Aeronautics

Volume 14 - No. 4 - 1914 February

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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I T H

WHICH

I S

COMBINED

Official Organ and Bulletin—Aero Club of Pennsylvania The Aeronautical Society

Press Despatches Say:

"Mountains Check Birdman's Flight"

Silas Christofferson flew well enough with his old motor until he faced the perils of Tejon Pass. There he paused long enough to install a

Curtiss 0-X Motor

With this he! continued safely to San Diego.

Let us give you motor facts

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake St., Hammondsport, N. Y.

iiiilii

■*■■■■•

465998��

< BENOIST «e

ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation now open at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school is under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus.

We also conduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

The New Benoist Flying Boat in Action

BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

GYRO MOTOR

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Flying Record (0 Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

"FLIGHT"

July 26th, 1913

"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling attention to the GYRO engine (50 h.p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight."

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

"REMARKABLE PROPELLERS"

Are those which are able to show results anywhere near to the ordinary performance of two-and three-bladed PARAGONS. The making of constant change, refinement and improvement is a feature of all PARAGON designing, but here are a few figures for the year 1913 : Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., February 8, 1913. Curtiss 8' dia. x 5' pitch—Revolutions 1225—Flying speed 54.5 miles per hour. Paragon 8' dia. x 5' pitch—Revolutions 1244—Flying speed 56.5 miles per hour. Weight of machine 1335 lbs. Load carried 565 lbs. Total weight 1900 lbs. Report of Gerald Hartley, Providence, R. I. (Curtiss Flying Boat J October 13, 1913. Curtiss two-blade, 8' dia.—Rev. 1250, Thrust 480 lbs.—Rev. 1300, Thrust 505 lbs. Paragon Three-blade, IV dia.—Rev. 1250, Thrust 570 lbs.—Rev. 1300, Thrust 580 lbs. Lieut. J. II. Towers reports to the Secretary of the Navy as follows: "The three-bladed PARAGON gives more thrust and more speed than any propeller we have had."

THE AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Batimore, Md.

In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Hydroaeroplanes are said to constitute the eyes of the modern navy. The title applied to the most recent aid to naval vision, the "O.W.L." type, is not intended to suggest that these machines see well at night, but was selected by Captain Washington 1. Chambers, at the head of the American naval aviation, to designate craft equally useful "Over Water or Land."

Glenn H. Curtiss produced the "Triad" in February, 1911 (see AERONAUTICS, April, 1911), and later adapted wheels to the flying boat (AERONAUTICS. March. 1913). The "Triad" was the first machine arranged for alighting on either land or water.

To Captain W. I. Chambers, of the Navy, is due the resuscitation of the type, and its present development into the O.W.L. boats built by Air. Curtiss for the U. S. Navy during 1913.

The first machine of the new type was turned over to Lieut. B. L. Smith, U. S. M. C, last June and with it a long series of experiments was carried on. The combined weight of two aviators was some 370 pounds. The wings used were those of the "U. S. A-2," a Model E Curtiss hydroaeroplane acquired in 1911. The motor was a new Curtiss O-X, which gave the machine a mean speed of 65 m.p.h. but which showed in spurts a maximum of 70 m.p.h. In low speed trials landings were made at less than 40 m.p.h., or almost an exact duplication of some recent English trials, where a range of from 38 m.p.h. to 69 m.p.h. was shown and muchly advertised.

O.W.L. differs from the standard hydroaeroplane in that the pontoon, or hull, is wider, and it has a step similar to that of the standard Curtiss flying boat. The seats, instead of being attached to the superstructure is in the hydroaeroplane, or being in the hull,

as in the case with the flying boat, are set on the pontoon.

A windshield is formed by a light framework, covered with water-proof fabric, built up to entirely surround and shield the operators.

The O.W.L. No. 2, illustrated here, is a more substantial machine than O.W.L. No. 1 and is probably the most advanced development of the type so far evolved

The pontoon is of very effective form, Vee-bottomed and pointed at the bow. Above it a high-decked body has been built which not only shields the operators from wind and spray, but would effectually protect them also in case of a long dive into the water.

Metal lined pockets in the hull carry the wheels and springs of the leading gear. These are dropped into position by the shifting of a lever, and locked, either up or down, by the movement of another lever, both within easy reach of the operator. Heavy coil springs take up the shock of shore landings. The gear can be raised or lowered while the machine is in flight, or may be entirely removed where only over water work is the order of the day. When the wheel gear is removed for exclusive water flight buoyancy may be increased by inserting water tight aluminum boxes into the wheel pockets.

Captain Chambers holds to the opinion that it is the ideal navy type for both the Marine Corps and the Sailors; that it is a necessity for Navy work which is to be executed mostly off coasts where either rocks or bad surfs abound or in the vicinity of land which is not generally suitable for an ordinary land machine and where communication must be kept up between the fleet and the base of operations on shore.

FOREIGN

AERONAUTICAL

By the Staff Correspondent

MOTORS*

DE DION BOUTON.

The De Dion Bouton Automobile Co. exhibited an 80-h.p. motor which was almost identical to the 70-h.p. Renault, except that the cylinders had a somewhat larger bore, being 4 3-16 in. instead of 3^4 in- while the stroke remained the same as the Renault, 4^4 in.

It might be said that this motor was of somewhat neater design than the Renault, principally because of the fact that the cylinders were placed opposite each other, which short-ened-the motor somewhat. In this case, the connecting rods are not arranged the same as on the 12-cylinder Renault, but one rod yokes over the big end of the other, and oscillates on the outside, as is the De Dion practice in their 8-cylinder V automobile motors.

The carburetor is of the Zenith duplex type, having two chokes and a single float chamber, and is jacketed and heated by exhaust.

