Volume 15 - No. 4 - 1914 August

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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In these days of startling prog pounds and capable of five horse- captne machine of lai»- The rc^s in the aeronautical world, we power. In 1S52 he built a dirigible machine had a total iTl'tiii" sniface aie prone to think that the develop- in which was installed a three- of 6,0UU square feet and° weighed merit of aeronautics is of entirely horsepower engine of this tvpe, S.000 pounds It was driven' bv recent date. The problem of lui- with a three-liladed propeller mak- two specially des "ned steam eii man flight, however, has occupied ing 11 n revolutions per iniiinte. The gines, each ' weighing oil) pounds the mind of man for centuries, and airship was spindle shaped, 1-14 feet and capable of developing ISO horse-many and divers have been the so- long, -10 feet in diameter at mid- power. A lifting effect "of \ OIJIJ to lulions offered even before the section, and of 90,0011 cubic feet 4.000 lbs. was obtained and'on one dawu of the nineteenth century. capacity. This dirigible, on at least trial the machine broke away from

That famous artist and engineer, one occasion, attained an independ- its upper guide rails.

Leonardo da Vinci ( 1452-1519), ent velocity of about five miles per

was the first to give a technical 1'Our. 1 rofessor S. 1 . Langley, cele-

suggestion for artificial flight. His Passing over intervening attempts, m"'"' '"S,n\fSe"chlS fV1:n"

design consisted essentially of many of which brought forth m- I 1J5 ,"' 'i^ ,„snn no P T r.'T

wings, which were to be attached provements of the Giffard design, * ^ K° 11 J„?i ' '"

to the body of a man and operated we come to the work of Captains eVfn"a ?.°^urtl1 ?',," ™"<

bv his arms and legs. This scheme Kenard and Krebs of the French ?»1,ricall> *u kedout by him, and

never passed beyond the paper army. They consV^ted a d S for ^fs" otn* ^le"^ iV^wlT"?

stage, but Fauste Yeranzio in 1617 i„ 1SS4. in" shape something like a accon olisl, L, nianv ffi ft;

made a descent from a tower in fish, with the master-section at a dis- ^od" T'lien ndrritl ,1,/™

Venice in a crude form of para- ,a„Ce from the nose of about a m^cti'„ "f fmin enrrvb^ m£hin

chute, made of canvas, and be was quarter length. The airship was S 1 Lv

prohably the first actual expen- driven by a nine-horsepower electric jV|a" he evolve 1 a machine which

inenter. .Many other schemes, motor, actuated by current from a ?.l „ia' ',1 t,, 1-^ ,H, f,nm\ l,,,s

some utterly impractical followed specially designed "battery of chrom- boa^ on the I otomac Defects in

\ eranz.o's attempt, notable among jum chloride cells. This motor drove , ° lc ' A\, °' '"1' „'„",];'

which was that of the .Marquis de a l.lrge wooden propeller set for- , launching a pa.atus proved d s-

nacqueville, who. in 1742. made a ward: at a rate if 50 r « The »eTit an,? dSr'tened W the

somewhat successful glide, from the rudder, fixed aft. was a solid body "die le of 1 e\,re^

window of bis Pans mansion across made of two four-sided pyramids, 1 J |lc „, ™ IV I t°

the gardens of the Tnileries, final- fixed together at their bases. The anv further ^nenTne,

ly landing in the Seine. car was fixed rigidly to the net of any £urtl,er "peiimeiit.

The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph the balloon by a diagonal rope sus- Contempiraneons with Langley.

and Jacques, invented the' hot-air pension, and was provided with a Otto Lilienthal (1S4S-1S9o) had

balloon in 1783, and in the fall of sliding counterweight capable of been carrying on exhaustive experi-

that year Pilat're de Rozier, in a movement fore and aft to balance ments with iiiaii-carrying gliders in

balloon of this type, made tlie first any displacement of the center of Germany. After developing his

human ascent in a free balloon gravity. This halloou, the ' La glider until it was capable of glides

(November 21, 1783). It is inter- France," left its hangar in Septem- of over 300 yards from a height of

esting to note that this pioneer ',er, 1SS5, performed evolutions over 30 yards or more, he planned a

aeionaut was also the first to give Paris, and returned to the starting double-decked aeroplane, equipped

up his life in the effort to conquer point—the first flight on record with a motor. While testing a new

the air Hydrogen gas had been where a balloon started from a steering arrangement, the machine

discovered in 1776 and the cele- definite point and returned under lost its equilibrium and Lilienthal

brated physicist Chasles suggested iIS ovvn power. The maximum ve- was killed by a fall of about sixty

its use in a bal'loon. DeRozler im- 'ocity was about 15 miles per hour. feet.

mediately constructed a balloon in The modern types of dirigibles Octave Chanute. a bridge engi-which he attempted to combine the have added little in fundamental neer, introduced Lilienthal's ide'as advantages of the hydrogen and the principle to the work of Renard to tnjs country, and. in conjunction fire balloons, joining together two and Krebs. The "rigid" tvpe. as wjtj, Herring, developed a biplane separate envelopes, the upper filled exemplified by the Zeppelin, has g]jc]er wdiich was capable of several with hydrogen and the lower filled been developed in Germany with hundred satisfactory flights. The with heated air—an extremely dan- marked success, while in France the Wright brothers, Wilbur and Or-gerous combination. After sailing "semi-rigid" type has been exclu- vi]]Ci encouraged' by what they had f <r half an hour, the balloon sud- sively exploited, dating from the learned of Lilienthal's success,"made ilenly burst into flames and the first Lebaudy dirigible in 1902. a number of successful gliding ex-aeronaut was dashed 3,000 feet to Turning now to the development periments, which led to the" con-his death. of the "heavier-than-air" machine, struclion of a motor-driven aero-These balloons were, of course. Sir George Cayley, in a paper pub- plane. This resulted in a successful incapable of accurate direction, and lished in Nicholson's Journal for flight of 59 seconds on the 17th of efforts were made to design a bal- 1S09-10, enunciated some of the December, 1903—undoubtedly the loon which would be dirigible. Gen- principles and ideas of mechanical first man flight in a motor-driven eral Meusnier, in 17S4, anticipated flight, and even made a rough cal- aeroplane.

in his design many of the excellent eolation of an engine which might Santos-Dumont won the Arch-features of our modern dirigible, be used as motive power, incidentally cieacon ,>rjze on October 23, 1906. Among these may be mentioned the dropping the hint that a mixture of for a n;„i,t nf ?5 metres, the first elongated form, the girth fastening, gas and air, when exploded under a fl-]sht ;n Europe*," and in' Tanuary, the triangular suspension, the air piston, might give very satisfactory jqqs Farman covered a triangular balloonet, the screw propeller, even results. Cayley analyzed the forces collrse 0f one kilometer, thereby indicating the place where the pro- acting on the wings of a bird, and wjnn;ng t|,e Archdeaco'n-Dcntsch peller should be installed. The showed experiments which he had prize_ Farman established yet an-death of Meusnier at the siege of performed to illustrate the relations other reCord by making the first Mayence, a few years later, un- between resistance and velocity in cr05s.c0nntry flight from Chalons doubtedly prevented the practical a surface moving through a medium. to Rheims, a distance of 17 miles, development of this design. In a paper on "Aerial Locomo- and Bleriot made the first closed The great difficulty in the way tinn," read at the first meeting of trip across country from Toury to of the practical dirigible was a suit- the Aeronautical Society of Great Artenay, a distance of 19 miles able power plant, which should com- Britain, in 1866. F. If. Wenham One July 25, 1909. Bleriot crossed bine light weight with efficiency, enunciated the important principle the English ^ Channel, and in the Giffard, well known as the inventor that the supporting force on an in- same year Glenn Cnrtiss won the of the steam boiler injector, en- clined surface being driven through first international contest for gaged himself in an attempt to the air is limited to a inrrow portion America at Rheims. solve this difficulty, and ohtained a near the front edge. This fact, of jjle moticrn history of aeronau-working steam engine weighing 100 course, suggested a large "aspect . . encompassed in a remarkably __ ratio. He also pointed out the sl)nrt nf y(,ars The ,„cccss.

deS'iabllltV OI Superposing the cup- - , ,■ . :i , r ,1 F,-,>,irli irmv

•Paper presented at the spring p„,-ting surfaces to obtain great , ^ , ^ r^-^v.'nn.l

rneeing of the New Haven -Section |,f,,ng power. the development of the many types

of the American Society of Me- In 1S90 Sir 11 nam Maxim carried 1 ' "

chanical Engineers. on a series of experiments on a (ConUnited on Papt'tiZ)


The specialization of aviation as electric propeller tester, apparatus spects. material for containing same an aid to warfare and its minimi- for measuring distribution of air varnishes, etc. All instruments of zation as a sport has led directly pressure over the surface of models, value are at hand, and workshops to the enlargement of or institution instruments for finding center of furnish test wings and parts and rein European countries of great ex- pressure, etc. The work of the pair facilities. The electric railway perimental plants and laboratories laboratory is all indoors, and is con- enables full-sized aeroplanes to be devoted to academic and engineer- fined t0 wind tunnel measurements tested in a condition of flight, so ing investigations. Whatever studies principally. Seven skilled men are that lift, drift and moment or center will promote the art of aircraft con- employed. Reports on work are is- of pressure can be determined at struclion and navigation are prose- slied occasionally in book form by once as it travels across the field, cuted by these laboratories. The [\r Eiffel, as is well known to all The institute puhlishes yearly bul-laboratories of London, St. Cyr and readers. letins of its work.

