Aeronautics

Volume 13 - No. 5 - 1913 November

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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No. 5

NOVEMBI

5T PRIZE

'Times' ial Derby"

'resented by

THE )NAUTICAL SOCIETY

To

ira S. Luckey

FOR THE

irst Flight id New York

her 13th, 1913

25 Cents

"RESULTS TELL THE STORY"

Luckey used a Curtiss Machine and a Curtiss "O-X" Motor.

WHAT MOTOR DO YOU/d§£?

?

d you buy it because it was the best you could find, or|(becauseQtl cn^ap? has it cost you in lost opportunities ? \V

iuld you sell it to Lincoln Beachey, or Harold F. McCormick\£^(h^^mteA§^^s or France, Germany, Russia, England, Italy, Japan, Brazil, Mexicp-^JFo getjr^Sr«ifs'< )uy the best.

re have some special bargains just now in slightly used Model O, 80 h. p. Curtiss ;; replaced in Flying Boats by the O-X.

;11 us your motor troubles; let us send you information, quotations.

TISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake Street, Hammondsport, N. Y.

< BENOIST «e

PLANES hold Ibe lollowing records:

World's long dis'ance hydro record with one passenger. World's long distance hydro record wUh two passengers. American endurance record, avialor and three passengers. Have more world's records than all o'.her m'f'rs combined. The first successful Tractor Biplane built in America.

Records indicate superior efficiency. Why not get an efficient machine •while you are about it ?

The New Beyioist Flying

BENOIST AIR CRAFT CO.

Action 6628 DELMAR BLVD. ST. LOUIS, M x

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Flying Record to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min.

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

From

"AERONAUTICS"

(London) SEPTEMBER, 1913

"During the week he(Beatly) made a striking performance, taking up three passengers at once on his machine, which speaks volumes for the efficiency of the Wright and even more for his 50 h.p. Gyro, unquestionably one of the best rotary motors in existence."

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

Model Flying Machines

A thoroughly modern hand book describing and illustrating in detail the principles of flight and giving full directions for building seven types of model machines. Seventy pages, 56 original illustrations, and 9 full page detail plates. Paper covers only.

25 cents per copy, postpaid

COLE & MORGAN, Pub., n'ewyorVn"

J FRENCH AEROPLANES

ENGINEERS INVENTORS AVIATORS CONSTRUCTORS

TAKE NOTICE!

For all photos, descriptions, data, news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below:

Etudes Aeronautiques ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.G.P. 20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau Vosges , France!

P

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ANNOUNCEMENT

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We therefore solicit QUANTITY CONTRACTS with responsible dealers and manu-cturers in all countries.

We desire to form trade connections in every large city of Europe and America. By our ethods of production we can deliver highest grade propellers in wholesale quantities at European ?rts for less than prevailing costs of manufacture.

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AMERICAN PROPELLER CO.

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One of the

BURGESS FLYING BOATS

Built for U. S. Navy

Our aeroplanes have always met the Government's most rigid specifications on the first test

THAT IS BECAUSE WE SPECIALIZE

THE BURGESS MILITARY TRACTOR holds the American Endurance and Distance Record for pilot and passenger—4 hours 22 minutes—during which a speed of 72 miles per hour was attained. The Government has ordered three more Burgess Tractors for immediate service. THE BURGESS FLYING BOATS of special design built for U. S. Navy represent a startling departure in construction, affording a maximum of efficiency in flight and ease of handling. The staggered wings, rigid lower surface, entire warping upper surface constructed about a steel member are original features of this type.

Flying Boats of similar design are under construction for use of sportsmen.

THE BURGESS TRAINING SCHOOL patronized by'both the Army and Navy is located at Marble-head adjoining the works. Continued flying until January first. Special rates on application.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS Marblehead, Mass.

T eading aeronautical pi-1 j lots the world over give preference to the

Bosch Magneto

There are nearly two million in use. Surely that is sufficient proof to convince any one that Bosch is superior; but the fact that every world's record is also a Bosch Record is conclusive evidence that Bosch merits the consideration of every one interested in aviation.

Be Satisfied Specify Bosch

We will be glad to make magneto recommendations for your motor Write for December"Bosch News"

BoschMagnetoCompany

223-225 West 46th Street, New York

REVOLVING CYLINDER MOTORS*

By EMILE BERLINER.

Any man who is a member of an organiza-ion in which Mr. Hammer is a leader is sure o be live and progressive. I presume you nembers are familiar with motors in general nd there is no need to dwell on the features if the various internal combustion engines, rhe automobile lias been of service in devel-iping the aeroplane and the airship through le education given in motors.

motion left. There is reciprocating motion in that the gas action is reciprocating; also a slight amount in the connecting rods moving left and right.

To give you the history of our motor, we were experimenting with a helicopter in 1901-3 and it was necessary to have a very light motor. After trying the lightest reciprocating motors we could obtain, we heard a few years later that a rotary motor was being made by the Adams Company, of Dubuque, la., and that several were being used in automobiles. I sent Mr. Moore out there to see if they would make an engine of very light weight. The weight of these motors at that time was very considerable, probably 20 pounds per H. P. "Can you make one of 3 or 4 pounds per H. P.?" They finally said, "Yes." They succeeded in producing two motors of about 30 H. P., weighing less than 100 pounds each. These motors were built in the winter of 1907-8 and were the first light weight revolving cylinder internal combustion motors ever made. One is now next to Mr. Langley's radial reciprocating motor in the National museum in Washington. While we do not know whether the French or Gnome makers, knew of this or not, they did not come out with the Gnome until the latter part of 1909, so that this country has not pirated anything in the way of rotary

Latest Gyro Motor of

[There is no need to discuss the status of the bciprocating motor. It has its good points Id its limitations, as, for instance, the fly-lheel which adds weight, the muffler which bnsumes power, vibration, etc. With the Itary motor, we have the difficulty of cooling I contend with.

It was a long time before our shop settled e question of whether or not a revolving Under motor was a reciprocating engine, linally I asked Mr. Simmons to make a model f our motor, showing the cylinders and pis-ns, etc., in fact, a complete cross section of When ready and rotated one side figured at the pistons had a movement of about 4

The other side then took a circular piece of irdboard, covered up the major portion of |ie pistons so that only their tips extended ?yond the cardboard sheet (illustrating) and lis showed that there was no reciprocating

JV-c.*A^U**n..

*Paper read before The Aeronautical So-jety, November 20, 1913.

New Intake Mechanism of the 80 Gyro

aeronautic motors. It is strange that in all these years there should be only one or two successful rotary motors in the world when it is well known that the Gnome has been a great financial success. The reason is that it is not easy to make such motors.

The very highest type of workmanship is (Continued on page 171)

GORDON-BENNETT BALLOON RACE

By CAPT. H. E. HONEYWELL.

The great international balloon race, in which the Yankees carried off all honors with colors Hying, started from the Tuileries Gardens, a beautiful spot in the very heart of Paris, President Poincaire giving the word that released the first at 4 p. m. and the others every five minutes thereafter, in the presence of an enthusiastic crowd of 500,000 people of all nations. They gave all a hearty cheer, especially the French and American balloons, as they proved the favorites.

"Uncle Sam" took the air gracefully at 5 p. m., No. 12 in the race, and the only other American balloon, piloted by Upson and Preston followed No. 17. All made a fine getaway to the south. We weighed off heavier than all, just tipping the tree tops and missing the Louvre by a few feet followed up the Seine. The people went wild.

The next morning found us about 150 miles south of Paris, with 13 balloons in sight, all around, above and below us. How to get away from our competitors was a great question. Finally about 10 a. m. the light breeze veered around carrying all to the northwest, the altitude varying from 3,000 to 7,000 feet. Mr. Wade, my worthy aide, and myself held a regular council of war in the basket for two hours at the same time feeling for new air currents that might spring up. Something had to be done; we were getting desperate. Finally we located one very thin current running to the west, near the earth and underneath the clouds now forming. Either one of two things could be done: make a great altitude at a great sacrifice of ballast, with no certainty of finding the usual east current that would carry us over the Alps; or valve down, run underneath our competitors to the west, gain the outside of the circle, putting all nearer Paris and in a trap, as it were, make for Brest, the extreme west point of France. We decided on the latter course, and it proved excellent. Every time we passed under one of onr competitors we would kiss them good-bye, knowing that they were out of the race unless they crossed the channel during the second night, which we figured they would not do—surely a trap if we could hold our position.

Upson and Preston out-nerved the rest and landed up in England, distance 400 miles, taking first honors. Good for them! However, fortune favored them somewhat. By starting last in the race they did not backtrack nearly so far as some others, hitting the channel early in the evening and at a narrow point, Cherbourg, while the rest did not draw up to the channel until after midnight, at a much wider place further west.

We struck the Bay of Biscay at the northeast corner about dusk. Throwing a little ballast, we ascended to the northwest current, followed along the shore, with nothing but lighthouses in sight. The clouds obscured the moon, very dark, altitude 2,000 feet, making

12 miles per hour. At about 10 p. m. two mor lighthouses showed up just ahead, on eithe side. Knowing we were Hearing the west coast and our trip must necessarily terminate shortly, as Ireland was several hundred miles away and the only land in our path, we valved quite near to earth, continuing on for some time, with a sharp look-out for the ocean. Suddenly the moon broke through the banks of fog clouds, and showed the shimmering water about }i mile ahead, with no more lighthouses to invite us further. We valved a hasty descent. Touching earth lightly, I pulled the panel, and the balloon laid ever on a steep hillside, with the basket trying to roll backwards down the embankment. After extricat-

ing ourselves from the general mix-up of sandi provisions and water, of which we had plent] for another day's run, we looked at our watch 10.30 exactly, 2gV2 hours out.

Making a house of our basket we rolled J in our steamer rugs for the night, damp am cold. Daylight found us preparing a ho breakfast on our lime stove. Soon a fJ hundred natives gathered. After exhaustin our limited French we resorted to the sig language that worked so well in Russia las year. After securing a wagon, we drove t| Pont de Buis (Finistere), province of Brittairl and caught the train for Paris, winners I the second prize.

It is rumored in Paris that "Uncle Sam" is a French creation. She is strictly an all-American balloon, made by the French-American Balloon Co., of St. Louis, Mo., as was the old "Uncle Sam" that took third honors for America in the 1912 Gordon-Bennett, from Germany to the tall porcupine forests of Russia, 1,100 miles away.

Til E INTERNATIONAL BALLOON.

The accompanying sketch has been drawn by Captain Ft. E. Honeywell to illustrate his airmanship in dropping to a lower western current to obtain further distance before reaching the ocean in the international ballon race of October I2tb in which America won first and

second place. Upson and his aide Preston "out-nerved" the other contestants, numbering eighteen, from eight different countries, and Honeywell and Wade "out-generaled" them. The circles near the bottom of the map show the relative positions of the balloons 18 hours out from Paris, the start; the others mark the landings.

