Aeronautics

Volume 12 - No. 6 - 1913 June

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



THE CURTISS TRAINING SCHOOL

Offers Instruction in the Construction, Care and Operation of Aeroplanes and Hydroaeroplanes

For Capable.Men Who are Ambitious and Seek a Permanent. Foundation for Future Work in Aviation, it Offers Unsurpassed* Advantages .

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Capable Instructors ; a $50,000 -E^gfiorti^^SOO,000 Factory Behicd these, the CurtfrF (Frganization - S 1

MANUFACTURERS OF AEROPLANES, MOTORS AND EQUIPMENT FOR~THE LEADING GOVERNMENTS OF THE WORLD

For any information, address f

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE COMPANY

: : : : Hammondspol^^f^^s

21 Lake Street

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AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS

Manufacturers of

Biplanes

Monoplanes X

Hydro-Aeroplanes | Gliders Propellers Parts |

Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications

Laree stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribi, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. Hall-Seott Motors, 40-60-80 II. P.

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Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND. NEW YORK CITY

Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville

Only the best methods and the best equipment will insure you satisfaction

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provides these ASK OUR PUPILS

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Manufactured and Sold

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WE SELL NOTHING BUT THE BEST

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.

MAIN OFFICE, 1733 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

'Phone Columbus 5421

PARAGON PROPELLERS

PARAf ONS ^ave the distinction of being the only propellers ever officially * V* 1 ^ indorsed by any govern ment. Let us send you a copy of the Re-

port on Paragon Propellers from the Senior Aviation Officer to the Secretary of the Navy. Si-anrlarri Twr»-Rlar1*» Tvnp- This is the standard propeller, par ex-

otanaara i wo-Diaae l ype. cellence> unapproached for strength,

safety, service and durability. Let us send you Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., showing four per cent, gain in speed and twelve per cent, in climbing—in comparative tests.

TYtffif* Rlarlf* TVni* • Tliese give greater flying thrust and more speed with 1 in cc-JJiauc x ypc. less diameter. Lieut. J. H. Towers, Senior Aviation Officer, U. S. N., reports, "The three-bladed Paragon gives more thrust and more speed than any other propeller we have had." This type of propeller has come into very great demand among our customers.

Twi^t^rl TvnP • ^or macmnes wu:n chain or gear-driven propellers. These 1 WlblcU 1 y pc . are not carved jnt0 shape but twisted and pressed under great pressure, heat and moisture. No cross grain. Seamless and jointless three-ply blade faces with the middle ply running cross-wise. Usual pitch required is one foot higher than other propellers—otherwise they turn too freely. Higher pitch, less slip, faster flying. Used and fully endorsed by U. S. Government Aviators.

Special Flexing Type for Flying Boats:

are curved and designed in a manner that causes the pitch to change in proportion to varying loads on the propeller and to conform to irregularities in the air. With these propellers the engine is kept at its best running speed, very nearly constant, both on the ground and under all conditions in the air. They take the machine off quicker and climb better than any type of propeller we have ever produced. They run with practically no vibration and are almost silent on a muffled engine.

Paragons are not only best but also cheapest. Consult with us freely and get full information. We solicit correspondence, but do not urge anyone to purchase.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., BALTIMORE, MD.

Burgess Flying Boat

Built for U. S. Navy

HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT

is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Already a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines.

Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes are still unexcelled. Motor equipment depends entirely upon the purchaser. We recommend the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type.

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at greatly reduced prices.

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, under the direction of Frank Coffyn, is located at Marblehead adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

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Bosch Magneto Company

201 W. 46th STREET, NEW YORK

The Construction of Propellers'

By SPENCER HEATH

N describing the practical construction of Paragon propellers, there are two radically different types of construction to be considered. The first is what one may call the "step laminated," in which the laminations are built up one above the other, but each succeeding one being in the form of a step in relation to the one before. In this type of propeller the joints between the laminations are substantially in a plane of revolution at right angles to the propeller axis. This, owing to the slant of the blades, gives the joints a diagonal relation to the blade faces.

The other type of propeller is given its form and pitch solely by twisting and pressing the laminations comprising it. The laminations are assembled in a flat condition similar to the leaves of a book but cut to an outline corresponding to a development of the entire blade.

THE STEP LAMINATED PROPELLER

In treating of practical construction only, it will be necessary to omit perhaps the most fascinating branch of all propeller work— the development of the particular design. The number of designs used is almost innumerable, so great is the diversity of requirements in the field of aeroplane construction thus far developed.

The result of the drawing board work, however, is a set of thick paper patterns having the exact outlines of each of the-several laminations going into one blade, with the hub portion extending slightly beyond the centre to provide for joining the two or more blades together at the hub. These patterns give not only the outline of the laminations but are provided with small holes from which to bore in their proper position the holes to receive the screws for drawing the laminations together in the process of gluing.

Having the paper patterns, the next step is the selection of materials. For the interior of the propeller, mountain grown silver spruce-is most frequently used. This is selected with regard to its fineness of texture, in addition to other qualities, so that for this reason boards must be selected that have been taken from the upper portion of the tree trunks where the annual rings are finer and more closely knit. Each pattern is laid out on the board in a position to give the exact direction of grain desired, so that the lamination will have the greatest strength and yield up to the surface of the propeller its finest and densest grain. When one blade lamination has thus been laid off, this portion of the board is sawed off, slipped over the immedi-

* The second of a series of articles idling of the actual method of construction of aeronautical wares.

ately adjacent portion and there nailed in position for sawing the two laminations in exact duplicate in form, grain, texture, and every other characteristic. If the propeller is to have three blades, the second portion of the board is sawed off and the two laid upon a third adjacent portion so that triplicate laminations will be sawed in the same manner. In the same way the outer laminations are laid out on the hardest of quartered white oak. the grain of this wood being selected to give the most effective figuring on the surface of the blade. This is not alone for ornament, however, since these figures in the grain of the wood are caused by cross fibers which bind the annual growth of the wood together and cause its very great resistance to splitting.

The spruce laminations are laid off with shortened ends on account of the white oak tips or extensions with which they are to be provided, so that the ends of the blades will be of white oak entire. These oak extensions are laid out in duplicate or triplicate, being of such length that they lap the ends of the spruce laminations ten or twelve inches. These lapped portions of both the oak and spruce now pass to the mitre saw upon which they are scarfed off slantingly in such a way that the spruce and oak portions will lie together to form one continuous lamination of uniform thickness. These now pass to the glue room for assembling and glueing to complete the composite laminations which form the middle portion of the blades. The wood is heated over steam coils and the glue very quickly dried in the same manner.

The entire set of laminations, both composite and of oak alone, is now taken to the pony surfacer by which they are reduced to uniform thickness and automatically toothed with fine markings to produce the best surface for perfect adhesion of the glue. From the surfacer they pass to the boring machine where the corresponding laminations for each blade are clamped together in order to bore at one operation the entire series of holes for reception of screws when the laminations are assembled and glued. Before glueing, however, there is a preliminary assembling to ascertain that all the joints will draw up properly and to bore smaller holes for the points of the screws immediately below each of the screw holes previously bored. The propeller is now taken apart and its laminations again thoroughly warmed over coils. I he laminations are held in position for glueing up by laying them on a stout timber provided at its centre with an iron plate through which a one inch bolt projects vertically for drawing them all lirmlv clown at the hub.

It should have been mentioned that the long laps for the hub joints are scarfed off on the mitre saw in a similar manner to the joining of the oak tips on the spruce lamina-

tions. These slanting scarfs matched together build up the entire hub of the propeller, with the exception of the face veneers which give the hub a finish and additional strength by crossing the grain. For two-bladed propellers these scarfs are quite simple, but for the three-bladed type they are of rather complex form, as shown by the illustration of one of these with its laminations separated to show their form and relative position. These hub scarfs for the three-bladed propellers are formed on a special machine, devised and built for the purpose and which shapes each lamination at a single cut. Previous to building this machine, it was necessary to do all ot this work by hand and with extreme patience and care, to insure the parts coming together with perfect joints.

The propeller having been glued and its parts brought together by the bolt through the hub and the numerous screws through the holes in the laminations drawing their contacting surfaces firmly together and the glue having sufficiently dried, about three hours being required for this, the screws are removed and all holes reamed out with a 15/64 inch bit revolving at high speed in a chuck at the end of a motor-driven flexible shaft. The holes are now plugged with one-fourth inch maple dowels. These dowels are first cut to length, dried and heated in a gas oven to make them shrink as much as possible and then driven with glue into the reamed holes.

The assembled and doweled propellers are now taken to another specially designed machine called the "routing machine." This machine cannot be described in detail, but consists briefly in a universally mounted cutter head carrying eighteen knives revolving at 4800 r. p. m. and capable of ready guidance under the hand of the operator, 'this machine very quickly removes all surplus material, leaving only a small amount of finish-

3_< 8__7_8 9

ing to be done by a skilful use of the spoke shave.

At this stage the propeller is carefully balanced and every portion of the blade gone over from point to point with an automatic direct reading pitch meter, by which the pitch is made to follow perfectly the pitch curve belonging to the particular design and carried on a card (see illustration) contained in the pitch meter. This card carries also plotted curves of all the principal characteristics of the propeller, such as blade thickness, width,

cambre. etc., and is preserved for an accurate record of the properties of the blade.

The pitch meter referred to is one of the writer's earliest inventions in connection with propellers and is absolutely essential to the precise execution of mathematical designs.

The blades are now placed in a combined jig and clamping device which flattens the camber out of the blades and provides for boring the long holes for the transverse dowels which extend from edge to edge through the blades to make them perfectly secure against splitting. 1 hese holes are bored by a long bit, also carried by a motor driven flexible shaft running 1800 r. p. m. When the clamps and jig are removed, the blades resume their camber and the holes assume a curved direction following the curve of the blade. Into these holes are now driven specially prepared long dowels, thoroughly dried and heated and glued therein. At this stage also a deep saw kerf is made in the end of each of the blades for the reception of white maple veneer about one-eighth inch thick, carefully fitted and glued.

The propeller is now carefully inspected and tested to see that the blades are in perfect balance and to see that the pitch from point to point along each of the blades exactly corresponds with the curve card in the pitch meter. This pitch testing is carried on in two ways. First the propeller is tested as it lies at rest without any stresses or strains in any part. Having been found perfect in this condition, the hub of the propeller is firmly bolted down on a solid stand, and by means of a series of yokes and spring balances, each blade is strained down under a total load approximating or exceeding the amount of thrust that will come on the propeller in use. The load is distributed along the blades in accordance with the calculated distribution of the thrust, based upon the variations of pitch as shown by the particular pitch curve. For a uniform pitch or true screw propeller, the amount of thrust varies directly with the distance from the centre, being maximum at or near the end of the blade. Most Paragon propellers, however, are put up to the pitch curve which is the subject of one of the Paragon patents. This throws the maximum thrust about one-fifth to one-fourth the blade length from the end. While the propeller is loaded with the spring balances as described, the pitch is again tested to ascertain what changes, if any, have taken place under load. The amount of deflection of two or more blades is also noted to ascertain that they are of equal stiffness, as well as equal weight. This insures the propeller running without vibration while the stress is on.

In our most recent designs, however, the propeller is built to a higher pitch than the pitch desired in flight and the blade so formed that it will flex down to the desired pitch under flying load. For these propellers separate pitch curves are taken with the blade in

its unloaded and loaded condition. The flexible quality of the blades is obtained by their peculiar form and not by reducing the strength and amount of material. Designs of this kind have been giving, for some time, exceedingly fine results in the United States Navy machines and numerous others. Their superior efficiency comes from the perfect adaption of the pitch to every variation in the air or in the resistance of the machine.

