Aeronautics

Volume 13 - No. 6 - 1913 December

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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XIII. No. 6

DECEMBER, 1913

25 Cents

Results Tell the Story"

During 1913 more than a score of prominent Americans flew 200,000 passenger miles in Curtiss Flying Boats, without a single serious accident.

For more than two years Curtiss Water-Flying Machines have been used by the World's Leading Navies, including those of the U. S. A., Russia, Germany, Austria, Italy and Japan, without a single serious accident.

These pertinent records are unique in the history of aviation. Careful comparisons will convince you the Curtiss Flying Boat is in a class absolutely by itself.

Illustrated Descriptive Matter Mailed Free

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO., 21 Lake St., Hammondsport, N. Y.

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< BENOIST «^

   
   

ANNOUNCEMENT

The Benoist School of Aviation will open on January 1st, at St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be under the personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. We will also eondnct the first regular sehedule passenger-carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. Students who want to join the sehool and prospective agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our flying boats will do well to address

   
   

Sw BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY

Flying -

Action1 St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida

 

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

From

"FLIGHT"

July 26th, 1913

"Some may say—to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted his very practical method of calling attention to the GYRO engine (50 h. p.) that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight."

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

Model Flying Machines

A thoroughly modern hand book describing and illustrating in detail the principles of flight and giving full directions for building seven types of model machines. Seventy pages, 56 original illustrations, and 9 full page detail plates. Paper covers only,

25 cents per copy, postpaid

COLE & MORGAN, Pub., new ybork!n!y.

AVIATION

By

WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS

Net $4.00; postage 21 cts. extra

ALGERNON E. BERRIMAN, M.I.A.E., A.F.Ae.S.

Technical Editor of "Flight"

A popular technical work of interest to the general student as well as to the man who is in aviation as a profession. To the amateur builder ol" aeroplanes in the United States it will be of incalculable benefit.

Chapters include: What an Aeroplane Is; Instruetlveness of Paper Models; Constructional Features of the Modern Aeroplane; Equilibrium in the Air; Lateral Balance; Steering; Longitudinal Stability; Principles of Propulsion; Concerning Resistance; The Cambered Wins; Work of Lilienthal, Wrights, Voisin, Forma 11, Dunne and Weiss; British Military Trials of 1012; Hydroaeroplanes; Accidents; Romance and Early History: Founding of the Selenee of Flight; Invention of the Glider and Pioneers; History and Appendices containing numerical examples, application of laws, etc

ALL MARINE FLYERS

Should investigate the merits of the Three-Bladed Paragons. Smaller Size than corresponding two blades, with fine lines of design, make them turn more freely. Free turning enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air.

Results:—Less Vibration — Full Turning; Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller Slip—Faster Flying—Stronger Manoeuvering—Safer Handling and Control.

Uncle Sam uses three-bladed Paragons almost exclusively in his Navy Boats—There's a reason and Paragon price economy besides.

There are questions in your mind. Write to us for the answers intelligently stated and illustrated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

HALL-SCOTT MOTORS

Winter flying has already started in California. The following well-known aviators have their water planes equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors:—

BOB FOWLER A. G. SUTRO

SILAS CHRISTOFFERSON ALFRED BARRETT WM. BLAKELEY OTTO RYBITZKI

ROY FRANCIS HENRY UNNO

Besides these there are fifteen other planes, or 80% of all aeroplanes and flying boats upon the Pacific Coast, equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors.

We can furnish you with the most complete, powerful, and reliable power plant upon the market from 30 to 100 H-P. Write for our interesting catalogues fully describing these motors.

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.

818 Crocker Bldg.

San Francisco, Cal.

One of the

BURGESS FLYING BOATS

Built for U. S. Navy

Our aeroplanes have always met the Government's most rigid specifications on the first test

THAT IS BECAUSE WE SPECIALIZE

THE BURGESS MILITARY TRACTOR holds the American Efidurance and Distance Record for pilot and passenger—4 hours 22 minutes—during which a speed of 72 miles per hour was attained. The Government has ordered three more Burgess Tractors for immediate service. THE BURGESS FLYING BOATS of special design built for U. S. Navy represent a startling departure in construction, affording a maximum of efficiency in flight and ease of handling. The staggered wings, rigid lower surface, entire warping upper surface constructed about a steel member are original features of this type.

Flying Boats of similar design are under construction for use ot sportsmen.

THE BURGESS TRAINING SCHOOL patronized by both the Army and Navy is located at Marble head adjoining the works. Continued flying until January first. Special rates on application.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS Marblehead, Mass.

On the Way to Two Million

THE demand for Bosch Magnetos is such that within a remarkably few years it has been necessary to greatly increase manufacturing schedules. The Bosch Factories are well on the way to supplying the two millionth magneto.

THE

Bosch Magneto

remains the one perfectly reliable ignition source and as such it is universally recognized. Cfl It is so well made, so carefully designed that its regularity can be depended upon under all conditions. You always will have confidence when your engine is Bosch-Equipt. *J If you will tell us the engine you use we shall recommend the magneto most suitable for it and send you literature describing the magneto in detail.

Why not be among the Two Million Satisfied

Bosch MagnetoCompany

201 West 46th Street : New York

THE DREAMED AEROPLANE

By RITA GREEN BREEZE

Since the time of the first aeroplane, man has thought of taking pozver from the air, delivering poller by wireless or using some yet undiscovered force to antagonize gravity. Buel Hurndon Green. M. E., zcas a charter member of the Aero Club of California, a man of distinction who was a credit to his time. He died August 27, 1911, a)id his life and works xvere written doxi.ni in the October issue of AERONAUTICS for that year. His sister, the zAfe of an attorney of Los Angeles, is a musician zAth no mediumis'tic leanings, and with no knozAedge of mechanics. The following "message" came to her in a dream on December 2, 1913, and as near as she has been able without technical knozAedgc she has set down his za'ords as recalled by her.

On the night of December 2, my brother, Buel H. Green, deceased August 27, 1911, appeared to me in a dream; he was jubilant: said he had returned to earth to teach a great thing.

With that he brought forward a contrivance that resembled in form a huge sled, but built without a solid bottom to it, which he said was an aeroplane. There were no wings or overhanging parts, except for a network of copper wires. The frame was made of aluminum and was riveted together with myriads of copper bolts, the caps of which glistened brightly in the sunshine. Toward the front on the right-hand side, as I stood looking at it from the front, was the dynamo, and toward the back on the left was the seat. This seat was made of, and thus completely insulated by, rubber.

He stepped in and soared into the air gracefully, easily, and without the least hesitation; upon alighting he explained to me the principle upon which the invention was constructed.

"On the sea," he said, "the ships are quite at the mercy of the elements. There has been no way found yet to extract the power from the water, both to propel the craft and to insure its safety. The present forms of aircraft are equally, or, on account of the unexplored nature of the atmosphere, etc., still more unsafe.

"This invention that you see is run by electricity, and constructed of aluminum to make it light; the dynamos and all the rivets and wires are made of copper, which is the best known conductor of electricity; my dynamos arc sufficiently charged in the beginning to start with, and the wires and rivets are so proportioned and arranged as to act as conductors which supply the power, collected from the atmosphere, to run with: here at my feet (pointing to a place in front of the rubber seat) is a dial which registers the amount of electricity which I have at command at any given moment; if the supply becomes more than I need, I simply shut it off by turning this lever (pointing again to one of a collection of handles in front of the seat), which insulates some of my copper collectors; or, if need be, by deadening the dynamo. This dynamo is placed toward the front, as you see, in order that the air in motion may strike it first, thus enabling me to get the

full benefit of a brisk current of air before its force is spent.

"This machine is safe," he said, "because it is not only self-propelling, by gaining its power from the atmosphere, and can be accurately regulated, but because the operator need fear no current of air, however swift or stagnant, however charged with electricity or inert, because he is independent of all these heretofore fearsome forces. He can generate power in his dynamo, when he needs it, and repel an overcharge of electricity when he doesn't.

"Bags of gas, upon which the dirigibles depend, are clumsy and unsafe; and wings to an aeroplane are more unsafe, being often unwieldy, beside the unreliability of the engines. This latter form of invention is only suited to the limited intelligence of birds, which the Creator has so admirably equipped for their purpose, but for man, the supreme creature of creation, let him not continue to be subject to the elements; let him conquer them.

"Set this message of mine abroad on the earth by describing this machine; perhaps it will direct the efforts of my brother inventors, so that they may reach the goal sooner."

Lincoln Beachey has in a way proved something more remarkable than his ability to fly upside-down and to loop-the-loop; he has proved that the public is very much interested in aviation and quite willing to pay for the privilege of seeing flying that is out of the ordinary. One might think no more bizarre idea possible than that of giving a public flying exhibition in San Diego, Cal. No town or city in the United States sees as much free flying. The natives of San Diego have only to look over their heads any day in the week to sec the military aviators from the U. S. Army aviation camp flying over the city. It is claimed that the average San Dicgan will not bother to turn his head to sec an aeroplane in flight, yet San Diego put clown $4,000 to see Beachey loop the loop. There was no guarantee, nothing but an ordinary announcement that an admission fee would be charged that afternoon, and the "gate" was four thousand big iron men. What will the gate be in the big cities?

GOVERNMENT ENGINE TESTING PLANT

With facilities now for the testing of engines under official conditions, wide-azvakc engine builders will at once see the advertising value in a Certificate of the Bureau of Standards of the U. S. Government. The English 12- and 24-honr tests have brought the Green engine an international reputation. The Gyro motor of American fame has had its official laboratory test in Germany. Purchasers zvill demand official data. The data derived from these tests will be of value to designers of aeroplanes.

The purpose of the testing plant of the U. S. Signal Corps and Bureau of Standards is that of determining the performance under load of commercial gasoline motors for aviation or for general purposes. As previously announced in AERONAUTICS, any maker may have tests made upon payment of the actual expense of the test.

Facilities are provided for determining: (a) horsepower actually developed, (b) weight of motor and essential accessories per actual h.p., (c) fuel consumption per h.p.h., (d) maximum power motor will develop and sustain for six or more hours, (e) reliability during the six hours' test, (f) power at various throttle openings.

One room is the motor room and when the doors are closed gases and the din of the exhaust are kept out of the dynamo room. Testing base is a single cast-iron unit extending 51^2 feet into the dynamo room and 6l/2 feet into the motor room, grooved like a planer bed, provided with holding bolts, and is set on a concrete sub-base extending downward 2 feet to solid soil. The cast-iron base has north and south center line scribed into it for aligning motor with dynamo shaft.

By a Yale & Towne half-ton trolley and hoist one man can handle a whole motor without help.

Two pairs of cast-iron jacks with connecting angle iron form a part of the equipment of the test base in the motor room. They provide ready means for both leveling and alignment.

Cooling is provided for by means of a No. 8 Sturtevant top horizontal-discharge blower, its inlet being connected with the outer air. The outlet connects to a gal-vanized-iron chute extending to the center of the test base. A removable section of this chute is provided so that when in position the air may be forced directly against the motor to be tested or may be diverted to cool the radiator of water-cooled motor.

An impact tube is provided for determining velocity of cooling air and a Taylor thermometer is supplied for checking temperature of cooling air at point of outlet and temperature of cooling water in circulating system of water-cooled motor.

A pair of Fairbanks scales are provided for weighing motor.

Attached to the blower is a pressure gauge for reading the air pressure from the impact tube, a throttle for connection to the gasoline motor, and a double pole single-

throw switch for short-circuiting the motor. The throttle may be adjusted for various lengths of throttle openings and fitted to any type carburetter.

The gasoline supply is located on the dynamo side. Two 25-gallon tanks are provided, set in a fixed rest. Above each tank is a hook with pendant and a Fairbanks suspension scale is installed for attachment to either tank. The tanks are filled at the outer end in the usual way and their outlet provides a water pocket with drain cock and a shut-off cock; each shut-off cock being connected to one side of a Y branch. The main stem of the Y extends through the partition for connection to the motor.