The motor develops its rated horsepower with the crank shaft turning 1,800 r.p.m., and the propeller is driven by the cam shaft at 900 r.p.m. The weight of this engine complete is 465 lbs., being practically the same per horsepower as the Renault. This is the only model of aeronautical motor which the De Dion peo-

ple build at the present time and it has been on the market about one year. During this time it has become very well known in Europe, and one can find a number in use at the various flying grounds in France and also at Hen-don, England. The engine seems to have given a good account of itself in the majority of cases, and is quite as well spoken of as the Renault.

None of these three motors which have just been described develops a large amount of pewer per cubic inch of cylinder capacity because of the fact that low volumetric efficiency and low compression are necessary in order to accomplish air cooling with cylinders as large as are used.

PANHARD-LEVASSOR.

The neatest designed engine of the type was a 100-h.p. 8-cylinder V, water-cooled motor exhibited by Panhard & Levassor, who are so

well known in the automobile industry. The bore and stroke was 4 5-16 in. x Sl/2 in., and each group of four cylinders was cast en bloc and fitted with copper water-jackets. The cylinders are of the conventional L head design, and the valves are arranged all on one side at a slight angle from the vertical, in order to reduce the size of the combustion chamber.

Each group of four cylinders is, of course, arranged at 90 degrees to each other, and also are directly opposite each other, the connecting rods having a common big end bearing. The valves are operated by a single central cam shaft, which also is extended to form the propeller shaft, as is the case with both the De Dion and Renault.

This motor is fitted with one magneto operated directly from the crank shaft, which supplies a single spark to all eight cylinders, hut the carburetor is of the double barrel type with single float chamber, which seems to be universally used on all 6, 8 and 12-cylinder engines. This is necessary because of the fact that the suction strokes on any engine of more than four cylinders overlap each other, and if supplied by single manifold and single carburetor, the inlet gas is drawn from one cylinder which has just hlled to another which is just commencing to fill.

The crank shaft turns at 1,500 r.p.m. and the propeller shaft at 750. The weight of the motor complete, but without the radiator, is 440 lbs.

This motor has been little heard of as yet, although a similar engine was exhibited by the same concern at the Paris Salon a year ago, and it is rather strange that it has not made the progress that the De Dion has made in the same length of time. For 100 h.p. it is very much more compact and of lighter weight than the 12-cylinder Renault, even including the necessary radiator. *J5eKun in the Feb. 14 issue

AUSTRO-DAIMLER.

The Austrian Daimler Motor Co. exhibited one of their 90-h.p. 6-cylinder motors, which are already known in this country through the Wright Co. and the Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., each of whom has one at the present time.

The engine is of the 6-cylinder vertical type, having a bore of 4-34 in. and a stroke of Sl/2. Individual cylinders arc used with electro-de-

posited cooper water-jacket, and valves at an angle in the head, operated by single rocker arm, as was formerly done on the Curtiss motor. The engine is arranged to have the propeller attached direct to an extension of the crank shaft, which turns at a normal speed of 1,300 r.p.m.

One Bosch magneto of the two-spark type

supplies ignition to two different plugs in each cylinder simultaneously. The Bosch lubricator is also used, and this feeds a small quantity of fresh oil to each crank shaft bearing, while the rest of the motor is lubricated by splash. None of the oil is carried in the lower part of the base of the engine, except as required for the connecting rods to dip into, the fresh oil being supplied from an external tank. This is a decidedly different system from the circulating system most generally used, and although it is rather more complicated and unsightly because of the necessary external oil tank, it has the merit of supplying fresh, cool oil to each bearing, and probably shows a better oil consumption than is possible with the circulating system.

Two carburetors are fitted, each supplying two groups of three cylinders. These are separate instruments with individual float chambers and not of the duplex type with single float chamber referred to above, but the throttle valves are carefully synchronized, and the two instruments undoubtedly operate as one. The manufacturers claim that the weight of this motor, including the radiator, is 360 lbs., which is exceedingly light for an engine of this type and power.

This company also builds 40, 65 and 120-h.p. engines, all of the same type and same general construction, except that the two smaller sizes have only four cylinders. The large size model was first brought to the attention of the world when Cody won the British War Office Trials with a machine of his own design fitted with a 120-h.p. Austro-Daimler motor.

ON LATERAL CONTROL.

A REPLY TO MR. STILL BY ALBERT ADAMS MERRILL.

In the December, 1913, number of AERONAUTICS there is a letter from a Mr. Still on lateral control referring to a previous article by me. This letter shows that Mr. Still does not understand my statements relative to the reversed Farman system. When I state that with this system stability is maintained without the use of a vertical rudder I do not state that the machine will fly straight; in fact, it will not. But the point is that this system will check rotation about the longitudinal axis without the use of the vertical rudder. Therefore, it is reducible to practice and does not infringe either Claim 3 or Claim 7 of the Wright patent.

I wish American readers would remember that of the machines flying, the vast majority use either the Wright or the Henry Farman systems. The Curtiss is used very little, in spite of the fact that here we see quite a few Curtiss machines. The flying done in ihi.s country is practically nothing in comparison to what is done abroad and, as yet, comparatively few Curtiss machines are used abroad. I personally like the Curtiss system and my criticism is of the Wright and Farman systems; also in proportion as the negative angle aileron is given the most work the Curtiss systein improves. Yet plainly the Curtiss infringes

Wright's Claim 3 because it consists of a simultaneous movement in opposite directions of the marginal portions of the supporting surface. Every aileron at a positive angle is a supporting surface.

In the reversed Farman system a proper relation of the moments inertia about the three axes and a proper disposition of the center of side pressure would cause the machine to come back to a straight course without turning the rudder. It is simply a question of offsetting couples and the effect of the time element 011 the rotations about the two axes, longitudinal and vertical. _

''1)11(1" Mars lias looped the loop matrimonially and married his former wife. Harry Atwood has become engaged.

