Aeronautics

Volume 13 - No. 2 - 1913 August

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



Kill. No. 2

AUGUST J 913

25 Cents

'ssonaih ^^^^

CURTISS MOTOR

Verplanck, owner of the boat, said to a Detroit news-n: "No, I'm not specially surprised. My Flying Boat vvhat I bought it to do; what the Curtiss people told me it ; what my experience at their camp led me to think it . So far as the trip was concerned we had no mechanical hatever. Much of the credit for our success must be given tiss O-X Motor.

d perfectly."

In a Curtiss Flying Boat, Driven by Two Curtiss Pupils

lvs^$asily Won the

900 Mile

raising Contest

If You Fly for Sport or Business You Should Own a Curtiss Motor

RTISS MOTOR COMPANY uSJwmL*.

< BENOIST «e

PLANES hold the iollowiug records:

World's long distance hydro record with one passenger. World's long distance hydro record wilh two passengers. American endurance record, aviator and Ihree passengers. Have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. The first successful Tractor Biplane built in America.

Records indicate superior efficiency. Why not get an efficient machine •while vou are about it?

T/tr New Henoiit Fly in°

T' BENOIST AIR CRAFT CO.

Action 6628 DELMAR BLVD. ST. LOUIS, MO.

50 h.p.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 h.p.

207 POUNDS

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Endurance Record to Date 4 hrs., 23 min.

From the

" MOTOR WAGEN of Nov. 20, 1912 In the testing establishment of Dr. Bendemann at Adlershof (near Berlin), a 7-cylinder Gyro Motor was recently tested. In a 5-hour endurance run and at r.ooo R. P.M., an average of 45.7 H. P. was obtained. The fuel consumed was 14.7 kg. gasoline per hour and 3.06 kg. lubiicat-ing oil, which is more favorable than the Gnome motor of the same horse-power. The weight of the motor was 73 kg.

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

MAGNALIUM

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O. A. CRAYEN CO.

tSl NKW STREET, X.Y. ('. MIOTA I. DICl'T.

MORRIS R. MACIIOL

HYDROS

BUILD YOUR OWN

Over 100 complete drawings. Scale 1" to foot; some ful 1 size

Prints 28"x36" ONLY COMPLETE PRINTS EVER SOLD

AERONAUTICS. 122 East 25th St., New York

$8.00

don't wtite us vn'H

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Kemp Machine Works Muncie, Ind.

7369

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Two, Three and Four Blades

Standard Paragons

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Paragons Prove Themselves-Endorsed by Highest Authorities

Used on all Navy Machines

American Propeller Co., 249 e. Hamburg St., Baltimore, md.

Burgess Flying Boat

Built for U. S. Navy

HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT

is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Already a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines.

Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes aie still unexcelled. Motor equipment depends entirely upon the purchaber. We recommend the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type.

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at greatly reduced prices.

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, under the direction of Frank Coffyn, is located at Marblehead adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

JERONA UTICS

August, 191

Are You Absolutely Sure of your Ignition ?

THE achievements of the world's most notable gas engine designers have been made most effective thru their selection of the Bosch Magneto. You are assured perfect ignition when it's Bosch—you take no chances.

Literature sent on request

Bosch Magneto Company

201 W. 46th STREET :: NEW YORK

Developing New Ideas

By GEORGE M. DYOTT

The title of this talk may seem rather dull; nevertheless, I feel sure that a great many of us set about development work in a way that is expensive and non-productive of results. So, if I can lay before you in a clear and concise manner the most logical method of approaching new problems the time may not be altogether wasted.

Time and time again I have witnessed individuals vainly endeavoring to exploit some new ideas, which, at the start, were fundamentally wrong. Had a little thought been brought to bear on the subject at the outset considerable time and money would have been saved.

There is a right way and a wrong way of doing everything in this world and 1 see no reason why aviation should be any exception to this rule. A few years ago, when there was very little authentic information published concerning aeronautics, the only method of procedure was to experiment and collect data upon which to work; but in these days, when the main principles are so well established there is no excuse for ignoring what others have already done in the field.

Before proceeding, 1 ought to first define just what 1 mean by a right and wrong way. Spending money and learning nothing, or spending time and money proving principles which are already known to be wrong, are wrong ways; the right way is that one which, for a minimum of time and monej', produces definite concrete results.

The qualities necessary for success in development work are: good judgment and a logical, open mind coupled with a keen appreciation and respect for other people's ideas. Prejudice is fatal to the development of sound ideas.

The first stumbling block to avoid is ignorance of what is already known of the laws of mechanics irrespective of aeronautical ideas.

"Let me illustrate the point at issue. A short time ago a man asked my advice concerning a pendulum stability device which he was about to finance. The inventor had constructed a model and from it was suspended a weight at the end of a cable. By a single throw of a lever this weight could be raised or lowered as desired. In the full sized machine, which was to be built, the pendulum would weigh 150 to 200 pounds and had to be raised 20 to 30 feet in two seconds. In order to accomplish this, it would require the expenditure of well over one horse power of energy. Xo matter what merit the device had, this one feature alone would make it worthless.

Before working on new ideas be sure you are familiar with the old ones. When a principle is once established there is no good in proving it all over again at the expense of

* Lecture before The Aeronautical Society.

time and money. Take a few lessons from those who have had experience and you will learn better and quicker. Take as' an example the theory of low centre of gravity as an aid to stability. The position of the centre of gravity is now fairly well understood and yet we still find individuals placing it as low as possible; a little careful study would often help the novice in avoiding errors of this kind.

In carrying out new ideas it is essential that the reasoning in support of them should be logical, but still more important it is to see that the premises upon which the reasoning is based are true. The only way to be sure of this is to be thoroughly familiar with the subject in hand.

When I first started building machines I considered the Bleriot type of under carriage extremely dangerous for ground work. Hence, instead of making my wings light and flexible, 1 made them rigid and heavy. The advantage of this was apparent when I found my machine continually tipping over on a wing tip. So on every occasion I decried the Bleriot landing gear and wing construction, pointing out the superiority of my own ideas. All of this reasoning sounded well enough but later on when I actually went to the Bleriot school in France my astonishment knew no bounds when I discovered that it was almost impossible for one of their machines to lurch over on a wing tip. The reason was then apparent—it was the undercarriage, which a few months previously I told everyone was dangerous; actual experience proved it to be a marvel of ingenuity and necessitated a considerable rearrangement of my own ideas on the subject.

In developing a device we often overlook the fact that it must not only work to be successful but it must work better than other devices or have some point of superiority, whether it be low cost or simplicity which places it ahead of existing devices. As a business proposition today it is of 1 ittle use to construct an aeroplane that merely flies— it must fly better than others or else navigate to better advantage. A tight rope walker once conceived the idea of running a wire from the roof of his house to the street below and over it he effected entrance and egress. His friends, however, still continued to use the staircase as it required less agility and was more reliable. This same line of reasoning applies to the development of aeronautical apparatus.

Some experimenters make originality the kevnote of their designs; originality should not be overlooked, yet to strive for it to the exclusion of everything else is decidedly bad practice. I once saw a machine equipped with a very original shock absorbing device. Its weight was 35 pounds. On a Deperdussin monoplane the shock absorbers weigh three

pounds and are just as efficient. The extra 32 pounds could have been well dispensed with and as a whole the machine would have been improved.

As most of you are interested in developing complete machines rather than the appliances let me say a few words on this subject. At first do not depart too far from the beaten path and be sure you know what constitutes a good flying machine before starting to build one. Without doubt, the money spent in going to a standard first class school is well invested; the pupil becomes familiar with the feel of the air and if under good instructors will learn principles of flight which he never can learn from books. When once he has passed his license tests, experience in flying other standard types of machines will prove interesting and valuable if development work is to be undertaken. The broader one is experienced the better is one able to judge the relative merits of different ideas.

Avoid many variable or unknown quantities wherever possible. The combination of unknown motor, propeller, machine and operator makes it exceedingly difficult to arrive at facts. If, for example, you wish to try a certain propeller, do so on a machine with which you are familiar and with an engine whose characteristics are well known; then, if the performance of the aeroplane as a whole is improved, it must be due to the propeller, providing that no other changes have been made. By such a process of elimination really interesting data can be procured.

I know a man who spent the entire summer building a machine in which he mounted a new motor with a propeller of an uncertain design. Everything about the machine was novel and when it refused to fly he never knew to what to attribute the failure. It is a deplorable fact that there are so many cases of a similar nature on record as such methods hinder rather than advance the cause of aviation.

SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT.

I look for subsequent development of the aeroplane to take place along standard lines just the same way that the automobile or other industries have developed along paths which were more or less defined at the start. Evolution is always slow and new ideas never supplant old ones over night so that I do not expect anything very startling for some time to come. The helicopter, which is the dream of many inventors, will undoubtedly come with increased knowledge of aerial appliances, but I feel that it will be through a perfection of the present aeroplane rather than a new discovery relating to helicopters. Witness the extraordinary manner in which some of the modern machines climb and then compare the slow rate of ascents years ago. It certainly looks as if the logical outcome were to be a vertical rise with all facilities for moving in any horizontal direction.

As to automatic stability, here, again, we are logically forced to the conclusion that it is but a matter of time when it will be an actual fact; nevertheless, we must not overlook the fact that great advancement has

been made along this line, particularly with wings which might be termed inherently stable. As it is impossible to design an automatic machine to do a piece of work until we can first do it manually, so. likewise, is it impossible for us to automatically control an aeroplane until we can do so first by hand under all conditions. It will probably be some time before we can thoroughly understand all the conditions which exist in the vast expanse of atmosphere which surrounds us. THE FUTURE OF THE AEROPLANE.

One word as to the future of the aeroplane. Does it, in its present state, look like a commercial article? Fortunately for myself, I am one of those wdio is absolutely convinced that it has a future, and a great one. Admitting its many shortcomings and its present limitations, I still see a vast field of usefulness spreading out before me. Not as a weapon of war so much as a vehicle of peace. Granted that in the former capacity it will find wide application, but it is in the cause of peace where it will evidently play its greatest part. To send a thousand tons of coal to Albany one would naturally resort to river transport, a ton of valuable merchandise would go by freight train and an individual by express passenger service. In each successive step, the cost of transport increases and does so in certain proportion to the speed of travel. Had I to be in Albany at 3 P. M. and it was now 2.30 P. AI. the air route would be employed if possible; did it take an aeroplane the same time as it did a steam train there would be no occasion to develop aerial transport, but if the latter offers a speed of transit hitherto unattainable by other means then there will be a demand for it irrespective of the cost. In other words, high speed travel is an essential feature of this age and generation, and anything which brings about this end is indispensable to civilization.

In conclusion I might say that the foregoing remarks apply to the development of ideas rather than the research work in unknown fields. Those engaged in research must always deal with the unknown and allow their imagination full play as it is only by tearing onesself away from the beaten path and preconceived ideas that new theories can be postulated. Work of this kind is always tedious and costly and those who engage in it simply blaze the trail for the more practical man to come in and pass judgment on the theories which have been evolved.

A man in Long Beach, Cab, "refused" the magazine at the post office after accepting it for a year after his subscription expired. Not receiving reply to notification of expiration, or to letters requesting payment, presumption was that the subscriber wished the magazine continued. However, he takes this round-about way of notification rather than come forward and say he cannot pay for the numbers he has had, or advise us on notification of expiration that he doesn't wish to continue. This is a cheap and underhanded way of obtaining a subscription for nothing.

Technical Talks

By the Technical Editor

Resistance of Solids and Wind Deflection

In my last talk I said that by initiating an nward deflection at the stern of a blunt Mided body, the resistance of that portion xmld be diminished. This is illustrated by experiments of the National Physical Labo-atory, made in water, on the model of a lirigible having a stern removable in sec-ions. It was found that a portion having a liameter equal to four-fifths of the major ,ection could be removed, without materially ncreasing the resistance. Tests with colored vater showed that the portion truncated was ■eplaced by a conical zone of dead water. The sloping sides of the truncated stern caused he fluid streams to converge as shown in 7ig. i.

In connection with the subject of wind deflection, Dr. Cousin and M. Gingon have, in the Technique Aeronautique of Feb. i, an article on the determinism of the form on the flight and speed of the bird. They quote from Mouillard the statement: "there are probably forms which give a counterpressure superior to the pressure"; meaning, thereby, that such a body, once started, would experience a resultant pressure forcing it forward. This is obviously absurd.

It is possible, however, to have a body on which the counter-pressure would equal the pressure; in which case only frictional resistance would remain.

I shall not attempt here to abstract this article, but shall give only the most salient points of the theory. Fig. 2 shows an out-

line of a bird, seen from above, showing direction of air streams. It is seen that the bird's head forms a wind deflector shielding the front of the body from pressure, and

deflecting the air streams in such a way that their convergence produces a pressure on the after-body.

These investigators point out that:

(1) There is an inverse ratio between the size of the head and the length of the neck.

(2) There is a direct ratio between tin length of the neck and the major transverse diameter of the body.

(3) There is, therefore, a direct ratio between the size of the head and the diameter of the bod}-.

