Aeronautics

Volume 15 - No. 5 - 1914 September

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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L XV. No. 5

SEPTEMBER 15, 1914

15 Cents

E. W

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.IER0X.IUT1CS, Sept. 15. 1914. Paijc b7 STABILITY OF AEROPLANES*

By ORVILLE WRIGHT, B.S., LL.D., Member of The Franklin Institute

The subject of "Stability of Aero- as soon as the machine begins to acting in the opposite direction tu

planes" is too broad to permit of a move forward, the center of pres- that of the center of resistance, a

discussion of all of its phases in one sure, instead of remaining at the variation in the quantity of any one,

evening. I shall, therefore, confine center of the surfaces, as was the or of all, of these forces will not in

myself more particularly to a few case when descending vertically, itself have a disturbing effect on the

phases of the fore-and-aft or longi- moves toward that edge of the sur- equilibrium about the lateral hori-

tudinal equilibrium. In learning to face which is in advance. The cen- zonta] axis. But these forces in the

fly. the beginner finds most difficulty ter of gravity being located at the ordinary flying machine do not act

iii mastering the lateral control; it center of the surface and the center in the same line. Usually the center

is his lack of knowledge of certain of pressure in advance of the center of thrust is high in order to give

features of the fore-and-aft equilib- of the surface, a turning moment is proper clearance between the pro-

riuni that leads to most of the seri- created which tends to lift the front pellers and the ground; the center

ous accidents. These accidents are of the machine, thus exposing the of gravity is low to enable the ma-

tlie more difficult to avoid because surfaces at a larger angle of inci- chine to land without danger of be-

they are due to subtle causes which dence and at the same time to a ing overturned; and the center of

the flyer does not at the time per- greater resistance to forward move- resistance is usually between the

ceive. ment. The momentum of the ma- centers of thrust and gravity. When

. , chine, acting through its center of a flying machine is traveling at uni-

A flying machine must be balanced gravjtv below the center of forward form speed the propelling forces ex-in three directions: about an axis re5j5tancej combines with the for- actly equal the resisting forces. In fore and aft in its line of motion; ward center 0f pressure in causing case' the thrust of the propellers is about an axis extending in a lateral t]]e surface t0 be rotated about its diminished by throttling the motor, direction from tip to tip of the iaterai axjs_ The machine will take the momentum of the machine act-wings, and about a vertical axis. an upv,ard course until it finally ing below the center of resistance The balance about the lateral axis is comes to a standstill. The rear edge carries the lower part of the ma-referred to as fore-and-aft or longi- 0f ,he surfaCe will now be below chine along faster than the upper tudinal equilibrium; that about the t])at of the from edge and t])e ma_ part| and the surfaces thus will be fore-and-aft axis as lateral equilib- chine w;n begin t0 sii(ie backward, turned upward, producing a greater num, and that about the vertical The cenler 0f pressure immediately angle and a greater resistance. The axis is generally referred to as steer- reverses an(] travels towards the same effect is produced if the ma-mg, although its most important rear e(]ge ot t|le surface| which now chine be suddenly struck bv a gust function is that of lateral equilib- ;n ,be backward movement has be- of wind of higher velocity from in num. come the front edge. The center of front. The thrust of its propellers

re .i,» „ i „,„„„„ „f gravity again being back of the cen- will be temporarily slightly de-

If the center of support of an * 0f pressure, the advancing edge creased, the resistance due to the

aeroplane surface would remain lixed o{ 'surface wil] be lifted as be- greater wind pressure will be in-

at one point, as is practically be ^ dulunI effect of the creased, and the momentum of the

case in marine, vessels and in bal- v repeated. A fly- machine (the center of gravity being

loons and airships equilibrium ^ I of low) will in this case also turn th?

«..uld be a simple matter. ,ut the | . surfaces upward to a larger angle,

location of the center of pressure » ■> to maimain „5 equilibrium> While these variations in the forces

on an aeroplane surface changes oscjiia,e back and forth in this acting in the horizontal line have of

with every change in the angle at man))er j, ; fi „ f „ he themselves a certain amount of dis-

wnch the air sti ikes the surface. nd turbing effect, yet it is from the

At an angle of 90 deg. it is located s changes of incidence which they in-

approximately at the center of the It will |]ave been observed from troduce that one encounters the

surface. As the angle becomes less, the foregoing that the equilibrium greatest difficulty in maintaining

the center of pressure moves for- in ,he horizontal plane was disturbed equilibrium, ward. On plane surfaces it con- by two turning moments acting about

tinues to move forward as the angle tbe lateral horizontal axis of the The two principal methods used in

decreases until it finally reaches the machine; one produced by the force preserving fore-and-aft equilibrium

front edge. But on cambered sur- 0f gravity and the lift of the surface have been, first, the shifting of

faces the movement it imt i-nnt,n- - . >■ ~ . , ..

r-,,.*,*. ,i. m„ , . wl giimy aim uic uii 01 me suriace ""vt uccu, nisi, wie smiling or

faces the movement is not contin- acting ;„ different vertical lines, and "eight so as to keep the center of

uous. After a certain critical ang e the other by the center of momen- gravity in line with the changing

He end 'S.t," ^ V ]' ang r tum and the cemer °f resistance center of lift; and, second, the utili-

, .- —-° - luni dim me ccnier 01 resistance s-cmci ui int. aim, seconu, tne utlll-depends upon the particular form of acting in different horizontal lines. zation of auxiliary surfaces, known the surface the center of pressure . , , as elevators, to preserve the position moves backward with further de- It is evident that a low center of 0f the center of pressure in line with crease in angle until it arrives very gravity is a disturbing instead of a a fixed center of gravity The first close to the rear edge. At angles correcting agent. The ideal form nleti,0j has been found impracticable ordinarily used in flying, angles of of flying machine would be one in on account of the impossibility of .1 deg. to 12 deg., the travel of the which the center of gravity lies in shifting large weights quickly enough-center of pressure is in this retro- the line of the center of resistance fhe second method is that used in grade movement and is located, ac- to forward movement and in the nlost "0f the flying machines of to-cording to the angle of incidence, at line of thrust. In practice this is day points between 30 per cent, and SO not always feasible. Flying ma-

per cent, back of the front edge of chines must be built to land safely Flying machines of this latter type

the surface. The location of the as well as to fly. A high center of should have their auxiliary surfaces

center of pressure on any given gravity tends to cause a machine to located as far as possible from the

surface is definitely fi.xed by the an- roll over in landing. A compromise main bearing planes, because the

gle of incidence at which' the sur- is therefore adopted. The center of greater the distance the greater is

face is exposed to the air. gravity is kept high enough to be the leverage, and consequently the

but a slight disturbing factor in smaller the amount of surface re-the placing of the center of grav- flight and at the sarne time not so quired. The auxiliary surfaces are lty of the machine below its center ]ligh as to interfere in making safe usually placed either in front or in of support appears, at first glance, landings. the rear of the main supporting sur-to he a solution of the problem of faces, since they act with greater ef-equilibrium. This is the method The three forces acting on an ncjency in these positions than when used in maintaining equilibrium in aeroplane in the direction of its line placed* above or below, marine vessels and in balloons and of motion are the thrust of the pro-airships, but in flying machines it pellers. the momentum or inertia of With a view to high efficiency, no has the opposite of the desired ef- its weight, and the resistance of the part of either the main surfaces or feet. If a flving machine consisting machine to forward travel. If trav- the auxiliary surfaces should be e.x-of a supporting surface, without eling in any other than a horizontal posed on their upper sides in a way elevator or other means of balancing, course, a component of gravity in to create downward pressures. One were descending vertically as a the line of motion will have to be pound of air pressure exerted down-parachute, the center of gravity ver- reckoned with. When these forces uard costs as much in propelling ticallv beneath the center of support are exerted in the same line, with power as two pounds of downward would maintain its equilibrium. But the centers of thrust and momentum pressure produced by actual weight

* Presented at the stated meeting of the Franklin Institute held Wednesday, May 20, 1914, when Dr. IVright received the Institute Elliott Cresson Medal in recognition of the epoch-making -ork accomplished by him in establishing on a practical basis the science and arf of aviat\q\\.

carried. This is due to the fact that the total pressure on an aeroplane is not vertical, but approximately normal to the plane of the surface. This pressure may be resolved into two forces, one acting in a line parallel with the direction of travel, and the other at right angles to the line of travel. One is termed *iift' and the other "drift." With a given aeroplane surface, the drift and lift for any given angle of incidence always bear a definite ratio to one another. This ratio varies from 1 to 12 to 1 to 1, according to the angle of incidence and the shape of the surface. On an average it is about 1 to 6. so that the thrust required of the propeller in the ordinary flying machine is approximately one-sixth of the weight carried. When traveling on a horizontal course the lift is vertical and is exactly equal to the total weight of the machine and load-This load may be real weight, or it may be partly real weight and partly downward pressures exerted on parts of the surfaces. For every pound of weight carried, a thrust of approximately one-sixth pound is required. If, however, instead of real weight a downward air pressure is exerted on some part of the machine, this downward pressure must be overcome by an equal upward pressure on some other part of the machine, to prevent the machine from descending. In this case the horizontal component of the one pound downward pressure will be about one-sixth pound, and the horizontal component of the compensating upward pressure also will be about one-sixth pound, making a total of one-third pound required in thrust from the propellers, as compared with one-sixth pound thrust required by one pound actual weight carried. It is, therefore, evident that the use of downward air pressures in maintaining equilibrium is exceedingly wasteful, and, as far as possible, should be avoided. In other words, when the equilbrium of an aeroplane has been disturbed, instead of using a downward air pressure to depress the elevated side, an upward pressure should be utilized to elevate the low side. The cost in power is twice as great in one case as in the other.