Johannisthal are practically unlimit- T]le Brltish "Advisorv Commit- The laboratory at Gottingen is ed in the scope oi their researches. ,ee.. primarily js occupied with gov- near the university, and is not so A note on some of these has been ernmental work, hut does under- very extensive, heing composed ot written by Dr. Zahn and published ,ake ,csts and researclies for indi. but one 5rnall building, housing a by the Smithsonian Institute viduals. The work includes whirl- wind tunnel, with numerous instrn-

There is the tiff el Aerodynamic ing ,ab|e an(1 w!nd tunne) meas,ire- ments. The results of experiments Laboratory, near I aris, supported ments> ,esting of e„gi„es, propellers, here have been puhlished in various bv t',.?„r'riviltf uuurse of the famous metalSi fabrics, cab]es, varnishes, German technical periodicals. Of G. LirTel. who has contributed a bydr0mechanic studies, meteorolngi- particular interest are the determina-number of volumes to the art, which ca, observations, mathematical in- tions of pressure distribution on are considered basic as to their vestjgatiolls in flmd ,iynamics. the models of airship hulls and meas-data. . , . . , - , theory of gyroscopes, aeroplane and urements of the resultant wind

France aiso has the Aerotcchnical ()irigib]c design. and so forth. The force on oblique hulls and wing Institute of the University of I aris, Committee was formed of tweIve forms. The work of this lahoratorv at St. Lyr under M. Mauram expeTt cjvjiiallSt un(ler the presi- has chiefly been devoted to wind-founded by Baron Deutsche de la dency of Lord Ra lei appointed tunnel experiments. Meurth, who furnished $100,000 for ,)y the rHme Minister tn work out The p]ant at Toha 11 nistUal. the the original plant, ? J.000 a year theoretjcaI and experimental prob- largest except the British, adjoins for maintenance during his 1 fetime ]ems for t,ie army and _ 0ne ,he grea( fl ; fidd a]]d numeJ

and was presented to the University lnnIdin is provided for the 60-foot aircraft factories, aeroplane sheds, of Paris; and the . military estab- whirling tahle {or „le tes„- of etc. I1r. E p Bendemann is iishment at ( lialais-Meudon, re- mode]s and moM propellers; an- director, with ten assistants. Both sembling the British Aircraft lac nt]ier for a ]arKe expalir]ed.tvpe indoor and outdoor researches are tory; and the Conservatoire Na- wind lunnei. wIlicll is some 80 feet conducted, and it is liberally sup-tionale des Arts et Metiers cor- , bv 7 feet ,quarCi wllich, with ported in its work, which has uiV responding to our uureau 01 siana- ,he w-nd ba|ance makes an outlay limited scope. There is one main arrls- . , of $16,500 for the building and building, with a 100-foot tower for

Germany has the Gottingen Aero- equipment. A small wind tunnel wind observations in which to test dynamical Laboratory, under the di- bo„Se, with a tunnel half the above aeroplanes of full size; a building rection of Prof. Prandtl of the Urn- size cost;ng $20,000; a small water used for construction work, and five versity of Gottingen, begun with cbannel for testing stream-line flow smaller buildings, each containing money supplied by the Motor Air- about models; two wind towers for an engine-testing outfit. It is in-ship Study Company and supported testing flow and pressure of free air tended to fly full-size aeroplanes by financial aid of the government; on )arge sca]e models; large marine with measuring instruments mounted and the Deutsche Versudianstalt mode] ,ank wond and meta] work. on a car on a railway, in a similar fur Luftfahrt zu Adlershof, at the ing B|,opSi stores, etc.. are other manner to the method at St. Cyr. Johannisthal flying field, near Her- f,cii;,jes The Roya) Aircraft Wings are tested for stress and 'ln- , . Factorv is adjacent tn the military strain, a device is being used to

In England, the British govern- cr0unds at Farnhorough. and is con- measure the force employed in ment established at Teddington the cerned with the scientific improve- operating controls, motors are tested National Physical Laboratory, under ment of aircraft construction, in the usual manner of engineers, the directorship of Dr. R. T. Glaze- though it frequently manufactures and the equipment generally is nat-brook, chairman of the Advisory on a large scale aeroplanes, airships urally such as would likely be seen Committee for Aeronautics, and the and propellers. Both the above in- in such an institution. Royal Aircraft Factory at Fain- stitutions have a whirling tahle and Other German laboratories are the borough. Both are under this Ad- engine testing plant. The Lahora- testing department of the Zeppelin visory Committee, which also con- ,ory investigates models particular- Airship Company, which is not open ducts work at private concerns, such ]v and ,he Factorv full-scale craft, to visitors: the aerodynamical lab-as Vickers Sons and Maxim, and narts and appurtenances. The Fac- oratory of Prof. Reissner, nf the are supported by the government. tory spends around half a million a Technical High School at Aachen; The Northampton Polytechnic In- vear and emnlovs 700 men. and with Major Parseval's laboratory in the stitutej London, and the East Lon- ;t5 n,amiT,oth plant, covering manv high school at Berlin, and an ex-don College also have aeronautical acres and comprising half a dozen perimental plant of Dr. Fr. Ahl-laboratories. large buildings, it can produce one born at Ilamhurg.

In Russia there is the Aero- aeroplane a day. The equipment of fhe Aerody-

technical Institute of Koutcluno at The St. Cvr ;ns,,itute conducts namic Laboratory of the Massachu-tiat city, under the direction of Rl. ]arge qcale exneriments in the field setts Institute of Technology con-Kiabouchinsky. Italy has an 1111- as wel, as irido0r work, and makes sists of a wind tunnel 16 square portant plant. These two will be investigations fnr the eeneral public feet in section, through which air dealt with in a subsequent article. nr a]]oi(/s ;vate indiv!dnais ,0 „se is drawn bv a seven-foot four-

1 he Factory has disclosed defects (he laboratorv. The director has Waded propeller. The steadiness of in leading types of machines, indi- thrP(, nr foMr assistants a, work. the current has been carefullv studied cated means of betterment, and has and „le aid of a )arge advisorv with the result that tlie wind improved efficiency, stability, factor colincil of P111inent engineers, scien- can be kept uniform in velocity of safety and range of speed in the ,ists am, officers. A special feature within one per cent. The variation machines studied there. It has pro- is ,he %.mjje track-. with electric of velocity across a section is also duced a stable, efficient and safe bi- cars fnr ,csts on large pr„pellers within one per cent. Anv speed J,v'th-, 3 ranfe °f SAPe. j"! and full-size aeroplanes. The site from 4 to 40 miles per hour can 41 to 80 miles an hour A standard covers Slw ]8 acreSi and com ises be maintained.

control is being worked out, and a centra] ba]] grounded on three The wind tunnel and the aerody-op.nion favors the Deperdussm. sidps by wori;s!,npS, 5tores. labora- namic balance are made from the The Advisory Committee publishes tories and power 1]m|Se Equ!p. p]ans Qf the National Physical Lab-annual reports, which can be ob- ment includes wind tunnel, balance, oratory equipment. Teddington, Eng-ta.ned by any one through the pub- fan_ arrange>ncnt for measuring land, by whose director. Dr. R. T. ™rS'r-<r, r • friction of air on surfaces at all Glazebrook, F.R.S.. the complete

The Eiffel Laboratory consists of v*>i"^:ti^e. ~w*.-:/> H>Miimometer for plans were generously presented, a single building, housing a wind „r„c„r;,w fixed nr«n.|]sr torque, The balance is a duplicate of the tunnel designed and patented hy ,„„,r,|.., for study)"™ helicopters. English balance, and shares with the Eiffel, experiment rooms and test- ^r,mne tester, chemin] laboratorv

ing devices, such as wind balances, Ior studying light gases in all re- (Continued on Page 61)


Written for AERONAUTICS by O. Chanute.

[The following article, written by ward against the wind and subse- These observations disclosed sev-

Slr. Chanute ill 1908, still holds good quently rising higher than his start- eral facts:

in a general way, though the figures ing point, must either time his , . T. ,,.:nj„ Kim.;n„ c ,, might be modified in the light of ascent, . and descents exactly with rni.e^ier hour freque^Ld rising more recent work. However, we the variations in wind velocities, or ,rends of 10" to 15° aid hat ,,, on do not yet know .the coefficients must occasion/ v.hen "there "emed'tHe for a buzzard's wing, or for a on a horizontal axis and come o absolutely no wind there was often, whole buzzard, except the experi- a poise on its crest thus availing nevertheless, a local rising of the ments of Dr. Zahm here . cited, of an ascending trend. air estimated at a rate of 4 to 8 which show a very small horizontal Hut the observations failed to miles or more per hour. This was resistance for the whole bird.— demonstrate that the variations of ascertained by watching thistle down Editor.] the wind gusts and the movements and rising fogs alongside of trees or There is a wonderful perform- °,f tlle blrd "ere absolutely syn- hills of known height. Every one ance daily exhibited in Southern cliroiiuiis, and it was conjectured will readily realize that when walk-climes and occasionally seen in !na< the peculiar shape of the soar- ,„g at the rate of 4 to 8 miles an Northerly latitudes in Summer, '."8 «ing ot certain birds, as dif- hour m a dead calm the "relative St. never been thoroughly 'erentiated irom the. flapping wing, wind" is quite inappreciable to the xilained the Soaring or m'Sht' wllen experimented upon, senses and that such a rising air Sailing flight of certain varfeties ^[f"" a«ou'« f°r <"e «ould not be noticed, of large birds who transport them- ' . 2nd. That the buzzard sailing in selves on rigid unflapping wings , 1 lu'se computations, however satis- an apparently dead horizontal calm in any desired direction; who, in factory they were for the speed of progressed at speeds of 15 to 18 winds of 6 to 20 miles per hour, ;v,"ds observed, failed to account miles per hour, as measured by his -irele rise, advance, return and for lhe observed spiral soaring of shadow on the ground. It was emain aloft for hours without a ""^^ds in very light winds and thought that the air was then pos-teat of wing, save for getting un- w.r.''er was- "mpe led to con- silily rising 8.8 feet per second, or 6 ler way or convenience in various f«s- 'Now, this spiral soaring in miles per hour.