All deflection tests completed, the propeller passes to the sanding machine in which a thirty foot sandbelt of carborundum cloth traveling three thousand feet per minute, very rapidly brings the propeller to a fine and uniform surface in every part. This sanding machine is specially built and designed for propellers and so constructed that by a reasonable

i and 3 are twisted Paragon propellers used by the Navy on Wright machines ; 2 is a carved one of special flexing type used on the Navy Flying Boat.

amount of manipulation, it will operate perfectly on every part of the propeller, including both concave and convex surfaces of the blade and hub.

The propellers are finished with filler and several coats of varnish rubbed down between coats. For very quick work "French Polish," put on by hand, is used, but the regular durable finish is marine spar varnish.

TWISTED AND PRESSED PROPELLERS

This class of propellers has been brought to a high degree of success during a course of practical experimenting covering about eighteen months. As at present made, they are peculiarly adapted to machines of the Wright type or other machines in which the propellers revolve at less than engine speed. This class of service calling for lighter and less rigid blades than the direct-connected is very finely met by this type of propeller. Unlike the laminations of the carved propellers, the layers of wood used arc all similar in contour, being of the full width of the blade and lying flat together like the leaves of a book.

Previous to assembling, however, the laminations are passed through a special planer or surfacing machine which gives them a predetermined variation of thickness in their different parts. The portion of the laminations lying in the hub near the leading edge of the propeller are left of maximum thickness while the portions forming the rear or

trailing edge are made very thin. These portions are such that when the parts are laid together, twisted and pressed, each part of the blade will have its desired thickness and form without carving in any of its parts more than a slight trimming around the edges and ends. The number of main laminations in each blade is usually three, which are coextensive with the entire blade form. Each of these laminations extends through and

Three-blader ready to assemble; showing patented formation of hub joints. Only one-third the thickness of each lamination is removed where it enters the hub.

beyond the hub portion, thus producing twice as many thicknesses in these parts as in the main portions of the blades, in addition to which, supplemental shorter laminations are used to give any desired thickness required through the hub.

"1 he formed laminations for the entire propeller are laid together in flat form with alternate layers of thin cross veneer inserted between the main laminations for about half the distance from the end of each blade to the hub. 1 hese alternate layers of wood with the cross veneer between produces a blade of almost indestructible quality and strength.

The assembled parts are now placed in a specially devised twisting and pressing machine which imparts to every portion of the blade the exact pitch and camber that is desired, the wood being softened by a graduated application of heat and moisture during the process. When the propeller is pressed into shape, dry steam heat is applied until all moisture is removed so that the wood will take a permanent "set." It is now removed from the twisting mechanism, the parts separated, coated with the best French gelatine glue, reassembled and again placed in the twisting and pressing machine. At this operation very great pressure is brought to bear on every part of the blade and hub, bringing all the laminations together with very great firmness and pressure, in which condition the propeller is again dried before removal for finishing

The finishing process consists in trimming down any roughness or irregularities found {Continued on pa^,e 22^)

Page 208

Technical Talks

By the Technical Editor

Lateral Balance

X aeroplane flying with or against a horizontal wind of constant direction but variable velocity will encounter gusts from in front, while if it flies across the wind, it will experience gusts from the side, whose virtual direction with regard to the machine will be from diagonally in front, the angle which they form with the machine's course depending on the momentary relative speed of the gust and the machine. In other words, a side gust will cause the apparent head wind to veer; or, its effect will be nearly the same as if the machine should turn more or less sideways to its course.

The transverse V or dihedral angle of the wings, as ordinarily found in some monoplanes, confers stability in still air. and puts a stop to a side slip, but it is evident that a lateral gust or veering wind will exert a greater lift and leverage on the "near" or windward wing, and, where the centre of gravity is at or below the apex of the V, the horizontal transverse effort due to the gust, will conspire with this greater lift to overturn the machine. Anything in the nature of a keel below the c. g. will antagonize this tendency; but, in case of a side slip this keel will antagonize the good effect of the V.

If the c. g. is placed well above the apex of the V (so that it is above the centre of transverse pressure), then this transverse pressure will resist the overturning of the machine due to the excess lift on the near wing. However, in case of a side slip this high c. g. will antagonize the stabilizing effect of the V.

It must be remembered that, as before stated the virtual direction of the gust is not from the side but at an angle, generally small, with the flight path; the horizontal transverse component due to the gust is therefore generally small, while the turning moment due to the increased lift and change in c. p. on the near wing, is large in proportion. It would seem that we cannot cure the defects of the V by these means without destroying or diminishing its advantages. There would, however, be an advantage in using a high c. g. and a low keel in moderation.

The inverted V disposition causes an aeroplane to incline toward a side gust because of the greater lift on the "far" wing. With a high c. g. it is unstable in still air. With a low c. g. as advocated by Captain Duchene,* it is stable in still air, appears to be safe on a turn, and inclines toward a side gust, because here the lift on the far wing exerts a greater turning moment than the horizontal transverse component of the gust, which opposes it. A model, which I have, behaves in this manner. When the model is inclined

to one side and launched in that position it flies in a curved path toward that side, at the same time righting itself. I have been intending for some time to try this dispositon on my full-sized quadruplane, but circumstances have prevented these trials.

Captain Duchene has also shown that if the masses (and surfaces) are so disposed that the machine pivots on a forwardly inclined axis, then the inverted V can be used without necessitating a low c. g., thus avoiding the rolling due thereto. The statements of Captain Duchene have been favorably criticised by M. Alexander Seef and adversely, by M. P. JamesJ.

The negative wing tips, as used in the German "Tauben," constitute the chief subject of a long article by Mr. A. E. Berriman commencing in the Jan. n English Flight, and a mathematical treatment by Mr. J. H. Hume-Rothery in the Jan. 18 number, and I can not do better than to refer to them. Putting the negative tip matter "in a nutshell," we might say that the side gust is, in effect, a veering head wind ; this produces a virtual acceleration of the near wing tip; and the excess down pressure thereby produced on the tip counteracts (more or less) the excess up pressure on the rest of the wing. In making a turn, the negative tip counteracts excessive banking in the same way.

Mr. Berriman concludes that the best disposition is to have neutral wing tips independently capable of being negatively warped, and he cites a patent to Wildeblood covering this disposition. This phase of the question has been exhaustively treated by Mr. A. A. Merrill in a number of articles with which my readers are, no douht, familiar, and with which, in the essential points, I agree. Mr. Merrill has also an article in February Aircraft on the dihedral with high c. g., treating the matter in detail. M. B. Sellers.

+ AerophUe, Dec. IS, 1912. p. 556. t Acrophile, Ftb. 1, 1913, p. 55. t AerorhUe, Tan. 1, 1913, p. 14.

Who's "the guy that put the beat" in Beatty? George has quietly sneaked to Yurrup leaving many wistful friends. May his shadow never grow less—in England !

John G. Hanna—write him at Canvon, Tex.—says, "continue AERONAUTICS . for gg years. Liberal discount is allowed for cash in advance on these long subscriptions.

Who's the guy that put the sport in 1 lammondsport ?

For the only complete review ever made of the progress of the hydroaeroplane and flying boat, see the Januarv issue of AERONAUTICS.

The Dyott Monoplane

EORGE M. DYOTT recently brought back from England a speed machine which he had built to his own design while abroad.

This machine is designed primarily for military despatch as distinct from scouting work. The latter type of monoplane, on account of the heavy load carried.

must necessarily be large, heavy and unsuitable for rising or landing in restricted areas. The despatch carrier on the other hand is a fast, light, single seater, carrying fuel for 2J/2 hours, capable of landing at a fairly low rate of speed on bad or small grounds.

The machine described herewith weighs 625 lbs. empty with all accessories, navigating instruments, etc. It measures 29 feet, across wing tips, 22 feet 6 inches overall in length and stands about 8 feet high when mounted on 24 inch wheels. It requires a run of 60 feet before clearing the ground in still air and climbs rapidly. While the maximum speed is a little over 70 M. P. H. it can be slowed down to 55 with the motor running at 800 revolutions: on landing, the speed can further be reduced with safety till on actually touching the ground it is about 45 M. P. H.

The upper side of the top longitudinal forms the base line of the design. When in flight this line is level. Every dimension on the machine is laid out from this line so that in the event of breakage it is the first to be leveled up and all other adjustments made from it. Demountability is the predominating feature of all parts. The under-carriage is secured by diegonal wires only, the struts slipping into welded steel sockets, hence its removal requires but a few minutes work with no bolts to be removed. '1 he top "cabane" is secured by guy wires in stee' sockets and can be removed in three minutes. The bottom "pylon" is held in the s'ime manner but is hinged and can fold up under neath the fuselage when the guy wires which

hold it are undone. The non-lifting tail planes are secured by 4 side rods and 2 fuselage bolts. The entire "empennage," rudder and elevator flaps are made of welded steel tubing. All bolts which have to be undone when dismantling the machine are 6mm.; even if the bolt is 7 or 8 mm. the threaded part is 6mm. so as to reduce the different sizes of nuts to one standard. The rear wing spar is held by a smooth tapered bolt with split pin. Both are secured by small chains to the fuselage so as always to he in the right place when they are wanted.

The two main wing spars are of rectangular section, built up of three laminations. Both fit into sockets in two heavy members of the fuselage. In order to allow of the wings being warped, the socket for the rear spar is made a loose fit on the spar, which is pivoted around a strong bol*, secured by a split pin. To dismantle the wings, all that is necessary is to undo the top and bottom stay wires and the two bolts through the rear spars, and the wings can be taken off. The ribs, which are evenly spaced along the spars, are built up of webs of spruce with flanges of ash. The wings, as well as the body, are covered with '•'ibleached linen, varnished, the fabric being 1-ced along the trailing edge, so that it may be kept taut under all climatic conditions.

Along the top of each rib is a rattan strip. '1 he chord of the wings is 5 feet 10 inches tapering to 3 feet 6 inches at tip. the camber is ,v>4 inches and the angle of incidence in flight is 5 degrees.

The fuselage is of ash and spruce tapering towards the tail; a system of clamo and plate work enables the diagonal wires to be held without resorting to bolts which pierce the longitudinal and thereby weaken it. 1 be sides of the fuselage are absolutely flush from engine plate to rudder post, no bolts or nuts projecting. The fabric is applied perfectly smooth and presents an even surface all along. As far back as the pilot's seat the sides are aluminum and they can be removed in a few minutes, exposing every part of the

mechanism inside for cleaning and inspection.

All the control mechanism is of welded steel tubing ; no pulleys are employed so that the possibilities of cables wearing out and breaking are avoided. The elevator cables pass directly without crossing, to a neutral lever in the fuselage which in turn is operated by a steel rod in compression as well as tension from the control lever. The actual movements of the control lever follow standard practice.

The pilot's seat is of welded steel tubing braced in the fuselage by piano wire. The pilot sits low and is well shielded from the rush of air by a hood which turns up in the form of a lip. The protection thus afforded in no way interferes with his range of vision which is exceptionally good. On account of the perfect shielding no oil or dirt can get inside and the aviator sits without the discomfort of fighting a head-on blizzard or a

shower bath of hot oil and gases. The pilot's seat is of welded steel tubing slung from the fuselage spars and braced by steel wires.

Alain 8-gallon gas and oil tanks are in front with an extra io-gallon gas tank behind pilot's seat, from which gas is pumped to the main tank by hand (3^2 hours altogether, oil, gas). Motor, 50 H. P. Gnome, standard Chauviere propeller.