The dynamically less efficient system of downward air pressures is used to some extent, however, on account of its adaptability in producing more or less inherently stable aeroplanes. An inherently stable aeroplane may be described as one in which equilibrium is maintained by an arrangement of surfaces, so that when a current of air strikes one part of the machine, creating a pressure that would tend to disturb the equilibrium, the same current striking another part creates a balancing pressure in the opposite direction. This compensating or correcting pressure is secured without the mechanical movement of any part of the machine.

The first to propose the use of this system for the fore-and-aft control of aeroplanes was Penaud, a young French student, who did much experimenting with model aeroplanes in the 70's of the last century. His system is used only to a slight extent in the motor-driven aeroplanes of to-day, on account of its wastefulness of power and on account of its restriction of the manoeuvring qualities of the machine.

Penaud's system consists of a main bearing surface and a horizontal auxiliary surface in the rear fixed at a negative angle in relation to the main surface. The center of gravity is placed in front

of the center of the main surface. This produces a tendency to incline the machine downward in front, and to cause it to descend. In descending, the aeroplane gains speed. The fixed surface in the rear, set at a negative angle, receives an increased pressure on its upper side as the speed increases. This downward pressure causes the rear of the machine to be depressed till the machine takes an upward course. The speed is lost in the upward course, the downward pressure on the tail is relie\ed, and the forward center of gravity turns the course again downward. While the inherently stable system will control a machine to some extent, it depends so much on variation in course and speed as to render it inadequate to meet fully the demands of a practical flying machine.

In order to secure greater dynamic efficiency and greater manoeuvring ability, auxiliary surfaces mechanically operable are used in present flying machines instead of the practically fixed surfaces of the inherently stable type. These machines possess the means of quickly recovering balance without changing the direction of travel and of manoeuvring with greater dexterity when required. On the other hand, they depend to a greater extent upon the skill of the operator in keeping the equilibrium. It may be taken as a rule that the greater the dynamic efficiency of the machine and the greater its possibilities in manoeuvring, the greater the knowledge and skill required of the operator.

If the operator of a flying machine were able to "feel" exactly the angle at which his aeroplane meets the air, 90 per cent, at least r*f all aeroplane accidents would be eliminated. It has been the lack of this ability that has resulted in so large a toll of human lives. Instruments have been produced which indicate closely the angle of incidence at which the machine is flying, but they are not in general use. Nor does the average flyer realize how exceedingly dangerous it is to be ignorant of tbis angle. Most of the flyers are aware that "stalling" is dangerous, but do not know when they really are "stalling."

A flying machine is in great danger when it is flying at its angle of maximum lift. A change either to a smaller or a larger angle results in a lesser lift. There is this important difference, however, whether the angle be increased or decreased. While a smaller angle gives less lift, it also has less drift resistance, so that the machine is permitted to gain speed. On the other hand, the larger angle gives not only less lift but encounters a greater resistance, which causes the speed of the machine to be rapidly checked, so that there is a double loss of lift—that due to angle and that due to a lesser speed.

The maximum lift is obtained in most flying machines at some angle between 15 deg. and 20 deg. If the machine be gliding from a height with the power of the motor throttled or entirely turned off, and the operator attempt to turn it to a level course, the speed of the machine will soon be reduced to the lowest at which it can support its load. If now this level course be held for even only a second or two, the speed and the lift will be so diminished that the machine will begin to fall rapidly.

The center of pressure on a cambered aeroplane surface at angles greater than 12 deg. to IS deg.

travels backward with increase of angle of incidence, so that wben a machine approaches the "stalled angles, the main hearing surfaces are generally carrying practically all of the weight and the elevator practically none at all. Under these conditions the main surfaces fall more rapidly than does the rear elevator. The machine noses downward and plunges at an exceedingly steep angle toward the earth. This plunge would tend to bring the machine back to normal speed quickly were the machine flying at its usual angle of incidence. But at the large angles of incidence the drift is a large part of the total pressure on the surfaces, so that, although plunging steeply downward, speed is recovered but slowly. The more the operator tries to check the downward plunge by turning the elevator, the greater becomes the angle of incidence, and the greater the forward resistance. At ordinary stalled angles the machine must descend at an angle of about 25 deg. with reference to the horizontal in order to maintain its speed. If the speed be already below that necessary for support, a steeper angle of descent will be required, and considerable time may be consumed before supporting speed can be recovered. During all this time the machine is plunging downward. If the plunge begins at a height of less than 200 or 300 ft., the machine is likely to strike the ground before the speed necessary to recover control is acquired.

The danger from "stalling" comes in the operator attempting to check the machine's downward plunge by turning the main bearing surfaces to still larger angles of incidence, instead of pointing the machine downward, at a smaller angle of incidence, so that the speed can be recovered more quickly. It is safe to say that fully 90 per cent, of the fatal accidents in flying are due to this cause. Most of the serious ones occur when, after long glides from considerable heights, with the power of the motor reduced, an attempt is made to bring the machine to a more level course several hundred feet in the air. The machine quick ly loses its speed and becomes "stalled." All of us who have seen the novice make a "pancake" landing have seen the beginning of a case of "stalling" which might have been fatal had it taken place at a height of 100 or 200 ft.

The greatest danger in flying comes from misjudging the angle of incidence. If a uniform angle of incidence were maintained, there would be no difficulty in fore-and-aft equilibrium. As has already been stated, for any given surface and any given angle of incidence, the position of the center of pressure is fixed. Under these conditions, if the center of gravity were located to coincide with the center of pressure and a uniform angle of incidence maintained, the machine would always be in equilibrium.

It is in accordance with this principle that experiments the past year have brought about a considerable advance in the development of automatic stability. A small horizontal wind vane is so mounted on the machine as to ride edge-wise to the wind when the machine is flying at the desired angle of incidence. In case the machine varies from the desired angle, the air will strike the vane on either its upper or lower side. The slightest movement of the vane in either direction brings into {Continued on page 78)

CURTISS MODEL "J" TRACTOR BIPLANE

The Curtiss Model "J" and Model "J-2" tractor biplanes have been developed to meet the 1914 specifications of the United States Army, and several of the Model "J" have already been adopted and are in use by the Signal Corps at San Diego, after demonstrations by Raymund V. if orris.

These models can be furnished as land machines or as hydroaeroplanes.

section is crosswired in three directions. The third and fourth vertical struts are placed so as to act as wing struts, and they have extensions running to the upper surface.

The streamline effect is preserved throughout by enclosing the front of the fuselage, with motor and mountings, in a cowl of Duralumin, slotted to admit air to the motor. Streamline cowls protect the cockpits and

sengers, 2; fuel capacity, 4 hours; speed range, loaded, 45-75 m.p.h.; climbing speed, 400 ft. p.m.: price f. o. b. Hammondsport, $7.500; hydroplane equipment, extra. $500.

Model "J-2"—Span—Lower plane, 30 ft.; upper, 24 ft.; chord, 60 in.; ailerons (4), 7x2 ft.; length over all, 24 ft.; rudder area, 16 sq. ft.; flippers, 16 sq. ft.; area fixed tail surfaces. 30 sq. ft.; number passen-

 

r73

   

-■sr.

&&&&&

MODEL '"J," RECONNAISSANCE TYPE.

Model **.(" tractor is arranged for pilot and observer, seated in tandem, and is equipped with double controls, so that either man may take charge. With Curtiss Model O-X 90-100 h.p. motor, it has an extreme flying range of from 40 to 90 miles per hour, carrying two men and four hours' fuel. Flying light. Lieut. Goodier climbed 1,000 ft. in 1 minute; fully loaded, its guaranteed climbing speed ie 2,000 ft. in 6 minutes.