The official distances made by the three obtaining places are as follows:

Upson and Preston (America). 618 kils.; dur. 29 h. 35 min.

Honeywell and Wade (America), 483 kils.; dur. 29 h. 35 m.

Capt. Pastine (Italy), 457 kils.; dnr. 32 h. 25 m.

The French balloons finished sixth, ninth and thirteenth.

HOW WE WON THE GORDON-BENNETT

By R. A. D. PRESTON.

The Gordon-Bennett Cup was won this year by taking every advantage of winds at the different altitudes, of our knowledge of the probable meteorological conditions over Great Britain, and our willingness to sacrifice gas and ballast to maintain the proper direction. Practically all of the voyage was easy sailing and most of it at moderate speed. Drag-roping across the lower part of Yorkshire in the storm and the landing less than 300 yards from the cliff at Bempton (Yorkshire) were rather exciting, and while crossing the southern part of England we made great speed; otherwise there was little excitement during the trip.

The "Goodyear" had been carefully groomed I for the race, and behaved excellently throughout. Our equipment of navigating instruments is very complete, and proved of utmost service, as, given a tight balloon, it was direction ■rather than endurance that would count in Ithe peculiar weather conditions then existing.

We were well provisioned, carrying non-Iperishable food and water sufficient for five Idays (in case of landing far from habitations) and a nice box of sandwiches, cakes, cheese, 'and fruit to eat in the air. Thermos bottles of malted milk, coffee, and a bottle of milk completed the list.

We took no stimulants on this trip, except, of course, a bottle of oxygen and a respiratory apparatus for use at high altitudes. This last was not used, however, as the third day out, when ordinarily we should have gone high, we kept low over England to prevent being blown to the east.

Except at our maximum altitudes, over the Channel, it was not excessively cold. Here we were glad to make use of the heavy llankets and woollen leggins our trial flight from St. Cloud on October 6 had shown us were required.

I The start of the race from the Tuileries was beautifully managed, and the "Goodyear," No. t8. ascended at 5.25 p. m. and sailed away I low over Paris to the southeast. Most

of the other balloons were visible, those which went high bearing to the west. Our compatriot, Honeywell, was also going low, and, as long as we could see him, farthest of all to the east.

We remained at about i.oco ft. during the night, gradually working round to the west, passing over Illiers at 6.15 p. m. and Nogent •it 7-53 P- m.

Monday was a beautiful da}-. We let the balloon rise with the sun to 5,800 ft., remaining till after 12 o'clock in fine equilibrium. The course at that altitude was nearly due west. The light, cumulus clouds below us over the green fields and white villages made a pretty picture.

At 11.15 a. m. we sighted Berliner for the second time, approximately 15 miles to the southeast, and in another half hour nine balloons were in sight from southeast to southwest all higher than the "Goodyear."

In the afternoon the wind (at 5,800 ft.) worked round towards the south a few degrees. Remaining at this altitude till about 3 o'clock, we were then a few miles south of Mortain. Knowing that the wind at 5,800 ft. at least would easily take us across the Channel, and that to beat Brest we would have to reach Hull on the east coast of England, Upson proposed descending, on the chance that the surface currents would veer sufficiently to the south to allow us to drag-rope across the Channel, for which we had a particularly suitable drag rope. By 4 p. m. the barograph showed 2,300 ft., but the wind was carrying us too much towards the west. Overboard went a little ballast, and soon fie "Goodyear" was up to 13.000 ft., sailing finely to the northwest.

At 6.20 the coast north of Granville passed beneath us. Over the Channel, however, due to the radiation from the water, we rose to 8,200 ft., where the direction was too far north and carried us overland again near St. Germain. Dropping slowly, the direction became

more favorable, the wind carrying ns out over Armond Yille la Roge (14 miles west of Cherbourg) at 10.25 p. m. At this point I took charge of the balloon while Upson got a little sleep.

We were but a short time at sea before the lights of St. Catherine's Point, the Needles, and St. Albans' Head, together with several others I did not recognize, were visible, and it was easy to chart our course from bearings on these lights. On this night, as well as on the previous one, the moon shone brightly and nearly full, and several steamers were visible below.

Berliner had followed us all the afternoon, and looked as though he were coining across the Channel, but we lost sight of him a little east of Granville.

Crossing the Channel the "Goodyear" gradually descended to 3,600 ft., and at this height I watched, with keen satisfaction, the Isle of Wight bluff pass beneath our basket at 2.7 a. 111. The wind was coming more and more from the west at this elevation. Soundings showed a better and faster current near the ground, so down we came to below 1,000 ft. and struck off north through England at a tremendous speed, most of the time in low, heavy clouds. The moon became obscured shortly after landfall, and we saw neither moon nor sun again. Crossing the river just below Southampton I hailed a steamer below and got a reply, which, however, I could not make out.

It was now only a question of keeping as far to the west as possible, but only to 600 ft. were the currents favorable, and Upson, now at the helm, displayed great skill in holding the "Goodyear" just above the trees without crashing into obstacles. We kept this up an hour or so. Ballast was going fast, however, and as it was now day and the wind not quite so strong, we cut loose the drag rope and trailed for miles through Lincolnshire. After repeated hailings we located ourselves precisely near Lincoln. Near the ground the direction of the wind would just enable us to make Hull, now our objective.

At 11.30 a. m. the "Goodyear" shot out over the Humber, south of Hull, the drag rope leaving a white wake in the river 300 ft. below. It was now quite stormy, the wind more violent and gusty, and pouring rain. The "Goodyear" is provided with a drip-band near the bottom to drain off rain outside the basket, but we had lost so much gas that this was no longer efficient, and a mean drizzle spattered down on our heads.

As we had sufficient ballast now to reach the sea, and drag-roping in the storm was anything but pleasant, Upson let the "Goodyear" rise to 800 to 1,000 ft. to test the upper currents, while I watched the misty horizon for the North Sea. After one or two false alarms we sighted it near Bridlington, but the wind veered round sharply here and for a few minutes there were hopes of our going still further north. A sudden squall caught us, however, and from a good altitude I saw the water over Buckton Cliffs. Less than a quar-

ter of a mile away, Upson made a remarkable landing. We dropped 111 a turnip patch only one field away from the edge of the cliff. It must have been blowing at least 35 miles an hour, and the basket rolled and slipped along over the uprooted turnips at a great rate. I remember thinking at the time what fine roller-bearings these turnips made. For an instantl or two it looked as if we would not bring jt| up short of the cliffs, and Upson told me afterwards that he had been figuring on the quickest way to get over the edge of thej basket. We struck a confusion of earth] fence and hedge at the end of this field, how-] ever, and it held the basket long enough foil a good deal of gas to escape through thJ large slit made by pulling the ripping panel. rW few feet beyond this hedge the basket cam! to rest, and the voyage was ended. We ran tJ the edge of the cliff and congratulated each] other that we had stopped just in time.—BritX ish .Icronautics.

ROBERT G. FOWLER'S VIEWS.

Mr. Ernest L. Jones, New York, N. Y.

My Dear Mr. Jones,—Have been perusinj your October number with a good deal of inl terest, particularly as regards comparisons ol activity in this country and abroad; but wheil you stop to consider the market the Europeail maker has to demonstrate his planes to anJ the national pride in their achievements.

In this country flying comes under the heaJ of circus stunts, whereas in Europe they justlj regard it as scientific advancement.

To-day's paper recorded the death of twcjj more army fliers. It seems time that thej should be safeguarded a little,, provided witll speed and angle indicators, and not allowed tJ blindly grope their way to a knowledge ol flying.

I have used such instruments since 191 il and have been saved many a nasty smash] through their quick indication of a plane's] misbehavior.

It is also a fact that my plane is the onljl one in the United States that has a mototl speed indicator, incidence indicator, and an] aerometer to show flying speed.

Speaking of arousing interest in the flying] exhibitions in large cities, it is interesting to] cite our experience here with our water planes]

On November 16 we had five planes in ac-] tion along the bay shore of the Panama Pa-] cific grounds, a charge of twenty-five cents! being made, motor-cars fifty cents, and the atl tendance after only eight days' advertising was! around 6,000.

Last Sunday, the 23rd inst., we had nearlJ thirteen thousand people inside and a largJ grand stand completely filled. Am enclosinJ the list of events run off with six planes ill action a great deal of the time.

ROBERT G. FOWLER.

THE WRIGHT AEROBOAT

The Wright aeroboat may briefly be described, therefore, as a step in which hydroaeroplane and flying boat characteristics have been altered to give a new type. The machine consists of two distinct parts: the boat hull containing the seats and motor, to which is rigidly attached the aeroplane structure, consisting of wings and rudders. The two seats side by side are placed in front of the main surfaces, the motor is set below and behind them, and drives two propellers in the customary Wright fashion. The aeroplane and rudder details are quite similar to the standard Wright type "C," excepting that the strut arrangement is altered, and due to the concentration of the load at the center, the wiring and joints have necessarily been made of much larger and* stronger section. The span of the surfaces is 38 ft., the chord is 6 ft., and the total lifting surface is 432 sq. ft. The propellers are Sl/2 ft. in diameter and are driven by the motor at 600 r.p.m. The elevator which is raised to the center line of the propellers is 48 sq. ft. in area and with the large type ''C" rudder, and the enormous transverse control that is given by the warping system, the control in the air of this machine is more powerful than on other marine aeroplanes.

Perhaps the most interesting part of the machine is the boat hull itself, which is of novel construction and which inaugurates a new type of craft. The hull is made of special metal alloy, treated so as to prevent corrosion by salt water, and more nearly approaches in its hydroplaning qualities, good practice of motor boat work than has previously been done. The hydroplaning part of the hull consists virtually of two hydroplane surfaces, both presenting their most efficient angle to the water at the same time that there is given the best lifting angle of the planes, and the best line of thrust of the propellers. The rear plane has been studied with extreme care, as the angle of this plane for its highest efficiency

requires consideration of the wave thrown back from the front hydroplane surface.

The hull is 3 ft. deep, iS ft. long and 43 in. wide. The weight of the hull fully equipped is 300 pounds. This includes the motor bed and seats, dash board, etc. Its strength, not only due to its compact form, but due to the manner in which the framework back of the metal has been designed, is enormous. The hull is divided into six entirely water-tight compartments. The hull is water-tight throughout, the motor and seats being set above the top of the water-tight portion, so that the hull itself is really in this sense a pontoon. There is no possibility, therefore, of shipping water and adding to the weight of the machine.