The head and fore part of the body form a cone of penetration; and the after-body, a cone of utilization ; the relation between these two cones being such, that the air streams deflected by the head shall return to produce a pressure on the whole after cone, and shall not return too soon or too late. Hence the necessary relation between the size and shape of the beak, head, neck and bod}'.

Similarly, in Fig. .3, we have a side view of the bird showing that here the air streams deflected downward return to produce pressure (lift) on the under side of the after body; while those deflected upward produce a rarifaction (lift) over the whole upper surface.

The authors go much further with their theory, showing how the direction of the air streams may be controlled by the lengthening of the neck and binding of the wings; besides, much more. But at present the important questions are:

(1) Does the bird's head act as a wind deflector, reducing the resistance of the body to forward motion; and,

(2) Can the air streams be deflected so as to converge on the after-body annulling the rarifaction generally occurring over that area?

As soon as I have opportunity I shall investigate these questions, using my wind-tunnel. M. B. Sellers.

New Burgess

On July 19 the flying boat built for R. J. Collier and powered with a 220 H. P. Anzani motor was taken up by Frank Coffyn for the first time. It proved wonderfully fast on the water. After two short runs Coffyn took it a few feet into the air. He found that the speed far exceeded that which he had anticipated. It developed well over 75 miles per hour. This is especially surprising on account of the very large extra weight carried, the power plant complete weighing 96S pounds. On account of the difficulties in starting the motor by hand with a reducing gear a Hartford self-starter was installed and it is very pretty indeed to see Coffyn alongside the wharf press a button, when the Anzani motor immediately jumps into action and the big double propellers create a hurricane that well nigh sweeps one off his feet if he happens to be behind it.

On account of the very high speed and increased weight over the estimated weight, wing extensions were added to make the machine more easy to operate.

Late in the spring Collier placed an order with the Burgess Company and Curtis for a flying boat, and at the same time purchased a 220 H. P. 20-cylinder Anzani motor from the Anzani Company in France. It was specified that the flying boat should make a speed of at least 75 miles per hour, should carry a fuel capacity of about 4 hours flying and carry

Flying Boat

one or two passengers. Coffyn has taken contract to fly it for him.

It will be noticed from the plans that thl upper plane alone warps, the lower planel being rigid and are separated by a single lin< of steel struts. This is a distinct departuri in American design which gives a greatej efficiency by a marked reduction of the heal resistance.

Each wing is built up on a tubular steel spaJ inches in diameter and with the tube ste« vertical struts separating the main planes, till main cell is practically a steel skeleton. A wood entering edge (hollowed out for lighJ ness) and a wood stringer parallel to thJ wing spar serve to maintain the spacing ol the ribs, which are of wood, placed even twelve inches apart.

The upper surface is fitted with 5 foot exj tensions and has a span of 41 feet 4J/2 inches As the drawings show, it is made up in 4 seqj tions. The lower plane measures 33 feet 4^ inches in span.

The 20-cylinder motor, with its cylinder] arranged radially in staggered rows, drives four-bladed propeller direct through an extenj sion of the crank-shaft, supported on ball] bearings upon a tubular steel standard buil up from the hull. In this latest design it haj been possible to get the center of thrust verl near the center of resistance.

{Continued on page 61)

Burgess 220 H.P. Flying Boat

96

The Grant Monoplane

With Changeable Angle of Incidence

Mr. R. R. Grant, of Norfolk, Va., following-out the same line of experiments made with his former machine at the old Jamestown Exposition grounds, has just finished a new tandem monoplane, a hydroaeroplane of the catamaran type, which, while embodying the same general principles of the old machine, has some interesting new features, one of which is a device whereby the angle of incidence is changed while in flight.

To accomplish this, a double movement, which maintains a constant lifting centre and adjusts the proper ratio between the forward and rear surface, is provided. The operator turns a small wheel located between the double seats when changing or adjusting for the proper angle.

Further, the surfaces are full Cissoid of Diocles form, this form having been adopted on account of its high efficiency and that for all change in angle the C. of P. movement travels at a constant ratio, /. c, within reasonable angles of flight. With this curve a very much increased inherent stability has been obtained and, further, it functions perfectly with the tandem system, i. e.. the C. of P. variations are always in a corrective direction, thereby assisting in making the machine automatically stable.

From many experiments with the old ma-

chine in flight Mr. Grant found that the good] effects of the negative angle in the rear planl of the tandem system is destroyed by thl improper placement of the C. of G. Thesl two physical elements being the secret ol longitudinal stability and when coupled witfl the best form of surface the longitudinal stability can be considered as nearly perfect!

In the old machine after these feature! were incorporated the longitudinal stability could always be depended upon, and in nfl instance did it ever fail though many sever! tests were made. A very fine technical del scription of the inherent longitudinal stability feature of the tandem system will be found ill Captain W. Irving Chambers' article ill AERONAUTICS for February, this yearl Capt. Chambers states that the theory or obi ject of the tandem system (referring to th! Drzewiecki machine) is, "to so adjust th! plane surface that when exterior perturbing! forces disturb the equilibrium a dynamic! couple is born which restores the equilibriunl immediately and automatically." The sam« physical results take place in the tandeirl system with the small plane in the rear, pro! vided, the C. of G. is properly placed, tha centre of gravity must at all times become thm axis centre around which the lifting and driffl pressures converge, for in this type of ma!

chine no inertia pressures are necessary, for, as Capt. Chambers puts it, it is "Aerostable," /. c. all corrections being the secondary result of the perturbating forces themselves. At the conclusion of three years' experiment in the field Air. Grant corroborates the laboratory results of Al. Eiffel on the tandem system but brings out the fact that whereas by a properly designed tandem system, longitudinal stability can be made practicly perfect and, therefore, lateral stability will be greatly increased, nevertheless, a perfect lateral system is necessary and he has developed one embodying the same inherent or automatic feature as the longitudinal, a system depending upon the secondary effect of the perturbing forces to bring about the necessary corrections. A full description of his lateral system will be found in AERONAUTICS of August. 1912.

The new machine's dimensions are : spread, 42 feet; length, over all, 41 feet; physical length, 32 feet; each main wing, 16 feet by 92 inches chord; camber, top, 6 inches, bottom 3J/2 inches; mean curvature, Cissoid of Diocles. or the curve giving the duplication of the cube; the surfaces are pivoted 11 inches back from the entering edge, the axis consisting of a 1^4 inch Shelby steel tube of 18 gauge which runs the entire length of the plane. All supports and stays converge along this axis centre. This scheme of support is so rigid that the machine can be lifted by the outer tip of the surface, although it weighs 1600 pounds.

The power plant consists of a 100 H. P. Emerson 2 cycle engine, which has been thoroughly rebuilt by Air. Grant. This engine was used and its many defects located in the first machine and will be used during the tests of the present machine. The engine swings a 9.33 diameter, 6 feet pitch propeller of Air. Grant's own make. The engine, if it proves satisfactory, will be equipped with a Delco starting system with a special Exide battery. The starting outfit weighs 160 pounds, and is all ready to be installed as soon as the engine has proven satisfactory, otherwise a new engine will be installed.

The El Arco radiator is placed in front of the operator, the operator's car being arranged automobile style. This arrangement has been adopted to centre the weight as much as possible, as well as to form a windshield and supply warm air to the occupants. The air

can be deflected, if desired, by a shield forward of the seats.

The elevator and rudders have the same surface area, 30 square feet, and there is also 30 square feet in the damper wall; the damper wall can be adjusted for use with and without pontoons, as the machine is convertible.

The wing framework is constructed of white ash and Shelby steel tubing, covered with Goodrich Alumina cloth. The front lateral spar is of ash 1 inch by 1 inch, and the rear is a tube iJ4 inches by 1J/2 inches, 11 inches from front edge. Ribs are solid web 1 beam section glued and brass screwed, made of bass wood. For the rear 2 feet there is no web and the rib is flexible. A Y% inch brass tube forms the rear edge.

The control system is of the Curtiss principle, constructed of aluminum and brass tubing. The control wires are run in duplicate on both sides of the machine through the longitudinal steel tubes, and so arranged that one entire side may break without in the least affecting the control.

The surfaces are rigidly supported to the strut member and, while lateral equilibrium is controlled by the forward plane by a differential change in the angle of incidence, which works normally automatic, no warping or change in form of surface is made. The forward surface is normally 2 degrees higher than the rear, but ratio changes with angle of incidence.

The construction of this machine has been carefully calculated and all stresses and strains taken into consideration along the same line as if it were a bridge and a factor of safety of 50 to 1 has been obtained. All stays and guys are of Swedish steel wire and sockets and clips of steel. Total area of machine, 364 square feet.

The floats are of catamaran type, each 2 feet wide, 21 feet long. For the forward 9 feet the sides are parallel but from this point converge to a point at the stern. For the forward 9 feet the bottom slopes at an angle of 4 degrees to a depth of 13 inches, sloping tip again aft at a reverse angle of 3 degrees. The decking of the float is crowned to a height of 3 inches and the bottom is curved transversely with a 2 inch camber. Each pontoon is divided into five water-tight compartments.

BOOKS RECEIVED

ALL THE WORLD'S AIRCRAFT 1913, by Fred T. Jane. Fifth issue of this book, a large cloth volume, which contains a list of the principal types of dirigibles and aeroplanes in all countries, with scale drawings and short table of dimensions and details with each: a section devoted to historical aeroplanes of the last six years; a department giving illustrations and details of all the world's engines; and, finallv. an aeronautical "Who's Who" and directory. Published by Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Overy House, 100 Southwark St., London, S. E.

METEOROLOGISCHE AUSBILDUNG PES FLIEGERS, by Pr. Franz Linke. Cloth, 8vo., 70 pp., with 30 text illustrations, colored weather

charts and tables. Published at Mk. 1.70, by R. Oldenbourg, Munchen, Germany.

PIE WAHRIIE1T UNPER PEN STAND PER LUFTSCHI FFAHRT, 1913. by Victor Silberer,_ published by Verlag der Allgemeinen Sport-Zeitung. Vienna, Austria.

CAUSERIES TECHNIQUES, SANS FOR-MULES, SUR L'AERO PLANE, by Captaine du Genie Duchene, published by Librairie Aeronautique, 40 Rue de Seine, Paris, at 6 francs. 8vo., paper, 258 pp., with figures and charts, etc. Chapters include, Speed, Power, Propellers, Longitudinal Stability, Transverse Stability, Turning, Effects of Wind, etc. The Eiffel and other tables are given and attempt has been made to treat of aerodynamics in simple language. In French.

New Curtiss for Navy

The latest Curtiss flying boat, "U. S. X. C2," for the United States Xavy completed its official tests on August 14 under the observation of Captain W. Irving Chambers, U. S. X., Lieut. H. C. Richardson, Naval Constructor, U. S. X., and Lieut. P. X. L. Bellinger, U. S. X. Most of the tests were made by moonlight the night before. This was done because the specifications demanded calm weather for certain trials.

In addition to an unusual equipment of instruments, about 300 pounds of oil and gasoline, the flying boat made the trial flights with a load of approximately 700 pounds. With this load an average of ten flights with and against the wind showed a mean speed of a fraction less than 60 miles per hour. Slow speed tests with the same load showed a mean of less than 50 miles per hour. Unofficially the same machine has shown a slow speed of less than 45 miles per hour, but the air was "bumpy" during the tests and it was not considered advisable to slow the flying boat to the limit. The gliding test proved a surprise, for with motor stopped at an altitude of four hundred feet the boat glided 2,800 feet before touching the water, and then was brought down purposely to avoid landing on the shore. With the load carried a gliding angle of not more than five to one had been expected.

Compared with the Curtiss flying boats the Xavy has used during the past year the new machine seems very large. The hull has an extreme width of 50 inches, a depth of 46 inches, and a total weight of 500 pounds. Fulh- loaded for the tests the machine weighed approximately 2400 pounds.

"C-2" is a decided Vee-bottom, and her step is a deep Yee-shaped notch, the boat riding on the extremities of the branches of the V when at speed. Her sides are built up solid to the coaming and have a decided flare, so that her flotation increases with the load imposed. Instead of the collapsible windshield used on the earlier craft the sloping bow of the new boat is built up strongly and is solid except for the hinged panel in the centre

which turns forward to form a gang-plank over the bow. Looked at from the bow the hull suggests a wedge, the resistance of which increases almost evenly on all four sides.

The equipment of the hull of "C-2" is very complete. Behind the seats in the hull is located a 40 gallon fuel tank, in addition to the tanks direct-connected with the power plant. At present it also has a gyroscopic stabilizer which operates both lateral and longitudinal controls. The instrument board is especially compact and shows at a glance conditions affecting every part of the machine. An air-pressure speed gauge shows very accurately the speed of the machine in still air or traveling across the wind. A shaft-speed indicator shows engine speeds at all times. An angle indicator, a barometer, an anemometer, a gasoline gauge, and a clock, are on the same board.

Above the hull are minor changes. The wings are built up one piece, with very substantial frames, with a spread of 39 feet for the upper plane, and 30 feet for the lower one. The chord is 66 inches and the gap 66 inches. They are covered with the toughest of unbleached linen, coated with some new "dope" which waterproofs them and at the same time renders them nearly transparent. The tail structure remains practically unchanged.

