Aeronautics

Volume 14 - No. 11 - 1914 June

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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JUNE 15, 1914

15 Cents

WITH WHICH IS COMBINED <S

Official Organ and Bulletin — Aero Club of Pennsylvania The Aeronautical Society

Are you tied to good roads with a motor car? Or shackled to smooth water with a put-put? Why not cleave the air faster than the birds, free from rough waves or rutty roads in a

Property of

e. w. rorjschon

Curtiss Flying Boat

NO king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute. :: :: ::

FIVE hundred thousand passenger miles without one serious accident. Used by-six Governments and by private owners nearly everywhere. ::

During- the past three years Curtiss Water Flying Machines in the

U. S. and foreign navies have flown hundreds of thousands of miles without accident. The confidence engendered by this record must be reflected by the work of our navy fliers in Mexico.

After using them for thousands of miles of flight, Curtiss Flying Boats have the endorsement of Mr. Harold F. McCormick, Commodore Wm. E. Scripps, Mr. J. B. R. Verplanck, Mr. Gerald Hanley, Mr. William Thaw, Mr. Logan A. Vilas, Mr. William A. Dean, Mr. Barton L. Peck, Mr. Raymund V. Morris, and many others.

One Demonstration Will Convince the Most Skeptical

Write us for illustrated litera' ture or to arrange for a demonstration flight. DO IT BEFORE IT IS TOO LATE.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Co.

21 LAKE STREET HAMMONDSPORT, N.Y.

The International Hydro-Aeroplane Race

held at Monte Carlo in April was the usual

Bosch Victory

of course

C. H. Pixton piloting a Sopwith hydro-aeroplane powered with a Bosch-Equipt Gnome motor covered the 150 knot course in two hours and thirteen seconds. Every record is a Bosch Record, too.

Be Satisfied Specify Bosch Correspondence Invited

Bosch Magneto Company

201 West 46th Street : New York

TESTS ON EYE-BOLTS

The following table was compiled from tests carried out at East London College (University of London) on eye-bolts used in aeroplane construction, by W. G. Mann, BSC, and J. Brimelow, BSC., and presented to the Research Committee of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. The bolts were of the shape shown in the figure and were tested by inserting as large a pin as possible through the eye. All the fractures occurred at the bottom of

TABLE OF RESULTS.

@4f

FORM OF EYE BOLT TESTED

the thread. The eyes were not distorted except in case of the largest.

Length of bolt Diameter in in inches. inches.

Breaking load, lbs.

4* 4 4

3 3

2l/2

■365 •245 -'45 .242 .242 .246

2V2 .246

2 .17

2 .17

*There were two specimens this size. When as large a wire as possible was through the hole it sheared. The hole was enlarged slightly —to ^4-inch diameter—and a 54-inch rod used. Again the latter sheared, but the hole was noticed to have elongated.

AERIAL PROPELLER EXPERIMENTS"

AT THE AEROTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS

By M. B. SELLERS

I give here some results obtained in tests of aerial propellers, made by means of the "chariot dynamo-metrique." These experiments were made by Ch. Maurin and A. Tous-saint, and are described in Part III of the Bulletin of the Institute Aerotechnique of the University of Paris.

The propellers were mounted on a car fitted with an electric motor for rotating the propellers, and with instruments for recording the thrust, torque, propeller rotations and speed of car. The car was run on a straight track and driven by the propeller thrust. For a detailed description of the apparatus and method of experiment, 1 refer to this Bulletin.

Each propeller was first tested standing (i. e., at a fixed point), and the curves representing the thrust and power, as function of the number of turns, constructed. Afterwards, the measurements were made for the propeller while advancing, viz., the speed of advance, number of turns per second, the thrust and the power delivered to the shaft. Then the thrust ratios (i. e., thrust advancing over thrust standing), and power ratios were calculated, all for a constant speed of rotation. Also, the efficiency, denned as the power exerted by the propeller over the power delivered to its shaft. Next the curves were plotted for these, taking for abscissas, where V

is speed of advance; n, number of turns, and D diameter of propeller.

It was found that the values for the

if ,.

power-ratio „-0 , corresponding to

the highest speeds of rotation, were slightly higher than those corresponding to the lowest speeds; while the efficiency values were slightly lower for the highest speeds than for the low speeds. However, these three ratios cm, in a first approximation, be considered functions

of-^. nl>

Owing to the conditions of the experiments, the v ints corresponding to the higher values of ■—— are nl>

less accurately determined than for the lower values.

Each propeller is defined by its projection on a plane perpendicular to its axis; and by a certain number of sections. For each is given a table of results at fixed points, and the values a, b, and // of Re-nard; a may be called the unit thrust— that is, the thrust for a propeller of unit diameter, rotating at unit speed, and having the same pitch ratio (not pitch). Similarly, b is the unit work in kilogrammeters per second. The quality q does not seem to be of much importance.

The pitch is given for the five sections shown, determined from the slope of the chord and the circumference at the section (the usual method). What 1 call the virtual pitch, viz., the speed of advance at which there is no thrust divided by

the number of turns C — for f) (>).

u

is also given. Because of the rounded back of the blades, this value is al ways higher than the measured pitch.

The curves in the first diagram give the thrust So and power iru at a fixed point, plotted on the number of turns per minute. The other diagram gives three curves, all plotted on —L. ; one for the

thrust ratio

nD

being the ratio of

the thrust under the conditions ]' and it. to the standing thrust, for the same number of turns per second; one for the power ration

" o '

and one for the efficiency, P -'

75 ir

The results of eight propeller tests are given in the Bulletin, but 1 shall give four here and later comment on the others.