The arrangement of the seats and controls is exceedingly neat, and effective, and approaches in appearance, as well as comfort, to automobile practice. The engine is operated entirely by foot throttle combined with a throttle lever exactly as on motor cars. A dash board is fitted on which the instruments are placed, and back of the hood, conveniently at hand, are a klaxon horn, priming can, starting crank, anchor and anchor rope. The anchor rope is passed out through a port in the extreme bow of the machine, a very neat detail, which makes anchoring easy, and quick of operation. The starting mechanism consists merely of a safety starter, geared up from the motor. The handle is inserted on the auxiliary shaft back of the seats, and is easily turned with one hand. The motor is very accessible from the seats, even permitting of replacing spark plugs while in flight and of easy inspection. Being at the rear, the noise and exhaust are entirely away from the operator. A small flag is fitted at the bow to indicate, as in usual Wright practice, the least tendency of the machine to skid.

The manner in which the seats are closed in, the form of the hood, and the neat side doors and steps fitted, make the entire arrangement not only finished in appearance, but perfect in protection against air and waves.

29999999

The total weight of the aeroboat ready for |flight is 1,200 pounds. The live load that has jeen carried in the tests at Dayton has mounted to practically 600 pounds, making ^he total load in flight, 1,800 pounds.

The machine is equipped with a six-cylinder, to H. P. Wright motor, which gives 30 pounds larried per H. P., the highest figure yet Attained in marine aeroplane work.

In addition to the main center pontoon, (two auxiliary pontoons are fitted. These are dso made of metal, weighing 11 pounds apiece, land are of a form which insures the correction of the balance of the machine with the feast amount of drag, a feature which for (rough water work is of the utmost importance.

The control of the craft on the water is tlone entirely by the side paddle system, indented by Grover C. Loening some time ago, |nd used by him in his early aeroboat expedients. This method of control is far more ffective than a water rudder, and turns the [achine at high speed in any kind of wind. I The aeroboat was designed by Grover C. .oening under the direction of Mr. Orville ^Vright, and was entirely constructed at the ■Dayton factory.

REVOLVING CYLINDER MOTORS.

{.Continued from paije 165]

imperative and one has to contend with the well-known formula of centrifugal pressure, according to which each pound of weight rotating at a distance of i foot from the center of rotation at 1,100 r.p.m. produces a centrifugal pressure of 412.6 pounds. Every moving part has to be calculated with reference to that law. Everything must be made of the finest steel, perfectly balanced, perfectly hardened. If not balanced there is produced a knocking. All wearing parts must be perfectly tempered, especially the valves and the mechanism operating them.

(Here Mr. Berliner illustrated his talk by reference to the moving model of the Gyro motor.)

The makers of rotary motors are engaged right now in attempts to produce a motor with but one valve, leaving out the intake valve. I believe it will be accomplished success ftdly. It has been done in a way but not yet economically. (Illustrating on model.) The intake will be very similar to that in two-cycle engines. When that time comes, we will have the model motor for aeronautics and it ought to run a hundred hours without any trouble. In the Gyro motor we have reduced [Continued on page iSO]

Page 172

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN AERONAUTICS

CURTICS RUNNING GEAR SYSTEM.

A device for equipping water 'planes with wheels which can be raised or lowered while in flight has been patented by Glenn H. Cur-tiss in Great Britain (12,643).

The claims cover the combination of surfaces with float, hydro surfaces at wing ends capable of variation of inclination, ailerons, wheels which in lowered position project through the float, with locking device.

In order that the operator may vary the inclination of the floats and blades, there is provided a lever 42 connected to a wire 43 leading to each float, so that by movement of said lever from the position shown in Fig. 2 to that shown in Fig. 1, the floats, and with them the blades, may be inclined upward. Movement of the lever in the reverse direction allows the floats and blades to return to a horizontal position where they will exert slight head resistance to the rush of air. At rest on the water, the floats may be allowed to take the horizontal position. When the machine is started, the operator may throw his lever to incline the floats and blades, as shown in Fig. 1, and they will then act as a stabilizing means. Wheels are hung from the machine and project slightly below the lower surface of the boat, as indicated in Fig. 2. For raising the wheels out of the water when the machine is floating, and for depressing the same at will, 47 is a brace pivoted at 48 to the frame of the machine, and 49 is another brace pivoted at 50 to the frame, and at 51 pivoted to a short arm 52. A locking device shown in Figs. 3 and 4 in detail operates to hold the wheels in their depressed position shown in Fig. 1. As shown in Figs. 3 and 4 the wheel is pivoted to the U-shaped frame 52 having projections 53 pivoted to the U-shaped end 54 of the brace 49. Bent arms 55 fixed to the frame 52 carry pivoted to them at 56 a locking detent 57, which has a catch-nose 58 engaging a bar 59 on the U-shaped frame 54. 60 is a spring normally holding the latch in the position shown in Fig. 4. The preferred mechanism for raising the wheels comprises a slidable rack bar 105 engaged by a spring-pressed detent 106. 62 is a wire connected to the bar and running to the axle of the wheel, being led over suitable pulleys such as 61. 107 is a foot lever pivoted to the boat at 108 and carrying a spring dog 109. 110 is a spring to draw lever 107 backwards. As the foot lever is reciprocated it forces the bar 105 downwardly, being held by detent 106 at each reciprocation, drawing on wire 62 and collapsing the frame 47, 49, 52 to the raised position. The holding latch 106 may be tripped by a wire 111 and handle 112 adjacent to the operator's seat. In order to release lock 57 a wire 113 runs therefore to a pulley 114 loose on wire 62. This latter is slack when the wheels are down and locked, and as the slack is taken up it draws on wire 113, unlocking latch 57 just before wire 62 becomes taut. Of course, the other wheel is provided with the same construction, the wires 62 of

both wheels being connected to rack bar 105. Releasing the detent 106 before the machine comes out of the water allows the weight of the parts and the resistance offered by the water to throw the wheels back to the locked position. The machine may then travel out of the water onto the land and over the same without the resistance which would be exerted by the boat if in contact with the earth.

THE AUSTRO DAIMLER MOTOR.

The 90 FT. P. Austin Daimler motor, with one of which one Thomas flying-boat is equipped, has recently been tested by the Austrian army authorities.

Previous to the first test the engine was tested on the dynamometer, and was found to deliver 80 B. H. P. at 1,310 revolutions per minute. It was then disconnected from the dynamometer and the propeller fitted that the engine was to drive when in the machine. The engine then ran without a stop for 20 hours under full load.—Average number of revolutions per minute. 1,320.

At the end of this run the engine was voluntarily stopped for half an hour and examined. Everything was found to be in perfect order, and no adjustments at all were necessary. Following directly after the half an hour's stop the test was resumed and the engine ran for a further 20 hours without a stop, under full load.—Average number of revolutions per minute, 1,320.

At the conclusion of this period the engine was again voluntarily stopped and once more connected up to the dynamometer, and was found to be delivering the same power as before the tests.

The engine was straightway dismantled and the parts examined by the army officials. It was found that no visible wear had taken place and that all the parts were in perfec* condition.

I he yo H. P. Austru-Daimler has recently undergone several alterations in detail all of which go far towards improving it as an engine for use under all manner of conditions while making no real change as to its reliability.

The cylinder (120 by 140 mm.) attachments are different. At the bottom of the cylinder a pressed steel flange is screwed on to the barrel. This flange is drilled to take seven holding-down bolts. There is little likelihood of cylinders leaving the engine in future.

A propeller carrier, consisting of a flange and collar in one piece, tapered to fit the crankshaft and keyed in two places, is supplied with every engine. A second detachable flange-piece bolts to the other.

The Bosch magneto fitted is wholly enclosed that it may be both dust and waterproof—a most necessary provision in these days. It is of the two spark type (that is, it sparks simultaneously on two plugs in each cylinder).

Each of the sparking plugs has a fibre and porcelain cover, thereby ensuring that it will not short-circuit even in the heaviest rain.

Another necessary provision has been made as a result of several serious accidents which have recently occurred with various types of aero engines—the carburetor has been made fireproof. To quote the firm's own descrip-

tion, "The float chamber is wholly enclosed and airtight except for an overflow and vent pipe of very small bore. The intake passage is continued in the shape of a long pipe, so that should the engine 'blow back' the flame would be muffled. So also is the extra air-pipe similarly muffled and gauze covered."

Lubrication is by Bosch lubricator driven by helical gearing from the crankshaft. Two piston pumps, one a piston valve and the other a positive pump, are actuated by cam-shaped discs. The pressure obtainable is about 1,000 pounds to the square inch. The oil leads are of weldless steel tubing and are arranged neatly outside the engine. Thus any repairs can be made readily and quickly.

The throw of these pumps can be regulated in a simple manner by moving in or out a series of screws placed round the rim of the filling up orifice.

The oil consumption is one-half gallon per hour; the gas consumption, about 8 gallons per hour. Copper jackets are electrically deposited on the cylinders. The motor is equipped with push-button and battery starter. The motor develops 90 H. P. at 1,300 revolutions.

A BLERIOT STABILISER.

Perreyon has been testing a Buc a Bleriot machine fitted with a new stabilizer invented by M. Bleriot. The apparatus principally consists of a weight attached to an extension of the cloche, and in its trials it seems to have worked perfectly. In one flight, Perreyon took up M. Rene Quinton, and flew round and round for a quarter of an hour without touching the cloche, his arms, in fact, remaining folded.

I like to have your magazine till I stop you from sending it.—V. M. K., Nciv Jersey.

WHY ROTATIVE MOTORS HAVE ODD NUMBER CYLINDERS.

L. Lecornu has told succinctly why rotative motors have an odd number of cylinders. "The reply is given through the formula which I had occasion to prove, and which may be stated as follows: n=K (-f-p—2) where "n" is the number of cylinders, "K" the number of cranks, and "p" the order in which the sparking occurs; that is, after having sparked the first cylinder, then the one of rank, p+i, is sparked, then 2p+i, and so on until the first one is reached again. In order that all the cylinders may be sparked in turn it is neces-s'lry and sufficient that "p" is prime with "n." "hat granted, it follows that, if one crank is i mployed in order to simplify and make the m itor as light as possible, "k" must equal "1" rid when p—2, "n" must be odd.

NEW BOOKS RECEIVED.

THE CURTISS FLYING I'.OAT is the title of a brochure gotten out by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co.. of llammondsport, N. V., which deals with the pleasures of aerial aquatics and is from the pen of Lyman T. Seely, although he doesn't say so. It's a beautifully gotten up booklet, immensely practical, absorbingly interesting and enough to almost make an aero editor buy.

THE DUNNE MACHINE IN AMERICA.

For a number of years W. Starling Burgess, together with everyone engaged in the development of aviation, has watched with the greatest interest the development of Lieutenant Dunne's experiments. The many accidents during the last year on machines generally recognized as the safest yet built has caused the general public and many intimately interested in aviation to well-nigh despair of attaining the long wished for safety in flight.

