

cal Society of America representa- Q and thcrcfore# no inventions

lives of several national engineering Qr da(a of a secret nature shou]d be

organizations will take part. llie comnuniicated t0 th Technical

following have already sent in lists p>oard

of their representatives: The'Technical Board will consider American Mathematical Society, the inventions submitted with a view American Society of Mechanical En- of preparing for the meeting of the gineers. Massachusetts Institute of Joint Conference on Aviation such Technology, American Physical So- "data as will enable the Conference ciety. . to form a clear and correct judg-The complete list of representatives ment of the value of the invention, will he published later. The Joint and will collaborate to this end with Conference will consider the inven- the inventor to the best of its abil-tions submitted solely with the view ities. The Technical Board retains of promoting thereby the progress of the right of withholding from pres-aeronautical engineering in the entation any invention either out-LTnited States. The work of the side of the scope of the Joint Con-conference will be embodied in its ference, or on which sufficient in-proceedings, the publication of formation has not been presented, which, in full or in part, will be or, which appears to be based on er-decided on by the Joint Conference, roneous theory. No invention will It will also express a general opinion be rejected on the latter score if mi each of the inventions submitted, embodied in working size.


The general meeting of Nov. 12th (which was erroneously announced in the preceding issue) was devoted to the important subject of AERIAL STRATEGY IN WAR. An address on "THE WIRELESS PHASE" was delivered by Mr. E. BUTCHER, of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph of America, followed by an open debate, Messrs. Hammer and Kimball acting as exponents of the attacking power of aircraft and Messrs. Goldmerstein and Jones explaining the means of defense against such attacks.


It is the intention of the Board of Directors to increase, as far as possible, tbe benefits derived by members from helonging to the Aeronautical Society of America and to liven up generally interest in matters aeronautical. With this purpose in view it has been decided to resume the round table discussions which were so pleasant a feature of the early days of the Society, and which enjoy a great popularity in several European engineering organizations. The rooms of the Society will be thrown open to members Thursday evenings and a general "conversazione" will take place. No formal lectures or papers are expected to be presented at such discussions, but members are welcome to raise questions in connection with the art of flying which are of more or less general interest, as well as to tell of their work in the development of the new art. Probably soinehodv will always have something to say about new books on aviation, nr about a new article in some foreign paper or engineering periodical, and it is generally expected that memhers will greatly enjoy the evening spent in the Society's rooms. Members are entitled to bring with them friends interested in aviation. No "conversazione" will take place on evenings of general meetings.

During the second week of February next the first Joint Aeronautical Convention in America will be held in the Engineers Building when there will he exhibited a "new electro-mechanical motion that will show the basic principle of inherent stability in aeroplanes.

"This mechanism, when in operation, expresses an earnest desire to continue in an elliptical orbit-plane tangential to, or parallel with, the earth's surface; while it also pre-cesses, nutates, perturbates and performs all the functions of a satellite. Therefore, it is another moon to the earth. It is also an electron model in accord with the electron theory of the universe which may he expressed as follows:

"If we assume that inside all chemical and other atoms there are minute electrons, or planets, constantly spinning, and flying, in orbital planes, then we may prove one law governing the universe.

"Sir J. J. Thomson, of Cambridge University, England, was awarded the Alfred Nobel $40,000.00 cash prize in the year 1906, for advancing the electron theory which has not been refuted, and it now remains for some one to make a special study of electron models in order to re-\eal the electron formula.

"The discoverer would be entitled to another Alfred Nobel $40,000.00 cash prize with others too numerous to mention, and, tbe discoverer would also he known throughout the world as the greatest scientist in history."

For further information address Harry Schultz, secretary the Aero Science Club of America, Room 718, 29 W. 39th St., New York, N. Y.


Mr. Brandon Hendricks, life membership, 924 West End Ave., N. Y. City. Elected July 30th.

Mr. F. N. Brown, 65 Livingston St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Elected August 27th.

Mr. Or vis A. Roach. 401 Cedar St.. San Antoniu, Texas.

Mr. Frank A. Roy, 527 Fifth Ave.. New York City. Elected Sept. 19th.

Captain Ewald Decker, 248 West 52nd St.. New York City.

Mr. lidding Freudenthal, 250 Manhattan Ave., New York City. Elected Oct. 7th.

Mr. George I. Brown, 17 State St., New York City.

Mr, N. I*. Converse, of San Francisco, inventor of the Converse Automatic Stabilizer, which was recently described in these columns, is now engaged in constructing a new fore-and-aft and lateral stabilizer, which be expects to have ready for trial tests within a fortnight. This stahilizer follows the lines of his lateral stabilizer which was tried out with complete success on the machine of the late Arthur Kybitski a few months ago. The new stabilizer will weigh only 18 lbs., complete.

I have no criticisms for your magazine—nothing but praises. It is the best of the four that 1 take. STEVEN STUART,

Seattle, Wash.

.MROXAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914.

Page 93

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Only through the co-operation of the aeroplane manufacturers located on the aviation field at Garden City, could the meets, such as is programed each week, be made possible. Fully five to eight aeroplanes take part in the Saturday events while twn or more passenger carrying machines entertain the multitude of Sunday visitors.

On Saturday afternoon, Sept. 19th. Hdrold Kantner made a pretty flight in the Schmitt monoplane, rising to an altitude of 5,000 ft. This was followed by a handicap race between the Schmitt monoplane and the Kul.l-Baysdorfer biplane, around the held three times, in which the monoplane won.