It is a pity that a set of propellers, varying in only one characteristic, was not made and tested: for instance, having the same diameter, pitch, etc., but varying in profile. The propellers tested vary in diameter, pitch, form and prifile, and no conclusions can be drawn with certainty.

The meaning of the letters used is as follows:

I' Speed of advance in meters per second.

V . Number of turns per minute. ii Number of turns per second. D — Diameter of propeller in inches. /',-, — Work delivered to shaft in kilogrammeters p. s. standing.

Bo Thrust standing. 0 — Thrust advancing. u-(l Work in h.p. delivered to

shaft, standing, ii- Work in h p. d< livered to shaft,

•\ Ivancing. i) Efficiency.

Charts or Propeller No. 11, Torque Table and Chart will be printed in ihe next issue.

Table of Results at Fixed Point

N

n

<->o

en kgs

GTft

en chevaui

en kgms par scconde

 

8 = -^ 1 n3D5

00

a

P

600

10

39,6

   

0,0143

 

660

11

48,2

6,1

457

 

144

0,00541

7,90

2,65

720

12

57,1

8,05

60 i

 

144

551

7,!0

2,60

780

13

67,4

10,4

780

 

144

570

6,49

2,53

840

14

78,2

13,2

992

 

144

570

5,93

2,53

900

15

90,4

16,3

1.221

 

145

570

5,55

2,54

960

16

103,7

19,8

1.486

 

146

573

5,23

2,54

1 020

17

118,6

24

1.800

 

148

576

4,95

2,56

1.080

18

13!,3

29

2.175

 

151

587

4,56

2,57

1.140

19

152,:;

:g

2.625

 

152

603

4,36

2,52

1.200

20

170

12, i

3.150

 

153

621

4,04

2,46

1.260

21'

188

48,4

3.630

 

154

617

3,89

2,50

1.320

22

207

56

4.200

 

154

620

3,70

2,49

     

a? 4

0,01503

4

     
   

</- =

^r.U,08 o.OOSS-

jr. 0,08

= 1,60.

   

PITCH FOKTtfZ F'VE SECr/OtfS; {".,03

 

- lm,09 -

- 1°>,18 — i»

,28 — lm

32.

     

y

Valoe of - for &

= 0, im,40.

   
                           
                         

/

                       

/

 
                     

/

/

 
                     

/

   
                   

/

   

a:

                 

/

   

/

 
               

/

/

   

/

 
             

/

/

   

/

   
                   

/

     
                           
                           

~m iaa ~sob 6» jm Ton jw itco two mo 'lioe 7w*>

Thrust and Power at Fixed Point

           

a

             
                           
           

k

   

\

       
         

s

               
       

/

/

   

\

 

\

     
     

/

/

         

\

     
   

/

/

         

\

\

\

   
                   

\

A

   
 

/

                 

\\

   

/

                   

\

   

Thrust, Power and Efficiency whUe Advancing

co

Table of Results at Fixed Point

N

n

©0

en kgs

ET0

en chevaux

Pn en kgms par seconde

©0

3 = —

©n a0

a P

6G0 720 780 810 900 9G0 1.020 1.080 1.140 1.2O0 1.260 \ 1.300

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

21,66

42

52

62

72,5

Hi

95,5 109 124 138 152,5 167,5 178

6,8 9

11,3

13,8 17

20,75

25

29,5

34,8

41,8

50,5

56,5

510 676 848 1.035 1.276 1.500 1.870 2.210 2.010 3.14« 3.790 4.240

0,0165 171 174 176 178 178 i80 182 182 182 181 181

0,00850 868 856 837 840 844 843 843 8.3 870 908 924

6,18 5,78 5,49 5,26 4,95 4,60 4,37 4,27 3,97 3,65 3,31 3,15

1,94-

1,97

2,03

2,10

2,12

2,11

2,13

2,15

2,15

2,10

o

T,96

     

a.3 4

0,01813 4

: 1,31.

   
   

q —

' (J* * . 0,08

0,0085-

r.. 0,08

   

Fitch for the fug

jecnoNS : HIn,434

— 1»,495 -

- 1»,48 - 1

-,46 — 1«

°,545.

     

Value d

- lor. 0 = 0: 1»,6I.

71

   

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AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City Also Manufacturers oi Automobile Radiators of all types

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Clue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality (line for waterproofing the canvas covering of flving boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for ute, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mats. U. S. A.

DID LANGLEY FLY?

The report in AERONAUTICS of last issue stating flight had heen made with the original Langley machine has been questioned. The only proof to offer is the picture printed herewith, taken at some distance away, and the machine is stated by an eye-witness to be four or five feet above the water. Thus far the machine has made ''four short getaways."

propellers turning at 900 revolutions per minute.

A record of the performance of the engines was made every fifteen minutes, and during the entire thirty hours their respective speeds seldom varied more than five revolutions per minute. Temperature, water evaporation, oil and gasoline consumption were carefully checked every fifteen minutes day and night. At the end of the thirty hours' run both engines were again speeded up

This cam is now in "duplex" forni, one side operating the main exhaust, the other the slide intake mechanism is, C; the latter is attached to the outside of the cylinder about 2 inches above the_ end of the power stroke and is readily detachable.

At this point there are provided the usual Gyro auxiliary ports A, through which the main pressure of the nearly spent stroke exhausts itself, thereby reducing the pressure necessary for opening the main exhaust valve.