The commercial development of the aeroplane depends upon the production of a flying machine that is inherently stable. It is not too much to say that little or nothing ha3 been accomplished either in this country or France towards this end during the last three years. That mechanical devices for the operation of wings and rudders, however perfect, cannot be considered as solving the problem, is claimed by adherents of inherent stability.

Like almost every great inventor Lieutenant Dunne has worked alone with little or no encouragement from those already interested in the art of flying to a point where his success could not be further overlooked. The flight of Commander Felix, so fully reported in AERONAUTICS and the American press, marked the debut before the world of the first inherently stable aeroplane.

Not only private individuals but the military aviation experts in both England and France became interested at once. Before the mails bringing the details of the new aeroplane could arrive the Nieuport Company, one of the mos; progressive in France, had obtained not only a license to build the Dunne machine in France, but also an order from the Government for the construction of four Dunne aeroplanes to be delivered at the earliest possible moment.

The English Government, which up to this time had looked upon the Dunne machine merely as an undeveloped possibility, hastened to place their order for three machines for immediate delivery and thus tardily recognized Dunne's great achievement.

Mr. Burgess went abroad for the sole purpose of thoroughly investigating the latest developments in Lieutenant Dunne's work. He was both surprised and delighted to find that Lieutenant Dunne was already fully acquainted with his own success as a designer of aeroplanes as well as of yachts.

London "Engineering," the leading technical paper of the world, in its issue of October 3 devoted its supplement and principal pages to a detailed description with photographs and drawings of the three latest and most successful Burgess aeroplanes—the Burgess Tractor, the Burgess Coast Defence Hydroaeroplane, and the Burgess Flying Boat, all now in active service in our Army and Navy.

Under these favorable conditions a contract giving Mr. Burgess the sole license to manufacture under the Dunne patents was easily arranged. Investigation of these patents reveals the fact that Lieutenant Dunne has very carefully protected in them the basic prin-

ciples of his method of inherent stability, and that they can be easily defended from infringement.

"With its advent in America the many disputed questions of the easiest method of control, whether by wheel or by levers, whether by ailerons or by warping wings, lose their importance. The Dunne aeroplane is inherently' stable, but two levers are used and these are used simply for guiding up or down, or to the right or left. The machine cannot tip over either laterally or fore or aft."

Of course one can appreciate the enthusiasm! which Commander Felix has so well describedl when he first realized that he could remove hisl hands from the levers and allow his machine! to fly alone over the waters of the English! channel while he spread out before him hisl mid-day lunch.

The Dunne machine is not an easy aero-l plane to construct. Its principles of balance! depend upon a very careful co-ordination of! varying wing curvatures from center to tip! Lieutenant Dunne has supplied Mr. BurgesJ with the fullest drawings, patterns and templeta and the first American Dunne is now undeJ construction. Mr. Burgess is now designing the hydroplanes for the new machine, for it has not yet been equipped to fly over the water! This involves serious engineering problems, as the machine arises and alights in a very difil ferent manner from the older types of aero-i planes.

Mr. Burgess' work therefore will be watched! most carefully by the thousands interested in> aviation who are waiting for the day to arrivJ| when they can take up the art themselves wit™ an assurance that in doing so they are nofl entering an unduly hazardous sport or occupa-I tion.

The advent of the Dunne machine in Amer-I ica under Mr. Burgess' skillful guidance marksl a great step in the development of American! aviation.

AEROPLANE TO SPEED UP WAR-I FARE.

'An all-around speeding up" of strategic^ operations may be expected in wars wher« aeroplanes are used is the opinion expressed by Major F. H. Sykes, Commandant, MilitarjJ Wing, Royal Flying Corps, of England, andl the plans drawn out previously in peace wilB require greater care in order that the pre-1 liminary dispositions of troops may be the besB possible; yet, "the old, old principles prevail'* in warfare and in any case "no revolution oM methods will occur."

Citing instances from the battles of recentl and not so recent history, Major Sykes weni on to tell The Aeronautical Society of GrealB Britain at a recent meeting that, due to th« use of aircraft, "the sequence, order, counter-B order and disorder should be less frequent^ If the huge masses of modern armies arm found to have been wrongly placed, no amounfl of zeal, training, bravery, or mobility canB make up. There will be no time for^ a gen-B eral re-shuffling. The offensive will increas^ in advantage over the defensive. Leaders must I

be prompt and correct in decision ; troops prepared to make long and rapid movements."

Certain things being equal, the greatest number will win. General Jackson, by small, mobile daring forces, by rapid hidden movements was sometimes able to defeat considerably larger numbers. "Aircraft will, I think, render this line of action impossible," says the Major.

That war is impossible without command of the air, he thinks is a statement which should refer possibly to wars of a few years hence. Further, he says: "I even hold that command of the air can never really be of the same nature as command of the sea. Neither can the same extent of strategical or tactical freedom in the area of operations be obtained, which might result from the vigorous use of good cavalry.

"At sea and on land there are only two dimensions. In the air the third, climbing, is the difficulty. It may be overcome" with time and further progress but this third dimension is a "severe stumbling block." A heavy machine, perhaps, with guns and ammunition and armor, would be a slow climber and difficult to land easily and safely. "For the time being it would certainly seem that the fast scouting machine will have various advantages over the heavier type." Then, if both sides use it, each will know a pretty good lot about what the other is doing. "If both sides have fighting machines, the side upon which this fact has the least moral effect will have an important advantage. A little fighting in the air will, I think, have a far-reaching deterrent effect on the moral of the aerial forces of the losing side."

Aeroplanes will save cavalry much unnecessary work. A general in three and a half hours can report the enemy's strength, position, etc., if within an 80-mile radius. "The reports of aircraft will afford a degree of security, a saving of officers, men and horseflesh, in anxiety and strain on the commander, in mental wear and tear of the infantry and artillery." Fog and night will prevent aerial reconnaissance and, owing to the speed, the field of observation will not be very detailed; and small bodies of men will learn to quickly hide.

It will be difficult to recognize opposing aircraft, or any at all from the ground. A reduction in number of types is suggested as an aid to recognition, and tables of types of friend and foe will have to be issued to troops.

THE TURNER "AVIAPHONE."

Mr. K. M. Turner, who has been a close follower of aeronautics for several years, developed his aviaphone originally for the U. S. Army Aeronautics Corps to facilitate and make more effective aerial reconnaissances.

The device, which is an adaptation to aeronautics of Mr. Turner's famous "Dictograph-Turner" interconversing system, was worked {up to its present state of efficiency in co-operation with a number of the Army aviation ex-

perts, at the Government grounds in Augusta, Ga., and also at Hempstead, Long Island, where its utility and value was demonstrated in a number of very exacting tests.

As is well known, the noise of the engine has long made it difficult for the observation officer in any heavier than air craft to freely communicate with the operator of the machine. Army officers have recognized this as a serious handicap to the operation of the machine and its mobility in action, where seconds are too precious to be wasted.

The Aviaphone consists of a powerful transmitter with a tube projecting upward from it, permanently attached to each man in the machine, connected by wire with a set of pow-

erful earpieces permanently affixed to the head, by means of a headband. The transmitter is attached to each man by means of a light_ harness and is arranged so that bj bending his head slightly downward, his mouth is directly in front of the tube. This enables him to talk freely into it and keeps both hands free at all times, he having nothing to handle in the use or operation of the system. The wire connecting the transmitter with the earpieces of the other man in the machine is so arranged that in the event of the latter falling from the machine, the wire is instantly disconnected and the second man prevented from being carried down with his companion.

At the same time that the transmitter of the aviaphone magnifies sound several hundred per cent., it also clarifies sound, providing perfect articulation. The earpieces rest on rubber cushions and while held so firmly against the ears that no outside sounds can intrude, the pressure of continuous use causes the user no annoyance. The batteries for the operation of the instrument can be stowed on the person of either one of the men, being so small that they fit easily into a pocket. They register less than three volts and about twenty amperes.

The experiments made of the device by Army officers and also by lay-aviators, both amateur and professional, have been so highly successful, that Mr. Turner is confident that the aviaphone will soon become a necessary and indispensable appointment of every air craft.

KNABENSHUE DIRIGIBLE.

The only dirigible known to be operating in this country is now the new big ship of Roy Knabenshue, who has gone back to the gas bag after dallying with the aeroplane as an exhibition contractor.

The car has a capacity of ten persons, and has taken up 132 people for trips of 3 to 15 miles from and back to the aerodrome at Pasadena at a speed of 30 miles an hour, with but a 30 h. p. motor.

The bag is 150 ft. long, 2,000 cubic metres capacity, Hansen motor. The propellers are Wright type.

The ship is of non-rigid type, with a rectangular (cross section) framework below running the entire length of the bag. The elevating rudders are at the rear, and behind them are the six vertical rudders. The motor drives two propellers, one at either side of the framework at the end of triangular braces, driven by chain. Twenty trips were made from Sept. 20 to October 16 (20 days) with a total duration of 6 hours 31 minutes.

CURTISS O-X MOTORS COMPARED.

With the weight of the remodeled 75-80 h. p. Curtiss motor increased by a few pounds, new valve action and increased bearing surfaces bringing the net total up to 320 pounds, and the gross total ready for a run of four hours, including gasoline, oil, radiator, water, etc., up to 638 pounds in producing the 90-100 h. p. O-X motor of the same bore and stroke, the O-X shows real lightness. Here is a comparative table, the figures taken from a European publication :

"In the table below a net delivered horsepower of 85 is claimed for the 100 h. p. Gnome, the same for the O-X Curtiss and 72 for the 70 h. ,p. Renault. Weights for the Gnome and Renault motor fuel, etc., I have taken from the foreign publication referred to; those for the Curtiss O-X were supplied by Lieut. B. L. Smith, U. S. N., who had compiled the data from his Navy machine for his own information." At 1,800 r.p.m., the O-X shows 106 6 h. p.

THE FLYING BOAT AS A DEPENDABLE VEHICLE.

Raymond V. Morris, who acted during the summer and fall as pilot for Gerald Hanley of Providence, has kept a daily record of bis season's flying with the Curtiss boat. His book shows a total of more than no flying hours, approximately 6,000 miles, with but one overhauling. Broke one rod.

C. C. Witmer, in charge of Harold F. Mc-Cormick's flying boat, has flown approximately 5,000 miles, with one overhauling of the motor. No breakage.

L. A. Vilas kept a partial record of his summer's flying from June to October, and he estimates that he flew more than 3,500 miles. So far he has not had occasion to drop the lower half of the crankcase. The motor has not been overhauled since it left the factory. No breakage.

J. A. D. McCurdy, in charge of George von Utassy's flying boat, flew every fair day from mid-July to mid-October. Estimated mileage 5,oco. Broke one bearing cap.

