Aeronautics

Volume 14 - No. 6 - 1914 March

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



V. JNo. 6

MAKUn 31, 1JJ14

15 Lents.

T H

WHICH

I S

COMBINED

Official Organ and Bulletin—Aero Club of Pennsylvania The Aeronautical Society

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■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■^■■■■■■■H

The Most Significant Fact in Aviation's History!

United States Navy Imperial Russian Navy German Navy Austrian Navy Royal Italian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy

Without a single serious accident Curtiss Flying Boats and Hydroaeroplanes have been used during three years by six of the World's Greatest Navies.

CURTISS FLYING BOATS REPRESENT

THE WORLD'S STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE

The Originality of Curtiss Designs, and the Integrity of Curtiss Construction are acknowledged by the world

The REASONS are embodied in art illustrated brochure we should like to send you post-free on request. Write

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO., 21 Lake Street, Hammondsport, N. Y.

025�119957958227

PATENTS

SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY ^^lsN^TG%TNREgTbN-w-

Send sketch or model for FKKE search of Patent Office record. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes ottered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.

PATENTS PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Ei.mining Corps, U. S. Patent OHiee

Attorney-at-Lnw and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection ol the invention Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill BWff._WASHINGTON, D. C.

DON'T w"te us unless

UXJll 1 you are ;nter. ested in a reliable, efficient ardeconorrical power plant. That is the enly kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, lnd.

WE ARE HEADQUARTERS

for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies Very complete eatalog free on request

Wading River Mfg. Co.

Wading River, N. Y.

MODELS

THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrg BOOKS. ADVICE AND SEARCHES T KlLfl

Send sketch or model for search. Highest References Best Results, Promptness Assured.

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawye 624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C

PATENTS

Frederick W. Barker

Attorney and Expert i PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGN

Cases prepared and prosecuted with the greatest care and tliorouahness, to ensiue brvad scope and valid it u

28 Years in Practio Direct Connections in i

Foreign Countries 113 Broadway, New Yoi|

The

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

Superior Training MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS

-Address--

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway New York

The Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The

Wright

Company

(The

Wright

Patents)

THE NEW WRIGHT AEROPLANES

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or water now embody the improvements that have been suggested by the experiments quietly conducted during the past ten years.

The Wright Company

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pine St.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

   
 

1 >'

THE BURGESS-DUNNE HYDROAEROPLANE

The Burgess - Dunne hydroaeroplane, inched the latter part of February and ice flying almost continually at Marble-ad Harbor, represents the first adaptation

this type of aeroplane to marine flying, le many authorities, and this included the /entor of the aeroplane, considered that e substitution of a hydroplane (having )re or less flat bottom and deck) for the leel gear would seriously affect the in-rent stability of the machine. It was erefore after only a very careful study

the principles involved and a most ex-usting tabulation of weights, head resist-ce, center of gravity and center of pres-res at different angles that Mr. Burgess ought forth the design of his first Dunne droplane.

One can hardly imagine the enthusiasm, Mowed by the first launching, when it was ind that the machine balanced perfectly

the water as well as in the air. When e realizes that in this type there is not right angle, that every part of the main e apparently is diagonal, where the ngs formed of spiral shape are set onto e fuselage swung backward, and at a dihe-al angle, one begins to realize the task

not only finding but establishing the titer of gravity and the center of pressure

definite points, one of the peculiar re-irements of the Dunne type is that the uter of thrust shall pass absolutely

through the longitudinal center of gravity.

A general design of the hydroaeroplane is given on an adjoining page. The principal dimensions are as follows:

Length, 24 ft. 8 in.; width, 47 ft.; height, 11 ft.; total area of sustaining surface. 482 sq. ft.; length of hydroplane, 17 ft. 8 in. 5 water-tight bulkheads; beam, 31 ft.; Depth, 15 inches; Motor, Curtiss Model OX. 100-h. p.; propeller, 8 ft., two-bladed; total weight ready to fly, 1,450 pounds.

Late in February Mr. Burgess made a few jumps with the machine but the weather prevented extended flights until the iirst iveek in March, when Clifford L. Webster took the machine out and made an extended flight with it the second time he was in it.

There were many surprises awaiting those interested in the success of the new type. First, notwithstanding its increased weight on account of the substantial hydroplane required—flying weight 1,700 lbs.—the machine was found to rise easily from the water and fly at the normal angle of the older type machines. Much has been said of the inefficiency of the surfaces and the large angle said to be required in the foreign Dunnes. A careful elimination of head resistance of all parts, and a very delicate adjustment of the wings, seem to have over-conic this difficult}' entirely. The machine rises from the water easily, glides with the power shut off at a moderate angle and

lands, according to Mr. Webster, even easier than the old slow Wright type. Speed developed is about 55 miles per hour.

The controlling levers of the elevators are equipped with an automatic lock which enables them to be set at any point desired where they will remain until the operator wishes to change his angle or his direction.

On Mr. Webster's fourth flight he re-

moved his hands from the controls and allowed the machine to fly itself. There was a puffy wind of about 12 miles velocity. The machine maintained its lateral and fore and aft balance perfectly. A careful observer would have noticed a slight oscillation in each case immediately overcome bj the reaction set up in the various points oi the supporting surfaces.

OVERALL LENGTH 24 ft 8 in WIDTH 47 fest HT FROM KEEL 11 feet AREA UPPER WING 24S sq ft AREA LOWER WING 237 eq ft TOTAL AREA WIN SUSTAINING SURFA CE8 ,482 oq ft UPPER AILERONS inner) 14.3 * / (outer) 16.5 LOWER « [inner] 14.3 sq ft " t°uter) 13.1 nq ft PANELS 80 eq ft PROPELLER 8 ft x 4.5 p. 2-bladed

The Burgesf-Dunne Hydro

TECHNICAL TALKS—by M. B. Sellers

Aeroplane Efficiency—Relation of Speed to Horsepower

Efficiency, from "efneere" to accomplish, leans the capability of accomplishing useful ork; and more especially, it means the eco-mfical conversion of energy or power into ;eful work.

In rating efficiency we may, where possible, (nploy a standard of comparison, or we may nply compare one machine with another, and is in this sense that I here use the term. I am considering the efficiency of an aero-ane as a whole, comparing its weight and >eed with its horsepower; and especially with view to classifying aeroplanes in an efficiency mpetition.

