Aeronautics

Volume 14 - No. 10 - 1914 May

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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I Are you tied to good roads with a motor car?

Or shackled to smooth water with a put-put? I Why not cleave the air faster than the birds, free from

rough waves or rutty roads in a

Properly of

Lurtiss r lying boat

NO king ever enjoyed such sport as this. Four to five hundred miles without pause, at a speed of more than a mile a minute. :: :: ::

FIVE hundred thousand passenger miles without one serious accident. Used by six Governments and by private owners nearly everywhere. ::

During the past three years Curtiss Water Flying Machines in the

J. S. and foreign navies have flown hundreds of thousands of miles vithout accident. The confidence engendered by this record must De reflected by the work of our navy fliers in Mexico.

^fter using them for thousands of miles of flight, Curtiss Flying Boats lave the endorsement of Mr. Harold F. McCormick, Commodore Wm. E. Scripps, Mr. J. B. R. Verplanck, Mr. Gerald Hanley, Mr. William Thaw, Mr. Logan A. Vilas, Mr. William A. Dean, Mr. Barton L. Peck, Mr. Raymund V. Morris, and many others.

One Demonstration Will Convince the Most Skeptical

Vrite us for illustrated litera-ure or to arrange for a dem-mstration flight. DO IT JEFORE IT IS TOO LATE.

rhe Curtiss \eroplane Co.

II LAKE STREET IAMMONDSPORT, N.Y.

< BENOIST «c

AIRCRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

The New Benoist Flying Boat in Action

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Flying Record

to Date 4hrs., 23min.

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

TESTIMONIAL

American Propeller Company Paducah, Ky., May 18, 1914

243-249 East Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md. Gentlemen:—The 9x4.75 Paragon is a wonder. Have been too busy to take revolutions or thrust but judge by gasoline consumption that I throttle very low in flight. I get off of fresh water with more load than I could before from salt and this is a big difference. Such climbing you never saw. I am elated.

If it is possible for your three-blade propeller to excel this nine-footer, I would like to try one.

I started my work here today with a twenty-four mile run from Paducah to Metropolis, 111., and return, which I made throttled down, at sixty-two miles per hour, average for both ways.

Advise me at once in regard to a three-blade.

Verv truly yours,

ANTONY JANNUS

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

TECHNICAL TALKS—By M. B. Sellers

THE SLIP STREAM AND THE ANGLE OF ATTACK

I shall consider, in a qualitative ivay, some phenomena of the slip stream, and of the angle of attack sf an aeroplane propeller.

At first, in order to simplify matters, we will imagine a propeller of aniform pitch and negligible thick-less, rotating in a short tube which ust clears it, on a shaft concentric ,vith the tube.

The immediate effect of the pro-seller's rotation will be a rarification jr depression to windward, and a :ompression to leeward. Air will le driven into the tube by the excess pressure of the outside air. Air ivill flow to the entrance of the tube from all directions, just as water >vould flow to a tube sticking up n the bottom of a vessel of water.

The compression and depression A-ill be in proportion to the resist-ince overcome in moving the air, md the propeller thrust on its bear-ngs will be in proportion to this :ompression and depression (and not :o the volume or weight of the u'r in motion).

If now the propeller speed is kept :onstant, and the tube (together with the propeller system) is moved endwise (propeller advancing), the effort required to keep the air in notion will diminish, the compression and depression will be lessened, md, the thrust of the propeller igainst its bearings reduced. Finally, f the advance of the tube equals rhe pitch speed, there will be no :ompression and depression, no :brust. and no converging flow at entrance to tube.

WRIGHT LICENSES GRANTED.

The first license for exhibition flying was granted to Lincoln Beachey bv the Wright Co. on May 23. Charles F. Niles, of the Moi-;ant International Aviators, was also granted one. The cost of license is merely nominal to an aviator, who, according to the correspondence schools, makes all the way up to $50,000 a year, it being $1,000 a calendar year_ and $25 for every day of paid flying.

It would be more or less natural to suppose that those who have taken out licenses will be protected by rhe enjoinment of unlicensed pilots.

Mr. Howard M. Rinehart, chief nstructor at the Wright school, gave Messrs. Chas. R. Day and Nicholas Roosevelt each a 20-minute passenger flight, at several hundred feet altitude, on one of the Wright school machines, equipped with the new type elevator, during the week ending May 22. Both expressed :onsiderable amazement at the steadiness of the machine and the feeling of security while thev were in the air, which readily led them to become enthusiasts in the new art.

The instruction of pupils continues with steady, business-like progress. Mr. Rinehart is already piling up a mileage of considerable magnitude, and the pupils, particularly Earl I'tter of Columbus Junction, Iowa, are doing splendidly. Mr. Utter has practically completed his tuition, having entered the school May 11, and is making splendid volplanes with motor cut off, and excellent landings.

The mean relative speed of the air in the tube will be the pitch speed of propeller, less a certain deduction (for backward flow through the blade circle). This deduction will be less the less the compression required to move the air, and therefore less, the greater the speed of advance of the tube.

For a constant propeller speed, the relative air speed in the tube will not differ greatly, whether the tube is advancing or standing.

Where the advance of the tube equals the pitch speed, the air entering the tube will not be in motion relative to the surrounding air, but as soon as the advance becomes less than the pitch speed the entering air will be set in motion, and this actual motion will, of course, be greater, the slower the advance of the tube.

We have been considering an ideal propeller of uniform pitch and negligible thickness. An actual propeller with cambered blade, or rounded blade back, will give a greater air speed for the same rotative speed. A propeller with cambered back and zero pitch will produce an air current through a stationary tube (and incidentally a thrust); and one having a short pitch will produce a current greater than the pitch speed. Evidently the angle of attack of the blade will here be negative.

Now, remove the tube, allowing the propeller to rotate in the open. The convergent flow which occured at the entrance of the tube will now take place at the propeller.

BROOKINS BACK.

Walter Rrookins, in partnership "•itli Ralph Xcwcomb. rebuilt the Fowler transcontinental Wright, making wings rigid, aileron stabilizers hinged to rear beams, and Walter has a year's contract with a motion picture concern and with a resort at Venice, Cal. The ailerons are kept normally at a slight negative angle, and the machine spirals equally as well as it did when first new.

The air leaving the propeller will converge somewhat {vena contracts.

As in the case of the tube, the speed of air leaving the propeller may be equal to, or greater than, the pitch speed. The air approaching the propeller, when at some distance from it, will move more slowly, but where it reaches the blades, will have sensibly the same speed as the air leaving them. The blades will, therefore, meet air having this rapid motion, and the angle of attack will be small and may even be negative.

A rotating propeller, whether advancing or standing, always encounters air in relative motion axially, and its angle of attack is always small and may even be negative. Thus, it evidently does not resemble an aeroplane wing, which encounters the air at its full angle of inclination.

_ A propeller advancing sets the air ahead of it in motion toward it. and so long as there is slip, there will be a slip stream, approaching as well as leaving the propeller.

It is customary to consider the angle of attack of an advancing propeller as equal to the slip angle. This would assume that the propeller encounters air at rest; whereas, so long as there is slip, the propeller acts on air already in motion.