The cockpit is well upholstered in red leather and contains the most modern equipment of navigating instruments, including: R. P. M. indicator, clock, compass, altitude meter, oil and gas gauges, level indicators, etc. All scales are large and clear so that they can be read at a glance.

The compass has only the cardinal points marked on it and the four divisions are painted white, yellow, blue and red respectively for X., S., E. and YV. The pilot watches the reflection of the compass in a small mirror. (( on tinned on page 215)

McCormick's Curtiss

Another Curtiss Flying Boat

IMPROVEMENTS in details and changes here and there in design came so fast upon the heels of those previously put into practice at the Curtiss factory that it is impossible to say "here is model so-and-so."

The new boat built for H. F. McCormick is novel, for it's the first tractor "flying boat." It is the intention of the owner to use the boat as much in the water as in the air and this design has been developed with motor cooling at less than flying speed and comfort as prime objects.

Alain Planes.—Spread 38 feet 4 inches, usual Curtiss construction. Goodyear aluminum coated fabric is used. The surface is double, covering the frames above and below. The spread of the wings is 38 feet 4 inches, though the over-all width of the machine is 41 feet 8 inches, as the ailerons, used for balancing the machine in the air, extend beyond the main planes. In chord the planes measure 5 feet 6 inches and they are separated by a gap of 5 feet 6 inches.

Lateral beams are laminated spruce. The wings are in 5 foot sections, quickly demountable. Tanks under each wing-end.

Tail.—Elliptical rudder, a vertical tin, two horizontal stabilizing planes and twin elevators. The rudder is about 5 feet in diameter and the lower portion of it is made of wood, bound with copper, and intended for steering the boat at low speed in the water; while the upper section is a fabric covered piece similar in structure to the wings.

The twin elevators are composed of two half-round sections; are controlled from the steering wheel; a forward movement of the wheel raises the elevator and vice versa.

Hull.—Measures about 26 feet over all, though the net length of the boat is 24 feet. The frame work is built up with integrity of cantilever bridge. In the bow, boat is ash

ribbed top, bottom and sides, spaced on three-inch centres, mortised at the corners, fitted with copper corner straps, and each frame securely fastened with sixteen copper rivets. Eight water-tight bulkheads divide hull laterally. Any two compartments sufficient to float the entire machine. The weight of hull is 400 pounds.

Longitudinal ribs or keelsons of ash, 1 inch, are spaced on four-inch centres. The bottom is triple sheeted with planking of 5/16 inch mahogany, heavy canvas set in marine glue, and an outer planking of x/\ inch mahogany. This planking is cross-laid diagonally and extends back only to the "step" in the hull, located about 10 feet from the bow. The boat at speed rides only on a few square feet of wetted surface just forward of the step.

The cockpit is 42 inches wide and affords ample elbow room for four occupants. Ken-yon cushions for the seats serve the double purpose of upholstery and preservers in case of an emergency. Seats are provided for four passengers; the front seat to be occupied by the operator and mechanician, if one is carried. Dual controls are used throughout and either of the occupants of the front seat can handle the machine independent of the other, or they can handle it in unison.

All of the metal fittings of the hull and controls are of brightly polished aluminum or nickel plated steel. Dark gray enamel is the standard finish for the hull and exposed woodwork.

Motor.—New too H. P. Curtiss "OX" model mounted as a unit with gas tanks, radiator and one propeller. Tanks hold fuel for 6-8 hours, or a travel radius of 400 miles.

Controls.—A double steering wheel permits the handling of the flying boat by either occupant or by both. Each has a foot throttle.

Projecting through the seat between the cushions is the lever used for raising or lowering the wheels designed for land travel. The safety starting crank for the motor is within easy reach of either passenger.

Ailerons are positive acting in both directions, operated by the usual Curtiss shoulder braces, interconnected for either operator. These "break" open for the convenient entrance and egress of occupants. The rudder is operated by rotating the steering wheel left or right. Either or both wheels can be operated as desired.

The first trials were made May 21, with four on board.

For the sake of clearness as to the different types of machines produced by the Curtiss company, it may be well to state that there are three "types."' D, E and F. D may be equipped with either wheels or pontoon, a propeller machine, wings in sections. Type E may be used, with boat, pontoon or wheels, for sporting, military or passenger work, propeller machine, wings in sections. Type F. wings are used only with military tractor and heavy flying boat hulls. Wings one piece, quick demountable. The McCormick boat has type F wings fitted. D wings spread 26 feet 3 inches; E, 31 feet 3 inches; F. 38 feet 4 inches.

Since Mr. McCormick's boat was tried out, three other hulls, each with individual advantages for different uses have been finished and delivered by the Curtiss company. The first was a three-passenger machine for G. M. Heckscher; this was similar to the boats delivered to the United States army and navy early in the year. It has Model K wings with 31 feet 3 inches spread, and one of the 0-x, 00-100 Curtiss motors. Recent trials of this machine proved it to be the fastest ever designed by Mr. Curtiss, and a speed on the water of more than a mile a minute is claimed.

THE VILAS CURTISS

An altogether different type of hull is represented in the riving boats built by Curtiss for L. A. Vilas, of Chicago, J. B. R. Ver-planck, of Fishkill, X. Y., and the United States navy. The wings mounted are the type E, spreading 31 feet 3 inches. In the Vilas boat an overhanging wing is attached at both extremities of the upper plane, bringing the total spread of the upper plane to 40 feet. The separation is 5 feet 6 inches and the chord 5 feet. The boat length is 26 feet, 56 inches wide at widest point, 3 feet 6 inches high at greatest depth and 30 inches in width at the extreme bow, and comes to a point at the rear.

As will be noted, the steel braces of the engine section are changed from the earlier boat seen in March at the motor boat show, the cockpit arrangement and construction of the forward end of the hull have been improved. The hood is hinged and opens forward as shown in the sketch and is covered inside with rubber matting which is also tacked on the bow. so that entrance is effected simply by stepping on the bow, walking over the hood and then closing the hood after one. The elevator cables are now attached to rocking levers at either extremity of a cross shaft running through the hull. The diagonal brace from the end of the lower plane to the extension on the upper is arranged with a special device at the lower end so that by pulling on a cable from the seat this diagonal strut is immediately detached and the extensions fall down in a vertical position; this is to permit entrance into a shed narrower than the normal spread of the machine. The bow resembles the snout of a catfish and throws the spray away from the occupants. A little lever throws open the outer members of the shoulder brace at the passenger's seat so that he may not be bothered with the side movement, or so that a student may not interfere with the pilot's movements in a ticklish maneouvre. A big spruce diagonal strut runs from the engine bed braces to the bow of the boat. The motor is a Curtiss r/>-ioo, 8-cyl. 4 by 5 cylinders. By a different camshaft and valve action increased R. P. M. is obtained over the other eights.

Piping is run through the boat from the various compartments, converging under the

pilot's seat to a valve and b'lge pump. By turning a small knob around a dial, marked with numbers to represent the different compartments, any one compartment may be pumped dry. The engine is equipped with a starting crank. The forward end of the boat has a double wall 1V2 inches thick. The weight of the boat alone is 390 pounds. The propeller is tipped with metal for a distance along the cutting edge. The armholes in the rear of the boat have been increased in number, there being two on the sides and two on top. The boat is wider at the top than at the bottom to shed spray. Watch, barometer and other instruments are provided.

Between the seats is a new style of Warner shaft-speed indicator, about as big around as a silver dollar. Other instruments in sight, are an aneroid barometer, for recording altitude; a plain barometer, indicating approaching weather changes; an automobile clock; oil and gasoline gauges.

The hull is painted, or enameled, in Nile green with gray trim around the coaming, making a nice contrast to the dark mahogany finish of the interior. The wings are covered in bright aluminum-finished Goodrich fabric. Just back of the seat is a swing door opening into a little cubby-bole where Vilas lias his polished brass side lights and riding lights swinging cheerfully over his folding anchor. Everything is as handv as the pocket in a shirt.

There are two layers of planking on the bottom, one 5/16, the second J4 inch, between them a layer of heavy duck set in marine g'ue. His fuel tanks have a capacity of more than forty gallons, which will keep his motor running for about six hours. He can travel approximately /co miles without stopping.

Marshall Reid's Curtiss

DYOTT MONOPLANE

{Continuedfrom page 2jo\

In addition to the instruments above mentioned, this machine is fitted with an instrument of Mr. Dyott's own invention. It is a graphic recorder which shows all different movements of the control levers. The chart is divided into three parts: Warp, Elevator and Rudder. As the drum revolves, three pointers, draw the three different graphs, so that in a straight flight, during which the

control levers were not moved at all, the pointers would draw three straight lines, but as soon as the course was altered the pointer connected to the rudder would make a wavy line, and as the warp is used in conjunction with the rudder, the warp pointer would draw a corresponding curve. This instrument should prove of great service, and furnish some very interesting data for comparing the different ways in which different pilots control the same machine.

New Developments in Aeronautics

AEROPLANE RADIO EQUIPMENT

The photographs herewith show the radio set used on the United States Government aeroplanes. This set weighs about 75 pounds complete, and has a radius of action of about 30 miles. Messages have been sent by it from altitudes of about 1,500 feet and have been received at a station 14 miles away without the slightest difficulty. During some tests carried out last fall, the radio set was used as a constant means of communication between the aeroplane and the ground, for periods of time varying from 15 minutes to over an hour. There was never any trouble in receiving the messages from varying altitudes up to 2,500 feet. This was not the result of one test but of several tests covering many days. The aeroplane shown will be recognized as a Burgess, with Sturtevant motor.

The set is a modified type of the standard Signal Corps field set of li of a kilowatt output of the generator, which, in the photograph, is friction driven from the engine fly wheel. The antenna is of the hanging wire type contained on a reel as is also shown in the photographs. As far as practicable, the parts of this aeroplane set are made interchangeable with the field set mentioned above, so that any Signal Corps operator belonging in a field company would be capable, when carried as a passenger in the aeroplane, to operate this set. The standard field set is mounted in a reinforced trunk for convenient transportation, which, however, could not be installed on the aeroplane on account of the additional weight. The machine being of the double control type, the radio equipment has been so installed that a message can be sent by either operator, the principal adjustments having been made once and for all.

TESTS FOR U.S. MILITARY AVIATOR'S CERTIFICATE

1. Cross country flight of at least 20 miles at a minimum height of 1000 feet. 2. Make

a flight of at least 5 minutes' duration with the wind blowing at the rate of at least 15 miles per hour. 3. Carry a passenger to a height of at least 503 feet and, on landing, come to rest within 150 feet of a previously

MILITARY AVIATOR

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designated point, the engine being completely cut off prior to touching the ground. The combined weight of the passenger and pilot must be at least 250 pounds. 4. Execute a volplane from an altitude of at least 500 feet with the engine completely cut off, and cause the aeroplane to come to rest within 300 feet of a previously designated point on the ground. 5. Make a military reconnaissance flight of at least 20 miles for the purpose of observing and bringing back information concerning features of the ground or other matter which the applicant is instructed to report upon. This flight must be made at an average altitude of 1500 feet.

A certificate is then given, signed by the Secretary of War, Chief Signal Officer, Officer Commanding and the Adjutant General.