The Sprague dynamometer used is rated at 125 h.p., and should not be loaded above 150 h.p. It carries a Hopkins tachometer. The drive shaft extends through the partition into the engine room.

The switchboard carries in addition to the equipment provided by its makers a sub-panel by means of which the blower may be operated either from the local 250-volt circuit or from the dynamo circuit. The dynamometer may be operated as a motor, thus serving the purpose of a motor starter when used in test.

For a test the motor is swung into position, clamped to the angles, using a plumb bob to make sure of center line; surface gauge to determine its height with reference to the motor shaft and spirit level to check its setting. The universal joint is next set on the dynamo shaft and a coupling made up for motor shaft. As these couplings are not universal a set of bronze castings has been provided which may be machined to fit the various types of motor ends. The drawing shows general scheme of attachment of these couplings. A drop-j forged end has been provided with the set,j which may be utilized for smaller motors] having short ends.

All oil is drained from crank case and new] oil is brought up to running level, weight of | oil used being determined and recorded.I Tachometer is tested for accuracy, the gaso-l line tanks are filled and weighed and gaso-l line tested for specific gravity, blower op-l erated and velocity of cooling air checked,! temperature of outer air is read.

The "dynamometer sheet" shows the ob-l server's records so far as the dynamometerl is concerned. Before starting the testl proper the leading data describing thel motor and the test number is checked with! the "motor sheet." Every reading or datuml

called for on these sheets must be clearly recorded in order that the test may be complete.

As soon as the motor is started a 15-min-ute run is made, observing all apparatus closely and stopping and starting as often as necessary to correct any defects which would prevent a life test. Just at the close of the preliminary run the load should be added until the motor loses speed and a record made of the power thus developed. This record should also show power at y2 and YA throttle.

When everything is operating properly, observers take station and arrangements are made for the test proper for a period of six hours at the full rated power of the motor, or if the motor will not develop its rated power, at the maximum load it will maintain. The motor man reads pressure gauge and temperature, the assistant tester reads Fairbanks scale attached to gas tank in use; the dynamo man reads tachometer and notes reading of dynamometer scale, which he locks in position as he signals for reading. This is repeated every 15 minutes during the six-hour test. In interval between tests assistant makes entries for time on all sheets and checks weights of oils, etc., used by motor man. When gasoline tank approaches empty point, dynamo man takes charge of shift of tank connections and, making proper notes, cuts in new tank.

At the completion of the test, the motor rs loaded to its capacity and record made, showing actual power developed at ]4, l/2, &i and full throttle. If motor is water cooled, radiator is watched for refill and kveight of water added and when refilled, noted. Short stops if not the fault of the motor need not vitiate the test, but must be

noted. Stops of such duration as to give the motor time to get cool vitiate results.

Test being completed, oil is removed from motor and weighed, filled radiator with connections are weighed, motor with its regular fittings are weighed, motor is carefully inspected for loose or defective parts or for bearings running unduly hot.

All engines tested at this plant will receive a certificate from the Bureau of Standards, giving the power for varying speeds, and gasoline and oil consumption, upon payment of a nominal fee. In every case those submitting the engine for test will have to pay all expenses incident to shipment to and from testing plant and for the provision of the necessary gasoline, oil and other supplies. Under direction of the official in charge of the tests, he will attend to the installation of the engine for test, its operation during the test, and its dismounting and removal as soon as test is completed. The owner of the engine under test is privileged if he so desires to be represented at the test.

Complete folder, data sheets, etc., may be had free upon application to the Bureau of Standards.

The 80 h. p. Gnome "Avro" biplane is the latest success of the Roe company. One of the most amusing sights at Hendon at the present moment is to see the pilot, Mr. Raynham, one minute going at over 80 miles per hour and then gently sauntering round the Aerodrome at less than 30.

One of his favorite tricks is to vol-plane upwards. This he does by stopping his engine when 5 ft. from the ground, and then gliding up to some 60 ft. or so.

AVIATION IN THE NAVY

Abridged from the Annual Report By Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS

Among the lines of work in naval aviation have been the development of the flying boat and the establishment of a national aeronautical laboratory.* The success of the former is assured, and only the action of Congress in appropriating suitable funds is needed to enlarge the work of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory, now being carried on with limited endowed funds. Various Government departments and civil institutions will work with the laboratory and are represented on its advisory committee. A broad scheme of co-operation is now in practice whereby the work at all institutions in the country and the Government departments will be co-ordinated with that of the Laboratory.

The coming year the Naval aeronautic service will be greatly enlarged and will include the use of dirigibles, if the Navy Department acts in accordance with recommendations recently made.

During the twelve months (August, 1912-July, 1913) 1,525 flights were made, as compared with 593 from the beginning of naval aviation, in 1911, up to August, 1912. The total of flights from beginning to end of July, 1913, was 2.118, carrying 1,470 passengers, for purposes of instruction or observation, for 502 hours, covering a distance of about 27,097 miles. These flights have been made by fourteen aviators, in a total of 653 hours, sometimes as pilot and sometimes as passengers.

Other officers to the number of 240 have taken flights of instruction or observation, in addition to other duties. Besides these, 266 flights have been given petty officers and enlisted men, and 130 to civilians. The figures for these latter are included in previous figures.

The Navy now owns five Curtiss and two Burgess flying boats, in addition to three machines of another class. Three officers are under instruction at the present time, all that the department can spare; others expected later.

EXPERIMENTAL WORK. Lieut. Ellyson has demonstrated the practicability of starting in flight from a taut wire cable (see AERONAUTICS, Oct.. 1911), using a Curtiss hydroaeroplane, and in being launched from a catapult (see AERONAUTICS, Dec, 1911). Night flights have been made by Lieut. Towers in a Curtiss hydroaeroplane, in one of which he made the present world's endurance record for water 'planes of 6:35:10.0 and the American endurance record for any 'plane. Another machine of similar make was used by Lieut. P. N. L. Bellinger in a climbing test to 6.200 feet. A Wright land machine has

*Aeronautics, Feb.. May and Aug., 1913.

been used for experimenting with various pontoons, finally adopting a single one with balancing floats. Various motors have been used, and is now fitted with a Sturte-vant 4-40. Wireless tests have been made with this machine, and notable long flights. Another, made from Wright parts by the Navy officers, was fitted with a six-cylinder Curtiss and a pontoon of same make. Notable moonlight and other flights were made with it, and it had good climbing and manoeuvering powers. Specially strengthened with extra wires, it was saved from collapse in the flight of June 20, when Lieut. Billingsley was thrown out and the machine fell some 1,600 feet, without putting it beyond repair. A Curtiss flying boat has been used for many long flights. The measured speed is 60.53 ni.p.h., with Curtiss 90-100 h.p. motor. In all the Curtiss machines, the original power plants have been increased by Curtiss engines of greater power.

Lieut. Ellyson has been launched from a catapult in this machine. The Burgess 70 Renault-engined flying boat has been received too recently for report, but has shown up well (AERONAUTICS. May, 1913). An improved catapult, along the same principles as the_ old (see AERONAUTICS, Dec, 1912), with improvements, will shortly be tested on board ship.

An improvised Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer is fitted to a Curtiss flying boat, and experiments have not been completed.

Efforts are being made to test out all systems of control, with the purpose of adopting a standard control to be fitted to all Navy aeroplanes, which, after trials, will be installed in all machines.

^The model basin has given the Navy a mass of information on the location of steps in pontoons, effects and location of ventilating tubes, efficiency of shapes, etc., and diving effects of hulls now in use. The craftsmanship of the scientific boat builder is now required to decrease weight while improving strength and sea-keeping qualities. Experiments are under way with metal hulls.

Improvements suggested by Navy aviators and by work abroad in the arrangement and shape of wing surfaces are being tested by using power models. It is expected to equip a full-size machine especially for research work in co-operation with the national laboratory. An old 1911 Curtiss hydroaeroplane, converted into a hydro, has now been changed into an experimental machine (E-i). called the "O-W-L" boat (over water and land), and shows a range of speed of 44 to 65 m.p.h. It is efficient as a land machine, with resilient landing gear, enough weight or power of endurance being sacrificed to provide efficiency as a water machine; has

improved handiness and efficiency as a water machine, and the possibility of eliminating the land gear for extended flying over water exclusively. Lieut. Smith, who had never flown a land machine before, used this and negotiated eleven landings and starts on land with ease. This was done before the characteristics of the Wright "aeroboat" were known, and it is anticipated that boats of this type will be equipped as an "O-W-L" boat, with wheels, to rival the performances of E-i.

The navy has purchased this year two Burgess flying boats, four Curtiss flying boats, one O. W. L. boat made at the Curtiss factory, three Renault engines, five Curtiss engines, and a great quantity of spare parts. _

Three more Curtiss flying boats will be delivered to the U. S. Navy this year, if present expectations are realized. With its highly polished hull of solid mahogany, after

cockpit or cabin paneled in the same wood, and upholstered in dark-brown corduroy stuffed with Kapok, these big machines make a beautiful picture. Especially designed to meet the latest naval requirements, the boat has a highly arched forward deck, which effectually shields the occupants of the cockpit from wind and spray and makes swamping of the forward cockpit practically impossible. Instead of the usual flat bottom, this boat has a double concave forming a V in the center, better able to withstand heavy seas; it alights on the water with no perceptible shock. Some changes are noticeable in the superstructure. The wings are both of the same spread, about 35 feet, with a cord of 66 inches. A gap of 72 inches separates the planes. They are covered in heavy unbleached Irish linen, treated with a semi-transparent "dope." which makes the fabric impervious to oil, gasoline or water. High effciency in the plane surfaces was shown on the gliding test.

ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR 1913

By the end of this year the Signal Corps will have 15 aeroplanes and hydroaeroplanes in service. The total complete purchases to date have been 24, of which 9 have been destroyed in accidents.

The following is the list of this equipment, scattered in San Diego, Manila, Hawaii and San Antonio:

1 Wright B, 30 h.p. Wright.

2 Wright C, 50 h.p. Wright. 2 Wright D, 50 h.p. Wright.

1 Curtiss D, 75 Curtiss.

2 Curtiss E. 75 h.p. Curtiss.

2 Curtiss H, 75 and 90 h.p. resp. 1 Burgess F, Wright type, 40 Sturte-vant.

4 Burgess H, 70 Renault.

To be yet delivered are: 1 Wright, 90 Daimler; Curtiss tractor. 160 Gnome; and a Burgess tractor, 100 Renault.

More than 2.943 flights have been made, with a total duration of over 626 hours, during the year.

There are 11 officers capable of flying alone. These have militarv aviator certificates and there are 9 taking instruction. It has been found that a year is not too short a time in which a military aviator may perfect himself. It is to be regretted that [the Army offers no inducements to officers to enter flying ranks and even though the limit allowed for this work from the regular army is but 30, this number has never been reached at any one time. The officers, as a rule, remain but a short time in this service unless they have shown marked interest or ability. Of those now flying, but 3 have been connected with aviation for two years and of the balance but 2 for more than a year.

Eleven officers and one enlisted man have been killed in aeroplane accidents since 1908.

of which 7 have met their deaths this year.

None of the civilian flyers is trained for military purposes and none of the Militia has had opportunities for flying. One attempt in years past to organize a civilian flying branch failed miserably. Another attempt is now being made along the same lines by another civilian. There are extremely few private aviators even trained in cross country flying. More stringent rules for military aviators' certificates are in force January 1st next.

A new radio equipment for aeroplanes has been developed in the Signal Corps laboratory and it is expected that ranges of at least 30 miles will be possible from the aeroplane (AERONAUTICS, June). The set developed represents the latest achievements in the art: the quenched spark, 500-cycle generator, etc., and it is believed no foreign army is prepared to duplicate the set. Experiments have been made with dropping cards and with smoke signals from the James Means device, the latter with more or less success.