It would seem, therefore, that we should choose for a propeller blade only those profiles having a high efficiency at very small angles of attack.

Mr. J. G. Kloeckler, the Wright fiver, recently had completed at the Wright plant a new type "C" four-cylinder machine, finished in battleship gray and treated linen, which gives a very smart appearance, and which, when sent out to the field for its tests, caused much favorable comment. Mr. Kloeckler is to use this machine for a scries of exhibition flights in the near future.

At the Dayton factory there is a hum of work on the new machines. The navy airboat returned from its complete and successful trials at Toledo, in the hands of Harry N. Atwood, and is being cleaned up preparatory to reshipment. And they are under' way, as well as the new type ordered by Atwood for his work at Toledo is practically completed, and will be delivered in a few davs. Several other aerohoats are under way, as well as the new military machines and much experimental matter of Mr. Wright's.

KNABENSHUE AIRSHIP MAY SAIL OVER NEW YORK.

Roy Knabenshue may bring _ his 10-tnan dirigible to New York in a couple of months .after finishing an engagement at Chicago. The expenses to he covered are the erection of a shed and $1,000 a week for 10 weeks. The ship has been in operation in Los Angeles and vicinity since August of last year; has made hundreds of trips with passengers, and was not deflated until the 1st of May. when it was packed to ship to Chicago. (See AERONAUTICS. Nov., 1913.)

AVIATION IN FRANCE.

The figures of French aviation are startling, even to the close observer. For the past year (1913), 13,010,000 kils. were flown: the duration was 133,800 hours; cross-country flights were 23,600; passengers to the number of -17,900 have hcen carried.

Some 1.14S aeroplanes were constructed (as against 1.423 in 1912), 146 hydroaeroplanes and flving boats, 14.000 propeller, 2,240 motors. The power of motors put in French aeroplanes totaled S9,000; The total power of all French-built air motors was 22S.S63. Three hundred and eiyhtv lour pilot certificates were given, against 489 in 1912.

ORIGINAL LANGLEY MACHINE FLIES

Hammondsport, N. Y., May 28.— The Langley "aerodrome" flew a short distance to-day, fitted with three floats, using original engine.

In the interest of aeronautical history and of aerotechnical science, the large tandem monoplane of Dr. Langlev has been restored to its original completeness at the Curtiss factory, at Hammondsport, N. Y., and after some tests of its efficiency and stability, will be returned to

was about 1 cm. in front of the horizontal c. of g.

The flying models demonstrated the efficiency, for longitudinal stability, of the automatically operating Penaud tail, attached to the rear of the frame of the machine through an elastic connection and normally set at a negative angle. This tail had rigid vertical and horizontal surfaces of 95 sq. ft. each. A bridle ran from the center of the

Quarter Size Model in Flight, Aug. 8, 1903

the Smithsonian Institution for permanent exhibition.

It has been a source of regret to students of aviation and to visitors to the Smithsonian Institution, that the Langley passenger machine was never completely tested and never exhibited in the museum with its successful prototype, the quarter-scale gasoline mode! which, in August, 1903, flew with good automatic equilibrium above the Potomac River, at Widewater, Ya. As this model is the first gasoline-driven aeroplane in history, so the large machine, patterned after it, is regarded by aeronautical engineers as the first passenger aeroplane of adequate stability and power for prolonged free flight in moderate weather.

This famous machine, since the accident in its launching, on December 8, 1903, has been stored in the Smithsonian Institution in dismantled form and inaccessible to visitors generally. When, therefore, Mr. Curtiss expressed the wish to restore its wings to the otherwise perfect aeroplane, and make a brief test of it before returning it for exhibition, he was authorized to do so. Accordingly on April 2, 1914, the frame and accessories were shipped to the Curtiss flying field at Hammondsport. Official tests are expected to be made May 30.

No changes have been made in the balance or general design of the machine. It has, however, been equipped with three shallow pontoons to keep it afloat on the water.

DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE.

The Langley full sized machine was designed along the lines proven so successful in the power flying models to secure (1) highly stable initial equilibrium, (2) automatic means for maintaining this equilibrium under the varying conditions of flight and for restoring it if disturbed, and (3) provision for manual control.

Lor structural reasons the c. of g. was practically in the same plane with the line of thrust, being about 1 cm. above it, and the c. of p.

tail on its upper side to a spring, to which was connected a wire which passed over a pulley mounted on top of a mast. The wire was again attached to a spring, around the two ends of which it formed a loop, and from there it passed down to the main frame and through pulleys to the control wheel at the aviator's right hand. Lrom there the wire passed through pulleys to the rear end of the machine and over a pulley at the bottom of a mast to a weaker spring, the other end of which was connected by a second bridle to the under side of the tail at the center. The wire

Steam Model No. 5 in Flight May 6, 1896

was made continuous around the springs so that if the springs were extended by 50 per cent, the additional strain came on the wire loops. The control wheel for the tail would automatically lock itself in any position in which the aviator placed it.

A movable vertical rudder of 10 sq. ft., was arranged independent of the tail, as shown in the drawing. To operate this another wheel was placed at the aviator's right hand, springs being interposed in loops of the control wires. Lateral stability was expected to be provided by setting the wings at a dihedral angle of 165 degress.

Each wing weighed 29 lbs., measured 22.5 ft. by 11.5 ft. chord, a total of 260 sq. ft. The total supporting surface of the machine was 1,0-10 sci. ft. and equipped for flight the whole machine, including pilot, weighed 850 lbs., or 1.22 ss. ft. to the lb., or 0,82 lbs. to the sq. ft.

The front beam, middle and rear lateral spars were hollow, the front and middle being round and the rear D-shaped, tapering from the center of the wing outward but with the thickness of the walls unchanged. Blocks were glued in the middle spar where the ribs were attached.

The ribs were made in the form of a hollow square, with sides of tapering thickness, the thickest part being midway the sides, with small partitions every few inches. The curve was 1 in 18 with the highest point of curvature 0.25 from the front edge. The cloth covering was permanently fastened to the front beam, to which were attached the front extension pieces by metal cli^s secured by small wood screws. On the rear edge of the front main beam, at a uniform distance of 30 inches apart, 10 small metal horns were fastened by a clamping thimble. The front end of each of the ribs was slightly rounded out to fit the front main beam, and in the wooden block which was glued in this end of the rib a hole was bored to fit these horns. Each of the ribs was then pushed over its proper horn and against the front main beam, and the cloth covering then drawn back toward the rear tips of the ribs. In the extreme rear edge of the cloth covering a seam was made, and in this was inserted the rearmost "D" rib. The cloth was then tightly stretched and a wood screw forced through the "D" rib and into and through the metal ferrule at the tip of the cross-rib. Near the inner and outer edges of the cloth covering eyelets were placed, through which small cords were then inserted and tied to the end ribs. The main middle beam was then placed on top of the ribs and fastened to them with wood screws, and the cross-braces were then fastened on the top of the wing, as shown in the scale drawing. The frame of the wing was stiffened horizontally by cross guy-wires which passed from each rib, at the point where the middle beam crossed it, to the adjoining rib, at the point where it was connected to the front beam. Eacli of the main beams was individually guyed to masts as shown in the scale drawing. Finally, small guy-wires were run from the front end of the ribs over a guy-post 12" high at the point where the ribs crossed the middle beam to the rear tip of the rib. These cross guy-wires were regulated in tightness by raising and lowering a screw in the slot of the head of which they rested, and which was threaded in the end of the small guy post. _ Upper and lower guy wires, running from the main beams to the guy-posts on the frame, as already described, and as is clearly shown in the drawings, completed the guy-wire system for the wings, except for the "draft wires," which for the front wings were run from the lower side of the middle beam to the bow-sprit at the front of the machine, and for the rear wings to the main frame.

