Aeronautics

Volume 14 - No. 2 - 1914 January

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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COMBINED WITH "FLY" MAGAZINE

XIV. No. 2

JANUARY 31, 1914

1 5 Cents

Property of E. W. ROBISCHON

Kay V. Morris and Photographer Estey Flying over Narragansett Bay in Gerald Hanley's Curtiss Flying Boat

The comfortable confidence enjoyed in the Curtiss Flying Boats is largely due to the every day reliability of Model O-X

CURTISS MOTORS

Seven years of development work were represented by the Curtiss motor used in making the first public flight made in America. Fourteen years of consistent application are represented in the Curtiss Motors of to-day. May we send you the facts?

■■■■■■■■■■a

■■■■■■■■■a ■■■■■■■■■■■■

THE CURTISS MOTOR COMPANY

21 LAKE STREET, HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y.

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< BENOIST

ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation will open on January 1st, at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. We will also conduct the first regular schedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the school and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

Tlie Sew Benoist Flyinu Boat in Action

BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

GYRO MOTOR

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

" FL'JGHT"

July 26th, 1913

"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling attention to the GYKO engine (50 h. p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight."

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

ALL MARINE FLYERS

Should investigate the merits of the Three-ftladed Paragons. Smaller Size than corresponding two blades, with fine lines of design, make them turn more freely. Free turning enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air.

Results:—Less Vibration — Full Turning Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller Slip—Faster Flying—Stronger Manoeuvering—Safer Handling and Control.

Uncle Sam uses three-bladed Paragons almost exclusively in his Navy Boats—There's a reason and Paragon price economy besides.

There are questions in your mind. Write to us for the answers intelligently stated and illustrated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

The Navy's Board of Aeronautics, convened under Navy Department Orders, composed of Senior Member Captain IV. Irving Chambers, Commander C. IV. Brittain, Commander S. S. Robison, Lieut, M. H. Simons, Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, Lieut. J. H. Towers, First Lieut. A. A. Cunningham, has reported a very comprehensive plan for the organisation of an adequate mobile Xaval Aeronautic Service, to include a great aeronautical centre, with a goodly equipment of aeroplanes and dirigibles as a starter.

The plan proposed shows that something is being accomplished in our Navy, just about the time some-

one has alleged it to be asleep. If put in practice, our naval aeronautic equipment will be second to none. Even the over-boosted foreign naval air work will be eclipsed. Some of the work already done by the boats and the new type O. W. L. machine. It only remains for Congress to supply the asked-for funds, to which end the efforts of those interested should be bent, rather than to picking flaws and pulling political aires. It is understood, however, that there is money enough available for proceeding with the main part of the work at once.

The Board recommends that Congress be asked to appropriate as early as possible $1,297,700. This covers estimates as fol-

lows:

(a) 50 Units of aeroplane, outfit,

spare engines and parts

(fleet service) ............ $500,000

(b) One 10,000 cubic meter diri-

gible, outfit and parts (fleet

service) ................. 173,000

(c) 1 Fixed and 1 portable hy-

drogen plants (Pensacola

plant) ................... 17,000

(d) 1 Double floating dirigible

shed (Pensacola plant).... 90,000

(e) 1 Mooring mast (Pensacola

plant) ................... 1,200

(f) 1 Combination captive and

free balloon (Pensacola

plant) ................... 800

(g) Fixed and portable aeroplane

sheds (Pensacola plant).. 18,000

(h) 3 Motor boats, 3 tractors, 2

trailers (Pensacola plant). 39,400

(i) Gasoline storage (Pensacola

plant) ................... 4,000

(j) Maintenance............... 100,000

(k) 2 Dirigibles, Vedette type

(Pensacola plant) ....... 85,000

(1) 6 Units of aeroplanes, outfits, spare parts, etc.; 6 tents; 4 knockdown trucks (advance base outfit)........ 92,300

(in) One 2,200 cu. in. dirigible and accessories (advance base) .................... 177,000

$1,297,700

one great air centre most economical.

Based on the experience of foreign countries, the Board has confined its attention principally to the establishment at one suitable aeronautic centre—at the Pensacola (Florida) Navy Yard—for reasons of climate, convenience and facilities.

Immediate additions are planned, as provided for in the foregoing schedule, in which provision is also allowed for a meteorological observatory and equipment, as standard plans for building kites to be furnished to all flagships, library and amusement.

aeroplanes on all ships.

Aeroplanes to be used from ships of the fleet and from auxiliaries. One aeroplane with spare motor, parts, etc., to be placed on

all battleships as soon as practicable. Auxiliaries to carry stores and supplies. Officers to be instructed with machines of the same types, pilots to be available for either kind or water flying, standard type of control to be used, desirable to develop a single type of aeroplane to meet all requirements.

a flying school.