Reports of Masson's death as a spy have been greatlv exaggerated. The Mex. hatting average is not high. "

For details, illustrations, plans, descriptive matter, and general character, it would be hard to beat AERONAUTICS. Wouldn't miss it for anything. Yours sincerely.

P. .1. 1'., Seattle.

Eufaula, Ala., is to have an exhibition on April 8.

Portland, Ore., wants to have a balloon race for the Rose Festival on June 12. Chance for the balloon men to get busy.

THE FUNK R. O. G. MODEL. By Harry Schultz, Model Editor.

The model shown in the accompanying drawing was constructed by Mr. R. Funk, of the Long Island Model Aero Club, and at the present time is the holder of the world's record for distance for models rising from the ground, with a flight of 1,620 feet. In all contests in which this model was entered it showed its wonderful dying ability by winning each time, in spite of the very gusty winds and inclement weather prevailing.

The fuselage is constructed of two strips of spruce 5-16 x 1-4 in., tapering toward their ends. It is in the form of a triangle, braced at its center by an "X" bracing of bamboo, as shown. The rear brace or propeller bar is of split bamboo lA in. wide

and 13 in. long. The propellers are made of birch, steamed to shape, and have a pitch of about 20 in. and a diameter of 12 in. The bearings are of the usual type, consisting of small pieces of tubing and washers.

Each propeller is driven by 20 strands of J-8-in. flat rubber. The large plane is constructed of flat steel wire 1-24 in. by 1-32 in. in thickness. The ribs of the plane are mounted on a strip of white pine, 7-16 in. in width by 3-32 in. in thickness. The main plane measures 32 in. in span, with a chord of 6 in. in its center. The elevator is 19 in. in span, with a chord of 4 in. in its center, and is constructed in precisely the samej manner as the rear plane. Both planes are covered with silk paper treated with celluloid solution and are secured to the framp in the usual manner by rubber bands.

The chassis or running-gear is constructed

NHCSL,

CORK

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mi

of split bamboo, the front side members each being in the form of a "U," joined together by bars extending across the frame and acting as a brace for the same. The wheels are made of cord, fitted with tubing acting as hubs, and these wheels are mounted on an axle made from an ordinary hatpin.

The rear portion of the chassis is made of bamboo, to which is secured a small cork wheel ]/i in. in diameter. The front chassis, including the wheels, is 9% in. high; the rear skid, including the wheel is 7 in. high.

As above stated, this model has made a flight of 1,620 feet, but has practically flown over 1,000 feet on every flight made by it.

THE SCHOBER THREE-BLADED PROPELLER.

Three-bladed propellers are fast coming to the fore among the model builders, and many different methods of constructing them are known.' One of the chief difficulties of making this type of propeller is securing the blades at the center, or hub. One of the best methods of doing this, and obviating the necessity of an awkward and weighty hub, is shown in the accompanying

drawing, which is the idea of Mr. Frank Schober, lately connected with the Curtiss company.

The hub of the propeller is laminated from strips of spruce and mahogany, as shown, and is in form the general outline of a triangle. At each point of the triangle are saw-cuts or slots into which the three blades, which are made of birch and are bent to shape by steaming, are inserted and glued therein. When the glue becomes hard all the surplus wood around the hub is cut away, and the propeller is carefully sand-papered and schellaced or painted, as desired.

It might be well to state, however, that these propellers are very unsuitable when used singly, as they exert a tremendous amount of torque, and if used singly a propeller of this type should be set slightly to the side of the model in which the propeller turns, instead of at the center line of the model.

In the next month-end issue of AERONAUTICS I will describe the Schober model flying boat. This should prove of interest to all model builders, as, so far as I am aware, it is the first model of this kind to be a success.

SLOANE 220 H.P. AERO-SKIMMER. By Walter H. Phipps.

The new aero-skimmer, or gliding boat, built by the Sloane Aeroplane Company of New York for Robert J. Collier, is the first of its type ever constructed in this country, and doubtless the highest powered in the world. It was designed specially for Mr. Collier by John E. Sloane and Aviator Frank Coffyn. In general appearance the craft resembles a huge bob-sled, and in fact when traveling at speed it greatly resembles one, for it glides swiftly over the surface of the water in a similar manner to a sleigh over the ice. Since this one was produced, another has been ordered by another prominent sportsman.

The Sloane Aeroplane Company expects to sell a number of these gliding boats during the spring and summer for pleasure and commercial use, for, owing to their high speed and shallow draught, they are valuable on shallow streams and in the tropics.

General Dimensions: Length, 18 ft. 3 in.; width, 13 ft.; depth of hull, 2 ft.; depth of hydroplanes, 16 in.; number of hydroplanes, 5; width of hydroplanes, 28 in.; length of hydroplanes, 13 ft.; motor, 220 h.p. Anzani; seating capacity, 6 people; speed, 60 miles per hour.

The chief novelty of the boat is the hull, which is of unique design. It consists of five very wide and narrow hydroplane surfaces, each measuring 13 ft. by 20 in., attached one behind the other to a girder frame work, with a 6-in. air surface be-

tween each one. This arrangement gives the utmost possible planing surface with the least possible drag and suction, which accounts for the tremendous speed of the

new craft—just over 60 miles an hour, which is faster than the fastest motor boat.

The construction of the hull is both simple and strong. The five hydroplane surfaces, which are of two-ply wood construction are bolted and fastened to four main

(Continued on ne.rl fiage)

Page 56

L

AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 £ xft-va tio on Llf i-___£

06 Lift, /£. -07

TECHNICAL TALKS—By M. B. Sellers

COMPARISON OF LIFT-RATIO AND LIFT OF AEROFOILS. Lift-Ratio Plotted on Lift.

