Aeronautics

Volume 15 - No. 3 - 1914 August

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



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LEONARDO DA VINCI—By Charles Beecher Bunnell

Up to the present moment, no ancient record of the problems of Aeronautics has been found, excepting the manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci, one of the most honored men of liis time, who died in the arms of the King of France, in 1519. It's not definitely known just how many manuscripts lie produced. Most of these are drawings and specifications on scientific subjects. Among them is "A Treatise Upon the Flight of Birds" and the drawings attached look like the curious things that happen to our aviators when their machines balk. But to us, the most interesting drawings in the collection are the hundred or more pictures specifying his ideas on heavier than air flying machines.

Any one spending one hour with Leonardo's manuscripts is convinced he was the greatest mechanical genius of that time, and a supernatural master of art and poetry as well.

In 1502, Cardinal Borgia, the military leader, made Leonardo his engineer. (Cardinal Caesare Borgia was the brother of Lucretia Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara. the "toxicolo-gist.")

In artillery he constructed a 64-barrel field gun of the revolving type; he fired perforated bombshells; he suggested vertical-fire; he fired sharp pointed, iron stars that prevented cavalry horses from crossing the ground where they were scattered; he invented a turret fire that is ahead of the present method; he fired shrapnel, arrows, etc., etc., from breech loading guns; he also fired shot from a steam gun on the continuous performance principle and he built a catapult with a fifty-foot bow that threw1 a hundred pound arrow over a mile.

In optics he described the camera obscura; in acoustics, he said: "If a ship at sea heaves to, the putting of a tube into the water enables ships a long distance off to he heard"; in astronomy he had calculated the Penumbra; in hydraulics he built the finest kind of self-acting pumps; in canal building he used the most up to date methods of excavation.

The rotary snow plow will have to take a back seat (over a mile back); he invented a moving machine with revolving knives attached to two wheels in front of a span of horses.

and also revolving knives on two more wheels back of the horses, the hind wheels turned a shaft that went to the front of the machine (going between the horses and projecting over the front wheels which were armed with knives just like the rotary snow plow. But this machine was a war engine made to plow men.

Leonardo regarded himself a military engineer, and in the letter he wrote to Sforza (11 Moro) he enumerated 10 points wherein he excelled in war engine construction: in art he had one clause, part of which runs:—■

".....: also in painting

I can do as much as any other, he he who he may."

But it's to the drawings here reproduced, relating to Aeronautics that we will refer.

The idea of the parachute came from Leonardo, (see "P" in »,he illustration) which he describes in his own words:

"If a Man Carry a Domed Roof of Starched Linen, 18 Feet Wide and 18 Feet Long, He Will be Able to Throw Himself From any Great Height Without Fear of Danger."

His first wing drawings resemble, somewhat, the Bleriot wing.

In figure "T" of our illustration, the drawing is very suggestive of a spring powered toy. "B" shows the modern method of construction Leonardo used 400 years ago. "I" shows the inclination of flight. In "A" we have the flexing of the wing tip that is now a subject of litigation between two present day claimants. "S" shows a hand and foot power flying machine. "D" illustrates a dotible wing. "W" shows that a man has by the use of a fan brought his weight to zero—or is it a hint in aerodynamics which is being worked out by a great western genius who will soon print a little book giving out his new discoveries on engines and propellers? "A" and "a" shows another method of flexing the tips. In the "Condor motion" drawing you will note how the whole machine resembles a bird flying toward the ohserver. In the "foot power flying machine" the hands grasped the bar in the wings.

In the automatic flying machine of our illustration, we show the

power spring actuating cranks that flap the wings. The wings are copies of bird wings that Leonardo had dissected. He made his muscles, however, to pull through friction loops. He also made the wings have a third motion that was produced in the "shoulder blades" by a link, just as a bird or man moves his shoulder blades around his own back.

The action of air upon a propeller wheel was well known to Leonardo because he had designed a chimney wheel that turned a spit on which game was roasted.

Leonardo said: "The Man in the Flying Machine to be Free from the Waist Up. That He may be Able to Keep Himself in Equilibrium, as He does in a Boat, so That the Centre of His Gravity and That of His Instrument may set itself in Equilibrium and Change when Necessity Requires it to the Changing of the Centre of its Resistance."

Tt took Lilienthal and Chanute a great many years to find the above fact out, then they found Leonardo observed it 400 years before their time.

According to Cuperus, "Leonardo practiced flying successfully."

Sidney Colvin says: "He seems certainly the man whose genius has the best right to be called universal, of any that have ever lived."

Ilallam. the historian, said: "His knowledge was almost preternatural."

One most remarkable thing ahotit Leonardo's writings is. they are written from the right toward the left, they were also written by the left hand, so that to read them one must use a mirror. This was a precaution against theft of his ideas, against which he wished to guard. Of course, there are a few of his writings that are not reversed.

Leonardo's treatise on the flight of birds is most interesting. His investigations were exhaustive and treat on eddies, up currents and about everything that brings the modern aviator to sudden grief.

A mechanic who takes up Leonardo's drawings, immediately knows the whole problem without any instructions whatever. That conies from his method of drawing, which is superior to the very best practice of the present day.

THE HAGUE AND AIRCRAFT IN WAR

By Arthur K. Kuhn, A.M.

(From a paper read at the International Law Session of the American Political Science Association.)

Along with the subjects submitted for discussion by the First Hague Conference by the circular letter of Count Mouravieff, of January 11, 1899, was a proposal to restrict the use in military warfare of the formidable explosives already existing, and to prohibit the throwing of projectiles or explosives of any kind from balloons or by similar means. The proposal so far as it related to aerial craft was not called forth by any actual experience in modern warfare. Balloons were used by the French as early as the battle of Fleurus in 1794, by the Russians in 1812, by our Federal troops in Virginia, hy the French at the siege of Paris, and by the British in the Boer war. The propo-

sition was apparently an effort to anticipate the future progress of aerial science.

MouraviefT's proposal was referred to the committee which in turn submitted it to its military sub-committee. This sub-committee first voted a perpetual prohibition of the use of aircraft for throwing projectiles or explosives which, on motion of the American delegate. Captain Crozier, was limited, in full committee, to cover a period of five years. In this form, it was passed by the Conference and accepted by the Powers.

The action was for humanitarian reasons alone and was founded on the opinion that in the condition of the art as it then existed, persons

or property injured by this means might be entirely disconnected from the conflict and of no practical advantage to the belligerent. The period of five years was intended to allow complete liberty of action under such changed circumstances as might he produced by the progress of invention.

The prohibition expired by limitation on July 28, 1904, and the subject was therefore again brought up for consideration by the Second Hague Conference under a suggestion made by the Belgian delegation to renew the prohibition in exactly the same terms. In sub-committee two amendments were made, to he applicable in the event of a failure of the main proposal, one by

Russia the other by Italy. Russia proposed to limit forever attacks by these means upon undefended places. Italy proposed to add to the Russian proposition that no projectiles or explosives should he launched from balloons not dirigible and manned by a military force, and furthermore that the fame restrictions that rested upon land and naval warfare should apply to aerial warfare "wherever compatible with this new-method of combat."