Flying school to be at Pensacola, for reasons previously stated and in order to cooperate with the fleet, maintained in two categories:

Sea Section for advanced practice and experiment. A reserve ship to be used as a mobile advanced flying school, ror testing devices to be employed in installation and use of aeroplanes on battleships, and for such experiments as launching catapult, hoisting apparatus and stowage. This ship would also be used for stores, barracks and in conjunction with dirigible flights at sea to make such tests as the practicability of replenishing an airship with fresh supplies of fuel and hydrogen, the accuracy of bomb dropping appliances, and the tactics to be employed in contests between aeroplanes and dirigibles. Personnel to consist of commanding officer, three air pilots and usual complement of ships in reserve.

Land Section in charge of an officer of the Aeronautic Division. Equipment as per schedule. For instruction and practice.

course of instruction and dutv.

Students and air pilots will be given instruction in practical work on machines, theoretical study, instruction in aeroplane and dirigible operating to qualify for naval air pilot certificate whose holders are considered competent for sea service. Those recommended for advanced instruction in aeronautical engineering to be sent each year to the institution giving the best course, this post-graduate instruction to be later conducted at the Xaval Academy if possible.

One or more air pilots each year to be selected for experimental work in the Aircraft Factory and the National Laboratory, or sent abroad for foreign study.

aeronautic service with fleet. When certified pilots have been transferred to the Sea Section they are available for transfer to a ship of the fleet and to be in charge of the aeroplane attached to that ship.

U. S. NAVAL AERONAUTIC SERVICE

Page 20

AJIIiONArrK'S, Jan. 1!)H

balloons, dirigibles and accessories.

Four dirigibles to be bought: one for expeditionary service with the fleet, one for use at an advanced base and two of Vedette class for Pensaeola plant, as listed previously in the schedule. A mooring mast which has been satisfactorily used in England will be adopted for mooring the airship at the advanced base, or two dirigibles may lie housed in the double floating shed which is provided for. Study to be commenced on a special auxiliary ship in connection with the aeroplane auxiliary, starting on the basis that it must accommodate a 10,000 eubie meter dirigible.

Experiments will be made with a combination free and captive balloon for preliminary instruction of dirigible pilots and to ascertain of what service they may be with the fleet. It is suggested that experiments be also made with hot air balloons.

Laboratory work of the Navy to be carried on at the Washington Navy Yard in connection with the model basin and the National Aeronautic Laboratory.

personnel of navy aeronautic centre.

The personnel of the Navy Aeronautic Centre to consist of: the Commandant, over two divisions (Aeronautic—with aids, officers, enlisted personnel of Navy and Marine Corps to carry on instruction both with dirigibles and aeroplanes; Operative—comprising staff to operate the Yard for purposes of Aeronautic centre); three aids (instructors), Senior Aid to be Executive Officer of Yard and in charge enlisted men; 1 Gunner, 1 Boatswain, 1 Carpenter as assistants to Executive Officer; 1 Marine Officer commanding Marine Guard distinct from Marine Corps personnel of the Aeronautic Department.

department organization.

An Air Department in the Navy Department to be established under the Division of Operations in charge of a Director of Naval Aviation, with assistants and authority and

TRAFFIC MANAGER BENOIST AIR LINE ISSUES OPERATION SHEET.

We have just received the operation sheet of the Benoist Airline at St.' Petersburg, Fla., for the first ten days of its work.

It would seem that not only is the airboat practical for commercial purposes, but' it is more reliable and has a greater earning power than the automobile or motor boat.

The following figures can be taken from the operation sheet which appears herewith:

Number of trips made, 26; number of passengers carried, 52; hours flown, 12 hours, 43 minutes, 30 seconds; miles flown, 682; gallons of gasoline consumed, 170;^; gallons of lubricating oil,"

This makes 1,364 passenger miles flown in these ten davs, and 25 passenger hours.

When we figure that 682 miles was made in this ten days in regular commercial work and multiplying this by three, equals 2,000 miles for one month.

The usual pleasure automobile seldom ever runs more than 1,200 to 1,500 miles a month, and then it is supposed to be kept on the road practically all the time. Of course, in a four-passenger machine this runs the passenger mileage up as high or higher than in the airboat, but the usual auto taxicab used in commercial work seldom ever makes more than goo miles in one month, which at three passengers carried continuously would only equal 2,700 passenger

responsibility to carry the organization into effect. The Director to proceed with the organization of a Naval Air Service. This Air Department not to be a separate department, as such is deemed unnecessary and in conflict with present legal status. Great stress is laid on this point with the object of maintaining harmonious operation with the present simple and efficient system in the Navy Department to obtain efficiency in the general results.

The task of co-ordination in the Navy is made possible through the assistance provided for in the Council of Aids, each looking after a natural division of the labor, with authority to advise but not to execute. The system is theoretically perfect. The Board urges that the Secretary of the Navy have one representative especially engaged in aeronautics, with an office for meetings of representatives of the bureaus, for records, files, reports, etc. Aeronautics has heretofore been in charge of the Bureau of Navigation, but this Bureau cannot spare the time to specialize on aeronautics, so that the Board believes the establishment of an office of Naval Aeronautics under the Secretary's office is essential.

office of naval aeronautics.