The machine was weighed by Dr. Zahm just before one of the trials, and found to tip the scale at 1,170 lbs., while the original machine weighed 850 lbs. The difference is due to the pontoons and to fie fact that the wings are quite a bit heavier than the orignal ones, owing to cross ribs being made of laminated wood instead of hollow-box type. The original cross ribs weighed only one ounce per foot, while laminated ones weigh about 16 times as much. The moter is stated to have run 200 r.p. m. slower than in the original trials on the Potomac. Charles M. Manly, who designed and built the engine, has been at Ilammondsport and has made some adjustments which he believes will result in getting the full power.

TRANSATLANTIC

ENGINES RUN

THIRTY HOURS.

HAMMOND SPORT, N. Y., June 10.—So far as the motors are concerned the Trans-Atlantic flight is as good as accomplished. At one o'clock this afternoon the two Cur-tiss engines to be used in the Rodman Wanamaker Trans-Atlantic flier completed a test run of thirty hours, having fulfilled every requirement in speed, power, durability and fuel consumption.

So far _ as was _ possible the expected flying conditions during the Trans-Atlantic flight were duplicated in every particular. The motors were started at seven o'clock Tuesday morning, mounted side by side, swinging duplicate propellers at the speed estimated as being required for raising the heavily loaded machine at the start of the big flight. For four hours the motors rail at an even speed of 1,250 revolutions per minute. Estimating that after four hours enough fuel will have been consumed to permit a slower flying speed, the motors were, then set back to 1,200 revolutions per minute. At intervals of approximately four_ hours the speed was reduced during the day to a minimum of 1,000 revolutions per minute, which was the slowest speed at which they were operated, though it is estimated the Wanamaker-Curtiss machine will fly with the

to the maximum of 1,250 r. p. m., at which they started the long run. In the test room men kept constant watch during the entire run, in a roar that in a few minutes proved deafening to casual visitors, but which seemed not to affect those on the job.

The total consumption of gasoline during the thirty hours of continuous running was 2S8yi gallons; the consumption of oil was 10^5 gallons. As Lieut. Porte expects to be in the air not more than twenty hours, he has at least a large margin of safety in carrying this weight of fuel and oil, though the big YA'anamaker-Curtiss machine^ is designed to carry a load considerably in excess of that indicated by the test as being necessary.

This pair of Curtiss O-X motors are similar to those used in the navy's hydroaeroplanes at Vera Cruz, the one used last summer by Verplanck and Havens in the 1,000-mile flight from Chicago to Detroit, and that used by Lieut. Car-berry, U. S. A., in winning the Mackay military trophy at San Diego. Others of the same type are used in the aviation corps of six foreign navies.

After a thorough overhauling these will be installed in the Rod-man-Wanamaker flier, which is rapidly being made ready for its trial flights over Lake Keuka. Among those present during parts of the thirtv-hour test were Commander William Macdougal, U._ S. N.; Dr. A. F. Zahnof the Smithsonian Institution; Lieut. Porte, R. N.; representatives of the press and many casual visitors.

NEW GYRO MOTOR.

The Gyro Motor Co. is now marketing a slide valve intake motor of So h.p., weighing, with pumps, fuel inspirators, magneto and tachometer, 225 lbs.

The inside of the motor is bare of all accessories save the pistons P, the connecting rods R and the crankshaft. In this respect it resembles the ordinary reciprocating motor.

The main exhaust valve D remains on the top of the cylinder and is operated by rod and cam.

Outside of these ports is a cage I> in which a small hollow slide C moves with a stroke of about half-inch, y to z; this stroke depends upon the shape of another cam, forming a twin to the main exhaust cam.

The operation is as follows: When the power stroke reaches the auxiliary ports A the gases escape and relieve the pressure in the cylinder. The piston continues 2 inches to the end of the stroke and then returns for scavenging the burnt rases out through the main exhaust D; the piston then moves down for the intake.

The exhaust D remains open until just before the piston on its intake stroke reaches the auxiliary ports A. In the meantime the small intake slide C has moved outwards to z and the auxiliary port A is now connected through the cage B to a gas conduit filled with fresh mixture. The main exhaust has closed and the piston moves 2 inches further and sucks the gases into the cylinder. The intake slide C then returns to its original position while the piston moves outwards in the compression stroke.

This new Gyro retains the prominent features of its predecessors, the cam which can be set for any degree of compression for throttling and changing power, and the oil shield which deflects the oil to where it is needed and largely prevents deposits on valves.

A popular magazine figures the death roll in six years as 446, including a few who are still alive. Another magazine says that in 12 years of climbing the Central Alps 1,220 people have lost their lives at this gentle art. And yet they sav aviation is hazardous.

From LA CONQUETE DE L'AIR Brussels, Belgium Five or six months ago MM. Breguet, of Paris, acquired a license for France of a system invented by an American, Mr. Means, and they have not delayed In applying it to their biplanes. Underneath one finds a reservoir of lamp blaek of a capacity of 20 litres. There is also a reservoir of compressed air which is kept filled by a small air pump. A tube connects the two tanks. In this tube is a valve which is operated by the observer. A pull of one second makes a dot—a pull of three seconds makes a dash. Thus is the Morse code revealed against the sky.

From L'ILLUSTRATION, Paris An American engineer. Mi'. Means, has invented for the service, of military scouting on board aeroplanes a system of optical telegraphy of remarkable simplicity. The signals Morse are 6hown against the sky with lamp black.