The front and middle main spars of the wings were secured to the steel tubes, running fore and aft in the main frame, by clamps, so constructed that the wings could be rocked about the middle spar as

THE LANGLEY FULL-SIZED MACHINE

a pivot and secured at any angle from 6.5° to 13°. The angle of incidence used was 10°. The "horns" on each clamp acted as receiving sockets for the ends of the spars. The wings were guyed from two points on each main spar to an upper and lower mast, mounted on the aforesaid middle tube of the frame.

Lateral stability depended on the dihedral angle of the wings (165°).

The frame was made of steel tubing. Two parallel SO mm. steel tubes extended the entire length of the frame, reinforced by guy wires, and converged into a rounded point at each end. There were six cross tubes separating the parallel tubes. A transverse frame supported the

bevel gears and transmission shafts from the engine. Tile whole frame was also guyed by an upper and a lowc- pyramid of tubing at the engine section, and by short vertical masts, guyed. The tubing was joined together by using sted thimbles of proper shapes and angles accurately fitting the tubes to be joined, and brazed.

The use of one engine to drive lubricated by the oil thrown off upper part of each combustion

two propellers mounted at opposite irom the crank- and by means of chamber. The carburetor which

ends of the transverse frame, and small oil cups fastened to the outer was especially designed which was

in a direction perpendicular to the walls of the cylinder which dis- placed near the rear of'the aviator's

crankshaft, necessitated the use of tributed the oil through small holes car was connected through a suit

a pair of beyel gears between each in the cylinder walls. able pipe t0 this circular inlet ;

propeller shaft and the shafts trans- the pistons had two deep but rp. .. ,f ,

mining power from the engine's thin ribs reinforcing the head. The , \he co0}lnS water was supplied

crankshaft. Special "propeller-shaft pistons were slightly tapered from 1,y a centrifugal pump The heated

bed plates" were made to insure the middle, where they were .005" *'ater ,Va* led. ,fron\ th,e Jackets to

rigidity of the transverse frame, smaller than the cylinder bore, the radlatmg tubes at the front and

The crankshaft was connected di- toward the outer end, where they Le.ar- respectively, of the cross-frame,

rectly to the inner ends of the were .0075" smaller than the bore. 11,ese, gating tubes, winch were

transmission shafts. The outer piston ring was .0035" Prc-vided with thm radiating ribs

m . . , , , narrower than its srroove the semnrl -'oldcred to them, finally led the

The transmission shafts and pro- ™,0^r„^ . "M!T^,, nnH the cooled water t0 the tank situated

peller shafts _ were made of steel , ; ' Z in the extreme rear of the aviator's

tubing, 1.5" in diameter, with walls 'J™* °»e ; UOr VVP °\eo' d i/Ifi" car, a suitable Pipe from the bot-

.125" thick,. Bevel gears drove the *■« > ■ f\Z*"?"£ torn of this tank" being connected

twin propellers, the driving gear °" ce" tr «»»» ™e, exterior sur- tQ t,

Snthf ^oXasnh'fth40dtSh ^11 ™ The^er^ of the lap-joint fi The sparking apparatus comprised,

^^rwere^uSerS" bail ^nf .of tb.lap ff^n^^TSWS

ance at the ends of the laps to which have^ since come into com-

which fitted' over the horns in tie feet "fiTby running them in by a Second a spark coil, the primary

h^h^tVeerr^i°ade of steel belt for 24 hours, with copious oil %^%^%^r^Tt

tubing. The wooden arms weresupplj. set of dry batteries Third, a secon-

then covered with canvas. ihe The mam connecting rod was %" d distributor consisting of a disc bending moment produced on the diameter and solid, while the other

30 degree blade width. centrifugal force from, the crank-pin j »«• cuomcmulta7or "eac£ °f the

The aviator's "car" was shaped bearing the oil running along the sections of which was conected to

like a flat bottom boat and was connecting rods and through suit- k , , , high.tension

placed directly in front of the en- able holes at the heads into oil termi„al of the spark coil being, of

gine. This was supported by guy grooves m the bronze bushings in course> groundedP on the e*;ne

wires from the main frame. A these neaas. ^ ^ frame. The plugs and coils were

light wooden seat extended fore and The inlet manifold consisted of a also especially designed by Mr.

aft the car. 50 mm. tube bent to a circle and Manly for the work, there being

rp. . c i:„j„ a having five branch tubes, each lead- nothing suitable on the market.

The engine was a 5 cylinder 4 ; tQ one of the automatic inlet j t, h th ■ showed

cycle, designed by Chas. M. Manly ^ which fiMed removable cast. 4g0 ]bs thrus/ which hsas a]so b

and ran, on three occasions, ten . geats fastened b a nut ;n the ohtaineJ at the Curtiss factory.

consecutive hours, producing 52.4 J 1

h.p. at an average speed of 950 ---,---.

r.p.m., for a total weight of power

plant, including, of course, the SAMUEL PIERPONT LANGLEY.

radiator, water tank, water pump,

gasoline tank, fly wheel, spark coil -Professor Langley was secretary be superposed without loss of sup-and batteries, of 1 87.47 lbs, or 3.57 01 tlie Smithsonian Institution, 1887- porting, power if spaced apart cer-Ibs. per b.h'.p.; weight lifted per 1906. Though his fame rests pri- tain distances, which varied with b.h.p., 162 lbs. The bore and stroke marily on researches in solar physics, the speed; and (h) that thin planes of this engine was 5" by 5^4". At his name is best known to the world consumed less power for support at this time there was not an \\meri- by his experiments in mechanical high speeds than at low speeds— can automobile on the market and fligbt. He was the first to pro- called "Langley's Law." "It is only a very few heavy gasoline duce a gasless heavier-than-air ma- true only if the plane alone be con-power plants in existence. The en- chine which, supported and pro- sidered and it leaves out of reckon-gine was made entirely of steel pelled by its own engine and pos- ing head resistance of framing, hull, except the bronze bushings for the sessing no extraneous lifting power, etc."

bearings, the cast iron pistons and actually made an independent flight A] interested in bird flight,

cast iron liners of the cylinders, for a considerable distance. - Professor Lang]ev became actively

The cylinders consisted of a mam He gave to physicists firm ground imerested in fligh"t thr0 h reading,

outer shell of .0625" steel, with a on which to stand, as to the long . iSS6, a paper of Israel Lancaster,

ias .0625" thick and was shrunk in. He proved .(b) that upon inclined nlakin? experiments published in

The combustion chamber, which en- planes the air pressures were really ..Experiments in Aerodynamics," by

tered the side of the cylinder near normal to the surface. . lie dis- {he Smithsonian in ]89i. Many ex-

the top, was machined from a solid proved (c) the JNewtonian Law periments w;th birds were conducted

steel forging and was brazed to the that the normal pressure varies as d with rubbei..dl.iven models up

cylinder. The sheet steel, .020" the square of the angle of incidence i893 inclusive,

thick, water packets were also on inclined planes. . He showed (d)

small long planes,' presented with their experiments with boilers and burn-

ipparatus. Other trials were made jut were unsuccessful in launching.

