Volume 15 - No. 2 - 1914 July
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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XV. No. 2
JULY 31, 1914
Properly oj E. W »- r-!8CHON
Some Competitive Trophies Won in 1913—Wirt
CURTISS 0-X MOTORS
Except by Their Products, the Curtiss Companies were not Directly Represented in Any of These Events
No king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute.
Five hundred thousand passenger miles without one serious accident. Used by six Governments and by private owners nearly everywhere.
THE MACKAY TROPHY, won by
Lieutenants J. E. Carberry and Fred Seydel, U. S. Army; flying 58 miles in 46 minutes.
TIMES AERIAL DERBY, won by
William S. Luckey, flying around Manhattan; 60 miles in 52 minutes.
TIMES AERIAL DERBY, second, Charles F. Niles.
AERO and HYDRO 1,000-mile Cruise Trophy, won by J. B. R. Verplanck and Beckwith Havens; Chicago to Detroit.
MICHIGAN AERO CLUB 1,000-mile Speed Trophy, won by Verplanck and Havens; Chicago to Detroit.
Ask for Our Catalogs
THE CURTISS MOTOR CO.,
21 Lake St., Htmmondsport, N. Y.
CURTISS O-X M°T°RS
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The first and only American revolving cylinder motor.
80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs.
WESTERN UNION TELEGRAM
Chicago, III.. Aug. 4. 1914.
GYRO MOTOR CO..
774 Girard St.. Washington, D. C. My Gyro eighty a wonder. Climbed twelve thousand feet in nineteen minutes and went over in loop with all kinds of reserve pnwer. Have located sixteen thousand foot haro-graph and will go after American altitude record in Kansas City tomorrow. If 1 succeed it will be official. Will write particulars
li,ter' De LLOYD THOMPSON.
THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY
774 Girard Street
Washington, D. C.
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St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida
Thf AVw Henoist Vlyinu Boat in Action
In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.
AEROXAUTICS, July 31. 1914.
A SUGGESTION FOR THE POWER PLANT OF AN
By DAVID L. GALLUP, M.E , Professor of Gas Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute
This paper has tn deal indirectly with the question of power plant in an aeroplane, and lias in reality two objects in view; First, to bring to your attention certain principles and their effect upon the performance of the gasoline engine, and. secondly, to do this in as brief and concise a manner as is possible.
Some of you are aware of the apparatus installed at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute some years ago for the purpose of testing aeroplane propellers, and possibly are acquainted with the results, a few of which were presented in a paper at one of the branch society meeting* last fall; but in order that those who are not familiar with them may appreciate the value and significance of the experiments conducted, a brief resume will be given here. (Report and description of plant and tests was given in AERONAUTICS, July, 1911.)
The main tesUuK plant is located at a lake about nve miles from the institute, and consists principally of a steel boom 85 feet in length, and which is free to rotate about a vertical axis at the center of the boom. At the end of this boom is placed the propeller, which is driven, through a system of gears, by an electric motor located at the center of the boom. The axis of the propeller shaft is at right angles to that of the boom, and is therefore tangent to the circle described by the same.
Rotation of the propeller about its own axis produces a thrust which is available for rotating the boom at any desired speed, and which may be controlled in various ways.
Arrangements have been made whereby the speed of the propeller in r.p.m., the speed of the boom tip in m.p.h., the thrust of the propeller in lbs., and the h.p. delivered to the propeller may be readily determined by instruments suitably placed.
An additional scheme for testing was embodied in the use of an iceboat driven by an aeroplane propeller, and which made possible the obtaining of very high speed in a straight line.
' Many tests have been made with these two forms of apparatus, and on many styles of propellers, with the result that there is on hand some very interesting data concerning the performance oi propellers under conditions similar to those in actual service.
Perhaps the most notable feature which was developed from tests of the average propeller was the drop in thrust as speed through the air increases, and the approach to zero thrust as this continues to increase.
In the type of propeller put out a few years ago, with a pitch of 5 to 7 feet, this drop is very noticeable. In such cases the "standing" thrust is the maximum obtained, and this falls off as flight begins, and in almost direct proportion, until at ordinary speeds through the air the thrust exerted by the propeller is approximately not over half of the maximum obtained when stationary.
Later types of propellers having lar,ge pitches, such as 9 to 12 ft., give a characteristic somewhat different from that just mentioned, in that the maximum thrust is obtained after the aeroplane has begun to move through the air. The speed
at which this is obtained is approximately 10 to 25 m.p.h., after which the thrust falls off as before.
Still other forms of propellers, notably the "variable pitch" type, may be so constructed as to give a fairly uniform thrust throughout what might be termed the working range of speeds, and wkich is. of course, the ideal condition.
Simultaneously with the experiments for obtaining the thrust characteristics of propellers, was obtained data showing the "effectiveness" of the latter at various r.p.m. "Effectiveness" in this case has reference to the til rust in pounds per h.p. necessary to drive the propeller, and is, as can be readily seen, the only proper measure of the value of a propeller.
Time will not permit of going into a tabulation of this data, but a study of the same seems to indicate that a relatively low r.p.m. is more desirable than wbat is now common practice, and which runs from 1,000 to 1 ,S0O r.p.m. Tbese high speeds result in a great deal of energy loss due to the needless churning of the air, and also on account of the fact that the time involved in a half revolution" of the propeller is so small each blade of the latter is brought to do its work in a disturbed atmosphere, all of which naturally tends to reduce the "effectiveness" of a propeller.
The Wright propeller, of large diameter, large pitch and low r.p.m., is an excellent example of a highly effective propeller doing with a small engine practically what some of the larger engines, driving propellers of small diameter, low pitch, at high r.p.m., accomplish.
In the majority of cases, propellers are direct-connected to the crank shaft of the engine, and for the two reasons that transmission through gearing or chains introduces a greater possibility of breakdown, and also since it has always been supposed that high r.p.m. of the propeller was preferable. High r.p.m. naturally goes with the customary type of gasoline engine, and this in turn follows, since it is established that for a given h.p. output a high speed engine weighs less, and hence is an argument for its adoption in aeroplane practice.
The real object of this paper is to endeavor to show that there are manv reasons why these ideas should be abandoned in favor of an engine of the slow-speed type, driving a propeller of large diameter and large pitch.
Taking up the propeller, as before stated, the average high-speed type is working at ordinary flight speeds at greatly reduced "effectiveness," and this can be materially bettered by reducing the r.p.m., or rather hy increasing the pitch to correspond to the reduced r.p.m., in order that the thrust may not be ie«ri-::if d. This w ill give a greater per cent, of efficiency for the whole system, and for the reasons stated in the beginning.
Tui ning now to the engine, an analysis of its performance indicates that, generally speaking, with a given bore the power is proportional to the piston speed. This may be effected by increasing the r.p.m. for a given stroke, or increasing the stroke for a given r.p.m.
A concrete illustration of the pnini it is desired to bring out may be It rm1 in the following. Two engines of identical bcre, but having in >nc case a stroke equal to the bore and in ilie c thcr a stroke equal to twice the bore, with, other things being equal, deliver exactly the same h.p. at a certain r.p.m. for the first, and at half that r.p.m. for the second. Piston speeds and gas speeds are identical in both engines. There are, however, certain differences, and it is on these that the argument depends.
In the short-stroke motor, although the total jacket loss per minute is the same as in the long-stroke motor, the surface exposed to the heat is half as great and the number of times per minute is twice as great, necessitating a much heavier duty per sq. in. of wall surface in the short than in the long-stroke motor. The significance of this is apparent when it is considered that the popular motor for aeroplane purposes is air cooled.
Following this, the number of r.p.m. is in the long-stroke motor being reduced for a given power output, the shocks due to reciprocation are correspondingly less, and this point may be extended to cover iranv of the parts of the engine. The value incident to this is self-evident. Valve breakages, crystallization, valve-spring trouble, loose hearings, etc, are to a large extent reduced, and in some cases entirely eliminated.