Mapping and photographic experiments have been conducted with good success for the past two years—234 miles being covered in one particular map, every 6 inches equalling 10 minutes of flight (AERONAUTICS, April).

The Scott bomb dropper was tried and this proved the principle of the device correct. No other instrument has equalled it, as proven in the Michelin competitions. Further experiments will be made at San Diego shortly.

Eight Renault 70 h. p. engines have been bought by the Signal Corps and it is expected to have an entire squadron of 4 machines of the Burgess tractor type, with 4 engines in reserve.

All the flying this year has been at Manila. San Diego. Hawaii and at Texas City, with the second division of the regular army. Here .long cross country flights were made, up to 4 hours 22 minutes non-stop. One trip, out and back in three days, covered 540 miles (AERONAUTICS, April). At Texas City the flights were made in connection with the field operations of the troops and under the eyes of the commanding officers.

In the Fall of 1012 aeroplanes were used to locate troops, targets, give range and direction and locate hits; in gun fire experiments with the Lewis aeroplane gun (AERONAUTICS, October, 1912).

In firing experiments conducted by the Signal Corps at College Park, the Lewis aeroplane gun was found to be well adapted for service on aeroplanes, as it is sufficiently light in weight for a man to fire from his shoulder. The gun was fired both from the ground and from an aeroplane. In the latter case it was mounted temporarily on a practice machine of the Wright type, and was fired from an altitude varying from 200 to 600 feet. There were 14 hits out of 50 shots. The speed of the aeroplane was 45 miles an hour. The target used was a strip of white cloth 60 feet long by 5 feet wide. The results of this firing were gratifying, as it was found that the aim could be obtained by driving the machine directly over the target and holding the gun in place or by pivoting the gun itself and using both methods together. The rate of firing was 300 to 700 a minute.

The Ordnance Department has developed a high-angle gun for offensive use against aircraft (AERONAUTICS, September).

Aviation is to the Army a vital necessity. Much data has been compiled and every-

thing is now in good shape for rapid progress and practical results if the encouragement asked from Congress is extended. Navigation of the air will be developed into a powerful military force—if not already such—and if present plans can be carried out the Signal Corps will demonstrate the efficiency of military aeronautics. The immediate future seems to rest with the Signal Corps—and Congress. The scientific knowledge necessary is in the Signal Corps, which supervises under the law all the services of communication, observation and reconnaissance and thus far aircraft have proven to be of the utmost value for these purposes. When the aeroplane and the dirigible have demonstrated their value as fighting units, then it may be advisable to relieve the Signal Corps from aeronautical work and put the air machines in a separate arm.

It is hoped, when Congress appropriates the funds, to establish aeronautical centers and schools at Augusta, Ga.. San Diego, San Antonio, and other places where land and weather conditions are favorable for teaching. At San Antonio there will soon be a great artificial lake most suitable for water flying and the first and principle center will be located near this city. Here plans include administration and school buildings, barracks for 80 men, field officer's: quarters, 20 officers' quarters, 10 sheds, machine shop and stores, shed for 16 auto trac-J tors and a stable. If the estimates for the] following year are approved, two non-rigid dirigibles and two revolving houses and hydrogen plants will be put in service. A] moderate-sized dirigible of this type will cost about $175,750 and a rotating shed,] $122,500. A gas plant will cost $8,955. Portable gas plants cost about $7,500. Three officers and 50 men are suggested for the lighter-than-air work.

THE YEAR 1913 IN REVIEW

Figures for 1913 show that eight manufacturers of aeroplanes have produced and practically sold 162 aeroplanes, of which 71 have been flying boats and 4 hydroaeroplanes, valued at over $857,955. Additional to these, the products of scattered makers and individuals should figure considerably over 100. The majority of these are home-built and fitted with lower-priced engines, so that the valuation of these would approximate $230,000. Of these, a dozen were flying boats and five or six hydroaeroplanes.

It is not at all unlikely that many more than 100 were built of which no record has ever appeared, and which cannot, of course, be counted. Many machines have been rebuilt many times, while we have figured construction entire but once. Parts supplied by manufacturers would add considerably to the total.

The motors built by builders who do noa make aeroplanes, or by aeroplane factories] which also make motors, total 115, valued! at $141,400. Of these figures, but fivJ ($17,000) are included elsewhere.

Aeroplanes and parts of domestic manul facture exported from January, 1913, tdj November 1, totaled 16, valued at $64,175! Foreign-built aeroplanes and parts imported] during the same period totaled one, with vi value of $19,625, while two foreign mal chines were sent out of the country, beinJ valued at $10,332. Remaining in the ware! houses are two foreign machines and partsl valued at $7,708. Domestic exports for 191! were fifty, valued at $167,255, while import! were twenty-nine, valued at $109,733.

The above figures are much better thai! those of 1912, when one manufacturer estil (Continued on page 215)

INTERNATIONAL AEROPLANE RECORDS

Duration, h., m., Distance, kiloms. Altitude, meters Greatest Speed in Climbing Speed

Speed, h., m., s.

k. P. h. 500 m. 1000 m. 5 kil. 10 kil. 20 kil. 30 kil. 40 kil. 50 kil. 100 kil. 150 kil. 200 kil. 250 kil. 300 kil. 350 kil.

" " 400 kil.

450 kil. 500 kil. 600 kil. 700 kil. 800 kil. 900 kil. 1000 kil.

Time, kils., in J4 hr.

Vz hr. 1 hr. ahr.

" 3 hr.

4hr.

5 hr.

6 hr. 7hr.

'! " 8hr-

9 hr.

10 hr.

11 hr.

12 hr.

I '* " 13 hr.

•Distance, straight line, in kils.

1-Man

£13:17:57.2 1,010.9 5,880.0 203.8 tt*3:35-o +£4:56.5 £*i=43-4 2:56.6 5=54-2 8:52-2 11150.2 14:48.2 29140.0 44:38.0 59:45-6 2:01 =53.6 $2:49:00.0 $3:26:16.0 £3:55:27-6 £4:24:44-8 £4:54:06.2 15:52:38.0 {9:31 :oi.o $10:44:45.8 £11:59:o9.6 $13:01 :i2.o 50.0 100.0 200.0 246.9 £310.2 £410.9 £510.0 +490.0 £522.9

£585.2 $661.2

£744-8 $820.8 £904.4 $980.4 461.7

2-Men

6 142 :49.6 410.0 4,960.0 Ji35-9

t£*9:oo.o £2:58.0 £4:24.8 £8:51.0 $13:18.6 £17:44-8 £23:13-0 £44:36.6 £1 :o7:io.o £2:03:49.0 2:34:48.4 3:04:50.0 3:34:46.8 4:04:42.6

£31-0 £66.6 £i33-4 191-9 291.9 391-9

3-Men

3:16:00.0 £112.0 £3,580.0 £102.8

£2:52.0 £5:45-0 $11 =59-4 £17:52.6 + 22:44.4 $29:37-4 £59 :o8.o

4-Men

3:11 :i4.o $110. o 2,830.0 £ 106.0

£3:48.0 £6:16.6 £12:03.0 £17:37-0 $23:iko £29:47.0 £56:33-0

5-Men

3 :oi 117.0 250.0 1,400.0 $87.2

+"3:34-0 £7:08.0 £14:00.6 21:53-8 29:i3-4 30:31.0 1113:01.2 1:49:n.8 2:25:02.2 3:01 :i7.o

6-Men

1 :io:i7.o

600.0

7-Men

Duration

1 :oo :oo.o Altitude 850.0 m.

8-Men

Duration 00:17:25.4

£106.0

20.0 40.0 82.3 165.0 247-3

. *Made in the United States.

. Fractically all records are held by Bosch-equipped .motors.

. £Made before 1913.

. +Not recognized by F. A. I. but official according to A. C. A.

AMERICAN AEROPLANE RECORDS

Duration, h., m., listance. kiloms. JMtitude, meters greatest Speed i 'limbing S]>eed,

Kpeed, h., m., s.,

k. p. h.

500 m. 1000 111. 5 kil. 10 kil. 20 kil. 30 kil. 40 kil. 50 kil. 100 kil. 150 kil. 200 kil. 250 kil. Vi hr. y2 hr.

1 hr.

2 hr.

3 hr.

" 4 hr.

-Man Alighting from mark, meters -Man, Weight-carrying, pounds -Man Endurance, Cross-country, Non-stop, 4

1-Man

t£6:io:35.o 1283.62 t3.548.50 ti74-io t*3:35-Oo

iTime, kils.,

t*i :43-3S + 3:27.87 16:55-95 1-10:32.51 f 14:03-59 £17:34.88 £35:16.65 £53:04-73 ti :io:56.85 13:32:56.40 £40.00 +80.00 £166.60 fi4i.97 £214-57 £283.62 to.445 £458.0 3i

2-Men

4:22:00.00

$1,422.00 tioi.76

t*09 :oo.oo

3-Men

£1 :54:42.6o

4-Men

1=54-00

t6:i3-40 £12:26.00 £18:42.00 124:49.80 £31 :oi.6o

156.26

£6:56.40

1:54-oo

+ 24.14 T36.24

h.

*\Vorld records. $HydroaeropIane. tPrior to 1913.

-Man Endurance and Distance, Cross-country, Xon-stop for Monoplanes. 4 h. 31 m., 217.5 miles. -Man Distance and Duration, Cross-country, Non-stop, 220 miles, 4 h. 22 m.

[Miscellaneous World Records

Hlloons

Distance—**2,42o.653 kiloms.

Duration—**£/3 hrs.

Altitude—+io,Soo meters. DIRIGIBLES

Distance—Sio kiloms.

Duration—15 hrs.

Altitude—£3,080 meters.

Speed—64.S k. p. h. KITES

Altitude—$7,265 meters. SOUNDING BALLOONS

Altitude—35,oSo meters. Made in U. S. A.

'Just beaten, according to cables. Made prior to 1913.

Miscellaneous U. S. Records

BALLOONS

Distance—+1.8S7.6 kiloms. Duration—£48 h. 26 m. Lahm Cup—£1,172.9 miles.

DIRIGIBLES

Speed—£3'-559 k. p. h. Duration—£2 h. 1 m. 50 s.

KITES

Altitude—$*7,265 meters.

SOUNDING BALLOONS

Altitude—$ 30,486 meters. *\\'orld records. $Made prior to 1913-

NEW DEVELOPMEN

AEROPLANE INSPECTION OF POWER AND TELEGRAPH CABLES.

That it is feasible and even practical from the results standpoint to inspect power wires, telephone and telegraph lines, etc., from on high, may be deduced from the experiments recently made by Robert G. Fowler in his tractor biplane, with which be crossed the Isthmus of Panama.

The first part of December, Fowler entered into a contract with the Great Western Power Co., of Sacramento, Calif., to carry one of their regular line inspectors over the territory usually covered by several men to discover broken insulators, wires down, etc., in order that the repair crew may get to the spot in the quickest possible time.

Sections of the line that usually take 8 to 10 hours to discover mishaps were covered by Fowler and a passenger-patrolman in less than an hour. A broken insulator was easily discovered from a height of 1,500 feet even. A landing was quickly made and the information telephoned in to the company's office. The progress of the pedestrian-patrolman could easily be seen from the aeroplane. The photograph is that of Fowler in his machine with his passenger.

Fowler's machine is a Gage tractor, Hall-Scott 80-h.p. power plant. Spread of top plane is 42 ft.; lower, 31 ft.; weight ready for flight, 1,100 lbs.; speed, 60-70 m.p.h.

:S IN AERONAUTICS

ZEPPELIN MILEAGE STATISTICS.

