Volume 14 - No. 5 - 1914 March
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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V. No. 5
MARCH 15, 1914
TH WHICH IS COMBINED
Official Organ and Bulletin—Aero Club of Pennsylvania The Aeronautical Society
Press Despatches Say:
"Mountains Check Birdman's Flight"
Silas Christofferson flew well enough with his old motor until he faced the perils of Tejon Pass. There he paused long enough to install a
Curtiss 0-X Motor
With this he continued safely to San Diego.
Let us give you motor facts
THE CURTISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake St., Hammondsport, N. Y.
tding aeronautical pilots the world over give preference to the
There are nearly two million in use. Surely that is sufficient proof to convince any one that Bosch is superior; but the fact that every world's record is also a Bosch Record is conclusive evidence that Bosch merits the consideration of everyone interested in aviation.
Be Satisfied Specify Bosch
We will be glad to make magneto recommendations for your motor
Bosch Magneto Company
201 West 46th Street : New York
In anszvcring advertisements please mention this magazine.
NOTES ON HYDRO-AEROPLANE FLOATS
It seems natural that speed boat designers The method used is, of course, graphical in-
shonld be the proper ones to design hydro- tegration, by dividing up the length into a large
aeroplane floats and flying boat hulls, but prac- number of parts, so that all curves can be rep-
tically all the boat builders interviewed recently resented approximately by level straight lines,
by AERONAUTICS put the problem up to the The principle involved is, of course, that the
aeroplane maker, and the aeroplane maker first and second integral curves of loading
seems to agree in this. curve are the sheering and bending moment
But one of our aeroplane makers is experi- curves respectively. If an ''integraph" can be
enced in boat building and the success achieved borrowed (costing about $200) much time can
by the others is the more remarkable. Some be saved, notes from British sleronauiics on the subject
of design are of interest. I
fle-thod of ObTsining Curves of loading Stiver and BandiTg Moments
A boat or float of any description can be considered as a floating beam, the loading on which (if any) will be the algebraic sum of the buoyancy and weight at every transverse section, the whole being in equilibrium. In a hydro-aeroplane there need be no provision against a concentrated weight, since the weight of the aeroplane above can be spread over a large portion of the total length, and so lessen the loading, sheer forces and bending moments, especially if it is placed on a separate girder first. The curves of weight, load, sheering force and bending moment, illustrated in Fig. 1, are made as simple as possible. Then a stepped hydroplane float, when planing, will be supported approximately on points, and is therefore analogous to a girder supported on two or more points with a varying load. A brief outline of the work done in designing-ordinary ships will be given, applied to the case of a simple float.
When the maximum bending moment can be measured off the curve, and the position at which it occurs, we can proceed to work out the maximum tensile and compressive forces in any part. The moment of inertia of any section (such as in Fig. 2) can be easily worked out. The method is as follows: Take any line as an axis of reference, or assumed axis, anywhere, horizontal.
Then for any part vertical, the area will be d X / sq. inches, and its moment about assumed axis = d X t X h. Its M.I. (moment of inertia) about its own N.A. (neutral axis, or axis through obvious C.G.)
= t dX-12
Its M.I. about assumed axis dr
= t d X--(- t d h-
Xow for any horizontal flat section, moment about assumed axis — d X t X h again, and
its M.I. about its own X.A. = t d X — mid
M.I. about its assumed axis = tdX--\- t d h2,
but since dr (square of small quantity) is negligible, the expression becomes / d h2.
Distance C.G. from Axis k
A h Above
Depth d of Part
Z Ah -
- Z A h
Z A ft*
2 A cP
So proceed to fill in the table above The M.I. about the assumed axis = 5 A h~ + 5 A dr. Now to find the distance of the true N.A. from the assumed position,
difference of Moments Area x —--Area
h, d, and x being in same terms, feet or inches, etc.
-Tyansvei-se SUa.m5 due. \i o
li->-ncke t~S .—
The true M.I. about true axis will be given
M.I. (assumed axis) — A (x): It is now possible to find the stress in any m y
part hy the use of P =--as usual.
A metal construction might be found to come out lighter for strength than wood, but here the question of corrosion enters. Duralumin is said to be non-affected by sea water,
so might be suitable. When considering the strength of a float one is apt to pass over the lateral construction. It is possible that the connections between the side frames and the bottom of deck beams are a source of weakness as in Fig. 3. This at any rate might be responsible for leaks round the edges. The theoretical calculation of the strength of a closed frame is rather involved and mathematical, but it is obvious that provision against this kind of distortion must be made by the use of brackets or beam knees, or by efficient bulkheads, well connected to the sides and bottom.
With regard to the length of floats. It seems that in the near future, at any rate, the use of "seafliers" (if one may add yet another name!) is quite impossible in a wind high enough to cause long waves. Therefore the best policy would be to adopt longer floats in order to be able to span as many long waves at once as possible, without getting into the impossible wave length phase. In other words, design the floats for a horizontal path over the wave tops. The danger begins when the machine starts to wobble over the waves.
Some idea of the development of airship work in Germany may be gathered from the report recently issued by the company which runs the Zeppelin dirigible "Hansa" as a commercial proposition. This vessel has just made her three-hundredth trip, having been in commission for fifteen months. In that time she has spent 632 hours in the air and has covered 34,336 kilometres (about 21,000 miles). Exclusive of her own crew, she has carried 6,337 passengers, averaging about twenty-one passengers per trip. As the passengers pay about $25 per trip, it will be seen that the income from this source alone is fairly large. But one gathers that the greater part of the profit is made by carrying advertisements at night over Berlin and other cities, the advertisements being illuminated by searchlights carried in the cars of the dirigible. The effect of these huge signs floating apparently alone in the air after dark is exceedingly striking.—The Car.