The only real disadvantage which can be traced to the adoption of the Inng-stroke motor, of the slow-speed type, is represented by the increased total weight making the weight per h.p. output greater. To just what extent this would be is nut absolutely known, since automobile engineering has not progressed sufficiently for conclusions to be drawn regarding relative weights per h.p. for equivalent designs, since few, if any, exist: but the general opinion seems to prevail that the per cent, increase would be relatively small—say 10. This, of course, is negligible when all factors are taken intn consideration, since all of the preceding statements have attempted to show that much more "effectiveness" per lb. of engine and aeroplane would result if these ideas were adopted.
Briefly, then, the arguments are:
1. Increased effectiveness of propeller ;
2. Increased life of engine.
As both of these have a direct bearing upon the safety of the aviator or his passenger, there should be no further need .for argument, if the data upon which the statements are based is correct.
In conclusion, then, it is stated that the ideal arrangement consists of the long-stroke motor of such dimensions that 700 to 1,000 r.p.m is the speed at which maximum h.p. is developed, and direct connected to this a propeller of such dimensions as to absorb the maximum h.p. at the speed mentioned, and also to give its maximum thrust after flight has begun if of the constant-pitch type.
*l'aper read before the New Haven P. ranch of the American So ciety of Mechanical Engineers, May I.
In 1009 an 1 ntemational Juridic Committee on Aviation was organized at I'aris and with the year igio began publishing the "Revue juri-dique international de la Locomotion aerienne." The committee on January 10. 1910, decided upon the outline of a legal code of the air. The committee itself consists of j urists, lawyers and legal students in principal countries. The national membership forms a national committee acting through a representative executive committee in Paris. This executive committee makes general studies upon a point of law and issues its preliminary decisions to national committees, which report back their opinions. The text decided upon in this way is definitively passed at annual congresses.
The importance of such work is shown by the experiences of the Institute of International Law, whose preliminary studies have been the foundation uf every international law codification in existence. Peyond question the committee's code will be the basis of diplomatic action when time for that is ripe.
The .American committee consists of James 1 Jrown Scott, 2 Jackson Place, Washington, national delegate to executive committee; Charles E. Peach, 95 rue des Petits-Champs, Paris, national reporter; 1 )enys P. Myers. 40 Mt. Vernon Street, Post on, national secretary; Arthur K. Kulin, New York City; Gov. Simeon E. Paid win of Connecticut, George Whitelock of Maryland, William W. Sm it hers of Pennsylvania, Joseph Wheless of Missouri and Ambrose Kennedy of Rhode Island.
Through the procedure above described tlie following text has been decided upon:
Book I. Public Aerial Law.
CHAPThR I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF AERIAL CIRCULATION.
Art. i. Aerial circulation free, except for right of subjacent states to take certain measures with a view to own security and that of persons and property of their inhabitants. Art. 2. It is prohibited to pass above fortified and military works, etc., or neighborhood within a radius determined by the military authorities. Art. 3. Administrative and police authorities regulate or prohibit circulation above built-over areas.
CHAPTER 11. NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION OF AIRCRAFT.
Art. 4. Every aircraft must have one nationality only. Art. 5. Nationality of aircraft that of owner. Tf aircraft belongs to a company, nationality that of headquarters of company. If owners of aircraft are of different nationalities, its nationality will be that of Joint owners who possess two-thirds value. Art. 6. Every aircraft must bear sign indicative of nationality. Art. 7. Every aircraft must carry descriptive document containing information proper to individualize. Art 8. Every owner before putting craft into circulation outside private aerodromes must have obtained from public authorities inscription upon a register of mat riculation kept by proper authority. Each state regulates registration within own terri-
tory. Art. 9. Aircraft must bear distinctive mark indicating place ot registration. Art. 10. Registration lists will be published.
CHAPTER III. LANDING AND ALIGHTING ON WATER.
Art. 11. .Aircraft may land upon unenclosed properties; also alight upon and navigate all waters. Art. 12. Except in the case of "force majeure," this right is prohibited to them: (a) in the boundaries of closed properties; (h) within the boundaries of areas built over, ports and roadsteads, outside of spaces reserved for this purpose; (c) in navigable channels where the difficulty of passage necessitates this prohibition, which must be expressly formulated by the comi>etent authorities. Art. 13. Every aircraft which enters above a prohibited zone is to alight at first signal from competent authorities as soon as possible.
CHAPTER IV. JETTISON.
Arl. 14. Jettison consists in any voluntary throwing overboard of objects. Art. 15. Jettison of all nature to injure persons or property prohibited, except in case of imminent danger. Art. 16. In any case, damage done gives cause for reparation.
CHAPTER V. WRECKS.
Art. 17. Whoever finds all or part of disabled and abandoned aircraft must make declaration thereof to proper authority. Art. 18. Competent authority, when duly advised, will immediately take the measures necessary to assure the preservation of wreck and discovery of owner. Art. 10. < hvner of wreck may reclaim it from the authorities in charge within period of one year from discovery by paying expenses of preserving. In addition he must pay finder premium of discovery calculated on the basis of 10 per cent, of value on the day of restitution, minus expenses.
CHAPTLR VI. LEGISLATION APPL [ CA-P.LE AND JURISDICTION COMPETENT IN RESPECT TO AERIAL LOCOMOTION.
Art. 20. Aircraft which is above the high sea or territory not under the sovereignty of any state is subject to legislation and jurisdiction of country whose nationality it possesses. Art. 21. When an aircraft is above territory of a foreign state, the acts committed and the deeds occurring on hoard, which are of a nature to compromise security or public order of subjacent state, are regulated by the legislation of territorial state and judged by its courts. Art. 22. Reparation for damages caused to the persons and goods above the territory of the subjacent state by an aircraft is regulated by the law of this state. The action for relief may be brought either before the courts of this state or hefore the courts of the state whose nationality the aircraft possesses. Art. 23. Acts committed and deeds occurring in space on hoard an aircraft and which do in it affect the security or the public order of the subjacent state remain subject to the legislation and the jurisdiction of the country whose nationality the aircraft possesses. Art. 24. 7n case of a birth or a death on board during an aerial voyage, the pilot will make record
thereof on the log-book. In the first place where the aircraft shall land the pi bit will have to deposit a copy of the record which he shall have made. The deposit \v il 1 be made as follows: If the place is part of the territory whose nationality the aircraft possesses, to the proper public authority; if the place is situated in foreign territory, in the hands of the consul whose nationality the aircraft possesses. In case there is no consul in this place, the copy of the record will he sent by the pilot by registered mail to the consular authority, or to the competent authority whose nationality the aircraft possesses.
Book II. Private Aerial Law,
TITLE 1. CIVIL. CHAPTER I. PROPERTY ABOVE.
Art. 25. No one may, on account of a property right, hinder the passage of an aircraft under conditions winch do not present for him any appreciable inconvenience. Art. 26. Any abuse of the right of passage gives cause against its responsible author for action for damages.
CHAPTER II. REPARATION FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY AIRCRAFT.
Art. 27. Reparation for damage caused by an aircraft either to persons or goods that are on the surface of the earth falls on the custodian of the aircraft, the right of the i 11 j 11 red person to look to the one responsible at common law being unimpaired. Art. 28. The custodian, held to reparation for the damage done, has a recourse against the responsible author thereof in accordance with the common law. Art. 29. In case the damage should be due wholly or in part to the act of the person injured, the judge shall have the right to pronounce the total or partial exoneration of the custodian. Art. 30. The custodian may bring the exception of "force majeure" as a defense. Art. 31. The provisions of Art 27 are not applicable if, at the moment of the accident, the person injured or the thing damaged were transported by aircraft, or if the person injured was himself occupied in the management of the machine.
The remainder of the code is yet to be worked out.
THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF AERIAL LAW
THE SELLERS QUADROPLANE.
Are we now to have the Ford of the air? An aeroplane which costs little, economical in upkeep and repairs, eliminates the professional driver, cuts shed cost and adapts pleasure flying to the proletariat?
Matthew C. Sellers, whose contributions to AERONAUTICS have been invaluable, has been flying his novel machine at the Aeronautical Society's aerodome at Oak wood 11 eights. St at en Island, during the last of July. Readers are familiar with flights made from time to time during the past six years. The feature of rising automatically from the ground and the wheels automatically raising to land on skids was used hy Mr. Sellers in his gliders in 190$ and since in the power machine, with which he began (lying in 1909. (See patent and drawings in October, 1909. issue.)
of spruce. The curve is ] in 16 and set at 5 degrees, the normal angle of flight, the c. of p. comes about 2/5 from the front edge. The fabric is cotton cloth, coated with Conover varnish. The eanibre is 21/i ins.