In 1895 other experiments con-|tinued with No. 4 and a flight of 130 feet was obtained.

On May 9, 1895, a short flight was made with model No. 5 and trials continued with tiiis through-jut the year.

On May 6, 1896, No. 5, which had been variously altered, flew a distance of 3,300 feet and a second of 2,300. These were the first big flights made with the steam-driven model. The other successful model, No. 6. on November 2S, 1896, flew some 4,200 feet.

The early part of 1898, after a report of an investigating board, the Board of Ordnance and Fortification of the War Department, al-loted Dr. Langley $50,000 for the construction of a full sized machine, which allowance was influenced by President McKinley, who was greatly interested in the possibilities of a flying machine as an engine of war. William Thaw had also given Professor l.angley $5,000 to be used as he liked, and it was employed in aeronautics. It was realized that the greatest difficulty was the obtaining of a suitable gasoline engine. By the end of 1S99 the full sized machine was complete except for the engine, and various experiments were renewed and a launching apparatus designed, while waiting for the engine. During this time a quarter sized model of the big machine was built, flights were continued with the models Nos. 5 and 6, and a new bigger house boat was built to carry the launching device for the big machine. During this time, also, Mr. Charles M. Manly designed an automatic stabilizing apparatus, using a pendulum and "servo" motor, but was never tried in any machine, owing to lack of time.

The engines originally constructed by outside parties for the large machine and for the quarter sized model, and which were the first rotary engines designed for aeronautical work, proved worthless on test in 1900 and a visit to Europe failed to produce any builder to undertake the construction of others, ft was seen that an engine must be built in the Smithsonian shop and an experimental engine was tested on September 18, 1900. This gave 21.5 h.p. and weighed 120 lbs. Another and larger engine was started and the first tests were made in January, 1902. A description of it is included in this article. Mr. Charles M. Manly, who was associated with Prof. Langley during all these experiments, designed this engine as well as the experimental one and the one which was also bruit for the quarter size model. All of these three engines were of the stationary cylinder type.

The quarter sized model was an exact duplicate of the big machine and its first flight was made on June 18. 1901. The flight was very short. 350 ft. New cylinders for this engine were built and attention was then turned to the big machine so that no further flights were made until August 8, 1903.

It then flew a total distance of 1.000 ft. and maintained perfect stability. The flight was cut short at tiiis distance bv reason of too rich a mixture. The variation in pressures against the surfaces oper-

ated the Penaud tail so that the machine automatically maintained horizontal flight.

TRIALS OF THE BIG MACHINE.

The big machine was then installed on the top of the new big house boat which had been built and after many exasperating delays it was ready for its first flight on October 7, 19U3. Mr. Manly took his seat, started the engine himself and the machine was released. Just as it left the track the front guy post caught on the launching car, twisted the front surfaces to a negative angle and caused the machine to plunge head first into the water with the full power on. Mr. Manly was fortunate in being able to clear himself from the guy wires and the wrecked front wings.

After completing repairs on the machine and waiting for good weather another attempt was made on December 8, 1903, when the river was filled with ice. The funds appropriated by the War Department had been exhausted for two years and the expense since then had been met with a special fund of the Smithsonian. No other funds were in prospect, there had been so many criticisms of the work that it seemed to be a case of now or never. Mr. Manly again essayed the flight. Again apparently the rear guy post seemed to catch somewhere and the front of the machine shot up in the air. Mr. Manly endeavored to operate the tail but obtained no response. The fact was that the whole of the after part of the machine had been wrecked before it left the launching car. The machine climbed to a vertical position and was blown backwards in the water. Mr. Manly was caught in the framework under the machine. He tore loose the cork-lined jacket and dove from tinder the machine. His head came in contact with a floating cake of ice and he dove again, this time coming up clear.

The officers who were present at both tests reported far from pessimistically but the Board of Ordnance and Fortifications refused to furnish further assistance to the work for fear of their entire appropriation for experimental work being cut off. Dr. Langley desired to continue but the bitter criticism of the newspapers and even on the floors of Congress prevented the obtaining of any further funds.

The flights of the 1907 Bleriot V machine, which was patterned after it. confirmed the conviction that the Langley machine would have flown had it not been injured in launching.

MACCAULEY FLIES

TORONTO-HAMILTON.

On Mav 15th, Theodore Mac-Cauley, the altitude record holder, flew the hydroaeroplane owned by W. A. Dean, of Toronto, from that city to Hamilton, a distance of about 40 miles, at an average speed of over 70 m.p.h. lie made several passenger flights around the city and returned to Toronto in the evening, carrying a passenger each wa.v. The Hamilton people carried were: A. C. Lindgren and It. II. Biggert, of the International Harvester Co.; Mrs. L. Zimmerman, wife of an Oliver Plow official, and R. Robinson, sporting editor of the Hamilton Spectator.

AT SAN DIEGO.

Flying at the S. C. Aviation School for the week ending May 9, 1914, totalled 33 flights; 3 hrs. 46 min. in air; 6 passengers carried.

Summary. Jan. 1 to May 9. 1914: 1.006 flights; time in air. 266 hrs. 31 ]/• min.; passengers carried, 479.

For the week ending May 16, 1914: 21 flights. 5 hrs., 48 mins.; 17 passengers carried.

Summary, Jan. 1 to May 16, 1914: 1,027 flight. 272 hrs.. \9y2 mins., 496 passengers carried.

NEW COMPANIES.

International Flying Co., airships, $50,000; Ileinrich Schupphaus, Gus-tav Schug, Bernard Brinkmann, 233 Broadway, New York.

AERO MART

LICENSED AVIATOR wanted for couple of months' experimental and demonstration work, near New York; state age, experience, and wages per month required. L., 35 Rutland Sq., Boston, Mass.

AVIATOR wanted to fly new biplane and imported Demoiselles. U. S. Aerial Navigation Co., Homestead. N. J.

AERO MOTOR wanted, from 30 to 50 h.p., for Demoiselle aeroplanes. U. S. Aerial Navigation Co., Homestead, N. J .

JOHN WISE—"History and Practice of .Aeronautics," by John Wise. We have just secured another copy of this famous, rare work. Cloth, Svo. ill., 310 pp. steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St., New York.