The declaration as finally passed was in the same terms as that of the First Conference except that, at the suggestion of Great Britain, the renewal extends to the close of the Third Peace Conference. The declaration has been ratified among others by Great Britain, Austria and the United States, but though the period for ratification expired June 30, 1908, seventeen nations have failed to give assent, among them Germany, France, Japan, Italy, Mexico and Russia. On the principle that since the period of conventional regulation of the usages of war, e\erything may be done which is not expressly forbidden by treaty or customary practice, and as there is no precedent whatever governing the use of aircraft in advancing the cause of a belligerent, it would seem that in the absence of such a prohibition, it would constitute a legitimate operation of war. The launching of projectiles from balloons has been placed in the same class of undertakings as the subjection of coast cities to ransom at the demand of a powerful fleet. Neither has been seriously considered by a responsible belligerent, yet both constitute a sufficiently serious menace to humanity to warrant consideration by international con ference-

An objection which has been raised to the prohibition as framed is the fact that there is no reciprocal prohibition against firing upon aircraft. This would make them open to attack, yet deprived of their proper defense. The real opposition seems to lie in the technical position of the respective powers in regard to their present land and naval forces and the advancement which each has made in aerial war. A great naval power like Great Britain would naturally be interested in the prohibition by reason both of the menace to her military isolation and because the strongest naval vessel might not be proof against destructive agents thrown from above. It may yet be that a supposed advantage by reason of superior naval strength may he much reduced if not entirely eliminated by compensating advantages in aerial strength. That Germany has thus far abstained from ratifying the declaration might seem to be a result of her progress in the use of dirigible balloons and the great expenditures of 'T-onev being made for this account. Russia's change of attitude may he accounted for in a similar manner bv the loss of her navy since the First Hague Conference.

The proposal contained in the amendment advanced by the Russian delegation to render unfortified places immune from attack by aircraft was given effect in a much broader form than was then expected. The immunity of undefended places was discussed under the general regulation of land warfare and an absolute prohibition agiinst the bombardment of undefended towns, villages and dwellings "whatever he the means employed"

was agreed upon and is now a part of the convention on the laws and customs of war (Art. 25). This does not refer to bombardment from the sea. but there can be no douht of its application to aircraft. As an American authority has said, "When exposed to such an attack, no place can be said to be 'defended.' " It is strange that though the original declaration has failed of endorsement by many states, the amendment has been given broad conventional elfect through the action of a different committee.

The treatment to be accorded to the crew of captured aircraft in time of war has also constituted a serious problem in international law. During the war of 1S70, a strong inclination was shown on the part of Germany to treat them as spies. Sixty-four balloons were launched during the siege of Paris, and it will he remembered that Gambetta made his escape to the provinces in this way- Bismarck favored extreme measures, and in fact alt bal-loonists who passed over the German lines were severely dealt with when captured. This attitude has been severely criticized by writers upon international law as "neither secrecy, nor disguise, nor pretence" is possible for those who man air-era ft.

The dispute has now been definitely settled through Art. 29 of the Hague convention which provides that "individuals sent in balloons for the purpose of transmitting dispatches and the general keeping up of communications between the different parts of an army or territory" shall not be treated as spies, and the French official manual for the use of military officers specifically affirms their right to be treated as prisoners of war.

The obligation of a neutral state no doubt extends to the airspace over its territory as well as to its land surface and territorial waters. But the extent of that obligation has never been defined. An absolute duty to exclude the passage of belligerent craft through its airspace would indeed be onerous. Again with the increasing capacity of aircraft to carry articles of greater or less weight a law of contraband applicable to aircraft may in time be developed. I simply mention these questions in passing, however, as they are not yet of sufficient practical importance for useful discussion at this time.

The present jieriod is manifestly an introductory one in the development of a new medium of intercommunication and traffic. It is doubtful that the air will ever be as important commercially as the sea, yet science is the cause of many surprises. But even in its present development, the nations are now-united by a closer bond, for the air is medium in respect of which each nation, no matter bow small in area, or howsoever situated, is equally favored in harbor and coastline: Indeed, it has been denominated "the universal highway.**

On the other hand, while the advent of efficient aircraft will extend the plane of warfare to a third element, the ultimate result will tend to make for the maintenance of peace. Small parties may be able to pass over protective armies on expeditions aimed at the seat of government itself, where the body of particular individuals most re'-Fponsible for the war reside. This fact will tend for the first time to

subject responsible individuals to immediate and personal danger after the declaration of war, which heretofore has not been usually the case, and thus the development of aerial navigation will make for peace. Its advent, therefore, will be beneficial from both points of view. In peace, its development will depend upon sacrifices of the lesser for the greater guod. In war, its use should be restricted so as to extend to it a humanitarian control equal to that now exercised over the methods of warfare heretofore employed.

AIRCRAFT IN THE

EUROPEAN WAR

As far as any practical data ccn be gleaned from the heterogeneous cables from London, Paris and Brussels, the aeroplanes seem to be fulfilling the promises made for them by military experts.

What the Zeppelins will do remains to be seen as they have evidently been kept under cover thus far for some definite purpose. They would, doubtless, be most effective against the English fleet which, wiped nut of existence, would greatly enhance the possibility of bombarding English fortified ports and cutting off supplies and communication to her colonies. A recent naval critic has the view that the airships will be most effective in this direction.

A cabled report of the use of aircraft says:

"The remarkably definite way in which the positions and movements of the German troops have been located by the General Staffs of France and Belgium is due almost entirely to the success of aerial reconnoit-ering. The advent of the aeroplane already has revolutionized strategy and tactics. In this regard the superiority of French airmen and French aeroplanes has given the allies a decided advantage over the Germans. Reconnaissance in force by cavalry has been almost superfluous on the Franco-Belgian side, but the Germans, whose aerial scouting is inferior, have had to resort to it along the line.

"A scouting aeroplane carries two officers, one as pilot, the other as observer. The officer observer carries a photographic apparatus, and in many cases remarkably clear pictures of the enemy's positions have been secured from dangerously low altitudes. French aerial scouts have taken amazing risks in this respect, riving well within the range of hostile rifles in order to insure accurate observations. Generally speaking. German officers engaged in similar work have flown at greater altitudes. Successful as the aeroplane has been for reconnoitering, its value as an instrument of destruction has proved practically nil. Judging from the experience of this campaign, the use of aeroplanes will be limited to scouting, and not be extended^ to actively offensive operations. This applies, at any rate, to the aeroplane in its present form. In many cases German military aviators have endeavored to disguise themselves as Frenchmen, sometimes by displaying a conspicuous tricolor of France on their machine."

Franco-German miscellaneous cables tell of the frontier being patrolled hy rival aeroplanes within 1 easy sight of each other, of a Zep-

pelin having zepped over Liege during the bombardment, pursued by a Belgian aviator who lost his life in destroying it, after which the Germans confining their activity here to aeroplanes for scouting, several being destroyed by shots from the forts; of a French aviator reconnoitering the Germans from Belfort and returning with valuable information, the machine riddled with holes; of a report from St. Petersburg telling of the destruction of a German Parseval non-rigid en-tailingthe loss of four; of a German dirigible sailing over Liege and uropping several bombs in the city, killing 17 civilians and firing several buildings, with two Belgian aviators in fruitless pursuit; of bombs dropped on the railway station at Nainur, Belgium and on a bridge, without great damage.

A Zeppelin dirigible is reported hit and destroyed by Belgian gunners, using an explosive shell.

Many German aeroplanes sighted along the border and French aviators flying across the line quickly pursued by overwhelming numbers of German 'planes and driven back. < )ne German aviator is reported to have flown over the Yosges mountains and dropped bombs in Vesoul, the capital of a department of France, returning safely. Two Belgian aeroplanes give chase to a German aeroplane scout who was flying above the Belgian fortified position on the Meuse, the result being hidden by the darkness. Two German aeroplanes follow a French aviator and shoot at him unsuccessfully.