An interesting statement of the work done by the Zeppelin passenger cruisers since the commencement of the passenger service in June, 1910, has now been published. Ending September, 1913, the list runs as follows:

"Deutschland," 7 trips of 20^ hours' duration, 1,035 kms. (625 miles) distance, carrying with crew 142 persons.

"L. Z. 6," 34 trips, 66 hours 11 minutes' duration, 3,132 kms. (1,880 miles), 726 passengers.

"Ersatz Deutschland," 24 trips, 52 hours, 2,627 kms. (1,580 miles), 436 persons.

"Schwaben," 230 trips, 499M2 hours, 28,468 kms. (17,100 miles), 4,622 persons.

"Viktoria Luise," 372 trips, 820 hours 51 minutes, 45,343 kms. (27,250 miles), 7,863 persons.

"Hansa," 268 trips, 577^2 hours, 31,273 kms. (18,800 miles), 5,598 persons.

"Sachsen," 170 trips, 337^2 hours, 18,614 kms. (11,200 miles), 3,884 persons.

Roughly computed, the above figures work out at 100 entire days spent in the air by the vessels, out of a total of 1,218 days, covering a distance of 130,492 kms. (8i,375 miles), or about three times round the globe, and carrying 23,271 passengers' without injury to any of them.

I lend all possible aid to AERONAUTICS, as I consider it the most deserving of all aero magazines printed in the English language. J. A. B., Calif.

I well know that there are few technical journals that cover their field in such a thorough, reliable and practical manner as AERONAUTICS. H. R. K., Calif.

THE GRANT "AEROSTABLE "

Flights have been made during the past month of Mr. R. R. Grant's water monoplane, with changeable angle of incidence, on the Elizabeth River, Norfolk, Va.

With the exception of the engine all parts of the machine worked out as anticipated, it was found that slight changes would be necessary in the pontoons, that is, they did not free from the water quick enough, therefore, a step in vertical alinement with the center of gravity is necessary.

Satisfactory tests could not be made with the change of angle on account of the unsteady running of the engine and the short periods in the air, but the mechanical parts of this system worked perfectly.

The machine will be converted for land work and in the spring a new engine will be 'installed. The same landing system which Iproved so satisfactory on the first machine will be used, French and Italian patents have been issued and on file are German, English and three American patents covering the machine.

If present plans come out as expected Mr. Grant will ship the machine to New York and continue the demonstration work.

It may be interesting to add that the picture shown was taken after the machine had been six weeks on the bay without shelter, during which it went through two very severe storms without damage, during one of the s-torms it dragged anchor and went into the marsh but without any damage. The machine proved itself to be safer in a storm than the average motor boat.

See AERONAUTICS for August 1912, and August, 1913, for details and drawings.

METAL PROPELLERS NEXT

The recent flying boat accident in the Hudson in which a propeller tore loose at the hub and one blade drove through the boat, calls

to mind a patent issued some time ago to Spencer Heath.

Inquiry reveals the fact that soon sheet steel propellers will be on the market.

The American Propeller Co. will, of course, continue making the wooden ones in various styles and sizes until they have a complete line of tools and dies for a wide range of manufacture in the metal ones.

"There is no doubt about the metal propeller being the real thing when it is formed up out of a single sheet of steel, as disclosed in my patent," says Mr. Heath. Using steel about .05 to .10 inch in thickness, the weight will be just about the same as the present hardwood propellers. From the manufacturers' standpoint, the great advantage will be cheapness of manufacture. From the aviator's standpoint, it will be their extreme durability against both wear and accident and their almost perfect safety and security owing to the fact that they can never go to pieces or get out of balance in any way. Whatever happens in an accident, the steel will always be there, no matter how badly it may be crumpled. There will be the same safety contrast as between wood and all-steel construction in railway coaches. The steel propellers will also be in demand from a military standpoint. They can be made from the same chrome nickel steel that is required by the War Department for the armoring of vital parts of the machine. The propeller will then be as nearly bullet proof as any other part.

The peripheral velocity of the blades in comparison with the velocity of a rifle ball is such that it will make no practical differ-

ence as regards the penetrating power of the ball, whether the blade meets it coming or going in the course of its revolutions.

Figures 1 and 2 are plan views of blanks from which the propeller may be formed. Figs. 3, 4 and 5 are top, side, and bottom views respectively of a propeller formed from the blank of Fig. 1. Fig. 9 is a plan view illustrating the method of forming the material of the propeller into the requisite shape. Fig. 10 is a modified form of Fig. 1. Fig. 11

is a perspective view of Fig. 10 folded complete. Figs. 12 to 17 are sections of Figs. 10. Fig. 19 is a section through the hub portion.

The propeller is formed into shape from a blank of sheet material, the central portion of which is formed into a hollow shell at and adjacent the axis of the screw, and the other parts of which form the main portions of the blades, the hollow central portion being extended along the blades toward their extremities in such manner as to give them firm strength and stiffness.

In constructing the propeller, a cast metal form or pattern, made sectional to facilitate subsequent removal, is superposed upon the blank, as shown in Fig. 9. The blank is shaped or spun closely to the pattern which is afterward removed, leaving the sheet metal shell.

The single seam or joint extending from end to end of the propeller (along either the entering or the trailing edge) is made whole by electric or other autogenous welding. The hubs are reinforced by diamond-shaped welded plates carrying the bolt-circle for attachment to the engine forge. The strain of the bolts is taken by a cylinder between the hub plates. The surprising thing about these propellers is their enormous strength and hardness, considering the amount and weight of material used.

Pending the coming out of the all-steel blades, the above mentioned concern now provides steel armor on nearly all the wooden Paragons turned out and is now putting up for the navy large three-bladed propellers similarly protected; also a four-bladed propeller to be used on a seven ton boat. The

of the question of durability except in case of serious and violent accidents.

steel plating is about .025 inch thick and made in one piece shaped up over cast iron die forms so that it will fit perfectly over the ends of the blades. They are fastened by thin nails 1*4 inches long extending clear through the propeller and further secured by cement which gives great adhesion between the metal and wood. For the U. S. Navy Paragons, copper and bronze are used in place of steel. With this metal protection there is not much left

AEROPLANES IN THE BALKANS

The Russian aviator, M. Sakoff, played a not unimportant part in the taking of Yanina. He left Nicopolis in a biplane on February 8th, carrying six bombs. At a height of 460 feet he steered for the forts surrounding the town. His machine was assailed by artillery and rifle fire and two bullets struck the biplane; but the parts hit were not vital, and the pilot was able to continue his flight. Over Fort Bezhani, which was the key to the situation, M. Sakoff dropped his six bombs, which did considerable damage and caused a panic. In the course of his return flight to Nicopolis the airman suddenly discovered that his petrol was exhausted, as one of the enemy's bullets had pierced his reservoir. M. Sakoff was, consequently, obliged to descend near Pre-veza for petrol and repair. He regained Nicopolis without further trouble. The information that he was able to give to the military authorities justified an immediate attack, with the result that Yanina fell a few days later.

Other Bulgarian aeroplanes were hit during the war. Out of four aviators who were killed, but one death was due to enemy's bullets or shrapnel. A great part of the 25J machines were old, more or less decrepit, or. obsolete. The aviators were mostly foreign civilians.

The Servians had 20 machines and the] Greeks twelve. The Greek aviators did note-l worthy reconnaisance work over Salonikal and good drawing were made of Prereza.l One Greek, with a hydfoaeroplane, recon-l noitered the Turkish fleet with an observer,] dropped bombs on the vessels and forts andl returned safely after 2l/2 hours to the Greek destroyer.

The Turks had about 14 machines but only one was set up when the war broke out. For-J eign civil pilots as well as Turkish militarjl were employed. Two machines were cap-J tured, a few broken by continued movingJ and some burned to save them from thJ enemy. No mechanics could be had and thJ lack of information obtainable by aeroplane! caused disaster at Kirkkilisseh.

FOKKER FLYING BOAT

ARMY AERONAUTICS Appeals to Congress for aeronautical appropriations during the past three years have resulted in meagre funds indeed. Perhaps those who rail may be spending their efforts in vain. This country is proverbially slow in taking up new inventions. Military aeronautics is undoubtedly new, even to military men themselves. Yet, abroad, every effort is being made by experts in the science of arms to ascertain the last vestige of benefit the aeroplane may be in warfare and through countless experiments and trials to invent improvements in aircraft. The results of all this work are, obviously, most gratifying.

In this new art and science of aeronautics it is particularly difficult to impress matter-of-fact people. The calls of the Army and Navy for aeronautical funds, and the endorsements of civil aeronautical organizations are discounted by Congress. Quite naturally!

National pride on the part of taxpayers,

as well as the military importance of being properly prepared, demands that this country be in the forefront of progress in aeronautics as in other branches of national administration.

The whole matter of aeronautical appropriations can quickly be settled by first-hand methods. Let Congress send a small committee abroad to see with its own eyes what the great powers of Europe are doing in aeronautics. Let this committee study the question! All interested in aeronautics are willing and anxious to abide by the views of Congress once the importance of this art is given the opportunity to demonstrate for itself. This is better than volumes of officers' reports and lay handbooks. This would be a Congressional trip that the American people want to have some Congressmen take.

We believe Congress is fair and willing "to be shown" if the proper opportunity is presented. May not this suggestion offer this opportunity?

Aeronautics Issues Semi-Monthly

BEGINNING with the first of 1914, AERONAUTICS will be issued twice a month, on the 15th and 30th. The first January Number will appear January 15th ; the second January Number will be mailed January 30th. Advertisements will appear every issue or every other issue as desired by advertisers. The price of single issues will be 15 cents.

THINGS are moving more swiftly these days. The "slump" in aeronautics in this country is over. Whatever of industry there is is now solid and growth from now on will be real. "There will be more done in the next 18 months than has been done to date in aeronautics."

THE aeronautical manufacturers are most enthusiastic over the announcement that AERONAUTICS is to be a semi-monthly, the first in this country. "If any magazine gives value received it is AERONAUTICS." "We think the time is about ripe for such a step and no doubt will make AERONAUTICS more popular than ever." "It will increase the field of AERONAUTICS' usefulness to a great extent." With such whole-hearted support from the trade, and with the generous endorsement of the readers, which AERONAUTICS has always enjoyed, the future holds no limitations.

WILL my good friends, the readers, show their so often expressed appreciation of the magazine in an active way? Will you, friends, see that your town library subscribes? If you know of someone who may be interested in the magazine, will you send me his name for a sample copy? Will you induce your clubs' secretaries to subscribe to AERONAUTICS ? If there is an educational institution in your town, will you say a word? Wherever you can find an opportunity, will you boost for aeronautics and the magazine?

TENTH A

At a public meeting held December iS, the nearest date of the scheduled monthly meetings of The Aeronautical Society, there was celebrated the Tenth Anniversary of Practical Power Aeroplane Flight. Ten years and a day before, Orville Wright flew a distance of 120 feet under power at a uniform elevation.

The meeting was presided over by William J. Hammer, a long-time friend of the Wright Brothers. Hudson Maxim and Hon. James M. Beck lauded the achievements of the famous inventors. "Much honor is due to the many inventors, from Leonardo da Vinci down to the Wright Brothers, for helping to solve the problem of mechanical flight. A few of them almost did it, but not quite. There was that difference in what they did and what the Wright Brothers did, which, in this world, divides success and failure. Consequently, the Wright Brothers are at once the Columbus, the Feary, the Ericcson, the Morse, the Bell, the Edison, of aeronautics," said Mr. Maxim.

A set of engrossed resolutions were presented to Mr. Orville Wright by Lee S. Burridge in behalf of the Society. Thomas A. Hill was called upon to present Mr. Wright with a bronze figure by Auguste Moreau. Kalph II. Upson addressed the meeting and told of the situation in aeronautics in Europe as viewed by him.

On December 17th was celebrated the Tenth Anniversary of the First Flight made in a Power Driven Aeroplane.