MODEL '•J-2.*' FAST SCOUT TYPE.

Model "J-2" Curtiss tractor is a single-seated speed scout, as fast a biplane of its horse power as ever has been produced, hut still substantial enough to stand up well under the stress of hard service. With Model O-X Curtiss motor, the "J-2" tractor lias more of a range.

The wings of both these models are of latest approved section, one-piece type. Wing frames are built up carefully of ash and spruce, with beams shaped and grooved by hand, important joints copper strapped, the whole securely stayed with piano wire. Covers are of unbleached linen, thoroughly coated with our own water and oil-proof preparation. Model "J" wings have a spread of 40 ft. 2 in. for the upper surfaces, and 30 ft. for the lower surfaces; the area of lifting surface is approximately 350 sq. ft. Model "J-2" wings have a span of 24 ft., upper and lower alike, and an approximate area of 240 sq. ft.

The fuselage is of rectangular section, 26 in. wide by 35 in. high at the cockpit, tapering to nothing at the rudder. The longerons are ash strips, 1J4 in- in diameter, tapering to 1 in. The fuselage is corner braced with nine sets of struts, which are joined with corner clamps without piercing the longerons. Each

deflect the wind from the pilots, as well as shield from the weather the dashboards on which the instruments are mounted. Behind the cockpits the fuselage is covered with waterproofed linen.

The Curtiss Model O-X motor is mounted on engine beds of laminated ash and spruce 2 in. x 3 in. in diameter. It is fastened in front to a plate of 3-32 in. steel, which joins the longerons, and also carries the radiator. The rear ends of the engine beds are mounted on a hardwood cross member framed into the second pair of vertical struts of extra size.

The fuselage is supported by an undercarriage consisting of three supporting struts on each side, borne on two streamlined wire wheels. The tires are 26 in. x 5 in. Wheels are attached with rubber band shock absorbers. Protection from an upset in case of an unusually hard landing is afforded by two white oak skids, 6 ft. long, turned tip in front; they also help shield the propeller. The tail skid is of white oak and sprung on with rubber bands.

Turn-up ailerons 10 ft. in length by 2 ft. wide are attached to the trailing edge of the upper surface on Model "J" tractor. Model "J-2" has turn-up ailerons on both upper and lower surfaces. These are 7 ft. long by 2 ft. wide. The vertical rudder has an area of 30 in. x 36 in., is well secured to the stern post, and is double wired. Horizontal rudders, or flippers, have an area of 16 sq. ft. Either the Curtiss system of control, consisting of shoulder yoke and steering wheel, or the Deperdusshi system, with foot bar, can be provided with these models.

General dimensions are:

Model "J"—Span, lower plane, 30 ft.; upper, 40 ft. 2 in.; chord, 60 in.; ailerons (2), 10 x 2 ft.; length over all, 26 ft. 4 in.; rudder area, 16 sq. ft.; flippers, 16 sq. ft.; area fixed tail surfaces, 30 sq. ft.; number pas-

gers, 1; fuel capacity, 3 hours; speed range, loaded, 45-80 m.p.h.; climbing speed, 500 ft. p.m.; price f. o. b. Ilammondsport, $7,500; hydroplane equipment, extra, $500.

JACQUITH MAKES GOOD FLIGHT.

On Sept. 21 the Curtiss flyer Jac-quith, with passenger, K. F." Patterson, flew from Seaside Park to Atlantic City, about 62 miles, in 1 hr. 3 min., in a Curtiss flying boat.

MOISANT MOVES.

The Moisaut International Aviators have moved their office from 1790 Broadway to the factory at Thompson and Fiske avenues, Win-field, Long Island, N. Y.

It is of interest to note that a wonderful exhibition of looping-the-loop and upside down flying by Niles at the Trenton fair failed to attract, as one-third of the people were watching a vaudeville performance on the ground the same time Niles was performing in the air.

La Liberte, according to a Paris despatch, declares that cage birds, especially canaries, never fail to signal the presence of an airship or aeroplane "by giving a cry of surprise." The paper suggests that they should be used as watch birds.

It is suggested that British sportsmen should make up parties for aircraft fighting and for just one season ieave the duck and the woodcock alone.—Army and Navy Journal.

Harry Bingham Brown was married on October 7th. No more flying for H. B. B.

THE "STECO" AEROPLANE

The "Steco" aeroplane, designed liy James S. Stephens, was built ill the spring of 1911 from drawings prepared in the latter part of 1910. These drawings were submitted to and approved by the late Octave Chan ute.

"At the time no biplane had been built without a front elevator or w it h a tractor propeller; that the wing section is practically the same as one of the most efficient forms evolved by the Ei ffel experiments during the past few months, and that the machine embodies in its design and construction all of the features that have been developed during the past four year& which tend to make the dying machines more efficient and stable."

The supporting surfaces of this machine are arranged so that it is naturally stable, both longitudinally

up, turning it to the right or left for steering horizontally, as with a bicycle.

The attachment of a single controlling surface and its movement in performing the functions of steering are such that it acts to automatically compensate the tilting of the machine when turning, accomplishing the same result as the reverse movement of a vertical rudder, as covered by the Wright patent, claims over which there has been so much controversy. My a tilting motion of the handle bar, the steering plane may be rocked in either direction and used as an auxiliary balancing device manually controlled, this tilting motion aiding more or less or counteracting the effect of the steering of the machine upon its normal balance. ' This single surface is supported on a bearing located near its center,

swing freely out toward the outer end of the planes, but not inwardly further than to be in line with the forward motion of the machine when flying straight ahead.

These balancing planes co-operating with the form of the outer ends of the wings, maintain the proper angle of the machine when turning, so that it will not skid outwardly for want of sufficient banking, or slide inwardly and downwardly from over-banking, their operation being somewhat similar to a check valve on each end of the wings of the machine.

If the machine in turning starts tu skid outward, the balancing plane on that end of the wings acts as a check to the motion of the machine in that direction and in conjunction with the form of the wings and their relative dihedral angles, creat-

and transversely; this is accomplished by an adaptation of the principal of the Zanonia leaf, a form that has also been taken advantage of in the design of the "Dunne," a liritish development, and the "Et-rich" aeroplane of Germany. Additional features aiding in the natural stability of this machine are the staggering of the wings, the upper plane being located forward of the lower, and also having a slightly increasing angle of incidence, a combination of these features in conjunction with the transverse form of the planes, giving the maximum of natural stability when flying.

All of the supporting surfaces of this machine are fixed, thus permit-ling permanent construction and bracing not affected by warping or twisting while the machine is in action. The single tail surface, which carries a portion of the load, is the only controllable surface used in steering the machine in any desired direction.

The operation of this surface for both elevator and rudder effect is performed by direct connection, without pulleys or levers, to a steering post and handle bar, similar to the handle bar of a bicycle, the motion required being of such a simple nature that a novice will instinctively make the proper movements, viz., shaving the handle bar forward to go down and drawing it back to go

having a universal movement, so that any movement of the handle bar in the hands of the operator will cause a similar directional movement of the tail steering plane.

This tail steering plane is connected to the machine by a simple method which allows of its adjustment, so that normally the machine when in action w ill fly straight ahead, and is so located and adjusted, relative to the main supporting surfaces, as to cause the machine to automatically assume the minimum gliding angle downward when the power is shut off.

The controlling mechanism always automatically assuming its normal relative position for straight ahead flying, should the operator for any reason or intentionally remove his hands from the controlling lever; this important function is accomplished by a simple method of supporting the steering member without any actuating device other than the pressure of the air upon the tail of the machine, which provides for certain action obtained from the motion ot the machine itself through tbe air.

As an auxiliary to the special form and arrangement of the main supporting planes designed to maintain transverse stability, the machine is fitted with two balancing planes, one on each side, placed vertically between the second set of struts in from the outer end and hinged to

ing an additional lift on that side of the machine, tending to maintain the machine at the proper angle sideways for turning, the balancing plane on the opposite end of the planes being neutral, swinging free in line with the angle of drift of the machine.

Should the machine overbank and tend to slide down and inwardly, the inner balancing plane on that end of the wings will immediately become active, reversing the operation, as previously explained.

The advantages claimed in the construction of this machine are natural inherent stability obtained by the form of the planes and simple movable parts operated positively by the pressure of the air upon the machine when in action without any mechanical or electrical contrivances.

Simplification of Parts—This machine having but one movable controllable part, which for steering in either a horizontal or verticle. plane, is connected to the steering lever in the hand of the operator by direct connections without intermediary levers or pulleys.