In such a competition aeroplanes would dif-r in weight, speed and horsepower and, to termine the winner, we must establish a dation between these properties. It will be near enough to the truth to assume at, other things equal, the horsepower will ► ry as the weight: that is, two aeroplanes of ■ e same speed will be equally efficient if they Irry the same weight per horsepower. Suppose, however, that one weighs 30 pounds r h. p. and flies 40 m. p. h.; and the other fighs 20 lbs. per h. p. and flies 50 m. p. h.: Inch is more efficient? Our problem may be Med thus : supposing two aeroplanes equally Jicient. but of different speeds and horse-

THE FALLACY OF PENDULUM STABILIZERS

That "the many proposals which have i>en made to use pendulums or gyroscopes [ act directly on the correcting mechanism re bound to fail" is the opinion of H. R. A. ! allock, F. R. S., given in a lecture before Je Institution of Civil Engineers, in Eng-

nd.

I His opinion ultimately may or may not a found of more value than that of the lientist. who said that dynamic flight was •>solulely impossible under Nature's laws, lit it is of interest at the moment. He goes on to say: "It is essential to e success of any automatic control that ie forces called into play to make the cor-ictions of trim should not? react on the rector of those forces, whether this is a Midulum or gyroscope or any other equiv-ent device. The only instance in which lis has been fulfilled is the steady platform the late Mr. Beauchamp Tower. There ay be other methods of attaining the same iject in the case of wing-trimming or con-pi for flying machines, but any device in hich the correcting force tends to alter

powers, what common relation will exist between speed and horsepower?

Assume, therefore, that the weight, design and lift ratio are constant but that the h. p. and wing area vary. As we are not now considering propeller efficiency, we shall let P = power delivered by the propeller; T = thrust; V = speed; then P = TV; let D = drift of wings and R = resistance of rest of machine; then T = D + R; let W= weight of machine, and E = the lift-drift ratio of wings; A = the equivalent normal area of head resistance and k —the normal resistance coefficient.

Then D=-J ; R = kAV2 and T = kAV2 + P = TV; P = kAV3+-f^V. That is, the power to drive the head resistance will vary as Y3 and that to drive the wings as V.

We do not need to know the values of kA and g- but to obtain a relation between power and speed we must assure a ratio between kA and p so that nkA = and as this ratio differs for different machines, fixing its value will require deliberation.

Using metric units I find that n = 1000 to be a good trial value which gives n = about 5000 for English units. If nkA = -J , then P will vary as + V— the relation sought.

(To be continued.)

the position of the corrector is more likely to do harm than good."

The "corrector" may be understood to mean the pendulum; and if the pendulum is directly connected to the ailerons the air pressure on them will react on the pendulum and keep it from being always plumb: whereas if the pendulum acted indirect, say, through a servo motor, this would not occur.

Mr. Mallory mentions the deleterious effect of a pendulum when making a landing, when the speed is retarded by friction with the ground or by increasing the flying angle. In devices thus far experimented with, means have been provided for making the automatic system inoperative when starting or landing.

While a pendulum started swinging will swing back and forth until it comes to rest, and while, theoretically—as explained in the Wright automatic stability patent—the pendulum would cause oscillat ions of the aeroplane as a result, in practice it is claimed by Mr. Wright that this oscillation has been not of moment and has finally been overcome. --Waller Johnson lias recently purchased a Thomas flying boat and is training students in Florida.

THE STEERING OF AEROPLANES BY AILERONS ALONE.

It will be remembered that one of the most important features of the Wright machine was the co-ordination of the warping and rudder controls, so that both lifts and drags were equalized on the two sides of the machine when turning. Pilots have differed as to the advisability of mechanically connecting the two controls, but all have had the necessity of correlating them brought strongly to their notice. Under these circumstances any method of control which obviates the use of a vertical rudder is of great importance. Whether any such arrangement is amenable to the Wright claims is a matter for jurists.

The present writer submitted a document to the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics early in 1910, dealing with various steering problems, and in this mention was made of the mechanical possibility of steering with ailerons alone. This notion has been floating about for some time. Lieut. Dunne used it in his first inherently stable biplane, and the question has again been raised by a recent writer in the Scientific American Supplement (April 5, 1013)-

With the ordinary three-rudder system, the ailerons are used to correct disturbances of lateral equilibrium when running straight, to produce banking when about to turn, and when turning to prevent increase of hank due to the difference of the wing velocities. They cannot, however, as ordinarily employed suffice when turning, since owing to the difference in the wing velocities the drag on the outer one is more than that on the inner. To compensate for this the rudder has to be deviated in the same manner as when steering a ship. An analysis of the mechanical conditions is given in the author's article on 'Steering and Warping" in AERONAUTICS, March, 1912.

If, however, the inner aileron be raised more than the outer one is depressed, the necessary drag on that side can be obtained. The adjustment must, however, be very precise or the lifts will beccne unequal and the angle of bank-will change. Doubtless, experience would enable the pilot to estimate the motion required, just as at present he has to learn the right amount of veer needed by the vertical rudder.

Certain structural advantages occur with this method of control. It is no longer necessary to arrange the elevator and vertical rudder in a complex fashion to avoid fouling, and probably balanced elevators could be attached in a more satisfactory manner than has hitherto been possible.

Similar control could, of course, be obtained with unequal warps, but the structural difficulties are considerable. The natural analogies, of course, suggest such an arrangement. A machine whose wings can be independently warped and having no vertical rudder resembles more closely a flving animal than any aeroplane yet built. Evidently the controls would need to be capable of interconnection or not at will, i. e., the ailerons or warping

would be equilibrated or not, according as mere lateral balance or steering is the object to be attained.—By Prof. Herbert Chantley B.Sc., M.I.C.E.I., A'.F.Ae'S., in British Aeronautics.

HANDICAPPING AEROPLANES.

With the revived or increased interest ir flying in this country it is to be hoped wc may have some handicao races this year.

For obtaining the "dope" on the various machines, preliminary flights may be callec for over a specified course with and agains the wind to obtain a mean speed and tin difference in the times between one machim and another can he allowed in the handicaj races, provided that the time made by tin same machine in an actual race does no differ from the test speed by more than per cent. Any greater difference is pre sumptive evidence of faking in the prelim inary. By setting this percentage of vari ance the results then depend upon skilfi: flying, condition of engine, etc., and mak the contests real tests of fitness of man an machine.

A method used recently in France may b of interest. The time of the handicap i obtained by the differences in the theoret cal speed and is obtained for each machin by the following formula:

T = 20 A V AL for monoplanes. N

and T = 2iA N AL for biplanes. N

T equals the theoretical duration of tl flight; A is the distance to be traveled; < is the useful load (pilot, passenger, ballas fuel, etc.); N power of the motor in 1IJ which is worked out by the formula cite above.