To lie in charge of Director of Naval Aeronautics, with rank of Captain if practicable, to co-ordinate the work for Secretary of Navy in co-operation with necessary assistants representing the Bureaus. Assistant Director—an officer with aeronautic experience, of rank of Commander if practicable, to represent Director in absence. Other Assistants representing each: Bureau of Navigation. Construction and Repair, Steam Engineering, Ordnance, Marine Corps. One of these assistants to be an air pilot. All assistants to form a board or council to investigate all problems connected with development, maintenance an-d instruction of Naval Aeronautic Service, in addition to their regular Bureau duties, and to assemble at the Office of Naval Aeronautics whenever desired.

miles in one month, while the airboat made practically that many passenger miles in twenty days.

This is a really remarkable showing when you consider that the airline at the present time has only one boat at St. Petersburg, and it is necessary to keep this in service all the time. Also this boat has been tised for over six months, having been put into seivice on July 4 and kept in exhibition work all that summer and fall, giving exhibitions at Put-in-Bay, Crand Rapids, Keokuk, Paducah and many other places, besides several long river runs on the Mississippi, Illinois and Ohio Rivers.

It has never had an overhauling since it left the factory, but, of course, is not in as good condition as a new machine would be.

Two more passenger carrying planes, however, were shipped on the 15th inst to St. Petersburg, and it is expected the operation sheet for the next period of ten days will show an even more successful business.

KANSAS CITY GETS BIG BALLOON RACE.

The international balloon race this year will lie started from Kansas City, Mo., on October 6, this city having agreed to offer $7,200 in prizes, allow free gas to the entrants and make all arrangements for handling the event.

AKUOXArTJCS. Jan. 11, 1914

WRIGHT-CURTISS LITIGATION ENDED

PATENT UPHELD

On January 13, 1014, Judges Lacombe, Cox and Ward, of the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals, handed down the final opinion in the Wright-Curtiss suit.

The present opinion merely confirms the previous one of Judge Hazel in this case and that of Judge Hand in the Wright-Paulhan litigation. In part, it says :

"We are in full accord with the reasoning by which * * (Judge Hazel and Judge Hand) reached the conclusions that the patent in suit is a valid one, that the patentees may fairly be considered pioneers in the practical art of flying * * * and that the claims should have a liberal interpretation. * * * That Ihe third claim, when liberally construed, has been infringed seems too plain for argument. As to the other claim, in which the vertical rear rudder is an 1 lenient we are satisfied from the testimony, as was the court below, that during some parts of iheir flight defendant's machines use the rudder synchronously with the wings so that by their joint action lost balance may be restored, or a threatened loss of balance be averted. Such use of the rudder constitutes infringement and a machine that infringes part of the time is an infringement, although it may at other times be so operated as not to infringe."

For a period of five years the patent suit of the Wright Company against Glenn H. Curtiss and the defunct Herring Curtiss Company has been litigated. The last hearing was on November 6 and 7, 1013, in New York. The deliberations of the three judges sitting took until January 13, 1914, when the final opinion was handed down.

Readers of AERONAUTICS are aware of every step in this and the other suits brought in the upholding of the validity of the Wright United States patent through the reports and decisions printed in this magazine.

For arguments and the reasoning of Judges Lacombe, Cox and Ward, of the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals, reference must be had to Judge Hazel's opinion printed in full in the March, 1913, number of AERONAUTICS and to Judge Hand's opinion in the Wright-Paulhan case, printed in the April, 1010, issue, which opinions, up for review before the appeal judges, are now confirmed.

It is not anticipated that the victorious Wright Company will deal harshly with its competitors, now that its privilege of granting licenses has been legally accorded. There would lie no advantage accruing from forcing others to close down. The greater the competition, the greater the number of 'planes produced. A thousand aeroplanes on which a hundred thousand dollars in royalties have been paid are more to lie desired than the obtaining of the same sum on a hundred machines. It is not unlikely that arrangements will be made for convenient partial payments of back-royalties and for granting licenses for further operations on the basis of moderate fees.

The one great result will be the bending of efforts to devise a system of balance which does not infringe the Wright patent. The Wright brothers have always contended that the adjudication of their patent would stimu-

late inventive genius. The litigation has already had its effect along this line. Patents have been applied for on devices to equalize the pressures on ailerons. There is an interference proceeding in this connection being prosecuted at this time. Others have entered applications or have received patents on systems which are alleged to be non-infringing.

The Wright patent has now been adjudicated in the United States and Germany and practically so in France. There is a small chance, however, that the suit in question may he again before the court. Appeal may be still taken to the United States Supreme Court, the highest in the land, under certain conditions. If carried to this court and not advanced on the list, that it would probably not come to trial for two or three years is the opinion of a lawyer.

The present status, therefore, is that manufacturers of aeroplanes which infringe the Wright patent in accordance with this decision are enjoined from further manufacture and sale unless an arrangement is made with the owners of the patent, the Wright Company, and while the decision applies specifically to the Curtiss type of machine only and indirectly to the Farman type, nevertheless the court rules that the claims of the Wright patent should be liberally construed and consequently modifications of either of these types would not evade the infringement in accordance with the broad scope of the decree.