Ten years ago on that day, Wilbur and Orville Wright made four flights on the coast of North Carolina near Roanoke Island, a spot historic in America's history as the site of the first English settlement in the Western Hemisphere.

The first flight started from level ground against a 27-mile wind. After a run of 40 feet on a monorail track, the machine lifted and covered a distance of 120 feet over the ground in 12 seconds. It had a speed through the air of a little over 45 feet per second, and the flight, if made in calm air, would have covered a distance of over 540 feet.

Three days before, on the 14th of December, Wilbur Wright had essayed a flight from the side of the Kill Devil sand hill, but in three and one-half seconds he landed at the foot of the hill without having demonstrated the ability of the machine to sustain itself in horizontal flight. Altogether four flights were made on the 17th. The first and third by Orville Wright, the second and fourth by Wilbur Wright. The last flight was the longest, covering a distance of 852 feet over the ground in 59 seconds. After the fourth flight, a gust of wind struck the machine standing on the ground and rolled it over, injuring it to an extent that made further flights with it impossible for that year.

The gliding experiments of Lilienthal in 1896 led the Wright Brothers to become interested in flight. The next four years were spent in reading and theorizing. In the Fall of 1900 practical experiments were begun with a man carrying glider. These experiments were carried on from the sand hills near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first glider was without a tail, the lateral equilibrium and the right and left steering were obtained by warping of the main surfaces. A flexible forward elevator was used. This machine was

DF FLIGHT

Mr. Wright said: "I wish to take advantage of this opportunity to express to the members of this Society my appreciation of the honor they have done my brother and myself in making us honorary members at the inception of the organization, and also for the resolutions in commemoration of our first flight and the presentation of this figure, which is very beautiful, I can assure you.

"Your presiding officer has mentioned the stabilizer. I think it is a little premature to say anything about it at present. It is true that for some years we have been working on a machine to make flying safe, taking balancing out of the hands of the man, so that only steering is left to the. care of the operator. We have a device which experiments of the last few months have given us very great hopes will do this. I do not know what there is I can say about it at present. I do not like to talk too much about things until we have them actually perfected and in operation. What we have at present takes care of both lateral and fore-and-aft balance and it performs in a manner better than an operator can do. In making turns it banks the machine the proper amount, it never allows 'stalling,' which is common to too many of. our operators and has been the cause of so many accidents. We have had a few little mechanical problems which have delayed us but we hope to have it ready for the market before the summer season."

flown as a kite with and without operator, and several glides were made with it.

A second machine was designed of larger size, and many glides were made with it in 1901. This machine was similar to the one of 1900 but had slightly deeper curved surfaces, Experiments with this macliine demonstrated the inaccuracy of all the recognized tables of air pressures, upon which its design had been based.

In 1902 a third glider was constructed, based upon tables of air pressures made by the Wright Brothers themselves. The lateral control was maintained by warping surfaces, and a vertical rear rudder operated in conjunction with the surfaces. Nearly a thousand gliding flights were made with this machine. An account of these experiments given in 1903 by Mr. Chanute in talks before scientific societies in Europe and in articles contributed to technical papers, led a number of persons in France to take up experiments with a similar machine, which was called a Chanute-Wright type. Among these were Archdeacon, Esnault-Pelterie and the Voisin Brothers. Captain Ferber had already in 1902 built what he termed a "Chanute-Wright" type machine.

In 1903, the Wright Brothers designed a machine to be driven with a motor. They also designed and built their own motor. This had four horizontal cylinders, 4 in. by 4 in., and developed 12 h. p. Two propellers, turning in opposite directions, were driven by chains from the engine. After many delays the machine was finally ready and was flown on the 17th of December, 1903, as related above.

In the Spring of 1904. power flights were continued near Dayton with a machine similar to the one flown in 1903, but slightly heavier.

The first complete circle was accomplished on the 20th of September, 1904, in a flight

Continued on i>aue 220

'STABILITY IN FLYING MACHINES"*

Criticism on Mr. Merrill's Paper

By L. B. SPERRY

Let me ask if there are any aviators present who care to fly a machine which under certain conditions would suddenly dive or climb, with a tendency more powerful than his controls? If there are any who are looking for such a vehicle on which to test their powers let them choose the so-called inherently stable plane.

Mr. Merrill has conceded that the so-called inherent stability is more or less pendulous in action, resulting in undulating flight. So-called inherent stability cannot call upon a considerable righting couple without moving out of its stable zone to generate that righting couple; it cannot, therefore, return to its zone until the disturbing forces cease. In other words, a so-called inherently stable plane defeats its own purpose when, in order to fight a disturbing influence, it departs from its stable zone to do it. Then consider that a machine having powerful torques, which tend to make it assume certain aspects to the atmosphere, will be most dangerous on rough days. When this machine enters an up or down trend it will try to bring about the same relation to that up or down trend that it formerly had in quiet atmosphere. The aviator will then have to fight to keep the machine from diving or climbing.

Now let us compare an aeroplane with a ship. It is true that the longitudinal stability of a ship working in two fluids, as it does, is not analogous to the longitudinal stability of an aeroplane. In lateral stability it is akin, since lateral tip does not increase the lift of either, but decreases it. We find, as naval architecture has advanced in seeking seaworthiness, that the righting couple has been tremendously reduced. The "Im-perator," for instance, has a metercentric height of about the length of your 16-inch slide rule. Now, if powerful righting couples are the vogue for ships, then a raft would be the boat on which to fight rough seas, and we should wish to discard the present type of aeroplane.

We have it from an eye-witness of the so-called lateral inherently stable Fowker machine that to him it did not fly but fluttered constantly, tipping from one side to the other. At times it tipped to large angles, and what amazed him was that it did not go all the way over. From the foregoing we feel justified in describing such a machine as inherently cranky instead of inherently stable.

So-called inherent stability is not a new thing; on the other hand, very old. Lang-ley, Lilienthal, Montgomery, all worked on

*Read before the Society of Mechanical Engineers, October 14, subsequent to the Merrill's lecture before the same Society.

this theory for stability. One of the first Bleriot machines was a following plane type, copied from Langley. In 1905, John J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara, California, filed a patent for his inherent stable plane. From 1885 to October 31, 1911, he experimented with his inherently stable plane which caused his death when he evidently was unable to straighten it from a nose dive. That that type is not the present type, is only another indication of the fallacy of a large righting couple.

My experience has led me to believe that present machines have more righting couple already than is necessary. So much for so-called inherent stability.

The sum and substance of Mr. Merrill's paper is that present machines have certain defects in design which make them unsafe. He suggests remedies for these defects, and concludes by saying that before aviation is placed upon a firm foundation a correct theory of design must be worked out by laboratory research.

Paragraphs 5 and 6 of the abstract read as follows:

"Present machines are so badly designed that dangerous couples are introduced which have to be offset by other couples introduced by the pilot. That we fly as well as we do is not due to the design of the machine but to the skill of the pilot."

"It is possible to design a machine in which the couples introduced are righting couples, and in which no offsetting couples are needed. Until such a machine is produced there will be only a small market for the sale of flying machines."

All save one minor defect in "present machines" do not exist in a correctly designed machine, as for instance the Curtiss flying boat. I have no connection, by the way, with the Curtiss Company, but am naming this machine because it is the one with which I am familiar.

The first defect, see paragraph 4 of the body of the paper, reads as follows:

"These rotations have a great influence upon safety in flight, not only because they throw the machine away from a safe horizontal position, but particularly because they affect the speed of the machine upon which control depends. Of the two, a stalling rotation is the more dangerous for two rea-ons: (a) because the pressure angle is increased, which increased the resistance, and, unless the thrust of the screw is increased proportionally, the speed is decreased. This is always dangerous, and many accidents have been due to stalling, (b) If the angular velocity of a stalling rotation is high, there will be a rapid increase of pressure per square foot on the supporting surfaces,

and this sudden strain may cause the machine to collapse. Several deaths have been clue to this cause."

Reason (a). We will grant that the theory is correct, although I do not know of anyone experiencing dilhculty along this line.

Reason (b). That if the angular rotation is too high, it may cause the collapsing of the machine is ridiculous. Imagine a machine to be dived vertically so as to attain a maximum velocity of 125 miles per hour (Beachey timed on a vertical dive). The machine to then be given the angle at which it will give the maximum lift, this total lift on a 2,000 flying boat will be 6.7 times the normal lift. This is a rough estimate of the maximum stress that can be possibly exerted upon a machine. Dr. Zahm allowed a safety factor of 10 or 12 on the Curtiss flying boat. Mind you that in normal flying one never reaches beyond 70 or 75 miles per hour. I can of course get the necessary coefficient from Eiffel which would allow me to calculate the stress within a small per cent.

Next, see paragraph 7, which reads: "Too rapid a diving rotation has caused the downward collapse of machines and the deaths of some aviators." This stress has been considered in a similar manner by Dr. Zahm in the design of the Curtiss Flying Boat.

Referring to paragraph 11 of his paper, Mr. Merrill does not consider the pressure brought to play on the tail surfaces, when the machine's angle is changed from 5 deg.

to 8 deg. The stability couple produced by the shifting of the center of pressure is very small compared with the stability one caused by pressure on the tail planes. Eiffel's graphs show that a change of angle of from 5 deg. to 8 deg. shifts the pressure ~lA per cent, forward, which means a moment of J/i feet on a machine having a 5 foot cord. The anti couple would therefore be on this 2,000 lb. machine 250 lbs.— ft. Now let us consider the stability couple. The 50 sq. ft. of tail area having an angle of 3 deg., will give us according to Eiffel, 144 lbs. lift, acting at a distance of 14 1-5 ft. The stability couple is equal to 2,045 lbs. ft. minus 250 lbs. ft., the anti couple produced by the center of pressure shift, leaves 1,795 lbs. ft. stability force.

The gist of paragraph iS and on, etc., is given in paragraph 4 of the abstract, which reads:

"In most machines lateral stability is maintained by increasing the positive pressure angle of the tip to be raised. This tends to retard that tip and turn the machine in the wrong direction. This false turning movement is offset by the vertical rudder. It is possible to maintain lateral stability by moving a surface to a negative angle on the tip to be lowered, and this will produce a turning movement in the right direction, hence no offset will be needed."

This defect is not present in the Curtiss machine, when the high side is retarded more than the low one because of the down trend that exists between the wings.

NEW TESTS FOR MILITARY PILOT

The following requirements for a military aviator, effective January 1, 1914, have been approved by the Secretary of War.

Make a cross-country flight over a triangular course not less than 100 miles in perimeter with two intermediate landings; flight to be completed within 48 hours after start.

Make a straight-away cross-country flight, without landing, of at least 60 miles, over a previously designated course; return flight to be made either same day or first subsequent day weather permits.

During both flights candidate shall remain at least 1,500 feet up.

Remain for at least 30 minutes at an altitude of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet. This requirement may be accomplished during one of the cross-country flights.

Execute a volplane, with motor cutout completely, at an altitude of 1,500 feet, the motor to be cut out when aeroplane is over the landing field, and on landing cause the aeroplane to come to rest within 300 feet of a previously designated point.

Reports will be submitted giving the main military features observed during the flights made under first two paragraphs.

No tests made with passengers.

The candidate will then be examined theoretically and practically on his ability to read maps; his knowledge of the compass and how to steer thereby; his knowledge of the aeroplane, i. e., what constitutes safe construction; how to make the ordinary repairs of an aeroplane; the action of the machine under ordinary flying conditions, covering the points on the action of the controls, how the angles of lift on the wings change in making turns, how the pressures change both on the main planes, rear elevator, and vertical rudder; and what constitutes safe flying as far as gliding, banking, etc., is concerned.

He will be examined on his knowledge of gasoline motors, carburetters, the most common troubles that occur to motors, and how to correct them. He shall be able to make simple repairs, dismantle and assemble motors, and shall show a thorough knowledge of all motors in use at the school.