The planes are spaced 2 ft. 2 in. vertically apart. They are supported on inclined struts attached to the front spar of each plane, the rear of the wing being supported by pusts from the inclined strut*, these nosts being nearly vertical. The upper wing acts as an elevator, being pivoted on the front spar. The machine is stabilized laterally by depressing either ends of the two upper planes to lift the low sides of the machine, the high side of the planes being left to flatten out by anv increased air pressure.
Control of elevation is effected by
The disposition of the planes in steps is due to wind tunnel experiments made by Mr. Sellers in 1903 and to results obtained with models made at that time and later. The same machine, without an engine, was used as glider in the summer of 190S and in December, 1908, made its first short flight, using a French iHitheil-Chalmers 2 cyl. opposed engine giving about 5 h.p. This engine was used intermittently till the present engine (Hates 2 cyl. opposed, S b.h.p.) was put on and flights made with it in the fall of 1° 10. Since then various improvements have been tried out and experiments made to determine the dimensions of the most efficient propeller fur the conditions. In comparing this machine with others in regard to horsepower it must be remembered that, for simplicity, this propeller is direct connected, and that if geared, greater efficiency woidd be obtained this may be done later on.
The machine in its present form does not emhody the final construction and it is certain that when a full set of double surface wings and a-proper fuselage are used the efficiency will be considerably improved. t Experiments have also been made with the propeller behind on an extension shaft, employing, in that case, a warping vertical rudder.
The machine spreads 18 ft., is 12 ft. total length and about 8 ft. high. There are four supporting planes, 3 ft. bv 18 ft., arranged in steps, the highest in front. These have, in the past, heen single surfaced, but a trial is now heing made with two of these double surfaced. The ribs, in pockets, are 1.5 ft. apart, made
a handle bar which is rotated about its horizontal axis; left and right steering by movement about its vertical axis in the same manner as a bicycle is steered; while lateral stability is maintained by rocking the handle bar in a vertical plane, the bar being universale mounted.
The operator sils on a spring seat, slightly in front of the c. of g. on a level with the skids. The machine runs on 3 wheels, the rear wheel being spring mounted so that as the propeller is started the whole machine is tipped forward, raising the rear of the machine, so that the planes are at a very small angle. As speed over the ground increases, the spring on the rear wheel is extended and the rear of the machine depressed, thereby increasing the angle of the planes and causing the machine to leave the ground without any operation of the elevator plane. When the motor is cut «»lT for landing the two f runt wheels automatically spring up and allow the machine to alight on its skids. The machine stops within about 30 feet.
The weight of the machine complete is about 110 Ins., without gas and oil. The speed is 21 m.p.h. The aviatnr. Mr. Sellers, who weighs 140 lbs-, brings the weight carried up to 250 lbs., which is 31 lbs. per li.h.p. and l'.i lbs. per sq. ft. of surface, the total lifting surface being 200 sq. ft.
The vertical rudder is triangular in shape, with about 7 sq. ft. of surface. There is also a fixed flat surface set at a negative angle of 4 degrees about ml a level with the second plane frrnn the top. This has about S sq. ft. of surface.
In flight, banking fur a turn is done entirely with the rudder. The warping is not used as a rule but is cc.-iMunally used to prevent over-banking._______
EMERSON ENGINES AGAIN MARKETED.
The well known two cycle engine, the Emerson, has been placed on the market again by the Her forth Engine Co., Alexandria. Va. The manufacture of these has been taken u > hy this company and for a limited time, in view of the removal to a larger factory, special prices are qinited $1,200 for the six cylinder, 100 h.p.. and $900 for the four cylinder. 60 h.p., the former prices of the Emerson Engine Co. being ?2.-OdO and $1,400, respectively. Quick deliveries can be made of these.
View of the Sellers Machine with Propeller in the Rear.
The engine is a 2 cyl., 3^ ins. All repair parts can now he fur-by 35£ ins., opposed 4 cycle Pates nished fur those engines now in motor, air cooled, driving a tractor service. It will be remembered that screw 5 ft. 6 ins. diam. by 27 ins. the flights of Tony Jannns in Wash-pitch at 1,350 r.p.m.; standing ington in earlier days made this thrust 90 I lis. The engine is rated engine well known. Jannns is t" at 10 h.p. and tests show it develops this day an exponent of the two S h.p. at 1,350 r.p.m. cycle motor and a user.
THE "AMERICA'S' FLIGHT POSTPONED.
EUROPEANS BATTLE IN THE AIR.
The preliminary trials wit
Rodman YVanamaker transatlantic flying boat America were concluded with two impressive flights. First Glenn II. Curtiss flew the machine with a total useful load of considerable more than a ton. Ile started out with more than 200 gallons of gasoline and one passenger. P.y degrees this load was increased by two more passengers and some four hundred pounds of sand. The weight carried was considered to equal the weight of enough gasoline and oil to fly the America for twenty-four hours. Three 100 h.p. motors were used, the third being placed on the top plane, driving a tractor screw. Lieutenant Porte estimates that the flight from New Pound-land to the Azores will take from seventeen to twenty hours, according to wind conditions.
Next day Lieutenant Porte made the longest flight so far made with the machine. Leaving the flying camp about 7 o'clock he flew to the 1 'cnii Van end of the lake. There a short stop was made, and the return flight may be said to have heen made after dark. On this flight Porte was accompanied by George llallett. the assistant pilot selected for the transatlantic project.
WHY THE POSTPONEMENT. Following these tests Mr. Curtiss, 1 .ieu tenant Porte, and Mr. Cash, personal representative of Mr. Rod-nnn Wanamaker, held a consultation of war to debate the advisability of trying to get the machine in condition to ship to New Foundland on Wednesday. Mr. Curtiss thought it possible the machine could be patched up and crated in time to r:iteli the August 1 boat from New York, but advised enough delay to give him an opportunity to properly rebuild the hot torn of the boat and io incorporate in the rebuilding such modifications as had been suggested In' the series of twenty-seven experiments carried out. Lieutenant Porte did not like the delay because he knew if he failed to catch the boat sailing August 1 he could not get another ship before August S; that would mean arriving at New Foundland August 13 or 14 and it would be at least the 17th or 18th before the machine could be assembled ready for the big adventure. As the period of equinoxial storms begins hetween the 10th and 21)tli of August, and these would prevail until the latter part of September. In other words, if the boat were shipped Friday instead of Wednesday a delav of two months in starting the flight must result. Mr. Cash sided with Mr. Curtiss ami stated emphatically that Mr. Wanamaker would not favor making a start until every possible thing lo insure its ultimate success had been taken care of. Lieutenant Porte finally was won over to the side of the others and the postponement of the attempt until October 1 was announced to the press correspondents.
PRESENT ACTIVITY. Monday the work of taking apart the machine was begun. The hull. somewhat battered hy five weeVs of exposure and rough handling by man mid the elements, was taken to the Curtiss boat shop and will be thoroughly overhauled. The original bottom will be torn out and a new one fitted in its place. Some changes will be made in the form
AIR FLEETS OF THE POWERS.
Paris, August 4.— German army aeroplane reported to have dropped three bombs on the garrison town of Luneville, killing fifteen persons. Three German dirigibles reported maiieouveriiig over Prussels. Numerous aeroplanes from French aviation centers said to he flying over Paris in flotillas of twos, threes and fives toward Germany. German dirigible supposed to have dropped explosive on a French town, annihilating a patrol of troops.
Paris, August 3.—The famous aviator, Roland Garros, cable dispatches state, drove his aeroplane headfirst into a German airship, killing himself and the 25 men of the crew of the ship when the latter ignited and burned from the ramming. _
Prussels. August 6.—German aeroplane ami Zeppelin dirigible reported destroyed by Pelgians. A personal conflict is reported between a Pelgian and a German aviator who fired revolvers at each other and then planed to the earth.