Servians are said to be using aeroplanes to reconnoiter Austrian operations.

Two German aviators were fatally hit and the third seriously wounded, while their machines were wrecked. The German airmen were reconnoitering the Belgian trenches at Diest.

Small bombs dropped from aeroplanes seem to do little damage.

Many of these reports are printed again days later with changes. No authentic information is available.

France is reported to have acquired a German aeroplane factory by the capture of Mulhausen. French reports say a German aviator was brought down by hitting the motor and made a prisoner of the pilot and observer. Pistol duel in midair between French and German aviators with no results reported. German aviators drop bombs in the department of the Meuse but injure no one. A French family receives a letter telling of the destruction of a Zeppelin by bombs from a French aeroplane flying above it. Russians are reported to have brought down a German aeroplane with four aboard, all being killed. An airship, supposedly German, was seen over the North Sea f rom Amsterdam, 11 ol-land.

Two German aviators killed and one seriously wounded by Belgians is the report on the German reconnaissance of the Belgian lines.

"The guns that were especially designed to destroy aeroplanes have more than fulfilled their mission and the markmanship of the Belgians has been wonderful. On the other hand the Krupp aero guns used by the Germans have all but proved useless. Thev were used against the Belgians at Liege, but in nearly every instance it developed that their range was too limited for them to do any real damage.

"The Belgian aero corps is proving of inestimable value to the field forces. Every move of the invaders is anticipated and because of the excellent transport arrangements it is possible for the Belgian field commanders to meet the Germans more than half way in every attack."

AEROPLANES ARE

CONTRABAND

Great Britain's contraband of war proclamation places arms, ammunition and all distinctly military supplies on the list of "absolute" contraband.

"Aeroplanes, airships, balloons and aircraft of all kinds and their component parts, together with accessories and articles recognizable for use in connection with balloons and aircraft are among contraband material."

GOODYEAR BALLOON LANDS IN ONTARIO

The Goodyear balloon that left Akron August 1 at 10 p. m., in charge of Pilot R. A. D. Preston, who won the national balloon race, and carrying Williard Seiberling, son of F. A. Seiberling, president of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., and \V. D. Burns, landed east of Chatam, Ontario, early Sunday morning.

When a hydro-aeroplane fell into Swedish waters a submarine boat dived under it and brought it to shore uninjured.

Balloon (sic!) Flight Delayed. Lieutenant Porte Not to Attempt the Ocean Trip Until Fall.—From an Oshkosh (Wis.) newspaper, July, 1913.

TO FLY FROM

BUILDINGS

Edwin Maxwell writes he is installing a powerful motor in a small monoplane of but 6 ft. spread and will make flights from the tops of high buildings, landing in the street below. Biographical sketch and notice of funeral will be printed later.

HOCH DER ZEPPELIN

Who iss it sails der atmosphere As light as foam on stein of beer, Und has Chon Bull knockkneed mit fear ?

Meinself—Count Zep.

Who iss it alvays in a smash, Und in der trees iss going, crash! Und swears der German three em dash?

Meinself—Count Zep.

Who patches up his cloud machine Und buys more Chon D. gasolene, Und sails again, calm und serene? Meinself—Count Zep.

Who beats all sky men in a flight. All but dose Yankee Brothers Wright?

Who does admit dey're ausgesight ? Meinself—Count Zep,

—Denver Republican.

MR. BERLINER

AGAIN AT WORK

Mr. Emile Berliner, inventor of the Yictor talking machine, telephone transmitter, the Gyro motor, etc., who has been working for many years on a direct-lift machine, as has been duly recorded in AERONAUTICS, together with the results of his experiments, has renewed activity on this type of machine. The new apparatus will have one screw turning in a horiontal plane, with a small auxiliary vertical screw to oppose the torque of the lifting screw and prevent the turning of the apparatus about its vertical axis. Means will be provided to so adjust the vertical screw as to exactly compensate for this turning movement.

A NEW WORLD'S

HEIGHT RECORD

On July 14 the German pilot Oelerich created a new world's altitude record by attaining a height since estimated at 8,999 metres, or 26.200 ft., though it was previously reported to be only 7,550 metres, or 24,760 ft. In either event the world's record is well heat en, and is likely to stand at the present figure for a considerable time. The machine on which the feat was accomplished was a D.F.W. biplane of a new type —being of smaller span—driven by a British-built 120 h.p. Beardmore Austrian Daimler.

AERO MART

AERIAL SUPPLIES, MOTORS

AND EQUIPMENT. Bargains in the following material: Two Gibson propellers, 7 and 7J^ ft. diameter by 5 ft. pitch, $25, $30. One set of genuine Wright spread-bars, hangers, thrust bearings and propellers, complete, like new, of-ers. Eight-cylinder, Yee type, 50 h.p. motor, with propeller, tank and shipping crate, a sacrifice. $300. Get Complete catalog of high-grade aerial supplies. American Aviation Co., Chester, Pa.

FOR SALE, on account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M.F 1522 Norwood ave., Toledo, Ohio.

QUICK SALE FOR CASH—Two Curtiss-type double-surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape; can be seen at any time; everything complete; $600 for the two outfits for quick sale. P., care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE — Hatton Tumor's "Astra Castra," the most famous and rarest of all Aviation works. Published in 1S65 at 10 dollars. Magnificently illustrated, large quarto, 527 pages, in splendid condition. Will be sent post-free for 24 dollars.

Remittance to be sent to "Astra," c/o The Editor, "Aeronautics," 170 Fleet St., London (England).

THE CONVERSE AUTOMATIC STABILIZER

In the 324-mile race April 20-22, from San Francisco to Bakersfield, aviator Arthur Rybitzki used an automatic stabilizer invented and patented by If. B. Converse, of Fresno, Calif.

A short circuit made it impossible for the aviator to cut out the stabilizer by the hand switch while in flight or at all, and the manner in which the short was covered with tape show every indication that same had not been touched since originally put on in San Francisco before the llight.

each outer end, these acting on rollers carried by a vertical bar having bearings in brackets which also support the cam shaft, the two bars have arms supporting Hi in. diameter pins (insulated from the arms). These pins depend into the vertical ends of a steel tube set transversely, the lower part of the tube, connecting the two vertical legs of same, is formed in the shape of a cusp (as a means for dampening the oscillation due to momentum).

A horizontal cross tube having a cup in its middle connects the

The aviator was fully dependent on the stabilizer at all time during the remarkable race, in which he finished with honor, a race, including cross flights and hack flights, amounting, it is claimed, to four hundred miles. ,

Within itself, when connected to the ailerons or warpable surfaces, the device is a complete operative unit, depending for operation on the aeroplane's forward motion through the air. The machine, which weighs 10 pounds, consists of a main magnalium frame, having on the forward end, a D. C. generator, 25 watts, 100 to T20 volts. It is driven by a 12 in. dia. 10 in pitch propeller, geared to rear end of generator shaft and operated thereby are a pair of electromagnet friction cone clutches, turning oppositely, the electro-magnets being of the common solenoid type, with stationary coils having a shaft on which is mounted the iron plug armature, within a brass tube, about which is the coil. The friction cones are on the rear end of the two clutch shafts; on the forward ends are the two gear wheels meshing with each other, providing opposite drive. The generator and the two clutch shafts and cones revolve constantly, 4 to 1 .ratio. The driven elements of the two clutches (the cone cups) are geared to a smgle drum, about which are two turns of each of the two aileron cables having their ends attached to lugs on the drum, the other ends passing through suitably located pulleys and being attached to the rear edge of the ailerons.