The power plant includes a rebuilt Model O Curtiss motor with Model O-X valve action, —practically an O-X complete, and developing 90-100 H. P.

From Chicago—"Enshrouded in smoke 4,000 feet in the air almost directly above the loop district, YV~. C. Robinson, a Chicago aviator, yesterday fought a desperate battle against death when a fuse blew out cn his engine and flames ignited the wings of his monoplane. The aviator finally succeeded in quenching the fire with a small hand extinguisher which he carried on the machine and reached the aviation field at Cicero safely.

"Scores of members of the Aero Club of Illinois, watched the battle through field glasses."

A Comparison of Wind Tunnels

BY M. B. SELLERS

M. Raibouchinski, in the Bulletin of the Aerodynamic Laboratory of Koutchino, Part IV, gives an account of experiments to determine the comparative value of various types of wind tunnel.

A model of the Eiffel tunnel was made having a trunk or nozzle 60 cm. in diameter; this was compared with the Koutchino tunnel, with reference to the variation in air speed and pressure due to the variation in size of the bodies under experiment.

For this purpose discs of different sizes were mounted on the balance normal to the current. The air speed in the Eiffel tunnel was measured in the nozzle. Taking for comparison the ratio of the diameter of the disc to that of the tunnel, it was found that the air speed in both tunnels diminished with increasing size of discs, but for discs of small diameter ratio, the variation was less for the Koutchino tunnel.

The unit pressure on a disc decreased with increasing size, in the Eiffel tunnel; whereas in the Koutchino tunnel, it increased.

But, for small discs, the variation in the Koutchino tunnel was very small, while in the Eiffel tunnel it was much greater.

Therefore, so long as the dimensions of the objects of experiment are kept within proper limits, the variations in air speed and unit pressure are small in the Koutchino tunnel, and M. Raibouchinski concludes that it is superior to the Eiffel tunnel for that reason.

The pressure in the Eiffel tunnel decreases because the cylinder of air is expanded by the obstruction offered by the disc, its velocity diminished and the rarifaction on back of disc reduced. In the Koutchino tunnel it is iucrcasvd because the obstruction causes a

local increase of air speed increasing the rarifaction on the back of the disc. The Rateau and similar tunnels are open to the same objection as the Eiffel tunnel, but in a greater degree.

M. Eiffel and M. Flopp have recently found, for square plates, a maximum pressure, very pronounced near 40 degrees inclination, while observations made before 1910, by a number of investigators, showed no similar condition. M. Rateau, Prof. Prandtl and Prof. Mallock have found that between 30 degrees and 40 degrees inclination of a plate, the pressure was subject to more or less rapid fluctuations, and they attributed this to different types of eddies formed behind the plate.

Al. Raibouchinski, with his large tunnel, found no greater fluctuation between 30 degrees and 40 degrees than at other angles; and no similar maximum at 40 degrees. In order, therefore, to determine if possible the reason for the difference, he constructed a small Prandtl tunnel (which is a closed circuit tunnel) 60 by 60 cm.; and in order to produce less interference with the air flow around the plate, the rod. which usually supports the plate at its edge, was bent around so as to support the plate at its middle. With this support the same pressure fluctuations and maximum were found, as described by Prof. Prandtl, but with the usual support they were not found. On removing all the return portion of the Prandtl tunnel these conditions were not found with either support.

AI. Raibouchinski concludes that the current in the Prandtl tunnel is steadier, and consequently the eddies or vortices are longer preserved, thus provoking the rapid rise in pressure at the critical angle.

BOOKS RECEIVED

MECI1ANISCHE GRUNDLAGEN DES FLUG-ZEUGBAUES, by A. Baumann. Published in two parts by K. Oldenbourg, Gluckstrasse 8, Munchen, Germany. Fully illustrated with drawings and tables. Each part sells at 4 Mk.—Das vorstehend angegebene Werk stellt einen Niederschlag nicht nur der theoretischen, sondern auch der praktischen Arbeit des Verfassers auf dem vorliegenden Gebiete dar. Es behandelt, ohne auf irgendwelche speziellen Konstruktionen naher einzugehen, diejenigen Fragen und mechanisehen Probleme, welch fiir alle Flugzeug gattungen von gleich groser Bedeutung sind. Urn das Yerstandnis und die Verarbeitung des Stoffes zu erleichtern, wird der Leser, von den denkbar einfachsten Fallen ausgehend, sehrittweise mit den komplizierten Problemen vertraut geniacht. Es werden so nach und nach alle Fragen behandelt, die fiir die Berechnung und den Bau von Flugzeugen von Wichtigkeit sind und gleichzeitig der Grund gclegt fiir das Yerstandnis des noch folgenden Bandes, der sieh mit den Stabilitatsfragen befassen wird. Nach einer kurzen allgemein gehaltenen Be-sprechung des Luftwiderstandgesetzes gibt der Yer-fasser neue, mit seinen Yersuchen und praktischen Ergebnissen ubereinstimmende, einfache Formeln, auf Grund deren die Berechnung des Auf- und Riicktriebes von Tragflachen ermoglicht wird.

BAU UND BETRIEB YON PRALL-LUFT-SCHIFFE, Part II, by Richard Basenach, 117 pp., cloth, with 80 illustrations. Published at 3 Mk. each part by R. Oldenbourg, Munchen, Germany.

THE GAS ENGINE HANDBOOK, by E. W. Roberts, M. E., seventh edition, rewritten and enlarged. Pocket size, flexible leather binding, 313 pp. freely illustrated; published by Gas Engine Publishing Co., Cincinnati, O., at $2. The book has been written as an epitome of gas engine practice and as a handy book of reference. All the matter is simply written and no one could be said to be an expert on gas engines without having the knowledge sold in this book. All knowledge must be bought somehow. There is a chapter on the design of aeroplane motors in which there is given a few simple rules for the design of engines of the light weight required in this service. The chapter deals with an up-to-date subject in a concise manner. \Yhile the author does not go into minute details on this subject as much as might be desired, it is touched upon in the chapters on the design of details.

MODEL EYING MACHINES, by A. P. Morgan. Paper, 16mo., 70 pp., fully illustrated. Published by Cole & Morgan, Newark, N. J., at 25 cents. A handbook on model flying machines, with full instructions as to making, scale drawings of various models, etc. Indispensable to the novice.

New Developments in Aeronautics

IT WAS FLY TIME

An aviator flew into

A garden where he found

A pretty maiden, bashful, too—

And so—he "stuck around!"'

Indeed, this flyer chap pursued His wooing with a vim, For this coy maiden whom he wooed Had made a hit with him.

And so he formed a plan to gain This maiden, oh, so shy; Said he: "Let's take my aeroplane And spoon up in the sky!"

The maid demurely bung her head; A plan she also had : "I'll tell you what let's do instead— Let's go and see my dad.

My daddy always loves to meet You chaps who aviate; You see, he has a special treat He likes to demonstrate.

For daddy now and then invents. The latest thing he's done Is what he calls the 'Home Defence Electric Airship Gun.'

You see, they live when they go up : When thev come down—they're dead! And, -•"

The flyer chap had fled!

'And did'your caller fly, my dear?'" Asked father, with a whoop; And daughter answered with a cheer: "You bet! He flew the coop !"

Hazen Conklin.

LATEST GERMAN WRIGHT

^ new, much improved, military aeroplane the Wright type has now been produced

the German army. The new flying mane, in contrast with the old model, which ried only two people, provides room for r and, if necessary, five persons. For this pose the machine has been fitted with a my fuselage, which offers a comfort and tection against the wind. Windows have n built in the floor, through which the )t may see downward or throw projectiles, carrying capacity of about 400 kg. (880 ) and superior climbing ability have been lined. The construction of the supporting ties is in the main the same as in the nor-1 Wright machine. The steering gear has I arranged according to the regulations of

army board; consequently, pilots used to er types will have no particular difficulty steering this new Wright type.

The measurements of the machine are as follows: The span of the main planes is 13.5 m. (44 ft., 4 in.) from tip to tip, the planes are 1.8 m. (5 ft., 11 ins.). The area of supporting surface is 42 sq. meters (ap-prox., 463 sq. ft.). The distance between planes is 1.6 m. (5 ft., 3 in.). Length from front to rear is only 9.65 m. (31 ft., 8 in.). The motor develops 100 H. P. at 1,350 revolutions. A specially constructed transmission reduces the revolutions of the propellers, which are 2.6 m. (8 ft., 6 in.) long, to 810 as compared to the revolutions of the motor.

In this way the machine attains a speed of about 90 kilos, (approx. 56 miles) an hour. Its weight is 750 kg. (1,635 lbs.), the carrying capacity, including fuel, etc., 400 kg. (882 lbs.). The machine fully loaded needs, for starting or landing, a space of only 60 to 80 meters (197 to 262 ft.) in length.

HALL-SCOTT ENGINE TEST

Besides testing the new 100 H. P. Hall-Scott motor on a dynamometer, it was put on a test stand under propeller load and it gave a pitch speed of 10,500 feet per minute with a 7 foot pitch propeller. The thrust was 550 lbs. This shows a low thrust but is explained by the fact that a high pitch blade was used, being cut down until the required R. P. M. were obtained. This would show an estimated horsepower of 175, which is incorrect as the same engine tested on a dynamometer gave 120 H. P. at" the same R. P. M. This is stated by R. S. Scott, of the company, to prove that horsepower cannot be correctly estimated by using the formula pitch speed x R. P. M. x thrust, divided by 33,000.

Page 56

NAVY TRIES STANDARD CONTROL

The U. S. Navy will be the first military, or civil body in the world to adopt a standard method of control. The necessity for this has previously been announced in this magazine. .

A temporary conclusion has been arrived at by theoretical analysis, and Captain Chambers intends to put this in each of a Wright and Curtiss machine in one seat but hooked up to the old control so that either aviator can work it.

This will be tested, as well as all other systems and modifications on a land machine that is being rigged up, whereby each aviator can be tried with each system and the fatigue, smoothness and all other results can be recorded chronographically and compared. The final result will be fitted in all machines on one side of the double system and when all aviators are proficient the old controls will be replaced entirely. The aviators themselves are at last stirred up to desiring the change, but, of course, are not unanimous as to recommendations.

HEAVY DUTY CURTISS WHEEL

A new wheel for heavy duty has been marketed by Curtiss. There are 10S spokes ii gauge, set in a double row on the inside and in a single row on the outside; the rim is of pressed steel, swedge countersunk for

nipples; steel hub offset 2 inches, screw dust cap; shaft diameter 1 inch, adjustable cones on shaft held by lock washers and nut. Size 20 inches by 4 inches, straight clincher; weight, with tire and inner tube, 17 pounds.

WILSON STABILITY DEVICE

After patenting in many countries an automatic lateral stability device, John XV. Wilson announces the marketing of it in the adver-

tising pages of this issue. Referring to tl system, Mr. Wilson states:

"My device and its method of applicatio is absolutely new, and has never, to m knowledge, been attempted by any builder c flying machines of any type, and constitute in my opinion, the first step towards re; flight, as I hope to be able to show by son] of my more recent applications for patent I have long realized that an aeroplane, lil a bird, is an effect, a single track vehicl calling for absolute alignment, and that : no time should the centre of pressure be i altered as to constitute a drag for the purpo.1 of restoring lateral balance. It is well knou that the systems of ailerons and wing warpir are both ineffective unless the aeroplane mail tains a forward motion, and once stalled : the air, there is always grave danger th; the aeroplane may never again be righte My device, depending upon no drag of ar kind, allows of an instant change of suppo by the turning of the entire supporting plan the banking side of the plane moving on 2 axis oblique to the perpendicular forward, uj ward and inward, while the opposite side mov> backward, downward and inward, and at tl same time the weight-carrying body havii thus been thrown out of line, automatical adjusts itself back into line. This rearrang ment of the four incidences—support, pre sure, gravity and thrust,—is accomplish* without the use of either vertical or horizon! rudders, without either ailerons or wing war ing, without changing the centre of pressu or slacking speed, a combination of advai tages which also allows of slower speed lan< ings, owing to the instant readjustment of tl centre of support, and aids in reducing tl dangers of aeroplaning to a minimum."

WRIGHT INCIDENCE INDICATOR

A new instrument for the use of aviators now marketed by The Wright Company. Tl use of an instrument showing angles of ii cidence in the air, so that a pilot, who knov his machine's limiting range of angles, cou be sure of remaining within safe flying pos| tions, would save a good many lives.

On climbing, if the machine is set at tc great an angle, the lift falls off, the drift iii creases, and the machine first begins to sir and then in losing headway to "stall." 1 diving, if the angle is made too small, tl centre of pressure moves very far back, ar) the degree of safety is greatly reduced 1 its proximity to a position of down pressui on the top of the wing; there is also tl possibility in again turning up of receiving pressure on the under-side of the tail surfac which would prevent the machine's recove ing from the dive. There are many noi who consider this the principal cause ( diving accidents that have taken place.

Tf in climbing, diving or in normal flyl the air currents are disturbed, rising, descem ing or deflecting from side to side, the ang of the machine with the horizontal, which registered by the ordinary gravity clinomete

Wilson's Lateral Balance

for Aeroplanes

Advantages Over All Others

Absolutely no drag in turning. No vertical rudders required at any time.