FOR LICEXSE APPLY TO

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196 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

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THE NEW WRIGHT AEROBOAT TYPE "G"

By GROVER CLEVELAND LOENING

The new Wright "Aeroboat," like practically all the Wright aeroplanes, is driven by two propellers, a feature which is claimed to be even more advantageous on a craft of this type than on a land machine. Complete protection of the lateral propellers has been obtained^ by so mounting them that their tips are auove the rear of the lower surface,

ihe propellers in this machine, however, are turned in a direction opposite to that customary in the older types of Wright aeroplanes,, a feature which has greatly added to the practical elimination of dis turbing entcis in stability due to high tnrust. I5y using two propellers instead ot one, there is no tendency for the machine to keep turning one way, due to the torque, which makes flying much easier and more comfortable.

In addition to this, there is present in all single-propeller machines a gyroscopic effect, which tends to make the machine dive when suddenly turned to one side and tends to make it stall when suddenly turned to the other. _ Among novices, this characteristic has doubtless caused many accidents in stalling, particularly on tractor machines driven by a rotary motor, which tend to stall when turned to the right.

The Wright Aeroboat type "G" belongs to the class of three-pontoon marine aeroplanes, the center pontoon or hull furnishing most of the flotation. No special hydroplane paddles, however, are attached to the auxiliary end pontoons, as their use has been found unnecessary.

Even more so than in former practice, the center hull is exceedingly boat-like in appearance, and is virtually a water-tight pontoon, the motor, seats and other parts being placed entirely above the deck which seals the top of the pontoon. At the same time the sides of the hull are carried above this watertight deck to the height of the wings, and form an enclosed body for the motor and seats, protecting them very effectively from spray and waves.

The motor is situated in the front, motor-car fashion, and the seats, side by side, are back of the motor and situated at the center of the wings. At the rear of the main wings are the two propellers, and beyond these the rudders, which are carried on a tail frame from thej center section.

Under the seats and above the-step of the hydroplane pontoon are large air tubes, which pass from the deck through the bottom of the hull. These tubes serve not only to ventilate the step, but drain the cockpit, in which the seats are located, of any water shipped in had weather.

The hull is constructed of ash and spruce framing of enormous strength, with some of the keels as great as 4 sq. in. in cross section, the entire framing being covered with a thick metal sheeting, carefully treated for preservation against the deteriorating action of salt water. The neat dashboard back of the engine, the comfortable rubber matting floor, and the leather upholstered seats are similar in ap-

storage of anchor and anchor ron and other marine equipment, ai| back of the seats is a conveniei place for tools, etc. Engine, trail' mission, planes, boat, seats and co trols are all very accessible.

In tests of the Navy aerobosJ made at Toledo recently, the pa] senger carried was able quite easi to open up the engine hatches, e amine the engine and make mimi adjustments while in flight. It \vou(

 

-""1

 

j

' -ij

 
   

1----ti----

!-----!>.----

 
   

___H____

 

i.....

 
   
   

rrearmlce to that of high-class, motor cars.

The stream line hoods over the engine and around the seats are built stronger than usual, of a combination of metal and double planking of wood covered with canvas.

Directly in front of the engine is a large space, which is used for the

even be possible to replace spar plugs while the machine is in oper tion in tlie air.

The boat hull itself is 19 ft. Ion and at its widest has a beam of A in. The height of the hull is suc| as to give clearance to the tips the wings of 3^/2 ft. above the watcj surface when hydroplaning, whic) gives splendid rough-sea qualitii and makes the possibility of catc! 111 a wing in rough water qui J remote. Over the engine the met, covering is made in the form < two large hatches, which slide i| and out. When removed, the.j hatches give access to the engiil for one or two persons, and whel closed serve as a practical watej tight covering.

The wings are 38 ft. span, 6 f chord, with a gap of 5 ft. The mai carrying surface is 430 sq. ft. Tl interior construction of the wind themselves, like most other detai in t''e machine, have been improve o\i.." previous practice. The ribs ail

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Technical Editor of "Flight"

popular technical work of interest to the general student If) well as to the man who is in aviation as a profession. To |e amateur builder of aeroplanes in the United States it wtil |e of Incalculable benefit.

Chapters include: L'hat an Aeroplane Is; Instruct!veness of Paper Models; [onstrnctional Features of the Modern Aeroplane; Equilib-luni in the Air; Lateral Balance; Steering: Longitudinal lability; Principles of Propulsion; Concerning Resistance; pie Cambered Wing; Work of Lilienthal, Wrights, Volsln, trman, Dunne and Weiss; British Military Trials of 1912; lydroaeroplanes; Accidents; Romance and Early History: bunding of the Science of Flight; Invention of the Glider hd Pioneers; History and Appendices containing numerical Kimples, application of laws, etc.

Chronology of

Compiled by William J. Hammer and Hudson Maxim

and printed through

the liberality of Patrick Y. Alexander

Nowhere else does there exist such a complete and accurate record of the development of this Art, and it represents an enormous amount of labor. Much of these data has never been published elsewhere.

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A RRANGE your vacation or business trip to include our /-\ palatial lake steamers. Every detail that counts for your convenience and comfort has been provided.

Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland, and Detroit and_ Buffalo. Day trips between^ Detroit and Cleveland during July and August. Four trips weekly from Toledo and Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Special Steamer Cleveland to Mackinac Island two trips weekly June 25th to September 10th, making no stops enroute except at Detroit every trip. Daily service between Toledo and Put-in-Bay June 10th to September 10th.

Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. Line steamers in either direction between Detroit and Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland.

Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet giving detailed description of various trips. Address L. C. Lewis, General Passenger Agent, Detroit, Mich.

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company

Philip H. McMillan, President. A. A. Schantz, Vice Pres. and Genl.

uade solid of I-beam shape, and lie spars are increased in depth, me thickness of the wing being liuch greater than has previously |een employed. The wings are cov-»red with a special grade of linen, |-eated with a water-proof prepara-lon developed by the Wright Com-|any. The struts, stream line form, pre of ample cross section, and the mportant sustaining wires through-\ut the craft are doubled, there fcav-hg been introduced an entire du-llicate system for the main warping ['ires as well.

A new type of joint has been [dopted for connecting the wires o the struts and planes. These bints consist simply of a hook-liaped plate of great strength, into •rhich the eye of the wire fits. This las permitted of the entire elimina-|ion of the bolts and pins ordinarily mployed.

The finest special steel wire is ised throughout, and turn-buckles l.nd other joints apt to become oosened have heen almost entirely |liminated. As an engineering structure, the wing cell of type "G" is

unit of remarkable strength and lightness, and throughout there has [een employed a much larger safety actor than usual.

The wings are not divided at the (enter, as is customary, the spars at Hie boat being continuous from one |fing to the other.

The control of the wings and rud-lers in the new type is duplicate, Lnd provision has been made for Mounting either the customary jVright lever control or the new iVright wheel control ("described in \ERONAUTICS for March :5).

The rudders of the Wright aero-)oat are novel in form and power-ul in size (22 sq. ft.). The verti-al twin rudders are pivoted on two iteel tubes, which form the rear

strut of the tail frame supporting the rudders and work in unison.

The elevator, of the new Wright inherent stability type, is carried very high, being attached to the top of the rectangular tail frame above the two rudders. This feature has greatly added to the natural tendency in the balance of the machine to overcome the high thrust of the propellers. The elevator in type "G" is 16 ft. span and has a total area of 53 sq. ft. The construction of both the elevator and the rudders is similar to that of tlfe wings, and ample bracing has been provided to avoid vibration.

The transmission on the new Wright aeroboat has introduced many refined engineering problems, in which the experience of the Wrights for so many years in this kind of work has resulted in a remarkably successful drive. The propellers are 8 ft. 6 in. in diameter and rotate approximately at 580 r.p. m. They are driven by chains from the central drive shaft, one of the chains being crossed. The shafts are so distanced by guides and radius rods as to permit of easy alignment.

The central drive shaft, passing under the seat, drives the propellers from the engine situated in front. At the front end there is mounted the new Wright shock-absorbing drive, a feature new to aviation, which is an application of the highest engineering principles and is a step 111 the progress of aeroplane construction that has considerable significance. This shaft carries at its end a steel cone, upon which are mounted pins. (In the flywheel of the engine similar pins are mounted, and connection between these and the pins on the shaft is made by eight shock absorbers. The shaft cone is free to ro-

tate in relation to the flywheel, but the two are restrained by the shock absorbers, these being the only direct connection between the engine and the transmission. As a consequence, the power of the engine is entirely transmitted to the rest of the machine by these shock absorbers. The introduction of this elastic element has not only enabled the weight necessary in the transmission to resist the severe strains of the engine to be greatly reduced, but has greatly lengthened its life.

This, however, is equally true with reference to all other steel parts of the aeroplane, which, by the introduction of this shock-absorbing element, are relieved of the constant vibration which tends to crystalize steel parts, thereby greatly increasing the safety factor of the machine.

It may in addition be remarked that by this arrangement there is obtained entire freedom in the placing of the motor and the propellers, and the ideal system of having the motor in front and the propellers in the rear has been rendered exceedingly simple and practical.

The weight of the entire aeroboat empty is 1,300 pounds, a record in construction in machines of this size and strength. The motor is a six-cylinder 60-li.p. Wright.

The speed range of the machine is in the neighborhood of 40 to 60 miles an hour, and splendid climbing ability has been shown. On many occasions three people have been lifted with ease, and the scores of passenger flights that Harry N. Atwood has already made with his aeroboat, as well as his splendid trips from Toledo to Detroit, have proved the worth of the new type.

Mr. Atwood's aeroboat was the second of this type to be delivered, the first one having been constructed for the United States Navy.

47

WRIGHT LICENSES USERS

The Wright Company makes public, through AERONAUTICS, its Iirst announcement relative to the granting of licenses to users of machines.

The company says to flyers of infringing machines: "If you desire to avail yourself of this opportunity to make your machine usable under authority of the Wright patent, please fill out the accompanying blank, sign the license agreement enclosed, and mail both to The Wright Co., Dayton, O.. on or before July i st next, together with certified check, postoffice or express money order for $1,000," upon the acceptance of which license will he executed and plate sent for attachment to machine.

As stated in the last issue (page 147), this $1,000 fee covers the calendar year only, and there is to be paid $25 for each day that the "machine is operated, used or exhibited for or in prospect of profit, prize or reward." The licensee must keep an accurate record of all exhibitions, flights or contests in which the machine may participate, which shall be at all times open to inspection of The Wright Co., and agrees to render the said sompany each month a sworn statement concerning the number of flights, together with the amounts due. The Wright Co. furnishes a metal plate for attachment. The grantor holds the right to cancel the agreement forthwith in case of violation.