The design of this machine provides for instinctive control by simple mechanism, tending toward greater safety, strength in construction by the reduction of movable parts, and simplification of control by the elimination of vertical rud ders, ailerons and wing warping.

CAREY STABILITY SYSTEM.

Edwin K. Carey, of Pueblo, Colo., suggests the alleged non-infringing lateral stability system shown in the drawing herewith, after having tried it out. He offers the idea to others. The drawing is after the original sketch made by Mr. Carev in April, 1910.

The inventor states: "That others have, in a measure, considered similar devices, look at the joint elevator of the Cody 1909-11 type. Reverse the design of his machine, leave off his tail and use the dimensions herewith and there is quite a similarity. However. I knew nothing of his device at the time. Dunne uses ailerons

sions and universal 'cloche' to assist in rising by positive incidence to help elevator, and by rearward side-wise motion made them function to restore balance, but to my knowledge this is the only one to use the elevators as such to control balance. Dunne uses ailerons as elevators. We use elevators as ailerons, only they function as feathers on an arrow by impingement behind center of thrust, center of pressure, weight and inertia, and can be worked in conjunction, separately, with or without rudders."

The w arping elevators are operated in both directions, independent-

TRANS-ATLANTIC MODEL GOES ABROAD.

Contradicting the criticism that the "America" was a freak or specially-built machine for stunt purposes, is the sale abroad of practically a duplicate which was shipped September SV to England. According to published reports, the machine is said to have been acquired for the British Admiralty on the recommendation of Lieut. John C. Porte, who. as prospective pilot for the transatlantic project, was entirely familiar with the "America" and her possibilities.

The only statement made by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. was that when war was declared and it became evident the transatlantic flight could not be attempted this year, the "Ames -ica" was dismantled, and a stu- Y type uf machine along simile ■ ./ was developed from it and piu-,. the market. A new arrai^gemeiu made with Mr. Rodman Wanjima_ whereby Mr. Curtiss is to-design <. new and larger mach:n^ jf0r next year's transatlantic at*ei11 f'JK

Of the "Transatlant,c"^fc-, as it is now catalogued J>' JM^Curtiss Aeroplane Co., it ,s **"u several have been ordered '.°r delivery jri America, though tht impression prevails that eventual!* these will rind their way to Eurog-*' J he new machines differ frou. *ne "*^rner'ca" onlv in details. ,f"ere 15 greater planing surface,*^- 5*en ;" lower, the tail is'*" Curtiss OX 90-h. . ^ used.

A detailed descr*. - „.i of the type will be puhlished in an early issue.

for steering and elevating. Richard Harte did in 1870; so did the 'JMap-son* flown by Schreck at Juvisy; Mouillard also, as well as Du Temple in his models. Small models of my device are filling requirements with rudder as a vane, or left off entirely. Cody and Martin have used ailerons in conjunction with elevators to restore balance. In 1910-11 Goupy used ailerons on wing exten-

ly or simultaneously, to restore lateral balance. Another arrangement would be to have a vertical rudder at each one of these tails instead of one rudder as shown in the original sketch. The main planes are rigid in the design, and the entire control is as shown in the tail. A foot bar operates the rudder, and right and left hand levers the twin elevators. A machine of this pattern was built and flown in 1911, Mr. Carey says.

SLOANE CO. CHANGES NAME.

A new organization known as the Aircraft Co., Inc., has been formed to build the well-known Sloane Aeroplanes and to conduct the business carried on by the Sloane Aeroplane Co. The office of the Company will remain at 1737 Broadway and the manufacturing will be carried on at Bound Brook, N. J., and Long Island City, N. V.

This Company is in a position to turn out the various standard types of aeroplanes in large numbers. There is a very well equipped machine plant operating in connection with them under the name of Sloane-Daniel Motor Co. In this - plant a specialty is made of light weight, high speed gas engines suitable for aeroplanes. These aeronautical motors will be sold by the Aircraft Co., Inc.

John E. Sloane. formerly president of the Sloane Aeroplane Co., is president of the new concern; M. R. Hutchinson, E. E., vice-president and Daniel L. Meenan, Jr., secretary and treasurer. Mr. M. R. De Miege is also associated with the company in an executive capaciiy,

Charles II. Day, the well-known builder of "Day Tractors," who built De Lloyd Thompson's record breaking machine and who previously was connected with Glenn L. Martin Co., is now associated with the Aircraft Co., Inc., and will be in direct charge of the construction of the Sloane Aeroplanes which will be built exclusively by this company.

Mr Stevens is making a strenuous effort to revive ballooning, and the race at Pittsfield on October 8 ought to do a lot to help along.

KEMP EIGHT-CYLINDER AIR-COOLED.

The Kemp Mach ine Works, of Muncie, Ind., has just put on the market a new and enlarged edition in its J-S, 75-h.p.. S-cyl. V., air-cooled motor, equipped with a blower to insure positive circulation of air around all the cylinders evenly, the only air-cooled American motor with stationary cylinders.

A blower mounted on the forward end of motor drives a current of air through its two outlet pipes to manifolds on each group of four cylinders. The manifolds distribute an equal quantity of air to each cylinder, where it is forced around under an aluminum jacket and between the regular cooling flanges to an outlet diametrically opposite its point of entry". Thus each cylinder gets ex-ae.-y as much air as any other, and aii jwts of The c\lmder are cooltil uniformly. Blower Tan, casing, manifolds and jackets are all of aluminum, amply strong for the pmjose, and the weight of the entire outfit is but 31 lbs. "Compare this with the weight of a 75-h.p. radiator, empty," says Mr. Kemp!

The maker guarantees absolute freedom from the dangers of overheating and all the resulting consequences, and "for the user the most trying prohlem and the greatest

weakness of all other motors—the cooling problem—simply ceases to exist."

The cylinders, 4J4 i»- x m->

are of the valve-in-head type, ac-

knowledged the best for maximum efficiency, with both valves, of rich tungsten steel, mechanically operated. The cooling flanges, as on all Kemp motors, are turned from the solid semi-steel stock. Pistons are of the same material, very light, with two concentric Wasson rings and three oil grooves.

The connecting rods are of the same aluminum bronze alloy used satisfactorily in the past, with a "strength equal to that of steel and no liability to crystallization and fracture." They are of a new section, with a third rib down the center, much stronger than the usual H set lion.

Crank shaft is cut from a solid billet of special vanadium steel, heat treated, and bored throughout. It is supported on five bearings of hard, high speed, nickel motor babbit, and equipped with ball thrust bearings tor either pushing or pulling. It projects sufficiently at the rear end for attachment of gear to connect with hand or electric starter.

The crank case is of an aluminum alloy of high strength, thoroughly webbed and ribbed.

Oil sump in base has a capacity of 4 gals. A gear pump takes the oil from this compartment and keeps a constant stream flowing over cam shaft and crank shaft bearings, whence it splashes to cylinders. The lubricating system is simple, sufficient and certain.

"We have endeavored to make the motor a lightweight power plant, as all aeronautical motors should be. At the same time, we have not left off an ounce of material where it could do any good. Dependability and freedom from breakage has been otir chief aim, and the motor is remarkably solid and substantial as compared with most lightweight aero motors. To further insure dependability and durability, we have designed it to give its rated power at very moderate speed."

Ignition is by the Mea BUS magneto.

Two Zenith carburetors are used, one serving each group of four cylinders. A Paragon propeller is furnished with each engine, as the Kemp works have concluded, after the tests with these propellers, that they are the most suitable. Each propeller furnished is designed to suit the particular machine on which it is to be used, and the 3-bladed Paragon will be fitted if desired.

While this model is rated at 75 li.p., it is guaranteed to turn an 8ft. diameter by 5-ft. pitch propeller to at least 1,250 r.p.m., stationary, with corresponding increase in the air. It is understood, however, that the normal speed of this motor is 1,200, and should not be run above that.

The A. L. A. M. rating of this motor would be 72.25 h.p. The weight complete is but 375 lbs., and the price is $1,250. The gas consumption is 4 gals, an hour, which is low, and the oil consumption 3 qts.

AUGUST EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

Imports: Parts only, $2,153. For eight months ending August, one 'plane and parts were imported to value of $13,910, of which $12,054 is the valuation of the parts.

Exports: One 'plane and parts, $1,690, ol which the 'plane represents $1,500. Certainly aeroplanes are not overvalued when shipped. For eight months ending August, 25 aeroplanes have been shipped, representing $153,399, with parts totaling $25,001 additional.

Exports of imported goods: None for August; for eight months the total was but $207.

In Warehouse: On August 31 there was one foreign-built machine, valued at $1,856. At the same time in 1913 there were three and parts, valued at $7,708.