WRIGHT WHEEL CONTROL
In the new wheel control installed in the 120-h. p. Daimler-motored tractor for the Army, the usual lever system has been replaced by an automobile type of steering wheel in combination with a handle-grip which makes the control not only stronger and simpler, but makes it much more effective. Formerly the elevator was controlled by a forward and backward movement of a lever in the left hand, while the warping and rudder were controlled by the forward and backward movement of a lever in the right hand, the rudder being offset for a turn by turning the handle of this right-
hand lever. This control, which has been used ever since 1908, was very effective for exhibition flying, for which it was particularly designed, and has proven a very precise one when once mastered. But for long distance flights, many aviators found this control tiresome, and in the new and safer machine it has become necessary to modify it into the new form.
The steering wheel is of automobile type and the control is perfectly instinctive, the wheel being pushed forward and back to control the elevation of the machine, and turned from side to side to balance it laterally. In turning the wheel from side to side, the rudder grip is turned with the wheel, thus giving a perfect lateral balance, and in turns it is only necessary to off-set the rudder handle to one side or the other, still controlling the lateral position of the machine by turning the wheel and handle together sideways.
ASHMUSEN OPPOSED ENGINE
The Ashmusen Manufacturing Company, Inc., of Kings Park, Long Island, New York, now enter the market with a new type of high-grade aeronautical engine they have developed during the past six years of study, experimenting and testing. The engines are particularly adaptable to aeronautics, and have passed through the experimental stage to the last degree. The 60 horse power engines have been tested and flown in Wright type twin-screw, Curtiss tractor-type biplane, and Bleriot type monoplane, besides hundreds of block tests have been made in summer and in winter, under all sorts of weather conditions for ten hours and more at a time under full load and full speed, and with a speed variation of less ihan 10 r. p. m. during the ten hours' run. The engine runs equally as well in a downpour of rain and without any cover.
There is no vibration and there is no trail of smoke nor oil behind the engine, and after a twenty or thirty hour run at full speed the cylinders are just as clean as at the start, the makers state.
The engine is of the 8 cylinder 4 cycle type, but so made that it can be set to run clock-wise or counter clock-wise, and is arranged for dual ignition (magneto and
battery), also for crank and push-button starting.
The main front bearing is such that the engine is equally adaptable for propeller or tractor type machine, or for chain drive. The crank and cam shafts run in ball bearings of liberal size that have been thoroughly tried out.
The engine is exceptionally strongly built, using over a dozen different metals, seven kinds of steel alone. The company makes and machines all parts from true gauges, fixtures, templets, jigs, etc. Any part can be accurately duplicated.
It is not necessary to remove the engine from the 'plane for examination. In twenty minutes after stopping one can have the engine apart and examine the inside and outside of the cylinders, crank-case, pistons, rings, valves, etc. In twenty minutes more one can have the complete power plant together and running again.
The engine is automatically air-cooled. On the outer surface of the cylinders are a number of flutes, disposed around, and extending about half way the length of the cylinder, connecting together at the head end, and thence to the carburetor; thus the heated air from the outer surface of the cylinders (where one does not want the excess heat), is taken and conducted through the carburetor. With this system the cylinders are kept at a good working temperature, and the heated gas makes a very economical and more positive explosion than if it were cold. This combination also permits the use of a very low grade gasoline. The engine runs on the cheapest gasoline as well as other engines do on the high-test gasoline.
The engine has no grease cups nor oil cups; just pour oil in the oil tank. The little positive force-feed oil pump, of the company's own invention, has always lubricated the engine without fail.
Every piece and part of the engine is of liberal cross-section to give the required strength and rigidity. The crank-case is one piece, a strong, stiff, box-shape casting, with heavy lugs for fastening same to 'plane. The cylinder heads are cast en-bloc and fastened with heavy through-bolts to crank-case, making the entire unit very strong and rigid.
Messrs. H. W. and C. Ashmusen are well known engineers, having done notable engineering work in the United States, France, Germany, and for the State of New York.
The company's plant is just 25 miles east of Mineola Field on Long Island, and has often been visited by fliers from Mineola in the past five years. Many of the principal aviators around Long Island have known of the work going on at Kings Park plant, but otherwise the company has been working quietly, and have only now actively entered the market with their 60 and 90 horse power engines.
They make nothing else but these engines, have made a close study of aeronau-
tics and would be glad to have owners and makers of aeroplanes consult with them as practical engineers. They feel there is no aeronautical power problem too large for their consideration. Their regular sizes are 60 horse power and 90 horse power engines at present, but other sizes will be made to order. _
LATEST MODEL SELLERS MACHINE HAS NEGATIVE TIPS
M. B. Sellers has been flying again with his old 1909 machine, using the 8-h.p. Bates engine. The photo shows the latest modi-
fication of the machine in which, as a matter of experiment, the propeller has been placed behind on an extension shaft, a warp-able rudder used (see May, 1910, AERONAUTICS), and negative tips on lower plane. These tips, on which patent is pending, incline diagonally forward and outward.
THE 200 H. P. CURTISS MOTOR
The big 200 horse power Curtiss aeronautical motor for the Rodman Wanamaker transatlantic flier has been given a live-
hour run at moderate speed, and is said to have behaved perfectly. As the motor had had but little limbering under shop
Continued cm page 78
Probably no other art and science ir. history has been as prolific as aeronautics in the stimulation of vagaries of mind and flights of fancy.
Within the past year or so we have seen a diminution of the projects for wonderful air cruisers and passenger leviathans, and we have thought that the public had begun to have a better realization of the state of the art—perhaps, for the good of the industry, even too keen a perception. The effect of the relapse after the first flurry is known to all who have tried to continue in business the past year.
Manufacturers, dealers, aviators, experts and all the other practical men in the "aeronautical movement" have urged through AERONAUTICS a great American circuit to take the place of the ephemeral round-the-world race, on the grounds that such a circuit would insure a fair field of entrants, arouse great enthusiasm, and be of lasting benefit to the industry in this country, which would be impossible under the proposed scheme. The letters to AERONAUTICS from the eminently practical authorities are unanimous in the condemnation of the world race as opposed to the best interests of the "game."
To all sane observers there is no getting around the fact that, while a tour of the world will surely be made eventually, those enthnsiasts who have so optimistically conceived this world flight in the fervor of their enthusiasm have done so without realizing the difficulties to be met with, and that they are not those who are willing to participate. One fails to see any rising up of the aero clubs and manufacturers, here or abroad, to spend all the money which will be involved. The same prize money devoted to an American tour would substantially accomplish more toward showing what Americans can do and toward the actual development of aviation than the world race.