"The stabilizer has been used very successfully, when connected up using an equalizer means between the ailerons, thus acquiring equal head aileron resistance, and so avoiding turning, or any tendency to turn, about a vertical axis of the aeroplane."

On the rear shaft end of the drum is a worm meshing with a gear on a transverse shaft having a cam at

upper parts of the two vertical legs of the tube; the lower half of the composite tube contains pure mercury, the upper half and the cross tube and cup contain oil.

The pins are adjusted in a position slightly out of contact with the mercury (when level) requiring a tilting angle of about one-half degree to make electrical connection with the mercury (which remains level). From one pole of the generator connection is made to one end of each clutch coil, from the other end of each coil connection is made to the pin on the same side as the clutch connected to; from the steel mercury tube a wire leads to the other pole of the generator.

The function of the above mentioned cams is to lift the pins, withdraw ing same from the mercury, when the clutch is in operation.

The operation of the stabilizer is as follows: In straight ahead flight the mercury remains level. A gust of wind hits one side of the plane, causing the plane to start tilting. When it has tilted to the extent of one-half to one degree, but yet moving slowly (on account of the inertia of the machine) electrical contact is made with the pin on the low side of the plane, throwing in its clutch, operating the drum and cable which pulls down on the lower aileron and upon the other aileron and at the same time lifts the contact pin which is to avoid overdoing the righting effect and oscillation. But as the pin rises at mean velocity it follows that the plane is either tilting faster or slower (generally slower owing to the earliness of contact) than the pin is rising. If the former a long time of contact will result, hence greater aileron pull or angle resulting; but if slower, then the pin quickly lifts away from the mercury, releasing the clutch, which now backs up to neutral position by means of the air pressure against the aileron (or contact on the other pin operating the other clutch in the reverse direc-

tion). It is thus seen that the circuit is broken early enough to allow the ailerons to arrive in neutral position by the time, or before, the plane is level, thus avoiding overbalancing.

In circular flight, the mercury column does not remain level, because the direction of force acting thereon which is a resultant of vertical gravity and lateral centrifugal force is dependent on the ratio between the two. It follows that when the aviator moves the rudder, causing circular flight, the mercury rises in the side farthest from the turning center, causing electric contact, and therefore banking the plane, which will be at right angles to the resultant direction of force.

In flying during windy weather, the wind must be considered in banking for a turn, i. e., in flying into a head-on wind", to turn about to fly with same but a slight bank is proper, while having a v> ind with him and turning about into the w ind a much greater bank is required, to avoid side slipping.

The stahilizer takes care of all of this. The momentum acting on the mercury in turning (in the form of centrifugal force) increases in proportion to the square of the velocity. Of course whether the v ind is ahead or astern, affects the <peed of the aeroplane.

With this stabilizer in operation on a 'plane there is positively no side slip whatever, it is claimed, or overbalancing or over or under banking.

GERMAN COMMERCIAL AIRSHIP LINES LOSE MONEY

Notwithstanding the fact that the receipts amounted to close upon a million marks (about $200,000), the chairman announced at the recent annual meeting of the German Airship Traffic Co. that there was a loss during 1913 of 250,000 marks. This deficit was sufficiently disquieting, but it was trusted that the company would be able to tide over affairs untd the airship industry had developed to the extent anticipated. Passenger trips made by airship during the year had brought in a sum of 540.000 marks, while in the preceding year they had realized 490.000 marks. A sum of over 330,-marks was realized through subventions and profits upon the materials used.

The charge for admissions to the airship sheds, and various other things, brought in a sum of 81,000 marks. This, in itself, was all favorable enough, the chairman said, but the deficit was principally due to the great expenses in connection with maintaining the airships and to other matters. The continual endeavor to improve the ships, in case of war, was another tremendous expense. After prolonged discussion, a premium of 54,000 marks had been arranged with the insurance companies. While the expenses of the upkeep amounted, in 1912. to 416,000 marks, in T913 they were 476.000 marks. The chairman declared that a great improvement in the airship industry was to be expected within the near future, but that things would need to improve considerably before the company would be able to clear expenses.

NAVAL AEROPLANES AT SEA

An invention has been patented plane is launched and embarked in

in England which is designed to such a manner that oscillations ot

supersede present methods for the ship would not be so dangerous,

launching aeroplanes off ships at sea. It may he said by some that it is

There have been many methods desirable to launch hydro-aeroplanes

suggested for this purpose of launch" directly from the snip, when the

ing aeroplanes from ships, and for water is too rough to rise from,

embarking them while at sea. They Even if it is possible to launch them

are as follows: The aeroplane was directly (and this is not at all cer-

intended to alight upon a special tain), it is obvious that some such

platform on the ship, either a per- method as is here suggested will be

manent or temportary structure. It necessary in order to regain the

was also intended to depart there- ship.

from. The objections to this The illustrations show the floating method are many, and quite ob- pontoon with an aeroplane about to vious. (2) the aeroplane was to run be "beached." and then drawn up along a wire rope or be shot off a the bridge to the deck. This bridge rail, and either be picked out of or gangway is hinged both to the the sea by derrick, or to fly under ship and pontoon by detachable a wire rope and catch hold of it by hinges. The sketch shows what means of hooks. This latter is the would happen if the vessel is roll-feat of an acrobat, and is then only ing in a seaway, and provided the possihle if the ship were not oscil- period of roll were made fairly long, la ting, while the former is danger- there would be ample time to take ous and not desirable. (3) The advantage of the level phase to haul aeroplane to be lifted bodily on to the aeroplane on to the deck. The the surface of the water by derricks rollers 111 the way of the floats or the like, from which it would would facilitate hauling up and rise in the ordinary way. This launching with speed, method would be slow and clumsy The whole apparatus could be and would not be good for the aero- stowed away on board when not in plane, and in anything of a sea use. and would fold up and be lifted would be positively dangerous owing on board by derricks.

rfiiii 111:

to the oscillations of the ship. No In the case where the apparatus other method has been suggested yet. is fitted to the stern of a ship, the In the method here descrihed by amplitude of pitching in a sea from C. \Y. Tidcock. in British "Aero- which it is possible to launch aeronautics," the aeroplane or hydro- planes would be slight.

the pld 1 larvard aviation meets, and there, on the bank, the boat was taken off and the land equipment designed by Mr. Burgess put on. One will notice it is very much simpler than the English construction. The whole thing was a grand success from the very start. Webster made a number of flights on the first afternoon. On the following morning he left the ground repeatedly without touching his hands to the levers.

Contrary to the expectations of many, the machine was found to control perfectly on the ground, both arising and alighting. The exchange of land equipment for water equipment lightened the gross weight of the machine by ahout 175 pounds and cut down head resistance, increasing its climbing ability from 200 to over 300 ft. per minute and its speed from 60 to about 63 miles per hour.

After these flights had been completed, five men put on the old boat, and in a 35-mile wind Webster flew back to Marblehead, 17 miles, in nine minutes, which is "going some."

NEW BOOKS

FLIGHT WITHOUT FORMULAE, by Commandant Dnchene; translated from the French by J. H. Ledeboer, editor of British "Aeronautics." Svo. cloth, 211 pip.; illustrated with diagrams and charts. Published by Longmans, Green & Co. $2.25 net. May be supplied through AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th street. New York.