JULY EXPORTS AND IMPORTS.

Imports: Parts only, value $86. For seven months ending July, 'planes and parts to amount of $11,757.

Exports: Two 'planes and parts for July, value $45.66. For seven months ending July, value was $176,710, as against $36,039 and $69,165 for 1913 and 1912, respectively, for the same period.

Exports of foreign manufacture: None. For seven months ending July, value totaled $207.

In Warehouse July 31; One 'plane and parts, $5,069. At the some time in 1913, there were in the warehouse three 'planes and parts, to the value of $7,708.

ALMOST A NEW ENDURANCE RECORD.

A new record for aeroplane endurance in America was nearly established on September 25, when Lieut. Joseph Carherry, U. S. A., accompanied by Oscar Brindley, remained in actual flight for 4 hours and 7 minutes, during which time they flew to Los Angeles and back and then across the Mexican boundary and back to the hangars on North Island. The old record is 4 hours, 22 minutes. The machine used was the new Wright tractor-type "pusher" with the 90-h.p. Austro-Daimler motor, being delivered to the Army.

THOMPSON ALTITUDE RECORD OFFICIAL.

The new American altitude record recently made with a Gyro motored machine hy De Lloyd Thompson has been officially fixed at 15,256 It. (.4,651.22 metres).

AROUND-THE-WORLD RACE.

Well, what has become of it? Also, where is Arnold Kruckman?

NEW BOOKS.

EXPERIMENTS, by Philip E. Edelman. 16mo, cloth, illus., 250 pp., published at $1.50 by Philip E. Edelman, Minneapolis, Minn. A most desirable work to place in the hands of any young man that has shown a tendency toward scientific study. The scope of .the book is well set forth in the frontispiece as "a series of selected, grouped and graded experiments which may be repeated in a simple manner, covering a wide range of applied science" evolved from the wonderful developments of the last decade in physics, chemistry and electricity. It is interesting reading for even those who are thoroughly familiar with the subject matter.

AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR

Until the war is ended and naval "Only twelve persons were injured, m the hope that at last there may

and army critics report on the value of these only live were killed. The turn up a winning hand."

of aircraft as reconnaissance means, total damage amounted to the shat- A re t which conflicts seriously

in offense and delense, little of real tering of the upper story of a with (ha, ,„ the effect tha, , Uer.

use will be learned. house and to the excavation of a man airshi have been destroyed ;5

Reports vary from one extreme to saucer-shaped hole in the ground in this. the other and, of course, such re- yhich a man might lie down comports are from untrained men and fortably. One shell from a six- Of the Zeppelin units, one is be-without definite significance It pounder would have wrought inhn- lieved to have been disabled by the would appear, however, that aerial lte|y more ruin, and falling in the fire of the Liege forts on Aug ft and reconnaissances have been the means same space, would have cost more in another was demohshel in a shed at of preventing ""surprises" and have life; . Tlle Germans were at the time Metz hy the French aviator Fink, made the great battles long drawn within ten miles of the centre of I wo others have been seen by Bel-ont affairs decided by number of tlle oi Brussels at one point of gian aviators, apparently wrecked by-troops and marksmanship, strength ,he,ir \'ne- Tlie *,eSe howitzer of wind squalls, in the forest between of armament and position "With- today has an effective range of more Metz and Aix-la-Chapelle. -Another out'dou'bt the aeroplane is the great- tnan twelve miles. A projectile dis- lias been brought down at liadon est single factor in this war is charged from such a gun would have viller, near Luneville. Of the re-the opinion of one expert ' absolutely demolished any building mainder, two are supposed to be on

n., .. , ', , upon which it fell. tlle Russian frontier and the others

lhe Zeppelins have made them- ,..„„... succe«fnl attempt at w-ir at Cologne. Hamburg and Kiel and

selves conspicuous by their absence. , Another successtul attempt at war French frontier \ German

A few desultory sorties have been irom the alr was that exploit of P!1 1 rencli trontier. a iierman

a iew uesunory sorties nave been , ■ , M i>e„n,,ri ,,.,<. ,i,„ ilpr„ biplane captured at Cernay has been

made, according to reports, but as * "cn M- 1 e80ucl %J,asatl,e ller0- added to the ■> > euns and other

a real f-irtor thev have vet iA ,l^m,m W 'th one companion he flew over a fuueu to 'J'e guns ana otner

a real lactor tne> nave >et to demon- . , (- Jl enramnmenis near trophies to be placed at the foot of

strate their worth. Ihey are ev - fenes 01 ,jerma" encampments near . 1 monument

dently being held back for some ^avenmacher. '» !elS'unJ; He flew tl,c Alsace monument

definite purpose which will appear at at n'gh,' a"d at °"1>r 50°, ft- alt"ude- ., Speaking of the relative merits of

the figured-upon time. ^n lac* °* exact knowledge gossip Zeppelins and the French non-rigid

1, , c has it that his load of bombs weighed tvpe of airships, as demonstrated in

Iveports continue of aeroplane 500 11)S ue discharged every one the present war. M. Sabatier, the

scouts being brought down by rifle before he returned. well-known airship specialist, says:

hre, of the miscellaneous dropping "French airships have been doing

of bombs and arrows from aero- , lne ,net result, so tar as can work and so far escaped

ulanes of duels in the air Lt,.,.n lie ascertained, was that the fright- cxceium work, arm so lar iscapeu

piancs, 01 aueis in tne air between , . , , , , ■ £ unscathed, although often under hre.

opposing scouts, and of occas ona ened oerniaiis blanketed their tires • startj,.,r from -iia„

flights with bomb rironnino ,,ver 50 that the aeroplanist could not "»e 01 tnem. starting iiom .uau

Paris dropping, over find uh (arget It was af first s(ated bcugc, flew oyer Treves and beyond,

Herbert Corey in the r)nh, tliat two convoys of ammunition returning safely to its shed On

states- ' "ere destroyed by his bombs. This the other hand, we have bagged sey-

..." < , , , -. , not been confirmed. It is eral Zeppelins. The reason tor this

. Aircraft have utterly failed to highly hkely, of course, that if an apparent invulnerabi ity of the

justify themselves as instruments of ammunition caisson were struck by French airship 15 simple. By reason

battle in tbe great war. As instru- all explosive projectile it would be ll,e elasticity of our gas bags we

ments of reconnaissance they have destroyed, it does not necessarily can safely maintain a very high

been of great value This formula follow that the next wagon of am- altitude, beyond ordinary gun range,

was suggested to me by an officer munition would suffer. The 'in- This is impossible with the rigid

of the British flying corps: cendiary' bombs he carried would fhc" ot thc Zeppelin, which cannot

" 'One howitzer is of greater value unquestionably cause a conflagration J.ear. ")e expansion of gas, more par-

than twoscore of dirigibles. One if they fell among city houses. They hcularty111 this hot weather; so the

aeroplane may conceivably be of are almost harmless—as harm is r.rencli have a distinct advantage in

greater value than a squadron of counted in this war—if they fall airships.

scouts.' among the tents of an encampment. A young Belgian aviator was re-

"M. Bleriot, the first man to fly "ft is definitely known that each ported as saying: "It is very difficult

the English channel, and now one of side has been continually engaged in to distinguish anything .Men look

the leading aeroplane makers of experiments upon the other by s0 Sl"a" ™ such a height. For

France—his factory is at work day means of bombs. The French, at example, unless you are directly

and night turning out aircraft for least, have indicated they will give above them, you can scarcely see

use in the war—made this state- this up as a bad job. Even the even artillery upon a road. A rifle

ment: moral effect lias worn off. In the "ullet struck the propellor of his

'"The dirigibles have done nothing daytime marching troops have had machine and broke it slightly, hut

1 lie air giuies nave aone nothing, difficulty in avoidine the droDoed d,d ,10t sta-v llls night. The ex-

The aeroplane has been usefu—but uiintuiij awimiug me uroppea , ■ , shells were verv disturh-

ihe Hst xvnrA remains with the corns ' bombs. Bomb throwing at night is Plosions 01 snens .were very uisjurn

the last word remains with the guns. hi h] ha].assing ,Q t]le thrown at, ing because they interfered with the

JNI. Fegoud, who bas hgurcd in hut the animated targets have the equilibrium of the machine. As to

several daring exploits, is quoted as consolation that, like lightning, an noise? But the noise of the engine

lollows: aeroplanist never strikes twice ill drowns every other sound. So far

tr. , ihp cnn1P nlace as reconnoitering airman is con-

From an aerop ane one sees- the same place. a , ,efiefd ,s itc n , ..

but one does not always know what "'Our reports from Belgium are .