Page 2 I 7

June, 1913

MONOPLANES VS. BIPLANES

So long as structural considerations do not limit the size of spars or in other ways affect the design, it is the argument of F. Handley Page, the English designer and critic, that the monoplane will outclass the biplane by the reason of the superiority of its lift for a given wing area, plane area section, and angle of inclination. The lift-drift ratio will, therefore, also be better, and generally the monoplane will be the more efficient type. In the large monoplane size, to obtain sufficient strength it is not only necessary to increase the spar area considerably, but also the span of the machine has to be curtailed so as to bring its size within reasonable limits. This entails a larger chord, and, therefore, a smaller aspect-ratio.

For planes of equal aspect-ratio, span, cross-section, and angle of inclination, the monoplane has about 15 per cent, more lift than the biplane for equal speeds through the air, but this advantage might be lost if the aspect ratio had to be reduced. For the largest size of machine the balance would seem to lie in favor of the biplane.

It would appear that a limit would be first reached for monoplanes. As more loads were carried a limit would be reached with biplanes, too, and it would be more economical to employ the multiplane machine. This point has not yet been reached in practice. In many other ways this distribution of the types would appear to fit in well with the requirements. A small machine is essentially one that can easily be carried about and very quickly erected. There is not the same necessity for the larger size of machines to be easily packed, and consequently there is not much advantage in a monoplane, from this point of view, in the larger sizes.

A biplane has a greater resistance than the corresponding monoplane, but the difference is not great. What in the monoplane one gains by having no plane struts is lost by the increased size of the under-carriage members for a given diameter and arrangement of propeller.

For machines of an area up to 250 or 275 square feet, a monoplane is the most economical type, but from this point onward the biplane is superior.

NAVY AIR PILOT CERTIFICATE

Navy air pilot certificates will now be issued by the Navy Department to all officers who qualify. To qualify an officer must make official application, approved by the senior qualified aviator present, accompanied by a brief written report, embracing topics taken from notes made during instruction, such as:

(a) The principal causes of accidents in aeroplanes and the applicant's personal views as to the best means for providing safetv in flight.

(b) Advantages and disadvantages of high speed, wide range in speed, flying over land and flying over water.

(f) Relative locations of centre of pres-

sure and the centre of gravity in a hydroaeroplane or air boat, the location of the lines of thrust and resistance, effect on centre of pressure of changes in the angle of attack, effect of longitudinal changes in centre of gravity, necessity for "banking," causes of "skidding" or "side slipping."

(d) Phenomena commonly known as "air holes" and the precautions to be observed in turning an aeroplane in a strong wind.

(e) Precautions necessary when making a forced landing in a hydroaeroplane, both before the wind and against it.

(/) Advantages and the disadvantages of the different types of aeroplane motors of which he has knowledge and principal precautions to be taken in care and handling.

A board, of at least two qualified officers, will conduct the test for qualification, during which the following conditions must be fulfilled:

(1) Attain an altitude of 2,500 feet.

(2) Carry to a height of at least 500 feet a weight which, combined with weight of aviator, totals 275 pounds, and cut off motor at an altitude of at least 500 feet, execute a glide to the water, and land within 150 feet of a designated mark. Then, with the power shut off and the propeller at rest, the machine must be started again, made to rise from the water, and after a short flight must be made to land on the water from a low altitude v/ithin 50 feet of a mark, power being shut off only on landing.

(3) Attain an altitude of at least 1,000 feet, then throttle the motor to the lowest point, and make at least one complete circle or spiral to a normal landing without further use of power. Before this test the muffler should be removed if one has been provided.

(4) Make a straight-course flight in the air, over water, by compass, at an altitude of at least 500 feet, between two designated points, out and back, at least 5 miles apart, with the wind blowing across the course at least 15 miles per hour. Atmospheric conditions taken into consideration by the board in judging whether the courses made were sufficiently straight.

(5) Make a reconnoissance flight of 20 miles, 10 miles out and 10 miles back, at a minimum height of 1.000 feet along shore, in sufficient proximity to smooth water to enable a safe glide, to a landing on the water, to be made at any time. During this flight, which is to test the aviator's faculty for observing, navigating, and controlling simultaneously, such observations must be made and recorded, mentally or otherwise as will enable him on returning to make a sketch chart of his track, together with the location of prominent objects both ashore and afloat, including any object or objects that may be located by the board without his knowledge, such, for example, as a body of men, a bonfire, or a boat with some distinctive mark. This chart will accompany a report of the flight to the board.

The form of certificate will be similar to the international certificate which is carried in the pocket but will be waterproof.

       
       
       
     

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STEEL PORTABLE SHEDS

The destructive fires which can so easily occur among the aeroplane "hangars'' make it all the more apparent that a fireproof structure of some sort is needed to house these valuable machines and a tempting proposition is thus afforded to the builders of portable steel structures.

The C. D. Pruden Co., of New York, who are manufacturers of portable steel buildings, at the request of AERONAUTICS, have given this subject much consideration, with the result that they have designed a structure 180 feet long, 36 feet wide and 10 feet high, which, when divided by partitions, will form five compartments or sheds each 36 feet square. The end compartments would have six wire glass windows while the three middle sections would have four windows each, also four skylights installed in each section would furnish additional light. Six sliding doors operated upon a circular track would allow of a total opening in front of 35 feet 4 inches and there would also be one small door in each compartment. As only steel and wire glass is used in the construction of these buildings they would be absolutely fire-proof and would need no insurance. The buildings are so designed that they may be readily moved and we are informed that the cost would be about the same as those made of wood.

The buildings are made in multiples of two feet, and coupled together with patented fin studs and rafters, and an angle iron base is used, and a channel iron at the eaves. A patented lead flashing runs along the ridge of the roof which does away with all packing and cementing. The joints are absolutely weather proof, and the windows are hollow steel, sash and frame, and the doors are of the Kalameined type. This structure mentioned would cost $4,325 for the whole; the separate divisions, of course, in proportion.

AUTOMATIC STABILITY

In a letter to AERONAUTICS, A. G. Wat-kins .of Mechanicsburg, Pa., states that he has tried out the principles involved in stability patents listed in the January number, 1,047,247, 1,047,759 and 1,047,827, one of which covers the use of cylinders operated by mercury, and the other two covering electrical devices, and states, "these principles are valueless: first, because the automatic action was too slow in operating the ailerons; second, the means used are very delicate and at any time liable to get out of order and in no small way quite an additional weight."

NAVY AEROPLANES

At the end of June 30, 1913, the Navy will have 2 Curtiss flying boats, 3 Curtiss hydroaeroplanes, 2 Wright hydroaeroplanes and 1 Burgess flying boat.

THE ROBERTS 1913 MODEL the combined dual coil and switch is four

In developing this new 6-x model the de- pounds and the weight of the battery 5^ signer has kept in view the requirements of the pounds.

flying boat and particularly that type of flying boat in which the motor is located in the hull.

In the 1913 model the gears are entirely enclosed and running in oil. The gear train consists of spur gears only, neither bevel or helical gears being used. All gears are mounted on Hess-Bright ball bearings. Ball bearings are used on distributor which is carried on Hess-Bright bearings and does not rub on walls of housing. Ball bearings used for pump shaft and distributor driving shaft.

Dual ignition is Bosch inductor type giving an extremely hot spark, Bosch dual coil and Columbia battery. A new feature is the starting crank which with dual system makes motor easy to start. Exhaust manifold, flywheel, chain or gear drive can be supplied to suit requirements. The cylinders are now iron, aerolite jackets, aerolite pistons, and have proven very successful in practice. 1 hey were used by Jannus in his record breaking flight from Omaha to Xew Orleans. The aerolite pistons, 4^2 inches diameter and 5-^4 inches long, weigh but one pound ten ounces each, as compared to four pounds for the same piston in cast iron. Crankshaft and the connecting rods are made of the highest quality of Chrome Vanadium steel, double heat treated.

The Roberts Motor delivers its rated horse power at a comparatively moderate speed. The B. H. P. of the new u-x is 66 H. P. at 1,000 R. P. M., 70 11. P. at 1.100 R. P. M., 72 H. P. at 1,150 R. P. M. and 75 H. 1'- at 1,225 R- P- The actual weight of the new model exactly as shown in the accompanying illustrations is 275 pounds. The weight of

SUPRISING RESULTS WITH NEW TYPE OF WING

It is reported in Acrophilc that M. Con-stantin has applied the principle of the "saute vent," or wind deflector, to the aeroplane wing, with surprising results. This saute vent comprises one or more curved plates with the concavity facing upward and forward, arranged to deflect the wind upward, so that an object placed behind and above it will be sheltered from the wind.

The reason for applying it to the aeroplane wing is to increase the rarifation above the wing thus increasing the lift. To accomplish this the wing experimented with had its entering edge made with a concavity facing upward and forward thus producing a rarifation behind this portion. It is reported that both the laboratory tests, and trials on a full-sized machine gave results superior to those obtained with the conventional form of wing. 1 shall say more about this in the next issue.

M. P.. Sellers.

John Griffin Hanna writes in to say that, after a fall on his peanut when his machine ran into a prairie dog hole, the twenty dollars was well spent for his Roold helmet even if worn while grass cutting.

An aviator quotes the Mt. Baker committee $50 a minute for a night flight. "Maxim's prices are a little steep," said the president; "suppose he should get stuck up there. He would break the club in a half hour or less.-'

THE SHORE SCLEROSCOPE

Devoting more time and money to the testing of their product, both in the rough and when finished, than ever before, the Curtiss Motor Company is subjecting their metals to chemical analysis before machining, and the finished parts are tested individually by the most accurate and up-to-date instruments obtainable. One of the latest acquisitions is the Shore Scleroscope, here illustrated.

The principle of the "Scleroscope" (Greek sclera hardness) consists of dropping a miniature tup hammer from a fixed height onto the surface of the material, the hardness of which is to be measured. This hammer, after striking, by no other force except its own weight (about 40 grains) and momentum, always rebounds to variable heights depending on the hardness or amount of resistance to penetration offered by a metal, hardened steel, carbon, or any substance which will take on a permanent set.

The area of the hammer point is about 1-2500 part of a square inch, and is convex, meaning that not more than half of this area comes in contact in testing hardened steel. Thus 1-5000 square inch multiplied by the measured impact of 100 lbs. would represent a pressure of 500,000 pounds per square inch exerted by the scleroscope on hard steel.

With the scleroscope it is a simple matter to test each finished part, and to determine if these parts would be liable to accidents such as, the battering and shearing of parts from being too soft in the core when case hardened; or liable to excessive wear, due to lack of hardness; or apt to chip from excessive hardness; or liable to fatigue, due to an elastic limit that was too low; or liable to crystallization and fractures from metal hard but not tough enough.

After duly noting the well-known factors of ductility, etc., all of these shortcomings

are detected instantly by observing the bounce of the diamond pointed hammer, which travels in a glass tube like that of a large thermometer. The height of the bounce as shown by the scale, determines the quality of the metal, indicates the carbon content, improper heat treatment, and a score of other details.

With this instrument the Curtiss company tests gears, cams, shafts, valves, and all those parts of the motor whose life depends upon the quality of the material used. For example, the pump shaft, according to engineers, should show 70 to 80 hard, while valve lift rollers should be 85 to 100 hard. And so on for all parts, springs, bearings, valves and seats, etc.

REINFORCED WOOD

Patents are being taken out on a system of reinforced wood by A. G. Watkins, of Mechan-icsburg, Pa., with the idea of permitting the use of extremely light and relatively soft wood in aeroplane structures, in which relatively wide metallic (sheet iron) strips are imbedded in the wood and then electroplating the wood with metal, such as copper, to protect it from the elements and to provide means

for indicating breaks in the wood resulting from strains or other causes. The illustration shows a fragmentary view of a strut constructed in this manner. The wood is recessed and the strips secured therein by glue or cement. The whole is then treated with a coat of bronze and placed in the bath of an electroplating apparatus where it is coated with a film of copper. It is understood that the wood has first been cut to length and shaped.