This book treats of the principles of flight and of the problems in the mechanics of the aeroplane in the simplest possible language, and does not contain a single mathematical formula. Here is a book which the great majority should have. There are very few people in this country who have anything like a smattering of technical knowledge, and Jhis book will lay the foundation for a better understanding.

NAVY GETS FIRST

BURGESS-DUNNE

Early in August the first Burgess-Dunne seaplane was delivered to the U. S. Navy on board the cruiser North Carolina, at Newport News. Manager F. H. Russell went dow n there to install it. and flights were made by the different aviators there, and all expressed themselves as enthusiastic over its inherent stability. A nuiuher of other Burgess- Dunnes are now being manufactured, among which might be mentioned one for the L". S. Army, to be powered with \20 h.p Salm-son motor.

The Burgess- Dunne No. 1 ma* chine is being flown daily in and around Marblehead. Thursday, August 6, Mr. Webster, accompanied by Ensign Edwards, U. S. N.. made a very pretty 20-mile flight to Boston harbor, and after encircling the new Navy aviation cruiser North Carolina. landed alongside and moored their craft while taking lunch with their fellow aviators in the service. After lunch they returned to Marblehead by the air route.

1 I

Mr. Webster is almost dailv making flights as far as 42 miles up and down the coast, with passengers, and some interest has been awakened in reconnoitering off shore in connection with movements of the foreign cruisers, which are searching for marine vessels outside the three mile limit.

On July 16 Webster flew the machine to Squantum, to the site of

110-h.p. MOTOR for sale. Specially built, 8 cylinder V, 4^ by 7, w ater cooled, built by Christie Machine Co. for C. K. Hamilton. Flown by him at Belmont and Sacramento. Cost $5,000. Perfect condition, ready to put in 'plane. Can be seen any day. Run not more than 4 hours total in flight. $1,000 cash only. Address Hamilton, c/o AERONAUTICS.

THE ACCESSIBLE CIRCLE

If a vessel starts from point O, in go from O to tn, lie will head in a

calm air, with a speed J', it will direction parallel to Om'T which is

arrive, in the lapse of one second, the apparent trajectory of the ves-

according to the direction taken, at sel, while O'm is its real path. Since

some point on the dotted circum- in a second vessel, under the above

ference (O center, ]' radius). Eut conditions, can only reach points

if the vessel encounters a regular wind of speed r, the circumference (full line) on which it will find itself after one second will be that of radius V drawn from the center O', such that OO' is equal in length (to scale) and direction to the speed v of the wind. If the pilot wishes to

inside the circle with the center O', it is called the accessible citclc. When the circumference of this circle includes the point O', that is P — *' *> Ot the vessel can move in all directions around O, and also to A, i.e., against the wind, it is actually dirigible.

FOX-PHILLIPS SKIMMER

One of the new So h.p. Gyros has hcen installed, with an air screw, on the Fox-Phillips skimpier. The boat is 20 ft. long by 37 in. wide, and has pontoons on either side to keep it from tipping over on making turns.

The skimmer just produced by F. Fox and D. B. Phillips, of Washington, is designed to produce a watercraft with the speed of an automohile. The Gyro So horsepower motor runs the craft at 60 miles per hour, at which speed it draws but an inch of water and the pontoons are well above the surface. The bow does not rise, as in the usual speed boat, the hottom remaining nearly parallel to the surface of the water. Only brief spurts have been made at this speed as yet as the pressure of the water invariably tears away or crushes some part of the sheathing. This is being remedied.

The weight is about 650 lbs., including motor. There is a main hull 20 ft. by 3 ft., with stabilizing pontoons, 6 ft. by 2 ft., one each side at the stern. These are connected with the main hull by wings of streamline section covered with thip spruce. The Gyro motor is mounted on the main bull between the pontoons and drives direct an S ft. 3 in. diam 5 ft- 2 in. pitch propeller at 1.250 r.p.m. For'ard of the motor is the cockpit containing seats for two persons, steering wheel, etc.

The most novel feature is a patented device for maintaining a cushion of air between the hull and the water, the object being to reduce skin friction. This is accom-

plished by the use of wide funnels facing in the direction the boat travels and connecting with large tubes which pass through the hull from top to bottom. At high speeds the great air pressure, aided by the suction of the water past the mouths of the tubes, causes a large volume of air to be discharged under the hull. This is prevented from escaping sideways by runners on each side, extending 2 in. below the bottom. In spite of these runners some air escapes on each side of the mouth of the forward air tube, which is close to the surface, at full speed. The blast of air and spray gives the appearance of a jet of steam escaping from the side of the hull.

AT LAST! WRIGHT, BURGESS, CURTIS, ETC., TAKE NOTICE.

San Francisco, Cal. 335 Leavenworth St., AERONAUTICS. 122 East 25th St., New York City.

Gentlemen: A flying machine, known as the "Helicopter Hydro-Airship," has been invented and patented by a mechanic of this city, by name II. Van Wie, which is a sucessful combination of parachute and planes, insuring safety, lifting power and speed. It is entirely different from present flying machines, and as far superior to all of them as the modern electric train is superior to the old stage coach. It is destined to revolutionize not only methods of flying, but all methods of transportation, and will have a radically revolutionary effect on everything.

You are most cordially invited to investigate.

1. It leaves the ground or water at once. 2. Alights straight down. 3- Has 400 per cent, lifting "and sustaining capacity. 4. Is absolutely non-collapsible. 5. Can remain stationary in the air, with the aid of the helicopter. 6. An average speed of 500 miles per hour is a conservative statement. 7. Passengers, aviators and engines are protected by enclosures. 8. Propeller lias twice the efficiency of the old; two revolve in opposite directions on one shaft; three twin screws provide more tban six times the power of the average aeroplane, with much less resistance. 9. Carries duplicate of everything, including engine. 10. Can be repaired while in flight. 11. has highest efficiency with lowest loss of energy. 12. Has no oscillation. 13. No noise from propellers. 14. No top suction. 15. Is in itself an automatic stabilizer. 16. Can be run by a 12-year-old boy with safety. 17. Can be built any size. 18. Is equipped with all modern conveniences. 19. Is made portable, but need not he shipped, as it can be flown anywhere.

Mr. Van Wie intends to build a 12-passenger. 2-aviator machine. It will take less than three months to build, and cost about $15,000. If you are interested financially, I shall be very glad to hear from you.

Yours truly. E. S. Nelson, Secretary.

Frank H. Burnside. the star Thomas flier, flew in Norristown, Pa.. August 12, 13. U and 15 with great success. lie made some spectacular flights.

George Newberry, who just grad-

uated from the Thomas School, has been flying at Alexandria Bay, N. Y., a hydro-aeroplane. His flights have been very successful and it looks as if he will become a good pilot.

DE LLOYD THOMPSON MAKES NEW ALTITUDE RECORD

De Lloyd Thompson, who has been looping the loop with his Day tractor for some months (illustrated herewith), has recently fitted one of the new Gyro 8o h.p- duplex valve motors, and on August 6 broke

from that time no other propeller has been used on the machine, except when the Paragon was laid up for repairs. The officers say they get about the same results with both propellers, but it is noticeable that the Paragon is the only one they use.

In 1911 we made for the Roberts Motor Co. two propellers, which were exactly alike in every particular,

the American one-man altitude record by reaching a height of 14.350 feet.

Thompson says he was climbing without loss of speed up to 12.000 feet, and from there be had a struggle, lie ran out of gasoline in 40^4 minutes, and was out of sight for 45 minutes.

A description of the new valve mechanism of the latest 80 h.p. Gyro motor was published in the June 15 issue. The Gyro factory is now running day and night, and has on hand enough orders to last the year out.