QUICK SALE FOR CASH—Two Curtiss-type double-surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape; can be seen at any time; everything complete; $600 for the two outfits for quick sale. B., care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE — Hatton Tumor's "Astra Castra." the most famous and rarest of all Aviation works. Published in 1865 at 10 dollars. Magnificently illustrated, large quarto, 527 pages, in splendid condition. Will be sent post-free for 24 dollars.

Remittance to he sent to "Astra," c /o The Editor, "Aeronautics," 170 Fleet St.. London (England).

iio-h.p. MOTOR for sale. Specially built, S cylinder V, 4$i by 7, water cooled, built by Christie Machine Co. for C. K. Hamilton. Flown by him at Belmont and Sacramento. Cost $5,000. Perfect condition, ready to put in 'plane. Can be seen any day. Run not more than 4 hours total in flight. $1,000 cash only. Address Hamilton, c/o AERONAUTICS.

MORANE-SAULNIER — Latest type. Set of detailed working drawings for sale at $200. Sale exclusive. Morane-Saulnier holds best records cross-country and speed Hying. Owner of drawings can superintend construction. Address A. F., care AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

NEW BOLAND FLYING BOAT.

Announcement is made of the formation of the Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co., of Avondale, N. J., exclusive manufacturers under the Poland patents.

A new and large factory has been acquired at Nutley, N. J., which is equipped with every kind of machinery and every needful tool which can be employed in the improvement of aeronautical construction. The company is well equipped to handle repair work on any type of apparatus, build for others or do experimental work.

Readers are familiar with the lateral stability system invented by Frank E. Boland employed in all machines built by him and the former Boland Aeroplane Co. and have knowledge of^ the successful work done privately and in exhibition tours with this system, wh ch

General dimensions of hull are: Length over all, 24' 4"; greatest beam 41 ; greatest depth, 42"; estimated weight, 300 lbs.

The planes consist of an engine section or cell of 66" and one-piece wings, each IS' 4" with outer corners rounded, chord 66", 3 7/16" camber; lifting surface, 435 sq. ft. The front main spar is \yi" by 2", select spruce, with leading edge rounded off. Rear main spar is 1" by 3", also spruce. Ribs con-

chord, 66"; surface, 435 sq. ft. weight with full load, 2,000 lbs.

The company also makes its owi motors in 60, 70 and 100-125 sizes* The Boland motor has continuous! been employed in all the machine and the makers are well satisfies with performances.

FLYING AT VERA CRU2

The complement of aircraft r Vera Cruz has been enlarged b the addition of two Cnrtiss flyini boats and one hydroaeroplane whic bad been located at Tampico, wit

has been used on tailless machines, standard types, monoplane water machine and the new machine now being marketed, which is the embodiment of all these years of experiment and testing.

The illustration shows the latest machine, fitted, of course, with the Boland "jibs," which are claimed to be non-infringing. The flying boat follows proven lines in all respects. The forward bottom is V-form in cross-section, spruce ribs spaced 5 and 6 inch centers and canted to correspond with fore and aft curve of bottom; planked with two J4 inch courses of selected cedar, inside skin laid diagonal, outside fore and aft with sheeting laid in Jeffery's marine glue between courses, well screwed to ribs with brass screws and quilted with copper rivets clinched over copper burrs.

The general framing consists of fore and aft members of Y\" by ii" spruce so spaced that they also form seam battens for the outer skin. Transverse framing consists of select ash ribs 5/16" by f£" spaced from 4" to 6", according to stress distribution, steam bent and fastened with non-corrosive fastenings. Transverse bulkheads, consisting of two or three skins laid diagonally with canvas interlayers and well quilted with copper tacks are introduced at four points, giving five water-tight compartments and also stiffening the frame.

Planking is of cedar. Inner skin spirally wrapper about the tail and running from chine to chine forward of the step is covered with sheeting laid in marine glue and an outer skin of cedar laid fore and aft. The whole is thoroughly quilted with copper tacks.

The hood sections are rounded so that they fair into the circular section of the tail with a minimum of eddy-producing shapes.

sist of a web of laminated spruce with top and bottom strips forming an 1-section. Struts, laminated spruce, spaced 66".

The lateral control is by "jibs" placed 22" in from outer ends of the main planes, pivoted at approximately 45 deg. and so connected that they operate independently. These jibs are used both for horizontal steering and for banking or maintaining lateral balance. Fore and aft control is by real elevator surface supported by the tail of the boat. Because of the strength and shape of the boat tail, the "empennage" is carried on framework attached with flush hoops entirely encircling the boat, making a very rigid structure with very little weight and having no openings through the skin of the boat.

The operation of both controls is simple. A rotary motion of the hand wheel pulls one or the other jib inward and a fore and aft movement of the steering column operates the elevator flaps. Steering on the water is accomplished by means of side plate rudders at the step.

The power plant is an 8 cyl. V water cooled motor, made by the same company, bore 4^4" by 57/4" stroke, direct connected to an 8' propeller, 6' pitch turning at 1,250.

The machine will also be equipped with a strong gear for land use, consisting of folding or disappearing wheels located just forward of the c. of g., and a flexible skid at the tail. The wheels are mounted with caster action and shock absorbers, best explained as of the Bleriot order, provided. The wheels are raised into a light wheel box of streamline form, above the water line. Lowering and raising is accomplished from the pilot's seat.

General dimensions: Over-all length, 26' 6"; spread, 42' 2"; heighth over all, 9'; gap, 66";

Lieut, Towers, Smith, Ensign Ch valier and ten men. The hydro ca« be fitted with wheels and flown ; a land machine.

On May 23 Lieut. Bellinger toe, up Richard Harding Davis for trip about Vera Cruz and environ J and in a flight the following dal Bellinger was fired upon by Mex< cans, although no state of war e: ists. Bellinger was flying ovt Vergara. an American outpost. O the 25th Lieut. Smith flew over tl fleet in a trial flight.

The Burgess Company has denie the report that it is building thirt aeroplanes for the government, bi| admitted that activity in the factor was due to the demand for part The Burgess army Renault-engine, tractor had its first trials on MaJ 15, with Capt. A. S. Cowan as pa senger, at Marblehead. Lieu Herbster and Constructor Richar( son are at Marblehead, where a seil ond Burgess-Dunne especially dil signed for naval work is being trie<]

Durango. Mexico, May 17.—Th vulnerability of war vessels to th attack of aeroplanes was demot strated, according to a message n ceived by General Carranza, whe the Federal gunboat Morelos, whic] has been one of the effective d< fences of Mazatlan against ConsH tutionalist attack, was forced to pi' to sea with the upper works on hr to escape the bombs of the Const] tutionalist aeroplane fleet.

The messageT which was sent b| General Alvardo Obregon, state] that the bombs from an aeroplanj bursting on the deck of the guil boat not only silenced the shipl guns, but also prevented the rifl* men on board from firing effectively]

A few days before many person were reported injured bv bomb from the rebel 'plane in Mazatlar among whom were non-combatants

NEW CURTISS NONINFRINGING.

As announced in the last issue, lights have been made at Ham-nondsport with an alleged lion-

the bodies. Mr. Stevenson states he is prepared to prove his own theory to the satisfaction of any open-minded person, and would like to hear from those interested in discussing this.

infringing lateral control. It is presumed thatthe system employed is that in which the high side is depressed, without operating the aileron on the low side. No information is available, but the pictures of the new military machine and that of the twin-float tractor seem to indicate this system, the difference being particularly noticeable in the picture of the flying boat and the tractor in the air.