As to the aeroplanes already manufactured and sold, unless a settlement be made direct, the procedure for the award of loss of profits or damage incurred, is to refer the entire matter to a Master who will take testimony in order to reach a conclusion for an award. This is slow process and dependent upon the evidence produced at the hearings before the Master as to the extent of the award. The statutes specify that the award can be for a sum equal to three times the damage sustained or profit lost by the owner of the patent and precedent in such cases limits the award to one of these conditions and not to both. If loss of profits are demanded, it must be proven that the infringing manufacturer actually made profits and was not doing business at a loss. If damage sustained is claimed, then it is a presumption that purchasers of the infringing article would have purchased the patented machine if the infringement had not been manufactured and offered for sale, but the defendant has the right to prove, so far as he can, that the differences in the two articles are of sufficient importance that purchasers of his machine would not have purchased the patented machine and would, therefore, have not purchased any. It is therefore impossible to anticipate the probable amount of award recommended by the Master and which is then transmitted to the court for final adjudication.

THE SLOANE FLYING BOAT

in accordance with its expansive policy for 1914 the Sloane Aeroplane Company of New York in addition to producing several new types of military monoplanes and biplanes is bringing out flying boats and bat boats [O. W. L.] designed and constructed to meet the most rigid naval requirements.

The first machine, of a sporting class, is now under construction.

General Dimensions—"Speed," "Scout" and "Sporting" Types—Span (top), 36 feet; span (lower), 23 feet; chord (top), 6 feet; chord (lower). 5 feet 6 inches; gap. 6 feet; over-all length, 26 feet. Surface—310

square feet on "Speed Scout" and "Sporting Type"; 405 square feet on "Sea Scout." Length of hull, 23 feet; width of hull, 36 inches; seating capacity—2 or 3 persons. Power plant—80 or 100 h. p. Gnome—or 130 h. p. Salmson on Naval (or good domestic motor of 100 h. p.) Speed Scout. Tank capacity—5 hours.

Hull is single step, built up of two-ply mahogany and canvas, copper-riveted, over a framework of ash and spruce ribs. Planing surface 36 inches wide, V-shaped. Eight water-tight bulkheads, fitted with inspection covers.

Nose of boat rounded off and streamlined. Ample space provided for wireless, marine and navigating equipment.

In the "Navy." "Sea Seout" and "Speed Scout" types, the rounded front is swept back to just in front of the operators' seats and is given a slight curl up at this point to form a wind and spray shield, which at the same time gives an absolutely perfect vision over the front and sides.

In the sporting type a permanent cabin is fitted, constructed of a light framework and entirely covered with transparent pyra-line sheeting with its after part hinged so that it can be tipped forward for entrance or exit to the boat.

Two front seats are placed side by side; double CGntrol of the well-known Deper-dussin type. Behind the operators' seats and immediately between the two planes is the passenger's seat.

Planes are of single piece construction, framed monoplane style. Top one spans 35 feet, chord 6 feet; the bottom one spans 23 feet, chord 5 feet 6 inches.

Strong diagonal bracing is used to truss the planes internally so that there is no bending or straining when in flight.

Only two uprights on each side of the engine section. This cuts down head resistance and permits the top extensions to be folded down when the machine is not in use.

For extended sea work these extensions modified somewhat will be folded from the operator's seat so that in ease of emergency the wing area can be cut down while the craft is riding on the water.

Factor of safety of six to one allowed for. Main guy wires, l/$Anch and 3/32-ineh steel cable, doubled throughout and fitted with extra strong turnbuckles. All control wires doubled and extra strong.

Ailerons, 9 feet by 2 feet, operate in the usual manner, one up and the other down.

Rear stabilizing fin. 7 feet by 8 feet, is flat and set at a slight lifting angle. It is built

in two parts and hinged to the vertical fin so that it can be folded down out of the way.

The two elevating flaps, which measure 3 feet deep, are spread out so that they operate in a position to give the utmost leverage and control, with the least possible drag and resistance.

The combination braces and control levers of the elevating flaps are made of steel tubing and are so fitted that by merely unfastening one tnrnbuckle all the bracing can be taken off intact and the ^teel braces folded down flat against the elevators and aileron's. The combination air and water rudder which is hinged to the rear of the boat and its vertical fin swings between the two elevator flaps. This is also fitted with collapsible braces.

The controls consist of the well-known Deperdussin wheel and foot lever arrangement. Pushing the wheel backwards and forwards operates the elevators, while turning the wheel to the right and left works the ailerons. Steering to the right and left is accomplished by the foot bar.

Main gasoline tank carried in the hull under the rear seats. Capacity has been figured out to allow for flights of at least five hours' duration. Tanks are of the pressure type and the air pressure is supplied to them by means of a small air driven propeller which operates through the speed of flight. Gasoline is forced to a small gravity tank situated in front and slightly above the carburetor. Air pressure gauge is fitted in front of the operator. A hand pump is fitted to supply pressure in case of emergency.