naneuvers. They appear to ob. .steady breezes of 5 to 10 miles per 3, That when soaring in very

tain from the wind alone all the »™ «. »«' ?"JffiX^ K?H5ui Winds the anS,e of incidence

necessary energy, even to advanc- '„,^ , f ra s»e f o l7?0 !>f *he bl'"ards was negative to the

ing dead against that wind. Tins ^ ,'^a ^ur/fs ?he mys,ery°t„ be "",7 "J." C°m-

fea is so much opposed to our gen- lai„ed u',s not acCoV1nted fur, '« <°s the eye the af crnoon

eral ideas of physics that those who qua,ltitatively, by any of the theories J h 'ta, ' ^ u °f

have not seen ,t sometimes deny its ; h h > advanced, and it is Z case 1 »H Vh an le |d HaVe r"1}

actuality and those who have only „ie nne performance which has led ]!L< the hJlc,„8 md'ned

occasionally witnessed it subse- some observers to claim that it was a00'' "^horizon,

quently doubt the evidence of their done through 'aspiration'; i. e., that 4tn- Tllat the sailing performance

iwn eyes. Others who have seen a bird acted upon bv a current, on'y occurred after the bird had ac-

die exceptional performances specu- actually drew forward into that cur- Quired an initial velocity of at least

late on various explanations, but ,ent against its exact direction of J5 or ?8 miles per hour, either by

the majority give it up as a sort motion." industrious flapping or by descending

of "negative gravity." A stil, greater mystery was pro- from a Perch-

The writer of this paper pub- pounded by the few observers who 5th. That the whole resistance of

lished in the "Aeronautical An- asserted that they had seen buz- a stuffed buzzard, at a negative angle

nual" for 1896 and 1897 an arti- znrds soaring in a dead calm, main- of 3° in a current of air of 15.52

cle upon the sailing flight of birds, laining their elevation and their miles per hour was 0.27 pounds. This

m which he gave a list of the speed. -Among these observers was test was kindly made for the writer

authors who had described such Mr. E. C. Iluffaker, at one time by Professor A. F. Zahm in the

flight or had advanced theories for assistant experimenter for Professor "wind tunnel" of the Catholic Uni-

its explanation and lie passed these Langley. '1 he writer believed and versity at Washington. D. C, who

in review. lie also described his said then that he must in some way moreover stated that the resistance

own observations and submitted have been mistaken, yet, to satisfy of a live bird might be less, as the

some computations to account for himself lie paid several visits to dried plumage could not be made to

the observed facts. These compu- -Mr. Huffaker in eastern Tennessee lie smooth.

tations were correct as far as thev and took along his anemometer, lie This particular buzzard weighed

went but they were scanty, it was saw quite a number of buzzards sail- j„ ijfe 4.25 pounds, the area of his

for instance shown convincingly by ],,g at a height of 75 to 100 feet 111 w-ings and body was 4.57 square feet,

analysis that a gull weighing 2.1 SS breezes measuring 5 or 6 miles an the maximum cross section of his

pounds, with a total supporting sur- hour at the surface of the ground hodv was 0.110 square feet and

face of 2.015 square feel, a maxi- a,'d once he saw one buzzard soar- that of his wing edges when fully

mum body cross-section of 0.126 '"8 apparently in a dead calm. extended was 0.244 square feet,

square feet and a maximum cross- The writer vvas fairly baffled. The w- , , d became sur-

section of wing edges of 0.098 bird was not simply gliding utilizing >X™^,,/'easy To compute tTe pe-

square feet, patrolling on rigid gravity or acquired momentum, he \orm*Je Uie ^emciVnts of

yinirs (soaring on the weather was actus y circling horizontally 111 };'',. ; cmcients 01

side of a steamer and ma utai ing an defiance of physics and mathematics. L.'''cn'hal ,for various angles of 1.1-

siue 01 a steamer anu maintaining ail ,„,'„'. ,nd ,„i,ni,. K„r;P, cidence and to demonstrate how this

upward angle or attitude of 5° to.7° It took two >ears and a whole seres hujrard ^M 5oar , ; „ in

above the horizon, ,n a wind blowing of further -°»""f"ons '° . bw^g a dead horizontal calm provided'that

12./8 miles an hour which was de- "se two sciences into accord with ;t wM not a vcrtica, ca|m and ha|

fleeted upward 10" to 20° by lhe '''e facts. thc ajr was rW a( th ^ f

side of the steamer (these all being Curiously enough the key to the 4 or 6 miles per hour, the lowest

carefully observed facts), was per- performance of circling 111 a light observed, and quite inappreciable

fectly sustained at its own "relative wind or a dead calm was not found wjthout actual measuring

speed" of 17.8S miles per hour and through the usual way of gathering ' s'

extracted from the upward trend of human knowledge, i. e., through ob- Hie most difficult case is pur-

the wind sufficient energy to over- servations and experiment. These posely selected. For if we assume

come all the resistances, this energy had failed because I did not know that the bird has previously ac-

amounting to 6 44 foot-pound per what to look for. The mystery was, qniied an initial minimum speed

second. It was shown that the same in fact, solved by an eclectic process of 17 miles an hour (24.93 feet per

bird ill flapping flight in calm air, of conjecture and compulation, but second, nearly the lowest measured),

with an attitude or incidence of 3° once these computations indicated and that the air was rising vertically

to 5° above the horizon and a speed what observations should be made 6 miles an hour (8.80 feet per

of 20.4 miles an hour was well sus- the resnlfs gave at once the reasons second), then we have as the trend

tained and expended 5.88 foot-pounds for the circling of the birds, for his of the "relative wind" encountered:

per second, this being at the rate then observed attitude and for the 6

of 204 pounds sustained per horse- necessity of an independent initial = 0.353 or the tangent of 19° 26'

power. It was stated also that a sustained speed before soaring he- 17.

gull in its observed maneuvers, ris- gau. P.otll Mr. Huffaker and my- which brings the case into the cate-

ing up from a pile head on tin self verified the data many times gory of rising wind effects. But

flapping wings, then plunging for- and I made the computations. the bird was observed to have a

negative angle lo the horizon of about 3° as near as could be guessed, so that his angle of incidence to the "lelalive wind" was reduced to lb" 26'.

The relative speed of his soaring « as there fore :

Velocity - V I'2 + 62 ~ 18.03 iniltii per hour.

At this Sjieed, using the Langley cn-t (iicient recently, practically con-lirmed by the accurate experiments (it Air. * Liftel, the air pressure would be—

18.03- x 0.00327 = 1.063 pounds per square fool.

If we apply Lilienthal's co-el-ticients fur an angle of lb0 26', we have for the force in action:

Normal: 4.57 x 1.063 x 0.912 = 4 42 pounds

Tangential: 4.57 x 1.063 x —0.074 - — n.359 pounds which latter, being negative, is a propelling force.

Thus we have a bird weighing 4.25 pounds not only thoroughly supported, but impelled forward by a torce of U.359 pounds, at 17 miles per hour, w hile the experiments of Professor A. F. Zahm showed that the resistance at 15.52 miles per hour w as only 0.27 pounds, or 17=

0.27 x----- = 0.324 pounds at 17

15.522 miles an hour.

These are astonishing results from the data obtained and they lead to the inquiry whether the energy ot the rising air is sufficient to make up the losses which occur by reason ot the resistance and friction of the bird's body and wings, which being rounded do not encounter air pressures in proportion to their maximum cruss-section.

We have no accurate data upon the co-efficients to apply and estimates made by myself proved to be much smaller than the 0.27 pounds resistance measured by Professor Zahm, so that wc will figure with the latter as modified. As the speed is 17 miles per hour, or 24.93 feet per second, we have for the work:

Work done: 0.324 x 24.93 - 8.07 foot-pounds per second.

Corresponding energy of rising air is not sufficient at 4 miles per hour. This amounts to but 2.10 foot-pounds per second, but if we assume that the air was rising at the rate of 7 miles per hour ( 10.26 feet per second), at which the pressure with the Langley cu-efficient would be 0.16 puunds per square foot, we have on 4.57 square feet, for energy of rising air: 4.57 x 0.16 x 10.26 = 7.511 foot-pounds per second, which is seen to be still a little too small, but well within the limits of error, in view of the hollow shape of the bird's w ings, w Inch receive greater pressure than the ilat planes experimented upon by Langley.

These computations were chiefly made in January, 1899, and were communicated to a few friends, who found no fallacy in them, but thought that few aviators would understand them if published. They were then submitted to Professor C. F. Marvin, of the Weather P.ureau, who is well known as a skilful physicist and mathematician. He wrote that they were, theoretically, entirely sound and quantitatively probably as accurate as the present state of the magnitude of wind pressures permitted. The writer determined, however, to withhold pub-

lication until the feat of soaring flight had been performed by man, partly because he believed mat, to ensure satety, it would be necessary that the machine should be equipped witn a motor in order to supplement any deficiency in wind force.