Then there is the L'Engle bill, asking for $15,000,000 for aeronautics. This is enough to kill anything at this time, when we are begging so hard for the small amounts asked for by the Army and Navy. Such a bill has "no more show than a stump-tailed bull in fly time." We would not know what to do with 1,000 aeroplanes of the present type, nor could we get enough aviators for them in five years. When they want such things in France, Italy and Germany, they do it by popular subscription.
That an "optimist is an ass," sometimes, is undoubtedly true, as will be realized by those who take time to stop and think. Aeronautics needs all the support it can possibly hope for. Why handicap it with all these frivolities?
Let us be "boosters" for aeronautics, and not "knockers."
INTERSTATE AIRBOAT-ING BOTHERLESS
A great step forward in the facilitation of interstate air travel is that just made by the Department of Commerce. As flying boats are now classed as motor boats, as far as their water navigation is concerned, it means that there are no state formalities to be gone through before crossing state borders. The owner of a flying boat can tour the United States without being in any way hampered by state laws, as long as his starts and finishes are on the water.
It now remains for the aeronautic interests of this country t > obtain the passage of a Federal law covering all types of machines while in the air,_ and particularly the status of strictly land machines.
Already Connecticut has passed a state registration and licensing law, and other states have had local bills before their legislatures. If active work is not soon inaugurated, there will be so many state laws as to forestall any possibility of a uniform national law. The automobilists have tried for years in vain to obtain a national registration and licensing law.
Let those who are interested in advancement boost for a national law!
One big advance has been made in the matter of flying boats and hydroaeroplanes by the action of the Department of Commerce.
This_ idea of obtaining uniform regulations for water aeroplanes was first agitated by AERONAUTICS, and later taken up by the Aeronautical Society. The action of the Department of Commerce was entirely logical and to be expected. To obtain that much progress was comparatively easy.
The big job is to bring about a Federal law covering these machines in the air, and all other machines generally, as this must be done through action of Congress. This, also, has been urged by AERONAUTICS, and as a result a start has been made by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania in introducing a bill, which was subsequently endorsed by the Aeronautical Society.
Let the boosters rule!
WRIGHT CASE STIMULATING INVENTION
Orville and Wilbur Wright have always argued that the upholding of their patent would be highly beneficial to progress in dynamic flight, as it would stimulate the invention of stabilizing devices which would not infringe the Wright system. That this prophecy is likely to he realized is evidenced from the hasty poring
over patents for ideas and for comparison and the claims being made on every side for alleged noninfringing systems.
THE DEATH OF LIEUT. MURRAY
The death of Lieutenant Murray, while flying a Burgess flying boat, is another of those charged to aviation which should have been avoided. The direct cause of death was by drowning, and under circumstances which should not have been. Had bis kapok jacket floated him with bis head out of water, instead of in the water, his life would have been saved, as he was but slightly stunned by his head striking something lightly. Safeguarded by a Wright incidence indicator, by a kapok jacket, and making use of the information furnished by the indicator at the moment of his death, he met his death by drowning, simply because of a life-saving jacket which did not save, or a helmet that did not protect. That this is the first serious accident had with a Burgess machine is claimed by the makers of the machine.
THE WORLD RACE
As the result of the publication in principal dailies of letters from the manufacturers and leading aviators to AERONAUTICS, the Exposition authorities have stated that as the money has already been appropriated for a world race the nature of the event can not be changed, but concessions have been made which render possible a larger entry list and seem to insure a coast-to-coast race at any rate as a part of the whole. This action on the part of the Exposition authorities is gratifying in that it makes, accomplishes, to an extent, the desired result by making the participation of American machines easier, without doing injustice to any possible foreign entries which may have already been practically made.
Concessions made by the Exposition executives are:
Time for completion of race extended to 120 days: Atlantic may be crossed by steamer and contestant penalized for each day spent on board ship; if race is not finished in 120 days prizes will he paid and contestant penalized for each additional day: route planned so that the first leg of flight will be across the U. S.. thereby getting the same interest and press notices as if the flight ended in New York; provision of prizes at each control which will be raised locally and will give the flyers money as they proceed across the country.
"AEROSTABLE" GRANT NON-INFRINGING?
R. R. Grant, Associate and Electro-mechanical Consulting Engineer of Norfolk, Ya., now makes public through AERONAUTICS the principal features of his machine, as patents are about to be issued in this country have already been issued in several foreign countries.
"The main feature of the machine [see drawings, photos and articles in AERONAUTICS for August, 1912, and August, 1913], which has been many times flown by an amateur who had never been in an aeroplane before—just put a green man in and started him off at 75 miles an hour—is the lateral and longitudinal stabilizing system. The machine is of the tandem type with a negative angle in the rear surface, i. e., a little less angle than the front plane, for tlie rear one carries the full proportion of the load. The lateral stabilizing system is based upon the law of reaction, and, both physical and mechanical in principle is different from any other ever used. The righting couple is caused laterally by a shifting action of the pressure brought on one side of the machine; it is instantly balanced off or evenly distributed on the opposite side. In other words, the head pressure is balanced off by a differential change in the angle of incidence of the entire forward plane. This change is caused by the difference in pressure on the two sides of the machine and is entirely automatic in its action. Further, the surfaces of the machine are so_ arranged that a perfect state of 3-point suspension is obtained; the entire machine is balanced in the air by the lifting pressure, which virtually constitutes the 3-point principle; the larger portion of the lifting surfaces being in front and one-third of the lifting surface in the rear of the centers of mass.
"The vertical arrangement of the planes is such that a perfect balancing of all the pressures acting on the machine is obtained and this, no matter in what position the machine may be placed. That is, all the atmospheric pressures, as well as the inertia pressures, converge at the center of mass of the machine. The whole question of stability lies in automatic recovery rather than any form of mechanical stability. This feature cannot be incorporated in any other than the tandem arrangement of planes. This fact Prof. Langley arrived at after tests with models for longitudinal stability. No machine can possess automatic recovery without inherent stability; there may be machines which are claimed to possess inherent stability that will not recover when falling out of control.