All cabled stories of operations of aircraft in the present European war must be accepted v itb a grain of salt. Very little reliahle news of any kind is coming from the scene of conflict and wierd stories like that of the Garros incident must be discounted until verified. The possibility of an aeroplane being able to accomplish this without being hit hv the airship's guns is most remote, not to mention the unlikelihood of Garros's patriotism being carried to the extent of deliberate personal destruction. His value to his country is greater alive than dead, as an economic proposition.
A few aviators, whose names come to mind, might well be spared for such feats, hut as these are not the kind likely to enlist we will probably be spared the misery of hearing of their sacrifice.
There are no less than 105 airships, from the vedette tvpe to the monster Zeppelin, on hand or under construction by France, Germany,
Russia. England, Japan, Italy, Austria, r.razil, P.elgium, Spain, Pul-garia, Chile and Turkey. The powers now at war have 84 of these. Twenty-six powers have more than 2,048 "aeroplanes on hand. Russia alone has 336 more ordered. The powers now fighting in Europe have not less than 1,575 aeroplanes in service, with a minimum of 3,224 officers and enlisted men on aviation duty. This latter number is certainly far below actuality as no figures on men, non-pilots, attached to aviation are available for four out of these six countries. It is safe to estimate that this figure should he increased by at least 2.500, making 5,724 men on aviation duty. These figure^ do not include, either, men assigned to dirigibles, which would add another thousand to the air forces of the quarreling nations.
France has 22 airships, Germany 20 in service and 20 more to draw on; Russia has. with orders, 22; England 8: Austria 10; Pelgium 2.
The colossal sums invested in preparations for war in the air by the powers now involved in the titanic struggle totals the staggering sum of $1 17,645.000 expended in the six vears up to 1914 Of this, in round figures. Germany has al-readv spent S2S.000.000:' France, S22.000.000: Russia. $12,000,000; Ttalv, $8,000,000: Austria. $5,000,000. 3nd England. $3,000,000.
Public subscriptions. $7,100,000 in all, separate from the above, add $3,500,000 to Germany, $2,50(5,000 to France, $1,000,000 to Ttalv and $100,000 to Russia. Yet this is not all of the hoard being poured into death machines of the air. The appropriations of the governments for 1913 were: France, $7,400,000; Germany, $5,000,000; Russia. $5,000.000: England, $3,000,000: Ttaly, $2,100,000; Tapan, $1,000,000, and Mexico, $400,000, as against $125,000 hy the United States, making additional expenditures of $24,025,000 during the current year. Now that war is on it is probable that the overwhelming appropriation made by Germany of $37,000,000 to be expended during 1914-1S may be drawn upon.
of the bottom; it will be wider all over, a little longer, and considerably flatter at the step. Technically, it will have more flotation and a more efficient nlaning surface. The special C. M. O. propellers will have a new sheathing of metal, better fastened than the original metal cover. It was the tearing loose of the original copper cover, which broke its way through the upper plane, that was largely responsible for the postponement of the start. Two to three weeks will be consumed in the work of reconstructing and refurnishing the machine; then a few test flights wil be made to guarantee the rightness of everything and the machine will be shipped to New Foundland.
Whether or not Lieutenant Porte succeeds in piloting the America safelv across the Atlantic Ocean the development of the machine seems to have been well worth the work expended on it. A series of unique experiments were conducted by Mr. Curtiss working in conjunction with Lieutenant Porte, Captain Creagh Osho'-ne, Dr. A. F. Zahm, Lieutenant Towers and other men of high
standing in this field. The results of the different trials were carefully checked and tabulated, and w ill doubtless prove of great value to the future of hydroaviation.
TRANSATLANTIC FLYER MAY STOP AT FLEMISH CAP.
A transatlantic flight is a mere bagatelle, or ought to be. All the experts have figured it out and it is all verv simple. Take any one of the different advices and the thing is done. Only one little error was made in all the gratuitous offerings and that was the suggestion that stop be made at Flemish Cap, the eastern end of the Newfoundland P.anks. LTiifortunately this piece of "land," which is about 50 miles long hy 25 miles wide, is 58 fathoms under water at the least depth, according to the United States II ydrographic Office, which department, however, may be entirely wrong in its surmise, or perhaps the expert had in mind carrying a demountable submarine.
MEASURING HORSE-POWER IN THE AIR
To measure horsepower in the air, there is yet to be discovered a direct method other than a special rigging. If the propeller be mounted directly on the engine shaft, and the engine bed so mounted as to turn on an axis parallel to tbe engine shaft, the turning moment can then be measured during flight and the power computed from that and the r.p.m. 1 f the propellers are chain driven, idler spockets can be inserted in the chain and its tension measured during flight; or, this could, even be measured directly by having the propeller shafts especially supported, as in a machine like the Wright.
In most cases it would be sufficient to know the revolutions of the engine during^ flight and the power when standing just before a flight. Then by means of the power curve of the engine it would be simple to get a close approximation of the power during the flight. There-would always be the chance that differences of carburetion and cooling between standing and flying would make an error, but if the power curve of the engine had been determined originally with an artificial wind blowing onto the engine, if air cooled, or on the radiator, if water cooled, the error ought not to be so great.
Taking an example, suppose:
1. R.P.M. before flight = 1.150.
2. Par. = o, Therm. = b, just be-
3. R.P.M. during flight = 1,300.
4. Bar. = o, Therm. = /), during
5. Tdock test power curve of motor
is as per diagram.
6. Propeller takes 75 II.P. for 1.200
R.P.M. when Bar. — m, and Thermometer — n.
First correcting for barometer difference a — »i. and thermometer differences b— n we find, let us say, that there is such a correction that it would take 78 II.P. to turn propeller 1,200 R.P.M. on the day of the flight.
Now engine actually turned propeller only 1,150 on day of flight.
Correcting for revolutions (1,200 -1,150) the power of the motor as indicated bv propeller revolutions on day of right is 6S H.P. at 1.150 R. P.M. Now, block test power curve shows 78 H.P. for 1,150 K. P.M. Therefore, engine is 10 II.P. weak on day of flight or about \2l/2 per cent, weak, as compared u ith its showing on the block. Revolution during flight was 1.300. 11.P. according to block test power curve is 84 at 1.300. Deduct l2}/2 per cent, and we have 73 II.P. during flight.
1 n this way a record of revolutions before the flight and during th<* flight, when taken in conjunction w ith the barometer and thermometer will give us the power if we know the characteristics of the motor and propeller made at some previous block test. But we must be sure that propeller has not u arped. This can best be checked hy seeing if standing thrust corresponds to the observed R.P.M. after thermometer and barometer corrections are made.
AT SAN DIEGO.
The return of six aviators and forty-two men from Galveston, Tex., on July 17, to North Island brings the United States Government force up to seventeen officers and ninety-four men at the cainp.
Flying done at S. C. Aviation School, San l)iego. Cab, week ending July 25, 1914: Flights, 58; time in the air, 15 hours 18 minutes; passengers carried, 30.
Summary, January 1 to Tuly 25, 1<M4: Flights, 1,296; time in the air, 349 hours 17 minutes; passengers carried, 635.
For the week ending July II, 1914: Flights. 34; time in the air, 8 'hours 22 minutes; passengers carried, 23
Summary, January 1 to July 11, 1914: Flights, 1.185; time in the air. 322 hours 27y2 minutes; passengers carried, 582.
chine whose speed has been reported as 2 '4 miles in two minutes flat. Certainly this is extraordinary speed for motor boats. Of the sea sled type, with surface propellers, Sturte-vant motors have been supplied. Vincent Astor is one purchaser and the United Stales Navy another. The Navy's sea sled will be used in connection with the air fleet at Pensacola.
AERO SCIENCE CLUB OF AMERICA BULLETIN.
At the recent flying boat contest held hy this club, at Dyker Heights, Brooklyn. N. Y., Mr. Charles V. Obst was the winner with a flight of 18 4/5 seconds, winning the bronze medal offered by Mr. Harry Schultz. As this was the first contest of this kind ever held it proved to be very interesting and was attended by a great number of spectators.
On the last Sunday of August a hydroaeroplane duration contest will be held at Union Course Pond, Woodhaven, L. 1. Mr. Edward Durant and Mr. George Bauer have kindly consented to act as judges to time the flights. No entry fee w ill be charged and all persons interested are cordially invited to attend and enter the contests. The contest will be held between the hours of 2 and 5 p. m.