These terms do not apply to Americans _ importing _ foreign machines, foreigners bringing in foreign machines or to schools of aviation, for which special agreements will be drawn.

CHANGE OF OWNERSHIP.

Orville Wright is understood to have purchased the stock of The Wright Company from the original owners, under a purchase arrangement made at the time the company was formed. The sale back to Mr. Wright has been confirmed, and the price is stated unofficially to be around 40, at which price the _ investors doubled their money,_ besides receiving three yearly dividends totaling some 23 per cent. The directors who have sold their stock are Cornelius Vanderbilt, August Belmont, Andrew Freedman, Morton F. Plant, Russell A. Alger, Edward J. Berwynd, Pliny W. Wiliamson, Henry S. Hooker and Theodore P. Shouts.

This new arrangement leaves Mr. Wright free to conduct the company according to the dictates of his own mind, without having to consider in any way the interests of other stockholders.

WALTER JOHNSON

STARTS SCHOOL

Walter E. Johnson, with C. A. Herrmann, has incorporated the Walter E. Johnson School of Aviation, at Livonia, N. Y., with $10,000 capital stock. A school for water flying machines will be conducted at Conesus Lake, where passenger carrying has been done since Decoration Day. All teaching will he done over water, with a hydroplane, dual control, and a flying boat, both Thomas machines. Mr. Johnson is assisted by Mr. Winneriy, one of his last year grads.

Johnson has made a most creditable name for himself in the past

years as a consistent and conservative flyer. He made a new American two-man endurance record of 3 hrs. 51 min., on Oct. 31, 1912.

Those entering at the new school will be sure of the best attention.

"TONY" JANNUS

LAUNCHES BUSINESS

"Tony" Jannus, whose letterhead reads "Pioneer Flying Boat Pilot of the World," has located himself in business at 1419 Columbus avenue, Sandusky, O., as a specialist in water flying. While not filling water "dates," he will be carrying passengers. Night flying and discharging fireworks from the flying boat are features. He is open for contracts for exhibition flying or ferry and passenger work. The boat will carry three.

Jannus is one of the best in the business, and is universally liked and honored. His greatest feats were his flights from Omaha to New Orleans, some 1,973 miles, and from Paducah to St. Louis, 251 miles, all oyer water. Jannus has made all his successes with the 2-cycle motor, and is a strong adherent of that type. Those who saw the race around .Manhattan last year will remember the flight made by Jannus, and this alone would be sufficient proof of his ability.

BROCK WINS DERBY.

London, June 6.—An American, Walter L. Brock, who recently visited America, his native country, and who spoke at the Aeronautical Society's dinner in March, won the Aerial Derby, an annual race around London, total 94^ miles. He used an 80-h.p. Morane monoplane. His time was 1 :18 '.04.

MERRILL MACHINE HAS NO ELEVATOR.

A. A. Merrill, whose articles in AERONAUTICS on lateral stability have created a considerable discussion, has been experimenting with a tractor biplane with no tail, the flying being done by Roy Waite. It is claimed that the machine will rise or glide at a safe angle simply by speeding or throttling the motor. There is no fived tail or horizontal rudder. The experiments have not as yet included the Merrill lateral stability system with which readers are familiar.

MILITARY FLYING.

During the past two weeks, ending May 30, at the Signal Corps .Aviation School, San Diego, there were made 76 flights, totaling 21 hours, 50 minutes, in which 38 passengers were carried.

For the five months ending May 30, 1,112 flights were made, with a total of 300 hours, 51^2 minutes, in which 541 passengers were carried.

Both machines ordered by Car-ranza from the Moisant International Aviators have now been delivered. Final tests have been made at I Iannnondsport on the military tractor built for the army.

WORLD RACE SCHEDULE.

Announcement has been made by the Panama-Pacific International Exposition of the date for the aviation meet and the start of the around the world race in 1015. May 8 to

18, 1915, has been set aside for thos events. The start of the race itse will be preceded by a week of inte national aviation for prizes totalin $25,000, offered by the Expositioi This amount is entirely separat from the prize of $150,000 offere by the Exposition to the winners t the world race. The first three daj of this meet are to be devoted to th customary aerial sports, and the la: four days are to be devoted to mil tary maneuvers in conjunction wit the United States troops and the it ternational military forces represen ing the various countries at the E; position; also acting in conjunctio with these will be the vessels froi the fleet of battleships. These event are open to every type of aeri; craft.

.Arnold Kruckman, Chief of tl: Bureau of Aeronautics of the Pai ama-Paciric International Expositioi left San Francisco, May 28th, for h trip around the world over the roul of the race, going to Labrador froi Chicago by the Canadian Rout, which is being considered as an a ternative route for the flight, follo\ ing the St. Lawrence River in pre erence to going by way of_Ne York. The change suggested is b ing considered on account of i feasibility and safety^

General Castillo. Cuban Commi sioner to the Exposition, has at nounced that his country will entt at lease two fliers in the Round tb World Race. Captain J. II. Wo» den, aviator with the Mexican Fe< eral Army, has been proposed by tl city of Dallas, Texas, as the pih for the aeroplane "Dallas," whic they desire to have represent th; city in the race. The Chamber c Commerce of Dallas has agreed t hack their flier to the extent c $25,000.

STURTEVANT 100.

The new 100-h.p. aeronautical mi tor is the only one being manufai tured at the present time by th B. F. Sturtevant Co. It has bee found that there is little market fc the 6o-h.p. and So-h.p. sizes forme) ly built, and consequently thes have been discontinued.