"Every feature^ has been tested thoroughly, either by intent or accident, save upside-down flying and the loop, and these the machine will not do. The machine does not fall in the side-slip, it swings around and recovers by gliding. When stalled, it settles and the shift of the centre of pressure causes it to fall by the head and glide at an angle not greater than 20 degrees; the operator, however, may increase the angle of descent at will. Many stalling tests were made, but in every instance the operator was thrown out of control—he does not know be has lost control until he has lost it and the machine is 'dead'—and the machine recovered automatically. The machine recovers with or without power on. The machine is entirely controlled by the rudder and elevator; there is no manual lateral control on the machine. A manual lateral control was employed in experiments, but found unnecessary. When the manual system is used, however, it is operated in the opposite direction from general practice.
"Comparing this machine with the Wright: to balance the Wright machine laterally the angle of incidence is reduced on the high side and increased on the low side and the rudder is turned to the high side to keep the machine from turning toward the low side; in the Grant machine the high side drops and, while the angles of incidence are altered as stated above, there is no turning tendepcy, as the pressures
are distributed evenly over the entire surface of the machine. The righting couple is caused by a differ ence in efficiency of the lifting power of the planes the high side losing lift and the low side standing neutral.
"Another feature of the machine is its natural ten dency to head into all winds and the rudder mus be used for straight flying, performing the same func tions as on a boat.
"Construction of the first machine was started ir September, 1909, and the first flights were made it August, 1910, near Norfolk, Va. A speed of 80 mile; an hour was obtained against a 12-mile wind. It hac a 100 horse power (rated) 2-cycle engine, the ma chine weighed 1,400 lbs. and carried 5.5 lbs. pei sq. ft. At 90 miles, which was reached on one occa sion, the lift was 6.5 lbs. A 7-ft. propeller, pitch 7ft. was turned at i,ooo-r,20o. The machine flew at the theoretical pitch speed of the propeller, accounted foi by the position of the propeller being behind the point of greatest resistance and at the axes center of the entire machine, i. e., at the converging point of al pressures acting on the machine, which is made tc come at the mass center of the machine (universa c g.).
"No matter in what position the machine is placed whether falling, side-slipping, stalling or gliding, the pressures converge at a universal point with but one exception, that in the stalling or slowing down state the lifting pressure is shifted considerably in the reai of the center of mass of the machine, travelling for wardly, and passing the center of mass as the machine in gliding speeds above its normal flight speed on an even keel. All recoveries are finally made in the gliding state." _
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS
It is sad to note the shortage of more than $39,496 in exports of domestic goods in 1913, compared with the figures for :9i2. Previous to July :, 1912, parts have not been kept track of by the Department of Commerce, so that the loss is greater than shown. Shipments during January and February of 1914. however, will help, as the Curtiss Company has made a large shipment.
exports of domestic machines
December, 1913, 1 and parts................ $7*377
12 mos. ending Dec, 19 and parts.......... 86.031
Same period, 1912.......................... 126,427
imports of foreign make
December, 1913, parts only................ $1,865
12 mos. ending Dec, 1 and parts............ 21,490
Same period, 1912, 16 and parts............ 62,876
exports of foreign make
Dec, 1913, 1 at........................... $4,049
12 mos. ending Dec, 3 and parts............ 15,2Si
Same period, 1912.......................... 69,886
December 31, 1913........................ none
December 31, 1912, 5 valued at.............. 19.516
MARTIN TO FLY IN NEW YORK
Glenn L. Martin reports good business on the coast. A tractor has been sold to Lincoln P.eachey for doing the loop and Charles Roystone is getting a Gnome-engined monoplane of the same general design as the Martin tractor. Harry C. Watts, of Chicago, has purchased a convertible tractor with Renault engine. J. IT. Little, of Cleveland, has bought a flying boat and Frank A._ Garbutt from Los Angeles is having a special machine equipped with a motor of his own design. A "safetv pack" has been perfected, worn on the back of pilot, for 'chuting from the capsized 'plane. Glenn Martin expects to bring a flying boat to New York in the early summer.
AIR BOATS UNDER FEDERAL CONTROL
Albert Lee Thurman, solicitor for the Department of Commerce, has rendered an official opinion which places hydroaeroplanes and flying boats under the control of the Federal Government through the Steamboat Inspection Service, Bureau of Navigation, Washington, while they navigate the waters of the United States and possessions.
This settles once and for all the status of water-air craft and exempts them from any onerous restrictions which states may hereafter seek to impose through the passage of state laws, which, if they followed the present state auto laws, would be as bothersome. This opinion permits untrammeled interstate air touring as far as airboats are concerned, except where machines alight upon land.
There are no provisions in the motor boat law with which air craft cannot easily comply. Airboats with hulls less than 26 feet in length fall under Class I of Section 2 (act of June, 1910). Section 3 prescribes the kinds of lights to be carried. Section 4 requires device to produce a sound of 2 seconds' duration. Section 5 requires life belts, cushions or other, sufficient to sustain every person on board. Where passengers are carried for Lire, the operator shall be licensed, but for this no examination whatever is required. This license, however, may be revoked for misconduct, negligence, recklessness, etc. Application should be made to the local board of inspectors. Section 6 provides for a fire _ extinguisher. Section 7 provides a penalty for violation.
The question was originally raised last year by AERONAUTICS, and Commissioner E. E. Chamberlain's unofficial opinion was published. The Aeronautical Society was recently interested in the movement and, as well as AERONAUTICS, appealed to the Department of Commerce. At the same time the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airline was communicated with, and Tony .[annus was the first one to apply for a license under the new ruling.