In order that sufficient time be given to prospective contestants and all other interested persons the club has decided to name all contests two months ahead. Therefore the contest for the month of September will be for speed. The following are the rules adopted for this contest:
All models are to start at a certain line and the first model crossing a mark 800 feet from said line is the winner.
All models are to rise from the ground with the wind.
Models must be in full flight when crossing the finishing line.
This contest will be held on September 20. 1914, at Van Cort-landt Park, New York City.
This contest is expected to he of great help in the development of the model as regards streamlining and reduction of resistance.
This club meets every Saturday it the rooms of the Aeronautical Society, 29 West 3'uh Street, New-York City. All persons interested are invited to attend. For further :nformation address the secretary, Mr. Harry Schultz.
AERO MOTORS FOR SPEED BOATS.
Aeronautical motor manufacturers are finding a new field—purchasers of skimmers and sea sleds. A Gyro motor has been installed in a ma-
Report on European Aeronautical Laboratories, with 11 plates, by Albert F. Zalim. Ph. D., published by Smithsonian 1 nstitution from the Hodgkins Fund. The pamphlet reports the visit of Dr. Zahm and Assistant Naval Constructor Jerome C. Ilunsaker, U. S. N.. to the principal laboratories near London, Paris and Gottingen for the purpose of studying, in behalf of Smithsonian I nstitution, the latest developments in instalments, methods, resources used, etc., for the prosecution of aeronautical researches. Copies of this pamphlet may be had upon application from Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C
HE SIMPLY DOESN'T BELONG
Picking a balloonist for president of tbe aero club is a good deal like picking the propelling power of a jinrickshaw as president of the American Automobile Association.— X. Y. American.
FOR SALE, on account of sickness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Norwood* ave., Toledo, l»hio.
BACK NUMBERS WANTED— December, 1910, and March, 1911, issues of AERONAUTICS (American) wanted. Fifty cents each. Address Secretary, Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, 11 Adam st., Adelphi, London, W. C.
The advent of the flying boat, with its ever increasing popularity and safety's demand for larger and higher powered motors, has made it imperative that the Maximotor makers accede to this demand with the new improved Model "IV 100 h.p., 6 cylinder vertical type.
These improvements are the culmination of months of experimental work achieving toward the objective points. Pow ei. Reliability, and Durability.
In a three hour test, the company states, coupled to a hydro-dynamometer, this motor developed in excess of 111 actual brake h.p. at 1.350 r.p.m.. which is phenomenal for a 5 in. by 5!1> in. six cylinder engine. (The A. L. A. M. rating fur this size is 60 h.p.) I >uring
head. They are machined both inside and out, so as to allow for uniform expansion, and equal weight.
The connecting rods are drop forgings of chrome-nickel steel, double heat treated, and are very light in weight, as. in fact, are all the reciprocating parts.
Some very fine detailing is to be found in the crankshaft design. This is cut out of a solid billet, or slab, of heat-treated cronie-nickel steel imported from Germany. After the shaft is cut. it goes through a machining process which brings it down to within several thousandths of its finished size. The shaft and crankpins are then hollow bored and the v.hole ground and finished to size to within one one-thousandth of an inch.
PARLA TO TEACH CUBAN OFFICERS.
The well known Cuban aviator, August in Pari a, a Curtiss pupil, is to be given charge of instructing officers in the Cuban army in flying and aeronautics generally. Last year Sr. Parla, who at that time was the first and only Cuban aviator, became the hero of the Republic after his flight from Key West to Cnha in a Curtiss hydroaeroplane, and since then be has flown in most of the larger towns of the Island. 1 ] e made some remarkable flights above Santiago on M ay 20 last. Ilis recent book, written in Spanish, entitled "Augnstin Parla y Aviacion en Cuba," tell in a descriptive manner of some of his numerous exploits.
SCHMITT VARIABLE AN-1 GLE MACHINE MAY COME HERE.
It is not unlikely that in the near future a Paul Schmitt variable angle hi plane may be brought to this country. This idea is in contemplation by August Pelmont. who is interested in the machine. Readers are acquainted with the general characteristics of this machine as i puhlished in the April 15 number I and with the scores of new world I records made by Garaix as pilot.
this test the motor consumed 8 gallons of fuel and 7 pints of lubricating oil per hour and showed a throttle range, uitbout skipping, of 350 to 1.400 r.p.m. under load. The weight of the motor complete as it was mounted on the stand was 372 pounds.
Among the numerous improvements to he found on the new Model *'B'* 6 is the improved overhead valve system, with parts strengthened and hearing areas increased: a douhle set of large ball bearings, carrying the propeller end of crank shaft and mounted in a steel disc, housing, instead of aluminum, as heretofore; an arrangement for a double individual magneto ignition system; double force-feed oil pumps; wider wrist-pin hearings: and a strengthened crank case, especially the supporting arms which have heen just doubled in size. Also a compression release device is provided where desired.
The new Maximotors are built of the highest grade of imported English and German materials.
As will be seen from the accompanying cut, the cylinders are of the overhead valve type (all valves mechanically operated hy adjustable push rods), cast in pairs. This arrangement tends to produce a very compact construction, gives the cylinders greater strength for equal weight, and reduces the manifold joints and connections just about one-half in number. The material from which the cylinders are cast is a high grade vanadium composition, containing 30 per cent, steel. Strength and lasting qualities are claimed for the formula, as well as clean, smooth castings free from defect. Pistons, likewise, are cast from the same material as the cylinders and are heavily ribbed in the
Five imported annular ball bearings are employed to carry the crankshaft. The propeller end of the crankshaft is especially rigidly supported by two extra heavy combined radial and thrust ball sets. These heavy duty ball bearings are mounted in a vanadium steel housing which is in turn recessed and bolted to the crank case proper by six nickel steel stud holts.
Lightness is secured in the cam shaft member by utilizing nickel steel tubing of large diameter arid heavy wall. The cams are of special carbon steel tempered and ground and are held in place by taper pins. All the valves are operated by tubular push rods and nickel steel rocker arms from a single cam shaft.
An equalizing intake manifold of cast aluminum is bolted to the cylinder intake ports and a special manifold muffler (shown in the end view of the six cylinder motor illustration) can be fitted for silencing the exhaust.
Tn addition to the "B" 6 and the other stock models, the Maximotor makers are putting on the market as a standard a 125 h.p., eight cylinder, Y-type along general Maximotor lines, the first of which will appear in the very near future.
"SAFE AND SANE" MACHINES FOR ARMY AND NAVY.
The first Purgess-Dunne machine has heen shipped to the United States Navy from the Purgess works at Marhlehead and the one for the Army will be delivered within a few weeks. This Government will be the first to own one of these inherently stable machines and its undoubted success in the Army and the Navy will be watched with interest by all.
The Purgess-Dunne seaplane was recently converted into a land machine and a numher of flights made with it on the old Squantum field near Post on. Flight after flight was made hy Mr. Webster running over the field and leaving the ground , without any guidance whatsoever, the controls being locked. It climbs well over 300 feet per minute and j its balance in the air is finite as ' good as with the boat attachments which were transferred hack onto the machine in just an hour and forty minutes, when the machine was flown to Marhlehead, a distance of 18 miles, in ten minutes—naturally with a strong wind.
JANNUS MAKES GOOD FLIGHT.
Cleveland. July 23.—Tony Jan-iius carried Miss Lilly Trvine from Cedar Point to Euclid Peach, a distance of 60 miles, in his flying boat.
NILES LOOPS THE LOOP FOR CONEY.
Beginning July 2S, Charles F. Niles, in his Moisant monoplane, began a week's exhibition at Coney Island, looping the loop, flying upside down, and so forth, under the auspices of the merchants' association. On one day be dropped a dummy from (he air to the horror of thousands who watched his antics.
I enjoy reading your interesting and instructing paper every month from beginning to end, and look forward to its arrival each time with pleasure. I am very glad to see that you do not intend to have any fake rumors in it, but just the facts, so that all its readers can rely upon it implicitly. I shall always he glad to help you in anyway I can.
W. B. S., Worcester, Mass.
WHAT AMERICAN AVIATION NEEDS.
Support by tbe public.
Support by tbe Government,
Federal control of flying. (For years urged by AERONAUTICS.)