Either 80 or 100 H. P. Gnomes will be used as standard equipment. This can be varied, however, and domestic motors of 100 H. P. or more used if desired. In the Speed Scout type of machine a 130 H. P. Salmson Motor will be used. In all cases the motor is mounted midway between the two planes so as to bring the center of thrust more in line with the centers of resistance and weight.

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT.

L. J. Seely, of the Curtiss Aeroplane Co., made the following personal statement, in response to inquiries of Aeronautics, regarding his attitude on the recent decision:

"Any intelligent statement regarding the probable effect on the aviation industry in this country of the decision in the Wright-Curtiss case, would depend upon one's knowing whether this long drawn legal battle has been fought for moral or financial reasons.

"If the issue is a financial one, fought out to determine legal rights, any final decision, whether pro or con, must be helpful. The amount of money made in manufacturing aeroplanes in this country by any or all manufacturers has not been enough to keep the contestants busy for long in settling up accounts, and enabling them to start out with a clean slate and a knowledge of just what to expect.

"The winners, one may assume, would establish a schedule of royalties calculated to bring them the best financial return; the losers would then decide whether they could better afford to pay the amount demanded, or set about perfecting and exploiting other means of lateral control; with the further alternative of pulling stakes and establishing their business in some European country where the Wright patents have been more precisely construed.

"If, on the other band, personal pride, or personal animus, should override all other considerations

settled conditions in the trade may be as far off as ever.

"Here at Ilammondsport, where at this writing we have had definite word neither from Mr. Curtiss, nor from the Wright Company, we are proceeding on the assumption that business expediency will determine the issue."

DEATH OF HAMILTON.

Charles K. Hamilton, the first man to try to loop-the-loop, died at his home, 225 West 109th street. New York, on January 22. from hemorrhage. Hamilton was a New Britain, Conn., boy and started His air experiences riding kites for Israel Ludlow. He went into exhibition dirigible operating. Learning to fly a Curtiss machine in Ilammondsport in 1908, he quickly was known all over the country as the most daring exhibition flier in this country, hi attempting the loop in Seattle in 1909 the machine, for some unknown reason, dropped sidewise to the water when he reached the top of the loo]). Hamilton's best known flights were from New York to Philadelphia and return, and from San Diego down into Mexico and return. For the past two years Hamilton has been doing little- flying. Recently he has been connected with the lioland Aeroplane and Motor Company and was expected to fly the new water machine.

THE CURTISS MONOPLANE FLYING BOAT

In the monoplane flying boat designed by Glenn H. Curtiss for Raymund V. Morris, of New Haven, is suggested the breadth of the field Curtiss expects to cover with water-flying machines during the coming season. To date we have seen definite announcements of four quite distinct models; first, the new four-passenger mahogany boat; second, the O. W. L. type, designed for naval use; third, the tandem-seated, straight-sided, ocean-going naval type; fourth, this little single-seated speed machine.

In Morris' little racer there is not a single stick that matches up with anything previously turned out by the Curtiss plant. The hull is different, both in design and in method of construction; the wings are dif-' ferent in curve, in shape, in construction; even the radiator and propeller were designed especially for this trim craft. Only the Model O-X Curtiss motor is the same in all the different boats.

That it is a very efficient outfit may be gathered from the fact that the surfaces are lifting approximately ten pounds to the square foot, for with pilot and fuel the machine weighs very nearly 1,200 pounds, while the lifting surface is almost exactly 120 square feet.

Morris tried out the machine under every disadvantage. It was during the blizzardy weather of the early part of January, with a cold, rough wind blowing, and the mercury just above zero. Mist and spray turned immediately to ice and in a few minutes flying boat and flier were well coated. But the monoplane flew and it flew fast. It jumped off the water, running before the wind, and just where the operator did not want to rise with an untried machine and unfamiliar controls. Morris made four flights that day and several more later in

the week for the benefit of a motion picture concern. His actual speed was not determined, for it was too cold to put out timers, but when the boat rushed by on the water it made you think of a rocket in a street-car track.

In form the hull suggests an expensive imported cigar; big at the end between your teeth, flat part of the way on one side, and tapering gently to nothing at the other end. Its principal dimensions are: length. 22 feet; beam. 30 inches; depth, 36 inches. The bottom, as far back as the step, is the new double Vee type prescribed on the new navy boats, C-3, C-4, C-5. The bow is pointed instead of square.

In construction, the hull is unique. The frame is a basketwork of ash strips, the ribs carried completely around the longitudinal members. Around the frame was wound diagonally a first skin of 3-32 inch mahogany planking. This was covered with heavy Sea Island cotton set in marine glue, and over this was secured another skin of 3-32 inch mahogany plank, laid longitudinally. Not only did the partially completed hull look like a cigar, but it was wrapped like one. Two holes were cut in the tube to permit the entrance of the pilot and. possibly, of one passenger. The pilot's seat is low. both to give him every protection from the wind, and to bring the shoulder yokes at the greatest diameter of the hull. Unless Morris sits up very straight to have his picture taken—only half his head shows above the coaming.