"There is this objection to this systen A 50 h.p. machine might be tested in a . mile wind, then T is to be found, o.k. Siq pose the machine is capable of 45 m.p.h. i still air and during race meets a 45-mi wind, T is then infinity because the machii would never return to starting point. Tl same difficulties are found in races wii motor boats under same rules where thci is a variation in the rate of the tide."

At the Hendon contests machines ai handicapped on the basis of past perforn ances and there seems to lie no trouble all.

AERONAUTICS is interesting and val able to inc. I want to show my appreci tion of what you have made the magazii and do my small part in furthering what believe to be the coming means of rap transit and the coming sport. You turn o

a -1 of a good magazine, and I want yc

to keep it going for the good of all of us

W., Pa.

AVRO SAFETY BELT.

In addition to producing Avro biplanes, hydroaeroplanes, propellers and numerous accessories for aerial work, A. Y. Roe & Co., Ltd., of Manchester, are making a very efficient safety-belt for aviators. One special feature is that the central portion, which is made of strong leather, is very deep, so that, in the case of a sudden shock, the belt is less likely to cause injury than would a narrow belt. Attached to this central part of the belt are two adjustable straps, which are connected to two elastic members by being looped through a ring and secured by a cotter-pin as shown. The other end of the clastic strands are attached

AVRO

to some convenient part of the aeroplane. The little cotter-pins are attached by small straps to the belt, and all that is necessary for the aviator to do when he requires to release himself is to pull either the one or the other of the straps and so withdraw the respective pin, thus disconnecting the belt from the elastic cables. As previously mentioned, the loop-straps are adjustable, so that the belt can be made to suit varying requirements. A rather good point about this device consists of the fact that, as the aviator has to get into the belt by the use of the release arrangement, he also knows that it is in order. Furthermore, the belt can be released on either the left-hand or right-hand side. It sells for $10.

KAMP'S AUTOMATIC STABILITY.

Walter Y. Kainp offers the suggestion that ailerons and flexible wing tips be allowed to do their own stabilizing work, after experimenting with models and kites. His idea is to let the two ailerons be interconnected by one cable which runs only over half the circumference of a large pulley, and let the increased pressure of the air on one act as the force to decrease that one's angle and increase the angle of the other.

He also has devised the universal control illustrated. Tilting the normally horizontal lever up or down actuates the elevator,

swinging it from side to side turns the vertical rudder, while the aileron or warping cables may be engaged and operated simultaneously with the rudder by pressure of

the foot on a pedal which presses the pulley around which the aileron cables run into frietional contact with the rudder pulley.

The aileron pulley is normally kept disengaged by a coil spring. All this is clearly shown in the sketch.

ADVERTISING TALKS II.

Some 66 aeroplanes of domestic manufacture were exported during the last 22 months, which probably sold for, without including duty, more than $330,000.

Were any of these sold by catalogue? How many were sold by representatives of American makers? Were any of these sold except through our aeronautical magazines, at least indirectly, to be most modest Some of these were sold directly as the result of an advertisement in Aeronautics. Others were so frequently described and commented upon that attention of foreign buyers was demanded. It is not unlikely that Aeronautics can claim credit for some share of this result when it is considered that this magazine is known all over the world as the pioneer organ in America and accepted as the one official journal of the industry here.

Everything is in the point of view the aviator who seems to us to be flying upside down looks quite normal to the people of .Mars. -P.vcning Sun.

The Journal of the U. S. Artillery indexes but two American air magazines, and AERONAUTICS usually has the preference in point of articles indexed.

M. V. P. B. A. TO HAVE FLYING BOAT RACE.

At the convention of the Mississippi Valley Power Boat Association in Chicago, March 6, the Association adopted two flying boat classes and restrictions and arrangements have been placed in charge of the committee, Com. James A. Pngh and J. YV. Sackrider. The first regatta of the season will be held at Peoria July 2-4 and the first flying boat contest will be held then. For blanks address Secretary M. A. Hoag, 517 Fulton St., Peoria, 111.

The M. V. P. B. A. is the largest similar organization in the country and the first to recognize the flying boat. The Association already has assurance from the leading builders of flying boats that they will be represented.

SPERRY GYRO STABILIZER.

Lawrence F>. Sperry is still in Paris equipping a Curtiss flying boat with the gyroscopic stabilizer, of which details were published in the February 14 issue. As soon as

the Government through the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, in the preparation for the motor boating and flying boating public, of special charts and courses that are to be somewhat similar in design and issue, to the road maps used by automobilists.

ST. LOUIS TO HAVE NATIONAL RACE.

Due to the efforts of A. B. Lambert and Robert Nolker, president of the St. Louis Aero Club, who guarantees the prize, the National elimination balloon race will be held from Priesters Park, St. Louis, July 4. 1914, with $2,500 in prizes, besides the honor of contesting for the third place on the international team. LTpsou and Honeywell have been appointed for two of the teams in recognition of good work abroad.

It is also expected to hold a balloon race in Portland, Ore., June 11 to 14, in which $3,000 cash prizes are offered. Mr. Jos. M Rieg of that city has just left for home, with six entries in his pocket. All are anxious to start from that point,

ity of gas put her out of the running.

Geo. M. Myers, president of the Kansas City Aero Club, is making great preparations to entertain and pull off one of the largest races, by far, ever held in this country, on October 6. Fourteen entrants are assured with cash prizes amounting to $7,200, of Kansas City's fall week of festivities. The international ballon race will be the main feature.

TECH BUILDS AERODYNAMIC LABORATORY.

The first structure that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has caused to be erected for its own uses on its site in Cambridge is the new aerodynamic laboratory. The building is finished and the apparatus is in process of installation. Thi< together with the fact that Technology has already instituted courses ir the study of this science makes i' the first college in the land to ht fitted to prepare students for wha must in the future be an exceed ingly imporant line of development

The equipment first installed i.1 the four-foot wind tunnel with iu accompanying blower. This is o1 the pattern now in use at the Na tional Physical Laboratory at Ted dington, England.

Aeronautics comes under the de partment of Naval Architecture ant Lieutenant Jerome C. Ilunsaker ha: been detailed in charge of the in struction.

ARMY FLYING.

The fiviug records of officers o the S. C.'A. S., San Diego, Cal.. fo the week ending March 7, 1914- a'-' as follows: Number flights, 37; tiiiT in air, m hours. 27 minutes; passen gers carried, 29.