Endowed aeronautical laboratories.
Aeronautical engineering courses in technical colleges.
Scientific construction methods.
lief ore the Committee on Military Affairs last fall Colonel Reber said:
"Congress has not appreciated the importance of or given adequate support to military aviation. On tbe other hand, the great nations of Europe have realized its importance and France has led the world in its utilization. Aviation has appealed more strongly to the imagination and esprit of the French people than to the rest of tbe world. This nation, seeing an opportunity of increasing its military strength over that of its neighbors, who have not been so prompt to realize the utility of aviation, raised large sums of money by popular subscription for the purchase of aviation material for the army and public opinion has forced the government to support and develop the fourth arm of tbe French army. The French and English governments have for the past two years given direct support and encouragement to manufacturers by money awards at military trials, and subsequent orders for the machines winning in the trials.
"Experience, experiment and application of engineering principles have advanced tbe construction of the aeroplane far beyond* the pioneer machines of our chief inventors. Judging, however, from the large mimher of freak machines that are to be seen in the hangars around our aerodromes, there is no general realization that the correct design of an aeroplane calls for a new branch of engineering—aeronautical engineering — which embraces physics, mechanical engineering, meteorology and even marine engineering and naval architecture. It is to be hoped that the day will soon come when the carpenter shop or hackyard will no longer serve as a factory nor the would-be constructor obtain his plans from an octavo volume on 'I low to Build an Aeroplane,' or from the pages of an aeronautical journal. The number of imitators of successful designs is great, but the really competent designer is a 'rara avis' in this country."
We are looking forward to the Government trials in San Diego, w hich are scheduled to be run on or ahout the 1st of October. If the Government does contemplate ordering forty machines from the winner, and prizes for the second and third contestants, we believe it will be a great stimulant to the American manufacturers in this line of business. At the present time we have two of the hest concerns in the United States building special planes for our 100 h.p. motors to enter thf«e tests, and frankly speaking, believe they will be record breakers. If you could have seen the
pile of junk we installed our 100 h.p. in w hich I'd ak ley flew from here to Bakersheld and made such a wonderful record, you would also have great confidence in the wonderful ability and lasting qualities of this large motor.
Most of the aviators have left town to fill dates, hut presume they will return within the month. Wel-don B. Cook is doing nicely in the exhibition business, and believe be will be in a position to purchase one of our large motors to install in his flying boat in which he expects to carry passengers across the Bay.
Glenn L. Martin has just taken delivery of one <>f our new 100 h.p. motors to install in his military hoat which will be tried out shortly in the South-
MAXIMUM PROPELLER SPEED.
On the question w hetber or not there is a known maximum speed or velocity beyond which a propeller blade should not move. Spencer Heath, the manufacturer of Paragon propellers, slates:
"I am convinced that there is such a point and 1 place the maximum velocity of the ends of the blades at something like 40,000 ft. per min. This would make about 2,000 r.p.m. the maximum turning speed for a 6 ft. propeller and it would he pos-sihle to use up advantageously a whole lot of power with a 6 ft. propeller at this speed. There is also a minimum blade lip velocity which I think is around 10,000 or 12,000 ft. per min., which means that a 6 ft. propeller would do poor work at less than 500 or 600 r.p.m."
SELENIUM CELL FOR AUTOMATIC STABILITY.
A recent lecturer on aeronautics, as quoted in your March 31 issue, having declared that "It is essential to the success of any automatic control that the forces called into play to make tbe corrections of trim should not react on the director of those forces, whether this is a pendulum or gyroscope or any other equivalent device."
I write to suggest a means of accomplishing this without any fric-tional contact whatever with the pendulum or gyroscope or combination of the two—namely, the use of selenium, with its wonderful property of being a very good electrical conductor in tbe light and a very poor one in the dark. On the pendulum or gyroscope would be arranged two arcs of about 90 degrees, opaque at their centers and also on opposite halves of each arc, and shaded gradually to transparent at the ends of the other halves, with two steady lights and two selenium cells, one of each on opposite sides of these arcs and in fixed position on the machine, so that when the machine is level (or otherwise balanced, as in proper banking) the lights and selenium cells will he in line with the opaque centers of tbe pendulum's arcs, and so that any variation from tin's balanced position would permit one light or the other to shine through a correspondingly translucent nart of its arc onto its selenium cell, thus regulating the strength of the current flowing through the cell and restoring balance by electrical means when that
side of the machine is too high. Instead of selenium, natural or absolutely pure antimonium sulphide 'antinionite) could he used, having the advantage of "no troublesome inertia." accord in*? lo ev peril" "*e described in a scientific journal of March 2. 1912.
Another method of using a pendulum or gyroscope for balancing a flying machine without disturbing the equilibrium of such a balancer, would be to simply enclose it in a transparent case in front of the aviator, or, rather, together with an upward extension of the pendulum, so that, by the aviator simply moving his lateral-balance lever alw avs in unison with the latter toward the too-high side, balancing might he successfully accomplished even by a novice, as in learning without an accompanying instructor, and this device might also aid aviators not having a well-developed balancing faculty, or "bird sense," or by tbe upper lever extension being made very long it could possibly be made r^ore sensitive to small or incipient disturbance of equilibrium than the best aviators. This would also have an advantage that everv automatic balancing device should possess— that of being instantly suspendable at tbe will of the aviator.
The writer has not patented either of these devices, hut secured a caveat on the first-described one some four years ago, and anyone is privileged to use them.
ELMER G. STILL. Livermore, Cal., July 13, 1914.
BRITISH LABORATORY REPORT
The technical report for 1912-3. the fourth of the series, of the lirit ish Advisory Committee on Aeronautics has just been published. The report summarizes the work undertaken, and detailed particulars are given. The investigations cover general questions in aerodynamics, experiments on wind channels, including description of the new 4*ft. wind channel at the National Physical Lahoratory; experiments on models of wings, bodies, etc.; models of complete aeroplanes; stability, efficiency of propellers, strength of construction; hydroaeroplanes and design of their floats; fabrics, researches on alloys, etc. The volume contains over 400 pp., with many plates, and is published by Wyman & Sons, Fetter Lane, London, E. C.; price, $2.43.
The Chilean Government has established an aviation school near Santiago. Chile, where army and navy officers are being trained with good results. There have been several serious accidents, but only two deaths. It is proposed to fly over the Amies to Argentina, which calls for a sustai ned flight for an hour or more at an altitude of ahout 15,000 feet. The longest flight yet made in Chile was from Concep-cion to Santiago, a distance of about 300 miles. No aeroplanes are manufactured in Chile, those imported practically all coming from Europe.
"SELF - RISING"
MODEL MONOPLANE A. B. C.
The data and drawings of this model have been kindly furnished •«e by its designer and constructor, Mr. A. It. C, of a prominent London model aero club.
The model has been designed especially to withstand hard and continuous wear and is the result of five months* experimenting with various models capable of rising under their own power With a model similar to the on? described Mr. C- won the first "self-ris-
with the best gold size. This proofing is unaffected by weather conditions and is thoroughly air-tight and water-proof.
The elevator is 9 in. by 2y3 in. (max. chord > and is made from 1/30 in. spruce wafer. The tips of the elevator are upturned as shown on sketches 2 and 3. The elevator is mounted on piano wire attachment, which allows a very fine arl just men t of the elevation to be made (see sketch).
Self-Rising Model Aeroplane. ABC. 62.
ing" competition with a flight of 762 ft. The actual distance flown by path was over 1,000 ft. On a fairly calm day the model will attain a height of 80 ft. and finish its flight with a splendid volplane and land gracefully on its wheels.
The fuselage is triangular and is constructed of two pieces of H in. sq. by 32 in. long silver spruce, connected at the rear with a stream-line cross bar. The latter, also the cross-stay, situated midway along the fuselage, are firmly bound to the main members with '4 in. silk ribbon soaked in hot glue; this makes a joint that is almost unbreakable.
The bearings at the rear are composed of the usual *'L" pieces of stiff brass, bound with silk to the ends of the main longitudinals and drilled to take the propeller shafts. Rigidity is given to the fuselage by cross bracing with No. 30 (std. wire ga.) piano wire as shown in plan view. No wire strainers are used, hut tension is given to the trussing wires by curling the hooks to which the wires are fastened (see sketches 2 and 3).