The picture of the land machine is the latest militarv tractor delivered, fitted with the OX 90-100 motor. A range of speed is claimed of fro n 40 to 80 miles an hour, with climbing speed of 3,000 ft. in 7 minutes. _

AIRSHIP UP 36 HOURS.

Berlin, May 22.-—The new Zeppelin airship 1.-3 made a very notable record to-day, in a non-stop flight of 36 hours, at an average of nearly 52 miles an hour. In one hour of the flight, when she had a favorable wind, the ship covered 93 miles. This is an unprecedented record for anv dirigible.

The L-3 started from Friedrich-shafen, on the Lake of Constance, and visited various places, including Heligoland. From that place to Berlin, where she landed in the evening, she averaged 68 miles an hour.

IN MEMORIAM

Other clubs, to whom letters sent are returned by the Postmaster as "not found," are:

Oakland Aero Club.

Aero Club of San Diego.

Aero Club of Denver.

DO BODIES FALL?

Do bodies fall? It is a commonly accepted fact that bodies gravitate toward the earth. Robert Stevenson, of 604 West 115th street, New York tells the editorial de-pirtment of this great journal that all this theorv of gravitation is pure bunk—that the earth falls toward

Owing to the patience with which he trained his powers of observation, and to his careful avoidance of speculation, the facts brought to light by Dr. Ilankin are both reliable and of great scientific value. ITis highly trained powers of observation are ilustrated by the discovery of the method by which a bird when diving at the rate of 100 miles an hour can suddenly check its speed.

On one page he describes a lifting of the hinder margin of one wing of a bird of 8-ft. span, which lifting must have been less than an inch, but yet which was noted and eventually explained. On other pages he describes his discovery of the method of steering from side to side employed by dragon flies, the extremely rapid movements by which a "cheei" catches food thrown to it while the bird is in gliding flight.

Perhaps the author's powers of observation are best illustrated by his curious discovery that dragon flies hold their hind legs in one or other of two positions during flight: one leg position used when the sky is clear, and the other leg position when thin cirrus clouds are present.

NEW BOOKS

ANIMAL FLIGHT, a Record of Observation, by Dr. E. H. Hankin, the well-known authority on the flight of birds. 8vo, cloth,_ 404 pp., profusely illustrated, published by lliffe &'Sons, 20 Tudor street, London, E. C.

The book is likely to attract widespread interest in that it is the first systematic and authoritative account to be puhlished of soaring flight.

Dr. Ilankin's opportunities of observation of gigantic soaring birds having a span of wings of from 7 ft. to 11 ft., are described: and of bats having a span of 51 in. have been exceptionally wide.

Among the many adjustments used by birds for modifying their flight which have been discovered by Dr. Ilankin, the power of varying the camber of their wings is especially worthy of mention, which has also been claimed by R. R. Grant, whose aero stable machine has been described in AERONAUTICS.

Dr. Hankin's discoveries relating to soaring flight are likely to arouse much interest and discussion.

The book is written mostly in nontechnical language, and the few technical terms employed are fully explained, both in a glossary and in foot notes to the text. The index is very complete and there are 98 illustrations.

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INFLUENCE OF SIDE WIND ON VELOCITY AND DIRECTION OF FLIGHT

I. Angle of wind 30°

75,o

23,8 13,2 9,1 6,9 5,6 4,7 4,0 3,5 3,1

2,59 6,20 10,95 15,84 20,82 25,79 30,75 35,76 40,76 45,76

126,2 75,o 38,3 23,8 i7,o 13,2

6,20 5,54 8,07 12,39 17,10 21,90

10,7126,81 9,i|3L72

7.8 36,70

6.9 41.64

136,8 111,7 75,0 46,9 •32.0 23,8 18,8

10,95 8,07 7,77 10,27 14, r6 18,59 23,25 15.5I28.05 13,2 32,86 II

I40',9 126,2 103,1 75,0 52 5 38,3 29,5 23,8 19,9 17,0

15,84 12,39 10,27 10,35 12,61 16,14 20,31 24,78 29,39 34,19

143,1 20,82 133,0 17,10

118,0 97,5 75,0 56,3 43,1 34,3 28,2 23,8

14,16 12,61 12,94 15,03 18,29 22,19 26,46 30,98

H4,4 136,8 126,2 111,7 93,7 75,0 59,o

25,79 21,90 18,59 16,14 15,03 15,53 17,50

46,9 20,54 38,3 24,20 32,0)28,32

H5,3 30,75 ! 139,3 26,81 131,2 23,25 120,5120,31 io6,9JiS,29

50,0 41,6

17,50

lS,I2 20,00 22,84 26,36

146,0 35,76

I40,9l3i,72 134,5 28,05 I26,2J24,78

"5,7 103,1 89,0 75,0 62,6 52,5

22,19 20,54 20,00 20,71

22,52 25,22

146,5 40,76

142,2 136,8 130,1 121,8

36,70 32,86 29,39

26,46

III,7|24,20 IOO.O'22,84 87.4 22,52

75,o 23,29

63,9125,05

II. Angle of wind 60

_25

A I E~

6o,o 30,0 19,1 13,9

5,oo 8,66 13,23 18,02

10,9 22,90 8,9 27,84 7,6 32,80

37,76 42,72 47,70

90,0 60,0 40,9 30,0 23,4 I9,i 16,1 13,9 12,2 10,9

8,66 [ 10,00 . 13,23 1 17.32 j 21,79 26,46 31,23

36,06! 40,94 45,82 ;

100,913,23 79,1 13,23 60,0 15,00 46.118,03 36,6 21,79

30,0 25,3 21,8 19,1 17,0

25,!

30,42

35,00

39,70

44,44

106,1 18,02 j 90,0,17,32 j

73,9i18,03

60.0 20,00

49.1 22,91 1 40,9 26,46 34,7 30,41

30,0 26,3 23,4

34,64 1 39,o6 43,59

109,1 22 96,6 21 83,4 21 70,9'22

6o,oJ25.

51,1

43,9 38,2 33,7 30,o

iii.i 100,9 90,0 79,1 68,9 60,0 52,4 46,1 40,9 36,6

27,84 26,46 25,98 26,46 27,84 30,00 32,79 36,06 39,70 43,59

112,4,32,80 103,9 31,23

94.7 30,42 85,3|30,42 76,1131,22 67,6 32,79 60,0 35,00 53,4 37,76

47.8 40,94 43,0 44.44

113,4137,76 106,1 36 06 98,2^5,00 90,0 34,64 81,8135,00 73,9 36,06 66,6 37,76

60.0 40,00 54,2 42,72

49.1 45,83

114,2 107,8 100,9 93,7 86,3 79 1 72.2

42,72 40,94 39,70 39,o6 3906 39,70 40,94

65,8'42,72 60,0 45,00 54,8;47,70

III. Angle of wind 90^

A I E.