Summary, Jam'arv 1, to March 7 1914' Number flights, 693; time ii air, 175 hours, 32 minutes; passen gers carried. 318.

For the week ending March 14 1Q14, the total number of flight were 30; total time in the air, ! hours, 31 minutes; passengers car ried, 21.

Summary, January 1, March 14 1914—Total number of flights, 723 total time iu air, 184 hours. 3 min utes; passengers carried, 339.

the Contest Committee of the safety prize competiion appoints a date a demonstration will be given, probably on the Seine. The illustration shows the latest device which has been installed.

AIR TOURING MAPS.

The National Association of Engine & Boat Mfrs. is working with the idea in view of co-operating with

as it offers best oil gas and a low altitude. Some world records may be looked for.

The Oakland (Cal.) Chamber of Commerce was out with a bid of $3,500 for the National balloon race. This offer was made through the Pacific Aero Club of San Francisco. Guy T. Slaughter, president. The Dallas (Tex.) Chamber of Commerce would have been a hot competitor for the race, but poor qual-

TASCIIENBUCII DER LUFT FLOTTEN mit hesonderer Beriick sichtigung der Kriegs-Luftflotten I. Jahrgang 1914. Mit teilwei.se Beniitzung amtlicher Ouellen, he rausgegebeu von F. Rasch, General sekretar des deutschen Luftfahrci Verbandes, und \V. Hormel. Kap itanleutnant a. 1). Mit 545 Bildcri und Skizzeu. Miinchen, J. F. Leh mann's Verlag. Preis gcbunden M 5-

Lists all the dirigibles and aerc planes of the world with photos am scale drawings, directory of maul factnrers, clubs, motor builders— complete compendium of world trad data.

INSURANCE AND AVIATION.

1'y a recent decision of tile Ap- Insurance Co. for $15,000 and this

pellate Division of the Supreme company paid up on tiie usual basis

Court (Jan. 1914), in the case without question, the plaintiff states,

of A. N. Kidgely vs. Aetna Life In- The point which is not decided in

suranee Co., a person engaging in this case at all is whether flying

the business of flying an aeroplane aeroplanes or ascending in balloons

after having taken out accident pol- and airships may be considered as

icy as a financial writer, for in- lecreation when such is not indulged

stance, is not in a position to recover in as a business or for experimenta-

for disability the same amounts as he tion.

would had be not engaged in avia- The persnnai opinion of Vice-

tii.it. Mr. Kidgely took out a policy President Walter C. Faxon of the

r.f $30,000 with the above company. Aetna companv is that flving is not

stating his occupation as financial rccreatjon. l{ surelv is' when one

writer and subscribing to a statement call buv tjckets in New York from

that he did not contemplate any one 0f "the steamship lines for a

hazardous undertaking. At the time tl.ip in all ajrshjp jn Germany. Many

he had had an aeroplane constructed 10urjsts take this trip and certainly

and a month after the policy was such tnlVL., can he ca]]e(] nothing

issued he essayed to make a test else ,ha„ recreatiml. Many pr0mi-

Bight in the absence of his aviator nclU men an over (ile world take

Kussell, though be claimed in court flis,,n „it]l avjators t0 enjoy the nov-

le had no intention ot trying the e,fy (lf the experience and surelv

machine himself when he went to tha, is recreation and these cases

he field. should not come under the $500 The defendant company claimed

hat its "Classification Manual for

risk limit.

Wcident Insurance," "of" whi'cTh the , While the application made to the

Jourt states the plaintiff had con- Standard company had the answer

itructive knowledge, lists an aero- "Xo" to the question "Have you

laut (sic), navigator, owner, ex- m contemplation any * * hazard-

lerimenter and inventor as an extra ous undertaking.'"' this company

lazardous risk and sets the limit of states it "has built up a large busi-

.be risk at $500. As accident insur- ness bY "ot °»ly heing just to its

nice carries $5 weekly indemnitv Policy holders but in cases of doubt

for each $1,000 for total disability, leaning to the side of generosity,

mil $2.50 weekly for partial disk- Briefly we paid Mr. Kidgely $750

bility, the Court figures that with rather than contest his claim."

?5ou limit of risk the weekly in- All accident policies of all com-

leinnity tor partial disability \vould panics now have stamped on their

oe $1.25 and at this rate the Court contracts the following: "It is liere-

illowed the plaintiff $38-57- Three by understood and agreed that

judges concurred and one dissented. Policy No..... does not cover any

Aeronauts, etc., as above, are listed bodily injury, fatal or non-fatal, sus-in the Manual as non-insurable. tained by the insured while or in Another policy was held by the consequence of participating in aero-plaintiff with the Standard Accident nautics."

WHAT DOES NOT INFRINGE.

The adjudication of the Wright patent has centered discussion on \ hat devices do not infringe and how to avoid infringement. It is the opinion of one enthusiast who las entered into some of the discussions that more effort should be spent on inherent longitudinal stability rather than so much on lateral Stability as this is a minor factor lind not so important as fore and aft stability.

It is strongly contended that any aeroplane in which lateral stability is secured through depressing the high side and leaving the low side alone seemingly docs not infringe. "'In such a machine, where only the laileron on the high side is operated there is little tendency to turn and this tendency is necessary for the stabilization of the machine. If the rudder should be turned it would only operate to prevent stabilizing the machine and it would in such case be turned to the low side, which is opposite to the direction claimed in the Wright patent.

It is also alleged "that any Cur-tiss type machine can in a few minutes be changed so as not to infringe—by merely wiring the ailerons so that they can be pulled up only to depress the high side, swinging free in the streamline under normal conditions." The remarks above

would apply as regards the operation of the rudder in this instance.

In answer to the question as to whether machines of the type 1, 2 and 3 infringe, an eminent patent attorney states: "The answer is yes. Claim 3 of the Wright patent would be infringed by either of these machines, as that claim has been sustained and construed by Judge Hazel and the Court of Appeals for the second circuit."

The questions were: (1) A machine in which ailerons control stability without the use of rudder. (2) A machine having ailerons but no rudder. (3) A machine having warping planes but no rudder.

Ci-eil Peoli. who has owned Captain llahlw in's Red Devil for the last two years. Iris sailed for Venezuela for an exhibition tour. Peoli will fly a plane of his own design and eviiects *o b<- 'ji.n« "lWl Inly 1.

Mayor Pdankenbnrg of Philadelphia on May 1 will rcchristen Dr. Thomas l'.dwin F.hlridge's balloon, recently purchased from Leo Stevens, lis new name will be Greater Philadelphia.