The too is a 4-cylinder motoi 4J/2-inch bore by 6-inch stroke, d< veloping its power at 900 r.p.m. Th weight is 400 lbs., with all accessc ries, but without water, oil or fuel.

AMERICAN HYDROPLANES IN EUROPEI

The Ottoman Ministry of Marin has lately taken under consideratioi the advisability of purchasing on or more Curtiss hydroplanes or flyini boats. One of these machines, ii charge of an American pilot and ; business manager, has lately madil several private trial flights near Con stantinople with complete success.— U. S. Consular Report.

IN MEMORIAM Wilbur Wright Born April 16, 1867—

Died May 30, 19121

I find Aeronautics so interesting that I ean't lose a number of it, a: it contains more within its littlt pages than any other magazine oi| larger size on aviation.—V. M. Z.j New Jersey.

Send sketch or model for FREE search of Patent Office record. Write for our guide books and what to invent with valuable list of invention! wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in aeronautics and have a special aeronautical department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10cents each.

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY ^-o"1^^istngtcstc1"-w-

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED

PATENTS PATENTS

c. L. parker

ex-member examining corpi, u. s. p«l«nt offioe attorney-at-law and solicitor of patent*

{american and foreign patents secured promptly and ith special regard to the complete legal protection of lie invention. handbook for inventors sent upon request. I mcgill bid*. washington. d. c.

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* you are interested in a reliable, efficient andeconomical power plant. tfat is the only kind we ,*v build. four sizes.

Reasonable Prices

kemp machine works

muncie, ind.

The

sloane school of aviation

Superior Training monoplanes and flying-boats

-Address-

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway New York

The Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

address, thomas bros. aeroplane co. BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

frederick w. barker

attorney and expert in patents, trade marks and designs

Cases prepared and prosecuted 28 years in practice with the greatest care and direct connections in all tltorouuhness, to ensure broad foreign countries

scope and validit/j 115 broadway, new york

PATENTS

that protect and pay cqi717

books, advice and searches r kll

send sketch or model for search. highest references best results. promptness assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 624 f street, n. w. washington, d. c.

INVENTORS' MODELS

Constructed of any material

estimates made from drawings. low prices.

H. C. BROWN, Machinist 54 park avenue -:- brooklyn, n. y.

the

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the new wright aeroplanes

for sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

the wright company

dayton, ohio new york ollice: ii pioe st.

please mention this magazine.

29 West 39th Street, New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN.

At the general meeting of the Aeronautical Society, June nth, Leo Kronau, director of the Austrian Airship Co., aided by Captain W. Irving Chambers, delivered an absorbing talk on "Progress in Dirigibles Abroad," with lantern slides and motion pictures were also shown of Pegoud "looping the loop" close to the ground, flying upside down and performing other feats which he instituted and made famous. Mr. Kronau is in this country in the interest of the Mannsbarth system of semi-rigid dirigibles.

William Dubilier, R. S. a., a. I. E. E., lectured on "Wireless _ in Connection with Aeronautics," using lantern slides and demonstrating his new system of wireless with which he has been experimenting in England on the British Army aeroplanes. These papers will be printed in aeronautics. The sanp evening the annual meeting was held and the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, t. R. MacMechen; ist Vice President, Frederick W. Barker; 2nd Vice President, Win. J. Hammer; 3rd Vice President, E. D. Anderson; 4th Vice President, C. W. Howell, Jr.; 5th Vice President, Louis R. Adams; Treasurer, Lewis R. Compton; Secretary, Ernest L. Jones.

By vote of the members, the words "of America" were added to the title of the society. Mr. MacMechen took office and conducted the meeting, making a short speech of acceptance, in which he urged the nationalization of the society in its special field.

There will be no lectures during the summer season, but meetings will be held as usual every Thursday evening, to which all members are invited.

Directors' meetings will be held every Thursday throughout the summer.

A new set of data sheets will shortly be ready for distribution to members. At the same time each will receive some 20 or more data sheets compiled by manufacturers of staple products.

GRAVITATION

The heaviest matter, so physicists say.

Is surely predestined to drop, And so I suggest, if I modestly may:

Don't you want something light at the top?

— Van, N. Y. Tribune.

Is there anything more certain than a tragedy of the aviator who makes a habit of using the aeroplane as a conveyance?—From the N. Y. Sun.

I'nder the auspices of the Aero Science Club of America, the first inter-city model aeroplane flying contest was held at Rugby Park. Brooklyn, N. Y., on Decoration Day, May 30th.

The first contest was for models launched from the hand, and proved to he a very exciting affair because of the very high winds prevailing and general bad condition of the weather. Later in the day the wind moderated and the flights generally improved.

This contest was the greatest held in the eastern states in some years, and was very attractive. Many of the flyers came from out of town to tttend it.

Among those present was Mr. William T. Dean, one of England's greatest model fleyrs, who. however, had the misfortune to break his models in the preliminary tests, which greatly handicapped his flights. Others present were Armour Selley, former world's record holder; Harry Herzog, whose model looped the loop five times in succession, and J. R. Stone of Paterson, X. J., whose models made wonderfully high flights.

The results follow:

Hand Launched Model Contest: Bamberger, 107 seconds; R. Fui 843-5 seconds; F. Watkins, 72 s onds; G. Freeland, 67 3-5 seconc a. K. Barker, 67 seconds; F. Broc field, 572-5 seconds; \V. Bamberg 57 seconds; C. V. Ohst, 50 seconc Vv'm. P. Dean, 36 1-5 seconds.