THE WIDTH OF BLADES

Speaking of the width of propeller blades, it may be of interest to know how narrow they have been made in some recent foreign designs. An 8 ft. 10 in. propeller, developed in the Royal aircraft factory of Great Britain for use on Renault motors, with heavy biplanes, has the following width: 4ft. diameter, 6 1 -8 in. fc-tt fiia -eter, 6 3-16 in.; 8-ft. diameter 3 15-16 in. Two of these propellers were furnished with the Renault-driven navy boat D-2, and there was a great deal of favorable talk about them among the officers, as these propellers were supposed to embody the best results of very extensive experiments at the Royal aircraft factory, both in the laboratory and on the field. The two propellers are set at right angles to each other on the same shaft, so the combination approximates a four-bladed propeller. After this propeller was used a short time, we furnished an SJ^-ft. three-bladed Paragon, and

except that one had a blade about 50 per cent wider than the other. Upon test, they reported no practical difference in speed. The thrust was not taken.

The blade of a propeller must not be considered as an oar or paddle pushing hack ward against the air. 11 does not move broadside, but edgewise through the air, and its angle of attack is very fine. We must consider the air as flowing across the blade from leading to trailing edge, just as it flows across an aeroplane wing, except that the angle of incidence of the blade is very much less. The business of the blade is to so affect the air flowing over that the stream of air will leave the blade at a slight angle from the direction in which the air approaches the blade. The blade has to he wide enough to cause this change in the direction of the air flowing over it, without breaking (he air into turbulent eddies, whirlpools, etc., and without drag-ing any dead air along with the blade as it moves. If the blade is

amount of change in the flow of the air, except that there will be a very slight increase of skin friction, due to the added surface, but this is too small a matter to make any practical difference. It is probahle that nearly all propeller blades are wider than they need to be in order to produce the same amount of change in the direction of flow of the air as it leaves the blade. The average propeller could be cut down considerably in width without affecting appreciably the speed at which it turns; hut if the width is so far reduced that the air flowing over it cannot form in smooth, even lines, but surges around both edges of the blade, its efficiency will he enormously reduced and probably as much or even more power will be required to turn it at a given speed. The aim in propeller design is to secure ample width to insure a smooth flow of air over the face and back of the blade, under the expected condition of power, speed and slip. Any greater width than this may do no serious harm within reasonable limits, but encumbers the machine with unnecessary wood and a little more skin friction in the blade.

Spencer Heath.

JEFFERY GLUE IN

WANAMAKER BOAT

Uammondsport. N. V.,

August 12, '14.

1 W. Ferdinand & Co., Boston, Mass.

Gentlemen: We are pleased to state that your water-proof liquid glue has been used for securing the canvas to all of the Curtiss flying boats. It is also used on the Rodman Wanamaker trans-Atlantic flying boat, "America."

It is perhaps unnecessary to add that in the construction of these

wide enough to produce this change water-flying machines dependence is

of direction of flow, it can do no placed on nothing less than the very

more than this after it has been best materials the market affords, made wider; neither will it con- Yours very truly,

sume any more power for a given (Signed) The Curtiss Aeroplane Co.

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas coveriog of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will lant as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas betweeo veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Bo»ton, Mau. U, S. A.

JiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiimiiiiMMiiininiiiiniin;

Published lemi-monthly in the best interests of Aero* nautics

■v

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

ERNEST L. JONES M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BE1ER,

Editor Technical Editor Model Editor Advertising

Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a Copy.

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries.

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be made for receipt and return.

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS.

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

THE COAST LINE TO

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Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. Line Bteamers in either direction between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland.

Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving detailed description of various trips. Address L. G. Lewis, General f-assenger Agent, Detroit, Mich.

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company

Philip II. McMillan, President. A. A. Schantz, Vice Pres. and Genl. Mgr.

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That is why the Benoist Aircraft Co.,Edson Gallaudet, The Walter E. Johnson School of Aviation, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., L. H. DeRemer, A. D. Smith, Bud Cary, and dozens of others use MAXIMOTORS.

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VELOCITY OF RISE AND LIFTING POWER OF BALLOONS

In the case of rubber pilot bal- walls S in microns (first vertical

loons it is important to be able to column: i micron = o.ooi mm),

tell beforehand the velocity of rise TMe n givcs: Lifting power, in

and lifting power of a balloon of run r

given dimensions; or, conversely, *ra.ms;. of balloon of given weight

to design a balloon for specified an'- thickness of walls, when filled

velocity of rise and lifting power, with hydrogen or with coal gas

Table I gives the following in- (section IV). Tables III and V formation: Diameter of balloon of give: Velocity of ascent in met-rs weight G in grams (first horizontal per second, when filled with hydro-line) and thickness of material of gen or illuminating gas respectively.

S io Mikron

50 26

40 28

30 33

20 40

10 58

SO 40 30

Weight of Spherical Balloon Envelope in Grams 30 40 50 60 80 100 ISO 200

I.—Diameter in Centimeters. 45 5? §8 64 Ji 82

250 30..

70 82 102 ■ 44

81 95

164

92 107 130

100 114 130 160 240

118 130 150 186

260

■30 146 168 210

30 104

111.—

50 40 30

40 30

50 40 30

120

112 I46 190

40 50 58 64

47 58 66 74

58 70 82 92

82 too 118 132

II.—Lifting Power in Grams—Hydrogen.

9 25 42 64 94 155 220 460 740 1050

20 45 76 110 15s 245 355 690 1100 1570

42 86 138 195 270 420 600 1150 1800 2500

96 190 290 410 560 840 1200 2250 3500 4950

310 570 920 1270 1700 2520 3500 7250 9800

Velocity of Ascent in Meters Per Minute—Hydrogen.

120 125 150 165 j 85 200 230 250 270

145 160 175 190 200 225 250 280 290

149 170 190 200 215 235 250 280 310

182 200 220 240 250 270 290

230 260 280 300

IV,—Lifting Power in Grams—Coal Gas.

4 16 25 38 74 115 235 400 590

6 iS 36 54 76 132 195 370 620 910

20 44 76 no 150 240 355 680 1080 1330

55 106 180 25s 320 530 750 1370 2200 3050

192 310 560 810 1020 1640 2300 4200 6500 8950

—Velocity of Ascent in Meters Per Minute—Coal Gas.

82 93 105 127 140 167 188 202

91 112 123 133 151 165 188 210 225

102 125 140 151 162 178 195 220

138 156 175 188 195 212 230 ......

182 198 220 236

140 160 .85 230

1400

2100

285 310

780 1200 2000 3950

215

KILOGRAMS IN ENGLISH POUNDS (AVDP.) AND CWTS.

kg

lbs.

cwts.

kg

lbs.

cwts.

kg

lbs.

cwts.

kg

lbs.

cwts.