it is one sees. The airman may see that in broken, wooded, hilly country 5avs the 1 aris Jemps: llie ex-

that the enemy is in possession of an airman is quite unable to distin- Penence of our air people shows territory, but the work of developing guish with any certainty the numbers ,,hat an aeroP'J"e "f sa!e lr°ni

in what strength it is held must still or disposition of the troops beneath buUJ's„ "he" 1-000 Xds- '"gli. a,,d

be carried out by cavalry or motor him,' said the British officer quoted. aJ 2'000 yds- aV aviator still can

scouts.' -He might make a fairly accurate observe accurately with the naked

"Little has found its way into estimate of what was going on upon eye.__

print as to the details of the work a plain beneath him. Even so, in

done by dirigibles or planes in the the present state of development he itvtv ,iu- tjttv iivi.it

war. Gossip from the front, heard would only he able to report that a 11AL1 .\1A\ BU\ lit-KL.

in London and Paris, is that innum- certain number of small or large F.nea Bossi, a well-known Italian

erable attempts at aggression have bodies of troops were under way in engjncer aiKj designer is in New-been made by the aircraft of both a given direction buch reports have y fc c0]lferri „.ith manufacturers

sides. In one case a German dig been of great value to us, but they s floated over the city of Brussels must be supplemented hy feeling out nerc-

and discharged nine powerful bombs. the country by cavalry scouts.' "The Italian government now has From the airman's viewpoint condi- "Nevertheless, the countries en- 17 dirigibles, two of which are as tions for this savage raid were ideal, gaged in this great war are adding big as Zeppelins; 2S0 biplanes, and There w&s no wind, and the motor to their aeroplane squadrons as rap- j"Q hydroplanes" ^lr liossi said balloon was maneuvered over the idly as possible. It is conceded that Sept. 11.—Aeroplanes with search-city as easily as a catboat in a they - have not justified the high .. . 1 ., , 1 , , , breeze. The bombs fell upon a hopes that were entertained of them ,,?,',S f6 Sa , to 'e fU\rdel densely thronged city, thereby as- before the war began. But they are n'Sht the headquarters of the Ger-suring tbe maximum of cost to life one of the great dice of war, and man general staff and the Kaiser and property. they will be thrown again and again, at Luxembourg.

Sept. 19.- -British army officer said to have stated that the aeroplanes of the allies are doing splendid service. In one instance one located a German troop train at night and dropped a torch to indicate the range. "Our artjllery blew tile train to atoms in a few minutes."

Sept. 21. Aeroplane reconnois-sance reports German retirement, with trains and stores.

Sep;. 21. Japanese hydro-aeroplanes, throwing bombs, destroyed barracks and set fire to two important forts at Tsingtao.

Sept. 25. British aviators said to have set fire to hangars near Cologne, while German newspaper says only a few windows were broken.

Sept. 22.—British naval aeroplanes attack Zeppelin shed at Dusseldorf and dropped three bombs. Extent of damage not known.

Sept. 24.—Frenchman arriving in America tells of steel arrows, six inches long, rounded at one end and brought to a needle point, with grooves along the other end, launched a thousand at a time from aircraft fitted with special boxes, whose bottoms open.

Sept. 25.—German airship drops four bombs, making great cavities in the ground, damaging houses and breaking street lamps and wires.

Sept. 25. Germans said to have lost most of their aeroplanes, hut the "Zeppelin fleet is intact."

Sept. 27.—German aeroplane flies

over Paris and dropped a bomb. One man was killed. Three others bombs were dropped, doing "comparatively little damage." A German airship sailed over Belgian cities during the night and dropped bombs, causing considerable damage to gas works and buildings.

Sept. 30.—Japanese aviators say they hit a German vessel with bombs at Kaio-chow, and the guns of warships silenced two harbor forts after obtaining range signaled by Jap hydros.

Oct. 1.—-French pilot and mechanic use aeroplane gun on German scout machine, killing both German occupants and setting fire to the machine.

Oct. 1.—Italian dirigible sent out to locate floating mines in the Adriatic.

Oct. 2.—German aeroplanes drop proclamations over territory in which Russian troops are stationed, urging Russian soldiers to surrender.

Oct. 2.—During night German airships dropped bombs on Antwerp forts without serious damage. German gun fire is very accurate, being directed by officers in captive balloons to the front of German batteries. Captive balloon said to be poor substitute for aeroplane reconnaissance. British aviators direct fire from Antwerp forts.

Oct. 3.—British official press bureau issues .statement that the naval air service, including aeroplanes and

dirigibles, patrolled a line between Ostend and the English coast during movement of troops from England.

Oct. 3.—Japanese aeroplanes chase a German one at Tsingtao. A captive balloon is reported in use there.

(let. 5.—Report that airships are being groomed, new stations built on North Sea and material and supplies collected for a raid on England.

Oct. 6.—Kaiser confers Iron Cross on commander and crew of a Schutte-Lanz airship, for "the magnificent aerial reconnoitering that led to the destruction of the three British cruisers" torpedoed in the North Sea by German submarines.

Oct. 7.—Six German airships sail over Antwerp during the night, setting fire to oil tanks.

< )ct. 7.—German aeroplane Mies over Paris, dropping two bombs, which wounded three persons.

Oct. S.— Aeroplane drops bombs over airship at Cologne, but driven off by fire without doing damage. Bomb from aeroplane said to have damaged airship and shed at Dusseldorf. Airship reported seen over North Sea. Duel in the air between Belgian scout and German flyer, resulting in the loss of the German pilot and craft.

"Fall Fashions Volplane to Broadway." is the expression used in a haberdasher's advertisement in a New York paper.

U.S. ARMY AERONAUTICS—GOVERNMENT COMPETITION

Great activity reigns at the Signal Corps aviation school in North Island, near San Diego, Cal., at the present time. In fact, the school seems to have taken on a new lease of life since the return of the detachment which was hurried away for service in Mexico but which never got farther than Galveston.

E^ecently, four buildings have been added to the school: two hangars, each accommodating ten machines, a commodious storehouse and a headquarters building. These buildings were constructed under the able supervision of Captain Kirtland and add greatly to the appearance of the aerodrome.

Several new machines have recently been added to the equipment, including one Martin speed scout and two Martin school machines, alj tractors equipped with Curtiss O-X 100 h.p. motors; two Curtiss tractors and one Curtiss flying boat, with, of course, Curtis motors, O-X model; and one Wright modified tractor, with 90 h.p. Austro-Daimler engine in front and twin chain driven propellers in rear.

Some eleven constructors have entered for the militarv competition (see AERONAUTICS, July 15), which has been set to commence Oct. 20. Of these only Curtiss, Martin and Christofferson are on the ground and it seems unlikely that all of the entries wil have machines ready. Neither the Thomas, Sloane nor Moisant companies are entering the competition. In fact, a large number of machines can hardly be expected in view of the severity of the specifications, the small number of prizes and the mediocrity of the

prizes themselves. Other expected competitors include; The Wright Co., Maximilian Schmitt, Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co., and Gallaudet Co.

Perhaps in the year one of the next era Congress will wake up and make a respectable attempt to foster the aeroplane and motor industries in America. Let us hope so—but not too strongly!

Mr. Riley Scott has completed his experiments with his bomb dropping device, covering a period of five months, and reports have been made to the War Department. According to the Army and Navy Journal, a new type of aero bomb developed by the Ordnance Department was tried out with complete success. The range finder invented by Mr. Scott was used in the experiments and it is reported that remarkable accuracy was attained. The bombs, which were of two sizes, fifteen and fifty lbs., were equipped with adjustable fuses. Until the fuse is set the bomb can be handled with perfect safety. In dropping from an aeroplane the bomb is placed in a holder below the machine with a light wire cable attached to the fuse. At the proper time, the aviator pulls the cable attached to the fuse, which arms the bomb. This is done just before the bomb is released. The Scott range finder is telescopic and indicates just when the bomb should be dropped in order to strike the target. This is done by calculating the speed of the machine with respect to the ground and taking the height from an an-

eroid barometer, which is corrected before each flight.

With all the attention that the European armies have given to aeroplanes and Zeppelins, none of them lias developed a reliable range finder. Most of the bombs dropped have been guided only by the judgment of distances and estimates of the speed of aeroplane without the aid of instruments. This, it is stated, accounts for the inahility of any of the Powers in the present war to do effective work with bombs at high altitudes. The maximum height at which the tests were made at San Diego was 2,500 ft., but the accuracy with which the bombs were dropped indicates that the Scott range finder is a success and will enable military aviators, with proper training, to do accurate work at a height of 5,0(10 or more. Th;s would place aeroplanes out of the range of small arms and the present type of field artillery guns. The bombs containing high explosives tore holes in the hard soil. 6 to 10 ft. in diameter and 3 to 5 ft. deep.