In comparing several wing profiles to determine their relative suitability for a given aeroplane, it is essential to compare the lifts as well as the lift-drift-ratios or efficiency, and I have for some time employed a method of doing this which T believe is new, and which has proved so useful to me in presenting these important properties to the eye and mind that I would like to make it public. It consists in plotting the lift-ratio on the lift.

In the figure herewith the abscissas give the metric unit lift (Eiffel's Ky), and the ordinates the lift-ratio, Kx/Ky, or efficiency. Thus, the higher a curve extends the greater the efficiency; and the farther to the right, the greater the lift. The angles of attack are given at the determined points on the curves.

The profiles here considered are those in Eiffel's work, which seemed of most practical importance, and the values used in plotting the curves were those given in the "Annex."

It is seen that the maximum efficiency for the Breguet is slightly less than that for the Bleriot, but its lift for any lift-ratio below 13, is greater than that of the Pderiot. Below a lift-ratio of 10, the Crescent and C-13.5 give greater lift.

An important consideration in comparing profiles is the thickness. Within certain limits, the thinner a profile of any type, the more efficient it is. The Maurice Far-man (M. F.) has a higher maximum efficiency than the No. 7; but it has a thickness of only 414 of the chord, while that of the No. 7 is^,, of the chord.

The maximum ordinate of the No. 7 is at the center. M. Eiffel tested two profiles, Nos. 16 and 17. having the maximum ordinates at \- and 1 of the chord from the front. These gave lower maximum efficiencies than the No. 7, but higher lift and

efficiency at large angles. There is, however, a want of agreement between the tables on p. 143 ("Annex") and the curves plotted on p. 100; the values given for No. 17 being used in plotting the curve designated as No. 16, and vice versa. There is evidence elsewhere indicating that the tables are correctly designated, and my own experiments also indicate that the maximum ordinate should not be nearer the leading edge than g of the chord. More experiments are needed to determine this point.

SLOANE 220 H. P. AERO SKIMMER

Continued from page 55

beams, each measuring 8 in. deep by 2 in wide, and which run the full length of the boat. These main beams are in turn cross-braced with wooden spacers and rigidly fastened to the sides of the hydroplanes by large steel plates. The two center main beams carry the six seats for the operator and passengers, directly H the center, and at the rear are the supports for the 220 h.p. 20-cylinder air-cooled Anzani motor, which drives through a special adjustable bracket shaft and double-chain arrangement the 8-foot four-bladed propeller.

The rudder, which is operated by an automatic steering wheel, is situated at the extreme front of the boat.

The company is putting on the market a number of different sizes and styles of these gliding boats, which will range in power from 35 h.p. up to several hundred h.p. In addition, that are marketing a light canoe glider fitted with a small Charavay propeller, which can be driven by any suitable motorcycle engine of 5 to 10 h.p. A special Charavay propeller for one of these craft has just been supplied by the Sloane Aeroplane Company to E. B. Ford, son of Kenry Ford, the noted automobile man.

WRIGHT PATENT SITUATION.

Since the adjudication of the Wright patent in the United States Courts, no action has thus far been taken by the Wright Company as to either restraining infringing makers or granting licenses to operate. Letters have been sent to such companies, however, asking for a statement of the machines built to date, selling prices, moneys received from the sale of machines and parts, and the balance sheet. Letters have also been sent out generally warning purchasers, _ fair managers, etc., not to contract for infringing machines.

As to what action will be taken upon the receipt of replies to these letters to manufacturers, the Wright Company is silent. The company has be.en assailed by queries of all kinds and rumors are thick. Some say licenses will be granted to those who come forward with frank statements and arrange for settlements; others intimate that but two or three companies, after having obtained ample capital, will be licensed; another rumor suggests that the victorious company holds to the opinion that it can manufacture all_ the aeroplanes likely to be required in this country; it is probable the rumor that a combination of the infringing makers will be granted a license has as much foundation in fact as any of the others.

It is obvious that competition is the life of trade, and it might be suggested that were Ford the sole manufacturer of automobiles he would sell less cars a year than he does to-day with the vast number of other builders soliciting business. It would not be good business, it has been pointed out in all directions, to follow the policy that the Wright Company can manufacture all the aeroplanes likely to be purchased in this country. It is argued that while that would as-* suredly be physically possible, such policy would result in prompt diminution of the present demand, not to mention the probable total elimination of the expected general sporting interest in flying, which era, due to the advent of the flying boat, has seemed of late almost at hand.

All who can afford it do not buy Packard cars. Some prefer the Peerless. Those who cannot afford expensive cars are satisfied with those of less price. If flying is to progress at all and if there is to be any industry, the public must take up flying to a vastly greater extent than it has. There must be machines of different makes and varying in price. Selling only to the Army and_ Navy is clearly profitless. It is undeniable that aviation must look to the public for support. It is obvious that for the general advancement and from even the selfish interest and dividend point of view of the owner of a controlling patent in aeronautics, it is more advantageous to reap a certain sum from a thousand aeroplanes produced than from a hundred.

An analogous situation is in the automobile trade. The owners of the Klaxon horn patents won their infringement suits and shortly after granted licenses to the very makers against whom they instituted infringement action. The license permits manufacture on royalty of the infringing horns in their present form and shape, and carries with it recognition of the validity of the Klaxon patents and consent to issuance of injunctions. The infringing horns were sold at a cheaper price.

The owners of this patent, from this attitude, evidently assume (he position that it is to their financial advantage to have competition.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS WITHDRAW FROM AVIATION FIELD.