First among the largest motor boat organizations to recognize the importance of the flying boat as a sporting vehicle has been the Mississippi Valley Power Boat Association. This association conducts each summer the most important power boat regattas held in America. Several days are devoted to running off the events and thousands of dollars are annually offered in prizes. In session in Chicago recently the M. V. P. B. A. considered rules for the regulation of flying boat races, which they propose to schedule with other events this season. All over the country the motorboat men are beginning to recognize the advantage of a machine which, with sixty to eighty horsepower, makes faster speed than any standard motorboat, though some of these carry motors developing 400 to 1,000 horsepower, with a record for safety not comparable with that of the flying boat. -
THE DISTANCE OF WANAMAKER TRACK.
An investigation made by the Government Hydro-graphic Office as to the distances from Newfoundland to the nearest point on the coast of Ireland results as follows:
The shortest track is from Middle Hill, Cape Freel, to Achill Head, Ireland, 1,610 nautical miles (1,854 statute miles). The sea freezes at Cape Freel and ice remains sometimes as late as June.
The next shortest is from Cape Bonavista to Achill Head, 1,611 miles nautical (1,855 statute miles).
The third and recommended track is from Cape Speai to Dunmore Head, Ireland, 1,631 nautical miles (1,878 statute). Cape Spear is close to harbor of St. Johns, where the coast has a moderate height, and the harbor is rarely frozen over for more than a week and navigation scarcely ever interrupted either by ice or fog, and supplies of every kind are always obtainable. Conditions regarding fog are given on the monthly Pilot Chart.
$50,000 CUT IN ARMY AERONAUTICS
The House Committee on Military Affairs has cut the appropriation asked by the Army for aeronautics by $50,000, leaving but $300,000 for Congress to vote upon. -
$5,000,000 FOR BRITISH AIR SERVICE
The army estimates issued on March 5 show that the expenses for the year beginning April 1 are figured at one million pounds ($5,000,000) for air service.
Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aeronautics
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It is not to be wondered at that inhabitants of Palestine were amazed to see Jules Vedrines fly over in an aeroplane. The last time anything lik<> that happened was in the days of Elijah.—Birmingham Age-Herald.
International Flying Co., Inc., Manhattan. Build airships, etc., aerial navigation; capital, $50,000. Incorporators: H. Haoussler, A. Oberwager, B. Brink-niami, New York City.
E. II. Sassil & Co., Chicago. 111., capital stock $25,000; manufacture and sale of multiplane airships and other mechanical devices for aerial navigation, etc.; Eugene II. Sassil, Paul Bergamiui and Yineenzo Pecis.
WANAMAKER GIVES BIG BALLOON
Rodman Wanamaker has not confined his aeronautical activities to an attempt to win the Northcliffe transatlantic prize. He has placed an order with A. Leo Stevens for a balloon having a capacity of 80.000 cubic feet, to be given the .Aero Club of America. It is anticipated that someone will use it in the international race this fall.
Wanamaker states that if the first transatlantic attempt is not successful, further starts will be made until the ocean is crossed, even should the first machine he a total loss. In the motor just completed, two complete oiling systems are employed, either of which may be entirely disconnected and overhauled during flight by the passenger.
MORE ON THE RECIPROCATING (?) GYRO
To the Editor:
In answer to the article in the Tanuary 15th issue of AERONAUTICS, by Ralph S. Barnaby, regarding the talk by Mr. Emile Berliner on the revolving cylinder motor, given at the meeting of the Aeronautical Society November 20th, I wish to state that I think he is wrong in assuming that the pistons of a revolving cylinder motor reciprocate the same as tho=e of an ordinary engine.
Considering a point at the center of motion—i. e., the wrist pin of the piston, 1 in figure "a"—as being tied by a radius equal to the length of the connecting rod to the immovable center or crank pin "d," cannot do otherwise than travel the true circle "e," but it does travel at a uniform rate of speed, as do the cylinders, on account of being alternately nearer to and farther from the center l'o," which causes the pistons to be alternately nearer and farther from each other during their revolution, the speed being greatest when farthest from "o," and vice versa, which causes a backward and forward thrust (with respect to direction of motion) against the cylinder walls, caused by the inertia of the piston and connecting rod due to this change of speed, and which absorbs energy during acceleration, delivering it again to the revolving cylinders in the same manner as he has explained in regard to the relation between the reciprocating piston and crank of the common type of motor.
It is true that the piston reciprocates with respect to the cylinder, or, vice versa, that the cylinder reciprocates with respect to the piston, but this is caused by the travel circles being eccentric by an amount equal to half the stroke, which is the necessary principle of the motor.
As the pistons move around an immovable center, there can be no reciprocation, as in the common type, with their movable centers; that is to say, that in very exact designing the stresses induced in the connecting rod of the ordinary motor by its own and the piston's inertia, due to reversing, do not have to he considered in the revolving cylinder type; the only things considered being the resistance of the piston against the cylinder walls, due to its change_ of motion with respect to same and the lateral stability of the connecting rod, due to its inertia of changing speed.
The only reciprocating motion produced in the piston is its tilting back and forth about the wrist-pin, due to the angularity of the rod, as in figures "b" and "c," but as it is balanced it has no other effect.
This article can be verified by almost anyone, from the fact that an ordinary motor can in nearly every instance be badly damaged by excessive idleing speed, caused by over-straining the connecting rod and fitting, due to inertia, but which is almost impossible in a well-designed revolving cylinder engine.
Hoping that this article can be printed in your next issue, as I would like to see as important a point as this made clear, I remain, very sincerely yours, R. J. Dolph, Cassa, Wyoming.
I would not like to give up AERONAUTICS as it is my onlv reliable source of information in this line. —R. S. B., New York.
ARMY AVIATORS MAKE THREE NEW RECORDS
The best performances at the Signal Corps Aviation School, San Diego, Cal., this year (1914) have been: Time in air and distance. Lieut. Dodd's flight (Burgess tractor). Altitude, 12,140 feet, by Lieut. II. B. Post (Wright hydro), Feb. 9. Altitude with passenger, 8,800 feet, by Lieut. J. C. Carberry and Lieut. Taliaferro (Curtiss), on Feb. 16.