Automatically rights itself laterally.

Centre of Support, Pressure, Gravity and Thrust always in line. Makes its own banking without reducing speed.

Fastest and safest aeroplane in the world.

Strain equalized, danger of buckling reduced to a minimum. Can be propelled for miles by lateral device alone.

FULLY PROTECTED

BY PATENTS AND RIGHTS IN THE FOLLOWING COUNTRIES

REAT BRITAIN

ERMANY

USSIA

USTRIA

RANCE

ELGIUM

Fain

0RTUGAL ALY

NORWAY DENMARK SWEDEN HUNGARY CHINA JAPAN CANADA AUSTRALIA SWITZERLAND

THE UNITED STATES

Adapted to all types of Aeroplanes and Dirigibles

[censes Granted. Correspondence Solicited

OHN W.WILSON, Patentee

COURT ST., BOSTON, MASS., U. S. A.

Now Ready

IThe Airman's Vade=Mecum

"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY

By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B.

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council Aeronautical Society)

CONTENTS: Introduction and 5 Chapters on Temperature, Pressure,Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index. (Illustrated) Price 40 Cents Net Post Free

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.

STYLES & CASH "»£££r

EST A B LIS UK I)

Aeroplane, Motor and Accessory Catalogues Circulars, Brochures, Bulletins, etc. :: ::

135 W. 14th STREET

NEW YORK

SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES

Goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind-Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AVIATIC" and a small order will tell vou why those who know send to us when they want the best at the right price. Lot us give you a special figure on that supply list. HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO.

208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash.

AERONA UTICS

Page 58

does not represent the angle of the planes to the air. This latter, however, is the important thing to know, and, as no such instrument was on the market, The Wright Company proceeded to turn out one of their own, which has recently come into extended use in Government service.

In ascending or descending currents, to fly properly balanced, the machine may take an angle quite out of proportion to the horizontal, but with this incidence indicator, the pilot is positive that the planes are receiving their proper pressure, and that the centre of support has the correct relation with regard to the centre of weight. It is safe to say that keeping within the range of safe flying angles would eliminate almost 80 per cent, of the accidents.

!

As may be seen from the illustration, the Wright Incidence Indicator consists of a light air vane, which operates a pointer on a dial by a special mechanical contrivance eliminating any gravity influence. The pointer indicates at any time the angle of the chord of the planes with respect to the air currents through which the machine is flying, and, as already stated, is entirely independent of gravity in distinction to the usual clinometer, which takes no account of ascending or descending currents. The weight of this instrument is 2^4 lbs., and the dial can be read clearly at a distance of 10 feet. It can be fitted to any type of biplane on a convenient strut, and on a monoplane can readily be fitted to one of the cabanes, or to some member of the chassis. It sells for fifty dollars.

GERMAN ARMY SPECIFICATIONS

The Aeronautical Department of the German Army has promulgated standard specifications applicable to all aeroplanes purchased during 1913 for military purposes. In substance they are as follows:

German materials and products must be ex-

clusively employed in the construction of i) aeroplanes. They must be insusceptible weather influences and all parts must easily interchangeable. They must be bill so as to be readily assembled and demount! into sections which can be easily loaded (| railway cars or road vehicles. Assembliijj must not take more than two hours nor d| mounting more than one hour nor requi the assistance of more than five persons. Wil a view to transportation the greatest widj must not exceed 14.5 meters (.47-6 feet); tl length over-all, 12 meters (39.4 feet); ail the height, 3.5 meters (11.5 feet). Motors more than 100 H. P. are not to be used excel with the special approval of the militai authorities. Other things being equal, prefcl ence will be given to machines equipped wil low-powered motors. It must be possible 1 start the motor from the pilot's seat, positive speed of at least 90 kilometers (I miles) an hour is required. Moreover, I must be possible in every case to reduce tl speed during a flight to 75 kilometers (4(1 miles) and still fly forward on a horizonll line. Provision must be made for carryiil fuel, oil, etc., sufficient for four hour's ruj ning. The fuel supply must be placed so ] to afford absolutely no danger to the crel There must be some device provided fl thoroughly suppressing the noise of the motJ A machine loaded not only with fuel, oil, etl for four hours and with instruments ail tools but also with a further load of at leal 200 kilograms (441 lbs.), in which the weigl of the pilot and observer is included, mrl be capable of leaving the ground after a ril of not more than one hundred meters C3I feet) ; of attaining within 15 minutes an all tude of at least 8co meters (2625 feet) ai of coining to a standstill after landing <1 even ground within a distance of 70 metel (220 feet). The machine must also be capall of rising from rough ground and landiil thereon. It must further be possible to lail by gliding with motor shut off from a heigl of 500 meters (1640 feet) making eithl right or left-hand curves. Comfortable a commodations must be provided for pilot ail observer with protection from the wind. Tl body must afford sufficient room for the ii stallation of a bomb-throwing device, fl the storing of bombs and for photographinl The instruments, including barometer, bar! graph, compass, tachometer and stop-watcj must be arranged so as to be readily 01 servable. It must further be possible for tl pilot to watch the stand of fuel and oil ] flight. There must be easy communicatioj between him and the observer. The steeriJ apparatus must work as easily as possibl Automatic stability is a great desideratum. \

Among the "millionaire sportsmen" purchase! (that seems to he the popular title for any purchasi of a flying boat) who are being instructed in tl operation of the new Curtiss flying boats, are Geori U. von Utassy of New York, William Thaw. WilliJ E. Scripps of Detroit. Gerald Hanley of Providenq Barton L. Peck of Detroil. and Sieve MacGordon.I

HEATH PROPELLER PITCH METER

Spencer Heath, who makes "Paragon" propellers, carries with him wherever he goes, a curious instrument which he made several years ago for the purpose of measuring the pitch of aeroplane propellers. The instrument is a direct reading or direct recording pitch meter. It shows the pitch of any part of a propeller blade upon which it is laid, just like reading the time of day from a watch. In the manufacture of propellers it is considered indispensable for reliable work.

The main body of the instrument is an aluminum plate about twelve inches long and nearly half as wide. A card covering the greater portion of the plate registers in a groove at the bottom and at the side and is held by a clasp. This card is marked with vertical divisions to correspond with each half foot of blade radius, indicating each foot of diameter. A protractor arm, or blade, is pivoted near the left end of the plate so that the blade will swing upward across the card. A spirit level carried on the pivoted end of the blade shows when it is in a level position.

To use the instrument, the propeller is placed with its axis vertical and the flat or concave sides of the blades up. The blades are chalked off in half-foot spaces from the center out. The bottom edge of the pitch meter is laid across the blade at one of the chalkings. This gives the instrument the same inclination as the angle of the propeller blade, but the protractor arm is brought up to the level position and a short line or prick mark is made where its edge intersects the corresponding division on the card. By repeating at various division points along the propeller blade a series of marks or intersections is obtained, the height of which from the base line of the instrument indicates the exact pitch of the propeller for each division point. Connecting these points by a smooth line gives the pitch curve, or "graph," of the propeller blade measured. If the blade is a true screw of uniform pitch from hub to tip, the "graph" will be a straight line parallel with the base of the instrument. "Very few blades," says Mr. Heath, "are found to possess the pitch characteristic, although some of them apparently were so intended. In some propellers, the Curtiss, for example, there is a decided upward trend to the curve, showing a rapid increase of pitch out to the tips of the blades. In others, the Chauviere, say, the

pitch is high near the hub and rapidly diminishing towards the end and then, in most cases, suddenly going up a little at the tip."

In the construction the graph card is made as part of the design and the propeller built accordingly, with the pitch at every point exactly corresponding with the angle formed by the protractor arm.

TO AVOID GAS LINE TROUBLES

Many are the aero motor stoppages caused by a leaking gas line. If the pipe is not chafed the trouble usually lies in a break through vibration. Copper pipe should be annealed by heating red hot and cooling rapidly in cold water to make it soft and pliable. One or two spiral turns will give the pipe a springy action that absorbs vibrations. The coil should lie in a horizontal plane to

•Pi

prevent the collection of sediment or air locks. The bending should be done around a pipe held in a vise. The illustration from The Car shows the proper method of making the coil. If the motor chokes on opening the throttle wide but runs smoothly partially open, the trouble is due to dirt in the carburetor or lint in the feed line. Disconnect at the carburetor; if the gas flows free, look in the carburetor.

MORE POWER-EASY STARTING

The motor starts easier and runs smoothly at slow speed if the mixture is slightly rich. The admission of extra air in the manifold above the carburetor will speed up the engine, produce more power and reduce likelihood of carbon deposits. A hole may be drilled in the intake pipe and threaded. Fit a coupling in the pipe and a petcock at the other end, or screw a petcock directly in the manifold, after drilling out to a larger diameter the hole through the petcock. A spring pulling one way on the lever of the petcock will keep it closed and preserve the set mixture. A Bowden wire or cable to a sector at the operator's hand will pull the petcock open the desired amount. After starting the run, the petcock may be opened to obtain the increased engine speed. Priming may be done through the petcock in starting the cold engine. The same system may be employed for cleaning the engine with kerosene. A rubber tube with one end slipped over the petcock and the other in a can of kerosene, the petcock then opened, the kerosene will be rapidly sucked up through the motor and the carbon softened up and blown out. As the motor slows down, shut off the cock till it picks up again and repeat.

Sopwith Biplanes

T. (). M. Sopwith, whose flights in America will be easily remembered, is now one of the foremost constructors in England. A number of models are being putout of the tractor type in addition to the "hat boat," and propeller machine.

Both the land and water machines are of the tractor type, with planes staggered. In the So H. P. Gnome land machine accommodation is made for two passengers to be seated side by side in addition to the pilot, all three having an excellent view. Only the head of a person of average size protrudes from the covered-in fuselage, ample protection being afforded in consequence. The wing-section seems to be the outcome of practical experience on a number of machines fitted with planes of various cambers. In normal flight this plane-section flies the machine at an angle of incidence of between 1^4 degrees and 2 degrees.

Balanced ailerons take the place of the warping wings. Wing sections, can, it is claimed, in consequence of the use of ailerons, be built considerably stronger—not only this, but another addition is employed to increase the strength of the wings, in the shape of a number of rectangular distance-pieces between the front and rear spars at each point where the interplane struts are attached. These relieve the various ribs of compression strains. The four tips of the main planes, and the outer extremities of each member of the tailplanes. consist of steel tubing. Attachment of the fabric is effected by sewing, the "bag" thus formed being slipped on afterwards. . With regard to the hydro-aeroplanes, three different types are under construction, apart from the "bat-boat." which has temporarily been put aside in order to permit the construction of less original types.

Two main floats fitted with spring suspension are fitted in addition to a single tail-float. A ioo H. P. Anzani drives a propeller of approximately 9 feet diameter, covered with thin copper to prevent splintering on the waves. The span of the top plane is approximately 56 feet; the floats are widely spaced, 10 feet 3 inches apart. There is, in consequence, no necessity for wing-tip floats. The main ones are mounted on inverted V-struts. As in all the other models, balanced ailerons are fitted, these being of considerable dimensions. Current for wireless is provided by a dynamo driven by chain from the starting-shaft at a rotational speed of 3.400 R. P. M.. there being a metal-to-metal cone-clutch to disengage the magneto when necessary. Pressure is maintained in the petrol tanks by means of the usual air-fan and pump. The. plane section is the same as that employed in the land-tractor, though the machine flies with its main planes at an angle of incidence of about 4 degrees.

Each float is covered with thin Holland blind union, which is glued on and varnished,

50PtV/n 80tPL/IM

and through which the wood can clearly be seen. Three inspection covers are fitted, the interior edges of the interstices for which are padded in order to render them watertight. The hull is built up in two inch thicknesses of cedar, the first skin being diagonally built up with 4 inch strips, while the outer is composed of similar strips running longitudinally. In addition to the outer layer of fabric, another one is placed between the two layers of wood. The interior is coated with black varnish—a suitable combination of gas-tar and naphtha.

The floats on the particular model in question are fitted with laminated steel springs^ Four of these springs are attached to each float, the extremities of the front one being rigidly fastened to clips screwed onto a 1 inch by \l/2 inch vertical strut within the hull. The rear spring, on the other hand, is free to

move. The apex of the front spring is connected to that of the rear by means of a radius rod. There are, of course, two of these—one on each side of the float. The only result of the flattening out of the front spring is to slide the rear one backwards, the enormous compressive stresses which would otherwise arise on that portion of the float between them being, in consequence, avoided.

The bottoms of the floats are convex, with a camber of 15/3 inch. The bottom consists in part of a number of "ribbons," or minor longitudinals. Those running along the bottom of the rear half of the float are continued past the step until they die off where they meet, and where they are attached to, the ribbons from the bow. These are themselves continued to the upright portion of the step, on which they abut, the consequence being that triangular girder is formed.

NEW BURGESS FLYING BOAT

{Continuedfrom page 4S.)

Gasoline and oil are supplied from tanks above the motor, they, in turn, being tilled from the larger tanks placed in the hull.