A full description of the original apparatus and the theorv has been printed in AERONAUTICS.

Experiments have recently been conducted with a parachute device, the demonstrations being made by Mr. and Mrs. Broadwick. The Converse stabilizer, described in AERONAUTICS for August 15, will shortly be tried.

The Curtiss aviation school opened October 15, and Curtiss himself is already on the ground. The Curtiss school occupies part of North Island and teaching is done with hoth land and u ater machines.

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FLYING ON LONG ISLAND.

Bombs, made of plaster of paris and shaped like the projectiles used on v. ar vessels, were dropped by the aviators on the 1 lempstead Plains field at Garden City, at the weekly meet on Sept. 19. These bombs were about 12 inches long. At one end was a stick 15 inches long, which has cardboard quills at the top to keep the bomb steady when dropped. At the other end was a large wire nail. Inside the plaster of paris bomb was a large quantity of lampblack and a 3-inch cartridge, from which all the shot had been removed. When the aviator dropped the bomb from the aeroplane it whirled around and around in its descent, and as it struck the ground the nail was driven up in the bomb against the cartridge, which caused the bomb to explode with a loud report, and the lampblack, scattering in all directions, looked like dense smoke.

The handicap rating of the machines on the field at present is: hour; Heinrich monoplane, 64 m.p. Schmitt monoplane, 69 miles per h.; Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane. 62 m.p.h.; Moisant Blue Bird monoplane, 62 m.p.h.; Heinrich School monoplane, 56 m.p.h.; Beckwith military tractor, 42 m.p.h.

These week-end affairs are being conducted under the auspices of the Week End Meets Association, of which John E. Sloane is president, A. J. Moisant vice-president, D. S. Houghton secretary and Albert Heinrich treasurer. So far as known no license has been obtained from the Wright company. All aviators are cordially invited to participate. Passengers are carried at $12.50 per flight.

AERO MART

FOR SALE—46 copies Aero and Hydro; 31 copies Aircraft; 4S copies AERONAUTICS. Numbers begin September, 1911, end 1914. Price $5.00 for the lot. Purchaser to pay express charges. R. B. Curnutt, 703 Ninth Ave. So., Great Falls, Mont.

WILL RENT my double covered 26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a reliable party. Address E. M„ 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

WRIGHT Model B for sale as it stands; $50 will put it in perfect condition; engine in first-class shape. Met with slight accident in landing. Price $1,000 cash. Address S., care AERONAUTICS.

BARGAIN IN BOOKS—Will sell following books: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual. 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $ .50; Art of Aviation (Brewer) $1.50; Airships Past and Present i Ilildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1893, $5; various other hooks thrown in to purchaser of the lot. L. E. Pare, 216 West 104th st-, New York.

FOR SALE—Biplane tractor. 35 ft. spread, equipped with 60-h.p.. 6-cylinder, air-cooled motor, Bosch magneto, Master carburetor and speed indicator; Farman-type landing gear. Everything in first-class condition. 1 )emonstration by appointment, or photograph sent by mail; $400 cash. worth $2,000. Leonard L. McCarty. 1014 S. Main St., Los Angeles, Calif.

JOHN WISE—"History and Practice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, 8vo, ill., 310 pp, steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54tb st.,

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Preparations are already under way to produce a large high-powered motor especially adapted for Flying Boats and Army Aeroplanes.

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AERONAUTICS

New and Enlarged Edition. Commencing January. 1914 *A*

$ The Leading British Monthly »*j Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighty-five Cents : Post Free

{Huney Orders Only)

NEXT GENERAL MEETING.

The next general meeting will be held the first Thursday in Nov em-her the 5th. The subject will be "Aerial Strategy," to be discussed by competent men. Announcement late

The first meeting of the season was such a success that a special effort should be made to improve even upon this.

erly 13th Royal Dragoons, German army. "The Military Phase of Aviation"; Capt. Washington 1. Chambers, U. S. N., "The Naval Angle."

29 West 3Sth Street, New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

NOTICE TO MEMBERS.

Oct. 6. 1014.

Fellow Members: For the first year in the history of the Aeronautical Society there has been no series of meets at our aerodrome, now located at Oakwood Heights. Staten Island; but it must not be assumed that this is due in any way to inactivity on the part of those responsible, because the tea son is due entirely to causes beyond our control.

During last w inter there w as every assurance of most pretentious events taking place at our aerodrome, as we were assured of $10.

000 in prizes to be contested for on Decoration Day, The donor of the prizes, in endeavoring to obtain a license from the Wright Company, failed to receive any reply for some weeks and withdrew the offer.

Notwithstanding this setback, it was decided to endeavor to hold the Aerial Derby on Columbus Day or Election Day, and in order to make this an open contest for all aviators, whether licensed or not, correspondence was initiated with Mr. (Jrville Wright with a view to obtaining this privilege under a license, and an acceptance was finally received. Efforts were immediately undertaken to raise prizes for the Aerial 1 >erby and any other contests that could be developed. The owners of the Times, who had been the donors last year, were approached, but they frankly stated it would be impossible, in view of the European war. which consumed all the available news space, to do justicc to any scientific or sporting event and therefore recommended the postponement of the Derby till the spring.

Our efforts are now directed to ward holding the Aerial Derby on

1 lecoralion Day, believing that the time will then be propitious, under the assumption that the European conflict will then lie at an end and that many of our aviator members will have returned from the front, among whom may be mentioned R G. Guerquiu, Albert Fileux, William Thaw, George Dyott and others. The year 1914 will be a memorable one from many standpoints, one of which is regretfully the fact that for reasons beyond our control our aerodrome has not heen taken full advantage of in the matter of meets. Hut instead of this acting as a discouragement, it should stimulate us to greater and more pretentious activity next year, and it is the hope that all members will send any suggestions and offer to help make the year 1915 the most active in the history of the Aeronautical Society.

FIRST GENERAL MEETING.

The first general meeting of the fall and winter series of the Aeronautical Society of America was held < >ct. 1. The speakers were: Mr. Hudson Maxim, "Aerial Warfare"; ('apt. Ewald 1 lecker, form-

Notice to Delinquents.

Delinquents in payment of dues are earnestly requested to place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible moment in order that they may receive the official bulletin, AERONAUTICS, , semimonthly, the membership certificates and data sheets.

Membership dues in The Aeronautical Society are $10 a year, no initiation fee. Members receive data sheets, the magazine, AERONAUTICS, engraved certificate of membership, free monthly lectures. For further information address the Secretary.

The photograph is that r I Augus-tin Parla. the Cuban aviator, who v as recently appointed instructor of the Cuban Army, The picture is published by courtesy of Fausto Rodriguez.

The Cuban Government, realizing the usefulness of the aeroplane, has

established an aviation corps in the army. Parla is now opening the new military flying school. The Cubans have taken up aviation since the early start of the "game," and among them are the great fliers Parla, Rosillo and Gonzalez. Parla flies a Curtiss and the other two Morane-Saulniers.

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Published semi-monthly in tbe best interests of Aeronautics

»Y

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

ERNEST L. JONES M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BE1ER,

Editor Technical Editor Model Editor Advertising

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1S79. $3-oo a year, 15 cents a Copy.

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must he made for receipt and return.

Make all checks and monev orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

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Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. Line Btcamera in either direction between Detroit and Bufalo or Detroit and Cleveland.

Ssnd two-cent stamp for-illustrated pamphlet giving detailed descr.ption of var.ous trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General t-ossenger Agent, Detroit, Mich.

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The MAXIMOTOR is the only American motor running on ball bearings, which reduce the wastage of power, and guarantees dependable bearings at all times. Large overhead valves, efficient cooling and oiling systems, in conjunction with the great strength of all parts and the simplicity of the MAXIMOTOR design, assure perfect and dependable operation.

That is why the Benoist Aircraft Co.,Edson Gallaudet, The Walter E. Johnson School of Aviation, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., L. H. DeRemer, A. D. Smith, Bud Cary, and dozens of others use MAXIMOTORS.

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55

DEATH OF WELDON B. COOKE.

Considerable information is available regarding the accidental death of YVeldon R. Cooke at Pueblo, Colo., on September 16, through a subscriber of AERONAUTICS, who made a special investigation. He was appointed by a local newspaper to arrange with Cooke for the carrying of a passenger from Colorado Springs, the 45 miles across country to Pueblo, and assisted in setting up the machine at the Springs. It appears the machine was in bad shape. The struts were of pine, the engine bed the same, with a crack connecting the three holes for the engine and radiator in one bed beam. The cable attaching the elevator to the steering pillar was too short and was pieced out with "bale" wire. The front main later spar was pine and the rear one oak.