"Publijhed Monthly by Atronauttcj Prtjj 122 E. 25th ST.. NEW YORK

Cable: Aeronautic. New York ■phone, 9122 Madison Sq. ERNEST L. JONES. Pres'1 - - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treai'r-See'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, S3.00 Foreign, S3 50

No. 70

JUNE, 1913

Vol. XII, No. 6

Entered as second-class mailer September 22, 1908, at the Postof ice, New York, under the Act ot March 3, 1879.

<J AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the aoth. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

CJ Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

cylero cTVlart

RATES : 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. Payment in advance.

MOTORS FOR SALE

ENGINE FOR SALE—8-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller. $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

HYDROPLANE .MOTOR for sale. Roberts 50 H. P. 4-X. Used one hour. In perfect condition. A bargain. C. K. Myers, Wilmington, N. C.

FOR SALE—A 50 H. P. Gnome, 1-4-X 50 H. P. Roberts, propellers and radiators for same. Also 2 Monoplanes in O. K. shape, cheap. Address, "Roherts." care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th Street. New York.

FOR SALE—S-cyl. 60 H. P. motor, Bosch mag-i*eto, Schebler carburetor, radiators, gas tank, two propellers, $800.00. Tractor Biplane, good exhibition machine, tent, crates, extra parts, fully guaranteed, $400.00. F. Robinson, 191 Caledonia Ave., Rochester, N. Y.

ON ACCOLTNT disagreement of partners, must sell 60 H. P. 8-cvl. Hall-Scott motor, with propeller practically new, rare bargain, $650.00. Astor Auto Co., 1606 Broadway.

AEROPLANES

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

MISCELLANEOUS

HYDROAEROPLANES, AEROPLANES. MOTORS—30, 50, 75 H. P. Great Bargains. Demonstrations. Patterson, A986 Trumbull. Detroit—July.

WISE—One copy of the rare book by John Wise, A System of Aeronautics, for sale to first comer at $10. First-class condition. This books is getting more rare every day. Address Sheahan, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

WE ARE making contracts for Fair and Park flights. Get our price. Address, Monoplane Exposition Co., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

TWENTY-FOOT BIPLANE GLIDERS—Get one, the best, the safest, easiest to operate, and enjoy flying in a moderate form. You can learn the art of flying, and also make big money with it. Price, $35.00 apiece. Audrey Lambdin, Steele, N. D.

FINANCIAL

I HAVE a 400 H. P. aeronautic motor suitable for trans-Atlantic aeroplane; $5,000 is needed to build the machine. I will put up this motor and construct the aeroplane for the above sum of money and will give half of the Daily Mail $50,000 prize, wlKn won, to the man advancing above amount. Have had ten years' experience in aeroplane construction, and at present have assistance of several expert aeronautical engineers. Stanley Y. Beach. Aeronautical Editor, The Scientific American, 125 East 23rd St net, New York.

SACRIFICE SALE

1 Hamilton Monoplane with enclosed fuselage— without motor.

1 Hamilton Tractor-biplane—without motor. 1 Hamilton Biplane with Hydro attachments—without motor.

1 Bleriot Monoplane—without motor. 1 Farinan Biplane, 46 ft. spread of wings—without motor.

1 Roberts 4-X 50 H. P. Motor. All the above new.

Several propellers, extra fittings and material. Any part or all of the above will be sold at extraordinary low prices to close out. Write at once. Brooks Aeroplane Co., Saginaw, Mich.,

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

s cyl. "V " type 60 H.P. jjn pounds.

RELIABILITY DURA RI LIT Y

MAXIMUM POWER. MINIMUM WEIGHT.

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Wiite for particulars.

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

"Making Trouble for Constructors and Aviators."

An Aeronautical Writer has "taken his pen in hand'' to indite a destructive criticism of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania's bill for national registration and licensing, saying that such would work a hardship on constructors and aviators.

Certainly our Government would license only competent aviators, those who could not only fulfill the ridiculous conditions of an international club certificate but prove themselves real fliers instead of frequent menaces to spectators as well as themselves. There is no hardship there, save for the incompetent.

A national bill would not prohibit one good flyer from flying in a "licensed" meet, and let another incompetent. Is there any hardship there?

Would our Government suspend a competent aviator because he flew in an "unlicensed" meet ?

The Army and Navy successively more rigid specifications might be deemed to work a hardship on constructors, although they make for quick progress. On this A.W. remains silent.

What's that epigram about a "beam in thine own eye"?

"Aviators Disqualified"

This is the heading under which the daily newspapers told of the disqualification for a period of C. M. Wood, a well known and most excellent flyer, and Frederick C. Hild, because they flew over or about the field where the international polo game was being played. It is as yet uncertain whether the disqualifying body desires to advance interest in aviation by depriving many thousands of spectators at the game from seeing, for the first time, perhaps, an aeroplane in flight or whether it is acting as a society for the prevention of cruelty to polo players.

Chronology of Aviation

The "Chronology of Aviation," reprinted and enlarged from the World's Almanac of 1911, has been issued and will be an invaluable asset to any enthusiast, library, organization or aeronautic periodical. It contains a complete review of the progress of flying from its inception up to 1911 from which date records have been continuously printed in the various aeronautical magazines. The booklet has been

prepared by Messrs. Hudson Maxim and William J. Hammer. A large edition has been made possible through the co-operation of Patrick Y. Alexander. A limited number has been kindly placed with AERONAUTICS for disposal among its readers and will be mailed on request upon receipt of a two cent postage stamp. Copies have also been placed at the disposal of The Aeronautical Society, The American Institute of Electrical Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Franklin Institute and other organizations; Mr. Alexander will distribute a large number abroad. This booklet contains die only record of its kind of early flights. Every record is complete and verified. Mr. Hammer has devoted six months of indefatigable effort to produce this extraordinary work.

"I Should Worry" The failure of our Congress to provide for our army and navy is not only short-sighted and unpatriotic but it verges on treason. No sane business man would build a costly skyscraper without having it properly insured, yet our nation is constructing a canal far from our borders, costing hundreds of millions of dollars, which will soon be open and which is as unfortified as Gowanus, L. I.

Believe me, if England had built that canal, it would have been bristling with cannon long ago. The Philippines and Hawaii are to be had for the taking and our coaling stations out there are said to be unprovided for. Does any grape juice dreamer really believe that we are so near the era of universal peace that a great and rich nation can safely neglect her armaments without courting disaster?

Since when has human nature changed? In spite of Mr. Carnegie's assertion that we should not build battleships to rust and decay, let me point to the hundreds of thousands of soldiers' graves all over our country and to the hundreds of millions of dollars in pensions that are appropriated every year, and say to him and other dreamers—build warships and pray to God that they may rust. That is better than to have the invader's battalions quartered in our coast cities, maybe even in the Carnegie libraries that dot our fair land. Brothers fought brothers in the war 50 years ago, and we have no reason to believe that human nature has so greatly changed since then that strangers will have more consideration for us than have our own people. Evolution is slow, and warfare may disappear in a million years, but just now the nation whose motto is "I should worry" is courting disaster.

R. E. Scott.

AERONA UTICS

June, 1913

Quality Tires

For Aeroplanes

Wherever you find Goodyear Aeroplane Tires in use, there you find men enthusiastic over tire service. These tires, because of their quality, are used and recommended by practically all leading authorities.

Here are some of the well known users of Goodyear Aeroplane Accessories—Tires, Fabric, Springs, etc.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Co., The Wright Company, Burgess Company & Cuttis.The Glenn L. Martin Co., Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Benoist Aircraft Co.

Fourteen years of tire building experience has taught us that the larger tires are made, the better service they will give. Large tires mean greater resiliency— greater strength. They minimize the strain

on planes and mechanism due to landing shocks.

So we recommend large tires and build them accordingly. Build them to stand heaviest strains— build them to give best service.

We make all kinds of Aeroplane Tires—Single Tube and Double Tube, No-Rim-Cut and Clincher types, furnishing rims and built-up wheels.

We also make the famous Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric—the fabric that stays tight. Unaffected by heat, cold, moisture. Waterproof qualities make it ideal for Hydroaeroplanes.

WRITE FOR INTERESTING BOOKLET

Let us send our booklet describing our saving Aeroplane Accessories—tires, fabric, springs, etc.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio

Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities

We Make All Kinds of Rubber Tires, Tire Accessories and Repair Outfits MAIN CANADIAN OFFICE, Toronto, Ont. CANADIAN FACTORY, Bowmanville, Ont.

The Bowden Patent Wire Mechanism

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

SOLE IMPORTERS 250 WEST 54th ST., NEW YORK

V-Ray Spark-Plugs Nev'■»■ Lay Down

The V-RAY CO.

Mar.shalltOYvn. Ia.

CHARAVAY PROPELLERS

BETTER THAN EVER

Have you seen our new price list ? Write for it. A price for everybody.

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO., - 1733 BROADWAY, New York City.

Agents: Eames Tricyle Co., Sao Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago.

June, 1913

JET* *mJWgrrT "6

The Cavanagh Hydro

BY HARRY SCHULTZ

The model hydroaeroplane shown in the accompanying sketch and photograph was constructed by Geo. A. Cavanagh, of Wood-haven, L. I., one of the most enthusiastic members of the Long Island Model Aero Club, an organization which has lately been doing excellent flying.

This model was much in evidence at the Aeronautical Society's flying tournament held at Oakwood Heights, where it broke the world's record with a flight of 602-5 seconds duration.

When equipped with a running gear or landing chassis this model has made flights

1621

Chartered by the University of the State of New York. Superior opportunities offered. Training under Walter E. Johnson. Learn over land or water. Complete your course on the

THOMAS FLYING BOAT.

Tuition complete, $250.00.

More than 100G0 successful passenger-carrying- flights have been made on Thomas Machines, without a single serious accident.

Thomas Aeroplanes embody the latest American and European ideas

in design and construction.

THOMAS SCHOOL

FRENCH AEROPLANES

ENGINEERS INVENTORS AVIATORS CONSTRUCTORS

TAKE NOTICE!

For all photos, descriptions, data, news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below:

Etudes Aeronautiques

ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.G.P. 20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (Vosges\ France

A DAMS-FAR WELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN DAILY USE FOR TEN YEARS.

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET,

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

For full particulars, address

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.

BATH, N. Y.

^^^m, „----

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specificalions for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

Broadway and 57th St., New York City

Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators if all types

^ATEKPR OOf

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C QUALITY

FOR FLYING BOATS USE

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Hlack, White, or Yellow Soft (Juality Clue for waterproofing the canvas covering' of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat.

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planning, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces.

Send for samples, circulars, directions (or use, etc.

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

of over 1,400 feet and 65 seconds' duration after rising from the ground.

The fuselage is constructed of two strips of silver spruce, 36 inches long and J4 inch by 3-16 inch in thickness. It is braced by a bamboo strip 8 inches from the rear brace which is also of split bamboo mc^ wide and n inches long.

The planes are constructed of spruce and bamboo, the main spar and the entering and trailing edges being of spruce and the ribs bamboo. 'I he main plane has a span of 33 inches, a chord of 5>4 inches. The elevating plane has a span of 14 inches and a chord of 3l/2 inches. 3.id is placed on the fuselage approximately 2 inches from its apex. The edge of the elevating plane rests on a block % inch hiffh. Both planes are covered with China silk and given a thin coat of white shellac. Each plane has a camber of inch.