,

2,20

0,020

31

68,34

0,610

61

■34,48

1,201

91

200,62

■ ,79I

2

4,41 6,61

0,039

32

70,55

0,630

62

■36,69

1,220

92

202,82

1,811 1,831

3

0,059

33

72,75

0,650

63

138,89

1,240

93

205,03

4

8,82

0,079

34

74,96

0,669

64

141,09

1,260

94

207,23

1,850

5

11,02

0,098

35

77,16

0,689

65

143,30

1,280

95

209,44

1,870

6

13,23

0,Il8

36

79.37

0,709

66

145,51

1,299

96

211,64

1,890

7

■ 5,43

0,138

37

8l,57

0,728

67

■47,71

■,319

97

213.85

1,909

8

■7,64

0,158

38

83,78

0,748

68

■49,91

■,339

98

216,05

1,929

9

19,84

0,177

39

85,98

0,768

69

152,12

■,358

99

218,26

■,949

10

22.05

0.197

40

88,18

0,787

70

154,32

1,378

■ 00

220,46

1,968

11

24,25

0,217

41

90,39

0,807

7i

■56,53

■.398

101

222,67

1,988

12

26,45

0,236

42

92,59

0,827

72

■58,73

■,4i7

■ 02

224,87

2,008

13

28,66

0,256

43

94,80

0,846

73

160,94

■,437

■ 03

227,07

2,028

■4

30,86

0,276

44

97,00

0,866

74

163,14

■.457

104

229,28

2,047

15

33,07

0,295

45

99,21

o,8S6

75

■65,35

■ ,476

■05

231,48

2,067

16

35.27

0,3'5

46

101,41

0,906

76

167,55

1,496

106

233.69

2,087

>7

37,48

0,335

47

103,62

0.925

77

■69,75

1,516

107

235,89

2,106

18

39,68

0,354

48

105,82

0,945

78

171,96

■,535

108

238,19

2,126

'9

41,89

0,374

49

108,03

0,965

79

174,16

1,555

■99

240,30

2,146

20

44,09

0,394

50

110,23

0,984

80

■76,37

■ ,575

110

242,51

2,165

21

46,30

0,413

51

112,44

1,004

81

■78,57

■,594 1,614

in

244,71

2,185

22

48,50

0,433

52

114,64

1,024

82

180,78

112

246,92

2,205

23

50,71

0,453

53

116,84

■,043

83

182,98

1,634

■■3

249,12

2,224

24

52,91

0,472

54

119,05

1,063

84

■85,19

■,634

"4

251,32

2,244

25

55,'2

0,492

55

121,25

1,083

85

187,39

■,673

■■5

253,53

2,264

26

57,32

0,512

56

123.46

1,102

86

189,60

■ ,693

116

255,73

2,283

27

59,52

0,532

57

125,66

1,122

87

191,80

1,713

117

257,94

2", 303

28

6l,73

o,55l

58

127,87

1,142

88

194,01

1,732

118

260,14

2,323

29

63.93

0,571

59

130,07

1,161

89

196,21

1,752

119

262,35

2.342

30

66,14

o,59l

60

132,28

1,181

90

198,41

1,772

120

264,55

2,362

SIGNALING TO AEROPLANES.

In order to communicate signals from a battery to the aeroplanes, the following methods were used by the aitillery at Fort Riley, observers being carried by Lieuts. Milling and Arnold, in Model B Wrights, as reported by the Artillery Board:

"Two strips of canvas, each about two feet wide and fifteen feet long, were laid on the ground, both in rear of the battery, and with pins in each corner to bold them in place on the ground. If these two strips were laid, one in prolongation of the other, pointing toward the front of the battery, it indicated that the battery desired the observer in the aeroplane to reconnoiter for a target in that general direction, and, having found it, he indicated on a card the direction of these strips on the ground and the direction in which the target lay, or signaled the radio to move the strips to the right or left. lie also, when practicable, indicated an approximate estimate of the range. The strips were then laid one across the other in the form of a cross, which indicated to the observer that the battery was about to fire and wished him to observe and report. If it was desired to acknowledge receipt of a signal from the aeroplane, the strips were placed in the form of a letter "T." If it was desired to have a message repeated, the strips were placed in the form of a letter "\Y* If it was desired to recall the aeroplane in order to consult with the observer, the two strips were placed parallel to each other and two or three yards apart. These signals worked perfectly.

"Of the various systems of signals, the radio seems to promise the greatest rapidity. It is believed that this system should he adopted and supplemented by the use of cards in case anything happens which would prevent its operation. The long-hanging antenna seems to he objectionable to the aviator, and it is hoped that some means will be discovered whereby its use will not be necessary. The card system is quite satisfactory, and it is believed that it can always be used where time is not a very important element, as in general it will not be with the character of targets that will be fired at with these methods.

"The Board is of the opinion that the use of observers in aeroplanes in connection with artillery firing at hidden targets is entirely practicable and furnishes means for reaching targets which could not otherwise be touched."

I cwt. (Hundredweight) - 112 lbs.-- 50.89 kg.

According to the Tagliche Rund-schan of Berlin, the German Aeroplane Works at Leipzig have received a commission from the British War Office to deliver IS biplanes, which are to be equipped with Mercedes motors. This Leipzig firm recently won the first prize at a competition test of marine aeroplanes. The Albatross Works at Johanuisthal are at present building for the British Admiralty 12 water biplanes, which will also have 100-borsepower Mercedes motors and must attain a speed of 100 kilometers (62 miles) per hour. The Rundschau adds that Turkey regularly obtains its aeroplanes from the German Rumpler Works, to which the Swiss Government also recently gave a large order.

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED

Send sketch or model for FKKK search of Patent Office record. Write for our Guide Bonks and What to Invent with valuable Lilt of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department.

Copies of Patents in Airships, 10cents each.

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY M«-o«i«~= tz^n.^street^.w.

PATENTS

Frederick W. Barker

Attorney and Expert in

PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS

Cases i>rei>ared and prosecuted 28 Years in Practice with the greatest care and Direct Connections in all thoroughness, to ensure broad Foreign Conntries

scoi>e and validity 115 Broadway, New York

The

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

Sups rio r Train in g

MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS

"■ Address

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway New York

The

Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

AJdr«», Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

PATENTS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY cdCC BOOKS, ADVICE AND SEARCHES r KLL Send sketch or model for search. Higheit References Best Results, Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C.

DON'T wrile us unless

VyJlv 1 you are inter. ested in a reliable, efficient anc1 economical power plant. 7 I-at is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

The Wright Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

r i

4 Cyl., 60 11. P.. 225 lbs. 6 Cyl., 100 H.P......300 lbs.

Special feature is patented one piece copper water jacket. Moving to Larger Quarters.

SPECIAL PRICE FOR LIMITED TIME

4 Cyl., $ 900.00-reduced from $1,400.00 Quick 6 Cyl., 1,200.00—reduced from 2,000.00 Delivery

Herfurth Engine Co., Alexandria, Va.

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pine St.

EMERSON

.ENGINES

NEW TYPE OF MOTOR.

A new type of gasoline motor claiming 300 h.p. for a weight of 220 lbs. was exhibited at the Paris Salon. This is the Demont rotary motor with six cylinders; its chief peculiarity is that it is double acting, having a large diameter cylinder and a large tubular piston rod extending from both sides of the piston and sliding in tubes in both ends of the cylinder, the packing being metallic rings. The piston also is hollow, thus permitting a current of air to pass through the

machine from gusts of wind and changing regime. We do not possess any very exact information on the importance of the dynamical efforts imposed on the apparatus in full flight, and what is usually called the co-efficient of security is a coefficient of a purely static order.

On dirigibles, the knowledge of tensions during flight is not less interesting. It is interesting not only for the materials which compose the suspension and the car, but also the resistance of the material (covering) of the balloon to which the cables are directly suspended. Ac-

are provoked by sudden variations due to shocks.

It is composed of a bar provided with three wheels that are placed on the cable, like that indicated in the figure seen from the side. The central wheel presses through the medium of a stirrup, Dd, on a hydraulic capsule. This sliding stirrup slides on another fixed stirrup, Fd', mounted on the bar. The capsule is connected by a metallic tube to a registering manometer. When the tension of the cable varies, the pressure on the capsule varies equally, and these variations are recorded on the drum of the instrument. The initial position of the central wheel depends on the diameter of the cable, and is regulated at the outset by means of the screw, G, which displaces the vernier, V.