The ,v) h.p. Gyro-motored W ight is creating a sensation at llendon.

SOME NEW RECORDS

II nrld's Passenger Altitude Record—Flying the 160-h.p. Paul Schmitt bipane with wings of variable incidence, Garaix reached a height of 5,700 feet with six passengers, on January 31. at Chartres.

Feb. 3 JoirAN'NisriiAi. (Germany) World's Duration Record—Leaving here at S a. 111. on a Pfeil biplane with lon-h.p. Alercedes engine, 15. Langer kepi in the air until 10.15 P-m. It has been stated that the pilot passed the time away by reading.

Feb. 4 Chartres—World's Passenger Ilcitjlit Record—Flying the same machine as he used for his previous records, Garaix rose to an altitude of 7,550 feet with five passengers 011 board, thereby beating the record previously established by Sablatnig.

Feb. 6 Ciiartrks World's Passenger Height Record—Garaix again beat one of these records on the same machine by rising to 9,000 feet with four passengers on board.

Feb. 7—AluLitAt'SEM (Germany)— Pi'orld's Duration Record—Flying an Aviatik biplane fitted with a 100-h.p. Merceries, the German pilot Ingold kept in the air for 16 hours 20 minutes without alighting, shortly before midnight. Of petrol and oil there were carried 132 and gallons

respectively.

Feb. 11—Jon axn isthal—World's Passenger Height Record—The records established in France continue to fall before those made in Germany. Thelen, flying an Albatros biplane, ascended to 9,350 feet with four passengers on board.

Jonannisthal—Another remarkable duration flight was made by Langer, who was attempting to regain the record from Ingold. Owing to shortage of petrol, however, he was obliged to alight after 16 hours of flying, thus failing his end by only 20 minutes. The landing was made before midnight near Posen.

Mar. 20—Joiiaxn isthal (Germany)— World's Passenger Height Record—The altitude record of 12.-^3 feet for an aeroplane flight with three passengers was established here by Robert Thelen. The previous record was held by the French aviator Garaix, who. on March 2, attained an altitude of 10,890 feet at Chartres. France.

March 24 JoiiAXXisTiiAi.— World Two-Man Height Record Linnc-kogel, a German aviator, to-day established a world's altitude record for a fight with one passenger in an aeroplane by attaining a height of 18,050 feet in his monoplane.

The previous record for a flight with one- passenger was made by the late Edmund Pcrreyon. a Frenchman, who. on June 3. 1913. rose to a height of 16.270 feet.

('. Ingold, who established a new world's record for cross-country flight and stayed in the air sixteen hours and twenty minutes without landing, Hew an Avialik-Pfeil biplane, p iwered with a Mercedes motor wl'ch was "Piosch-Fquippeel, of course."

THE TRANS-ATLANTIC FLIGHT.

To the Editor of Aeronautics:

The writer believes that the trans-Atlantic flight for which Lord Northcliffe offers $50,000 is accomplishable with some of the present-day aeroplanes, with some changes and additions, and that this flight will be accomplished this year; also, that the round-the-world trip for which the Panama-Pacific Exposition directors offer a total of $300,000 in prizes, can and will be attained next year if certain advanced principles of aviation making for efficiency and safety are carried out; for it requires an average flight of only 200 miles per day to cover the distance of, let us say, 18,000 miles in the 90 days allowed; and some of the minor prizes for partial success are surely worth while also.

In regard to the trans-Atlantic flight, the futility of attempting it with enormous, unwieldy, untried aeroplanes, as some propose, should he apparent. But suppose we take one of the most efficient of the present aeroplanes in regard to useful weight-carrying per horsepower and miles covered per gallon of gasoline. It should have two propellers of large diameter and slow speed of revolution, besides variable angle of incidence and blades inclined slightly forwards for further efficiency, the increased amount of undisturbed air acted on in the flaring slip-stream of such a propeller more than compensating for the small loss from the slight angle of the thrust, as demontrated with the celebrated Garuda propeller of Europe. The propellers should, of course, revolve balancedly in opposite directions by means of a single chain (as can be easily arranged). Then let us add another engine and another set of such propellers, locating the latter above and below center, with clutches for shifting either engine to either set of propellers. Then, on either side of the lateral set of propellers already mentioned, let us provide two more such propellers, with half-size, direct-connected engines for each propeller and a toggle-jointed, slip-jointed, bevel-geared shaft connecting them for keeping these outer lateral propellers in unison, the advantage being that only any temporary difference in the power of the two engines would be transferred to the other and hence very little power lost in transmission. Then, for greater weight-carrying, instead of making the planes laterally wider and hence harder—■ and practically impossible—to brace and strengthen properly, I would add two more planes, making the machine a quadriplane, but back-stepping these extra planes instead of superposing them, thus securing nearly monoplane lift efficiency; for M. Eiffel's experiments (described in "AERONAUTICS," April, 1913, p. 132, by M. B. Sellers) show that the upper plane of an exactly superposed biplane has one-half more lift than the lower one ("the upper plane behaved as if alone, while the lower plane showed a lift one-third less"), evidently because of the upper plane throwing air down onto the top side of the lower plane, the suction on the one side of a plane or propeller (revolving plane) being a negligible disturbance as compared with the push given the air on the opposite side of the aero-

AERO SCIENCE BULLETIN I.

The Aero Science Club has been Science Club and each branch will

organized by college and other stu- elect its own officers,

dents to foster aeronautics among For every five additional members

the young men and boys. The dues the Director will donate a sterling

are $3 a year. Each member re- silver medal to be competed for as

ceives the magazine AERONAU- the officers of that branch may di-

TICS for a year and an engraved rect. Prizes for the best design of

membership certificate. In AERO- club pin, flag, membership certificate,

NAUT1CS will be published each etc., will be offered by the Director,

issue, semi-monthly, a bulletin an- Members of all branches in the

nouncing the titles of essays and vicinity of Greater New York are

lectures delivered at the various invited to take part in contests to be

branches of the A. S. C, with the held at Van Cortlandt park for

names of new branches, officers, etc., the greatest distance flown during

as they are organized throughout 1914 for a model aeroplane starting

the country. The most important from the ground. This yearly trophy

papers will appear in full with dis- has been donated by F. L. Ilerres-

cussions. Each year interbranch or hoff—a silver cup—and contests are

co-operative conferences are planned held every Saturday afternoon,

to be held at the various colleges weather permitting,

and schools. For further particulars, address

Five or more persons in a vicinity Edward Durant, Director, Room 827,

may organize a branch of the Aero World Building, New York.

plane or propeller (as is proved by holding one's hand alternately in front and in rear of a revolving propeller or electric fan); and, coinciding with these facts, A. Tcherscher-sky, of the Imperial Polytechnic, St. Petersburg, has found that a back-stepped (completely back-staggered) biplane gives 15 to 20 per cent, more lift than a superposed one and 30 to 40 per cent, more lift than one staggered in the ordinary way, besides better longitudinal stability. (See London "Aeronautics," July, Sept. and Nov., 1913.)