The main plane is rectangular in shape, the span being 25 in. and the chord 5 in. The frame is constructed from birch. The spars are ■H in. by 1/16 in. and the ribs '4 hv 1/16 in. The ribs are hound to the spars with strong cotton and glued This frame is then covered with light Jap silk and is proofed
The main plane is attached to the fuselage with fine iron florist's wire, hut the elevator is fastened to its attachment with rubber bands.
At the apex of the fuselage a continuous piece of 18 s. w. g, piano wire is used for making the
and is made of bamboo. The main central skid is extended forward and upwards at the nose of the model so as to form a protecting skid. Two pairs of wheels are used: one pair 1 '4 in. diam. and the other 1 ^ in. These wheels are tin and come off a cheap toy motor and will be found quite strong enough and very much better and lighter than those of equal strength sold on the market at the present time.
The supporting struts of the chassis are about 5/16 in. by in. and are streamline. They fit into small tin lugs bound to the fuselage. The central skid is \% in. by 1 /16 in. thick and should extend about 5 in. to the rear of the main axles so as to prevent the propeller from touching the ground.
The propellers are carved from solid mahoganv and are 9 in. diam., pitch 20 in. These propellers somewhat resemble a scythe and revolve outwards from the top as viewed from the rear. This shape has proved a great deal more efficient than ordinary helical screws and considerably better than the bent wood screws.
' The power consists of 6 strands of M in. by 1/32 in. strip rubber to each propeller, and about 900 turns can be given to each when well lubricated.
The total weight complete is Al/i oz. The average distance flown is 350 yards, but flights of over J4 mile have been accomplished a number of times.
L. S. L., Jr.
MORANE-SAULNIER — Latest type. Set of detailed working drawings for sale at $200. Sale exclusive. Morane-Saulnier holds best records cross-country and speed flying. Owner of drawings can superintend construction. Address A. F., -ire AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York.
rubber motor hooks. These are covered with cycle valve tubing. The hooks on the propeller shaft are similarly protected. Two collets are used on each propeller shaft to reduce friction at the bearings.
The landing chassis resembles that of the famous "Cody" biplane
JOHN WISE—"History and Practice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, 8vo, ill., 310 pp. steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St., New York.
M. A. Denine, of Spokane, Wash., kindly sends us details of a novel glider, the publication of which he hopes will stimulate gliding sport among the young men.
We find the tail-Ies^ type easier to get off the ground and control than the tail types for the amateur glider-aviator. We have used hotli and find this type the eas;er to learn to control. The very flexible rear edge on the elevator and main planes take up tne shocks of sudden gusts of wind and help the longitudinal balance accordingly. We dc not recommend it as a power machine.
The material consists of two clear spruce planks 20 feet x 12 inches x 1 inch, ash ribs for ailerons, spruce ribs for main planes, one pine board V2 inch x 12 inches x 12 feet, one bicycle frame, wire, 3/j6-inch bolts, shingle nails, galvanized sheet iron, and a few extras will be needed. Cover with unbleached muslin. Use glue for sizing cloth.
Instructions: Rip beams for main planes from spruce planks, crosspieces for planes, outriggers, struts, etc., as per drawing. Make beams streamline except where strut sockets fit. Sockets can be cut from steel tubing as per drawing. Space sockets on beams 4 feet apart; next attach crosspicces. using galvanized iron strips to hold same in place. Ribs go on next; give them a cambre of 4)/> inches; attach each rib with three nails and a strip of galvanized iron, two nails for strip and one through rib. When both planes are made, insert struts in sockets and cross-wire each section with No. 16 piano wire, except center section, in which use heavier or double wire. Next, make outrigging. then elevator, and next skids. Use extra heavy wire in outrigging
above skids and for skid braces. It is better to have a little extra weight than a collapse when landing. It cost mc three weeks' work to learn to use extra heavy wire on the landing gear.
In attaching outrigging. be jure that when the top beams are level the nviin planes have an angle of incidence of 4 inches. Attach skids so that the main planes have the same angle 011 the ground, namely, 4 inches. The glider flies at its ground angle.
Make the extension for the top plane 5 feet x 6 feet 6 inches chord, leaving beams projecting 6 inches on the inside of extensions so that they can be attached to main planes Where ribs overlap rear beam give them a reverse cambre on a steaming board until they reach the position marked " \" in the side elevation drawing. When aitaching warp wires, which must be only attached to the top of the aileron, tighten them until the aileron reaches a point just above the line marked "horizontal line." Your warp wires will now have no slack in them and when one aileron is warped up the spring downward of the opposite one will still keep the warp wires taut. Attach extension with steel clamps. Balance glider with pilot in the seat so that when the glider balances over the center of pressure of the main planes there is a weight of 22 pounds on the point of c. of p. of the elevator.
Gliding: Take glider to a hill, with a gentle slope. Do not use a steep hill, as there is always an air hole at the bottom and the glider will fall to the ground .it that point of its flight. I fell through one of these pockets four times before discovering what caused the glider to suddenly sink. Take the glider up hill a couple of hundred feet, attach ropes at the ends of the lower plane and to the cross-
bar below elevator; have a boy Uke each rope and run down hill. The boy with the elevator rope must leave enough slack in his rope to allow the front end of the glider to rise, but as soon as the glider gets into the air must take up all slack, so as not to allow the head end to rise above the horizontal. Instruct the boys towing the glider to increase their speed as soon as it begins to descend. This is absolutely necessary, as, during the first trials the tendency of the operator is to raise his elevator too far and thus lower his speed, so that the glider begins to settle and unless the boys increase their speed, a heavy landing will result.
Now, as to the operating of the controls. In taking your seat see that all controls work smoothly and be sure to try them and look them over carefully, before each flight. Push the elevator column from you until the elevator is at a negative angle of about two degrees and tell the boys on the ropes to start. If the hill you are experimenting on is sandy or covered with grass the glider will have speed enough to rise with a 30- or 40-foot run. Now pull the control column quickly toward you a couple of inches and return it to its original position again; do this two or three times in as many seconds and then pull the column toward you until the elevator has a slight positive angle, and hold it there. The glider will leave the ground now. As soon as it does decrease the angle of the elevator slightly. This will put the machine at a gliding angle and increase the speed. Try to keep as close to the ground as possible. Under no condition must you hold the elevator in the same position as when leaving the ground ;r increase its angle during the first jump forward; if you do the glider will "stall" and either dive or drop as through an "air hole."
Just before landing bring the elevator control further toward you, and the glider will rise slightly and come down without any shock. After the first few flights vim will hardly know when you landed, the shock will be so slight. The lateral control is by the wheel. Turning it to the right raises the left side of the glider, and vice versa. Do not move the ailerons over 2 inches as they are very sensitive and an over-control will tip the glider further over on the opposite side than it was on the side you originally intended to raise. Let the boys on the ropes attend to your lateral balance until you have thoroughly mastered the elevator control. You will find that is about all you will be able to attend to during the first few flights.
Do not use the rudder unless absolutely necessary. After you have mastered all the controls and feel sure you can manage the machine, remove the rope on the elevator. Next try a flight with the ropes attached to the central uprights and last of all with a releasing gear on the ropes so that they can be dropped during flight.
In free flight a glider built with care, and according to the plans illustrated, flights of from two to four hundred yards can easily be made.
We have many of three hundred yards and one of four hundred, although the conditions that we experimented under were nowhere near the best. An aeroplane has never been
able to get up over 800 feet in Spokane, Wash., on account of the condition of the air there. We have gone u,p in the glider over 70 feet, and if that and our record of four hundred yards cannot be beaten in a lower altitude by some builder of the glider illustrated it will be because it is not built according to the plans.
We will be glad to hear from builders of this glider and will answer any question as to construction and operation of same.—Denine Bros, and Hemingway. 1110 East Indiana Ave., Spokane, Wash.
29 West 39th Street. New York
OFFICIAL BULLETIN. Data Sheets.
The second series uf data sheets has been sent out to members, consisting of nearlv a hundred sheets.
All members in good standing ;tr»■ enntled to these.