This apparatus, constructed by the Richard firm, is 50 cm. long, and it is a powerful model, capable of measuring a tension of 150 kg. to SU0 kg. It gives good results. The needle of the register instantly obeys the variations of the tension, and shows a variation of about 10 kg. 11 is necessary to fill the capsule well and it must be entirely free from bubbles of air. This is an essential condition.

NEW BOOKS.

FLYING, Some Practical Experiences, by Gustav Hame! and Charles C. Turner. Svo, cloth, 338 pp., handsomely illustrated, published by Longmans, Green & Co., New York, at $3.50 net, postage extra. This is pre eminently a practical book. One finds in it a vast amount of material of invaluable use to experienced fliers, as well as to amateurs and those about to take up flying or purchase machines. Practically a correspondence course is given in the first lessons. Accidents are discussed, their causes and prevention, with illustrations from those of recent history and the probable reasons therefor, and the possibility of tiieir having been avoided. Crosscountry flying is taken up and everything relating to aerial touring considered. Entrants for long-distance contests will find notes for t of

tube and piston for cooling Tne cording to the distribution of the tube is sufficiently large to allow the efforts between these last, the cover-connecting rod, which extends up ing can be subjected to local efforts

rodsV°T^ VCry VarIa-ble; ,capab,.e not on]y of their use which are the produc, w

2p nr. inn 13 t the same compromising the resistance of the the years of extraordinary experience

aTexct" Silify'. eVCn itS ^ °f-'he aUth°r' Hame.. ywhoP is too

the end; each fork is of different r, ;= ;„ PO„„^;all„ „r ,v,:.

width, so that each wider fork em- ,„? Z7 has

been reconstructed, which will be

braces the narrower ones on the crank of the single throw crank shaft.

The inlet and exhaust valves, mechanically operated, are parallel with the motor's axis, the exhaust valves projecting forward, and inlet valves backward from the cylinders. Thus the effect of centrifugal force is avoided.

It is claimed that this construction permits the use of larger cylinders on account of the greater cooling surface, and the closeness of the heated walls to all parts of the charge.

well known as one of the great fliers to need introduction.

Among other subjects are: Choosing a Machine, Different Kinds of

XI

MEASURING THE experimented with equally on aero- Flying, High Flying, Oversea Fly-

TENSION OF STAYS planes. ing and the Hydroaeroplane, the

m-c-TTT t T7T T/-TJT- (Fig. 1)—The machine is built Future of Flying, the Aeroplane in

fUi-L. on the known principle of the bend. War, Wireless. Night Flying, Tho-

On an aeroplane, knowledge of Its peculiarity lies in the property tography, Medical Aspect, etc.

the tension whicb the stays may that it possesses of automatically To go into detail would take too

sustain in the course of flight is registering the variations of the much space, but every reader is

naturally most interesting. It per- tension of the cable, whether these urged to become a purchaser of tbis

mits one to determine the pressure variations are due to the* progres- practical book, which may be had

sustained by the wings and the sive variations due to the efforts e.x- through AERONAUTICS, postpaid,

rate of fatigue of the parts of the erted by the wind or whether they at the same price.

Boland Flying Boat

ONLY TWO CONTROLS SIMPLEST TO OPERATE

BOLAND MOTORS-60,70,100-125 H.P.

Repair and Construction Work in Best Equipped Factor}-

AEROMARINE PLANE & MOTOR CO.

Exclusive manufacturers under Boland Patents AVONDALE, N. J.

Ash m u s e n Aeronautical Engines

NOW READY FOR THE MARKET

60 b. p. and 90 b. p., other lizet to order

Our 60 h.p. 8 cylinder engines have flown Wright's Twin-screw, Curtiss-type and Tractor Biplanes, and Bleriot-type Monoplane. 6 yrs. experimenting and testing on Aeronautical engines alone. We make nothing else.

Good discounts to first buyers in some localities, and on quantity contracts, and to agents.

Agencies Open

Ashmusen Manufacturing Company

-INC.-

Kings Park, Long Island - New Yerk

We

WALTER E. JOHNSON SCHOOL OF AVIATION

UP-TO-DATE METHODS

Summer Season at Lake Conesus, Livonia, N. Y. Winter Season in Florida

Superior Training on Dual Hydro and Flying Boat by competent Pilots, under supervision of W. E. Johnson, endurance record bolder, formerly instructor of The Thomas Brothers School of Aviation. Three years experience as Instructor. Thousands of flights without a hitch!

Write Quickly fur reservation in Summer-class to

The Walter E. Johnson School of Aviation

LIVINGSTON INN. LIVONIA, N. Y.

BALLOONS

Airships, Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs, Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 957" of American and Canadian clubs.

AERONAUT

Madison Sq. Soi UI.NewYork

LEO STEVENS

f LYING

By HAMEL and TURNER

Large Svo., cloth, 338 pp.

$3.50 postpaid

The one best practical non-technical bonk of the year. Recommended to pilots, students, amateurs, prospective purchnsers and the casually interested.

^AERONAUTICS - 250 W. 54th St.. NewYoThj

OLMSTED PROPELLERS

OLMSTED PROPELLERS ARE NOW BEING MADE ON SPECIAL ORDERS BY THE C. M. O. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, INC.

The OLMSTED PROPELLERS were selected after competition for the trans, atlantic flyer "America."

When the "America " flew with ONE POWER PLANT ONLY she was equipped .with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.

When the "America " broke all her previous weight-carrying records and estab-Jished a WORLD'S RECORD she was equipped with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.

In Miami, Witmer increased his speed and added two passengers to the carrying , capacity of his boat, allowing him to make two American records and a world's flying-boat record when he attached an OLMSTED PROPELLER.

Address: C. M. 0. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y.

HI HI HI HI

Correspondence Invited

OLMSTED PROPELLERS

NEW

GYRO DUPLEX

The first and only American revolving cylinder motor.

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAM

Chicago, 111., Aug. 4, 1914. GYRO MOTOR CO..

7 74 Girard St., Washington, D. C. My Gyro eighty a wonder. Climbed twelve thousand feet in nineteen minutes and went over in loop with all kinds of reserve power. Have located sixteen thousand foot barograph and will go after American altitude record in Kansas City tomorrow. If I succeed it will be official. Will write particulars

,aJer- De LLOYD THOMPSON.

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 Girard Street

Washington, D. C.

< BEN0IST «c

Aeroplanes Flying Boats

AIRCRAFT CO.

St. Louis, Ma.

Specie! trades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for modela. Tonka Rattan for Skids \S\ diameter and under any length.

J. DELT0UR, Inc. ^lit^'

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & We»t End Ave., New York City

Abo Manufacturers ol Automobile Radii ton ol til typet

OLD PROPELLERS

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: Don't throw them away. Patronize our Propeller Hospital. If you have a substantial E

E propeller of any make that is poor, useless or inefficient, we can make a good one of it, at i

= small cost, no matter what pitch; we can change the pitch to suit. Sounds impossible, E

z but ' tis true. E

E The three-bladed Paragons used on all Navy Machines give the highest results ever E

E attained Two-bladed Paragons are unequalled. Efficiency, Security, Satisfaction,—are E

z back of the name PARAGON—the mark of first-class equipment. E

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AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg Street, BALTIMORE, MD.


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