Therefore these two extra planes should be located, one completely in front and as far below the lower plane as the width fore and aft, and the other plane completely in rear and as far above as this depth; so that these two added planes would each yield monoplane efficiency, or the same as Eiffel found for the upper plane of a superposed biplane. Thus, with these six propellers and four planes, the aeroplane's lifting capacity would be practically tripled and the speed increased about 25 per cent., with the angle of incidence remaining the same and the head resistance doubled for the same speed but increased probably 50 per cent, more at the increase speed.

The machine should, of course, be a hydroaeroplane, and for safety there should be lateral resistance surfaces co-operating with the rear vertical rudder for steering, but no fixed horizontal-rudder surface; while an automatic balancing device—instantly suspendable, however— might be added to relieve the aviator when tired.

The writer is convinced that a safe aeroplane of more than twice the present greatest efficiency will be made: in fact, aerodynamical experiments already made show that this is possible to-day, and it seems more than probable that such a machine will win the prize for the round-the-world flight next year. In a subsequent communication the writer may give his conception of this coming flying machine—having concluded to give to the world all my ideas on aviation instead of patenting them, hoping thus to aid aviation's advance. These ideas relate to inherent and automatic stability devices, coping with so-called "air-holes," more efficient parachutes, multiplanes, helicopters, vertical and hovering flight, speed variation, reciprocating and feathering

propellers, greater efficiency oil planes, propellers and controls, upper-side air-rarifaction, suggestion; for aerodynamic research, learniuj Nature's secrets of flight, etc.

Yours very truly,

Elmer G. Still.

AERO MART1

no-h.p. MOTOR for sale. Spec tally built, 8 cylinder V, 4^ by 7 water cooled, built by Christie Ma chine Co. for C. K. Hamilton Flown by him at Belmont and Sac ramento. Cost $5,000. Perfec condition, ready to put in 'plane Can be seen any day. Run no more than 4 hours total in flight $1,000 cash onlv. Address Hamilton c/o AERONAUTICS.

DRAFTSMAN—Can draw an., trace. Equipped with instrument and reference books. Two year experience on milling machine, dril press and erecting floor; also wit auto engines. Will accept positioi in aeronautic line for living e>, penses until services prove wortl of more. K, c/o AERONAUTICS

ONE-THIRD INTEREST in pat ent offered to partner with capita to build and manufacture aeroplane; Address M., Caie AERONAUTIC?

MODERN AERO QUARTERLY

Eight pages, illustrated. Excels al others. 10 cents yearly (Canada 1 cents). Wm. Hewitt, 111 Vz E. Dm ham St., Philadelphia, Pa.

WELL-KNOWN French mouc pianist, winner of many races i Europe, is looking for a very goo manager to travel America. Is we known for looping the loop and fli ing upside down. Wants seriou] engagements. Write Geo. Cheme care Ste des Aeroplanes Borel, 2. bvd Bourdon, u Neuilly-s/-Seini France.

JHROXJUTICS, March 31, 1914

Piujc 91

THE SCHOBER FLYING BOAT MODEL

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

The flying boat model shown in the accompanying drawing was con structed by Mr. Frank Schober, of Brooklyn, X. Y., and is the first successful model of this type in America, as far as can be ascertained, and possibly in the world. It is of very excellent construction throughout, as are all of Mr. Scholar's models, and when tested out some time ago this model arose from the water and ilew several hundred feet on its first effort.

The boat or hull of the model. 28" in length, is built up of Ys" spruce. It has two steps, each 24" high, the front step being 12" from the bow of the boat and the rear step 9" from the front step. The boat is 3" wide and 3" deep at its deepest part, just at the front step. It is covered with silk and then made absolutely waterproof with Ambroid varnish. The boat weighs 2Y2 ounces and has a buoyancy of 6 pounds.

The planes are of the shape and dimensions shown and are built up of bamboo and spruce, the main wing bar being of Y2" by 5/32" spruce and the ribs, which are double, are of bamboo. The upper ribs extend half-way back on the plane and both ribs, the upper and lower, come together at the entering edge of the plane, and are glued in a slot in the bamboo strip which forms the entering edge of the plane. The construction is clearly shown in the detail sketch. The covering is of silk and is first glued on the under side of the planes and then brought over the top and glued thereon, the covering ending at the center of the plane at the ends of the upper ribs. The planes resemble those on the Caudron machines and are beautiful specimens of workmanship. The two main planes are connected by four struts of spruce 6" long, Y&" thick and y2" wide, cut to streamline form. Two of the struts are placed at the extreme ends of the lower plane, the remaining two at the center 3$" apart. The struts are secured to the planes by slotting their ends, the slots fitting around the main beam in each plane and secured thereto by means of a small brad and glue. (See detail sketch.) The lower main plane rests on the boat and the elevator is pivoted to an upright strut at the front of the boat as shown.

About i V4" below the upper main plane and secured to the two center struts and also supported by two pieces of umbrella rib extending up from the rear of the float is the motor stick which is of balsa wood 38" in length and by H" i"

thickness, rounded off to a streamline form. Extending up from the front of the boat is a spruce strut which is secured to the motor stick bv an aluminum clip. Secured^ to the rear end of the motor stick, behind the main planes is a gearing with a two to one ratio upon which is mounted the three-bladed propeller.

The propeller is 12" in diameter and has a pitch of 12". It is cut from white pine, the three blades being each cut separately and the three mortised together at the hub. The joint at the hub is done in such

39 • o^c.}

20

an ingenious manner that it is scarct-ly perceptible.

The gearing is driven by two motors of 15 strands each of flat rubber.

MODEL CLUB NOTES.

The first semi-annual meet and exhibit of the Kansas City Model Aero Club was held at Swope Park on the afternoon of Saturday, February 14th, with surprising and excellent results.

For models rising from the ground, three prizes were offered, two cups and one medal. These three prizes were all won by Mr. Arthur S. John-sun whose model was a Bleriot type furnished by the Wading River Mfg. Co., with a flight of 632 feet. This is fjuite a wonderful feat for a model of this type.