MOTOR

WEIGHT Net

GALS. GAS Per Hour

GALS. OIL Per Hour

FUEL WT. Four Hours

TOTAL WT. Motor and Fuel

WT. PER H.P. For 4 Hours

100 Gnome

308.64

12.1675

2.7

377.76 lbs.

686.4 lbs.

8.07 lbs.

70 Renault

462.966

9.26

.79

246.03 "

709. "

9.946 "

90-100 Curtiss

430.

8.

.5

208. "

638. "

7.505 "

 

Knabenshue Dirigible

MAXIMOTOR: LATEST 100-HORSE-POWER MOTOR.

The ever-increasing popularity of the flying-boat brought with it the necessity of larger-powered motors. Maximotor makers have kept step with this demand and the new powerful 100-horsepower Maximotor is the result.

A brief description will give the reader a good idea of how Maximotors are built up, from materials mostly imported from England and Germany; also showing a good many points of refinement in mechanical construction not found in other American aeronautic motors.

To begin with, the cylinders are of the overhead valve type cast in pairs from vanadium gray iron containing 30 per cent, steel.

Casting the cylinder in pairs has the advantage of producing a more compact power plant, giving them united strength and reducing the manifold joints. The piston also is cast from the same material, heavily ribbed at the head and machined both inside and outside, allowing equal expansion.

All the valves are located in the head and mechanically operated.

Maximotor, 100 H. P.

The crank shaft is cut out of a solid billet of imported chrome nickel steel, double heat treated, thereby producing a very high tensile strength, machined, hollow bored, and ground to size within one thousandth of an inch.

Imported ball-bearings are employed on all main crank-shaft bearings, which are five in number. The propeller-end of crank-shaft is unusually rigidly supported; two extra heavy annular ball-bearings are employed to carry the load as well as thrust, and arc mounted in a vanadium steel housing which, in turn, is recessed and bolted to the crank-case proper by six nickel steel studs.

The cranf<-case is in one casting from a special aluminum alloy, eliminating a good many joints and bolts; which feature is most essential in an aeronautic power plant.

The connecting rods are drop-forgings of ichrome nickel steel, double heat treated, to (give extra strength and allowing them to be made very light.

The cam-shaft is of nickel steel tubing; the cams of special high carbon steel tempered, ground and held in place by taper pins.

The oiling system is mechanical by a small rotary pump placed in the oil-sump in bottom of crank-case.

A double oiling, carburetor, and ignition system can be arranged if especially desired.

In a three hours' test by a hydro-dynamometer the motor showed in excess of ioo horsepower at 1,350 r.p.m., consuming 8^4 gallons of fuel and 7 pints of lubricating oil per hour. On the testing stand, for propeller test, the motor pulled from 625 to 650 pounds thrust, turning a two-bladed propeller, with a diameter of 8 feet and a perimeter of 6 feet, at from i.35o to 1,400 r.p.m. The weight is approximately 375 pounds exclusive of radiator and propeller.

The Maximotor makers are prepared to make prompt delivery on the following sizes of motors : Model "A" : 4 cylinders, 40-50 horsepower; Model "B": 4 cylinders, 60-70 horsepower; Model "C": 6 cylinders, 70-80 horsepower; Model "D" : 6 cylinders, 90-100 horsepower.

THE 6-CYLINDER 60-HORSEPOWER WRIGHT MOTOR.

Ever since the first motor that flew the first aeroplane was developed in 1903 by the Wright brothers, the development of the Wright motor has steadily continued. The basic principle adopted in those early days to develop a power plant that combined efficiency, reliability, lightness, strength and simplicity, has been adhered to with remarkable perseverance. In 1908, when public flying first began, the world was astonished to find the Wright 4-cylinder 40-horsepower motor a more reliable and more efficient aeroplane engine than any that had been previously developed by acknowledged experts in gasoline engine work.

Several automobile firms abroad in 1908 and 1909 took to perfecting the Wright 4-cylinder engine for use on the foreign Wright machines, and the fact remains that not a single one equalled in general adaptability combined with lightness, reliability and strength, the genuine Wright motor, manufactured in Dayton.

It is needless to dwell upon the marvellous feats that have been performed with the Wright 4-cylinder engine. Since 1908. when it was first publicly flown by the Wright brothers, their product has remained to this day a standard exponent of reliability and good service.

1 he necessity for greater power, particularly in heavy scouting military machines and in aeroboat work, led the Wright Company to consider a more powerful engine, and for over two years steady development work has been done on a 6-cylinder engine of larger stroke than the four, and replete with improvements in detail. This new 6-cylinder engine, called type "6-60" has lately reached the completion of its development stage and the Wright Company are now prepared to make deliveries on the new engine.

In general the appearance of the motor is very compact. Its projected area on the plane is small, making its air resistance low. Accessibility of all parts is apparent on first glance. There are an unusually small number of parts that can get out of order.

The magneto, pump and oiler are all driven from the crank shaft, through gears on the end of the motor at ij4 engine speed. All the gears, water pump, oil pump and magneto connections are in the open, accessible and easy of inspection. The pump, oiler and magneto are all placed on a shelf, integral with the crank case on the exhaust side of the motor

On the opposite side is the cam shaft, also driven by gears, all enclosed with the pump and magneto gearing in one gear case.

The new "6-60" has not been developed for

the use of specialists, but on the contrary it is adaptable to the most general aeroplane practice, to motor boats, or to any apparatus requiring a light, compact, reliable gas engine power plant. No special oil or gasoline is required for its operation, and in its construction there is an entire absence of complication which would in any way render replacement difficult.

Ignition is by a "Mea" high-tension magneto. Provisions for two sets of plugs are made in the cylinder heads, and either a single or dual system of ignition can be used. If it is

not desired to use a dual system the plugs are either left unwired or replaced by a blank stud, or pet cocks for priming in cold weather. Provision is also made for fitting water-tight caps on the plugs. A 60-degree rotation of the magneto is obtained, giving retardation necessary for safe cranking.

A gear pump driven by worm from the pump and magneto shaft forces the oil from the well in the crank case to the distribution points. A splash system is used, with lips on the ends of the connecting rods. Throughout the engine grease cups are fitted, in simple and accessible manner.

Two "Zenith" carburetters of ample size, each feeding 3 cylinders, are mounted in a very neat manner on the intake manifold. The intake air-vents of the carburreters being close to the cylinder walls and receiving hot air from around the cylinders. The two control levers are joined by a rod and locked turnbuckle fitting. The "Zenith" carburreter is remarkably simple and effective, and will operate perfectly on the lowest to the highest speeds o practically any grade of fuel. It is not affecte by altitude. There are no springs to weaken no valves to bind or get dirty, and no pistons to get loose. The construction of the spray nozzle is such that the motor receives a constant mixture at all speeds.

As in all previous Wright aeroplane motors, a water cooling system is used. On the same shaft used for the magneto drive is mounted, a centrifugal pump, 2>Ya inches in diameter, which, like the magneto, runs at i1/? times the engine speed, and which delivers a high-pressure flow of water directly to the intake manifold on the base of the cylinder and cylinder heads, cooling the valve and spark plug regions and passing out through the manifold above to the radiator. A T-bolt construction is used for fixing the manifold to the cylinders and for aeroplane work it has been found exceedingly simple and reliable. By a convenient arrangement of the bolts the water flow is restricted in a uniform manner so that it delivers an equal amount to all cylinders and insures the uniform cooling of the entire motor. The water jackets on the new "6-60" consist of Bessemer steel, seamless, tubing, shrunk on with a .005 inch shrinkage, with ample shoulder for bearing surface and plenty of stock to insure water tightness. The cylinder head is screwed into the cylinders and the jacket shrunk on, after which the entire cylinder is tested out by a water pressure test.

The one-piece crank shaft on the "6-60" is made of crucible chrome nickel auto steel. The steel is first drop-forged and roughed out, and after a special heat treatment the bearings are ground to exact size.

The cylinders cast separately, with their i novel heads and their remarkable strength and lightness, are made of a light, medium grade of cast iron of fine grain, uniform structure, low in sulphur, avoiding brittleness, and medium in silicon, which gives softness enough for perfect machining. The iron is high enough in manganese to produce a splendid wearing surface^ and the casting is, throughout, light in

■s

e

n d

structure, well-proportioned, and splendidly designed to avoid casting strains. The cylinder heads are made of medium gray iron of the same composition.

The cylinder head is screwed onto the cylinder and, as previously described, the water jacket is fitted and the whole tested for water tightness. Then the cylinders are again set in a lathe and bored to exact size. This method of treatment insures absolutely perfect alignment of the cylinder walls as it relieves all strains due to shrinking of the jacket.

To-avoid the possibility of pitting, cast iron valves are adopted. The valve is made with a chrome nickel steel stem; screwed into a gray cast iron head with a fine thread. The s"tem is riveted to the head, after which the valve is centered and machined to a finished size.

The valve springs are made of a specially drawn Vanadium steel wire. The springs are rolled and ground on the ends, after which they are heated and in tests show a pull of 3S3/2 pounds per inch. The breaking of a valve spring is practically rendered impossible.

The rocker arms, fitted with rollers on the end, are made in a simple manner of high grade steel plate, carrying a plug fitting into the push rod tube in a manner which permits of exceedingly simple adjustment by the manufacturer, but one which can in no way work loose or be tampered with when the motor is

in use. However, any necessary adjustment is always easily made by adding or reducing the number of small washers between the end of the push rods and the base of the stem on the rocker arm. The valves are unusually large and are all mechanically operated.

The pistons are made of a very fine grade of gray iron, low in sulphur, carefully machined and of generous proportions. The piston rings are also made of gray iron of a special casting, which insures springiness to the ring. The piston pin is made of Shelby tubing, machined to .010 of an inch. The pin is then heat-treated and carbonized after which it is ground to size. The connecting rod of "H" column cross section is a drop-forging of high grade machine steel. Bronze bearings are used on the piston end of the connecting rod.

For general use the fly wdieel is fitted to the engine, as is also the ingenious Wright valve release rod, which, by merely pushing with one hand at once opens all the valves of the engine.

The Wright "6-60" engine weighs 305 pounds complete, and although rated at 60 horsepower, develops at its high speed considerably more than this. The speed of the engine can be varied at will between the limits of 1500 and 600 r.p.m. without affecting the smoothness of its running.

A muffler and cut-out may be fitted, on order, for which an extra charge is made.

Wright 6-60 Engine

BEACHEY'S LOOP MACHINE.

The machine which Lincoln Beachey is using in his loop-the-loop stunts is a special Curtiss built by him and James LaMont at the Curtiss factory. There are really few changes over the standard Model D Curtiss land machine, details of which have heretofore appeared in AERONAUTICS. The engine is a Curtiss of 90-100 horsepower.