'1 he feat would have been attempted in 19U2 by Wright brothers if tlie local circumstances had been more favorable. Ihey were experimenting on "Kill-jJcvil Hill," near Kitty Hawk, IS. C. This sand lull, about 100 teet high, is bordered by a smooth beach on the side whence come the sea breezes, but has marshy ground at the back. Wright Urol hers were apprehensive that it Ihey rose on the ascending current of air at the front and began to circle 1 ike the birds, they might be carried by the descending current past the back of the hill and land m the marsh. '1 heir gliding machine offered no greater head resistance in proportion than the buzzard and their gliding angles of descent are practically as favorable, but the birds performed higher up in the air than they.

Professor Langley said in concluding his paper upon "The internal •work of the wind":

"The final application of these principles to the art of aerodromics seems then to be, that while it is not likely that the perfected aerodrome will ever he able to dispense altogether with the ability to rely at intervals on some internal source of power, it will not be indispensable that this aerodrome of the future shall, in order to go any distance— even to circumnavigate the globe without alighting—need to carry a weight of luel which would enable it to perform this journey under conditions analogous to those of a steamship, but that the fuel and weight need only be such as to enable it to. take care of itself in exceptional moments of calm."

Now that dynamic flying machines have been evolved and are being brought under control it seems to be worth wdiile to make these computations and the succeeding explanations known, so that some bold man will attempt the feat of soaring like a bird. The theory underlying the performance in a rising wind is not new, it has been suggested by Penaud and others, but it has attiacted little attention because the exact data and the maneuvers required were not known and the feat had not yet been performed by a man. The puzzle has always been to account for the observed act in very light winds and it is hoped that by the present selection of the most difficult case to explain, i. e., the soaring in a dead horizontal calm, somebody will attempt the exploit.

The following are deemed to be the requisites and man ueu vers to master the secrets of soaring flight:

1st- Develop a dynamic flying machine weighing about 1 pounds per square foot of area, with stable equilibrium and under perfect control, capable of gliding by gravity at angle of one in ten (S%°) in still air.

2nd. Select locations where soaring birds abound and occasions where rising trends of gentle winds arc frequent and to be relied on.

3rd. Obtain an initial velocity of at least 25 feet per second before attempting to soar.

4th. So locate the centre of gravity that the apparatus shall assume

a negative angle, fore and aft, of about 3°. Calculations show, however, that sufficient propelling force may still exist at 0°, but disappears entirely at ~*~ 4°.

5th. Circle like the bird. Simultaneously with the steering incline the apparatus to the side towards which it is desired to torn, so thai the centrifugal force shall be balanced by the centripetal force. The amount of the required inclination depends upon the speed and on the radius of the circle swept over.

6th. Rise spirally like the bird. Steer with the horizontal rudder, so as to descend slightly when going with the wind and to ascend when going against the wind. The bird circles over one spot because the rising trends of wind are generally confined to small areas or local chimneys as pointed out by Sir H. Maxim and others.

7th. Once altitude is gained progress may be made in any direction by gliding downward by gravity.

The bird's flying apparatus and skill arc as yet infinitely superior to those of man, but there are indications that within a few years the latter may evolve more accurately proportioned apparatus and obtain absolute control over it.

It is hoped therefore that, if there be found no radical error in the above computations, they will carry the conviction that soaring flight is not inaccessible to man, as it promises great economies of motive power _ in favorable localities of rising winds.

The writer will be grateful to experts who may point out any mistake committed in data or calculations and will furnish additional information to any aviator who may wish to attempt the feat of soaring.

An American consul in Oceania reports that a person in his district desires to purchase an aeroplane, lie has been deferring purchase awaiting further perfection in the construction of such machines. .Ma mi facturcrs should lay special stress in the literature upon all improved safety features of their air craft. The inquirer is understood to favor the monoplane type. Prices sh nld hi (jnott d cash f. o. b. San Francisco or c. i. f. a certain port in Oceania.

"1 enjoy AERONAUTICS very much, and when my subscription is up my money will be on deck for a renewal."—\V. J. Savannah, Ca.

3Jn fflrmnrtam

377 letters which have been sent to 377 subscribers asking for payment of 377 subscrip-

Aeroplanes, from the scattered and mostly-to-be-doubted reports which percolate through the censors, after being manhandled, pruned, manicured and otherwise treated by the newspaper boards of strategy, seem to be meeting with all the success claimed for them as instruments of reconnaissance. In addition they seem to be able to act in offense and defense upon occasion, when opposing aircraft are to be taken care of.

Of course, machines have been brought down by gunfire, some bombs have been dropped therefrom, pilots or observers have been killed in flight or made prisoners upon descent being forced by arms or by troubles peculiar to aeroplanes in war as well as peace.

One wonders to what purpose the Zeppelins and other airships are being put at the present time, or to \< hich they will be put, as no authentic information is available as to their activities. Some half dozen are said to have been captured or destroyed. The same number is said not to have been captured or destroyed hy the enemy. One may believe whichever story most pleases his imagination.

After it is all over, there will undoubtedly be accurate information made public in so far as its publication will not tend to destroy the value of aircraft in future wars which are still a possibility, judging from past centuries of human nature.

The military aeroplane, according to "Steve" MacGordon, one of the best known of American aviators, says the Sun, lias proved its worth and the European powers are doing their utmost to keep their stock of machines replenished. MacGordon Ins just arrived from a tour of the Continental countries, after being reported as enlisting in the French air fleet. William Thaw was also said to have joined the French air force.

"Information as to just what the aeroplanes were doing in the war w as hard to get in France," said MacGordon. "hut 1 talked with Roland Garros and several military aviators who had been at the front with the French and British armies, and learned enough of what was going on to be sure that the "fourth arm" has not proved a failure. All of them agree that for scouting and range finding the aeroplane is invaluable."

"The Germans are at a disadvantage so far as their aeroplanes are concerned. Most of their machines are of the 'D. F. W.' and 'Taube' types. They are heautiful machines and wonder fullly well built, but speed has been sacrificed for stability and, from the reports that came to me, this has been disastrous.

"The French machines are speedy and can cut circles around the clumsy German planes. If a German machine is seen in the air by the French no attention is paid to it until the officers have decided that the enemy has learned too much. Then two or three fast machines nre =ent out to 'get' the unwelcome visitor, and, although little news has leaked out through official channels, T am certain that they have been 'getting' them.

"To my mind the best machines of all are those huilt in England. Sopwith and Vickers machines have

been shipped to the Continent and are being used by the allied torces. i ne aopwith tabioid type can make lio miics an hour, and the Vickers gun 'uus, armoreu and carrying a gaiiing gun, can fly at US nines. i uu can see what an advantage tins gives ihem over the German marlines, which travel at about 5j nines an hour.

" 1 he reason that so many machines have been struck by bullets, according to tlie French and English army hicrs, is that the pilot has taKcii too many chances."

J ohn Lansing Lallan, w ho went to the Azores last July to await the arrival ot Lieutenant i'orte with the '"America," has arrived from England.

Lallan confirmed the rumor that the "America" had been purchased by the British Admiralty, and from his statements it was apparent that more machines of the same type will be delivered to Great Britain. According to Lallan, it was through the representations of Lieutenant forte that the purchase was determined upon.

Editorially the New York Sun


"Every nation which still believes that something of humanity should be maintained in the usages of warfare should raise its voice against this archdeed of pitiless savagery; against the repetition of such senseless and unforgivable blind massacre" as the dropping of bombs from a Zeppelin upon Antwerp.

In reply to this, the Army and Xavy Journal says, "Captain Boy-Ed, Naval Attache of the German Embassy, defends the attack upon Antwerp by a Zeppelin. Antwerp, he says, is a fortress and must he prepared for bombardment, whether from land or sea or air. The second Hague peace convention has in no way prohibited the use of projectiles from the air. The effect of a bomb from an airship can hardly be worse than that of a shell from a large siege gun, and we must get used to the new idea of carrying war into the air. The non-military population was just as much at liberty to evacuate Antwerp as the population was who left Tsing-tau before Japan bombarded it. While the action of the Zeppelin cruiser in no way was forbidden by the international law. he adds, a French aviator, before uar had been declared, sinned against the Hague peace convention. He threw from his aeroplane bombs into the unfortified and unsuspecting city of Nuernberg. In conclusion he says: 'I believe that the excitement of our enemies over the alleged use of our airship is to be traced to their disappointment for not being able to make war in this most modern way for lack of similarly efficient airship*.'

In a news despatch to the Sun from Amiens, France. Duncan Mc-Diarmid tells of a wounded Scotch private who. in describing the fighting ''somewhere around Mons,'* said: "The German artillery was remarkably precise in its shooting. Zeppelins and aeroplanes were over us all the time, giving the gunners the range, so that the shells werr bursting within two or three feet of where we were in the trenches. Nearly all our wounded were struck by shrapnel."

Other British wounded from the fighting around Mons arrived at

Rouen. There Hamilton Pyfe records one of them as saying: "The German artillery over a range twe or three miles off soon opened on us. Fortunately most of the shells burst behind us and did no harm. Some burst backward and got among us. They kept it up as hard as ever when it was dark. In the daytime they had aeroplanes *o tell them where to drop the shells. They were flying about all the time. Ore came a bit too near. Our gunners a long way behind waited and let him come. Two thousand feet up, he was, I dare say. All of a sudden the gunners let fly. We could see the thing stagger and then goodbye, Mr. Flying Man! He dropped like a stone, all crumpled up."