A I E

A I E

45,0 26,6 18,4 14,0 11,3 9,5 8,1 7,1 6,3

7,07 11,18 15,81 20,62 25,48 30,40 35,35 40,36 45,33

63,4 45,0 33,7 26,6 21,8 18,4 16,0 14,0 12,5 ".3

11,18 71,6 14,14 1 56,3

18,03 22,36 26,93 31,63 36,39 41,24 46,09 50,97

45,0 36,9 31,0 26,6 23;2 20,6 18,4 i6,7

I5,8i 18,03 21,21 25,00 29,15 33,54 II 33, 38,08 29, 42,73 26, 47,44 24, 52,20 || 21,

20,62 22,36 25,00 28,28 32,01

7 |36,o6

8 40,30 5 44,72 0 49,24 8 53,86

78,7 68,2 59,o 5i,3 45,0 39,8 35,5 32,0 29,0 j 26,6

25,48 26,92 29,15 32,01 35,46 39,o6 43,02 47,i8 51,50 55,90

80,5 71,6 63.4 56,3 50,2 45,0 40,6 36,9 33,7

30,40 31,62 33,54 36,05 39,05 42,03 46,10 50,00 54,08

30,9 |5S,32

81,8 135,35 74,0 136,40 38,08 40,31 43,01 46,10 49.50 53,15 57,02 61,03

66,8 60,2 54,5 49,4 45,0 4i,2 37,9 35,0

A ^Change or course in degrees. E=Velocity of Flight in Meters per second with respect to the eaTth. To convert into ft. per sec. multiply all velocities by 3.28

Side winds affect both velocity and the direction of flight. In the present tables A indicates the angle to which the direction of flight is changed for the angle of wind indi-

cated at the top of the table when j column above the letters A-E. The the aircraft moves at the speed | figures under E indicate the velocity shown in the vertical column to the of the aircraft with respect to the left, while the speed of wind is ground under the above described that indicated in the horizontal conditions.

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From LA CONQUETE DE L'AIR Brussels, Belgium

Five or six months ago MM. Brcguet, ot Paris, acquired a license for Franee of a system invented by an American, Mr. Means, and they have not delayed in applying it to their biplanes. Underneath one finds a reseivoir of lamp black of a capacity of 20 litres. There is also a reservoir of compressed air which is kept filled by a small air pump. A tube connects the two tanks. In tliis tube is a valve which is operated by the observer. A pull ot one second makes a dot—a pull of three seconds makes a dash. Thus is the Morse code revealed against the sky.

From L'ILLUSTRATION, Paris An American engineer, Mr. Means, has invented for the service of military scouting on board aeroplanes a system of optical telegraphy of remarkable simplicity. The signals Morse are shown against the sky with lainp black.

FOR LICENSE APPLY TO

JAMES MEANS

196 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

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MANUFACTURERS

J 101 Franklin Street, New York

We were the first in the field, * and the test of time is proving % that our product is the best. *

In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.

^NNSYLVA^

29 West 33th Street, New York

OFFICIAL BULLETIN. Next General Meeting.

The next general meeting will be held Thursday evening, June 11.

IIerr Leo Kronau, director of the Austrian Airship Co., will deliver a lecture, illustrated with lantern slides, on "'Progress in Dirigibles in Europe." Among "the pictures are some remarkable photographs taken from spherical and dirigible balloons.

William Dubilier will address the members on "Wireless as Connected with Aeronautics," demonstrating a new system of his own. Mr. Dubilier has been demonstrating his system on aeroplanes in England. His talk will be illustrated with lantern slides.

At a later meeting, Mr. James Means will present a paper on his system of smoke signalling. The following general meeting will be on July 9th.

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

OFFICERS.

Clarence P. Wynne, President. Jos. A. Steinmetz, ist Vice-President. Wm. D. Harris, 2nd Vice-President. George S. Gassner, Secretary. Laurence Maresch, Treasurer.

DIRECTORS.

Arthur T. Atherholt. Harold H. Knerr. H. F. Bamberger. Wm. H. Sheahan.

Dr. Samuel C. Falls. Walter S. Wheeler.

Office of the Club, Bellevue-Stratford, Phila., Pa.

A large number of members at- of Aeroplanes," which will be pi

tended the meeting at Franklin In- llshed in tl]e rnstitute journal j

stitute on May 20th, when the El- . ..„,„„ „. . |

liott Cresson gold medal was pre- ln AERONAUTICS. The Ael

sented to Orville Wright. Mr. nautical Society of New York v<

Wright read a paper on "Stability represented by Willian J. Ilanm^

AERO SCIENCE CLUB.

Charles ]'. Obst, president; George Bauer, vice-president; Edward Durante director and treasurer; Harry Schults, secretary.

At the well-attended meeting on May 16 a very interesting talk on the "Baby" engine was given by Mr. Durant, assisted by A. M. Surini. The little engine was taken completely apart and thoroughly inspected by the members. Mr. Durant also explained and demonstrated his interesting electric gyroscope.

On May 22d the members paid a visit to the balloon factory of A. I.po Stevens. Mr. Stevens told them all he knew about balloon building, and they departed enthusiastic.

An intercity model contest is to be held bv the club on May 30th. at Rugby Flying Grounds, Brooklyn. The Hand duration contest will be held from 10 a. m. to 12 noon; the R. O. G. duration contest from 2 p. m. to 4 p. m.; four valuable prizes for each event. Entries are expected from Concord, Boston, Schenectady and otlier cities. W. P. Dean, a noted English model flyer, will compete.

Club meetings are held every Saturday evening in the rooms of the Aeronautical Society. 29 West 39th street, New York. Dues are but $3 a year, including a vear's subscription to AERONAUTICS. Branches may be established in any city. For full particulars address the secretary at this address.

"If you don't mind, sir," said the new convict, addressing the warden, "I should like to be put at my own trade."

"That might be a good idea," said the warden; "what may your trade be?"

"I'm an aviator."

ST. GEORGE'S AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY.

For the past three years the above society has been flourishing at Newport, R. I. Weekly meetings have been held, in which current events are brought up and discussed and debates held on topics of aeronautical interest. To further the progress and interest of the club, members have built models and competitions have been held regularly, with prize cups offered.

In these competitions rivalry has been very keen and records have been broken. The models have all been of simple construction, but very Sffective, as shown by the records for the last year, viz.: Duration, 112 2-5 seconds, by C. L. Poor, Jr.; for distance, 1,700 feet, by G. B. Larkin; and for this year, so far, duration, 63 seconds; distance, 1,960 feet, both made by Mr. Poor. The records are all official. A spring meet is to be held shortly, for which three cups have been offered as prizes. Negotiations are being made toward making the society a branch of the Aero Science Club.

BEACHEY LOOPING AGAIN.