The propellers are 10 inches in diameter and have a pitch of approximately 20 inches. They are e.ich driven by sixteen strands of Y% inch flat rubber.

The pontoons each measure 8 inches in length, 2 inches in width and ^4 inch in depth. They are constructed of balsa wood and covered with China silk, which is coated with Ambroid varnish. They are attached to the fuselage by 1-16 in. flat steel wire as shown in the accompanying drawings. The model rises from the water after a run of about five feet.

Do You Not Know

that WRITTEN TESTIMONIALS are

unworthy of consideration when purchasing an aviation motor because they are usually written by agents or aviators who desire free advertising or who feel under obligation to the manufacturer for some favor shown them. Written Testimonials are one of the oldest and most common snares used by many manufactures to further the sale of their products.

KIRKHAM

AVIATION MOTORS

however do not depend upon written testimonials for their sa!e. We can furnish letters by the score, if you so desire, as the percentage of real successes among the KIRKHAM owners is greater than that of any other aviation motor.

Kirkham Motors Produce Results

That is the Best Testimonial you can get.

If you are in the market for an aviation motor, send us your name so that we can acquaint you with the results obtained with the KIRKHAM motors.

Write today; it is to your interest to do so.

Kirkham Aeroplane & Motor Co.

Inc.

SAVONA, N. Y.

NEW WORLD RECORD FOR HYDRO

At the meet of The Aeronautical Society at its grounds, Oakwood Heights, May 30, G. H. Cavanaugh broke the world's duration record for hydroaeroplane models, the time being 602/5 seconds; beating the Selley record of 53 seconds.

Harry Herzog also broke the world's duration record for a double tractor hydroaeroplane model, time 282/5 seconds.

Model contests are held every Sunday at Church and Ralph Avenues, Brooklyn, at 2 P. M., for gold medals. For information, address Edward Durant, Model Committee Chairman, Room 218, World B'ld'g., New York; 'phone 4000 Beekman, Extension 200.

WORLD RECORDS

The world's records are now as follows:

Dur., from hand, Amour Selley..... 158 sec.

Dis., from hand, Amour Selley____2,658 ft.

Dis., from ground, L. Bamberger.. 1,542 ft. Dur., from ground, W. F. Bamberger 81 sec. Hydroaeroplane duration, Geo. A.

Cavanagh .......................60 2-5 sec.

Tractor Hydroaeroplane duration,

Harry Herzog ..................28 2-5 sec.

Model flying contests are held every Sunday afternoon at Ralph and Church Aves., Brooklyn, N. Y., for gold medals. Full particulars may be obtained from Mr. Edward Durant, Aeronautical Bureau, World Bldg., N. Y. City.

CONSTRUCTION OF PROPELLERS

{Continuedfrom page 20?)

about the edges of the blade, after which a series of tests under unloaded and loaded conditions is carried out in exactly the same manner as described for the other class of propellers. They are then sand-papered and finished in all respects similar to the other type.

When finished, these propellers have a very attractive appearance indeed, the entire faces and hub portions of the blades being hard wood, usually oak, uniform in color throughout and of exactly similar grain and texture for both blades. This similarity is obtained by resawing the lumber into two or three thicknesses, according to the number of blades, and using for each blade of the propeller one of the thicknesses sawed from the same board. The other laminations forming the backs and interior portions of the blades are formed in exactly similar manner, the only difference being that light weight material is used, the result being that the backs of the blades are for the most part white spruce or other very light colored wood in pleasing contrast with the oak of the faces and hub portions.

These twisted propellers have sprung into immediate favor with both Army and Navy. All of the Navy Wright machines are equipped with them and arrangements are in progress for adopting them to the same ext.'nt by the Army.

< BENOIST «r

PLANES hold the iollowiuq records:

World's long distance hydro record with one passenger. World's long distance hydro record with two passengers. American endurance record, aviator and three passengers. Have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. The first successful Tractor Biplane built in America.

Records indicate superior efficiency. Why not get an efficient machine •while you are about it >

The Xe-.v Renoist Flying

Br BENOIST AIR CRAFT CO.

Action 6628 DELMAR BLVD. ST. LOUIS, MO.

50 H.P.

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GYRO MOTOR

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Endurance Record to Date 4 hrs., 23 min.

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

From the

''MOTOR W AGENT

of Nov. 20. 1912 In the testing establishment of Dr. Bendemannat Adletshof (near Berlin), a 7-cylinder Gyro Motor was recently tested. In a 5-hour endurance run and at i.oooR.P.M.. an average of 45.7 H. P. was obtained. The fuel consumtd was 14.7 kg. gasoline per hour and 3.06 kg. Indicating oil, which is more favorable than the Gnome motor of the same horse-power. The weight of the motor was 73 kg.

Send for Catalog

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

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BUILD YOUR OWN

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DON'T write us unless 1 you are interested in a reliable, efficient and economical power plant. 1 hat is the only kind we -build. Four sizes. '. r^.' Reasonable Prices

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, Ind.

June, 1913

M.l.T. TO RIVAL SMITHSONIAN

On the request of President R. C. Maclavtrin of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Secretary Daniels, of the Department of the Navy, has detailed Assistant Naval Constructor Jerome C. Hunsaker for work at the institute in developing courses in aerodynamics, the foundation of all kinds of work with the aeroplane.

The Institute was the first school in the country to fit its laboratories with apparatus for investigating the scientific conditions of wind movement and pressure with refers nee to the aeroplane and last year established a course of lectures by Mr. A. A. Merrill. The resources of Tech. ,in this department also include experts in mathematics of aerodynamics, others skilled in the principles of construction, in naval architecture, in mechanical engineering. With the wealth of resource President Maclaurin has felt that it is time for Technology to go into this important work of the future in a thorough and scientific manner, and accordingly he has asked for Mr. Hunsaker, a graduate of the Institute, a product of the school whose quality is well known, that he may look over the field and outline what the best courses may be in the prosecution of the Institute's desires.

The purpose of the courses will be to establish, if the interest of the country can be arroused to warrant it. systematic instruction in the theory and design in aeroplanes. The backwardness of this country compared _ with those of Europe is notable, and Dr. Maclaurin wishes Technology to be the leader, and to take the first large steps, as it has already taken some smaller ones, towards placing the study of the aeroplane among engineering accomplishments. Even till now the development of the flying machine has been by the "cut and try" method.

It will be the first idea to send Mr. Hunsaker to Europe where he may have authoritative access to the great aeronautic laboratories. Teddington, that of Eiffel and the German institution, so that he can bring back to Technology all available information. The plan will then be developed and it will be determined how the new work will hest fit in with the other studies that the Institute has now already established.

Since leaving Technology, Mr. Hunsaker has been assistant shop superintendent at the Boston Navy Yard. One of his contributions to the matter directly in hand, aerodynamics, is his translation of Eiffel's "Resistance of the Air and Aviation," which is in press.

SKY SCRAPINGS

FLIES 250 MILES BY" WATER.

Paducah, Ky., May 24.—Tony Jannus and his pupil in a Benoist tractor hydroaeroplane left here for St. Louis by the air route, following the course of the Mississippi River. Nearing St. Louis his gas gave out for the third time and he had to stop at the foot of Potomac St.. covering practically 250 miles in 7 hours 36 mins. Actual flying time wis 4 hours 15 mins. Two stops were made for gas. He had been giving exhibitions at Padncah and had taken up many passengers while there.

St. Louis, June 17.—With_ two passengers. Tonv Jannus left in his new Benoist flying boat for Chicago to take part in the Great Lakes Cruise. The first stage ended at Alton, Ills., a distance of about 20 miles in 18 minutes.

May 31.—Harry Atwood, with a flying boat of his o\vn design, started to cross Lake Erie from Sandusky, O., a distance of ahout 50 miles. After being in the air three and a half hours he was picked nn by a tug near Amherstsburg, Canada. On June 4'h he attempted the return, starting from Ecorse, coding to the water off Sugar Island and being fimllv towed in to_ Sandusky on June 10th. A power boil found him in the lake at 4.30 in the afternoon and they reached Sandusky at 1.30 in the morning. 11 c is now fitting up his old Burgess-Wright again.

June 9.—Weldon B. Cooke flies to Put-in-Bay from Sandusky and back the following day: distance one way is 19 miles.

Ithaca, N. Y., May 26.—C. H. Wetzel. Cornell student, makes glider flight, towed by automobile, twice around, five_ times around a circular track and remained up 4 mins. 25 sees.

May 30.—C. M. Wood, Moisant pilot and instructor, flew from Hempstead, L. I., to the Aeronautical Society's meet at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island, a distance of around 25 miles, in 1 hour 17 mins., against a very strong head wind. _ Much of the trip was over water. After participating in the flights he returned a few days later.

Annapolis, Tune 3.—Four_ navy water planes fly to Chestertown and back, a distance of 59 miles. The four machines were piloted by Lt. B. L. Smith and mechanic (Curtiss hydro), Ensigns Chevalier and Bil-lingsley (Curtiss hydro), Lt. A. A. Cunningham and mechanic (Wright hydro). Lt. T. II. Towers and Lt. T. N. L. Bellinger (Curtiss flying boat).

NATIONAL BALLOON RACE

Three official entries have been made for the national balloon race from Kansas City, Mo., July 4th, which is also an elimination race to _ select American representatives for the international race at Paris. Oct. 21st.

The Aero Cluh of America has no information and the Kansas City Club docs not seem to care enough about boosting aeronautics to answer appeals for information. Perhaps at some future day those claiming to be "controlling" the progress of aeronautics may reduce theory to practice and do something.

Among those mentioned as possible contestants are: II. K. Honeywell, the veteran balloon huilder, of St. Louis; II. B. Wild, representing Chicago; Albert Ilolz, from Cincinnati; John Berry and William Ass-mann, for St. Louis: G. L. Bumbaugh, from Indianapolis; A. T. Atherholt, from Philadelphia. Other names mentioned are: R. F. Donaldson, John Watts, Paul McCnllongh and Dr. L. E. Custer, of Dayton

900 MILES IN ONE DAY

Marcel G. Brindejonc des Moulinais. on June IOth beat all distance records by flying from Paris to Warsaw by wav of Berlin, a distance of 1,500 kilometers (approximately 933 miles), in thirteen hours, and, excluding stops, attained an average speed of 150 kilometers (93.3 miles) an hour. He accomplished this in the competition for the Pommery Cup —for the longest flight across country from sunrise to sunset in one day, with stops if necessary.

Brindejonc des Moulinais' actual flying time for the 925 kilometers (575 miles) was 6 hours and 39 minutes. After lunching _ at _ Berlin with the military aviators he resumed his journey to Warsaw, where he landed safely at 6.15 P. Mi. well ahead of the sundown limit.

On April 28 Gnillaux flew from Biarritz to Kol-lum, Holland, 1,000 miles, with two stops, in a little over 22 hours, using two days.

A New Wright Flyer

We will present this season a new model, known as Model ''E", designed especially fur

EXHIBITION FLYING

This model will be equipped with either four or six cylinder motor, turning a single propeller. It is so designed that it can be taken down for express shipment and reassembled within a few hours.

The old models, refined in details, will be continued for use of those who wish to fly for pleasure and sport.

All models may be equipped with HYDROPLANES.

The Wright School of Aviation

Our School of Aviation will open at Simms Station (Dayton) about April ist with a corps of competent instructors. The school will be under the personal supervision of Mr. Orville Wright. Tuition for a complete course will be $250.00. Enroll now.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

Dept. "A", Dayton, Ohio

New York Office, - - 11 Pine Street

Hotel Cumberland

NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street

"Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 min utes, also 7tli Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station

Headquarters for A viators and Auto-niobilists.