The trip from Colorado Springs was made all right, Cooke ariving the day before the accident. On the ISth he was coming in after some circles over the grounds and a trip over the surrounding territory, when a vertical strut was seen to break in mid air and fall to the ground, where it was later picked up. Cooke then made a left turn and dive to the ground. In this, witnesses watching through glasses state, a cable or control wire snapped. The machine hit a fence and was smashed to small pieces. Cooke's body was badly broken. The machine was a tractor, with Roberts engine, made by Cooke himself at Sandusky.

PICELLER KILLED.

William Piceller, who learned to fly under George Beatty, was killed on October 2 after a flight of several minutes over the field at Hempstead, L. I. Witnesses are unanimous in stating that his right wing warping control broke in the air. The chain passing over the pulley in the warping lead was found broken and is thought to have been defective. The machine was home-made of the Wright model li type and was in distressingly bad shape.

Two fatalities in one month due purely to negligence.

P. A. R. S. BALLOON MAKES FIRST ASCENT.

The new balloon of the Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, the "Greater Philadelphia," made its initial ascent on September 29 from Point Breeze, with Dr. George II. Simmerman, Dr. Thomas E. Eldridgc, E. Minor Fen ton and George N. Storch as passengers. Mayor Blankenburg christened the balloon, which carried a supply of women's suffrage literature as ballast and a letter to President Wilson, which, it was hoped, would be possible of dropping over the White House. The air currents decided otherwise, and the landing was made five and a quarter hours after the start at Yineland. N. J., close to the house of Mr. Fenton's mother, who did not know he was of the party until Ite stepped out of the basket. Dr. Eldridge piloted the balloon. It was built bv A. Leo Stevens for a capacity of 60,000 cu. ft. The distance from Point Breeze to Yineland is 32 miles.

BALLOON RACING REVIVED.

Thousands of people lined the roadway between Pittsficld and the gas works on October 8, in automobiles, side cars, carriages, farm wagons, with shank's mare and many other equipages, when four balloons left the ground in a sort of hare and hounds contest.

Leo Stevens started in a pilot balloon at 12:35, with the condition that he land by 3 o'clock. This he did at a point called Stevens Brook, some 22 miles from the start. His landing was the signal for the other balloons to alight, manceuvering to descend as near as possible to the pilot halloon. Robert "Golden" and aide Sydney Walsh in the "1'Ecur-eil," w on the cup offered by F. Harrison Iliggins when they collapsed their bag only three thousand feet away.

Alan R. Ilawley, with George Von Utassy, in the "North Adams" was second and Messrs Jerome Kingsbury and William II. Richardson in the "1. C. U-," third. Stevens' aide was Gordon Bruce, of the Tribune, and the balloon he used was the "Dancing Doll."

Cortland F. Bishop offered a cup for the first automobile to arrive at the pilot balloon, which was won by Roy Bridge, of Pittsfield.

There were 32 moving picture men on the field and a revival of ballooning seems imminent.

Frank II. Burnside, the Thomas star flier, flew at Concord, N. C, mi Sept. 29th and 30 th, attaining great success. Chas. Fev, Jr., flew at Cobleskill, N. Y., "Sept. 22d-25th. He gave a very good exhibition of fancy flying during the four days.

STABILITY OF AEROPLANES—Continued from page 68)

action a powerful mechanism for operating the controlling surfaces.

ff the wind strikes the vane on the under side, as would be the case when the machine takes a larger angle of incidence, the elevator is turned to cause the machine to point downward in front till the normal angle is restored. If the air strikes the vane from above, a smaller angle of incidence is indicated, and an opposite action on the elevator is produced. In this system no particular angle of the machine with the horizontal is maintained. It is the angle at which the air strikes the aeroplane surface that is important. If the vane is set at an angle of 5 deg. with the main supporting surfaces, and the machine is traveling on a level course, increasing the power of the motor will cause it to begin taking on more speed. But as the lifting effect of an aeroplane surface is the product of two factors—its speed and its angle of incidence—any increase in speed will produce a greater lift and cause the machine to rise. The machine will now be turned upward, with the surfaces meeting the air at an angle of 5 deg. On the contrary, if the power of the motor be reduced or entirely turned off, the machine will immediately begin to decrease in speed, requiring a larger angle of incidence for support. But as soon as the angle begins to increase, the

air will strike the regulating vane on the underside and the elevator will be turned, pointing the machine downward till the component of gravity in the direction of travel becomes sufficient to maintain the normal speed. In this case the planes will be inclined downward with reference to the horizontal. It is evident that a machine controlled by regulating the angle of the machine with reference to the impinging air is not liable to the dangers of "stalling" already described.

Several other methods of maintaining fore-and-aft equilibrium automatically have been proposed. One utilizes the force of gravity acting on a pendulum or a tube of mercury; the other, the gyroscopic force of a rapidly revolving wheel. In both of these systems the angle of the machine is regulated with reference to the horizontal, or some other determined plane, instead of with the angle of the impinging air.

In the case just referred to, in which the power of the motor was suddenly turned off while traveling on a level course, with these systems, the planes would be maintained at their original angle with the horizontal without any regard to the angle of incidence. The machine would continue forward till, through the loss of momentum, its speed would become so reduced and its angle of incidence so great that it

would be exposed to the dangers of diving.

The pendulum and mercury tube have other serious faults which render them useless for regulating fore-and-aft equilibrium. If the machine suddenly meet with a greater resistance to forward travel, either as a result of change in direction or of meeting a stronger gust of wind from in front, and its speed be ever so slightly checked, the pendulum will swing forward and instead of turning the machine downward, so as to maintain the normal speed, will cause the machine to be inclined upward in front and thus further increase its forward resistance.

The pendulum has proved itself an exceedingly useful device, however, in regulating the lateral stability of aeroplanes. In this case the effects of momentum and centrifugal force act on the pendulum in the proper direction to produce desired results.

I believe the day is near at hand when the flyer will be almost entirely relieved of the work of maintaining the equilibrium of his machine, and that his attention will be required only to keeping it on its proper course and in bringing it safely in contact with the ground when landing,

GYRO HOLDS

Altitude Record!

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER

Kansas City, Mo., August 6th, 1914.

Gyro Motor Co., Washington, D.C.

Broke altitude record this afternoon, approximately forty-seven hundred meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed flight authorized by Aero Club of America. Record should be official. Motor worked fine, only carried five gallons of gas, made altitude in forty minutes used old spray nozzle. Will write full particulars later.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON.

New Gyro "Duplex"

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

< BENOIST «r

Aeroplanes Flying Boats

AIRCRAFT CO.

St. Louis, Mo.

BALLOONS

Airships Aeroplanes, G;*s Generators, Safety Tacks, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 95% of American and Canadian club*.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq. BoxIBI.NewYork

1

LEO STEVENS

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

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SP E E D

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safety and control. C,On an3T standard machine, we will guarantee two to si.r miles per hour more speed with a PARAGON' than can be obtained with any other propeller.

COn light weight high speed machines our FLEXING PARAGONS give quicker start, faster climbing and higher speed than any other known type of blade. Its operation is wonderful and unique. C,0ur work proves our word. Used on all jYat't/ Machines.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Send sketch or model for FREE opinion as to Patentability. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for nur speci.il list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

Main Offices: 771 NINTH STREET.N. W.

WASHINGTON. D. C.

PATENTS

Frederick W. Barker

Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS. TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Cases prepare*! and ]>rosecuted tvi th the area test care a ml thoroughness, to engine bmad seojie ami validity

28 Years in Practice Direct Connections in all

Foreign Countries 115 Broadway, New York

SLOANE AEROPLANES

V"ci»7i^mbr The Aircraft Co., Inc.

n i*'<ntraniz:ition of The Sloane Aeroplane Co.

Full particulars nf our Standard Sloane Aerojilancs— Motors and Accessaries on ret]next.

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc., Sole Manufacturers of 1733 Broadway. New York Sloane Aeroplanes

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrr BOOKS. ADVICE AND SEARCHES T Ktt

Send sketch or model for search. Highest References Best Results. Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

DON'T w"te us vn,ess

* you are interested in a reliable, efficient arc'economical rower plant. 7 rat is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, Ind.

1914 thomas flying'boat

Thomas Aeroplanes Hydro-Aeroplanes

Are recotrnized as a standard EfllcW'itrv, Speed. Reliability, tion. Write your needs.

Flying Boats Propellers

in American aviation. Soundness of construe-

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO. BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON. OHIO

New York Office: 11 Pine St.

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FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs nod preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, aod with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use Id combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mats. U, S. A.

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