On Feb. 14, Lieut. T. F. Dodd, with a passenger (Sergeant Marcus), broke the American non-stop two-man duration and distance record. He left San Diego in a Burgess tractor, with 70 h.p. Renault engine, with Sergeant Marcus as a passenger, at 6:32 si. m. and flew north, following the coast line from La Jolla to San Mateo Point, and then crossed over to Santa Ana, following the Southern Pacific Railroad through Los Angeles to a point four miles northwest of Burbank; turned and retraced his course to the starting point, landing at 11:15 a. m. Total time in air, 4 hours and 43 minutes; total distance, 244.IS statute miles. He found the air conditions fairly good, although he encountered some very rough spots across the valleys and over the Santa Ana river; the weather cloudy, with easterly winds, between 5 and 10 miles per hour.
The following is the summary of flights from the beginning of the year to February 2S: Total number of flights, 640; total time in air, 161 hours and 29 minutes; total passengers carried, 275.
For the week ending Feb. 2Sth, at the Army Aviation School at San Diego, the number of flights were 35; time in air, 8 hours and 52 minutes; passengers carried, 26. -
REPORT ON POST ACCIDENT
Washington, D. C, Feb. 20.—The death of Lieut. IT. B. Post has been ascribed to structural collapse of his army hydroaeroplane. Lieut. Post descended from an altitude of 12,140 feet to an altitude of 1,000 feet in a normal manner, and from that point to a point approximately 600 feet above the ground at an increasingly steeper angle, the machine ultimately assuming a vertical head-down position, falling into the bay. The board was unable to determine the cause or fix the responsibility for the accident, but is of the opinion that the cause was due to the machine getting into a verdical head-down position, causing excessive pressure on the planes, which resulted in the collapse of some part or parts of the machine.
THE ARMY AND THE WRIGHT PATENT
The question has been raised as to whether the U. S Government is bound by the recent court decision in the matter of the Wright patent suit.
It appears that the Government has the right, under the broad principles of "eminent domain," to seize, appropriate, or through its officers cause to be seized or appropriated, private property when required for public use. But it is a principle that compensation must be given for such seizure to the person whose property has been appropriated. The same general principles now apply in regard to patent rights, which are personal property. Before 1910, the Government several times used patented inventions without authority, and the patentees were accustomed to sue for this infringement.
In 1910 a law was passed (30 Statutes at Large, Chap. 423, p. 851. U. S. C. Stat. Supp. 1911. p. 1457) to the effect that whenever an invention covered by a patent of the U. S. is used by the Government without license, the owner thereof may recover reasonable compensation by suit in the Court of Claims; provided, however, that the Court of Claims shall not entertain a suit or award compensation under the provisions of the act where the claim for compensation is based on the use by the U. S. of any article heretofore owned, leased, used by, or in the possession of the IT. S. And provided, further, that in any such suit the U. S. shall avail itself of any and all defenses, general or special, which might he pleaded by a defendant in an action for infringement, as set forth in title 60 of the Revised Statutes, or otherwise. This was in order to further protect owners of patents.
TALKS — I
Because a firm may be well known, or internationally beard of, is no reason that it should assume that advertising or other kind of support to the trade press is of no value.
Everybody buys National biscuits. One can't look anywhere without seeing a National biscuit ad. If this company stopped advertising, would you forget National biscuits? Yes, you would—and you would buy the biscuits of some other maker who advertised so wholesale-ly. The National biscuit is, therefore, still advertised—and so is the Ford car.
Aero Plane Maker, Esquire, thinks that Russia, or Argentine, or Italy
is going to buy his aeroplane by "suggestion" or some other psychologic method.
AERONAUTICS reaches the buying foreign governments through bona fide subscriptions. It has the welcome of an authoritative pioneer. Its articles are unbiased and are highly valued. The catalogue of a maker is at once discounted, as are the statements of a representative. Your apparatus is brought to the attention of the reader of AERONAUTICS with full force and effect —and at what a saving over any other method!
rhe Thomas School
OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES
Addreii, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.
We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS
John A. Roebling's Sons Co.
TRENTON, N. J.
Longren and his HALL-SCOTT powered tractor
The Young Aviation Co., Topeka, Kansas have written
"We have used No. 51 three seasons, has done elegant work all this time, no motor failure, and have filled more dates than any other aviator in the state of Kansas and most of Oklahoma and Nebraska.
Stoned A. K. LONGREN."
Investigate our 100 H. P. equipment
Hall-Scott Motors Guarantee Success
Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.
818 Crocker Bldg. San Francisco, Cal.
AERO • MART
OlIN WISE.—"History and Practice of Aeronau-;," by John Wise. We have just secured another >y of this famous rare work. Cloth, 8vo, ill., 310 steel engraving frontispiece. For sale at $10. :ROXAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York.
rOR SALE—Our last year's monoplanes and bines; very cheap for cash, or trade for anything value.—F. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.
SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 II. P. motor, all in Ai condition, for $1,350 cash, subject to demonstration to bona-fide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address '-Sacrifice.'- care of AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St., New York.
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29 WEST 39th STREET NEW YORK
telephone bryant 4600
Notice to Members.
At a meeting of the directors of the Aeronautical Society, February 19, 1914. it was voted that the magazine AERONAUTICS be sent to every member in good standing as one of the benefits of membership and that the said journal be made the bulletin and official organ of the society.
In order that members may obtain the benefit of this arrangement, it is earnestly requested that those in arrears place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible date.
Announcements of meetings, papers presented, lecturers and other notices of the society will, until further notice, be published in AERONAUTICS, which will be mailed on the 15th and 30th of each month to members in good standing.
Engraved membership certificates, size 11 in. by 14 in., hand imprinted on Japan vellum, suitable for
framing, are now prepared and will be sent to all inembers in good standing and to all members elected in future.
Next General Meeting.
The next general meeting of the Aeronautical Society will be held Thursday evening, April 9, in the rooms at 29 'West 39th Street, at 8:30 o'clock.
l-'udolph llanau, of Darmstadt Technical University, v ill give an illustrated lecture on "Genealogy of .Machine Tarts," with special reference to aeronautics.
Thursday evening. General meetings with lectu are held every second Thursday, unless otherwise nounced. Directors' meetings are held on all otl Thursday evenings.