In the contest for hand launched models there were eighteen entrants, four of which were girls, three of the girls winning prizes.

The results as follows: First, Miss Mildred Berlin. 1,296 feet: second, Arthur S. Johnson, 962 feet; third, Miss Alice Boyce, S32 feet; fourth, Miss Enla Thompson, S03 feet. Special prize for duration, Ferdinand Bolo, 42 seconds.

Excellent flying was done by the members of the St. Louis Mcebl Aero Club at a contest held a few-weeks ago. The contest for ban 1 launched models was won with a flight of 2,100 feet and the R. O. C. contest was won with a flight of 725 feet starting against the vinl and curving with it. The weather was very inclement and many mud-els were smashed. The club is fast improving both as to members and results. Many of the members arc working along scientific lines. One of the members has a marvelously light two-cylinder steam engiiv which he intends to place in a mod I he is building for it. The engine itself weighs four ounces, but the boiler brings the weight up to much more. The president of the club Mr. Waldo G. Clegg is the possessor of a propeller testing machine with which he is collecting some interest ing data in regard to model pro pellers. also the number of turns permissible with different numbers of strands and different length motors.

WARXEXDE STIMMEX IX BEZl'G AUF ZKPFEI.IX BALLOONS, by Victor Silbcrcr. 161110.. paper. 34 pp., published by L. W. Seidel & Sohii, Vienna, Austria.

29 WEST 39TH STREET NEW YORK

TELEPHONE BRYANT 4600

OFFICIAL BULLETIN.

Notice to Members.

At a meeting of the directors of the Aeronautical Society, February 19, 1914. it was voted that the magazine AERONAUTICS be sent to every member in good standing as one of the benefits of membership and that the said journal be made the bulletin and official organ of the society.

In order that members may obtain the benefit of this arrangement, it is earnestly requested that those in arrears place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible date.

Announcements of meetings, papers presented, lecturers and other notices ot the society will, until fin liter notice, be published in AERONAUTICS, which will be mailed on the 15th and 30th of each month to members in good standing.

Membership Certificates.

Engraved membership certificates, size 11 in. by 14 in., hand imprinted oil Japan vellum, suitable for framing, are now prepared and will be sent to all members in good standing and to all members elected in future.

The first twenty-five impressions of the new membership certificate will be auctioned off at the general meeting of April 9.

Next General Meeting.

The next general meeting of the Aeronautical Society will be held Thursday evening, April 9, in the

rooms at 29 West 39th Street, at 8:30 o'clock.

Speakers.

RUDOLPH IlANAl", of Darmstadt Technical University, will give an illustrated lecture on "GENEALOGY OF MACHINE PARTS," with special reference to aeronautics.

GEORGE CLISTON, of the firm of Herbert & lluesgen, will discuss AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, the photographing of aircraft from the ground and the ground from aircraft, with practical demonstrations and exhibits of the proper apparatus and products.

New Members.

Rudolph R. Grant, Box 254, Nor folk, Ya.

Subsequent Meetings.

Future genera] meetings will be held May 14 and June 11. At the May 14 meeting the evening will be principally devoted to late developments in aeronautics as portrayed by lantern pictures of new aircraft and accessories, with a popular series of pictures of general aeronautic interest.

^e*° Club

r

OFFICIAL BULLETIN

OFFICERS.

Clarence P. Wynne, President. Jos. A. Steinmetz, 1st Vice-President. W'm. D. Harris, 2nd Vice-President. George S. Gassner, Secretary Laurence Maresch, Treasurer.

DIRECTORS.

Arthur T. Atherholt. II. F. Bamberger. Dr. Samuel C. Falls.

Harold H. Knerr. Wm. II. Sheahan. Walter S. Wheeler.

Office of the Club, Bellevue-Stratford, Phila., Pa.

On March 26 Colonel Samuel Reber, U. S. A., delivered an address on "Recent Progress in Military Aeronautics" at a joint meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania and Franklin Institute.

TO DETECT SIDE DRIFT.

Jos. E. Bissell snggests a device to detect side drift of helicopter in which he hangs a pendulum to the upright of the helicopter. An indicating needle is attached to the upper end of the pendulum so as to show against a circular scale graduated in 10 mile marks at either side. The idea is in starting, level, the idiot mav steer west. If the machine is blown a hundred miles off to Other side the gyroscope will cant over at an angle which would be indicated on the scale as the pendulum always hangs plumb.

NEW CORPORATIONS.

Batson Air Navigation Co., Savannah, Ga., $250,000. M. A. Bat-son, president.

The Western Canadian Aviation Co., Ltd. (Winnipeg), promoters and exploiters of aviation for commercial, recreative and other purposes; capital stock, $10,000, divided into 100 shares of $100 each. Incorporators: Frederick 1*'. R. Minchin, William Y. Miles, (diaries S. A. Rogers, George O. Hughes and James A. Heskcth

On March f> wireless messages were sent and received between Roy

Knabenshue's dirigible and the station at San Pedro, 40 miles distant.

During the flight Roy Knabenshue was at the pilot wheel, Hayes op-crated the wireless and L. Armstrong, assistant pilot; E. Ililson, assistant to Hayes. H. May, Joseph J. Ileit and F." A. Scott we're the other passengers.

failure to fly a contract made with a Japanese promoter, who claims he must commit hara kari because of Beachey's attitude.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Company has been granted judgment by default yesterday in its suit against R. C. St. Henry, the aviator, for $335 due on a note given to Glenn IT. Curtiss for cash advanced in 1911, and $957.74 for goods and merchandise bought from the Curtiss Inhibition Company, both with interest.

The Wright Aeroplane owned by C. P. Rogers was sold at a constable sale on March q at Barnesville, O. Mrs. Rogers and aviator Wiggins brought the machine there last fall during the fall races and were scheduled for two flights, but during the first one the machine fell, wrecking it and slightly injuring Wiggins. By the time it was rebuilt the repairmen feared to allow the machine to be risked in flight.

Lincoln Beachey is being sued for $100,000 damages for alleged

"Jack" Vilas and \V. S. Bestas are among those reported to be figuring on the trans-Atlantic trip.

Haldemann von Figyelnessy, a Curtiss pilot, intends to fly 3,000 feet high, tumble out of his machine and fall gently to earth with Leo Stevens' safety parachute pack. The parachute is now carried in a drawer at any convenient part of his aeroplane. The drawer automatically releases the parachute when he is ready to tumble. The aeroplane will be smashed, of course, but the moving picture people will reimburse him if the feat is successful.