He shall be examined in meteorology and topography in so far as they relate to aviation.

To AERONAUTICS.—You have done a great pioneer work. W. S. H., Miss.

SPECIAL PREMIUM OFFER TO MODEL BUILDERS

A special premium offer is made to new subscribers in the model field. A complete set of materials for a model Bleriot-type monoplane, shown in the

illustration, with directions for construction and flying, will be given free with each new yearly subscription sent in by a model flyer. This set of parts

sells alone for $3. The subscription to AERONAUTICS is $3 yearly. Readers of the model page may have both for the price of one.

This unassembled model is built by the Wading River Mfg. Co., of Wading River, N. Y., and includes complete woodwork and rattan cut to lengths, fabric for covering planes, proofing solution, wheels, ball-bearing propeller shaft, propeller blank, rubber strands, nails, wire, tubing, axle, etc., etc. This concern makes, in unassembled or assembled form, miniature aeroplanes of all the well-known types and furnishes supplies of all kinds for the building of miniature flying machines. An extensive catalogue is sent free on request.

MODEL NOTES

By HARRY G. SCHULTZ, Model Editor.

The model shown in the accompanying drawing was constructed by Derza Dayko, of Perth Amboy, N. J.

In spite of its large plane surface and high pitch slow turning propellers, it is an excellent flyer and has made flights of 2,100 feet and 121 seconds' duration.

The fuselage is of the well-known "triangle" or "A" type, and is constructed of two spruce strips 38 inches long by Y x % inch in cross section, braced at the center by an X-brace of bamboo. The rear brace or propeller bar is also constructed of split bamboo % x Y% inch.

~DXYKO ALBATROSS*

-/cafe-

' Z > + I *

The planes are constructed of spruce and bamboo, the main spar in each being of spruce; the spar in the main plane being % x 5/32 inch in thickness, and that in the elevator being 3/16 x V% inch in thickness. The ribs and entering and trailing edges of the planes are of bamboo, and the tips ot each plane are given a slight negative angle, as shown. Both planes have a rather deep camber and are covered on the upper side with bamboo paper, treated with Ambroid varnish.

The propellers are 12 inches in diameter, with a pitch of approximately 36 inches, and are carved from a solid block of white pine. The bearings consists of the usual small pieces of tubing and washers. Each propeller is driven by 11 strands of J^-inch flat rubber.

MODEL GLIDERS.

Although there are many model flyers thoughout the country, there are very few who have gone into the model glider side of the sport, although those who have experimented in this manner will readily testify that much more sport can be had with model gliders than with the model aeroplanes.

In order to obtain good glides, a hill or slope must be obtainable, and the glider is

launched from the top of the hill against the wind, with the nose of the glider pointing slightly downward.

A glider must be much more delicately balanced than a model aeroplane, and flights can be obtained with a well-balanced glider of over 1,500 feet with durations of over 100 seconds. If the glider has the least too much elevation and is headed into a strong breeze, it will quickly stall and slide backwards. The object is always to get the glider on an even keel, and in view of the fact that the glider is headed into the wind, there always is a tendency for the front of the machine to rise and the rear to drop, thereby causing the glider to stall, as above stated. To overcome this it is generally necessary to weight the front of the glider in some manner, although the writer knows of one flyer who had his front plane, or elevator, so arranged as to increase or decrease its surface, according to the velocity of the wind.

The writer is an enthusiast on this side of the sport and would like to hear from others, receive descriptions of their gliders, results of flights, etc.

All queries regarding models and model flying should be addressed to the Model Editor, Mr. Harry G. Schultz, 23 West 106th street, New York City, N. Y.

MODEL AEROPLANE CIRCLES CITY HALL.

Mr. Frank Schoher, late of the Curtiss Company, has lately turned his attention to performing stunts with model aeroplanes, and on the 21st of Novemher, 1913. he proceeded to entertain the downtown section of New York by launching a model from the tower of the World Building. The model was a small affair, of a type known as Red Racer, and immediately following the model a small glider was launched.

The model climbed in spirals to an immense height, circled the City Hall several times and with unerring accuracy landed in the doorway of the Hall, as though it had full intentions of paying a visit to his Honor the Mayor. The glider soared practically out of sight, having a duration of over 2 minutes.

The tests were witnessed by a large crowd and Mr. Schober had a very difficult time getting his model into his possession again.

THE COLLINS CONTEST.

The Collins R. O. G. model contest, held on December 14, proved to be a great success and resulted in a new world's record being established by Mr. R. Funk, of the Long Island Model Aeroplane Club, with a flight of 1,620 feet, breaking Mr. L. Bamberger's record of 1,542 feet.

In the distance contest held in the morning, the small, speedy model of Mr. C. Obst (L. I. M. A. C.) had its own way and looked to be an easy winner, but by his last flight Mr. Funk demonstrated the superiority of his model by easily eclipsing Obst's best flight of 1,264 feet.

The afternoon contest was for duration, and Hodg-man (B. R. M. A. C.) showed that his model possessed great stability in spite of the very strong wind blowing, by winning the contest with a flight of 56 2/5 seconds. The field was covered with small trees, which greatly interfered with the flying of the models and resulted in a combination model flying and tree climbing contest. A very strong wind blew all day, and it can be said that there were not more than two or three models in good condition after the contest. While in the air some of the models performed feats that would have put Mr. Pegoud to shame,

looping the loop, flying upside down, side slipping and performing other marvelous feats.

Mr. Edward Durant and his very able assistant, Mr. George Bauer, conducted the contests in fine style. Mr. Durant acted as official timer and Mr. Bauer had the tiresome task of measuring all flights, and it can be said that quite a number of miles were traversed by him. The contest was conducted on the point system, and after the mathematicians had consulted, it was found that Mr. R. Funk was the winner. The results are as follows: POINTS.

Dis- Dura- Points, tance. tion. Total.

Funk ............... 1 3 4

Hodgman ........... 4 1 5

Obst ............... 2 5 7

Heil ................ 6 2 8

Cavanagh ........... 6 4 10

W. Bamberger ...... 3 7 10

Ness ............... 6 5 11

Judges—Messrs. Durant and Bauer. The prize for which the contest was held was a handsome gold medal offered by Mr. Francis A. Collins. Mr. Collins is one of the benefactors of the sport and is continually offering prizes to encourage the flyers.

MODEL CONTESTS.

Excellent contests are held every Saturday afternoon at Van Cortlandt Park, between the hours of 2, 3 and s o'clock. The contests held on December 6, 1913. for duration, R. O. G. models, was won by Mr. Frederick Watkins, with a duration of 62 seconds; second, Mr. Carl Trube, 55 seconds, and Mr. Rad-cliffe was third with 46 seconds.

Contests in competition for a cup offered by Mr. Ilerreshoff started_ on December 14. The first contest was a very exciting affair, with a great number of spectators and competitors, and was won by Mr. Frederick Watkins, who, by the way, seems to have the knack of winning these weekly contests, with a flight of 1,224 feet, rising from the ground. Mr. Radcliffe was second, with a flight of 940 feet. These contests will run for two weeks longer and promise to be very interesting affairs.

SUBSCRIBER'S FORUM

ON LATERAL CONTROL.

May 19, 1912.

To the Editor:—

In regard to Albert Adams Merrill's article in your April issue on the " 'The Fallacy' of Existing Systems of Lateral Control":

When Mr. Merrill states that in his proposed system of producing simply a negative angle of incidence on the high side of the aeroplane for lateral balance "the rudder plays no part," he must be calculating on flying in random directions in the air; for in order to keep in the straight or desired course the vertical rudder must surely be used in nearly every balancing operation with such an arrangement. If both ailerons are meant to be normally lifting, then to leave the low-side aileron normal and first simply decrease the angle of incidence on the high side must cause greater speed on that side and consequent deviation from the course unless the rudder is used to counteract it; and if the rudder is not used to counteract it, then the greater speed of the high side resulting from the lessened head resistance will tend to cause increased lift— instead of depression—on this high side, making it necessary to bring the aileron to the same angle of incidence upward from the horizontal (in horizontal flight) as that to which the untouched (low-side) aileron is set downwards, before the head resistances on the two sides are equal; for until this is accomplished either the vertical rudder must be used or the machine will veer out of its course—toward the side of the greater angle of incidence; and as, much oltener than not, the amount of depression of the high side caused by bringing the aileron on that side to the same angle upward as it was downward, would not be exactly the amount of depression required to right the machine, the steering device must therefore be used more or less in all these other cases in order to keep in a straight course; and a wavering course is wasteful because longer.

This action is hence more complicated than the present aileron and rudder use; and while it is doubtless somewhat more efficient, especially in making turns, than the ordinary method, which uses large and wasteful angles of incidence and then uses the vertical rudder to counteract the very unequal lateral resistances (such as bringing one aileron to 12 degrees incidence while the other is level), there is, I am convinced, a much better and more logical method. This is the_ use of ailerons normally level and non-resisting when the machine is flying on the level, thus turning equally as much upward on one side as downward on the other, so that the head resistances are always equal in level, straightaway flight and the vertical rudder is therefore not required at all in balancing, greatly_ simplifying it; smaller—and hence more efficient—angles of incidence are used than in any other system in producing the same balancing effect, and in banking for turning there is less resist-

ance on the swift-moving, outer side and more resistance on the slow inner side (aiding in steering) than probably in any other balancing method with ailerons or wing-tips, and less use of the vertical rudder is therefore necessary in turning. And, in this connection, it should be noted that the vertical rudder must slow up the whole machine when used, because located at the center line; so that steering by means of using a variable resistance surface on the inner side of the turn is doubtless more efficient, because it slows up only the side that should be slowed.

Besides making ailerons normally level, or zero-angle, I would make them bend in a curve up or down, as does the Wright elevator, thus giving a more efficient lifting or depressing surface than a flat one would; and I also add- vertical, lateral sides, extending several inches above and below, so as to conserve the vacuum above and also prevent the compressed air below from spreading sideways to no purpose, especially toward the rear of the aileron ; but perhaps level ailerons with a fixed concavity and these vertical sides would be most practicable and efficient.

Yours very truly,

Elmer G. Still, Livermore, Cal.

THE BOSCH NEWS.

Attention is called to the Bosch News, published by the Bosch Magneto Co., 223 West 46th Street, New York. The Bosch News is a handsome little house organ and each issue contains valuable information on the care of magnetos, new developments, various types, mounting, wiring, relation to horsepower of motors, etc., etc. Every one who owns a magneto should ask the Bosch company to put him on its mailing list. This little journal is full of worth-while data and should be received regularly. This is not a "press notice" but a plain, simple paragraph for the good of all.

PATENTS ISSUED.

* 1,077,111—C. R. and A. D. Wittemann. Ocean Terrace, Staten Island, N. V. STABILITY system. Claims cover combination, with an aeroplane, of automatic pivoted connected balancing vanes arranged in vertical positions parallel to the direction of travel adjacent wing ends and having their upper rear ends turned diagonally outward and forward, means for adjusting said vanes, connection between them.

By shifting the operating lever to right or left, the upper curved edge of the right hand balancing vane will be moved outwardly and downwardly while the corresponding end of the left hand balancing vane will be moved inwardly. By this movement a greater portion of the outer surface of the right hand balancing plane will be caused to assume a more horizontal position and thereby offer a greater resistance to the air and serve to lift the right hand plane, the left hand balancing plane at the same time being caused to present a smaller area to the air and lessening the resistance of the air thereto will permit of the left hand plane rising and thus cause the machine as a whole to move and become properly balanced.

1,077,114—C. E. Baker, Hamilton, O. PARACHUTE for aviators.

fFFEWs PATS:

WATlR.»R00lj

c ovauty

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black. White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat

For use tn combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and' for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for u%e etc L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mass., U. S. A.