Tire superstructure is novel. The wings are set about 40 inches above the hull, attached at the top to the welded steel structure supporting the engine bed, and braced below by struts extending to a cross beam which carries the balancing pontoons. In

AEnOXAFTICS, Jan. M,

Page 2.*>

general outline nothing like them, I believe, has been seen in America. Swept back at an angle of 7 degrees in an easy curve that finishes in the points forming the trailing edge ailerons they strongly suggest, at certain angles, the wings of a monster swallow. This illusion is fostered by the curve given the ribs and by the occasional uptilting of the aileron on the high side of the machine. The rib curve is original, though in some measure similar to that of the British "B-E 2."

Total spread of the wings, from tip to tip of ailerons, is 34 feet. The spread of the supporting surface is 28 feet. For 20 feet in the center the chord is 60 inches, while for four feet at each end the main surface is practically triangular.

Rudder, flippers, and rear stabilizing surfaces follow the lines of those used in standard models of the Curtiss flying boats, modified as to size to fit this smaller machine.

Morris expects to ship the- machine at once to St. Petersburg, Florida, whence to get in trim for the expected series of flying-boat speed contests that seem to be on the cards for the coming season.

\V. J. Minier, of Brooklyn, X. Y„ is now at work on a model Curtiss flying boat. He has just finished an exhibition model of a Bleriot, 1/6 full size. It is of very excellent workmanship and is complete in every detail.

AERONAUTISM LAST YEAR.

Fifty-two balloon ascensions were made during 1913 and a total of 150 people taken up, including the pilot, distributed among 18 balloons of from 40,000 to S0.000 cubic feet capacity. The total ot gas used was 3,300,000 cubic feet, costing around $3,300. Fifteen of these balloons are in the central West. What a fine big race this would make! No ascensions were made by army balloons or the army dirigible during the year.

AEROPLANES FOR VENEZUELAN ARMY.

Some time ago a fund of $6,000 was raised by popular subscription to purchase one or more aeroplanes for use in the army of Venezuela. Report was made of this fact by representatives of other nations, and there has been correspondence with a

London company, but nothing definite has resulted.

General Cmmez, the President of Venezuela, has indicated that he would he willing to alignment lhe amount raised by popular subscription, which may interest aeroplane manufacturers in the United States.

ARMY FLYER BREAKS RECORD.

San Diego. Cal.. Jan. jo.—Lieut. W. R. Talliaferro, of the army's first aero corps, flew continuously from San Diego to Pasadena and back as far as Elsinore to-day. The distance covered—.260 miles—is an American non-stop record. Lieut. Talliaferro was forced to descend because he ran out of fuel.

Page 2G

1ER0NAUTICS, Jan. 31, 191-1

THE DEAN RACER

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

Fuselage is constructed of two strips American whitewood r4 inch square, 34 inches long. They are joined together at front to form a point. A "W" of 1/32 in. diameter steel piano wire is lifted thereover and bound with white silk thread and shellaced. Seventeen inches from the front, or apex, of the fuselage is a cross stay or brace of "dowel wood" planed to a stream line section ]/{ in. by l/& in. and 2>lA ins. long. The rear brace is same thickness, 6}4 ins. in length, placed 2 ins. from the rear of the fuselage. These braces are secured to

said shaft are two in- clock washers of steel, acting as bearings.

Planes are of whitewood, the main plane measuring 24 ins. in span, with a chord of 2T/ ins. at the center, tapering to 1^4 ins. at the tips. This plane has a camber of 1/16 in. at the center, ''washed out" towards tips. It is 1/16 in. thick at center, coming to a knife edge at entering and trailing edges; entering edge being protected by a strip of silk shellaced to the edge. A slight dihedral angle is obtained by steaming and bending at the center. Eleva-

-JlecLTz Tracer-

etei/aiiorc &ZocK

tips iervi (Zoosrv.

* 6 s/rarrc/s f/a+-

fuselage by means of small nails. Fuselage is braced by diagonal braces of No. 2 guitar wire and these attach to hooks secured at the upper and lower junctions of the wooden cross braces as shown. By merely turning the hooks inwardly the diagonal wire braces are tightened.

Propellers are 8 ins. in diameter, with a blade width of i-Kj ins. They are steam twisted, the wood being hard quality, straight grained, American whitewood 1/16 in. thick. Bent around the hub of propeller is a strip of sheet tin, secured to the blade by punch holes. Bent around this strip of tin is the shaft of 1/32 in. steel piano wire, which goes completely around the tin strip and ends in a spiral on the inner side of the propeller, where it is soldered. Mounted on the fuselage, by binding and glueing, are brackets of sheet brass, \\ in. wide by 1/16 in."thick, drilled for the reception of propeller shaft; and fitted on

tor is made of the same material as the main plane, measuring 11 ins. long with a chord of i 3/5 ins. at the center, tapering to 1% ins. at the ends, and 1/32 in. in thickness. It has a slight dihedral angle and the tips of the same are bent downward to an angle of 300. It is mounted on an elevation block 14, in. in height by in. wide. The main plane is so narrow and affords such small lift it is given an elevation on blocks 3/16 in. in height, the blocks being secured to the plane by small nails, driven and clinched over.