As is generally known, in the early part of 1911 the Burgess Company and Curtis made a license contract with the Wright Company for the use of all Wright patents during their life, the consideration

being a definite royalty of $1,000 on each machine manu factured.

During the first year, Burgess aeroplanes very similar to the Wright type were manufactured and generally sold. It was on one of these that the first long cross-country flight was made in America—that of Atwood, from St. Louis to New York. Other Burgess machines were prominent in exhibition and sporting use during the year.

Mr. Burgess developed the first successful hydroplanes for this type of flying craft, and these were immediately sought for by such sportsmen as W. E. Scripps of Detroit, R. J. Collier of New York, and by the Navy Department. Early in the following year Mr. Burgess departed from the Wright type of aeroplane to types of his own design, built to meet the special requirements of a growing trade.

The Burgess Tractor, exhibited in New York at the last Aero Show, is perhaps the best known. It was built under an order from the U. S. War Department and later delivered to the army, and it was on this machine that Lieut. Milling, with Lieut. Sherman, flew from Texas City to San Antonio, establishing the then American cross-country passenger record as well as the American passenger endurance record. *|

The Renault aeronautical motor was introduced by the Burgess Company into active service in both the army and navy, where it has become practically the standard for highest efficiency.

In the spring of 1913 the first Burgess flying boat was designed and constructed, with many original featnres, such as a triangular construction of steel girders. Notwithstanding trie fact of its great weight, its evident strength and comparatively low-powered motor, it passed its naval requirements without difficulty. Since then other flying boats have been constructed with like success.

The Burgess Coast Defence Hydro, of the double pontoon variety, and a number of tractors were delivered to the War Department during the same vear, all of which machines have been fully described in AERONAUTICS.

"The Burgess Company, during the long adjudication of the Wright patents, many times delayed, paid its royalties of $1,000 per machine, regardless of the fact that it was not receiving any protection or any other benefits in return," reads a statement issued bv the Burgess _ Company. "Payments were continued without interruption, in anticipation of the time when the Wright patents would be adjudicated and the licensees should be protected against infringers.

"Coincident with the court decision early in 1913, upholding the Wright patents, the Wright Company became dissatisfied with the royalty of $1,000 per aeroplane and sought pretexts to' cancel the existing contract, at the same time requesting the Burgess Company and Curtis to become licensees under a new contract, which called for increased royalties amounting to 20 per cent, on all sales, including aeroplane parts, motors and other product not patented or subject to patents by the Wright Company.

"Many have considered that the royalty under the original contract with the Wright Company, of $1,000 per aeroplane, was excessive, and a thorough test hy the Burgess Company and Curtis, working under this royalty license for three years, has proved this to be the case; as while their business has steadily grown, it has been run at a loss. So the suggestion to increase the royalty on finished machines and to apply a similar royalty to parts not patented by the Wright Company was equivalent to stifling any possible business as Wright licensees, and after mature consideration the directors of the Burgess Company and Curtis decided to withdraw from the aviation field rather than to endeavor to operate under prohibitive conditions."

Page 58

AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 191J

THE BURGESS COMPANY FORMED.

The Burgess Company was organized the latter part of January. It will occupy the plant formerly occupied by the Burgess Company and Curtis, and will build aeroplanes under the Dunne patents, as well as aeroplane parts, motors, speed boats and yachts. The officers are YV. Starling Burgess, president; Greely S. Curtis, treasurer, and F. II. Russell, manager. Mr. Greely S. Curtis, whose interest in aeronautics dates back to experimental work with Lilienthal in Germany, has not lost any of his enthusiasm in the development of the art. His engineering skill has been of great value to his associates in the past, and his continued connection in the industry cannot help but be a strong factor in future development.

F. II. Russell, manager of the Wright Company until the development of the hydro-aeroplane by Mr. l'urgess, in the fall of 1911, and since manager of the Burgess Company and Curtis, will assume the management of the Burgess Company.

It will be the policy of the Burgess Company in all of its work to maintain the highest standard of quality and the broadest business co-operation toward its competitors, with the one aim constantly before it of developing the flying machine into a safe vehicle for military, sporting and commercial purposes.

As stated some time ago, W. Starling Burgess, of Marblehead, obtained the exclusive right for the manufacture of the Dunne aeroplanes in America. Before this contract was made, a very careful study was made by Mr. Burgess in England of the operation of the Dunne machine (AERONAUTICS, Sept., 1913), and he became convinced that the development of aviation would be along the lines of inherent stability, as distinguished from the manually controlled types of the past and the mechanically operates types which are now presenting themselves.

The Dunne machine, which is claimed to be noninfringing, has never been adapted to marine flying. Mr. Burgess's particular aim during the spring will be the experimentation and construction of the Dunne machine equipped with hydroplanes. Already one machine has been constructed and flown among the floating ice of Marblehead Harbor, and so far the experiments lead to the belief that a complete solution of the inherently safe flying boat is at hand.

The Hacker Safety Hydro-Aeroplane Company, of Brooklyn, has been incorporated with a capital of $75,000, and the following directors: David Hacker, of Brooklyn, and Paul Sussman and Harry Lapin, of New York City. _

THOMAS BROS. ISSUE CATALOGUE.

The catalogue just issued by the Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. has an interesting chapter on "Accidents and Their Causes," which has been written with a view to endeavoring to disabuse the public mind of the dangers they connect necessarily with aviation. Stress is laid on the metal hull of the Thomas boat. Another chapter is devoted to the "Safety of the Flying Boat," in addition to a general description of the Thomas flying boat for 1914, and of the standard and Nacelle models of the land machine.

DEATH OF NAVAL FLYER.