The hull of the new boat presents some refinements over the last type, though in general its design is much like the other. A higher free-board, however, adds to the coin-fort of the occupants when negotiating rough water. The hull proper is 2 feet 5 inches wide from the front to slightly aft of the engine section, whence it tapers to the conventional knife-edge supporting the vertical rudder. Its overall length is 28 feet. The hull is built of mahogany planking over oak frames, with a number of watertight compartments distributed along its length, and is constructed in two sections to facilitate shipment.

General specifications are as follows: Spread of upper wing, 41 feet 4^2 inches; spread of lower wing, 33 feet 4^2 inches; depth of wing, 5 feet 6 inches each; gap, 6 feet S1/* inches; area supporting surface, 373 square feet; length over all, 30 feet, 6 inches; length of hull, 28 feet; height, 10 feet 2 inches; power plant. Anzani motor; total weight of power plant, 968 pounds; total weight, net of machine. 2.000 pounds. Propeller, Burgess type, 4 blade; diameter, 8 feet each; pitch 7 feet 9 inches.

The work on the 1913 specification Army aeroplane has been delayed on account of the non-receipt of the 100 H. P. Renault motor which furnishes the power. The parts are all manufactured and the assembly will progress very speedily after receipt of the motor and the armor plate.

The new steel construction and reinforced ribs have awakened a great deal of interest on the part of those acquainted with aeroplane construction. There is no doubt but that this machine represents a stronger type of construction than anything heretofore built in this country.

The three standard Burgess tractors ordered by the Signal Corps are well nigh completed and are also awaiting delivery of motors. The company is employing more men than ever before.

I will never fly again. Fear has driven me out of the skies for all time. Not fear of my own death or the dread of bodily injury for myself has made me give up an art which I dearly love, but the blame and remorse for the death of brother aviators who went crashing into eternity trying to "out-Beachey Beachey." I have quit as pacemaker for Death. * * * I am tormented with a desire to "Loop the Loop" in the air. I know that 1 can do it, but 1 know that no one else can do it. * * * They say I have shown wisdom rare in a gambler, for I quit the game when I was a winner.—Lincoln Beachey.

And they say gamblers dont "squeal!"' If a winner, why do immeasurable harm by writing rot like this for a few paltry "yellow journal" dollars?

THE LANGLEY AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORY

A concrete plan of organization and conduct of the Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory, inaugurated at a meeting of the Regents of Smithsonian Institution on May I, has been formulated by the secretary.

An advisor}- committee, composed of the director of the laboratory, one member designated by the Secretary of War, one by the Secretary of the Navy, one by the Secretary of Agriculture and one by the Secretary of Commerce, and others designated by Secretary Walcott of Smithsonian, a total of not more than fourteen, will advise as to the organization and work of the laboratory.

The organization, under proper regulations and fees, may exercise its functions for the departments of the Government and for any individual, firm or association, provided such department, firm, etc., defray the cost of all material and services employed in the exercise thereof.

The advisory committee comprises a chairman, recorder and twelve additional members, all of whom serve for one year, elected annually about May 6, the new members to be appointed prior to date of election.

The advisory committee is provided by Smithsonian with suitable office headquarters, administrative and accounting systems, library, etc., and the laboratory has an income provided for it of $io,ooo the first year and $5,000 annually for five years. The franking privilege of the Postal Service is also provided.

For the exact determination of aerophysical constants, the calibration of instruments, testing of aero engines, propellers, materials, etc., the committee has the co-operation of the U. S. Bureau of Standards, which has complete equipment for studying the mechanics of materials and structural forms; for standardizing instruments; for testing power and efficiency of motors. The Weather Bureau co-operates on every phase of aeronautic meteorology and is completely equipped for this work. The War and Navy Departments have official representatives abroad to report periodically on every important phase of the art; each has an assignment of officers who design, test and operate air craft and who determine largely the scope and character of their development; each has machines in actual service with fields and shops.

Smithsonian Institution possesses the unique character of a private organization with Governmental functions and prerogatives. It can receive appropriations directly from Congress, or be recipient or custodian of private funds, or be the recipient of material objects representing any province of nature or any branch of human knowledge or art.

Endowment or other funds bearing the name of the giver will be accepted. Until adequate appropriations have been made by the Government the activities of the organization and committee will have to be sustained largely by private resources.

SUBSIDISED FLYING

The German national aviation fund committee has decided to expend a large portion of the fund in reliability prizes. Every German flier on a German machine, with a German or foreign engine, who remains an hour in the air—not in a competition—receives $250, and for each further consecutive hour another $250; if with a passenger he receives an additional $125. This holds good from March 1st till December 12th, 1914.

The flier must be insured, must stay at an altitude of 1,500 feet for at least fifteen minutes, the receipt of a prize binding the aviator to place himself at the disposal of the military authorities in case of war, and to participate in a three weeks' practice.

Whoever flies more than six hours at a stretch is entitled to a monthly sum of $500 in addition to the former sum. This income the pilot holds until his record is beaten, but his receipts may not exceed in any case the sum of $2,500.

For the longest distance across country within 24 hours, minimum not be less than 312 miles, the prizes consist of a monthly payment of $750, not exceeding $2,250 altogether—until such time as 'he winner is beaten in similar manner. A considerable proportion of the fund is to be expended in insurance against accident—a well-known insurance company having agreed to undertake it at a very low premium.

A SOMERSAULT IN THE AIR

A most unusual occurrence reminiscent of Capt. Reynolds' somersault recently befel Capt. Aubry when flying a Deperdussin for the purpose of effecting reconnaissance over the region of Villerupt. "I was returning after a 35 minute flight," he says, "facing a wind of about 22 M. P. H. My altitude was about 2,500 feet. At the moment of descent a series of violent gusts struck the machine, and on throttling-down and switching off, I was obliged to dive in order to make the controls effective.

"As I dipped the nose of the machine," he continues, "a couple of quickly successive gusts struck the top of the main planes and placed me in a vertical position. While endeavoring to manipulate the elevator I found the machine had taken me in a perfectly vertical chute to less than 1,500 feet. It here adopted a horizontal attitude upside-dozvn and proceeded to effect a tail-first vol-plane."

The pilot, fortunately, was able to retain his seat. "The machine then gradually took up the vertical position again, describing a gigantic form of S while doing so. Flattening out, I flew to a spot about two miles distant."

It appears that the captain then desired to make another short flight in order to keep away any "bad impression" that might come to him subsequently, but his mechanic, who had witnessed the whole affair, persuaded him that the top cabanc might have been weakened by the strain.

Three prominent French officers certify the truth of this statement.

AERONA UTICS

TESTS OF SPRUCE BEAMS

Alec Ogilvie has recently carried out some tests with various types of white spruce which would be used for the upper rear beam of a biplane. In the test the load was applied as in a Wright machine, assuming the upper plane carries 55 per cent, of the load, or, say, 715 pounds of the 1300 pounds (exclusive of weight of wings), and of this 58 per cent, being carried by the rear beam in normal flight at 42 M. P. H., which, in a machine spreading 40 feet would mean a distributed load of 10.3 pounds per running foot. At a speed of 60 M. P. H. the rear beam is assumed to carry 83.5 per cent, of the load, or 14.8 pounds the running foot.

pensive to make, it gave very satisfactory results under test.

Spar Xo. 5 is easily made with a spindle machine, but when tested shows up as being rather weak laterally.

Spar Xo. 6 is a mild steel tube measuring 1.25 inches in outside diameter. Its section is 19 gauge; it is solid drawn and unannealed.

The breakages were particularly interesting, and the accompanying photographs show up the weakness of the spars very clearly.

The method of testing is shown in the accompanying diagram, the wire connections being similar to those in use in Wright machines, and it will be seen the bracing system of this machine is identical with the guying of the beams in the tests. Loading was done by putting bricks in boxes hung from the beam where the ribs would cross the spar and the additional boxes shown represent the calculated strut thrusts.

Spar No. 3 was difficult to construct because the glue on such a long length gets cold before the nails can be driven in.

Spar No. 4 is of the Maurice Farman type. Its halves are joined up with a fillet of hard wood. It will be observed that, although ex-

Spar No. 1 broke downwards as a beam in the inner bay.* It was obviously at the point of fracture also at the hook joint. There was twice as much deflection in the inner as in the outer bay.

Spar No. 2 broke in the inner bay as a beam. It also broke at the screw holes of the hook fitting. This was probably because the screw holes cut into too large a proportion of the fibres of the spar.

Spar No. 3 showed weakness in the glued joint. It was also weak against torsion, and twisted at the inner hook fixing through an angle of approximately 30 degrees just before fracture. The fine nails used weakened the side members, as is shown by the failure in compression at each nail.

Spar No. 4 is undoubtedly the best spar of the series. It failed as a beam in the inner bay.

* "Hay" is the portion of the beam between the support-;.

Page 64

Jlugmt, 1913

Spar Xo. S is too weak sideways, and the failure occurred in the inner bay by the lateral collapse of the spar as a strut. This was not altogether unexpected, as the low lateral moment of inertia for this spar is very noticeable. It was also apparent from the fracture that a larger radius in the channels would have been an improvement.

Spar No. 6 failed as a beam in the inner bay. The objection to this spar is that it is rather heavy.

Table 1.—Strength

2 2 Is-"-*'

to* u u a; ;s u o £

^.S? =- Ji.S ^.5 ^ .'5 £ £

"5 E ^ . S ^ H E on

a w ~ w w C

1 .485 1.94 .285 .558 .554 1.08 2.19 62.3 128

2 .495 2.02 .558 .285 1.13 .575 2.19 104.0 210

3 .354 1.79 .577 .577 1.03 1.03 1.50 60.2 170

4 .405 1.21 .697 .672 .84 .81 1.94 90.3 223

5 .400 1.65 .697 .356 1.15 .59 1.94 83.9 210

6 .517 25.1 .0307 .0307 .77 .77 .157 69.9 135 The units for columns EI1 and EI are "millions

of pound square inches."

Table 11.—Deflections Inner Bay. Outer Bay

Maximum deflection in inches in each span at

No.

 

15.6

26.1

36.6

47.2

15.6

26.1

1

.30

(.70)

1.22

2.18

.37

.66

2

.10

.21

.34

.50 !

.16

.29

3

.16

.38

.61

 

.35

(.53)

4

.18

.32

.50

.72

.30

.48

5

.13

.24

.35

.49

(.18)

.30

6

.10

.24

.51

.90

(.30)

.50

.85 .41

.44 .67

.94 .52

.57 .85

The bracketed deflections were interpolated.

type are made possible principally by the minimum gas loss which characterizes this system. In the rigid ships the gas is not contained at large in the balloon body but in bal-loonettes, which are confined within the main balloon body. The balloonettes are very impervious to gas. Recently they have been made out of gold beater's skin. The balloonettes are furthermore surrounded by the air inside the balloon body and by the balloon covering itself, which hinder the invasion of the sun's rays. It is a great advantage of the rigid type that the outer shape of the body cannot be altered by temperature changes. The chief difference between the Schvitte-Lanz and the Zeppelin airship lies in the material of which they are built and in the outer shape. Neither factory takes orders for export.

The Parseval dirigibles are the most widely used in Germany. They have the great advantage over the rigid types, that they can be emptied anywhere and packed for transportation. The Parseval patents have been purchased by the Luftfahrzueg-Gesellschaft m. b. h. in Bitterfeld, and orders for export are taken by the companv.

The Siemens-Schuckert airship is of very large dimensions and possesses a high load-carrying power. It differs from the Parseval ship only in the details of construction. A half-rigid dirigible exclusively for military use is manufactured by Maj. Gross, but it has been supplanted by the types mentioned above.

The speed of a Zeppelin airship, equipped with a 500 H. P. engine reaches some 70 kilometers (43.5 miles) an hour. A Zeppelin can carry more than 30 persons.

GERMAN DIRIGIBLES

The best known German dirigibles are the Zeppelin, Schiitte-Lanz, Parseval, Siemens-Schuckert and Gross. These five types differ markedly from each other in construction. The two first have rigid balloon bodies. Zeppelin uses aluminum and Schiitte-Lanz, wood for the material of the frame. Both types of construction have so far proved good. The Zeppelin has often remained very long aloft in test flights; thus, a short time ago it accomplished a 36-hour voyage without any accident or stop whatsoever. These ships are built so that they can land on water and they are, therefore, purchased by the naval administration. The motors are very reliable and are manufactured by a sister company of the Zeppelin shipbuilding concern (Maybach motors). Herr Maybach was formerly an engineer with the Daimler (Mercedes) Motor Co. The Daimler Motor Co., besides Maybach, makes uirship motors. They are of 100 H. P. and 200 H. P. The products are of about equal value, but it may be that Maybach has had the greater experience with airship motors. The other German airship motors cannot be counted as first class.

The rigid ships manoeuver very well in the air, but good hangars are necessary. Turn-able hangars are the best. There is one in Germany. The long trips made by the rigid

A subscriber wants to know why aero clubs do not investigate fatal accidents and endeavor to determine the causes for the general benefit of the art. "Search us!" AERONAUTICS has urged this but nothing has ever come about.