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With Bath

Send for booklet

Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres

H. P. STIMSON

Formerly with Hotel Imperial

I NAIAD f Aeronautical Cloth

AND

Aero Varnish

Wc were the first in the field, and the test of time is proving-that our product is the best.

+ Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request ^

+ 4.

t The C. E. Conover Co. |

J MANUFACTURERS +

J 101 Franklin Street, New York J

N. Y. AERO CORPS BILL KILLED

From the State Militia Aviation Corps bill, pressed by the A. C. A. before the Legislature, the Adjutant-General withdrew his support and the bill was killed. The bill provided for an aero division of the National Guard, to include biplane and monoplane equipment and the necessary fields and flying corps.

HALL-SCOTT SAYS BUSINESS GOOD

The Hall-Scott Motor Car Co. reports a verv husv season thus far. LTp to the present month they have sold ten motors. The 100 H. P. has been flving in actual test for the last week giving surprising results. The next issue will have a full description of this motor which will interest the aviation followers of today.

NEW CORPORATIONS

The Queen City Aero Club, Cincinnati, L. A. Horn and others.

Beachy Aviation Company, Chicago, $2,500; give aeroplane exhibitions, manufacturing also. Incorporators, Samuel Dn Vines, Isaac Tarnopol and Ray V. Merwin.

Itala Aeroplane Company of Manhattan, $100,000; George R. Cooper, Arthur D. Lafar, Rubino Plas-tino, 49 Maiden Lane, New York City.

The Stinson Aviation Company of Hot Springs filed articles of incorporation with the Secretary of State reccntlv. The company is capitalized at $10,000, of which $3,070 has been subscribed. The incorporators are: Katherine Stinson. Emma B. Stinson and Abner II. Cook. The general nature of the business is to buy, manufacture, sell, own and rent flying machines.

Aero Sales Companv. Inc., Springfield, mirrors, $50,000: George Ulrich, John T. Tanzey, Charles H. S u gh rue.

BUSINESS TROUBLES

Paul Gnauk, a baker, won his suit for the return of $315 paid to the Milwaukee School and College of Aviation.

St. Ives, the marathon runner, tried to evade service by flying his aeroplane, but when he came down the policeman was on hand and took him to the jail for lack of bond. The warrant was sworn out by Peter McLaughlin for board.

Some awfully unkind and hard-hearted persons allege that process servers have failed to locate George Beatty, who is said to have gone to England.

ANDREW DREW KILLED

Lima. ()., June 12.—Andrew Drew, a well known aviator, was killed at Lima, June 12, while making a flight in the Wright biplane. He had been in the air but a short time when the accident occurred. While flying at an altitude of about 201 fee', he was seen to make a turn, at the same time shutting off the motor. According to the eye witnesses of the fall, the midline was seen to suddenly dive to earth, and the motor restarted. As the spectators ran across the field to the wreck, there was the sound of an explosion and the wreckage was torn apart and set on fire by the burning gasoline from the supply tank. Drew was dead when the rescuers reached the spot, having been instantly killed.

Andrew Drew first obtained aeronautic recognition as an amateur balloonist. In August, 1911, he went to Dayton, (Ihio. to learn to fly the Wright biplane. Two days la'tr he made his debut at the great Chicago meet where he won several places in the events.

Drew established a unique record, bv making up to the time of his death, 1,700 flights without an accident of nnv kind, and proved his skill under all conditions of flying.

TWO FALL 1650 FEET IN HYDRO ONE ESCAPES

Ensign W. D. Billingsley, of the Navy, was thrown from his hydroaeroplane at a height of over 1650 feet into the water and was drowned, on June 21, at Annapolis. _ Another pilot. Lieu*". Towers, was a passenger with him in the B-2 Navy Wright machine fitted with float on their week-end run to Kent Island. Billingsley had not been flying alone in that machine very long, having been handicapped by delays due to experiments with various motors. When over the- bay, five miles from Annapolis, ahout 1650 feet u\<". the tail suddenly lifted and Billingsley, wi'h both hands on the levers, of course, tried to pull back but he must have had sufficient momentum to prevent his recovery and he pitched headforemost out of the machine. Towers grabbed the nearest upright and hung on. About midway down the fall was tamped by the machine turning a somersault. Towers tried to get hold of the levers but found the strain on his grasp too great. When nearing the water Towers swung clear and on rising to the surface found the machine bottom, clambered up on the pontoon. The fifth rib on one side was broken and contusions of the muscles of loin and other bruises were sustained. His condition looks favorable for recovery.

DEATH OF GARDNER

Fred F. Gardner, of Portland, Me., student at the Curtiss school was drowned in Lake Keuka, Ham-mondsport, when he attempted "too sharp a turn."

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Arthur T. Atherholt, pilot, Lawrence Mess and P. T. Sharpies in the "Penn. I" to Lakewood, N. J., from Holmesburg, Pa., on June 20.

Portland, Ore.. June 6.—E. Unger and 3 passengers landed at the forks of the Lewis River.

Koseburg, Ore.. May 26.— E. Unger, Robert Lead-better. Luther Page and Earl Stewart landed in an isolated place in the Cascade Range, 75 miles east of here.

Kansas City. May 30.—John Watts and Geo. E. Quisenberry in the Kansas City III to Winwood Station.

Kansas City, May 30.—Roy F. Donaldson, alone, in the Topeka I to an island in the center of the Missouri River 3^ miles east of Atherton, Mo.

Kansas City, May 25.— R. F. Donaldson and John Watts in the Kansas City III to Liberty, Mo.

LAMSON VS. WRIGHT SUIT

The case of Lamson vs. Wright has been dismissed. Suit was brought against The Wright Company by Charles II. Lamson for alleged infringement of the Lamson kite patent in which warping is claimed.

Chicago, May 31—James Colovan, a young amateur flyer, was killed to-day by the overturning of his home-made Curtiss-type biplane. Colovan's machine caught in the branches of a tree. His motor was doing poorly and after deciding to land, changed his mind and attempted to clear som; trees but failed.

WRIGHT WINS DAMAGE SUIT

Of interest to all flying exhibitions is the recent decision in the United States Court in New York, Justice McCoomb, June 10, in the damage suit brought by Mary Lvnch, of Milwaukee, against The Wright Co. Arch Hoxsey met with an accident at a state fair at Milwaukee in September, 1910, and the fall of the aeroplane in an enclosure in front of the grandstand was alleged to have injured Mrs. Lynch, and suit was brought for $25,000 damages. Witnesses were produced by the Wright Company to show competency of Iloxsey and the perfection of the machine of that time. The jury rendered a verdict for the defendant "as no negligence had been shown by the plaintiff. Another suit of a similar nature was decided last year in favor of _ the defendant company, growing out of an accident at Asbury Park. One more suit is pending. A precedent has thus been established for the guidance of the Court in future. The Lynch suit is the first aeroplane dairnge suit ever to have been decided by a United States court in this country, and the second of its kind on record here.

A MILE A MINUTE WITH A ROBERTS 4-X, 50 H.P.

Sender catalog and letters from users

F. C. Hild (Monoplane) Racing Billy Watson

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"My Roberts motored monoplane has been doing practically all the Hying at Hempstead Plains this spring and the whole of last winter. All told. I have flown over 2500 miles in the past eight months and the motor today is as good if not better than when it left your factory." FREDERICK C. HILD.

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Now Ready

The Airman's Vade=Mecum

"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY

By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B.

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CONTENTS : Introduction and 5 Chapters on 1 emperature. Pressure, Wind, and Precipitation. Weather Forecasting. Index. {Illust'ated) Price 40 Cents Net Post Free

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

ALBATROSS ENGINES

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Lithographers

k^t .\hlishki) 18o5

Aeroplane, Motor and Accessory Catalogues Circulars, Brochures, Bulletins, etc. :: ::

135 W. 14th STREET

NEW YORK

SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES

Goods of quality at loss than the cheaper kind. Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AVIATIC" and a small order will tell you why those who know-send to us when they want the best at the rigrht price. Let us give you a special figure on that supply list.

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO.

208 30th Avenue Seattle, W»sh.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Imports for April totaled but one machine valued at $900; for the ten months ending with April 13 were imported, with parts, at a value of $52,696. No exports for April: for ten months ending then 25 machines were sent abroad, with parts, valued at $96,974. No exports of foreign machines during April, thougli 4 remain in warehouse at a valuation of $10,084.

NEW CERTIFICATES ISSUED

224. W. Knox Martin, Dominguez Field, Los Angeles, Cal., Deperdussin monoplane, March 29, 1913.

225. S. F. Samura, Dominguez Field, Los Angeles, Cal., Curtiss biplane, April 8, 1913.

226. Edward Olivier, Dominguez Field, Los Angeles, Cal., Curtiss biplane, April 8, 1913.

227. Tokuji Nakamura, North Island, San Diego, Cal.. Curtiss biplane, April 28, 1913.

228. Theodore C. Macaulay, North Island, San Diego, Cal., Curtiss biplane, April 28, 1913.

229. G. Rush Strong, North Island, San Diego, Cal., Curtiss biplane, April 29, 1913.

230. Arthur Blasiaer, Bath, N. Y., Headless type biplane, April 9, 1913.

231. Robert Hoshino, Los Angeles, Cal., Deperdussin monoplane, April 26, 1913.

232. George A. Rawson, Bath, N. Y., Thomas, headless biplane. May 12, 1913.

233. Lawrence O. Stroud, San Diego, Cal., Curtiss hiplane, May 14, 1913.

234. James D. Hill, San Diego, Cal., Curtiss biplane, May 14, 1913.

235. Alex T. Heine, San Diego, Cal., Curtiss biplane, May 17, 1913.

236. Bernard F. Marusky, Bath, N. Y., Thomas biplane, March 18, 1913.

237. Morris R. Triest, Dayton, Ohio, Wright biplane. Model B., June 2, 1913.

WRIGHT CHARGES NO ROYALTY

lt may not he generally known that The Wright Company no longer charges operators of Wright machines in profitable exhibitions any royalty fee, this dating from the first of this year. The purchaser of a Wright machine now has the free and unrestricted use of the machine. This action will give users more of an advantage in competing for exhibition contracts, in addition to which, the new exhibition machine has many advantages over the standard for this sort of work.

ATWATER JOINS SLOANE

William B. Atwater, has become associated with John E. Sloane, of the Sloane Aeroplane Co., in the manufacture of aeroplanes and hydroaeroplanes.

Atwater first took up flying in 1911 in California. He and Mrs. Atwater were greatly interested in the sport and he was the first sportsman to buy a hydroaeroplane.

After obtaining his license, No. 98, he and Mrs. Atwater made a great number of flights together in California and he participated in the Los Angeles meet of 1911. Shortly after they made a trip around the world and took their hydroaeroplane with them. He made his first flights in Japan the end of April. After tilis Mr. Atwater made a number of demonstration flights in different parts of the Empire, all of which were very successful. 1 lis farewell flight in Japan was made over Mississippi Bay, the place where Admiral Perry landed on his mission to open the Ports of Japan to the commerce of the world. Some of the head hunters from Formosa who were visiting Japan in charge of the military authorities, were invited to fly with Mr. Atwater, but they were greatly alarmed at the prospect. From there Mr. Atwater flew in China, Strait Settlements and Manila. A feature which was of great interest to the orientals was the fact that Mrs. Atwater so often accompanied her husband on his flights. Mr. Atwater will have charge of the demonstrating, school and exhibition work for the Sloane Aeroplane Co., and will conduct their machines in all the big competitions in this country and abroad. He served in the Navy during the Spanish-American War, becoming a non-commissioned officer., lie is a member of the Elks and Odd-Fellows.