An Englishman who arrived at London from Belgium and who saw a Zeppelin in action, is reported as saying that for the purpose of dropping bombs the airship ascends to a height which protects it from the range of gunfire and then lowers a steel cage by a cable a distance of 2,000 or 3,000 feet below the dirigible. The soldier whose duty it is to drop the bombs is stationed in this cage, which is strong enough to resist rifle fire and is a difficult mark for artillery because of its small size and because by means of the cable suspending it, it is kept in constant motion.

On September 15 there came the story that Russian artillery put out of commission a Zeppelin which came low over the ground, causing the white flag to be hoisted; after \\ hich, it is claimed, the crew dropped bombs from the surrendered airship and killed 23 persons and caused the wreck of the airship as well before they reached the earth and were captured by the Russians.

On September 14 the press bureau in London issued some new s from Marshal French, commander of the British forces, complimenting British aviators on the precision, exactitude and regularity of the news brought in.

"During a period of twenty days, up to the 10th of September, a daily average of more than nine reconnaissance flights of over 100 miles each has been maintained.

"The constant object of our aviators has been to effect an accurate lucation of the enemy's forces and. incidentally, since the operations cover so large an area, of our own units.

"The tactics adopted for dealing with hostile air craft are to follow them constantly with one or more British machines. This has been so far successful that in five cases German pilots or observers have been shot while in the air and their machines brought to ground. As a consequence the British flying corps has succeeded in establishing an individual ascendancy which is as serviceable to us as it is damaging to the enemy.

"Something in the direction of the mastery of the air already has been gained in pursuance of the principle that the main object of military aviators is the collection of information.

"Bomh dropping has not been indulged in to any great extent. On one occasion a petrol bomb was successfully exploded in a German bivouac at night. whil<* from a diary found on a dead German cavalry

(Continued on Page 6i)


TRANSMISSION GEAR coupling any kind of motors or en

twines together, and winch assures FOR AEROPLANES means of being able to have reserve power and a cool motor for long A. G. Watkins, of 27 X. Cones- flights, there is another very im-toga street, Philadelphia, has de- portant fact to be considered and vised a plan for using twin motors which should not be overlooked, singly or coupled. The best expert and structural en-

"As I promised, I am sending you blueprints of multiple motor gear. Fig. 1 is a view of same looking down upon it. Fig. 2 shows a side view of double-acting lever that just throws intermediate gear in place and afterward the clutch. Danger of stripping gears in throwing either motor in action while other is running is eliminated, as gears run loose until clutch is put in operation. Gears can also be changed so as to drive the propeller either slowei or faster than the motors run.

"Another thing in favor of such couplings is entire elimination of bevel gears and very little loss of power by friction. In addition to the advantages of this means of

gineers have recognized that a machine built with motors side by side, as in this means, enables the machine to be built with a great deal more stability than as at present, as it distributes the weight that is now placed directly in the center of planes. The right kind of propeller that should be used on machines equipped with this improvement should be one covered with a deposit of copper, and reversible blades for adjusting the different pitches. This improvement for motor boats and hydros, engineers say, is of vast importance, in that by this means they can now use a larger propeller, which does away with slippage and almost doubles speed with practically no vibration."


The bomb aiming and dropping tests which have been going on for many weeks past at the Signal Corps aviation school at San Diego, with the assistance of Riley E. Scott, the winner of the Michelin hornh-dropping prize and inventor of the most successful apparatus in use for the aiming of. hombs from aircraft and the: measuring'of speed over the eartl^^le^iy^Tli^glitj are" now completed. The results of these trials are'Virfg* fc^&tVet.


Contrary to precedent the Curtiss Training Camp here was closed September 1, and the equipment, instructors, et al. have moved to winter quarters on North Island, near San Diego, Cal. Activity at San Diego this winter will be unprecedented. The United States Army aeroplane competition will be held on North Island, near the Curtiss camp, beginning October 20, This will afford unusual opportunity to see the latest developments in military aeroplanes and in military flying, and partly on account of it the date of the opening of the fall class at the Curtiss camp has been

advanced from November 15 to October 15. A little later in the winter San Diego expects to witness sume of the flying scheduled in connection with the opening oi the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Some of the students now enrolled have expressed the intention of visiting San Francisco for the opening of the exposition. Among those now at the San Diego camp are Glenn H. Curtiss, Raymond V. Morris and Francis Wild-man. Mr. Curtiss expects to give personal supervision to the work at the camp this winter.

Ilammondsport is not entirely bereft of fliers. Baxter II. Adams made a very pretty cross-country flight a few days ago under unusual conditions. Mr. Adams has promised to do some flying in the vicinity of Ithaca, the seat of Cornell University. He elected to fly the 50 miles across the hills and "Finger" lakes, rather than ship around by rail, and proposed to make the trip on Monday. Sunday, however, saw the weather fixing for a week of thunder showers, which developed on Monday into good imitations of cloud bursts. A series of violent thunder storms filled Tuesday morning, but Adams telephoned Ithaca that "rain, shine or cyclone" he would leave Hammondsport at 2 o'clock. At that hour no rain was falling, but the sky was piled high with heavy black clouds and thunder rumbled threateningly not far away. Adams was determined to make the trip, and promptly on the hour he set out. The country he had to fly over was akin to mountainous; all hills, ranging about 2,000 feet in altitude, wooded, and split with rocky gorges. To add variety he had four lakes to cross. Not too good an outlook for a man's first cross-country experience. He had it well planned though. Leaving the Curtiss training camp he flew about 3 miles up the valley and in five minutes was back over the camp, having reached an altitude of about 3,000 feet. The last seen of him here was a tiny speck entering a canon between two cloud mountains. Thirty-five minutes later he "checked in" on the fair grounds at Ithaca all safe and sound. lie had been somewhat confused and flown several miles out of his way just after leaving Lake Keuka, but through rifts in the clouds had recognized Lake YVa-neta below him and altered his course accordingly, lie passed over Lakes Waneta, Lamoka, Seneca and Cayuga on his trip. Adams flies a dinky Curtiss Model D with a 24 foot spread and a Model O-X Curtiss motor. It is practically a duplicate of the machine with which Lincoln Beachey made his first loops.

Yestei day's English mail brought some interesting news regarding Lieut. John C. Forte, who was to have piloted the Rodman Wana-maker transatlantic flying boat. It seems that Ilendon's famous flying field is to be taken over by the navy and The Aeroplane reports on "fairly reliable authority" that Lieutenant Porte, now an officer of the Royal Naval Air Service, will be in command there, assisted by Mr. Richard T. Gates and our old friend .Mr. Claude CrahameAVhite. It also reports that the big Curtiss flying boat huilt hy Saunders for the Circuit of Britain race has passed the official tests very well and has been taken over by the Admiralty,


The Omaha Overland Company, Omaha, Neb., is a new corporation filing with the Secretary of State with a capital stock of $10,0U0. The company will do a general business in the manufacture and handling of automobiles, flying machines and similar machines. The incorporators are James Janison and Helen Comp-ton.


Sept. 1st, 1914. To the Editor, AERONAUTICS, 250 \V. 54th St.,

New York, N. Y. Dear Sir:

I have been looking for t a thoroughly practical flying machine ever since I read of the Wright Brothers' first Dayton flights. Cut I have always felt that there was something lacking in the machines offered for sale. I find in your August 15 issue (p. 41) that my machine lias indicated its possible arrival.

The claims made for this machine are so attractive that 1 am impelled to write to you an open letter on the subject and hope you will put me right if I am wrong.

Claim 1 asserts that the machine leaves the ground or water "at once." This appeals to me very strongly. When I leave the ground, I always like to leave at once. It avoids this feeling of doubt.

Claim 2 also appeals strongly. It says that the machine "alights straight down." I have always favored straightforward practice in all things, and a flying machine which alights straight down is distinctly to my liking, provided, of course, that it does not alight "at once," as is the case when leaving the ground.

Another claim which must appeal to everybody is the fact that this machine is equipped "with all modern conveniences." It also is claimed that everything is "non-collapsible.'* I take it that this non-collapsible feature also applies to the modern conveniences. There are certain of these modern conveniences which it would be distinctly unpleasant to have collapse at the wrong moment.

Another attractive feature is that the machine can he run by twelve > ear old children, and therefore does not need necessarily to be shipped. This is good economy because frequently it happens that a twelve year old child can escape the conductor's attention and get through on a half fare. Thus we would be able to send one of the children for the machine at a reasonable price and he could bring it home as he would a quart of milk.

Another desirable team re is the *peed. Five hundred miles an hour is claimed. This would mean, of course, that it would take an entire hour to go from New York to Buffalo, but on Sunday afternoon this would not be irksome. It would preclude the possibility of running out to Denver for afternoon tea and be back in time for 7 o'clock dinner, unless, of course, we hurried, which is not always pleasant. Still, I think-that considering the other very desirable features, this this speed of 500 miles per hour might be put up with.

very truly, Dowe Ttng Thomas. Hartford, Conn.


Has any one noticed the 20 cent parcels post stain])? It hears a Wright aeroplane as a design, with the inscription, "Aeroplane Carrying M ail."


C. M. O. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, INC. Buffalo, New York. C. M. Olmsted, Ph. D.

President, and

Director of Laboratory,

August 25, 1914. The Editor of AERONAUTICS:

Dear Sir—In an article explaining the postponement of the flight of the "America," in the July 31 AERONAUTICS, the following statement appears: "The special C. M. O. propeller will have a new sheathing of metal better fastened than the original metal cover. It was the tearing loose of the original copper cover, which broke its way through the upper plane, that was largely responsible for the postponement of the start."