The whole machine is heavily wired, the plane sections with 3/32-inch Roebling wire, and doubled in parts as usual. The front and rear lateral spars are double-heavy, about inch by 3 inches, and a trailing edge has been replaced. The wings spread 24 feet 3 inches over all, built in three sections each, 9 feet x 6 feet 3 inches x 9 feet. The separation between planes is 5 feet 6 inches. The tail outriggers are 2 feet shorter than usual and there is no fixed stabilizing plane at all save one, 6 inches at widest part, in center, tapering to 2 inches at either side to which the elevators are attached, the latter having been increased slightly fore and aft to give more surface. The front wheel is brought in about 2 feet and the pilot sits almost over it. The rear wheels have been set slightly further forward and the planes are closer to the ground than normally due to shortening of rear wheel braces, forks and front "V," the top plane being only 7 feet from the ground.

A belt comes from the bottom of the seat and up over Beachey's lap to hold him in while upside down, this strap being set loose instantly by pulling out a pin or key. In addition, there is a shoulder strap. The machine weighs, unloaded, 901 pounds.

On November 18, at Los Angeles, Lincoln Beachey celebrated his return to flying by flying upside down, and later looped the loop with a specially built and braced miniature Curtiss biplane. Pegoud is touring Europe giving exhibitions, Chevillard has done the loop with a Farman biplane, and others are copying the feat in various parts of the world.

REVOLVING CYLINDER MOTORS.

[Continued from page 171] the amount of oil used through oil shields as it is well known that a large amount escapes through the intake and exhaust valves through centrifugal pressure.

As to gyroscopic effect—all aviators who have flown with both reciprocating and rotary motors state they would never go back to the reciprocating kind.

It is astonishing to see a Wright machine, fitted with a rotary motor, fly. It is a different machine. It will rise from the ground almost like a helicopter. It will have a lifting pow-tr for ballast three times of one with a Wright motor. It is quite a revelation to see that combination of a splendidly designed lifting machine as the Wright always has been economical in power, when a first class rotary motor is hitched to it. The chains are seen to run straight like ribbons, showing the lack of vibration. There is very little vibration on the plane with a rotary motor. We test our Gyros on a very lightly constructed "wind wagon,"' but while you can feel some vibration when touching the wooden supports you could not see them move.

Some experiments have been made using graphite instead of oil. We have tried something along this line, with the graphite suspended in the gasoline. We tried it the other day with 76 gasoline to see whether it would stay in suspension as well as it does with 65 gas. We found it would not keep suspended any length of time but it took but very little vibration to keep it suspended and we rather think that even the slight vibration of the motor will suffice on future tests. This idea was given to us by Captain A. T. Lucas, of Washington, D. C, who found that artificial graphite had sufficient lightness for permitting this system of lubrication to the exclusion of oil. But whether the motor would develop as much power is somewhat questionable as the "sealing" property of oil would be lacking.

DESIGN FOR A SELF-RISING MODEL

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor.

The accompanying drawing shows a design for a self-rising model. Models of this type are much in use in England, where this tail-behind type first originated. This model is designed for flying in windy weather and ought to be just the thing for this time of the year.

The fuselage consists of two strips of silver spruce, ]4 in. by 3/16 in. at the center, tapering slightly towards the ends and out to a stream line form. The frame is bound at the front, fitted with the usual hooks, and glued.

Running across the frame 12 in. from the apex is a bamboo brace, 3/16 in. wide, out to stream-line form, and extending upright from this brace is a 2.V2 in. piece of 1/16 in. piano wire, fitted with a loop at the top through which extend bracing wires as shown. The construction is clearly shown in Figs. 1 and 3. The rear brace of the frame, or propeller-bar, is of bamboo, :4 in. wide by % in. in thickness, out to stream-line form, and 12 in. from this rear brace is another brace of bamboo, and extending from this brace to

the rear brace are diagonal strips of bamboo, this space being filled in with fabric to form the tail.

The main planes measure 24 in. span, with a chord of 4r{. in. at the ends, extending in for 8 in. The entering edge and main beam of the plane is of 3/16 in. wide by 1/16 in. spruce, cut to stream line form and the trailing edge is of % in- square bamboo. The plane and tail is covered on top with silk treated with Ambroid varnish. The fin is constructed of a single piece of bamboo, and is 2% in. high and 3^ in. long. Fig 4 shows the construction of the same.

The propellers are cut from a solid block of white pine, and are 8 in. in diameter, with a pitch of 20 in. They are given a coat of white shellac.

The bearings consist of Y± in. lengths of tubing, bound and glued to each end of the propeller bar. Bent around the propellers at the hub are small strips of tin as shown In Fig. 5-

The chassis or running gear is made of 1/16 in. flat steel wire, the rear skid being 5 in. long and the front chassis, including the wheels, being 10 in. high. The wheels are of laminated wood, fitted with small pieces of tubing for bearings as shown in Fig. 6.

The motors consist of 12 strands of Y% in. flat rubber for each propeller.

The Long Island Model Aero Club is one of the foremost organizations of its kind in America. The membership of this club is steadily increasing and at the present time there are over twenty-five members on the books of the club. Model flying contests are held every Saturday afternoon at Van Cort-landt Park under the auspices of The Yonkers Model Aeroplane Association between 3 and 5 P. M. Official Mr. Edward Durant.

MODEL FLYING IN ENGLAND.

Those who have kept close watch on the progress of model flying are aware that there is great activity on the other side of the Atlantic. Throughout England there are over fifteen model aero clubs, many of them having workshops, private flying grounds, man-carrying gliders and many members.

All records that the American model flyers could boast of as being World's records are gradually being swept away by the fine flying of our English cousins. For instance, our rise-off-ground duration record is 81 seconds, while the English record for this branch of flying is 169 seconds by Mr. J. E. Louch. Mr. J. E. Louch is one of the foremost model flyers

in Great Britain and is the holder of the record for hand launched tractor models, 45 seconds.

Another famous English flyer is Mr. L. H. Slatter, who holds the records for distance, R. O. G. models, 365 yards, single screw hydro, 35 seconds, twin screw hydro, 45 seconds.

The French model flyers take a more serious view of model flying than is taken in this country. Their models are mostly large scale models or scientific models equipped with carbonic acid gas motors, compressed air or miniature gasoline motors.

From the above it will be seen that if the American model flyers desire to retain "World's Records" in this country, they must "put their best foot forward" at once in that direction.

The following is a statement of the world's records as they stand today:

Distance, hand launched, Arthur Nealey (American), 2,740 ft.

Duration, hand launched, W. L. Butler (American), 170 seconds.

Distance, R. O. G., L. Bamberger (American), 1,542 ft.

Duration, R. O. G., J. E. Louch (English), 169 seconds.

Hydroaeroplane, Geo. E. Cavanagh (American), 60 2/5 seconds.

Single screw tractor, hand launched, distance, C. C. Dutton (English), 798 ft.

Single screw tractor, R. O. G., distance, C. C. Dutton (English), 590 ft.

TRYING A GYROSCOPE STABILIZER.

Army and navy fliers have about concluded a busy season of study and experiment at the Curtiss camp and factory at Hammondsport, N. Y. Lieut. P. N. L. Bellinger made hundreds of flights while trying out a gyroscope stabilizer, flying on one occasion "from Hammonds-port to Penn Yan and return, a distance of about 40 miles, without using the manual controls." He is now on duty at Annapolis. Lieut. Richardson, N. C, who spent the summer at Hammondsport observing trials of new machines and studying flying boat construction, is now on duty at Washington where he is conducting a series of tank experiments on hydroplane models. Lieut. B. L. Smith, M. C, is still at Hammondsport flying the Curtiss bat-boat A-2 and watching the construction of the navy's new fleet of flyingboats Lieut. W. R. Taliaferro, U. S. A., and Lieut. J. E. Carberry, U. S. A., who have been studying motor and aeroplane construction at the Curtiss factory, leave December 1st.

I always look forward to the coming of your paper with great interest, and want to congratulate you on the big up-hill fight which you are making in the service of aerial navigation in the United States.—C. L. L., Paris.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press

122 E. 25th St., New York Cable: AERONAUTIC, New York 'Phone, 9122 Madison Sq.

A. V. JONES, Pres't ERNEST L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor M. B. SELLERS,'Technical Editor

HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

No. 75 NOVEMBER, 1913 Vol. XIII, No. 5

Entered as seoondelass matter September 22, 11)08, at the Postofliee, New York, under the Act of March 3, 18T.I.

<I AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

*jMake all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

Panama-Pacific Meet.

The first meet of the Panama-Pacific Exposition flyers took place Nov. 16 on the Exposition Grounds, and was distinctive in that all machines participating were hydros or flying boats. It was a great success, notwithstanding the one or two mishaps which occurred. The following Sunday Roy Francisco, Frank Bryant and William Blakeley were added to the list of machines flying, those of Fowler, Christof-ferson, Sutro, Rybitski. A prettier sight cannot be imagined than five hydroaeroplanes in the air at one time. Sutro's mishap cost the loss of his machine, as the boats towing the submerged hydro to shore broke it up considerably. He was endeavoring to make a turn with a passenger too close to the water and dug a wing tip in the water.

Hall-Scott equipment is used in all the machines flying at the Exposition Grounds so far.

The meet was held under the direction of the Pacific Aero Club. The six 'planes raced around Alcatraz Island, through the Golden Gate and back and forth over the fair grounds. The flights were all exhibition, and no times were officially recorded.

Similar aviation meets will be held every Sunday and holiday throughout the winter. Three more aviators, Glenn Martin, Frank Bryant and Miss Siedel, a pupil of Martin's, will fly beginning next Sunday.

bers. The hope is to eventually organize all the air pilots in a good fellowship organization. The club will have no clues or membership fees. Persons who have been passengers and aero editors can belong as '"honorary" members. This is the first the Eastern aero world has heard of "Charlie" W'illard for many moons.

Judge C. O. Prowse, of Ilopkinsville, Ky., has built a fine-looking aerial yacht, with many refinements. All diagonal bracing wires are removed. One row of struts is used instead of two and there is but one main lateral beam. He is working on an automatic stability device on which patents are pending.

For Flying Boat • Builders.

L. W. Ferdinand & Co. have received the following testimonial to the excellence of their ,glue from Hugh Robinson:

"T wish to say that I have always used your Jeffrey's Marine Glue in the construction of motor boats, etc., and have never been able to find another glue which would give the entire satisfaction that it does. In the construction of the hull of the Benoist Flying Boats, which I designed and built. I always use Jeffrey's Marine Glue exclusively and they are a marvel of strength and lightness and never leak or take water in the least."

5 <9^/

P

/

Air Pilots' Club.