Meeting of March 12
S. S. Jerwan, Moisant pilot and lecturer, gave popular talk, illustrated with colored slides, tak his audience through a course of flight at a mo plane school. The balance of his lecture was a demic in character, as it was planned for popu consumption. It was the more appreciated by members as it showed how the general public loob at aeronautics, and was heartily enjoyed as a fresher of memories. Mr. Jerwan's lecture sho be heard in every village of the country.
R. R. Grant described his changeable angle of cidence machine, which he claims does not infrii the Wright patent, and an exhaustive argument entered into by Mr. Grant and the members on aerodynamics and the physics of his system, wh was greatly enjoyed by the figure sharks. The pi« cipal points of his talk will be found elsewhere this issue.
At the March 12th general meeting, Rudolph Fi was presented with a silver cup, donated by Mr. L. Herreshoff, for breaking the world's model fly record, starting from the ground. The distance 1,620 feet.
George W. Kline, 48 West 3d Street, Waynesb< Pa.; Leon Goldmerstein, E.E., M.A., 29 West 3 Street. New York; 1 y Helms, 1488 Washing Avenue, New York.
OFFICIAL BULLETIN OFFICERS.
Clarence P. Wynne, President. Jos. A. Steinmetz, \st Vice-President. Wm. D. Harris, 2nd Vice-President. George S. Gassner, Secretary Laurence Maresch, Treasurer.
Arthur T. Atherholt. Harold II. Knerr. II. F. Bamberger. Wm. II. Sheahan.
Dr. Samuel C. Falls. Walter S. Wheeler. Office of the Club, Bellevue-Stratford, Phila., P;
The office of the society is open from 1 to 0 every day, except Saturday and Sunday, and on every
The regular meeting of the club was held in Pa C of the Bellevue-Stratford, on the evening of Ms 6th. Several new members were elected, and Rodman _ Wanamaker was elected to honorary i~ bership in appreciation of his distinguished serv to aviation.
The club passed a resolution disapproving the 1 posed Panama-Pacific Exposition race around world, but suggested instead a circuit of the Un States, touching the principal cities of the wl country. Such a race, it is believed, could be can to a successful conclusion, and would arouse imine interest and enthusiasm in every section of our la
On March 26th, Colonel Samuel Reber, U. S. will deliver a lecture before a joint meeting of Aero Club and the Franklin Institute. His sub will be "Recent Progress in Aeronautics."
A dinner will be given to Col. Reber by the A Club, on the same date. Invitations, with full 1 ticulars, will be sent to members in a few days.
Clarence P. Wynne, Presiden
Constructors, as Well as Aviators, are
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90-100 H. P. MAXIMOTOR being successfully tested for brake horse-power, developing 110 actual brake horse-power, at 1300 revolutions. Weighing 370 pounds complete with Magneto, Carburetor and Propeller Coupling.
There will be a new 8-cylinder "V" type 120 H. P. motor addition to the MAXIMOTOR family.
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Watch for the developments
Catalog on request
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THE BOLAND MOTOR
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QUICK FOR CASH—Two Curtiss-type double surface aeroplanes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts motor; both outfits in flying shape. Can be seen any time. Everything complete: $700 for the two outfits for quick sale. B., care AERONAUTICS.
FLYING-BOAT for sale, Kirkham six cylinder motor, 50 h. p., Burgess tvpe. new last year, two propellers. Wright controls, price complete $500. W. c/o Aeronautics.
This page contracted for by
A. LEO STEVENS
FOR NEXT ISSUE
All Makes Repaired, Sold and Exchanged
Mail orders given special attention
Hecht's Magneto Exchange
230 West 49th Street - New York
Member of The Aeronautical Society
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FOR FLYING BOATS USE
JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE
Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 lllack, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of riving boats. Tt not only waterproots and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a eoat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.
For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions tor use. etc.
L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mass., U. S. A.
THE 200 H. P. CURTISS MOTOR
Continued from pane 10
power it has been thought advisable to keep the speed below 1,100 revolutions per minute for the first few days, but even at that speed the nine and one-half foot experimental propeller shows a static thrust of more than 800 pounds.
It is of the "V" type, 8 cylinders, with a bore and stroke of 5x7 inches. Cylinders are individual, with welded water jackets of non-corrosive metal. Each cylinder has 4 tungsten steel valves, 2T4 inches in diameter, with 7-16 lift. All 32 valves are operated from a single camshaft. The cylinders are held down to crank-case by tubular studs from the heads with extension through-bolts through main bearing caps. All outside bearings are self-lubricating of the graphite inlay type.
Crank-case is composed of two aluminum castings, thoroughly bridged. The crankshaft is 4 ft. long, 2^4 inches in diameter, and is drilled with an oil duct 1 1-16 inch diameter. It is made of imported Krupp
steel, formula EF60. Connecting rods c I type forgings with large bearings and ducts to piston pins.
Water circulation is by large centrifuf pump with double outlets and a capac of 40 gallons per minute. Cylinder hea and valve seats are water cooled, and t haust valve stems are water cooled i almost their entire length.
Three rotary gear pumps take care of t lubricating system. One large pump drn the oil under high pressure to every beari through the main shaft, cam shaft and cc necting rods; while two smaller pumps ke the lower half of the case drained. ] splash system is employed, the idea bei to eliminate the waste of oil and dang I of flooding cylinders should the machi assume an unusual angle.
Gasoline intake manifolds are 2y2 incl in diameter and 2^ inch Schebler carbu \ tor is used. Intake manifolds are wa) jacketed. Ignition at present is by 2-spc' Bosch magneto, but this may be replac later by two single-spark Bosch instrumei of the half-speed induction type.
THE FLORIDA AIR LINE
On February 28 the St. Tetersburg-Tampa airboat line finished its second month of operation.
In the possible 50 days of operation, as the contract precluded Sunday work, there were only days lost; 4J/2 in the month of January and 3 in the month of February. Weather has ceased to be a great factor in the operation of an airboat. During this period only three days were lost on a count_ of weather; the other 4 were because of mechanical trouble.