Fully 1.000 people visited the field Sunday and were rewarded by seeing some fine flying. An accident occurred at the close of the afternoon, which wrecked one machine hut in which no one was hurt. Fred Jacobs went out in the Schneider machine for his second flight in a biplane. At the extreme end of

the field, in trying to make the turn, his control wire broke and the machine came down on one wing, it up under him.

The program for Oct. 3 was postponed on account nf the death of William I'iceller. Late in the afternoon however Albert Tleinrich and Bonney made several flights so as not to disappoint the crow d at the field.

A new feature introduced at the Columbus day meet was a balloon chase. Several rubber, gas-filled toy balloons were released, and as they sailed up in the air, the aviators went after them. Whether the balloons were too small or whether the aviator was unable to manage both his aeroplane and revolver at the same time, >s not known, but the balloons floated away unharmed. Albert Heinrich was the first to compete in the bomb-dropping contest. The first few bombs he dropped missed the target by 300 ft., but after a little practice he was able to drop them with more accuracy. Sidney Beck with, in his military tractor biplane, also made some good scores.

The program for the following Saturday had to be postponed to Sunday, owing to bad weather. On Sunday, how ever, the 4.500 people who were at the field saw some exceptionally fine flying. A novel feature of the day was the use of human targets for bomb dropping. Arthur Heinrich and two other avia tors went out on the field and volunteered as targets. This caused a great deal of ercitement, for if the bombs had struck the men, the result would have been disastrous, as the bombs are quite heavy and arc filled with cartridges which explode when they hit the ground. Heinrich made several flights with passengers and Beck with gave a splendid exhibition of landing.

On Saturday, Oct. 24. the program consisted of bomb dropping, races and balloon chasing. An interesting exhibition was given on Election day and owing to the great micccss of these meets the Week End Meets Association have decided to have them continued, with a special program for Thanksgiving Day. No admission is charged to the field on Sundays.—D. B. Wright.



Samuel Archer King, a veteran balloonist, died at his home in Phila-ilelpliia on November 3. lie was 86 years old and made his first ascension in 1851. During his career as an aemnaut he made 4S0 ascensions, and never met with a serious accident.

Professor King, formerly a photographer, made bis first ascension in Fairmount Park in 1851. and immediately became not only one of the foremost enthusiasts in the sport, but also soon was acknwledged to be one of the best in formed and most efficient pilots uf aerostats.

Seconds Elapsed Titoe


(Con1 iniwii from pope R-i) disposition is a valuable one ami u ill come i nto general use some day. It took several years for designers to see the value of the negative aileron which I have advocated for so long a time and I am curious to see how long it takes designers to see the value in the staggered converging biplane.

Aly experiments over water were CMied on at Marhlehead, Mass., and nil the members of the IUirgess Company saw the flights which my machine made. It seems to me that to get a tractor tailless b:plane to fly and land safely is to do something new in aeronautics.


{Continued from pitgr S'J) The chassis is of a very simple form, as shown, and is constructed of '$ in. square split bamboo cut to streamline form. The wheels are ■'i of an inch in diameter and are of cork; fitted with small pieces of tubing for hubs. The propellers are carved from white pine and are 7 in. in diameter with a pitch of approximately 13 in. Each propeller is driven by 10 strands of } sin. flat rubber.

The accompanying chart has been arranged by Wilbur R. Kimball to represent graphically approximate data on falling bombs and projectiles. Tbese values will be modified by variations in the density of the atmosphere.

The vertical scales of fall in feet may be read for all three curves. The upper horizontal scale may be read for C and the lower one for A and IS.

The space traversed for any second of time is twice the time (2t) minus 1 times 16.OS. represented by the curve A on the chart.

The total distance fallen in any number of seconds is graphically shown by the curve 11, and is the time in seconds squared times 16.OS,

or -—- -

The velocity at the end of fall is gt, i. c. number of seconds times 32.16.

The velocity in feet per second acquired during fall is 8.02 times the square root of the space traversed.

If the projectile has an initial velocity of, c. g . 640 ft. per second

(on C >. approximately that of Ihe projectile tired by a Zeppelin, tin corresponding distance shown by the chart which it would have to fall to attain this velocity is 0,400 ft.; and the time required, 20 seconds.

To calculate the time of fall with this initial velocity, add the distances and subtract the corresponding times. For a projection of 6,000 ft., e. g.. add b,400. making 12.400, requiring 27-?4 seconds, less 20 = 7*_j seconds approximately. From curve A the space traversed in the 30th second is 944 ft.

Aviator Jacquith was fined $22.50 for duck hunting with his Curtiss flying boat, despite the plea of his attorneys, "who argued that the magistrate and game warden were giving a wrong interpretation to the law, as the so-called boat had no dimensions and was without specified draught."

F. C. ITild. formerly the head and feet of the American Aeroplane Sup-pi v 11 nuse. of Hempstead, L. I., is now in the French aviation reserve at Tours and will shortly go to the front.

While we are discussing speed models it recalls to mind the models constructed some few years ago by Stewart K. Easier, a former member of the N. V. Model Aero Club. These models are noted for their high speed, extremely light weight, excellent flying and high-class construction.

The main plane was extremely small, having a span of only 16 in.J 1 n fact, one of the Easter models had a main plane with a span of only 14 in.

These planes were double surfaced, being flat on the under side and cambered on the upper side. The front elevator had u very sharp dihedral angle, presumably for the purpose of obtaining straight flight1--.

The propellers were 7 in. in diameter and were carved so thin that it scarcely seemed possible for them to last for more than one flight, although a; a matter of fact the breakages were very few. The fuselage of this model was also a very delicate piece of construction.

Flights of over 1./00 ft. were very often obtained w ith this model, it being the holder of the world's record for distance for some time.

Published lemi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics


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