These data sheets provide members with information which could be obtained only at great expense by subscribing to every aeronautical publication issued in the world, by buying every book published, by obtaining reports of every laboratory and testing plant, with the attendant expense of translation and time of abstracting.
The data sheets arc issued free to members as fast as they can be prepared.
Membership dues in The Aeronautical Society arc $10 a year, no initiation fee. Members receive data sheets, the magazine, AERONAUTICS, engraved certificate of membership, free monthly lectures. For further information address the Secretary.
Directors' meetings are being held every Thursday evening throughout the summer, as usual. Regular weekly members' meetings are held as~ usual. The monthly lectures have been suspended for the summer season.
Plans are in progress for the perpetuation of the race around New York as inaugurated last Fall, making it an annual event on a par with the great classics of the sporting world.
Notice to Delinquents.
Delinquents in payment of dues are earnestly requested to place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible moment in order that they may receive the official bulletin, AERONAUTICS, . semimonthly, the membership certificates and data sheets.
Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics
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ERNEST L. JONES M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BE1ER,
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Railroad ticketa accepted for transportation on D. & C. Line steamers in either direction between, Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland.
Send two-cent stomp for illustrated pamphtet giving detailed description of various trips. Address L~ G* Lturis, General Passenger Agent, Detroit, Mich.
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The C. E. Conover Co.
101 Franklin Street, New York
Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors
Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs
EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY
64th Si. & Weit End Are., New York City
Abo Maanfactnren of automobile Radiators of all typei
Airships, Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs, Parachute*. Exhibitions furnished with H:illoons Aernplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 95 nf American and Canadian clubs.
Madison Sq. 801 t81,Nei»>ork
By HAMEL and TURNER Large 3voM cloth, 338 pp.
Tlie one best practical non-technical book of the year. Recommended to pilots, students, amateurs, prospective purchasers and the casually interested.
AERONAUTICS-250 W. 54th St.. New York
In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.
AN AEROPLANE SPEEDOMETER.
An aeroplane "speedomoter" in wide use in Europe is the Morell "Anemo-Tacliometer," illustrated herewith. This shows, like any automobile speed indicator, the relative speed of the machine through the air in meters per second, or miles per hour, as preferred. This instrument sells for $68 in this country, duty paid, through Schuchardt & Schutte, 90 West street. New York.
This is a safety device which should go far towards preventing the many accidents due to "stalling," as it will immediately show loss of headway due to reduction in speed. For looping the loop and other "stunts" it will safeguard the pilot hy showing when he lias attained the desired high speed. With it he will determine the lowest speed at which lie can safely fly his machine, which may be necessary in reconnoitering, and thereafter the instrument will serve as a warning when the limit is reached, in gliding, the pilot can mark on the dial his safe l:mit and he guided in future hy tliis.
In throwing bombs, the aim depends principally on keeping a certain uniform speed between sighting tbe object of the aim and the throwing of the bomb, because this space of time has to he ascertained hy means of a stop watch. The Anemo-Tachonieter will allow to ascertain the necessary speed of the machine for this purpose.
In climbing, the speed of the aeroplane, although the revolutions of the propeller remains the same, is decreased according to the climbing angle. If this angle is too great, the speed of tbe machine will drop below the minimum limit, the aeroplane will not answer the rudder any more and drops back. The Anemo-Tacho-meter shows the falling of the speed exactly.
In descending there is added to the speed obtained by the pull of the propeller, the influence of the acceleration of masses. The Anemo-Tacbometer shows the increase'of the
speed occasioned thereby exactly and allows the same to be counteracted by necessary steering movements or shutting down of the motor.
The knowledge of this acceleration is extremely important for gliding. The acceleration of the masses increases according to the gliding angle and the length of glide. On the other hand, if the gliding angle is too flat, the speed of the machine becomes so small that the steering organs do not act any longer. As it is necessary to reduce the final speed of the machine by the corresponding position of the elevator so that a gentle landing on earth is possible, and inasmuch as the gliding angle and the gliding speeds are different for every machine, the constant control of the speed by means of the Anemo-Tachometer is of prime importance, because it will remove a certain insecurity wdiich is the more dangerous the less the pilot has learned through experience just how to manage the machine in such flights.
Not only for the purposes above described, but also for economy of flight, the Morell Tachometer is of importance. An increase in speed often is attained only by an unproportional consumption of gasoline, depending on the form of the propeller and the resistance of the entire aeroplane construction. The most economical speed can be ascertained and retained by means of the Anemo-Tachometer controlling at the same time the revolutions of the propeller by the aeroplane Tachometer "Phylax." It is recommended to also note this speed on the scale in a desirable manner.
Differences between the speed and capacity of the motor can also arise in agitated air when the direction of the flight is changed as compared to the direction of the wind (either with the wind or against it). These differences can become very disagreeable. They are also ascertained instantaneously by comparison of the reading of the motor Tachometer "Phylax" and the Aeroplane Anemo-Tachometer, and can be balanced by steering operations or regulation of the motor.
The Anemo-Tachometer is mounted on the aeroplane so that neither propeller wind or other wind set in motion by the aeroplane has any influence on the action of the Anemo-Tachomoter. Special conditions can always be met by special construction of the Anemo-Tachometer, always keeping the dial on the same level as the eyesight of the pilot.
As a means of conveyance the aeroplane is gaining on the automobile: there are more than two thousand certified aviators in Europe and America to-day and a hundred types of aeroplanes; stability of the flying machine is practically assured by recent patents on both sides of the Atlantic; and who shall say that in ten years more the world will not be flying and the automobile will not seem archaic?—N. Y. "Sun."
I cannot see that AERONAUTICS is in need of any improvements while you continue the drawing and technical talks.—H. L. IV., Charlotte, N. C.
We like your magazine and will surely continue reading same as long as it is as high grade as it is.—• F. B., Missouri.
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WALTER E. JOHNSON SCHOOL OF AVIATION
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for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies Very complete catalog free on request
Wading RiverMfg. Co.
Wading River, N. Y.
ALL AERO BOOKS FOR SALE BY
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Built in Four Sizes from 50-150 H. P.
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1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E.
OLMSTED PROPELLERS ARE NOW BEING MADE ON SPECIAL ORDERS BY THE C. M. O. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, INC.
The OLMSTED PROPELLERS were selected after competition for the transatlantic flyer "America."
When the "America " flew with ONE POWER PLANT ONLY she was equipped .with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.
When the "America " broke all her previous weight-carrying records and established a WORLD'S RECORD she was equipped with OLMSTED PROPELLERS.
In Miami, Witmer increased his speed and added two passengers to the carrying , capacity of his boat, allowing him to make two American records and a world's flying-boat record when he attached an OLMSTED PROPELLER.
Address: C. M. 0. PHYSICAL LABORATORY, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y.
Officers of the army qualifying as military aviators will receive in addition to a military aviator's certificate a military aviator's badge. This badge will be worn in the manner and on the occasions prescribed in General Orders. The military aviator's badge becomes the property of the person to whom it is issued.
There are in Germany more than a dozen aeroplane factories with an aggregate capital of about $350,000 (as compared with about 20 factories in France, 6 in England and 5 in Austria), as well as several special factories for aeronautical motors and three or four substantial plants for the manufacture of airships.
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VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY M«»°'f»«
724-726 NINTH STREET,N. W. WASHINGTON. D. C.
C. L. PARKER
Bi.«»b<i Bx.n.tnin< Corp., U. 8. P.t.ol Otll.. Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of PaUoti American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection oi the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McCill Bld8. WASHINGTON. D. C.
SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION
Superior Training MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS
Sloane Aeroplane Co.
1733 Broadway New York
The Thomas School
OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES
Addreii. Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.
We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS
John A. Roebling's Sons Co.
TRENTON, N. J.
THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrp BOOKS. ADVICE AND SEARCHES r IXHd
Send sketch or model for search. Higheit References Best Re*ulu. Promptness Assured.
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THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES
For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.
The Wright Company
DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pino St.
4 Cyl., 60 H. P......22S lbs. 6 Cyl.. 100 H. P......300 lbs.
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4 Cyl., $ 900.00— formerly $1,400.00 Quick 6 Cyl., 1,200.00—formerly 2,000.00 Delivery
Herflirth Engine Co., Alexandria, Va.
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