THE YEAR 1913 IN REVIEW.

Continued from page 202

mated some 46 as the total production for established factories. All these figures are far below the total for 1911, when the count was 750 for manufactured aeroplanes by bona fide factories and individuals.

The definite advance of the year 1913 bears out in every particular the statements published in the January, 1913, number. Estimates for 1914 by several conservative manufacturers put the production for next year at more than double that for 1913. It is encouraging to note the confident opinion of the trade concerning the outlook for 1914.

The holding of the international and national balloon races in this country next year, as well as the growing interest in the pleasure of free ballooning, will stimulate this sport, and balloon builders view with satisfaction the anticipated increase in the volume of business, which has been negligible for the past few years.

The small exhibition dirigible may be expected to return to the favor of fair managers, as these will appear now as real novelties. With hydrogen easily available in compressed form, smaller and lighter balloons will be built to take advantage of the superiority of hydrogen over coal gas. Perhaps we will see a demonstration of the "hot-air" dirigible next year, as admissions are now made of its practicability.

STATEMENT OF THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY REGARDING "TIMES'" AERIAL DERBY.

In the course of arrangements for the race and the interchange of communications between possible contestants and The Aeronautical Society, upon the affirmation of at least three "licensed" contestants that they had no objection to competing in a so-called "unlicensed" contest, and by reason of the fact that one entrant (who turned out to be the winner) was not the holder of any flight certificate from any organization, it was announced to all competitors and was well known that the race was open to any competent flyer who cared to take part.

The Society is given to understand that a few days subsequent to the race the Aero Club of America held a meeting of its contest committee and declared that as far as its "official" records were concerned Charles S. Niles was the winner, and not William S. Luckey, who made the best time, by reason of the latter not being a "licensed" pilot.

Having been informed that the Aero Cluh of America had, prior to the race, communicated with the Kew York Times, the donor of the prizes, regarding the matter of "license" for the race, The Aeronautical Society addressed the Aero Cluh of America asking that body to inform the Society whether or not it had so communicated with the Times and, if so, the purpose of the interference. No satisfactory information or replies were vouchsafed.

The magazine Flying, the official organ of the Aero Club of America, later reported the event, placing Luckey first, Niles second, etc., in accordance with the report of the Society's judges, stating therein that

the race had been sanctioned upon application made a few days before and that W. Irving Twombly, then president of The Aeronautical Society and a member of the Aero Club of America, had been appointed the Club's "responsible steward."

It developed that Mr. Twombly had asked for "sanction" on behalf of the Society, without authority. A resolution was passed by the Hoard of Directors of The Aeronautical Society to the effect that Mr. Twomhly's action, though taken in good faith and with the best of intentions, was unauthorized by the by-laws of the Society or any action on the part of the memhers; the Society being already on record in favor of Federal control. The by-laws provide

that nothing shall be done affecting the policy of the Society without vote of the membership. This resolution further provided:

"That it is the sense of this meeting that the Aeronautical Society desires to maintain its friendly relations with the Aero Club of America and all other bodies of a similar character for promoting the general welfare of the science and sport of aviation but the recognized and established policy of this Society is and always has been to maintain strict impartiality in its relations with all other bodies and organizations engaged in similar undertakings, that it is not and never has been affiliated with any other organization and does not recognize and has not at any time recognized the authority of any other organization in directing, controlling licensing, or otherwise interfering in the discharge of the work for which this Society was organized, and

"Be it further resolved that it is the sense of this meeting that this Society should continue to maintain its attitude of impartiality and individuality in all matters aeronautical, both scientific and of a sporting character, at the same time maintaining as far as possible the most friendly relation with all other bodies or organizations similarly engaged."—Statement authorized by the Board of Directors.

AERO MART. For Sale—Our last year's monoplanes and biplanes; very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. —F. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press

122 E. 25th St.. New York Cable : AERONAUTIC, New York

'Phones J £ Madison Sq.

A. V. JONES, Pres't ERNEST L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Ed tor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

No. 76

DECEMBER, 1913 Vol. XIII, No. 6

Entered as second-class matter September 22. at the

Postoflice, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

<J AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

CjMake all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency No foreign stamps accepted.

AT THE ARMY AVIATION SCHOOL.

The winter course of instruction at the Army aviation school at San Diego started on the 8th of December by a course of lectures on aero mechanics and aero design by Dr. A. F. Zahm, Secretary of the Advisory Committee of the Aerodynamical Laboratory. On December 30 and 31 Prof. \V. F. Durand, of Leland Stanford, will give two lectures on propellers. At the close of Dr. Zahm's lectures, W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D., of the Weather Bureau, will give a course on meteorological physics and the laws of the atmosphere as applied to aeronautics. There will follow a course on theory, design and operation of aviation motors, a course on topography, aerial reconnaissance and photography, and a course in radio-telegraphy. The lectures are given immediately after the close of flying each day, which continues from daylight to 10 p. m. It has been found that it requires from nine months to a year, with a lot of experience in cross country work, before a man can really be said to be an aviator.

LIEUT. RICH'S ACCIDENT AT MANILA.

The following is the substance of an extract from an official letter on this subject: The machine was flying at an altitude of approximately^ 500 feet and through some unaccountable reason Lieut. Rich fell from or was thrown out of the_ Wright 50-h.p. hydroaeroplane to the waters of Manila Bay. Instant death resulted, as when the relief party arrived on the scene it was found that he had breathed his last. The cause of the fall will probably never be definitely known, as it seems that he got a good start and was progressing nicely at that altitude—when suddenly the machine was seen to wabble and tilt forward and Lieut. Rich was seen to fall clear of the machine, striking the water with terrific velocity, and the machine fell directly, or as near as could be determined, upon him.

DR. BRASHEAR RIDES IN 'PLANE.

Prof. John A. Brashear has been the first scientist in this country to try the aeroplane. Accompanied by Prof. E. C. Larkin, of the Mt. Lowe Observatory, Dr. Brashear was interested in_ seeing Mt, Holly, near Los Angeles, as a possible site for an observatory. They visited the aeroplane sheds, and Glenn Martin offered to show Dr. Brashear Mt. Holly as no professor has ever seen it before. The Doctor accepted the offer, and pronounced his trip the realization of a dream.

Dr. John Alfred Brashear Is an authority on solar phenomena, the floor of the lunar crater Plato, comets and their physical changes, formation of volcanic craters in the moon, development of astrophysical instruments, optical surfaces plane and curved, the refinement of modern measurments. etc. He is a member or officer of many of the world's greatest scientific bodies.

LONGEST FOREIGN CROSSCOUNTRY TOUR.

Daucourt, a French aviator, and a passenger started from Paris on Oct. 21st, with their destination at Cairo. Egypt. The flight was made via Augsburg, Munich, in Germany: Vienna, Budapest, Arad, in Austria-Hungary; Bucharest, Varna, on the coast of Bulgaria, thence to Constantinople, where they arrived on Nov. qth. On Nov. 16th the start for the second stage of the flight was made. On Nov. 26th they reached Ihsian, in Asia Minor, within 700 miles of their goal, where the Borel monoplane was slightly damaged in landing. On the following night the machine was set on fire, and the force of the explo-

sion of the gasoline tank _ completely wrecked the machine, thus ending the flight. The total distance flown by the aviators was about 3,000 miles, in 35 days.

FLIES 13,000 MILES IN 39 DAYS.

Paris, France, Nov. 29.—By flying 9.996 miles (16,096 kil.) in 30 consecutive days, Helen won the Michelin prize for the pilot who covers the greatest distance in any number of consecutive days, flying at least 50 kil. a day. The remarkable record was made over a cross-country circuit. Helen covered more than the direct distance through the air between the north and south poles. Counting the flying on nine days, of which Helen lost the credit through having to stop before reaching the official timekeeper, he had covered 20,787 kil. in 39 consecutive days.

SANTA CLAUS BY AIRSHIP.

Cecil Peoli delighted the children of Montreal by flying in to the announced location from a secret starting place, dressed in Santa Claus costume. This is the first time Santa has made his Xmas trips by 'plane.

Corning, N. Y., Dec. 23.—Santa Claus came to Corning by aeroplane to-day. The Corning Business Men's Association hired Frank Burnside, of Thomas Bros., to fly to Corning dressed as Santa, and distribute gifts to the children of the city from his aeroplane as he flew low over the streets.

NEW SPHERICAL RECORD.

Berlin, Dec. 22.—Herr Kevlen, with two passengers, ascended from Bitterfeld, Prussian Saxony, in the balloon "Duisburg" on December 13. He descended at Perm, in European Russia, near, the Siberian frontier, establishing a world's distance and duration record. He was in the air 87 hours and traveled a distance of 1,738.8 miles.

BOMB DROPPING IN GERMANY.

The bomb-dropping competition, organized by the Ministry of War, came to an end on Nov. 17th at Doeberitz. The weather was unfavorable and the aviators lacked experience. The winner was Herr Schauenberg, who, while flying at an altitude of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet, managed in the course of an hour to drop two bombs on a target 262 feet in diameter. The attempts were not brilliant, and the entire competition was a deep disappointment to all concerned.—The Aeroplane.

NEW RECORD FOR ARMY.

San Diego, Cal., Dec. 18.—A new army altitude record was made here to-day by Lieutenant II. B. Post, who ascended 10.600 feet, a gain of more than 2,000 feet over the previous record. The ascent was made in a Curtiss 90-100 h.p. aeroplane No. 23, from North Island. Lieutenant Post made the first 3,000 feet at an average rate of 540 feet a minute.

MARTIN MAKES RECORD ALTITUDE FLIGHT.

Los Angeles, Cal., Nov. 26.—Glenn L. Martin ascended with a passenger to an altitude of 9.800 feet. He used a Martin tractor, Curtiss 90-100 h.p. motor.

Raymond V. Morris is building at the Curtiss works a wonderful fine monoplane flying boat.

No Atlantic Flight Yet," Wright Thinks.—Headline. Our files corroborate Mr. Wright.—A''. Y. Sun. Same here!

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

ARE NOW PREPARED TO DELIVER

The New Wright Aeroboat, Model "G"

EQUIPPED WITH TWIN SCREWS. DRIVEN BY THE NEW WRIGHT SIX CYLINDER 60 H. P. MOTOR. FITTED WITH MUFFLER AND ELECTRIC STARTER

This craft is the development of years of careful experiment and combines in its novel form the best practice in hydro-aeroplane and flying boat work. The dangerous features of the flying boat—lack of safety in flying, shipping of water and foundering in a rough sea, addition of weight, due to water soaking, the presence of the motor unprotected over the heads of the passengers, and the drag and unseaworthiness of the long fuselage hull, have been eliminated. The structural details of the new machine are worked out to combine simplicity, strength and reliability.

The craft is perfectly adapted to the use of sportsmen as a machine for safe and comfortable travel over water at high speed.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY New York Office

Dayton, Ohio 11 PINE STREET

Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES

Has long been regarded as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.

Each number has forty pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good type, and illustrated with many attractive half-tones.

The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph.

The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the price asked for subscription.

Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

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Reviews of the new photographic books.

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Note.—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907, Volume II started with the issue of January, 1908. Volume III started with the July,

1908, issue. Volume IV started with the January,

1909, number. Volume V started with the July,

1909, number. Volume VI started with the January,

1910, issue and Volume VII started with the July, 1910, issue. Volume VIII started with January, 1911, number. Volume IX started with the July,_ 1911, issue, Volume X with January, T912, Volume XI with

July, 1912, Volume XII with January, 1913, and Volume XIII with July, 1913.

Only principal articles are indexed. News notes in general, and smaller mentions are not indexed. Pages 1—40, No. 1, July 1913.

41—80, No. 2, August, 1913.

" 81—T20, No. 3, September, 1913.

" 121—160, No. 4, October, 1913.

" 161—192, No. s, November, 1913.