While it is complimentary to the efficiency of the Olmsted propellers that they are necessary attachments for the getaway of the "America," it is not entirely fair to the manufacturer to employ the word "original" in describing the copper sheathing which by tearing loose during a trial flight caused a delay. When similar statements appeared in the daily papers at the time of the accident, the writer paid no attention to them, but when appearing in a journal like AERONAUTICS it would seem proper to state that the original metallic sheathings which cover the concave faces of the blades, are still in Al condition and do not show the slightest evidence of weakness or unfitness for the work. The copper sheathing which came loose during a flight was one placed on the back of a blade by the Curtiss Company after purchasing the propellers, anl the work had not been inspected or O. K.'d by anybody connected witil the C. M. O. Physical Laboratory, Inc.

According to agreement, on account of the great rush, the Olmsted propellers were shipped to 11 ammondsport for a trial of the new principle he fore they were finished—that is to say, before they were put into a weather-proof condition by filler, varnish, etc., a process which cannot be rushed. The idea was to utilize for finishing the propellers that time which would he necessary for overhauling and packing the "America," and during which the propellers would otherwise be lying idle.

As everybody who has followed the tests of the "America" knows, the hydroplaning bottom was changed a great many times, and many more trials made than had been originally intended. Consequently the Olmsted propellers, with only "a lick and a promise" for varnish, were put through the tests during which the tips of the blades were sometimes ripping through sheets of water thrown up by the mal-adi listed hydroplaning board. Naturally, the semi-varnished surfaces of the hlades began to weather. Rather than lose time by shipping the propellers to Buffalo

for finishing, the Curtiss Company elected to put on copper sheathings themselves. It was one of these extra piece* of sheathing which broke loose and caused a delay. \ ery truly yours.

Chas. M. Olmsted.


Ralph H. Upson and party had a rather unusual balloon trip the last week in August. They ascended Sunday morning in a practical calm, but the speed steadily increased to over 50 miles per hour, which took them to a point 12 miles east of Olean, N. Y., a distance of 180 miles in the six hours they were in the air. R. 11. Upson, of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, was the pilot.


Victor Vernon, owner of a new Curtiss flying boat, and Harvey R. Sidney flew from Bar Harbor, Me., to Kennebunkport Beach, about 150 miles, in 2 hours 2° minutes on Sept. 3, in order to be on hand for the Labor Day celebration. Many passengers w ere carried at both places. Flights were later made at Cornell, Ithaca.


Albert Carter and J. M. O'Con-nell expect to start October 1 on an attempt to cross the continent, using one large and ten smaller balloons attached together, using the gas from the smaller balloon as needed and cutting them up for ballast.

"By previous experiments," Carter writes. "I am satisfied that at an altitude of 13.000 to 15,000 feet there is practically always a drift to the east or northeast and it is our intention to rise gradually until we reach this current and stay in it as long as possible.

"By using a number of smaller balloons to replenish the gas and make additional ballast we hope to remain in the air four or five days.

"The main hnlloon holds 60,000 cubic feet. Five hold 10,000 each, ami four hold 2,500 each.

"A silk pilot balloon is arranged so that it can be sent up 1 mile above to search out currents going in the right direction and a small rope with occasional streamers can be tct down below same distance, giving us a method of finding out the direction of air currents for a mile above or below without sacrificing gas or ballast, as would be nec-essarv in a single halloon.

"Weather conditions being favov-nble we will start at 2 p. m., and if successful in reaching the eastern current will cross the Sierras somewhere north of Mt. Whitney that afternoon and the Nevada desert the first night.

"Our object is to prove that at Iii ch altitudes there is practically always a current flowing eastward and that to cross the continent in a single flight it is only necessary to reach the proper altitude and stay there four or five days."

Who should have been the first man in the Bible to be connected with aeronautics?

Aaron ought.

—Walter Levick.

29 West 39th Street, New York



The hrst general meeting of the society for the winter season will take place on Thursday evening, October 1st. A program in sympathy with the world topic, "The Present War," will introduce a number of specialists who will deliver brief but pointed addresses which have been combined under the general head: "Aerial Offense and Defense in War." In view of the active part aircraft are now taking in actual warfare, these addresses and tlie general discussion which will be allowed to follow them, should evoke very unusual interest. The enter tain men t committee has set itself to secure the attendance of the most instructive and interesting talkers on this subject. The meeting gives every promise of becoming one of the most notable in the history of the society.


The society is actively engaged in an effort to perpetuate tlie "Aerial Derby" as an annual classic. This is assured if negotiations betu een the Wright Company and the society come to a successful issue. Aside from this activity, the new special committees on research laboratory, meteorology, aviators' certificates and an important convocation of scientists are busily at work. Tlie present year promises the most successful effort shown since the foundation of tlie Aeronautical Society of America.


The Year Hook of The Aeronautical Society of America has just been issued and will prove of great interest and value to the growing membership of the leading aeronautical organization in America and will doubtless prove a surprise to the press and to tlie general public who have, until now, known tou lit tie of the many and varied accomplishments uf this hard-working organization, the achievements of which will compare most favorably with the activities of other aeronautical organizations in Europe,

The "year hook" is presented in a pocket edition of 43 pages, upon the cuver of which appears a reproduction of the Engineering Societies Building at 29 West 39th St., New York, the headquarters of the Society. The first twelve pages are given up to a list of the Society's officers and directors, illustrations showing the membership certificate, flag, badge of the Society, the va-

rious aviation grounds, club houses and hangars of the Society at Morris Park 1908-9, Mineola 1910-12, Oakwood Heights 1912-14. Important flying meets held by the Society on October 12, 1912; November 4, 1912; May 30, 1913, and October 13. 1913, are referred to and particular attention directed to the Times Aerial Derby, October 13, 1913, in commemoration of tlie first flight by the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk, December 17, 1903. on which flight five aviators started and completed the course around Manhattan Island without an accident in a 43-mile wind.

Then follows a terse statement of the aims and objects of the Society, a flashlight photograph showing the Societv's first great banquet, held at tlie Hotel Astor, April 27, 1911, which constituted tlie largest and most important gathering ever held of eminent men interested in the science of aerial locomotion. Over 800 members and guests were present, including President Taft and many other most distinguished men in America.

Following this is a reference to AERONAUTICS, the official bulletin of the Society, and it is stated that on February 19, 1914, the Society voted that this representative magazine should be made the official bulletin and organ of the Society and sent free to every member in good standing as one af the benefits of membership in the Society.

< )ther pages present the titles of the various lectures, addresses and debates delivered under the Society's auspices from July, I90S, to July. 1914, and this list, while not complete, shows a record of accomplishments of which any society might well be proud.

Reference is made to the special meeting on December 18, 1913, in commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the first flight by man in a power aeroplane. A copy of the engrossed resolutions presented to Orville Wright, the surviving brother, is shown, as well as a cut of the bronze statue presented to Mr. Wright upon the occasion by the Society. The booklet also includes the constitution and by-laws, reference to the technical board and the data sheets sent to all mom hers in good standing, list of all members, application form and a statement that this pamphlet is issued with a view to assisting the active campaign for new members and all members are requested to send in at once the names of prospective members that they may be included in a new and enlarged edition. There is at present no initiation fee and the dues are ten dollars a year. Copies will be mailed upon request.


On the 30th day of July, 1914, a hydro contest was held at the Union Course pond, Woodhaven, L, I. The winners were C. V. Obst with a flight of 28 seconds, and D. Cris-cnoli, 26 seconds. Messrs. Obst and Ness gave exhibitions of their "skimmers." Mr, Obst figures that the speed of his skimmer was approximately 35 miles per hour. The judges were M essrs. Durant and Bauer.

About fifteen entries have heen received for the speed contest to be held at Van Cortlandt Park on Sunday afternoon, September 20th. The course over which the speed of the models will be determined is 600 feet. The first prize will be in cash, the second will be an up-to-date publication. The chief judge will be Mr. Edward Durant, Director of the Club, who will be assisted by a starter. Many new and novel model speed machines are now in the course of construction and the contest promises to be a great success. The entry fee for non-members of this club will be 25 cents.

This club desires to acknowledge with thanks the six copies of the aeronautical books donated by Harper & Brothers to be offered as prizes.

Mr. C. 11. Heitman has kindly offered several prizes and in the next bulletin notice of the contest in which these prizes will be given will be stated.

This club meets every Saturday evening at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society, 20 West 39th St., New York City. All persons interested are invited to attend these meetings.

For further information, address the Secretary, Mr. Harry Scbultz.

Lieut. Col. F. II. Sykes, commandant of the British Royal Flying Corps, in bis annual address at the Royal United Service Institution. London, reviewed the progress made in military aviation during the past year and summarized the information gained through experience. Principally he dealt with the factors of safety under the conditions of present aerial flight, and suggested changes in construction of advantage to military aviators. lie advocated the abandonment of flexible wings and the universal addition of flaps or ailerons; the use of more substantial landing gear; increased strength and simplicity in design and construction; experimental work on better means of

communication between aeroplane and aeroplane, and aeroplane and the ground; the standarization of minor parts; the development of a larger type of machine. On the subject of flexible wings Colonel Sykes said: "One cannot consider airworthiness without touching on the question of wing-warping as opposed to flaps. There is no doubt that the continual flicking about of the control lever during a long flight, caused by the self-warping of wings in a wind, has a very tiring effect on the pilot, and further, the warping wing requires more keeping in true than one fitted with flaps. The dismantling and general handling of wings fitted with flaps is, besides, easier, quicker, and less liable to mistake,"


By Harry Schultz, Model Editor

Some few weeks ago the Aero Science Club held the first model flying boat contest. A contest of this kind has been recommended for some time, and this contest was held at the suggestion of Charles Y. Dbst. who won the contest with a flight of IS 4/5 seconds.