There were made in all 172 regular trips, or 43 straight days of operation out of 50 possible days. Besides that, there were made more than 100 special trips, ranging from 10 minutes' duration to an hour each. Out of these 172 regular trips, consisting of 21 miles each way, the time on 161 of them did not vary more than a few minutes, as the usual time ranged from 19 to 23 minutes. On the regular work in these 43 days, 3,612 miles were covered, besides the special work noted above.
McCAULEY MAKES HIGH MARK
On February 25, at San Diego, the Curtiss school instructor, Theodore McCauley, ascended to a height of 12,139 feet in a flight of 53 minutes, making a new one-man altitude record. The old record was 11,639 feet. _.
February 14.—Lieut. J. C. Carberry flies the Army Curtiss from San Diego to Del Mar and return, a trip of 60 miles. _____
February 15.—Lieut. C. Willis flies in an Army Curtiss 140 miles in 133 minutes, cross country, from North Island to San Juan Capistrano, the major part of the trip being made over the ocean.
February 16.—Lieut. Carberry makes an Army altitude record, with a passenger, of 8,700 feet, in a Curtiss. .__.
February 23.—William Blakely, with a 60 Hall-Scott machine, flies 78 miles in 71 minutes, from San Francisco to Cloverdale. On the return trip, on February 26, a forced descent from 6,000 feet was necessary over the waters of San Francisco Bay. Blakely jumped clear of the machine before it struck, swam around and climbed on the machine till rescued. The aeroplane was found to be but little damaged. He was 1 hour 20 minutes on the return.
February 20.—Glenn Martin, with Frank Garl as passenger, flies his tractor in a heavy wind ft Oceanside to North Island, near San Diego, a dista of 38 miles, in 1 hour 25 minutes.
February 25.—Martin flies with Garbutt back fi San Diego to Los Angeles in 1 hour 55 minutes, 117 miles. _
The flying game in San Francisco and vicinity set to be improving rapidly, and no doubt before next yj this will be the center of aviation in the Uni States, if not in the world. At the present tim. believe we have more competent professional aviat entered in this city than in any other in the work L. S. Scott.
A race from San Francisco to Bakersfield, ab 283 miles, is scheduled for April 21, returning April 26. The start will be from the Exposit Grounds at San Francisco. The prizes amount $2,000, divided $1,200, $500 and $300. The conti calls for at least six contestants to fly these miles for $2,000. _
The Aero Club of America has awarded its me to Capt. II. E. Ilonevwell, winner of second place the last international race. The medal will be I sented to Honeywell at the annual dinner of Aero Club of America to be held in New York C March 19. The merit medal is presented in rec^g. tion of Honeywell's efforts in recent balloon conte.
CHRISTOFFERSON FINISHES LOI^ FLIGHT
The flight started at San Francisco on Februarj was completed when he flew into San Diego on F ruary 17. His trip from 'Frisco to Los Angeles \ mentioned in the previous issue. On February 17 left Los Angeles and arrived at San Diego the sa day, a distance of 117 miles, making 499 miles the entire trip.
I am a constant reader of your journal, which, the way, can be praised by only one word, and t is "excellent." It is truly excellent, and I assure j that without AERONAUTICS on my table I nr feel as if I had the complete news. A. E. L., Fa1
SECURED or FEE RETURNED VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY
Send sketeh or model for FREE search of Patent Office record. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our speeial list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each.
Main Offices: 724-726 NINTH STREET,N. W.
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Ei-membcr Eximining Corps, U. S. Patent Ottio» Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents
American and foreign patents secured promptly and prith special regard to the complete legal protection o< Ihe invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. ISO McGill Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C.
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Wading River Mfg. Co.
Ash musen Aeronautical n g i n e s
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60 h. p. and 90 h. p., other sizes to order
Our 60 h.p. 8 cylinder engines have flown Wright's Twin-screw, Curtiss-type and Tractor Biplanes, and Bleriot-type Monoplane. 6 yrs. experimenting and testing on Aeronautical engines alone. We make nothing else.
Good discounts to first buyers in some localities, and on quantity contracts, and to agents.
Ashmusen Manufacturing Company
Kings Park, Long Island - New York
Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids l!4 diameter and under any length.
J. DELTOUR, Inc. tM^SJSSl^
Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors
Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs
EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY
64th St. & West End Ave., New York City
Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types
We are now prepared to make prompt deliveries of our various types for
The United States Courts have upheld the Wright Patents, declaring the Curtiss, Farman, Bleriot and similar machines to be infringements, and permanently enjoining the use of all such infringing machines.
The season of 1014 will be a prosperous one for
Prices and information upon request
The Wright Company
DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pine St.
In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.
The Benoist School of Aviation now open at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school is under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus.
We also conduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address
The Xew Benoist Flying Boat in Action
BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY
St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida
Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.
July 26th, 1913
"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling attention to the GYRO engine (50 h. p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight."
Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout Send for Catalog
THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.
Are those which are able to show results anywhere near to the ordinary performance of two-and three-bladed PARAGONS. The making of constant change, refinement and improvement is a feature of all PARAGON designing, but here are a few figures for the year 1913 : Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., February 8, 1913. Curtiss 8' dia.x5' pitch—Revolutions 1225—Flying speed 54.5 miles per hour. Paragon 8'dia.x5' pitch—Revolutions 1244 —Flying speed 56.5 miles per hour. Weight of Machine 1335 lbs. Load carried 505 lbs. Total weight 19<><> lbs. Report of Gerald Hartley, Providence, R. I. ( Curtiss Flying Boat) October 13, 1913. Curtiss Two-blade, 8' dia. —Rev. 1250, Thrust 480 lbs.—Rev. 1300, Thrust 505 lbs. Paragon Three-blade, IV dia.—Rev. 1250, Thrust 570 lbs.—Rev. 1300, Thrust 580 lbs. Lieut. J. H. Towers reports to the Secretary of the Navy as follows: "The three-bladed PARAGON gives more thrust and more speed than any propeller we have had."
THE AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Batimore, Md.
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