" 193—224, No. 6, December, 1913.

Aeronautics, Government Progress in........... 148

Accidents, Fatal:

Schmidt ............................ 156

Jewell .............................. 154

Lillie ............................... 112

Korn ............................... 112

" Kelly and Ellington ..............184-216

" Love ............................... 112

Billingsley .......................... 22

Bell ................................ 32

Call ................................ 32

" Roche .............................. 72

" Bryant ............................. 72

" Rich ............................184-216

Aeronautical Society Statement on Derby....... 215

Aeroplane, Beachey's Special Curtiss............ 180

" Army, tests of....................... 70

" Army, German specifications.......... 58

" Breguet Hydroaeroplane ............ 98

Burgess Tractor for Army........... 128

" Caudron, drawings .................. 101

" Curtiss, 100 H. P. Army Tractor..... 130

" • Christofferson, 60 H. P. Racing, with

drawings ....................... 134

" Derby, Race around Manhattan....... 152

" Dunne, Burgess building............. 174

" Dunne, with drawings............... 87

" German Army specifications.......... 58

" Grant Monoplane, with Changeable

Angle of Incidence, with drawings 50, 20s

" Guns in U. S. Army................64-96

" International Race...............114, 152

Mars biplane ....................... 133

" Martin "Aeroyacht," with scale drawings ............................ '3

" Mooring of Army.................... 133

" Navy, Standard control for.........12-56

" Ponnier-Pagny biplane, with drawings 100 " Radley-England hydroaeroplane, with

drawings ....................... 103

" Record, Burnside almost makes....... 70

" " Flight, by Garros across Mediterranean ................ 114

" " Wood's Cross-Country nonstop ...................... 74

" Royal Aircraft Factory BE 2, with

scale drawings .................. 98

" Savary Tractor, by Leicester B. Holland, with drawings............. S

" Sikorskv Air-limousine .............. to6

Sop with, 80 H. P. Land Tractor----60-102

" Tariff lowered on.................... 154

The Green Dreamed, by Rita Green

Breeze ......................... '97

" United States Army requirements for

water-'planes .................... lr>6

Wright, German military............. 5 5

Model E ............q6. 140, 137

" " Model "CH," hydroaeroplane,

with scale drawings........ it

Aero Strength of various countries.............. 104

Airboat, AYachtman's View of the, by Chas. D.

Lvnch................................. '25

Aircraft and Automobiles in Germany........... 34

Army, Aeroplanes, test of...................... 7°

*' " mooring of ................. 133

" Equipment of the United States......... or>

" German, specifications for aeroplanes..... 58

" Tests for aviators....................... 211

United States, requirements for water

'planes ............................. 106

" United States, aeroplane guns in.........64-96

" Aeronautics for 1913.................... 201

" Aeroplanes in Balkans.................. 206

" Aviation School, Lectures............... 210

Aviaphone, Turners' .......................... 175

Aviette, the, by M. B. Sellers.................. 126

Balloon, Ascensions ...........32, 72, 114, 150, 184

Dirigible, German ................... 64

" " Knabenshue ............... 176

" " Zeppelin "12" disaster ....135-6

" •' a Gasless ................. 130

New Record ......................... 210

" Race, International, by H. E. Honeywell and R. A. D. Preston. . 150, 166, 167

" " National championship ........6, 32

Bell, Grover, death of......................... 32

Bleriot Aerial Launcher.......................24-95

Billingsley accident ............................ 22

Bryant, death of............................... 7~

Carburction, Effect of Temperature on.......... 95

Call, death of Lieut.......................... 32

Center, For An Aeronautical (Editoral)........ 147

Chain Drive, Benoist........................... 24

Cody, death of Col. S. F....................... 72

Constantin Fluid Deflectors, by M. B. Sellers---- 5

Control, Navy tries standard.................... 56

Corporations, New .........3°. 7°> 112> :54> ^4, 216

Curtiss-Wright suit ........................no. 184

Developing New Ideas, by G. M. Dyott........ 45

Dirigibles, German ............................ 64

L-II Disaster ....................... 13S

Ellington, death of............................ l84

Floats, cork for............................... °6

Flying-Boat, as a dependable vehicle............ 170

Benoist, "Lakes Cruise" model..... 19

ings ............................ 90

Benoist, "Type XIV," with scale

drawings ....................... 9°

" Benoist Chain Drive............... 24

" Burgess, 220 H. P., with scale draw-

ings

Christofferson, with scale drawings.. 15

" Cooke tractor "airboat"............ 17

Curtiss "English".................. 92

" Curtiss, Navy C-2................. 53

Great Lakes Cruise................ 32

" Hulls, Stream Line Flow under... 19

" Officially a Motor Boat............ 19

Thomas .......................... 127

Wright, Model G.................. 169

Fowler, Inspection of Power Wires............. 204

France, Aviation in, by Leicester B. Holland.... 85

Great Lakes Flying Boat Cruise................ 32

Germany, Subsidized Flying.................... 63

" Dirigibles .......................... 64

Ideas, Developing New, by George M. Dyott---- 45

Imports and Exports................30, 70, 154, .iSj

Industry, Review for 19T3.................... 202

Inspection of Power Wires, by R. G. Fowler.... 204

Jewell's disappearance.......................... 154

Kelly, death of Lieut.........._................ 184

Laboratory, Langley aerodynamical............. 62

Lillie, death of Max........................... 112

Love, death of Lieut.......................... 112

Metal Propellers .............................. 205

Models, by Harry Schultz,

26, 68, 65, 108, 143. 156, 181, 186, 212, 216

" Strand Twisting Device................ 28

Motor Boat, Officially the flying boat is a........ 19

Motor, Austro-Diamler 90 H. P.............."... 172

" British Competition (1914).............. 18

Bureau of Standards Testing Plant...... 198

" • Curtiss OX compared.................. 176

Easy starting of........................ 59

" Gvro in England....................... 7°

" Hall-Scott 100 II. T. description and test.20-55

" Maximotor, 100 H. P................... i/7

" Renault, Signal Corps test of the 100 II. P. 128

INDEX FOR VOLUME XIII.

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Motor, Revolving Cylinder, by Emile Berliner... 165 Rotative, why cylinders aie odd in number 173

Wright 6 cylinder 60 II. P..........141-177

Navy, Curtiss C-2 Flying Boat.................. 53

" Aviation in, for 1913.................... 20«

Standard Control for Aeroplanes........12-56

Patents ..................186, 188, 114, 76, 36, 214

" Boland Interference .................... no

Curtiss running gear................... 172

Wright ............................... 133

Pegoud's "Loop the Loop"..............94- 112, 13-?

Rich, Lieut., death of........................184-216

Pilots. F. A. I. changes in conditions.......... 94

Propeller, Heath pitch meter for............... 59

Progress made ..................... M4

Propellers, Metal ............................. 205

Records for 1913.............................. -03

Review of 1913................................ -02

Revolving Cylinder Motors, by Emile Berliner.. 165

Roche, death of............................... 7*

Schmidt, death of.............................. '56

Somersault in the air, a.............62. 94, 112, 134

Spruce beams, tests of......................... 63

Stability. Bleriot stabilizer...................... 173

" Bonnet prize for..................... 94

" Device, Wilson....................... 56

" Gyroscope Stabilizer tried ............ 182

" Inverted "V" ....................... 116

" Wright automatic .................... 138

"Stability in Flying Machines," Criticism on

Merrill Paper, bv L. B. Sperry............ 210

Stability, bv E. G. Still......................... 214

Strut Socket, Thomas.......................... 24

TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF FLIGHT

Continued from page 209

covering a distance of about one mile. Altogether 105 flights were attempted during the year, the longest of which were two of five minutes each, covering a distance of about three miles. All of the flights were started from a monorail.

After September a - derrick and a falling weight were used to assist in launching the machine.

Experiments were continued in 1905 near Dayton with a machine similar to the ones of the two previous years. Between the dates of September 26th and October 5th, six flights were made, each covering a distance of more than 10 miles and lasting more than 17 minutes. The longest was a little more than 24 miles in length and 38 minutes in duration.

The years 1906 and 1907 were spent by the Wright Brothers in constructing new machines and in negotiations with various Governments. The Wrights proposed to furnish a machine that would carry a man and fuel supplies, sufficient for a flight of 100 miles; to demonstrate the machine with a flight of one hour's duration, in which the machine must cover a distance of more than 30 miles and rise to a height of more than 100 feet. They further proposed to manceuver over circular and "L" shaped cotuses. They agreed that they were not to receive one penny if their machine should fail in any one of these particulars, but the heads of the military departments of all the Governments were so skeptical that they were afraid of becoming the "laughing stock of the world" in entering into negotiations even under such conditions.

It was not till 1908 that the Wright Brothers found purchasers for their invention. In that year they made a contract to furnish one machine to the Signal Corps of the United States Army and to sell the rights to their invention in France to a French company. In both cases they agreed to carry a passenger in ad-

Subsidized flying ............................. 62

Switch, new Bosch press-button................ 129

Tariff lowered on aeroplanes................... 154

Technical Talks, by M. B. Sellers:

" " Avielte, the .................. 126

" " Constantin, Fluid Deflector of

M., and Its Application to the

Aeroplane.................. 5

" " Dunne Aeroplane, with scale

drawings ................... 87

" " Solids, Resistance of, and Wind

Deflection .................. 47

" " Wind Tunnels, Comparison of.. 54

Test, of spruce beams.......................... 63

" Signal Corps test of Renault 100 II. P.

motor ................................. 128

Turnbuckle, demountable ...................... io^

Turner "Aviaphone" .......................... 175

LTnited States Signal Corps buys Burgess tractors ........................................ 128

Vilas Crosses Lake Michigan................... 30

War, Aeroplanes in Balkans.................... 206

Wilson Stability Patent........................ 56

Wind, deflections and resistance of Solids, by M.

B. Sellers ........................... 47

Tunnels, A Comparison of, by M. B.

Sellers ........................*. 54

Wood Flies to Washington..................... 74

Wright-Curtiss Suit .......................no, 184

Wright Incidence Indicator.................... 56

Wright, Tenth Anniversary of Flight............ 208

Zeppelin, L-II ................................135-6

Mileage Statistics .................... 204

dition to the operator, fuel sufficient for a flight of ico miles, and to make a speed of 40 miles an hour.

After making some preliminary practice flights at their old experiment grounds near Kitty Hawk in May, 1908, Wilbur Wright went to France to give demonstrations before the! French Syndicate and Orville Wright to Washington to deliver the machine to» the United States Signal Corps. The machines used by Wilbur Wright had been standing in bona in the warehouse at Havre since August of the year before. Owing to damage done to the machine in shipment, it was not ready for the official demonstrations until late in the year.

Meanwhile Orville Wright in September, 1908, started demonstrations of the machine contracted for by the United States Govern-* ment. On the 9th he made two flights, one of 57 minutes, and the other one hour and 2 minutes, world's records. On the 10th and nth, these records were increased, and on the' 12th a ight of 1 hour and 15 minutes was! made. On the 17th, the tests were terminated by an accident in which Lieutenant Se\Z fridge met his death and Mr. Wright was se^. verely injured, so that he was not able to comfl plete the tests until the following year.

Four days after the accident, on 21st of« September, Wilbur Wright made a flight of F hour and 31 minutes at Le Mans, France, whicl record he improved several times during th« following months, and on the 31st of Del cember, won the Michelin Trophy by a flighll in which he remained in the air 2 hours and 2I minutes.

From 1907 to date readers are entirely fal miliar with progress through the reports irrf this magazine. A complete chronology of tha flights of the Wright Brothers and all other! up to iqio will be found in William J. Hammer's "Chronology of Aviation," which can h| had free, upon application to AERONAUTICS.

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AERONAUTICS, Dec.

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Compiled by William J. Hammer and Hudson Maxim

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