Licensed pilots living at Los Angeles have organized the Air Pilots' Club, with George B. Harrison president: Roy Knabenshue, vice-president; Charles F. Wil-lard, secretary. Walter Brookins. Glenn Martin, Beryl Williams, Harry Holmes and others in Southern California are also mem-

o 3

The halftone is of a letter from Garros endorsing the Bosch Magneto used in his Trans-Mediterranean Flight

Imports and Exports.

The imports and exports of aeroplanes and parts are running far behind the figures for 1912, as shown by the following schedule:

 

Sept.

9 mos. ending Sept.

Imports, aeroplanes ..............

Imports, parts ...................

Exports of domestic aeroplanes....

Exports of domestic parts.........

Exports of foreign aeroplanes......

Exports of foreign parts.........

Foreign aeroplanes in warehouse... Foreign parts in warehouse.......

1912 S @ $17,162

— $196

3 @ $5,500 ' — $533

5 @ $29,259

4 @ $17,055

— $73

1913

— @ $13,548 4 @ $13,800

— $1,100

3 @ $7,623

— $85

1912 8 @ $58,639

— $i,439 25 (Q1 $84,901

— $3,927 U @ $55,335

— $2,677

1913

1 <U' $900

— $18,617 16 @ $48,900

— $14,200

2 @ $10,332

Deaths of Army Officers.

San Diego, Nov. 24.—Lieutenants Hugh M. Kelly and Eric L. Ellington met death in flight.

Captain A. C. Cowan, commanding the post, was among the eye-witnesses of the accident.

"They were trying out a new six-cylinder machine," he said, "and they were between 80 and 100 feet from the ground when they lost control.

"The machine was a new one and Kelly was not familiar with it. Ellington went as instructor. The machine had a dual control, which enahles either occupant to manage it at will. The controls were connected, enabling the instructor to correct instantly any mistake made hy the pupil.

"The machine apparently began its descent in a proper manner and at the usual angle. Then it appeared out of control. The altitude was so low we felt the officers would have only a rough fall.

"A careful inspection of the wrecked aeroplane convinced us that the controls were in good order. The men were instantly killed."

"The death of Lieutenants Kelly and Ellington was due to their starting _ the engine when 80 feet from the earth, while making a long glide," said Lincoln Peachy, "and it was impossible to right it in the short distance between the men and earth."

The official report has not yet been made.

Manila, Nov. 14.—Second Lieutenant C. Perry Rich, of the Philippine Scouts, U. S. A., was killed to-day in a fall with a hydroaeroplane into Manila Lay. Lieutenant Rich, who was the only member of the Philippine Scouts attached to the aviation corps here, was encircling the Asiatic fleet, which was at anchor in the bay, when the accident occurred. A launch from the torpedo boat Decatur picked up his body. No official report as yet.

Business Troubles.

Yves de Yillers, of the Aeroplanes, Motors and Equipment Company, No. 1780 Broadway, was arrested on Nov. 25 by Detective Leigh, of the District Attorney's office, on an indictment charging grand larceny. The amount involved is $5,239.67, and the charge is made by the^ Curtiss Aeroplane Company, of Hammondsport, N. Y. The action grew out of a deal involving the purchase of an aeroplane engine.—-New York Herald.

The jury in the $25,000 libel suit of J. Y. Martin againt the Times Printing Company, of Seattle (Wash.), on Oct. 29, brought in a verdict for the defendant. Martin charged that a libelous story of his work as an aviator at the 1912 Potlatch was published by the defendants and hurt his business.

Judgment was rendered Oct. 24, New York, in favor of plaintiff in Aeronautics vs. Fred Schneider in the sum of $195.50 for advertising alleged to be due plaintiff, and execution was issued.

Wright-Curtiss Suit.

On Nov. 6-7 the last hearing was had in the United States Circuit Court of Appeals on the appeal of the defendant company from the decision of

Judge Hazel. Briefs submitted and arguments heard. The Court is now working over the evidence and is expected to render its opinion by the end of the month. This opinion will be final unless the United States Supreme Court will consent to a review of the case.

Balloon Ascensions.

Holmesburg, Pa., Nov. 4.—C. P. Wynne, pilot; Dr. Jerome Kingsbury and T. 11. Bridgeman, passengers, ascended in the "Perm. I" and landed at Medford, N. J., 25 minutes later.

Oct. 10—Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh took up four passengers from Indianapolis and made a short trip.

New Companies.

Flint Automatic Hydro-Airship Co., Incorporated, Manhattan; hydro-airship factory; capital, $100,000. Incorporators: G. W. Martin, C. II. Flint, 11. Flint, Brooklyn.

The Lubin Safety Hydroplane and Aeroplane Company, Incorporated, of Manhattan; hydroplanes, aeroplanes, motors for air craft, $100,000; J. 11. Freedman, Benjamin J. Lubin and Arthur P. Marr, 108 Fulton street, New York.

Curtiss Goes Abroad.

Glenn II. Curtiss is sailing again for Europe, and expects to be there for several months. His immediate destination is the Paris show, but most of the winter probably will be spent in Italy.

With Mr. Curtiss will be Mohan Singh, a Hindu from the Punjaub. Singh has heen in America for the past three years, lie became interested in aviation in 1910, joined the Curtiss training camp at San Diego, and flew a Curtiss land machine for a year or more. With the development of the hydroaeroplane he took up water-flying and in due course qualified as a flying boat pilot. lie is one of the few licensed pilots operating three types of machines. Singh's present intention is to make his way to India by easy stages. There he hopes to take some part in the development of aviation in his own country. En route he will make a short stop in London. Singh's real ambition is to find among the wealthy _ Indian visitors of the metropolis some multimillionaire rajah who would like to navigate the Indus at a speed of a mile a minute in a Curtiss flying boat.

AERO MART.

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50 Farman, all 4-cylinder...................... 375

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The craft is perfectly adapted to the use of sporlsmen as a machine for safe and comfortable travel over water at high speed.

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Model Club Notes.

With three out of four Sundays unfit for flying, and the majority of the days upon which the meetings were held rainy, things have been rather unfavorable for the Long Island Model Aero Club members. A series of weekly contests have been arranged, and those that have already been held have proven very interesting.

On October 26 a combination distance and duration contest for hand launched models was held in spite of very unfavorable weather, which kept many of the flyers from participating in the event.

The contest was won by L. Bamberger, of the Bay Kidge Club, with C. V. Obst, of the L. I. Al. A. C, a close second. Because of the unfavorable weather, the flying was far below the standard.

The results follow:

Points Points Total Distance Duration Points

L. Bamberger .............. 1 1 2

C. V. Obst .............. 2 3 5

Ness ...................... 8 2 10

Braun .................... 6 5 11

Gorgas .................... 7 6 13

Freelan ................... 9 5 14

W. Bamberger ............ 5 7 12

R. Olson ................. 3 8 11

G. Webber ................ 4 4 8

W. Koch ................. o 9

Time, 3 p. m. to 5 p. in. Judges—-Messrs. Swini and Moriarity. The best flying of the month was done on November 2, when a very large number of flyers were at the field. A remarkable point of this day's flying was the fact that every model on the field, regardless of size or type, made flights of over 100 seconds. The duration races by Lester Ness and R. Funk were very interesting, both models circling close to one another with very close and exciting finishes.

Freelan's single propellered model made very excellent distance and duration flights and his three-bladed bent wood propeller when tested on C. Y. Obst's large single propellered model gave very good results. Three bladed propellers are becoming very popular with members of this club.

In the altitude and distance races C. Y. Obst's bird model excelled all others, showing marvelous climbing qualities, at times reaching an altitude of over 500 feet and making distance flights of over 2,000 feet.

A club repair and supply box is one of the new accessories of the club, so that individual flyers need not bring supplies or parts to the field. A very interesting meeting was held on November 14, at which the writer had the pleasure to be present. A number of very interesting discussions arose regarding contests to be held, proposed challenges, altitude of various flyers on the field, etc.

The club is looking forward to a very interesting series of contests to be held this winter, including the Collins Gold Medal contest to be held shortly.

All queries relating to models and model flying may be addressed to the model editor, Harry Schultz, 23 West 106th Street, New York City, N. Y.

Books Received.

AVIATION, by Algernon E. Perriman, Svo, cloth, 360 pp., with 30 plates and many diagrams, published at $4.00, postage 21 cents extra, by George H. Doran Co., New York. A popular technical work of interest to the general student as well as to the man who is in aviation as a profession. To the amateur builder of aeroplanes in the United States it will be of incalculable benefit.

Chapters include: What an Aeroplane Is—lnstruct-iveness of Paper Models—Constructional Features of the Modern Aeroplane—Equilibrium in the Air— Lateral Balance—Steering—Longitudinal Stability— Principles of Propulsion—Concerning Resistance— The Cambered Wing—Work of Lilienthal, Wrights, Yoisin, Farman, Dunne and Weiss—British Military Trials of 1912—1 lydroaeroplanes—Accidents—Romance and Early History—Founding of the Science of Flight—Invention of the Glider and Pioneers— History and Appendices containing numerical examples, application of laws, etc.

Patents.

ISSUED OCT. 21st.

1,076,422—Herbert Champion Harrison, Lockport, N. Y. RADIATOR having vertical front and side faces extending at acute angles to the line of travel, said radiator comprising a vertical series of perforated plates extending at an acute angle rearwardly from said front face, and a series of water tubes extending vertically in the passages between said angularly-extending plates.

1,076,514—Victor M. Osborn, La Fayette, Ind. AEROPLANE, including a main frame of approximately frusto-pyramidal form, a car or platform carried by said main frame, a similarly shaped independent frame pivotally connected with the vortex of said main frame for relative longitudinal tilting motion on a horizontal transverse axis, said independent frame extending above the main frame and beneath the car or platform, and wings fixed to the independent frame and mounted to tilt therewith, the said main frame and car forming a gravity controlled body operating by gravity to maintain a normal perpendicular position, and means for tilting said independent frame upon the body and holding it in tilted position.

1,076,644—William Lafavete Quick, New Market, Ala. ORNITIIOPTER.

ISSUED OCT. 28th

1,076,803—J. N. Williams, Derby, Conn. HELICOPTER.

1,076,879—B. Flick and Paul Reinig, Berlin-Marien-

dorf, Germany. AEROPLANE.

1,077,004—Frederick Sifferman, South Bethlehem, Pa. FLYING MACHINE.

HALL-SCOTT MOTORS

Winter flying has already started in California. The following well-known aviators have their water planes equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors:—

BOB FOWLER

SILAS CHRISTOFFERSON

WM. BLAKELEY

ROY FRANCIS

A. G. SUTRO ALFRED BARRETT OTTO RYBITZKI HENRY UNNO

Besides these there are fifteen other planes, or 80% of all aeroplanes and flying boats upon the Pacific Coast, equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors.

We can furnish you with the most complete, powerful, and reliable power plant upon the market from 30 to 100 H-P. Write for our interesting catalogues fully describing these motors.