Tensacola.—Lieutenant J. McC. Murray, of the United States naval aviation corps, stationed here, was instantly killed on Feb. 16th, when his machine plunged into Pensacola Bay. The machine was demolished, and Lieut. Murray's body was discovered shortly afterward about 100 yards from the spot where he fell.

Lieut. Murray had been flying out over the gulf and was returning to the station when the accident happened. An investigation seems to indicate that Murray "stalled" his machine. He was coming down in a succession of "steps," and at about 200 feet or less he took the final plunge from a height too low to recover.

ARMY AVIATOR BREAKS CROSSCOUNTRY MARK.

San Diego, Cal., Feb. 15.—Flying 140 miles in 133 minutes was the record made to-day by Lieut. C. Willis, U. S. A. The second record of the day was made by Theodore Maccaulay, who attained a height of 4,200 feet in nine minutes.

CHRISTOFFERSON FLIES 382 MILES.

Silas Christofferson completed at Los Angeles, on Feb. 16th, his 382-mile flight, which he started at San Francisco on "Feb. 9th. A stop was made at Fire-bough on account of a broken propeller (140 miles from start). Then to Fresno (181 miles. His final landing was made by moonlight at Lerdo (271 miles), completing the longest one-day's cross-country flight made in America.

The following day he flew into Bakersfield (283 miles). The railroad mileage is, of course, greater than these map figures, as the first day's journey figures 306 miles by rail.

On the nth five attempts were made to cross the Techachapi Mountains, but return was finally made to Bakersfield to make a change of engines.

On the 16th he flew into Los Angeles (382 miles). The original plan was to fly to San Diego (499 miles). _

FLORIDA-NEW YORK AIR TOUR.

Tony Jannus is planning a trip from St. Petersburg! up the coast to New York, starting about the first] week in .April. The object of the trip is to establish} the Benoist airboat in the minds of the public asl having made the longest over-water cruise up to thafl time, and to include in this cruise the longest Amer-I ican non-stop over water flight; this after completing! 7,000 or 8,000 estimated miles over the St. Petersburg^ Tampa ferry route. The machine, ready for 200 miles'' non-stop flying, weighs 1,700 lbs. and will carry 4001 lbs. more, the former weight including life preservers, tools, rope, paddles, fire extinguisher, water, oil, gasoline—everything in cruising equipment save camp tent.i folding bath tub, portable range and steam heating^ system. _

DEATH OF FRANK M. BELL.

"Dr." Frank M. Bell was seriously injured in an aeroplane accident near Meridian, Miss., and died as< a result of his injuries.

Aero Clubs would do good work if they would investigate accidents in the endeavor to arrive at the causes.] as is done by the U. S. Government and the British aero clubs. _

MARTIN MAKES NEW PASSENGER4 RECORD.

Los Angeles, Feb. 14.—Glenn Martin started from Los Angeles with two passengers to fly to San Diego, with the intention of breaking the altitude and endurance records with two passengers.

He succeeded in all except reaching San Diego. An accident to his engine off Oceanside forced him tc land. They reached an altitude of 4,000 feet and were in the air two hours, an American record.

Daytona, Fla., Feb. 5.—Mrs. Robert Goelet made a flight with Ruth Law.

San Francisco, Feb. 5.—It is reported an arrangement has been made by the Panama-Pacific Exposition with the Parseval Airship Company to operate one of their ships in passenger service during the exposition. _

Dallas, Tex., Feb. n—J. II. Worden, a Moisant flyer, Fred DeKor, Miss Katherine Stinson and Frank Terrill flew during the National Corn Show at Dallas.__

Raymond V. Morris is now with the flying boat colony at St. Petersburg. C. C. Witmer is flying McCormick's boat at Miami. Walter Johnson, after purchasing from the Thomas Bros, a flying boat of| his own, is teaching pupils in Florida. Stephen MacGordon is flying Thaw's boat at Palm Beach.

NEW MOTOR FOR GALLAUDET BULLET.

A new Maximotor power plant is being put in the Gallaudet's "bullet" flying boat and trials will soon begin with this. _

Man calls on the President and announces he wants to teach Mr. Wilson how to fly. The police found $1,022 in his pockets.—Ar. V. Tribune.

Certainly, he was no aviator—not with that much money!

SPECIAL PREMIUM OFFER TO MODEL BUILDERS

A special premium offer is made to new subscribers in the model field. A complete set of mateiials for a model Kleriot-type monoplane, shown in the illustration with directions for construction and flying, will be given free with each new yearly subscription sent in by a model flyer. This set of parts sells alone for $3. The subscription to AERONAUTICS is $3 yearly. Readers of the model page may have both for the price of one.

This unassembled model is built by

the Wading River Mfg. Co., of Wading River. N. Y., and includes complete woodwork and rattan cut to lengths, fabric for covering planes, proofing solution, wheels, ball-bearing propeller shaft, propeller blank, rubber strands, nails, wire, tubing, axle, etc., etc. This concern makes, in unassembled or assembled form, miniature aeroplanes of all the well-known types and furnishes supplies of all kinds for the building of miniature flying machines. An extensive catalogue is sent free on request.

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FOR SALE—Our last year's monoplanes and biplanes; very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value.—F. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 II. P. motor, all in Ai condition, for $1,35° cash, subject to demonstration to bona-fide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every mairs door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

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WHEN IS A FLYING BOAT A MOTOR BOAT?

The question _ as to whether a flying boat and a hydroaeroplane is to be considered a motor boat while navigating on the water is now before the law officers of the Department of Commerce for consideration and an opinion will shortly be rendered. This is the result of the question having been raised by AERONAUTICS (see July, 1913, number), when Commissioner E. E. Chamberlain ventured a personal opinion. The Aeronautical Society then forwarded the Department a copy of a set of rules designed to cover the matter, which had been prepared by a special committee at some previous time. If this class of flying machines comes under motor boat rules, Tony Jannus will be the first to make application for a license for the operation of the Benoist Air Line at St. Petersburg.