The A. C. of Illinois has appointed a cup challenger committee to consider providing a machine and pilot for the international 'plane race.

C. C. Witmer, with Miss Margaret White and a mechanic, flew after the SS. Miami on March 24, landed Miss White on board the ship and delivered mail after ascertaining the ship's position by wireless of 30 miles out from Miami, Fla.

Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics

BY

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 250 West 54th Street New York Telephone, Columbus 8721 Cable, Aeronautics, New York

ERNEST L. JONES M. B. SELLERS, HARRY SCHULTZ, C. A. BE1ER,

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Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a Copy.

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Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their subscription is to be continued.

RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

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Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types

INVENTORS' MODELS

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Estimates made from drawings. Low prices.

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AERONAUTICS

New and Enlarged Editioo, Commencing January, 1914

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to theTechnique and Industry of Aeronautics

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar Eighty-five Cents : Post Free

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JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES ARTILLERY

A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.

Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.

$2.50 a yeat.

With Index to Current Military Literature, $2.75.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

PHOSPHORESCENT AIRCRAFT AND LANDING STAGES.

Lecture Before The Aeronautical Society, February 13, 1914. By William J. Hammer.

At the general meeting of The Aeronautical Society, held February 13. 1914, Mr. William J. Hammer, consulting electrical engineer and vice-president of the Society, gave the first public demonstration of the method invented and patented by him for producing brilliant colored phosphorescent materials and demonstrated before an enthusiastic audience the possibilities of the application of these materials in connection with aerial navigation.

Mr. Hammer showed a variety of objects covered with his luminous materials, which were in some cases, applied in the form of paint; and in other cases the materials were embodied with clay, enamel and other substances, including some specimens containing a trace of radium. All these objects glowed most beautifully in the dark after exposure to a Cooper-Hewitt mercury arc lamp, which Mr. Hammer stated he had found most useful as a stimulating agent, though he says there are various other means which might be employed. Naturally sunlight forms a most efficient and economical method of stimulation and with certain materials the "phosphorescent glow" lasts for hours but at times it will be necessary during the night to periodically re-stimulate the surfaces by means of the mercury arc lamp, searchlight or other means. The length of time the phosphorescent glow lasts depends upon the kind of material, its color, the amount of the material and the character of—and length of—the stimulation.

Among the objects shown illustrating the possibilities of the inven-

tion to aerial navigation at night were about a dozen small model aeroplanes in various colors, which glowed beautifully in the dark for a considerable period after exposure to the mercury arc lamp, a model of the Zeppelin dirigible, a model of a spherical balloon, and a large bouquet of cloth flowers such as ladies wear in their hats, the roses, lilies, daisies, pansies, etc., glowing brilliantly in their natural colors as the bouquet was carried about the room. Toys, statues, signs, etc., were also exhibited.

One of the most interesting things shown was a model of a luminous landing stage in white at one end of which was grouped a row of aeroplane sheds in colors with distinguishing letters and numbers on the roofs while a bright red monoplane was shown descending from the sky upon the landing stage.

It is self-evident that aerial night travel by aeroplane dirigible and spherical balloon must become extensively employed at a no distant date and means must be used to give light about the aerial vehicles and also to notify the aerial traveler of the whereabouts of safety landing stages.

Upon dark nights the pilot observing a tiny patch of "condensed moonlight" far below him will descend with perfect assurance that he will not only find there a haven for himself and his machine, gasoline or repair material, but be will feel assured that no buildings, wires.

trees or other obstructions are in the immediate neighborhood; and, furthermore, there will be no confusing glare to endanger his landing.

Mr. Hammer explained that while he was the first person to demonstrate the application of phosphorescent materials in the field of aeronautics, ordinary luminous paints and compounds have been employed for various other purposes but they were very unsatisfactory as to quality and gave only a green:sh-b!ue light, producing an uncanny and ghostly effect, whereas by his system variovs brilliant colors could be produced from one common substance and he had succeeded in making, among other things, a very white phosphorescent material. l'rolessor Walther Nernst, one of the Lading chemists of the world, told Mr. Hammer after witnessing experiments in Mr. Hammer's laboratory, that he was the only man in the world who had been able to make a white phosphorescent material. Mr. Hammer worked for a number of years endeavoring to apply his theory of combining phosphorescence and fluorescence in his production of colored phosphorescent material. lie ."i-nally succeeded and the discovery formed the basis for his invention.

Those who are interested in looking further into the process will hud it fully explained in bis U. S. Patent entitled "Art of Making Phosphorescent Colors," No. 12,812, of June 16, 1908.

An advertiser's standing is often judged by the size of his space. At any rate, large space has its psychological effect. Exports by our advertisers total over $150,000 for twelve months. The War Departments of every principal foreign country are paid subscribers.

AEROPLANES

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to Specifications HALL-SCOTT MOTORS, 40-60-80 H. P. TRAINING GROUNDS Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY

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THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN

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Leading Sportsmen use a Stevens Outfit

AIRSHIPS, AEROPLANES AND BALLOONS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION

USED BY NINETY-FIVE PER CENT. OF THE CLUBS IN THIS COUNTRY AND CANADA

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ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation now open at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school is under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus.

We also conduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

The Xew Benoist Flijintj Boat in Action

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50 H.P.

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Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

"FLIGHT"

July 26th, 1913

"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling: attention to the GYRO engine (50 h. p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward fliyrht."

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

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THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

"REMARKABLE PROPELLERS"

Are those which are able to show results anywhere near to the ordinary performance of two-and three-bladed PARAGONS. The making of constant change, refinement and improvement is a feature of all PARAGON designing, but here are a few figures for the year 1913 : Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., February 8, 1913. Curtiss 8' dia. x5' pitch—Revolutions 1225—Flying speed 54.5 miles per hour. Paragon 8'dia.x5' pitch—Revolutions 1244—Flying speed 56.5 miles per hour. Weight of Machine 133.3 lbs. Load carried 563 lbs. Total weight 1900 lbs. Report of Gerald Hartley, Providence, R. I. ( Curtiss Flying Boat) October 13, 1913. Curtiss Two-blade, 8' dia. —Rev. 1250, Thrust 480 lbs. —Rev. 1300, Thrust 505 lbs. Paragon Three-blade, IV dia.—Rev. 1250, Thrust 570 lbs.—Rev. 1300, Thrust 580 lbs. Lieut. J. II. Towers reports to the Secretary of the Navy as follows: "The three-bladed PARAGON gives more thrust and mor; speed than any propeller we hive had."

THE AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Batimore, Md\

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