Each propeller is driven by six strands of H in. flat rubber totaling \\A ozs. in weight.

When tested in flight the model proved to be marvclously fast and it is unfortunate that its distance qualities have not been ascertained.

See "News in General" for model contests.

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No. 78

JANUARY 31, 1914 Vol. XIV, No. 2

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffiee, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

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LANGLEY AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORY.

The Advisory Committee of the Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory held its third meeting December i at the Smithsonian Institution. Secretary Charles 1). W'alcott, Chairman of the Committee, presided, with the following members in attendance: Captain YV. I. Chambers, U.S.N.; Mr. John Hays Hammond, Jr.; Dr. YV. J. Humphreys; Col. Samuel Kebei\ U.S.A.; Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, U.S.N.; Major Edgar Kussel, U.S.A.; Brig. Gen. George l\ Scriven, U.S.A.; Dr. S. \V. Stratton; Dr. Albert F. Zahm (Recorder).

Major Russel submitted a complete account of the aeronautical motor-testing laboratory of the U. S. Signal Corps and Bureau of Standards. [Published in the December issue.]

Dr. Zahm submitted to the Committee an extended list of the best recent works on aeronautics in English, French, and German, which will be available to all investigators in aeronautics who may choose to examine them. Dr. Zahm also gave a brief abstract of his complete and extended report on European aeronautical laboratories, their organization, resources, ecpiipment, investigations, etc.

Captain YV. I. Chambers reported that his committee on naval air craft design had made extensive experiments during the summer on gyroscopic stabilizing apparatus, the results of which were very interesting, but not quite ready yet to be given in detail, lie stated that the navy desired a form of flying machine adapted for both land and water use.

Dr. Stratton spoke of the great need for a more uniform and accurate type of anneroid barometer at the present time, and told of the work of the liureau of Standards in developing a standard type of this instrument. lie also gave an account of the aeronautical laboratories of England and France, which he had studied preparatory to aerodynamical experiments for the Advisory Committee at the Bureau of Standards.

Naval Constructor Richardson reported that his committee had conducted elaborate experiments on the forms of bulls of flying boats, in relation to their speed and resistance when on the water and when submerged, as a result of which a form of hull has been devised which appears to have decided advantages over those already in use, in point of stability and economy of power.

General Scriven explained the tests by the Army of the various forms of machines, and took occasion to emphasize the high standard of efficiency now required of the army fliers. At the recently established school of aviation at San Diego, there are at present fifteen army officers receiving instruction and training, which is more thorough and exact than that given at the schools conducted by the commercial companies. He spoke with even greater emphasis of the caution drilled into the minds of the officers not to attempt mere circus feats in the air, but to confine themselves only to such experiments as would fit them for the actual needs of flying in time of war.

Mr. John Hays Hammond, Jr., announced that very satisfactory experiments have been conducted at the Hammond Radio-Research Laboratory at Gloucester, Mass., in the development of wireless receiving apparatus for use with air ships. New and much improved results have been achieved in long-distance reception, using small transmitting antenna and small receiving aerials. Mr. Hammond was invited to test the working of his apparatus on a Signal Corps aeroplane to ascertain its value for the transmission of intelligence between the commanding officer and his air scouts on the wing.

CONNECTICUT COMPANY READtf FOR BUSINESS.

The Connecticut Aeroplane Company, of Ne\J Haven, Conn., recently incorporated, now has one of their representatives in Europe, perfecting arrangel ments, securing data, etc., for a start in FebruarjB The company proposes to "build a product equal to the world's best in model, strength of construction and finish. Looking still to the future it propose! to go further and standardize its flying machines as the automobile has been standardized, making all parts of any year's model interchangeable, and will parts easily obtainable. The aeroplanes and flying boats of The Connecticut Aeroplane Company will be built by the M. Armstrong Company of New! Haven, one of the oldest firms of its kind in thel United States, whose product has a national reputa-' tion for excellence. This company has today a large trade in automobile bodies, but is able to give spacei to the manufacture of planes as well, without interj ference with other work. No higher guarantee ofl excellence in construction of air craft is needed than the announcement that The M. Armstrong1 Company will build them. Freedom from heavy overhead expense will be largely eliminated, which will, of course, very considerably reduce the first cost of the planes." The Armstrong Company has gone very thoroughly into the matter of manufacture, and have guaranteed this company that they can produce and deliver two machines a week.

MODEL CLUB NOTES.

At the well-attended meetings of the Long Island Model Aero Club business has been carried on in the usual way. On Friday, November 28, medals were presented to Messrs. Freelan and Bamberger, winners in recent contests. Mr. L. Ness was awarded a medal for his standing in a recent tractor contest. An excellent contest was held on November 23 for tractor models. This contest was won by Mr. C. V. Obst, with a flight of over 600 feet, which is comparatively a simple flight for this model to make. Many new models are being brought out weekly, the most notable of which are a beautifully constructed headless type duration and altitude flyer constructed by Mr. Daniel Criscouli, and a smaller machine of similar type by Mr. Hackradt. Ness' three-bladed tractor model has been making excellent flights. Obst has been experimenting with the tail planes of his tractor model and has found methods of greatly improving the lift of same.