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.

818 Crocker Bldfj.

San Francisco, Cal.

\ERONAUTICS, Xov. 1913 Page 18

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ISSUED SEPT. 23, 1913 1,073,648—Paul Witzel, Berlin-Weissensee, Germany. Combination aeroplane and airship.

1,073,655—Josef Bercz, Cologne-Ehrenfield, Germany. Flapping wing machine.

1,073,977—Ralph P. Fox, Fort Hancock, N. J. Balancing system in which auxiliary balancing and supporting surfaces are arranged in front, the rear, and at opposite sides of the machine beyond the main supporting surface; the auxiliary surfaces being of circular form in plan and elliptical in vertical section.

1,074,007—Frederic Mylius, Atlanta, Ga. AEROPLANE, comprising a transverse carrier plane extending downwardly and forwardly having its upper surface concave, and rearwardly converging guide planes secured at their forward ends to the carrier plane, said guide planes having their upper surfaces concave adjacent their forward ends and convex adjacent their rear ends, etc.

1,074,031—Ira Allen, Dansville, N. Y. AIRSHIP with the controlling means mounted upon and within the gas bag.

1,074,063—Harry A. Orme, Wesley Heights, D. C. RUDDER for aeroplanes comprising a vertical s:eering plane, said front rod being pivotally connected to the rudder post of the vertical plane, said horizontal plane being centrally slotted or divided to receive the vertical plane therebetween, elevating cords connected centrally to the horizontal plane, said cords being arranged within the vertical plane, and passing through the rudder post, and cords connected to the front rod of horizontal plane, upon opposite sides of the said post, for movement.

ISSUED SEPTEMBER 30th

1,074,135—Nathan J. Paddock, Jersey City, N. J. STABILITY DEYICE, employing a pendulum which can be raised or lowered.

"1,074,256—Edson F. Gallaudet, Norwich, Conn. CONTROL SYSTEM, using movable surfaces to tilt an aeroplane around with its longitudinal and transverse axis operator's seat swinging as a pendulum, operative connections; rudders in pairs, upper and lower, forward and aft and means for turning upper ones in one direction and lower in opposite to balance machine about longitudinal axis, similar arrangement for horizontal rudders, etc.

'1,074,257—Edson F. Gallaudet, Norwich, Conn., CONTROL SYSTEM, using movably mounted auxiliary sustaining planes above and below the main wings, means for simultaneously effecting both a lateral displacement and a transverse angular movement, control mechanism, etc., so that when a machine is tilted laterally, the horizontal component of the reactions may be used for controlling the machine.

1,074,281—George Mitchell, Los Angeles, Cal. Combined AEROPLANE and HELICOPTER.

1,074,288—Martin Pearson, Los Angeles, Cal. HELICOPTER. Navigation.

* 1,074,499—Wesley N. Ensign, Whitestone, N. Y. SHOCK ABSORBER for aeroplanes, comprising air cylinder and piston with a vertically disposed standard rigidly secured to the frame of the aeroplane at its upper end; a swinging rod pivotally secured to the lower end of the said standard and extending forwardly from said standard, its forward end journaled to the axle of a supporting wheel, and a member having its upper end pivotally secured to said standard near the upper end thereof and having in its lower end an air cylinder, a second member having its lower end journaled to the axle _ of the wheel and having its upper end slidably engaging the exterior of the air cylinder, and having a suitable plunger disposed within the cylinder.

1,074,525— Michael A. Parisano, New York, N. Y. STABILITY DEVICE in which pendulum is used to operate ailerons, a toothed bar engaging flexible tip of pendulum dampens small movements; main frame of aeroplane being a tube in which propeller is placed; wings at dihedral angle.

ISSUED OCTOBER 7 1,074,659—Leon Spiro, Everett, Wash. AUTOMATIC BALANCE for aeroplanes, in which horizontal propellers are placed at lateral extremities of the wings and put in motion by clutch, shaft and gearing mechanism from motor, actuated by a pendulum.

1,074,830—Ernst Blochmann, Bitterfield, Germany. SUSPENSION of the sliding cars of airships on a running cable, with means to automatically stop the movement.

1,075,302—Rubino Plastino, New York, N. Y. AEROPLANE in which a central plane is movable fore and aft and auxiliary planes at both ends capable of adjustment to various inclinations, etc.

ISSUED OCTOBER 14th. 1,075,447—Edwin D. Stevenson, Wadsworth, Ohio. EQUILIBRATOR, comprising a lifting propeller above center of machine driven by motor, and controlled by a pendulum.

*1,075,533—Orville and Wilbur Wright, Dayton, Ohio. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device comprising a vane actuated by the air currents with means for operating a balancing mechanism, which consists of horizontal rudder, for longitudinal stability; and a pendulum operating movable surfaces at lateral extremities of machine and a vertical rudder.

1,075,540—John W. Boughton, Philadelphia, Pa. AEROPLANE, comprising a central frame, stationary vertical planes mounted thereon, horizontal planes pivotally mounted on said vertical planes, auxiliary frames movable on said vertical planes, said horizontal planes being pivotally connected with the auxiliary frames and transversely extending planes to the rear of said vertical planes.

1,075,791—Johann Pobuta, Elizabeth, N. J. AEROPLANE with cigar shaped body, flat on top, deck house, main parallel sustaining planes with lower mounted on deck house, propellers, etc.

1,075,863—Ingentar Rvstedt and Melvin Steele, Dayton, Ohio. FLYING MACHINE, with "safety wings" which can be folded or extended from opposite sides of the body, lifting propellers, driving" propellers, etc.

1,075,969—James Edward Fraser, St. John, N. B., Canada. FLYING MACHINE in which the wings furnish ascension and propulsion by being driven in circular orbits, the plane of rotation being coincident with the line of flight.

ISSUED OCTOBER 21st.

1,076,218—Harry W. Macomber and Frederich H. D. Bergmann, St. Louis, Mo. AEROPLANE.

Aeroplane comprising a plurality of overlapping sections with air inlet openings between said sections, said sections being arranged in a series in the line of flight of the machine and with their forward edges in the same horizontal plane, each of said sections having its lateral edges drooped more than the next one in front.

Top plane constructed in two laterally divided portions, each portion comprising a plurality of sections inclined rearwardly and downwardly with ths forward edge of all but one of the sections disposed above and spaced from the rear edge of adjacent sections, etc.

1,076,339—Wm. F. Wiles, Thomas Macleod, and Frederick Wm. Wiles, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. AEROPLANE in which the wings are hingedly connected to the central section and may be moved to various dihedral angles during flight, which movement operates ailerons at lateral extremities of top planes.

1,076,377—John George Aulsebrook Kitchen, Scott-forth, England. AEROPLANE having a circular main supporting surface with an opening in the center, the rear part of the surface having a sharp depression in the upper surface along the longitudinal center line forming a keel on the under side.

Now Ready

The Airman's Vade=Mecum

"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY

Py Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B.

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council Aeronautical SociUy)

CONTENTS: Introduction and 5 Chapters on Temperature, Pressure, Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index. (Illustrated) Price 40 Cents Net Post Free

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.

ADAMS-FAR WELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN

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COMPANY

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OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

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AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

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Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & West End Aye., New York City

Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators cf all types

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of flying boats. it not only waterproofsand preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

for further information address

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

ALL AERO BOOKS FOR SALE BY

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CHARAVAY

PROPELLER S

USED by Gilpatric and Wood in "Times" Aerial D^rby USED by Wood in his flight to Washington Have proven their superiority

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E. V. Fritts flying at Oneonta, N. Y. in his 100 H-P i .

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DETROIT

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Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications

if! Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs,

and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. + Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 II. P.

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A STATEN ISLAND. NEW YORK CITY

% Established 1906 -Tel. 717 Tompkinsville

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The Only New York Hotel Featuring

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Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Main Offices

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WASHINGTON, D. C.

JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES ARTILLERY

A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.

Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.

$2.50 a year.

With Index to Current Military Literature, $2.75.

of

- Compiled by

rnnninflfif H^on

lUIIUIUgj nsK.Rr*

Patrick Y. Alexander

Nowhere else does there exist such a complete and accurate record of the development of this Art, and it represents an enormous amount of labor. Much of these data has never been published elsewhere.

I ■ I FREE for Postage Stamp

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IUIIUII 122 East 25th St., New York

HYDROS

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$8.00

DON'T 'vvli,e us vnless

* you are interested in a reliable, efficient arc1 economiceI power plant. "Hat is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works Muncie, lnd.

PATENTS

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American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection ot the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON, D. C.

curtiss 3-foot Model FLYING BOAT

Build this Model

It embodies the latest ideas in Aeronautics. Concise Plan with Building Instructions, 25c. OTHER "IDEAL" 3ft. MODEL PLANS: -Bleriot, 15c; Wright, 25c; Nieuport. 25c; Cecil Peoli Champion Racer, 25c; Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane. 35c.

COMPLETE SET OF SIX. $1.25 POSTPAID 48 pp. "Ideal" Model Aeroplane Supply Catalog 5c IDEAL AEROPIANE & SUPP1Y C0..82A W. Broadway, N.Y.

Reliable Demonstrators and Agents Wanted

TO INTRODUCE TO THE PUBLIC THE ]9H MODEL

HAMILTON AEROBOAT

The sturdiest construction and design at the lowest possible price. You will be surprised when you investigate this machine which is destined to be the Ford of the aeroplane world. Write for agents' proposition and catalog, 'EVERYTHING AV1AT1C," of aeroplanes and supplies.

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO., 208 Thirtieth Ave., SEATTLE, WASH.

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

~™—— Write for circular "~~~

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO

636-644 First Avenue, New York, u. S. A.

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

8 cyl. "V'type 6o H.P. 240 pounds.

RELIABILITY DURABILITY

MAXIMUM POWER. MINIMUM WEIGHT.

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.

Factory: Ft. Center St., Newark, N.J.

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

5555

47

Antony Jannus with Two Passengers Flying the New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder

if Aeronautical Motor

{REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)

This machine is now owned by Mr. W. D. Jones of Duluth The most prominent aeroplane manufacturers in the country recognize the superiority of the Sturtevant motor

SEND FOR BULLETIN No. 2002

B. F. Sturtevant Company, Hyde park, boston, mass.

I NAIAD Aeronautical Cloth

AND

Aero Varnish

%

+

We were the first in the field, *

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%

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Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request

C. E. Conover Co.

MANUFACTURERS

I 101 Franklin Street, New York *

SLOANE

Manufactures the best and most reliable aeroplanes in America

FURNISHES

MONOPLANES-

which are the standard in design and construction.

.YING-BOATS-

for sportsmen — both monoplane and biplane types. Boats lhat are entirely satisfying.

GNOME ANZANI RENAULT

at lower prices

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

1733 Broadway - New York City


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