I wish to say a word in regard to your magazine while I am writing. Ever since the early part of 1910 I have been reading your magazine and I don't know what I would have done in several cases without it. It has proved a boon to me ever since the start. I also wish to congratulate you upon the technical work that you publish. Out here much work is done by such articles and great improvement has been issued therefrom.— L. S. IV., Calif.

AEROPLANE GUNS IN U. S. ARMY

According to the Ordnance Department of the U. S. Army, the development of special batteries of guns for firing al aeroplanes is considered impracticable. In the development of field artillery, however, the carriages are now being built to provide for high elevations which will permit of their being used against aeroplanes if necessary. The new field gun carriages will also permit of a greater traverse of the gun on the carriage than formerly, which will permit of following a fast moving target for a considerable distance without moving the carriage il-self. These changes, however, are not directly caused by the use of aeroplanes but are the natural improvements in field gun carriage design.

Page 65

^T7

MODEL NOTES

Obst Tractor No. 36

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor

The model shown in the accompanying drawing was designed by Air. C. V. Obst of the Long Island Model Aero Club.

It is a scientifically designed tractor model and has shown its great stability by flying in heavy winds, as the writer can personally testify to. Hand launched it has repeatedly made flights of over 600 feet and when used as a R.O.G. model has made a duration of over 40 seconds.

The centre of gravity and centre of pressure coincide while the thrust is ij4 inches above the centre of pressure. The weight of the model complete and ready for flight is 4 ounces.

The fuselage is built up in a triangular form and is 31 inches in length, 2 inches wide and 2^/2 inches high at the front, tapering to a point at the rear, the two lower spars being bent up at the front to join the upper spar, as shown. The fuselage is held rigid

by a series of bamboo braces, each 5 inches apart. LTpper spar is poplar *4 inch square, tapering to % inch square at the rear where it is rounded and held loosely in a loop of wire. By this method the whole torque of the motor is taken up by the last 6 inches of this spar and the whole frame is not twisted. The lower spars are maple dowel sticks 3/16 inch diameter, planed on two sides and tapering towards the rear. All joints are bound and glued with Ambroid, then the entire frame is shellaced. The main plane is 27^ inches in spread, with a chord of 4 inches. The centre point of the same is 2 inches in advance of the tips and the plane has a dihedral angle of 145 degrees. The plane is made entirely of bamboo and the front spar of the same is bent around to form the ends. Seven ribs are used, placed 4,^4 inches apart and having a camber of V% inch. The plane is covered on the under-

6U oaocW

rudder

Ccl TVCr-C. <5©0/E>

•74-1-

     
 

^-1/____/ \_

   
   
 

k— " iz"~ — A

 

side with silk fibre paper treated with Ambroid varnish. The rear plane is rectangular in form, 13 inches by 4 inches, and is made of bamboo, and covered and treated in the same manner as the main plane.

The rudder is made of a single piece of split bamboo bent to the shape shown, with a flat piece projecting forward for binding the same to the frame with rubber. It measures iy2 inches by 2x/2 inches and is double surfaced with silk fibre paper and treated with Ambroid.

The screw is gli inches in diameter and 12 inches pitch and a blade width of il/2 inches. It is driven by 14 strands of Y% inch flat rubber 27 inches long placed above the frame and gives a thrust of 2 ounces, at 1,000 R. P. M. The propeller bearing is of tubing and the shaft is a heavy threaded rod with washers and nuts.

The landing gear consists of two 12 inch bamboo skids bent up in front to protect the propeller. The skids measure J4 inch by 1/16 inch in cross section and taper to V% inch by 1/16 inch at the rear. The skids are attached to the fuselage by four uprights as shown. A pair of \V\ inch tin wheels covered with fibre and revolving on a steel axle are slung from the skids by rubber bands.

The model is a fast and steady flyer and has won many contests when the wind was of such velocity as to prevent other tractor models from remaining in the air.

THE BAUER PARACHUTE DROPPER FOR MODEL AEROPLANES

The device shown in the accompanying drawing is the idea of George Bauer, of New York, and is a very ingenious device for the dropping of small parachutes from model aeroplanes while model is in free flight. The device has been tried out many times at Van Cortlandt Park and works excellently.

The device is applicable to model aeroplanes with the usual "A" frame, but with minor modifications it may be readily applied to any type model. It is usually placed a few inches in front of the centre of gravity but it may be placed wherever desired, according to the machine in which it is placed.

In the drawing, ff represent the two main bars of the frame. The receptacle for the parachute is constructed of a sheet of aluminum, 34 gauge, bent to a stream-line form as shown; about a half inch of the same on each side is bent and secured together, as shown, to form the rear of the receptacle. At the rear of the receptacle 2, a small brass lug 3 is attached, this lug having a perforation 4 therein. Through this perforation 4 extends a small bolt or paper fastener, this bolt or paper fastener holding on the bottom 5 of the receptacle very loosely so that it can swing very easily from side to side. On one side of the bottom 5 an upright lug 6 is formed as shown. Another lug 7 is formed on the front of the bottom plate as shown.

this lug being provided with a small perforation. The receptacle is secured to the frame of the model by being attached to the two bamboo braces 1,1 as shown.

Attached to the frame in the position shown is a small wire hook 15, and running from this hook to a hook 13 is a small rubber band 14, this rubber band being stretched when placed upon the hooks, the object being to hold the door of the parachute receptacle open (see Fig. 3).

On the opposite framework, a small piece of tubing 11 is secured. In this tube a wire shaft turns freely; upon the outer end of this shaft a tiny copper washer is soldered, and on the other end of the shaft a hook 10 is formed. Attached to the frame is another hook 10a as shown. Running from the hook 10 to the hook 8 is a small rubber band, this band being hung very loosely between the hooks.

The operation of the device is as follows: 1 he hook 8 is attached to the ordinary winder for winding up the motors of the model aeroplane, and the hook 10a is inserted in the hook 10, to prevent the shaft from turning in the tube 11 while the rubber is being wound, and then the rubber is wound up (the number of winds being governed by the time when it is desired that the parachute drop). When the rubber is wound it is hooked back in its proper position, and it then will draw the door 5 of the parachute receptacle closed, the lug 6 preventing the door from being pulled over too far. The parachute is then placed in the receptacle.

The model is then wound up and the hook 10a is released from its interlocking position with the hook 10, thereby allowing the hook 10 and its shaft to revolve in the tube 11 under the power of the rubber band 9. The model is then launched for flight. When the winds in the rubber 9 have wound out (this taking about 20 seconds, although the time may be regulated as desired as hereinbefore stated) the rubber will hang loosely, allowing the rubber band 14 to draw the door 5 open (Fig. 3), and the parachute will fall out, open in two or three feet and gently descend to earth, this having no effect on the flying of the model. If the device is made properly it should not weigh more than il/2 ounces.

-TARACHUTE DROPPEK FOK

nODeL AEROPLANES. O >9's, K.

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AUGUST, 1913

Vol. XIII, No. 2

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MOTORS FOR SALE

ENGINE FOR SALE—8-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

AEROPLANES

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

BARGAIN—30 foot Curtiss type biplane, with 5 foot extensions, chord 5ft., single surfaced, laminated ribs, dble. surf, elevator, 4-cyl. 50-60 H. P., new. Engine turns 6 by 5 propeller at 1,500. Also extra 7 ft. propeller. Engine alone cost $1,600. Can be seen any time. Must be seen to be appreciated. $850 whole outfit. Address W. B. R., care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

IMMEDIATE SALE NECESSARY! One Model "D" genuine Curtiss aeroplane with hydro attachment, equipped with brand new Model _ "O" Curtiss 80 H. P. motor. Full equipment of exhibition extras. Everything in good mechanical condition; $3,200 cash will buy it. Act quick. K, care of AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE—Curtiss Military Aeroplane. Planes not covered and without engine. Price, $90. A. B. C, 95 West St., Maiden, Mass.

MONOPLANE GLIDER. Exhibition Flyer. Moneymaker. Practically New. Has Rudder Controls and Skids. Immediate Sale Necessary. Bargain! Aviation Directory, Lawrence, Kansas.

MODEL CONTESTS

Brooklyn, N. Y., July 13, 1913—A tractor contest was held by the Bay Ridge Model Aero Club on the above date. Flights from the hand of over 600 feet were made by W. F. Bamberger, with a duration of 43 seconds. A flight of 25 seconds was made by L. Bamberger. The models were all single propellered. The members of this club are greatly interested in Tractor models and are desirous of competing with other clubs in contests of this kind.

A contest for biplane models, rising from the ground, for duration will be held by the Long Island Model Aero Club on Sept. 1, 1913, at their grounds, Old Mill Park, Crescent Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., for a silver medal.

At a competition for duration from the hand, held at the Ingleside Golf Grounds in California on May 30th, the world's record was broken by W. L. Butler of Vista Grande, Cal., who made a flight of 170 seconds. It is interesting to note that Mr. Butler, who is one of California's best model flyers, made five other flights, all over 100 seconds. The official world's records now stand as follows:

Duration from hand, W. L. Butler, 170 sees.

Distance from hand, Arthur Nealy, 2,740 ft.

Distance from ground, L. Bamberger, 1,542 ft.

Duration from ground, W. F. Bamberger, 81 sees.

Hydroaeroplane duration, Geo. A. Cavannah, 60.4 sees.

Tractor hydro, duration, Harry Herzog, 28.4 sees.

At the semi-annual election of the Long Island Model Aero Club held in July, the following members were elected officers: Charles V. Obst, President; Dan Criscioli, Secretary. George II. Gorgas. Treasurer, and Harry Schultz, Corresponding Editor and Club Photographer. The club is growing fast. Meetings are held every Friday evening at S p. m. at 123

Euclid Ave., Cypress Hills. L. I. Every Sunday morning at 9 a. m., much interesting flying and testing of new models can be seen at the club grounds at Old Mill Park, Brooklyn. Monthly contests are held with silver and bronze medals as prizes. Non-members are permitted to compete in these contests on payment of a small fee.

During the past two months a great deal of fine flying has been done, and many new and interesting machines have been brought out. Freeland and Ness have been making duration flights with featherweight machines, while Hackradt with a heavy, original type speed monoplane has shown his model capable of fine altitude and distance. Obst has been making excellent high flights with his novel tractor model. He has lately brought out a small staggered biplane model which has made excellent flights. Fine R.O.G. flights under favorable weather conditions have been made by King. Ness has been experimenting with a flying boat model, which has given promising results. H. Criscioli has under construction a six foot monoplane model of which excellent results can be expected. Scientific models are becoming very popular among the members of the club, and models of this kind have been constructed by Corgas, Obst, Cavanagh and Funk. Some of the members are experimenting with other methods of propulsion besides rubber. A power turbine is being tested bv one flyer and a machine is all ready for its _ installation. Two other members have designed a simple steam driven model with many original ideas. The same is now in the course of construction and will soon be completed.

Address all inquiries regarding model flving to the model editor. Harrv Schultz, 252 West'115th St., New York City, N. Y.

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"IDEAL" 3ft. MODEL PLANS:

—Bleriot, 15c; Wright, 25c; Nieuport, 25c; Cecil Peoli Champion Racer, 25c; Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane, 35c.

COMPLETE SET OF SIX, $1.25 POSTPAID 48 pp. "Ideal" Model Aeroplane Supply Catalog 5c IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82A W. Broadway, N.Y.

HYDRO - AEROPLANES

READY FOR POWER j|

WILSON

Port Jefferson

New York

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

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PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO,

636-644 First Avenue, New York, U. S. A.

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

S cyl. " V " type 6o H.P. 240 pounds.

RELIABILITY MAXIMUM POWER.

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THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safetv and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

NEW ARMY AEROPLANES

About September 15th the official tests will be made of the new high-powered military machines in which the engines are now being installed. These machines are: a 100 H. P. Renault motored aeroplane from Burgess Co. & Curtis, a 90 H. P. Austro-Daimler motored Wright and a 160 Gnome engined machine from Curtiss.

In addition to_ these machines there are due to be delivered this autumn three Burgess tractors with 70 Renaults and one Curtiss tractor. These machines will all probably be delivered by the'first of November, making a ttotal number of machines in the possession of the Signal Corps at that time, twenty-four.

A field has been leased for three months at Osborne, ()., near Dayton, for the purpose of conducting tests on the three new aeroplanes ordered to conform to the most recent requirements for military type aeroplanes formulated by the office of the Chief Signal Officer. A svnopsi's of these rigid requirements were printed in AERONAUTICS for February.

IN THE NAVY

The Navy will purchase as many machines as it can use to advantage, or, in emergency, as many as may he required, but it is the intention of Captain Chambers to keep along with development and expects better results with each machine. Just now, no new ones will be ordered until the matter of a standard control is settled and this is being done as rapidly as possible.

THE GYRO MOTOR IN ENGLAND

The Gyro motor is coming in for a good deal of attention through the sensational flying of the aviator demonstrating it and the machine is being advertised as one of the attractions at the Hendon weekly meetings which are always novel and crowd-drawing and have proven wonderfully producting of live interest. The few attempts made in America by clubs to hold anything like regular "days" invariably prove fizzles from the attendance point of view. The recent review on Long Island by Navy officials resulted in magnificient flying by the Moisant and other flyers but outside of the Navy men themselves the public was not among those present.