Returning from France with a new 80 Gnome, Beachey began exhibition work at Chicago May 16-19. He repeated his performance in New York May 22-24. Barney Old-field, with his Fiat "Cyclone" and the Christie front-drive racing cars, raced Beachey around the track at Brighton Beach, and Beachey cut capers in the air. lie headed the machine straight up in the air and let it slide backward on its tail, he looped the loop, he flew straight up and then turned sideways and beaded down to make what he calls a "cartwheel." His miniature machine he handled as accurately as

a trick bicyclist his wheel. M and machine seemed one and divisible. Beachey is one ot 1 few "natural" flyers, according Orville Wright, and those who s him at Chicago and Brighton Bet agree fully. A description of machine, with Curtiss motor, v printed in the November, 1913, sue.

HAMEL LOST AT SE^

Gustave Ilamel, the famous B ish aviator, left Villacoubl France, for Hendon with a n machine, which he was to use the race around London. There still no trace of him, and it is 1 general belief that he has met similar fate to that of Cecil Gra who disappeared and was tie' heard from. Last Fall Albert Jj ell left Hempstead to fly to Oakla Heights to compete in the Ae nautical Society's race around M; hattan, and no trace of him or machine was ever found.

HAY BILL PASSES HOUSE.

The Hay bill, for an aviati section in the army, all the det£ of which were published in 1 April issue, has passed the Hon and received favorable action the Senate Military Affairs Co mittee.

APPROPRIATION PASSED.

The army appropriation bill 1 passed, including $250,000 for ae nautics, of which $50,000 was ma available at once.

IR0NAUT1CS, May 30, 1914 Page 157

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Aeronaut Leo Stevens I

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Leading Sportsmen g use a Stevens Outfit ■

AIRSHIPS, AEROPLANES AND BALLOONS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION

USED BY NINETY-FIVE PER CENT. OF THE CLUBS IN THIS COUNTRY AND CANADA

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

THE DEAN DISTANCE FLYER.

The model shown in the accompanying drawing was constructed by Mr. William P. Dean, one of England's most, famous model flyers. Although this model was constructed in 1911, it is remarkably up to date in every detail and would be able to hold its own in any contest of to-day.

The fuselage is triangular in shape and is constructed of Y^" square whitewood. It is braced by a brace of bamboo in thickness, cut to

streamline form, and is placed 3" from the rear end of the fuselage. At the center of the fuselage is a piano-wire brace and also two upright wire braces, which take stay wires extending from the front to the rear of the fuselage.

The main plane is built up of split bamboo and has a span of 25^4", with a chord of Al/2" and a camber of V%". It is covered on the top with proofed silk. The elevator is co' ucted of piano wire, with the ti :nt down for elevation. It is - ed on the top side with prooft silk. No elevation block is use, the bent-down tips giving the necessary elevation.

The propellers are 10" in diameter, with a pitch angle of 45 degrees, and are bent from 1-16" birch by steaming and twisting.

The bearing consists of "L" brackets of brass, with the ordinary clock washer on the propeller shafts.

Each motor consists of 12 strands of 3-16x1-32" rubber, and are suspended below the frame.

The model has flown over 1.000 feet with 500 turns of the propellers.

-Mi—

MODEL NOTES.

Paterson, N. J., is responsible for the following:

A crowd of people watching the flight of a model aeroplane in a field to the rear of the J. & A. Barbour Linen Thread Co., on Crooks avenue, were surprised yesterday afternoon to see a diminutive blackbird rise from a thicket, attack the model and dart away again. While the model continued to circle 100 feet above the thicket, the bird repeatedly darted out and continued the attack, until the machine glided gracefully to earth.

The model was being tried out by J. Raymond Stone, of 533 Union avenue, who lias had considerable success in model building and has taken a number of prizes in competitions at Van Cortlandt Tark, New York City. The model was less than three feet in length, but was capable of a flight of a quarter of a . mile.

Evidently the blackbird was deceived by the hovering flight of the model, and attacked it as a hawk. When the model came to earth, 60 seconds after being launched, the parchment covering of the planes was pierced in several places by the beak of the bird. A fledgling was discovered in a nest in the thicket from which the mother bird had flown.

LE RHONE MOTORS IN THIS COUNTRY.

The Sloane Aeroplane Co. has taken over the agency for the Le Rhone motor, in addition to the Gnome and Anzani, for which it has been agents for over two years.

The following information concerning the record-breaking 60-h.p. Le Rhone engine, given out by the Sloane Aeroplane Co., should prove of interest to readers, especially when the fact is borne in mind that this motor, although of only 60 h.p., was able to carry a load of gasoline necessary for a 16-hour flight:

The 60-h.p. Le Rhone motor is of the 7-cylinder rotary type, having a bore of 105 m.m. and a stroke of 140 m.m., and total weight, including fittings, of 193 lbs. The cylinders are mounted staggered on the crank case. They are machined from solid billets of steel, which weigh in the rough 65 lbs. and when finished only 8 lbs. The cages for the intake and exhaust valves are integral with the heads of the cylinders. Being placed in this exposed position, they are kept perfectly cool and there is no overheating troubles whatsoever, since the motor revolves at about 1,200 revolutions. The valves are operated hv a push rod, which actuates a rocker-arm on the top of the cylinder and opens and closes both the intake and exhaust calves. Probably the feature which lias contributed most toward the phenomenal success of Le Rhone motors during the past year or so, is that which makes it possible for even the little 60-h.p. type to flv a machine for 16 hours continuously, is the small quantity of gasoline and lubricating oil they consume. In fact, the gasoline con-

sumption of Le Rhone motors, o ing to the efficient valve action, cut down to ahout one-third of wl is used on other rotary motoi while the old consumption, than to the. special forced-feed oiling s; tem, is nearly one-half of what used on similar types of engines.

From a military standpoint, Rhone motors present the advai ages of using the same size a' types of cylinders, valves, pisto and cylinder parts in all mode Thus one kind of spare parts si fices, when on the field or in acti. in wartime, to make repairs either the 60, 80, 120 or 160-h. types. The result of this is th. the French army this year is spe4 fying more and more Le Rhone n tors on her military machines, ail nearly one-half of the leading aei< .nlan» concerns abroad are equip! ing their machines with these motoi'

In addition to the Le Rhone rr tor, the Sloane Aeroplane Co. h, the agency for the new monovalj tvpe of Gnome engines, which France share the honor with the 1 Rhone motor of accomplishing great percentage of the world's, avi tion records. Complete details this motor are given in the ne motor catalog just issued by tl' Sloane Aeroplane Co.

MARCH EXPORTS $90,271

Imports for March. 1914, par] onlv. $7; for nine months endii March, parts only, $26,240.

Exports for March: Aeronlau and parts, 9, valued at $90,270; fj nine months ending March, aerj planes and parts totaled $1S0,85

No exports of foreign make du' ing March. No foreign goods warehouse.

ablished semi-monthly in the best interests of Aero-utics

BY

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

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Wading River, N. Y.

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dies I

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CIGARS

Made in all sizes from $fi.00 to $15.00 per 100

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AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

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Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

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Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types

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American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention Handbook for inventors sent upon request. ?0 McGill Bid*. WASHINGTON, D. C.

riON*T write us unless l-'v'li *■ you ate interested in a reliable, efficient andeconomical power plant. That is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, lnd.

The

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

Superior Training MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS

—--Address-1

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway New York

The Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co, BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

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INVENTORS' MODEL!

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THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

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