The boat is 20 inches long, 1j inches deep, 2'1> inches wide and has two strps. The sides are of 1 /32 inch poplar and cross braces nf birch forming eight com parr ■ ments. It is connected by bamboo strips running up to the main stick and secured thereto by rubber

II is model, which is shown in the accompanying drawing, is of the biplane type.

The main stick is balsa wood, 40 inches long and J-* inch square at the center, tapering towards the tnds. The rear brace or propeller bar is SJ^ inches long and is of bamboo. It is braced by two strips of bamboo running diagonally and the space thus formed is filled in with fabric, thus forming a tail plane.

The upper main plane has a span of 29 inches with a cord of 4 inches and a dihedral angle of 165 degrees. The ribs, entering and trailing edges are of bamboo and the main beam is of spruce. The lower plane is constructed in the same manner except that it is rectangular in shape, and the balancing pontoons are formed on the ends of the plane, as shown. The span of this plane, including the pontoons, is IS inches with a chord of 4 inches. The balancing pontoons are 1V4 inches deep. The planes are separated by a box-like structure of bamboo strips, as shown, and are simply held thereon by rubber bands, so that either plane may be removed at will, without disturbing the position 01 the other.

Situated under the tail plane is a small fin, constructed of bamboo strips and covered with fabric.

bands which take up the shock of landing on the ground or water and prevents damage to the boat.

The boat, planes and fin are covered with silk fibre paper and treated with ambroid, which draws the same taut and makes it waterproof.

The propellers are S inches in diameter, are fitted with bearings of tubing and are driven by fourteen strands of inch flat rubber.

The model rises from the water after a run of about 10 feel and is a very stable flyer.

istics of the model are the peculiarly shaped main plane and tail, the very delicately constructed fuselage and method of bracing the same. The propellers are very fast and effective, raising the model from the water with a run of only 2 or 3 feet. Mr. llerzog's latest model is equipped with propellers of this type and rises to great heights and loops the loop after rising, an almost unbelievable feat for a model to perform.

No. 2. The Mann Monoplane. Perhaps no other model in the world is as well known as the Mann monoplane. The model is the design of K. 1\ Mann, of London, England, and is credited with having performed many remarkable distance and duration flights. At one time it was supposed to have made a flight of 4.300 feet, but upon the rumor being investigated it appeared to have been more or less of a "fairy tale." While the machine is an excellent flyer, any ot the American models of today are vastly superior to it. The chief characteristics of the model are the main plane, which is constructed of piano wire, has only three ribs and is covered in a peculiar manner, and the elevator which is of birch bent to a peculiar "bird-wing" shape. The propellers are of twisted wood 1 birch) and are rather heavy when mm pared with the propellers in universal use today.

(To be continued.)


.Tune imports, parts only, totalled, 'planes and parts. $32.26').

Exports for June, 'planes and parts, were $27,590: for 12 months ending June 3D. $226.149.

Exports of foreign built aircraft and parts, for June, $5,156.

Aircraft and parts in warehouse June 31), $5,069.


Xo. 1. Th. 11 erzog Tractor Hydro. This model was constructed by Harry Ilerzog, of New York Citv. a well known model flyer and a former member of the New York Model Aero Club. At the Oak-wood Heights meet, where it litst made its appearance, it pro\ed i's superiority over the other tractor models by winning first prize with a flight of 2S 4/5 seconds, tliis being a world's record for models of this type. The chief character-

Charles Cabanne Crn lie and F. Kay 1-eimkueliler have established an ex jie ri mental station at 5587 ['age Roulevard, St. Louis. Mo. consisting partly of a wind tunnel through which air speeds of 90 miles per hour are planned. Stream lines about surfaces tested will be accurately photographed with the aid of smoke streams introduced into the current. Models of all recognized and useful shapes will be photographed in the various positions and speeds of common practice. Constructors are requested to send accurate diagrams of standard wing section, standard strut, etc.. for test. Special surfaces will he tested free if they fall within the scope of regular work, otherwise a charge will be made covering costs of special test.

Or can our watery walls keep dangers out that fly aloft?—Jasper Fisher, the True Trojans, 1630.

From this quotation it will be seen that it is scarcely correct to describe the seaplane as a new weapon.




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JOHN WISE—"History and Practice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, Svo, ill., 310 pp. steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St.,

MORANE-SAULNIER .— Latest type. Set of detailed working drawings for sale at $200. Sale exclusive. Morane-Saulnier holds best records cross-country and speed flying. Owner of drawings can superintend construction. Address A. F., care AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

BARGAIN IN BOOKS—Will sell following books: Aerial Navigation (Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; Aeronautical Annual, 1895-6-7 (James Means) $5; Travels in Space (Valentine & Thompson) $ .50; Art of Aviation (Brewer) $1.50; Airships Past and Present (Hildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. Congress Aerial Navigation, Chicago, 1893, $5; various other books

thrown in to purchaser of the lot. L. E. Dare, 216 West 104th St., New York.

FOR SALE—On account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Norwood ave., Toledo, Ohio.

QUICK SALE FOR CASH—Two Curtiss-type double-surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape; can be seen at any time; everything complete; $600 for the two outfits for quick sale. B., care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE —Ilatton Tumor's "Astra Castra," the most famous and rarest of all Aviation works. Published in 1865 at 10 dollars. Magnificently illustrated, large quarto, 527 pages, in splendid condition. Will be sent post-free for 24 dollars.

Remittance to be sent to "Astra," care The Editor, "Aeronautics," 170 Fleet st., London (England).

J. C. MARS—Mail held for him can not be delivered on account of removal without leaving forwarding address. Kindly advise AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th st., New York.

AERONAUTICS would be pleased to hear from A. S. Le Vino, Robert Edelstein, Henry W. Walden, Hon. C. O. Browse, Wm. H. Kuhl, American Aeroplane Supply House, Charles XV. Foley, Walter E. Watts, Detroit Aeroplane Co., J. R. Haw-ley News Co., Mose Jacobs, Fred Shneider, A. C. Triaca, Welles & Adams, Harriman Motor Works, T. Brauner, Charles B. Kirkham.

GAS BALLOON for sale; new 35,000 cubic foot balloon; sewed in blocks; varnished; net, valve, appendix, loop, basket, sand bags, $250. E. Jorgensen, 1831 Belmont ave., Chicago, III.


The first of the Fall season ol Week-End Aerial Meets, given under the auspices of local flyers and manufacturers, began with promise. Fully $80,000 was represented in the aeroplanes assembled on the Hempstead Plains aviation field on September 5.

The program opened with a three-circuit flight of the field's course, the total distance being 9.3 miles. The time recorded in this race is to be the handicap rating for the same machine in future events. The Schmitt monoplane, winner of the first prize in the 4th of July race from Governors Island to Spuyten Duyvil and return, was again piloted by Harold Kantner, who, flying at the rate of more than a mile a minute, covered the course in 9 minutes exactly. Albert Ileinrich, who won second prize in the 4th of July race, made the circuit in 11 minutes and 30 seconds. Peter Millman, the "Texan." in a Moisant monoplane, in 12 minutes and 50 seconds; Sid-ne> F. Beckwith, in the Beckwith-Crahtree military tractor, in 13 minutes. A time allowance will he given this machine, it being a biplane; the other contesting machines all monoplanes.

On Labor Day, regardless of a thirty-mile gale that blew across the field. J. Guy Gilpatric, in a Sloane

monoplane, gave a wonderful exhibition of flying under unfavorable conditions. Carl T. Kuhl, in a Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, also made a flight in this wind. Harold Kantner made an altitude flight of 3,500 feet in 9 minutes, and Sidney F. Beckwith carried off the "bomb." dropping honors. The Beckwith-Crabtree machine met with a slight accident at the close of the meet, but will be in the contests Saturday.

The first of the "Free Admission" Sundays (which will continue each Sunday during September and Octo-her) brought out 3,000 people to the field.

Five aviators, in five different types of aeroplanes, displayed good accuracy in dropping bombs from an altitude of from 1,500 feet to 3,500 feet, before a large assemblage of people on the Hempstead Plains aviation field. Garden City, Saturday, September 12th.

Carl T. Kuhl. in the Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, although a novice at bomb dropping, came within 39 feet of the mark. Harold Kantner, in the famous Schmitt monoplane dropped two bombs, one within 40 feet and the other 42 feet of the mark. This showed a decided improvement over last week, as the homhs dropped on Monday averaged 50 feet of the mark. At present the

target is a large piece of wdiite canvas 20 feet square spread on the ground, but later on the target will represent a small ship, which will be easier for the aviators to see.

Next on the program following the bomb dropping, was the altitude tests. The first aeroplane to make this flight was the Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, piloted by Carl T. Kuhl. Me rose to an altitude of 1.S00 feet. Peter C. Millman rose to 2,900 feet and Harold Kantner in the Schmitt monoplane, to 3,400 feet. Millman's Moisant is tlie same type monoplane that the Moisant Intermtional Aviators built for the Mexican Constitu-tinmD. Chas. F. Niles, the loop-the-loop and upside-down flier, is in Mexico at present demonstrating these machines He is expected back at the field in two or three weeks.

Cecil Peoli, in a new type of aeroplane, made the hest landing. From an altitude of 500 feet he shut off his motor and volplaned to within a few feet of the mark. Peoli, who is only 20 years old, a graduate of Captain Baldwin, calls his aeroplane a semi-monoplane, which is really a cross between a biplane and monoplane. It is equipped with a 75-h.p. Rassenher-eer motor.