Claude Grahame-hyphen-YYhite might be able to duplicate Hendon over here, but no one else seems to have the knack.

ALTITUDE RECORD ALMOST BROKEN

The American altitude record, 11,642 feet, as made by Lincoln Beachey at Chicago in 1911, was almost broken at Bath. N. Y., July 26, when Frank Bumside reached a height of 11,450 feet. Burnside is connected .tith the Thomas Brothers aviation school and in the flight operated one of their new type headless biplanes. He ascended at 4:29 o'clock and completed the flight at 6:15 o'clock, being in the air one hour and 46 minutes.

The day was very clear, the sky almost cloudless, and yet he would disappear from sight at times, while directly overhead. It was a beautiful flight. The machine and motor behaved perfectly. A new Curtiss O-X motor was used.

Burnside said that the earth seemed to be saucer shaped, and that a great concrete wall surrounded this concaved earth; and, of course, he was always directly above the centre; and that around the top of this dark concrete-like wall, the horizon appeared woolly.

On July 31, Burnside left the school grounds at five o'clock and landed on the Curtiss field at Hammondsport at 5:10. He visited with a number of his friends, attended a dance, and returned the following morning.

For the Perry's Victory Centennial Celebration, August 16, Walter Johnson will have the flying boat, equipped with a 90 H. P. Austro-Daimler. and Frank] Burnside will pilot the hydroaeroplane. This will bdj equipped with a 90-100 Curtiss.

SPEED ALONE WILL NOT WIN IN-i TERN ATI ON AL PLANE RACE

The distance this year for the international aero-l plane race will remain at 200 kiloms. over a mini-l mum circuit of 5 kiloms. Competitors must pass! a preliminary test consisting of a flight over a straight course of two kiloms., there and back, speed! to be taken both ways, which must be no more that! 70 kiloms. an hour. mean. The winner, therefore! of the contest will be he of the machine which has! the greatest range of speed.

NEW CORPORATIONS

Heinrich Aeroplane Co., Inc., Baldwin, N. Y.l manufacturers of aeroplanes; capital, $15,000. Ip-1 corporators: Arthur O. Heinrich, Albert S. Heinrich! Baldwin. L. 1., N. Y.; Henry C. Karpen, 584 Broadl way, Brooklyn.

Shaw Aeroplane Co., Portland. To build aeroplanes! give exhibitions, etc.; capital, $500,000. President! R. C. Brown. Somerville, Mass.; treasurer, C. jl Poingdester, Belmont, Mass.

G. S. A. Aviation Company, Inc., Hornell, N. Yl To manufacture and exploit aerial machines, etc! Capital, $10,000. Incorporators: Clinton Gray, 22a Main street; George A. Salzman, 28 W. GeneseJ street, and Harry L. Allen. 27 Armory place, am of llornell, N. Y.

The Flying Association, Inc., New York City! To manufacture and exploit aerial craft and to conl duct a general publishing business in connection therel with. Capital, $30,000. Incorporators: Thomas Al Stoddart and_ Arthur C. Beck, both of 2 Rector street! New York City and David Kaess, 11 Broadway, Ne\\| York City.

The Atwater Safety Flying Machine Companyl Akron, Ohio. Capital, $25,000. Incorporators: Mi L. Atwater and Joy Atwater, both of Akron, Ohio. I

Aero Sales Companv. Inc., Springfield. Mass. Capil tal, $50,000. Directors and officers: George UJlrichl president and treasurer, Hartford, Conn.; C. Hi Sughrue and J. J. Tanzy. both of Springfield, Mass.I

Itala Aeroplane Company, Inc., New York, N. YB Capital, $100,000. Incorporators: Rubino Plastino, Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y.; Arthur B. La FaB and George R. Cooper, both of 80 Maiden Lane, NevH York, N. Y.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Three aeroplanes and parts of domestic make werJ exported during June with a value of $7,826. NJ imports for the month. During 12 months. endinJ June 30, 13 machines and parts were imported, valuem at $52,696. There remain in the warehouse 3 fori eign machines of a value of $11,623.

August Stenzy, a Baltimorean, who catalogues sevl eral aeronautical motors of great powers, was re! strained by three policemen from leaping over the lieutenant's desk to attack his wife when he receive™ a sentence of 60 days in jail for beating his mate! who swore out a warrant for him, according to thJ Baltimore Sun. Must have thought he was aviatoJ Beatty!

J1ER0NA UTICS

<Page 71

August, 1913

| FRENCH AEROPLANES

ENGINEERS INVENTORS AVIATORS

CONSTRUCTORS

TAKE NOTICE!

For all photos, descriptions, data,news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below:

A DAMS-FAR W ELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET,

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

^Thomas School

OF AVIATION

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES

Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. BATH, N. Y.

The Bowden Patent Wire Mechanism

j. S. bretz company

SOLE IMPORTERS 250 WEST 54tb ST., NEW YORK

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types

Waterproof j

FEROINAND *

BOSTOM. MASS

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

LTse our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of tiyiner boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long- as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

V-Ray Spark-Plugs Never Lay Down

The V-RAY CO. Marshalltown. Ia.

CHARAVAY PROPELLERS

BETTER THAN EVER

Have you seen our new price list ? Write for it. A price for everybody.

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO., - 1733 BROADWAY, New York City.

Agents: Eames Tricyle Co., Sao Fraociico; National Aeroplaoe Co., Chicago.

DEATH OF ROCHE

Henri de la Roche, who claimed to be a French aviator, died in the hospital at Omaha, Neb., on August 15th, from injuries received the previous week in getting off the ground with an experimental machine. He pulled back on the elevator suddenly, the 'plane lifted and fell on one wing. Eye witnesses state that apparently the man was not accustomed to aeroplanes. He claimed to be a brother of Baroness de la Roche.

DEATH OF BRYANT

Johnny Bryant was killed at Victoria, B. C, on August 6, when he landed on the top of a two-story building. Bryant was an exhibition flyer of three years' experience. It is reported that the accident was due to improper repairs. As usual, no official investigation is made of these fatalities.

DEATH OF COLONEL CODY

Col. S. F. Cody was killed while trying out a new aeroplane of his own construction on August 7th at Aldershot, England. His passenger, named Evans, was also killed.

The machine used at the time of the accident was a new hydroaeroplane, fitted with a 100 H. P. motor and was built for the race around England and Scotland, for which a prize of $25,000 is offered. The machine appeared to "crumple up," the wings suddenly shooting upwards and the whole structure collapsing.

Col. Cody's death is the hardest blow that British aviation has felt, perhaps, since the time of the tragic loss of Rolls. He was an Anglo-American, born in Fort Worth about 1861. A few years ago he became a British subject.

He was a cow puncher in his early days and later turned his attention to experimenting with man-lift-ing_ kites. Going to England he continued his experiments and achieved such success that the British War Department attached him to its aviation staff and he helped to design and construct the first British dirigible. In 190S he made short flights with his first aeroplane. In 1909, Cody broke the world's record for cross-country flight, flying 40 miles over the country around Farnhorough. He won all of the British Michelin prizes but one. Last year he won the $20,000 prize in the military competition open to the world, and $5,000 for British machines. He was also awarded $25,000 for his kites.

Col. Cody was buried at Aldershot on August 11th, with military honors.

Mr. Evans, the other victim, wis a sportsman and an officer in the Indian Civil Service.

"The most reasonable assumptions are either that a wire of some fitting came loose and hit the propeller which broke, the fractured blade flying forward and cutting the rear spar, and so letting the whole wing fold up, or else that the spar broke and the flying pieces broke the propeller.

It is believed that both Cody and his passenger, Mr. Evans, might have been saved if they had worn safety belts, for the evidence is conclusive that they were thrown out as the machine broke, and came to the ground some distance from the machine which itself came down on the tops of some trees which so broke the fall that the central section, comprising the seats for the pilot and passenger, and the engine, came down comparatively gently, the engine not being torn from its bed, and the woodwork surrounding the seats not being broken anywhere."

EVERYTHING FOR THE MODEL MAKER

Everything imaginable in the way of supplies and scale models, and then some more is listed in the new 48-page catalogue of the Ideal Aeroplane & Supply Co., the fourth issued, beginning with a little sheet of 6 pages a couple of years ago. Even Cecil Peoli is made famous by a model named after him because it is a replica of his record model made when he was a model flyer instead of a real dyed-in-the-wool aviator. Models to scale may be had of the well-known types of aeroplanes, even to the latest Curtiss flying boat. This is a surprise catalogue.

SCOTT TO DROP BOMBS FOR ARMY

Riley E. Scott is to drop bombs at the army's field at San Diego in the near future at the request

of General Scriven, chief signal officer. The army wants to know if Scott can drop bombs with as great continued accuracy as he did when he won the Michelin prize for bomb dropping over all foreign competitors on their own ground, and if these bombs will do as great damage as promised by the bomb dropping adherents. The French Government has bought several of Scott's devices, of which a full description has appeared in AERONAUTICS. Scott is now on the Pacific Coast.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Akron, O., July 19.—R. A. D. Preston, pilot, with X. M. Patterson in the "Goodyear" to Hadley, Pa. Distance, 70 miles; duration, 6 hours 30 minutes.

AKRON DISTANCE RECORD Akron, O., July 26.—R. H. Upson, pilot, and Dr. J. S. Millard in the "Goodyear" to Rushford, N. Y., covering 190 miles in 11 hours 15 minutes.

This last flight was a very good illustration of the possibilities of steering spherical balloons. "We went due north for a while, but gradually brought around to the northeast striking Lake Erie at Ashtabula. We found the wind below 1,200 feet to be blowing toward the lake, but above that to be from the lake, and by keeping the balloon at the proper height we succeeded in just skirting the shore for a distance of over 60 miles, passing over the cities of Ashtabula, Conneaut and Erie."

Other ascensions from Akron, unlisted, are: One on July 4th, 30 miles in 2f£ hours; one on June 17th, 100 miles in 5 hours.

Kansas City, July 27.—H. E. Honeywell and party were up in the "K. C. Ill," using lunch for ballast. The aeronauts want to know what becomes of the weight when the lunch is eaten.

"If you eat a pound of food you don't weigh a pound more than before eating it. You weigh a few ounces more, but not a pound. What becomes of the weight, I'm not philosopher enough to say. I only know it is a fact. So by consuming some ten pounds of food yesterday, we lightened the balloon by several pounds, and arose accordingly."

The party finally made a safe landing on the Keller-strass farm, south of Kansas City. The start was made from Overland Park.

Phila., Aug. 23—A. T. Atherholt, pilot, Harrison Smith and G. B. Newbold in the "Penn." to Lake-wood, N. J.

RECRUITS WANTED FOR AVIATION SERVICE

It is desired to invite the attention of officers of the army to the status of aviation in our service. At present the law permits the detail of 30 army officers for aviation and provides an increase of thirty-five per_ cent, pay and allowances while on such duty. It is hoped Congress will enact legislation providing for further increase of pay and other advantages.

About ten vacancies are now existing. Applications for these will be given due consideration, taking into account the order of their receipt. The detached service law does not apply to officers on aviation duty. Experience in training officers for this duty has shown that it is advisable to limit the details to men not exceeding thirty years of age. The applicant should be certain of his fitness physically and temperamentally. This involves excellent eyesight, good hearing, endurance, quickness of action and presence of mind. Blanks covering these points may be obtained from the Chief Signal Officer, Washington, D. C, on application.

North Carolina man wants $25,000 for involuntary ride through air in the suit of J. W. Smith against the Cumberland County (N. C.) Agricultural Society for $25,000, which Smith demands for "menial anguish," he is alleged to have suffered during an involuntary ride he took when his foot was caught in a rope' attached to a balloon on the grounds of the society last fall and was carried a mile through the air. And yet, some people buy 5,000 dollar aeroplanes to do the same thing.

MORE POWER PER CUBIC INCH OF PISTON DISPLACEMENT THAN ANY

OTHER TYPE MOTOR EVER BUILT

IT

WILL PAY YOU WELL TO INVESTIGATE OUR NEW OVERHEAD VALVE MOTORS

WRITE FOR CATALOG

EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, equipped with a 60-70 h. p. MAX1MOTOR

Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913.

Dear Sirs:—Wish to inform you that I have today successfully filled the requirements in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The M AXIMOTOR stood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything on your new product. I wish you the most of success during this coming season.

Sincerely, EARL V. FRITTS.

Maximotor Makers

detroit

No. 1528 East Jefferson

Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES

Has long been regarded as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.

Each number has forty pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good type, and illustrated with many attractive half tones.

The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph.

The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the price asked for subscription.

ONE DOLLAR FIFTY A YEAR SUBSCRIBE NOW FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY

Foreign Subscription, Two Dollars A Sample Copy Free

the photographic times publishing association

135 west 14th street, : : : new york

Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' association notes. Items of Interest.

A department devoted to "Discoveries."

Reviews of the new photographic books.

Description of the latest novelties and specialties brought out by dealers and manufacturers.