BOMB-DROPPING TEST AT SAN DIEGO.

Experiments in the dropping of bombs will be made at San Diego very shortly, using the device of Riley E. Scott, who will do the operating. Aerial bombs of various weights have been manufactured at the Frank-ford arsenal and shipped to the Signal Corps aviation school. Plungers with varying arming ratio and non-delay primers for use in dummy bombs were made a part of this shipment. An incendiary and illuminating projectile is in course of development, but it is not known whether this will be tried out aerially.

The importance of bomb dropping from air craft is indicated by the fact that these experiments will be of a confidential nature, and the description of war material is always confidential, and it is against the policy of the War Department to print descriptions of especially designed apparatus.

Full description of the Scott device, with which he won the Michelin prize two years ago, has been printed in AERONAUTICS.

BOMB-DROPPING IN MEXICO.

Thomas J. Dean writes he is in charge of the aeroplanes for the Constitutionalists in Mexico. The illustration shows the aeroplane that was seized as contraband of war by the United States when Dean was bringing it from Los Angeles to Arizona in May, last

year. It was afterwards stolen and smuggled across the border into Mexico and was flown over Ortiz, Sonora, from the Constitutionalist lines. Bombs were dropped at the Federal gunboats in Guaymas P. a v. Out of five trips over the boats one was close enough "to get four men off the boat and disabled the Tam-pico, putting her in the drydock for five days. 1 he picture shows the machine ready to leave the ground for a trip over Guaymas Bay at Maylorena, Soiwri. The bombs can be plainly seen under the center of the machine." _

TWIN MOTORS FOR TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT.

A. G. Watkins, of 27 N. Conestoga street, Philadelphia, Pa., is the inventor of a system of coupling two motors together in such a manner that either can be instantly disconnected or instantly thrown in. The

two motors are placed side by side and either one or both can drive on the propeller shaft.

THE TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT.

Editorial discussion of the Wanamaker-Curtiss transatlantic project in papers from New York to San Francisco has been very reassuring to those who feel that of late the American press has treated aviation • cav-J alierly. With very few exceptions—notably the Boston] "Transcript," whose aviation editor cannot conceive of] anything practical in aviation developing west of Mar-] blehead—editorial writers have been at some pains to] base their opinions on the facts and figures given out] for publication._ They have given due consideration to facts and possibjlities, and the result has been the I almost unanimous approval of the project outlined.

Lyman J. Seely, of the Curtiss companies, says^ "The few exceptions recorded seem to be based on false premises. Some assume that the distance to he flown is from 2,500 to 3,000 miles—instead of some! 1,640. Or, that no reliance can be placed on anyl compass—despite the assurance of Garros and other! distance fliers that they found the reverse to be tha case. Or, that in other duration flights (around closed circuits), the average speeds have not exceeded 60 miles per hour—although it has been stated repeatedly] that the flight will be attempted only with a strong] following wind, backed by expert assurances that the] direction and duration of this wind can be depended! upon.

"As to the motor: the average runs of Curtiss 0-X,| 100-h.p. motors during-the past year have been 3,500] to 4,000 miles without overhauling. In one case a| motor with a record of more than 10,000 miles of actual flight was, after overhauling, run for 40 hours under load at flying speed without an adjustment and without missing an explosion.

"The suggestion that more than 200 h.p. is needed is refuted by duration flights recently made in Germany. February 3, Bruno Langer flew 14 hours 7, minutes. February 8, Karl Ingold flew 16 hours 20 minutes. February 12, Langer, in an effort to fly 18 hours, flew 16 hours 1 minute, when, because of loss, of fuel, he was forced to descend. These flights wera made with practically standard machines equipped withi 100-h.p. motors.

"On the basis of past performances, the optimists] seem to have a good many points on the pessimists in calculating chances on the transatlantic venture."

BOATS SUCCESSFUL ABROAD.

Another shipment of Curtiss flying boats and Curtiss motors started for Russia last week. The half-dozen flying boats and twelve O-X motors when packed for foreign shipment filled three large box cars and represented a tidy fortune. From Italy G. F. Campbell-Wood cabled a report on the successful acceptance flights of the first of the new fleet of Curtiss machines destined for that country. All of the tests for speed, weight carrying, climbing, seaworthiness, etc., were passed easily, and the machine turned over to the admiralty.

Caion D'Orcy cabled from Constantinople of an arrangement with the Turkish Porte for the early demonstration of Curtiss flying boats for that country. Curtiss flying boats now have been adopted for naval use by almost all of the European governments, including Russia, Germany, Italy, Austria, Spain, et al.

TRANSATLANTIC PILOTS.

Lieut. John H. Towers, a prospective entrant for the Wanamaker-Curtiss transatlantic flight, has tele-*graphed from the Navy aviation camp at Pensacola to (.',. 11. Curtiss his intention to come North this week to discuss plans for the prospective flight. If arrangements prove satisfactory to him, he will then apply to the Secretary of the Navy for permission to participate in the attempt. Also insistent on going is John Lansing Callan, of Albany, a very experienced operator of Curtiss machines, who is now stationed at Pensacola to observe experiments on behalf of the Curtiss Company. Callan flew nearly 12.000 miles last summer, frequently making 500 miles a day for several consecutive days, despite the fact that he landed and changed passengers every 10 miles. William S. l.uckey, winner of the race around Manhattan Island, is anxious to volunteer and feels confident the flight will be a success. As Lieut. Porte, the British aviator, arrives here on the Campania Saturday, it is prob-ahle the actual entrants will be finally decided upon within a week.

aeronautics, Feb. 28, 1914 Page 61

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i OFFICIAL BULLETIN

OFFICERS.