D. B. Wright.


Epitome of the Aeronautical

Annual By James means

In one volume is contained the principal articles from the tbree annuals of 1895, 1896 and 1897, published by Mr. Means. Contains the theories and experiments (if Cayley Wenham, Lilienthal. Maxim, Langley and others, written by themselves. Fundamental facts are given. One of the absolutely necessary volumes. III., 224 pp., $1.12

The Problem of Flight


A strictly technical book for the engineer.

III., 119 pp., $3.50

The Conquest of the Air

By the Late Prof. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH

A popular but authoritative book on the Ocean of Air, History of Aero-itation. Dirigible Billoon, Flying: Machine, The Future of Aerial Navigation. 111., $1.10

Aerial Navigation


In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays the progress of aeronautics.leavingout unproductiveexpenments. The pilots of today know little of the history of tbe machine they use daily. The percentage of those who are familiar with progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an absorbing volume which must take its place on every bookshelf.

111., 486 pp., $3.00

Art of Aviation


One of the b*st handbooks on aviation. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for the amateur, experimentor and pilot. 111., 266 pp., $3.50

Langley Memoir on Mechanical

Bird-flight as the Basis of


Covers the gliding work of <).

ind G. Lilienthal.

III., 166 pp.. $2.50

The Aeroplane in War


A hook with prophecies of the future. 111., $3.00

Experiments in Aerodynamics By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY

This with the other Langley book forms the keystone of the aeronautical library. Purely technical. Details of the experimental machines of Professor Langl«*y. The

indispensable book.

III. $1.50

Indispensable Books

Langley's Langley's '




Means' "EPITOME"





In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor Langley's previous work and contains wonderful photo- graphs and scale drawings of all of the models and the engine* constructed and tested by Langley and his assistant, Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight in the formulae and the practical man will find a vast amount of data. One of the scant dozen "best books."

Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50

Curtiss Aviation Book


A popular book. Describes Curtiss' flights, his early life, how he planned and worked out his machine—close view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck. Lt. Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. 111., 307 pp., $1.49

Artificial and Natural Flight


Concise history of development of flying machines and Maxim's own experimental work. There are but few worth-while technical hooks on aviation. This is one. Ills., 172 pp., $1.76

Monoplanes and


anes c. loening

Covers design, construction and operation. The author has taken the work of the best known ex peri men tors and analyzed the results, comparing them and averaging. Another necessary book. III., 345 pp.. $2.50

How to Build an Aeroplane


A handbook for the young man in school, or beginning building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply written. 111., 131 pp., $1.50

Building and Flying an Aeroplane »y chas. b. hayward

A practical handbook, covering construction of models, gliders and power machines. III., 160 pp., $1.00

Practical Aeronautics


Treatise on Dirigibles, Aeroplanes, Motors, Propellers, Practice, Future, etc. III., 800 pp.. $3.50

AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR (Continued from Page 55)

soldier it has been discovered that a high explosive bomb, thrown at a cavalry column from one of our aeroplanes, struck an ammunition wagon, resulting in an explosion which killed fifteen of the enemy."

The Sun records a dispatch stating that on September 8 the French, in retreating, left behind 30 aero-plants for the (iermans.

Rifle hullets penetrating the surfaces of reconnoitering aeroplanes seem to produce but a faint quivering of the machine and affect its flying not a whit. F.ullets have been reported as having disabled motors and the pilots have heen able, when not too far from the home camp, io glide to safety.

Apparently bombs have as much ilifficultv in achieving results as does AERONAUTICS in collecting accounts. I'.ombs were dropped on Paris on two occasions, but little damage has Ix en reported. French aviators pursuing were unable to overtake the Herman machine. On one occasion, it is claimed, one machine was brought down and the aviators killed. Another story is that one machine was found on the outskirts, but the aviator was missing.

There are many reports of aviators having been killed by shots from the ground. The consensus of opinion on bombs seems to be that little damage is done.

A scheme for "mining the air" at night with kites and small balloons, with bombs attached, is suggested in daily papers by a "mem-

ber of the General Staff of the U. S. Army."

A third ascent uver Antwerp by a Zeppelin is said to have been frustrated by Belgian marksmen whose bullets "made a picket fence of steel almost a mile high." A few days before bombs had been dropped, which damaged several houses and "slightly wounded" ten or twelve persons.

None of the < ierman aeroplanes which has been flying nver Paris has heen brought down directly over the city by the French marksmen, it is cabled.

This fact may be due to the fact that aemplanes are armored, but expert? say that it more probably is due to the fault of the marksmen in aiming straight for the object, which is mnving from 20 to 30 \ards a second. It is calculated that it takes a missile from three tn five seconds to reach an aeroplane at the height of from one to two thousand yards, hy which time the object would have moved a lum-drtd and fifty yards.

The experts advise, therefore, firing salves in advance of the line of flight under orders of men understanding hnllistic science.

A ['nitcd Press correspondent writes from Tier! in of an interview he had with a German soldier wounded In the storming of Liege:

" The world has yet to learn of the fighting power of our Zeppelins. I saw one at work at Liege. It was the dropping of explosives on the

forts there that started their downfall."

"If you ask Dame Frochard," says the Sun correspondent at Antwerp, "what she thinks of the success of aeroplanes or dirigibles in warfare, she says:

" 'Well, they are very noisy, but 1 don't think they'll kill many people. I never heard such a noise in my life when our roof blew off, but the bomb seemed to explode upward. I wonder that it didn't blow back and hit the balloon.'

"It happened on the night of August 24. Dame Frochard and the children lia\"c rooms on the second floor of a nam.w three-story building right in the centre of town. Half a h 1 o c k away is Antwerp's Wall Street and Stock Exchange. IJne block in another direction is the palice of King Alhert.

"One bomb was for the palace, where the King and Queen are sleeping. It hit within a block of the building. Their hotnh hit the roof where 1 lame Frochard slept.

"The explosion aroused the city. Four more followed in different parts of the town in quick succession. Evidently the Zeppelin was circling over the town. The Belgian* told me that ten persons were killed in four different sections of town that night."

(hi Septemher 2 it was reported a new Zeppelin had been finished to take the place of one said to have been captured bv the French. The same day a denial was issued from Berlin stating that no dirigibles had heen shot down or otherwise lost.


original the distinction of bemg the only apparatus in the world upon which can be measured the three forces and three couples exerted on a mode] when placed oblique to the wind in any attitude. The investigation of the rolling, pitching and jawing movements for an aeroplane when side slipping is of especial interest in considering stability. The European laboratories, with the single exception of the English and possibly that of the Vienna Hoch Schule, confine their work to experiments with the wind in the axis nf the model.

The laboratory is ;n charge of Assistant Naval Constructor J. C. 1 Innsaker, V. S. Navy, detailed for 'his dutv bv the Secretary of the Navv. with [>. YY. Douglas, S.B., as assistant.

Research is conducted by students in aeronautical engineering and naval ai chitecture. At present Assistant Naval Constructors II. E. Rossel and C. L. Brand, U. S. Navy, are temporarily attached to the staff of the laboratory for the purpose of conducting a research in aeroplane stability,

The laboratory is supported out of the general funds of the Institute of Technology, and consequently is to be used primarily for teaching the principles of aerodynamics and to afford data for students for use in design problems.

The laboratory is also available for use by private constructors and inventors, who are invited to submit prnhlems for investigation. It is hoped by charging a moderate fee to defray in part the expenses

of general research for the benefit of the art.

Aside from wind-tunnel investigations, question of stability will be studied by large models self-propelled in the open air. For this no special equipment is required, beyond the facilities of the very complete wood-working and machine shops of the Institute. One large model is now under construction bv students. No research on gasoline motors is under way at the present time, but facilities for making tests on economy and efficiency of motors will be provided when funds are available.

Lieut. II. C. Richardson is in charge of the LT. S. Government w iml tunnel at the Washington Navy Yard.


(Continued from Page 51)

of aeroplanes in this country by the Wrights and Curtiss, and abroad by Bleriot, Far man and others almost equally well know n, are all matters of recent journalistic accounts. When the trans-Atlantic flight, which is now being planned, has become an accomplished fact, mankind will have witnessed the conquest of the last of the three elements—land, water and air which has so long defied his utmost endeavor, and the possibilities nf this conquest are almost beyond de-

scription. The rapid development of the past few years has heen but the beginning of a greater progress w Inch the future hulds for aeronautic*.


The Compensation Inspection Rating Board has computed the aviation hazard of employes of aeroplane manufacturers and fixed the

rate at 48.06 per cent of the payroll, with a minimum of $1 000 per employe. The board's bulletin contains the following:

"New Classification: To be inserted in manual:

"Aeroplane Manufacturers—Operation and demonstration, 4S.60 per cent. Minimum premium $1,000 for ea"ch employe engaged in operation and demonstration."

This is the highest rate in the compensation rate manual.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

■ y

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York








Technical Editor



Model Editor

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atter, September 22,

1908, under the Act of




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Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. Line steamers in either direction between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland.

Send tw.y-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving detailed description of various trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General tassenger Agent, Detroit, Mich.

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Send sketch or model for FREE opinion as to Patentability. Write for our Guide Books and What to loveot with valuable List of Ioveotiooi Waoted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes ottered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aerooautics and have a special Aeronautical Department.

Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

Main Offices: 771 NINTH STREET,N. W.




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624 F Street. N. W. Washington. D. C.

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