Rising from the Ground Conte Fred. Watkins, 75 2-5 seconds; Bamberger, 70 seconds; Ha. Schultz, 53 1-5 seconds; A. K. B ker, 51 2-5 seconds; G. a. Ca uagh, 51 seconds; L. Bamberg 43 2-5 seconds; W. P. Dean, 27 s onds.

The judges of the contest w< Edward Durant of the Aeronauti Society and E. II. Unkles of 1 Aeronautical Bureau. The pri: were offered by Henry Woodhou editor of flying, and Francis Collins, author of "The Boys' Be of Model Aeroplanes."

Moving pictures were taken of 1 last contest at Rugby Park, Bro lyn, N. Y., by the Universal F: Company of New York, and they ; No. 117 in the Animated Weel Series.

Club meetings are held every S urday evening in the rooms of 1 Aeronautical Society, 29 West 31 Street, New York City. Dues, $3 a year, including a year's subset tion to aeronautic, which is • club organ. Branches may be tahlished in any city. For full p ticulars address Harry Schultz, S retary, at this address.

This club controls model flyi in America. No records recogni; unless certified by the club.

The next contest will be for flyi boats for duration, on Sunday, Ji 12, 1914. The machines must be of the flying boat type. Pri< and place of contest will be ; nounced in a future bulletin.

aero mart

JOHN WISE—"Historv and Practice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, Svo, ill.. 310 pp. steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th st., New York.

QUICK SALE FOR CASH—Two Curtiss-type double-surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape; can be seen at any time; everything complete: $600 for the two outfits for quick sale. B., care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE — Ilatton Tumor's "Astra Castra." the most famous and rarest of all Aviation works. Published in 1865 at 10 dollars. Magnificently illustrated, large quarto, 527 pages, in splendid condition. Will be sent post-free for 24 dollars.

Remittance to be sent to "Astra," c/o The Editor, "Aeronautics," 170 Fleet St.. London (England).

no-h.p. MOTOR for sale. Specially built, 8 cylinder V. 4$i by 7, water cooled, built by Christie Ma-rhine Co. for C. K. Hamilton. Flown by him at Belmont and Sacramento. Cost $5,000. Perfect condition, ready to put in 'plane. Can be seen any day. Run not more than 4 hours total in flight. $1,000 cash only. Address Hamilton, c/o AERONAUTICS.

MORANE-SAULNIER — Laf type. Set of detailed working dra ings for sale at $200. Sale exc sive. Morane-Saulnier holds bc| records cross-country and speed i' ing. Owner of drawings can sup* intend construction. Address A. 1 care AERONAUTICS, 250 V 54th St., New York.

FOR SALE—Our last year's inon planes and biplanes; very cheap f cash, or trade for anything of valu, I'". M., 1522 Norwood ave., Toled Ohio.

MODEL AERO QUARTERLY 8-12 pages, illustrated; if you a really interested in model aeroplan vou should subscribe to-day; all ti latest news for only 15c year (Ca ada, 20c). Wm. Hewitt. 111 ]/2 Durham, Philadelphia, Pa.

GAS BALLOON FOR SALE-

New, 40.000 cu. ft., just nnishej

$300. E. Jorgensen, 1831 Belmc ave., Chicago, 111.

I enjoy reading your interestir and instructing paper every monl from beginning to end, and loc forward to its arrival each tin with pleasure. I am very glad ; sec that you do not intend to ha\ any fake rumors in it, but just tl facts, so that all its readers can rel upon it implicitly. I shall alwaj be glad to help you in anyway can.

W. B. S., Worcester, Mass.

< benoist «c

aircraft company

st. louis, missouri or st. petersburg, florida

The New Benoist Flying Boat in Action

so hp. fyrh motop so hp.

160 pounds vi 1 ivKJ LllVJ 1 VJ iv 207 pound:

207 pounds

Endurance Flying Record

to Date 4hrs., 23min.

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

send for catalog

the gyro motor company, 774 girard street, washington, d. c.

the navy boats at vera cruz

are equipped with

PARAGON PROPELLERS

Send for Photographs of Latest Designs

the three-bladed paragons used by the navy aviators give the highest results ever attained. the two-bladed paragons are unequalled. efficiency, security, satisfaction—are back of the name paragon—the mark of first-class equipment.

the american propeller co., 243-249 e. hamburg st., baltimore,md.

7631�0

The Walter E, Johnson School of Aviatio

Summer Season at Lake Conesus Livonia, N. Y.

UP-TO-DATE METHODS

Winter Seas I in Florida

Superior Training on Dual Hydro and Flying Boat by compete Pilots, under supervision ofW. E.Johnson, endurance record hold*

formerly instructor of The ThonW Brothers School of Aviation. Thr|| years experience as instruct^ Thousands of flights withol a hitch!

Write guielly for reservation Summer-class to

9"

WALTER E. JOHNSd SCHOOL of AVIATII

Livingston Inn, Livonia, N.

supporters.

90-100 H. P. MAX1MOTOR being successfully tested for brake horse-power, developing 110 actual brake horse-power, at 1300 revolutions. Weighing 370 pounds complete with Magneto, Carburetor and Propeller Coupling.

There will be a new 8-cylinder "V" type 120 H. P. motor addition to the MAXIMOTOR family.

^C^mER^ Watch for the development.

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE, E. Catalog on request


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