Clarence P. Wynne, President. Jos. A. Steinmetz, 1st Vice-President. Wm. D. Harris, 2nd Vice-President. George S. Gassner, Secretary Laurence Maresch, Treasurer.

DIRECTORS.

Arthur T. Atherholt. Harold II. Knerr. II. F. Bamberger. Win. II. Sheahan.

Dr. Samuel C. Falls. Walter S. Wheeler. Office of the Club, Bellevue-Stratford, Phila., Pa.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania held its stated meeting at the r»ellevue-Stratford Hotel, Philadelphia, on the evening of February 6, 1914.

The routine business of the meeting included the appointment of a Committee on Arrangements for the dinner to be tendered to Col. Samuel Reber, U. S. A., on Thursday evening, March 26, on which evening Col. Reber will address a joint meeting of the Franklin Institute and the Aero Club of Pennsylvania.

Arrangements were also made whereby members of this club will in the future receive free of expense to themselves regular subscriptions of "Flying" as well as AERONAUTICS, providing their dues are paid in advance.

After the business meeting a most interesting address was made by Mr. Joseph A. Steinmetz, the newly-elected vice-president, which was received with much enthusiasm by the members present. Mr. Steinmetz spoke particularly on methods of offense and defense by aeroplanes and other air-craft during time of war.

A movement is on foot for the purchase of two 30,000-ft. balloons with a view of having frequent races during the coming season. It is expected that there will be much activity in this sport in and around Hiiladelphia in the very near future, due to the fact that the Aero Club of America looks upon this club as a leader in that sport in the East.

PRACTICAL MEN WANT TO CALL WORLD RACE OFF.

Aeroplane constructors, aviators, private owners and others interested in bona fide progress have appealed through AERONAUTICS to the management of the l'anama-Pacific Exposition to change the conditions of the proposed prize for a round-the-world race and make the offer for a flight to be accomplished in North America.

J. Guy Gilpatric considers the world race "in its present form absolutely impossible, but fear that the 'knock' to the science sure to follow the inevitable failure to succeed would cripple it for several years." Cecil Peoli subscribes to the same opinion.

It is urged that the prize money, variously figured from $150,000 to $300,000, be made available for a race between the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts. The Curtiss Aeroplane Co. suggests a flight from New York to San Francisco by way of the Panama Canal. "That would have real significance for the Exposition. Its advertising value would be greater than an around-the-world flight because the American press could observe and report the progress of the fliers each day. This would be absolutely out of the question in case anyone were foolish to start through the Arctic Circle on the proposed flight." "A race across the Siberian steppes is of about as much value for an advertising or boosting proposition as pasting circus bills inside the tent," says another manufacturer.

It is pointed out in almost every letter that AERONAUTICS is daily receiving from these practical peo-

OFFICIAL BULLETIN. Notice to Members.

At a meeting of the directors of the Aeronautical Society, February rg. 1914. it was voted that the magazine AERONAUTICS be sent to every member in goad standing as one of the benefits of membership and that the said journal be made the bulletin and official organ of the society.

In order that members may obtain the benefit of this arrangement, it is earnestly requested that those in arrears place themselves in good standing at the earliest possible date.

Announcements of meetings, papers presented, lecturers and other notices of the society will, until further notice, be published in AERONAUTICS, which will be mailed on the 15th and 30th of each month to members in good standing.

Next General Meeting.

The next general meeting of the society will be held in the rooms, 29 West 39th street, New York, at 8.30 o'clock, on Thursday evening, March 12, 1914.

Speakers.

S. S. JERWAN, aeroplane pilot, expert and lecturer, will address the society on THE ART OF PRACTICAL FLYING. The talk will be profusely illustrated with lantern slides. Mr. Jerwan will describe the sensation of aerial travel and give his hearers a complete course of instruction in piloting, demonstrating with stereopticon views and models.

CAPTAIN FRITZ E. UTTMARK, Principal of the New York Nautical College, will treat of TRANSATLANTIC AEROPLANE TRAVEL, telling how the aeroplane may be navigated by instruments, how to safeguard the journey, the dangers and ways to minimize—all from the standpoint of the mariner. In view of the proposed attempts to cross the ocean, this lecture is most timely.

Members are invited to bring their friends.

New Members.

Harold B. Anderson, Wintor Motor Co., Cleveland, Ohio.

Ethelbert Favary, in Broadway, New York. F. J. Mulder, 165 East 86th street. New York.

Membership Certificates.

Engraved membership certificates, size 11 in. by 14 in., hand imprinted on Japan vellum, suitable for framing, are now prepared' and will be sent to all members in good standing and to all members elected in future.

Directors' Meeting.

Notice to Directors:-—Directors' meetings will be held regularly, as in the past, every Thursday evening except those on which general meetings are held.

pie that very, very few entries could possibly be hoped for under the present offer, owing to the enormous expense alone; while_ a tour of North America, visiting the principal cities, would really attract a large number of entries, reduce the expense to competitors, interest to an enormous extent the public through the press and result in a great step forward in the popularization of flying, toward which every effort of those genuinely interested in the future of aeronautics should be bent. The time and energy now spent in making America lead in sensation would do wonders if directed along optimistically intelligent lines.

The round-the-world air race has proven thus far a great advertising scheme for the Panama-Pacific Exposition, but even the accomplishment of such a flight would have more of the attraction of novelty than the, merit of utility. It would prove nothing that could not be proved with less danger and expense, and with more practical results.

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Page 64

AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 191I

PATENTS

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FEBRUARY 28, 1914 Vol. XIV, No. 4

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1008, at the Postoffiee, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

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