The club has accepted a challenge from the junior L. 1. M. A. C. and the contest will Ik? held shortly. The Bay Ridge Model Aero Club is steadily coining to the fore. At all contests held lately the members of this club were much in evidence, generally scoring a win for the club. Most notable among the members are the Bamberger brothers, who are in fact the founders and guiding spirits of the club, and it is very seldom that the names of one of the brothers does not appear as the winner of a contest. Other well-known flyers are Messrs. Heil and Olson. The club has not a very large membership, but Mr. YV, F. Bamberger, the president, states they desire "quality and not quantity."

On December 20, 1913, in spite of a bitter cold, blnstry day the last contest for the llerreshoff trophy was held. The first two contests for this trophy, held on previous Saturdays, had been won by Frederick Watkins, and it looked_ as though he would be a winner of the last and final contest, but Rudie Funk, of the Long Island Model Aero Club, with his world's record distance model proved otherwise and he quickly took the lead with a flight of 1.592 feet. Excellent flights were also made bv L. Bamberger, of the Bay Ridge Model Aero Club.

AERONAUTICS. Jan. 31, 1<J11

J'age 2!

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Page 30

A. C. PENN. ELECTION.

The annual election of officers was the principal feature of the meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania, held at the ISellevue-Stratford Hotel, Philadelphia, on Friday evening, January 9th. Those chosen were:

1'resident—Clarence P. Wynne.

Vice-President Joseph A. Steinmetz.

Second Vice-President—\V. 1). Harris.

Secretary—George S. Gassner.

Treasurer—Laurence Maresch.

The Program Committee have arranged for a talk by the First Vice-President, Jos. A. Steinmetz, at the monthly meeting on Feb. 6th. at which time Mr. Steinmetz will describe the appliances for which he has been recently granted patents, providing for defense against invasion by aeroplanes and dirigibles in time of war. At the monthly meeting, on March 26th, Col. Samuel Reber, U. S. A., will address a joint meeting of the Franklin Institute and the Aero Club on "Recent Progress in Military Aeronautics."

FOUR FLY FAST FOR FLYING BOATS.

Dr. C. M. Olmsted, of the C. M. O. Physical Laboratory, of IJufFalo, is now at Miami, Fla., making tests of a new propeller, worked out by the Laboratory, on the McCormick four-passenger Curtiss flying boat in charge of C. C. YVitmer. In a preliminary trial on January 17 four heavy passengers were carried at an increased rate of speed over that attained theretofore with aviator alone; also got off the water with four up with the wind and flew with the motor at quarter throttle. This was the first flying test for this new propeller, which has been patented.

SLOANE TO PRODUCE FLYING-BOATS.

Miller Reese Hutchison, E.E., Chief Engineer to Thomas A. Edison, was recently elected Vice-President of the Sloaue Aeroplane Company of New York.

This is the first instance of any noted engineer engaging in the manufacture of aeroplanes in this country and. no doubt, Mr. Hutchison's engineering ability will he of much advantage to the company, which has now enlarged its manufacturing activities and is preparing to construct flying boats and biplanes as well as monoplanes.

Mr. Sloane and Walter It. Phipps are working on the design of an original monoplane which, it is confidently expected, will be one of the most efficient aeroplanes in the world.

The Sloane land school, which will open at Hempstead in April with John Guy Gilpatric in charge, promises to he even more successful than in previous years and already a number of pupils have enrolled. The Sloane Aeroplane Company will also open a flying boat school in the vicinity of New York and this will undoubtedly attract a number of pupils as well as arouse considerable interest in flying boats among New Yorkers.

LIEUT. POST MAKES 152 MILES CROSS COUNTRY.

San Diego, Jan. 9.—Lieut. LI. P>. Post, in a Wright biplane with 40-h.p. Sturtevant motor, flew non-stop to Winchester, via Oceanside, a distance of about 76 miles.

About 10 miles inland, the country is very mountainous for 10 miles more, with very bad air conditions at the time. The air was so rough that the

AEPOXACTICS, Jan. 31, 1914

effort of staying in the seat became even more wearing than controlling the machine. The machine itself acted almost like a bucking horse, tipping up, down and sideways with entire impartiality, and occasionally spinning around sideways from 45 to 90 degrees. Many times the maximum wind warp was entirely without effect until he allowed the machine to plungJ downward a considerable distance and thus pick um high speed. The altitude at the beginning of thiJ 10-mile stretch was 5,000 feet, probably 1,500 feel above the peaks, but he lost about 1,000 feet due tdj the necessity of plunging to regain control.

The supply of gasoline gave out at 11.05 a. m.J over Winchester, Cal., 19 miles from P.eaumont, the objective, and it was decided to leave the machine at Winchester over night.

The return trip was made without incident the foil lowing day, except that in the morning Post founl a portion of the tail of the machine to which one of the elevator controls is attached broken, also the throttle wire.

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AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31, 1911

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