New Moisant Monoplane. Designed by Kantner

WOOD BREAKS CROSS COUNTRY RECORD

August 8—The American cross-country non-stop distance record was probably broken when C. Murvin Wood, the Moisant flyer, flew from his shed on the Hempstead Plains. L. 1., to Gaithersburg, Md., where he landed to adjust his engine, which had been missing for some time, and to get his bearings, after having become lost in the smoke and haze over the city of Baltimore. The distance has been figured as 239 miles. His total time in the air was 5 hours, 1 minute.

Wood started at 4:30 in the morning in the attempt to fly to Fort Myer, Washington, demonstrate his new monoplane before army and navy officials, and

return the same day. The incident at Gaithersburg delayed him until late in the afternoon, when he finally completed his journey by landing on the parade ground at Ft. Myer, where General Leonard Wood and several officers were waiting. At 4:30 a special train engaged by the Moisant company, the builder of the machine, left the Pennsylvania station and though it made over 90 miles an hour for portions of the distance, a delay at Philadelphia to get word of Wood's location allowed him to get some twenty minutes ahead of the train at that point, so that further attempts to beat Wood to Washington were given up by those on board the train.

Later demonstrations were made before officials of the army and the machine finally shipped back to New York.

The longest non-stop cross-country record, made in this country is the official 220 miles of Lt. Milling and passenger, made between Texas City and San Antonio.

Chassis of the New Moisant

PRINCIPAL EVENTS

July 22—Glenn Martin left Muskegon, Mich., at which point he had abandoned the Lakes Cruise, at 6:45 a. m. and landed at Grant Park, Chicago, at 12:50 p. m., covering a total of 160 miles. The trip from Muskegon to St. Joseph was made without a stop, a distance of 80 miles. The next stop was Calumet Park where more fuel was taken on to finish the trip. He carried with him Charles Day, the builder of the machine.

August 6—Beckwith Havens, with a passenger, left the Detroit Motor Boat Club at 5:25 p. m. for Toledo, where he arrived safely, covering a distance of 55 miles in 65 minutes. With Harry Atwood he flew to Detroit again and back to Toledo, going one way in 37 minutes.

August 15.—Grover C. Bergdoll flew alone from Llanerch, Pa., to Atlantic City, N. J., a distance of approximately 63 miles in 1 hour 50 minutes in his Wright, his second flight to Atlantic City within a year.

Aug. 23—Havens arrived at Cleveland on way to Buffalo, having made stops at Sandusky and Cedar Point on the way.

FAIL TO INDICT DE VILLERS

The Curtiss aeroplane company tried on Aug. 26 to have Yves de Villers, president of the notorious Aeroplane Motor and Equipment Company, indicted on a charge of grand larceny.

Curtiss made a contract with the Government to furnish a Gnome 160 II. P. tractor.

"Curtiss said that he contracted with De Villers to furnish the motor for $7,772, and that after various delays a second-hand motor, not equal to 160 H. P. was delivered. The payment of $5,239.67 in June was the transaction on which the charge was based. The grand jury decided that no crime had been committed."

BALD WI

Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any strength or color.

"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

Private Flying Field

Fine private field with smooth water frontage for hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, fven, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given.—Editor.

Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and prior art of which are unknown to you—William Macomber.

ISSUED JULY 15

1,067,773—Joseph A. Steinmetz, Philadelphia, Pa., APPARATUS FOR DEFENDING AGAINST AIRCRAFT, consisting of captive aerial bombs which explode on contact. Filed Sept. 6, 1912.

ISSUED JULY 22

1,068.108—Giuseppe Colucci, Boston, Mass.. AEROPLANE in which there are alternately biplane and monoplane surfaces arranged tandem.

-1.068,110—Newton B. Converse, Fresno, Cal., STABILITY system using compressed air or electromagnet devices.

1,068,165—Peter Peterson, San Francisco, Cal., Spring device for giving an initial upward impetus to an aeroplane at the moment of starting.

* 1.068.166—Peter Peterson, San Francisco, Cal., LANDING GEAR in which pontoons and wheels are employed and pontoons raised for purpose of landing on land.

1.068.311—Romulo Felix Burga, Liverpool, England, AEROPLANE; wing surface, means for adjusting inclination or curvature of main planes, etc.

1.068,332—Rudolph G. Dressier, New York, N. Y., FLYING MACHINE with oscillating wings.

ISSUED JULY 29

*1,068.437—Augustus F. \V. Macmanus, San Antonio, Texas, STABILITY device employing ailerons between main planes and vertical rudders moved by a swinging weight, such as motor and pilot.

1.068,501—Tohn S. Jorgensen, Reno, Nevada, AEROPLANE.

1.068,651—I)e Bert Hartley, Chicago, 111., AEROPLANE with tilting supporting and controlling planes, automatically or manually operated; balancing sustaining planes pivoted on longitudinal axes with areas outside pivots overbalancing that inside, etc.; 31 claims.

1.068,652—De Bert Hartley. Chicago. 111.. AER(i PLANE with main planes dihedrally angled or curvel pivoted to change angle of incidence, capable o being independently or simultaneously warped, etcl 29 claims.

1.068,663—James C. Johnston, Blackwell, Okla. STABILITY device comprising front, rear and sidl controlling planes swing about axes transverse tJ line of flight, levers, etc., operated by pendulum.

1,068,727—Guido Antoni and Ugo Antoni. Pisaj Italy, SURFACE: a lifting plane which is rigiJ along front edge with a part of its rear edge adjacenl to the body of the aeroplane flexible upward an! downward and warped into an upward curve.

ISSUED AUGUST 5

1.069,138—Henrv L. E. Johnson. Washington D. C, STRUCTURE patent providing for an inverte arch structure under the lower plane, on whic motor and operator may be carried if desired.

1,069,332—Richard F. Hommel, San Francisco, Calj PIVOTED PROPELLER driving motors on eac plane, adjustable "centerboard."

*1,069,346—Stanislaus Palmowski and Wincerj Chwalkowski, New York. N. Y.. means for CHAN(J ING THE ANGLE OF INCIDENCE of main wind by rotating them about an axis.

ISSUED AUGUST 12

1,069,662—Daniel W. Adams. Glendale Spring! N. C, PARACHUTE LAUNCHING device f J aviators.

1,069,688—Toseph Gavura. Tohnstown, Pa., COM BINED AEROPLANE AND AUTOMOBILE.

1.069,694—Louis Adolphe Hayot, Beauvais, Francl JET PROPULSION device for sustaining and prl pelling aeroplanes.

1.069.823—Alfred M. Sipes, Mobeetie, Texa] DIRIGIBLE propelling device.

1,069,906—Henry J. Snook, Santa Monica, Cal HELICOPTER.

1,070,197—Charles Scott Snell, London, Englanl means for supplying stores or other articles to aeril craft while in flight by a winding mechanism, hoistirl device, grapple, etc.

1.070,200—Peter Stolberg, San Francisco, Cal

BALANCING DEVICE comprising vertical surfacl

pivotally mounted at extremities of the lower planl means for shifting, etc.

ISSUED AUGUST 19

1,070,576—Frank M. Bell, El Paso, Tex. Con pressed air engine starter with the tanks used a< floats; vertical fins on top plane; wing sections opet top and bottom, under fins and horizontally dispose propeller in line with openings, two engines drivin concentric propellers.

1,070,625—Leon W. Perry, Denver, Colo., STA BILJTY device in which electrical contacts are mad by a hall on an oscillatory runway.*

1.070,782—John E. DeBaun, Spring Valley, N. Y FLYING MACHINE in which bag-like devices ope and close alternately.

1,070,856—August L. Batslecr and Samuel I Thomas, Manchester, N. H., ANCHORING device fa holding aeroplanes, which may be tripped by th aviator himself.

1,070.972—George W. Lynn, Detroit, Mich.. PRC PELLER with adjustable controlled pitch blades an means to control pitch of blades by an operating roc bell-crank lever, etc.

BARGAIN

HARRY BINGHAM

BROWN

Retires from Aviation. Will Dispose of his GENUINE

WRIGHT

Biplane with all equipment, including "Safety Pack" and all extras, in first-class condition, at

$2000.00

A. LEO STEVENS

Box 181, Madison Square - New York

Only the best methods and the best equipment will insure you satisfaction

The

Sloane School

provides these ASK OUR PUPILS

aeroplanes, motors and accessories

Manufactured and Sold

Agents for

Deperdussin Caudron Anzani Gnome Renault Clerget Le Rhone

"FIXATOR" METAL FITTINGS

WE SELL NOTHING BUT THE BEST

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.

MAIN OFFICE, 1733 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

'Phone Columbus 5421

C. & A. Wittemann

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS

Manufacturers of

Biplanes

Monoplanes

Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribi, and Struts of all .sizes carried in stock. Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 11. P.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY

Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville

j Send for our/Q/J Catalog.

Ask Men Who Know

WHAT THEY THINK OF

1019 ROBERTS iViO MOTORS

St. Louis, Mo., July 24, 1913

Gentlemen :

We have been using one of your new 1913 6-Cylinder 75-H. P. motors in one of our new flying boats, and would say that we have found this motor to be exactly what we want for our flying boats without a single qualification.

We were able to carry two passengers beside the aviator in the new Lakes Cruise Boat, and are now working night and day on another flying boat for one of your motors.

We congratulate you on your success in getting out this last product, and beg to remain.

Yours very truly, THE BENOIST AIRCRAFT COMPANY,

Per Tom W. Benoist, Mgr.

The roberts motor co.

No. 1430 Sandusky Avenue SANDUSKY, :: :: OHIO

Hotel Cumberland

NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street

"Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 minutes, also 7th Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station

Headquarters for Aviators and Auto-mobilists.

New and Fireproof

Strictly first class. Rates reasonable.

$2.50

With Bath

Send for booklet

Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres

H. P. STIMSON

Formerly with Hotel Imperial

I NAIAD *

NAIAD 1 Aeronautical Cloth

AND

Aero Varnish

We were the first in the field, and the test of time is proving that our product is the best.

4* Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request ^

% The C. E. Conover Co. |

J MANUFACTURERS +

% 101 Franklin Street, New York J

THE

WRIGHT COMPANY

OUR aeroplanes for land and water purposes remain today as in the very beginning of flying, the most efficient machines in use.

Mr. ORVILLE WRIGHT and our engineer, Mr. G. C. Lof.ning, have spent over two years in careful experiment on the air-worthiness and sea-worthiness of aeroboats, in order to determine thoroughly the conditions that these craft would have to meet. Naturally, therefore,

the wright aeroboat

combines efficiency, safety, sea-worthiness, stability and contiol on the water in a degree that surpasses anything yet produced.

Further Information Upon Request

our standard types

Model "C", two passenger, military scout, extensively used by United States War Department.

Model "D", one passenger, speed, scout—in its official military tests, this machine has consistently demonstrated a climbing of 1640 feet in 3 minutes.

— The American Record.

Model "E", single propeller, exhibition machine, designed particularly for ease in assembling and taking down.

Model "C-H", hydro-aeroplane, designed particularly for use over small inland streams. This machine shows higher efficiency than has ever been attained in marine flying.

THE WRIGHT SCHOOL AT SIMMS STATION, NEAR DAYTON, OHIO

Complete tuition, $250. No charge for breakage. Pilot may use school machine for his license tests free of charge. Dual control used. Average length of course, two weeks. Our terms are the best, and our equipment also, as we wish to encourage flying in this way.

™J wright incidence indicator

An indispensable instrument for the amateur aviator. Price $50.00.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 PINE STREET

1913 Edition

EIFFEL

Translated by Lieut. Jerome C. Hunsakkk, U.S. A aval Constructor

Resistance of the Air and Aviation IN ENGLISH

Magnificent Quarto Volume, Cloth, 242 pp. 27 large plates and table of polar diagrams 1913 enlarged edition

Lieutenant Jerome C. Hunsaker. U.S.N., naval constructor, detailed by the government to superintend the courses in aeronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has made a notable contribution to his subject by translating into English Gustav Eiffel's master-work, "The Resistance of the Air and Aviation." The translation includes the record of experiments conducted at the Champ-de-Mars laboratory, and an appendix giving a summary of the results, and supplementary chapters containing valuable and impor tant tables and diagrams.

Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS, of the Bureau of Navigation, says:

"This book, in my opinion, contains the most valuable information on Aviation yet published, and it is very desirable for our American students, designers, manufacturers, aeronautical and engineering associations, clubs, colleges, and libraries, to secure copies in English as soon as possible."

The "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN " says:

" Eiffel's work makes it possible to calculate a full-sized aeroplane from the data obtained in experiments with a model. In nearly all cases, the full-sized machines thus determined have given the results expected."

Heretofore, this m isterly production has only been procurable in French, yet even in the original version it is now extensively Ubed in America for reference. The translation of the text with additional matter is of the greatest importance to every one interested in the scientific study of aviation.

PRICE.

$10.

EXPRESS PAID

AERONAUTICS, 122 east 25th street, NEW YORK

HALL-SCOTT

100 H-P delivers 120 H-P at 1500 r.p.m. BRAKE TEST.

It is the only motor in the world designed especially for the Flying Boat. CO H-P has proven itself a guarantee to success, especially over lar.d flying. 40 H-P is the lightest motor for its power upon the market especially adapted to geared down planes.

Write for Catalogues

upon these power plants and let us figure on your equipment if you want the BEST.

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.,

SAN FRANCISCO CAL.


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