BOOKS RECEIVED

THE AIRMAN'S VADE-MECUM, No. 1, Meteorology, by Col. 11. E. Rawson, C.B. 16 mo., boards, 65 pp., half-tone illustrations and diagrams. A popular and interesting treatise on meteorology as applied to aeronautics. Published by Aeronautics, 3 London Wall Bldg., London, England, at 40 cents. Lamson vs. Wright Suit

The actual flying mileage that is being piled up at Hammondsport from day to dav ought to put J. Lansing Callan and Francis Wildman in the Michelin Trophy Class. During three days Callan flew more than 1000 miles; it is seldom that he flies less than 250 miles in a day, and on several occasions this spring he has passed the 400 mile mark. Wildman does almost as much, but his European trip upset his milage total by a break of two or three weeks.

'J

Knabenshue's Dirigible

THE AERONAUTICAL BOOKSHELF

Epitome of the Aeronautical

AnnUal By JAMES MEANS

In one volume is contained the principal articles from the three annuals of 1895, 1896 and 1897, published by Mr. Means. Contains the theories and experiments of Cayley. Wenliam, Lilicnthal, Maxim, Langley and others, written by themselves. Fundamental facts are given. One of the absolutely necessary volumes. III., 224 pp., $1.12

The Problem of Flight

By HERBERT CHATLEY

A strictly technical book for the engineer.

111., 119 pp., $3.50

The Conquest of the Air

By the Late Prof. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH

A popular but authoritative book on the Ocean of Air, History of Aerostation, Dirigible Balloon, Flying Machine, The Future of Aerial Navigation. 111., $1.10

Indispensable Books

Aerial Navigation

By DR. ALBERT F. ZAHM

In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays the progress of aeronautics.leaving on t nnproductiveexperiments. The pilots of today know little of the history of the machine they use daily. The percentage of those who are familiar with progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an absorbing volume which must take its place on every bookshelf.

111., 486 pp., $3.00

Art of Aviation

By ROBERT W. A. BREWER

One of the best handbooks on aviation. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for tlie amateur, cxperimentor and pilot. 111., 266 pp., $3 50

Langley Memoir on Mechan-

™1 El:~L* By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY

ICal r llgnt «nd charles m. manly

In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor Langley's previous work and contains wonderful photo graphs and scale drawings of all of the models and the engine* constructed and tested by Langley and his assistant, Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight in the formulae and the practical man will find a vast a:noant of data. One of the scant dozen "best hooks."

Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50

Curtiss Aviation Book

By GLENN H. CURTISS and AUGUSTUS POST

A popular book. Describes Curtiss' flights, his early life, how he planned and worked out his machine—close view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck. Lt. Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. 111., 307 pp., $1.49

Langley's "MEMOIR"

Langley's "EXPERIMENTS"

Maxim's "ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLIGHT"

Loening's "MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES"

Means' "EPITOME"

Brewer's "ART OF AVIATION"

Hayward's "PRACTICAL" AERONAUTICS

Bird-flight as the Basis of

Aviation By GUSTAV LILIENTHAL

Covers the gliding work of O. and G. Lilicnthal.

III., 166 pp., $2.50

The Aeroplane in War

By C. GRAHAME WHITE and H. HARPER

A book with prophecies of the future. 111., $3.00

Experiments in Aerodynamics By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY

This with the other Langley book forms the keystone of the aeronautical library. Purely technical. Details of the experimental machines of Professor Langley. The indispensable book. 111. $1.50

Artificial and Natural Flight

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM

Concise history of development of flying machines and Maxim's own experimental work. There are but few worth-while technical books on aviation. This is one. Ills., 172 pp., $1.75

Monoplanes and Biplanes

By GROVER C. LOENING

Covers design, construction and operation. The author has taken the work of the best known experimentors and analyzed the results, comparing them and averaging. Another necessary book. PI., 345 pp., $2.50

How to Build an Aeroplane

By ROBERT PETIT

A handbook for the young man in school, or beginning building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply written. III., 131 pp., $1.50

Building and Flying an Aeroplane By chas. b. hayward

A practical handbook, co gliders and power machiiu

.'ring construction of models, III., 160 pp., $1.00

Practical Aeronautics

By CHAS. B. HAYWARD

Treatise on Dirigibles, Aeroplane*. Motors, Propellers, Practice, Future, etc. III.. 800 pp., $3.50

AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, < ven, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given.—Editor.

Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and prior art of which are unknown to you—William Macomher.

ISSUED MAY 13, 1913

1,061,484—Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, Los Angeles, Cal., BALLOON-DIRIGIBLE in which a flexible casing secured to the gas bag about at median line extending down in form of an inverted cone to concentrating ring, propelling means and arrangement for conducting exhaust engine gases into space between gas bag and the conical casing.

*1,061,701—Paul Stumpf and Josef Schroeder, Berlin, Germany, CONTROLLING DEVICE for flying machines, consisting of rotatable shaft, sprocket attached thereto, shaft on said rotatable shaft and transverse thereto, actuating device journaled on latter, sprocket sleeve loosely on rotatable shaft and bevel gears connecting latter sprocket and actuating device.

1,061,870—Vincente L. Rodriguez, Douglas, Ariz., HELICOPTER.

*1,061,917—Silas N. Malterner, Canton, N. Y., AEROPLANE means for adjusting angle of rrnin planes in same or opposite directions by the operator leaning in his seat against shoulder braces.

1,061,961—William McCairns, Eldorado, Ills., PROPELLER inclosed in a chamber comprising a plurality of other sections.

ISSUED MAY 20.

1,062,007—Oren Hill, North Conway, N. H., FLYING MACHINE, in which wings are revoluble on longitudinal axis between front and rear beams and have plurality of angularly related surfaces.

1,062,055— Rene Tampier, Paris, France, STEERING GEAR for aeroplanes.

1,062,074—Peter Allinio, Rust, Cal., AUTOMATIC BALANCE, in which ailerons are operated by pendulous car or boat.

1,062,116—E. J. and S. A. Randall, Rochester, N. Y., STABILITY device; ailerons operated by swinging or sliding platform.

1,062,545—Chester Arthur Lewis, St. Louis, Mo., AEROPLANE.

1,062,572—Charles E. Smith, Paterson, N. J., TANDEM AEROPLANE, in which wings are made in sections, means for securing sections rigidly to each other and to hollow body suspended in a plane bflow the wings; motor in body and propellers above body and bet wet n supporting wings.

ISSUED MAY 27

1,062,772—Halvor Olsen Eiane, San Diego, Cal., STABILITY device in which main planes are capable of change in angle by rotating about front edge, with warping arrangement; vertical surfaces between members of front, outriggers which swing in unison about vertical axis and adopted _ to respond to air currents to the extent allowed by springs.

*1,063,137—Albert O. Paulson, Los Angeles, Cal., STABILIZER. Positioned like the usual ailerons, between the planes, are hinged horizontally disposed frames, capable of movement about transverse axes in the common manner. Each frame has a series of blades pivotally mounted on fore and aft axes approximately 10° off from direction of flight, the forward ends of said blades being farther from the central line of the machine than the rear ends, the blades being set at a lifting angle normally; means for closing the blades at one side, automatically or otherwise, to produce increased lift and for swinging the blades in the other frame to a direction the reverse of normal to produce a retarding movement in flight, etc.

ISSLTED JUNE 3

1,063,204—Henry J. Kraft, Chicago, 111., AEROPLANE. Kite-shaped monoplane, warping surface, upturned tips, vertical and horizontal rudders.

1,063,306—Joseph Yolpe. New York, N. Y., AEROPLANE. Combination of propeller mounted universally to rotate in various planes for guiding the machine, propeller shaft, motor between aviator and propeller, and connections.

1,063,309—Vincent Wisnievvski, Berlin, Germany, PROPELLER, consisting of circular frame, transverse wires, hinged flaps that open or close when frame is moved in one direction or the the other, etc.

1,063,315—Jesse W. Baker, Pittsburgh, Pa., MONOPLANE, wings, with rear portion flexible, pivoted on transverse beam, means for controlling_ its inclination, means for flexing either wing; vertical steering rudders beneath forward end of body, and vertical and horizontal stabilizing planes at rear end of fuselage.

1,063,432—Edward D. Green, Chicago, 111., STABILITY device, comprising shaft-driven propeller and gyroscopic wheel mounted on same shaft, having rim encircling said propeller, unidirectional clutch coupling, which permits wheel to be driven by same shaft but capable of independent movement in the same direction, etc.

1,063,536—William Franklin Haley, Springfield, Mass., TOY AEROPLANE.

1,063,722—Montague Palmer. New York, N. Y.p STRAND-TWISTING DEVICE.

1,063,802—Greenow Johnston, Richmond, Ya., AEROPLANE, in which a series of vertical vanes are pivoted above upper plane and below lower plane, with means for turning upper ones at one end simultaneously with lower ones at other end.

1,063,805—Robert Krause, Cologne, Germany, AEROPLANE.

1,063,843—Albert Sugden, Stratford, Ont., Canada, AEROPLANE of tandem type, with front and rear planes mounted on transverse rock shafts.

ISSUED JUNE 10

1.064,015—Fred Louis Schaufler, Mattoon, 111., FLYING MACHINE.

1,064.162—Axel R. Nordstrom, West Lynn, Mass., PROPELLING MECHANISM, consisting of two motors working independently or together, three propellers.

1,064.232—Herman Leineweber, South Chicago, 111., FLYING MACHINE. It would take 19 pages to abstract this patent. There are 88 claims.

1,064,240—Norman W. Mohr, San Francisco, Cal., COMBINED AEROPLANE and DIRIGIBLE.

1,064,600—David Blaser, Milan, 111., FLYING MACHINE.

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any strength or color.

Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

Private Flying Field

Fine private field with smooth water frontage for hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

Index for Volume XII

Note.— Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907. Volume II started with the issue of January 1908. Volume III started with the July, 1908, issue. Volume IV started with the January. 1909, number. Volume V started with the July, 1909, number. Volume VI started with the January, 1910, issue and Volume VII started with the July, 1910, issue. Volume VIII started with January, 1911, number. Volume IX started with the Tuly, 1911, issue, Volume X with January, 1912, Volume XI with July, 1912, and Volume XII with January, 1913.

Only principal articles are indexed. News notes in general, and smaller mentions are not indexed.

JANUARY, 1913

PAGE

The History of the Flying Boat, with drawings 5

The Benoist Flying Boat, with scale drawings.. 16

On Aeronautical Motors, by A. Hyatt Verrill 2U New Developments in Aeronautics—Test of Gyro

Motor, Compressed Air Starter.........• • • • 28

News in General, including: American Military Aeronautics, Au'.o Club Motor Prize. Jannus'

Mississippi Flight, Maximotor Engine....... 32

Death of Frank Poland...................... 34

Patents Issued............................... 36

FEBRUARY, 1913

The Influence of Aerodynamical Laboratories and the "Autostable" Flying Machine, by

Capt. W. I. Chambers..................... 45

Patents Issued............................... 48

Tandem Surfaces and the Gliding Angle, by

A. A. Merrill.............................. 49

How an Aero lire is Made, by E. R. Preston 50

Inverted Aeroplane Motor.................... 51

On Aeronautical Motors, Continued from Jan.

by A. H. Verrill.......................... 52

Curtiss Military Tractor, with drawings........ 54

"Miss Columbia" Flying Boat, wi'.h scale drawings...................................... 56

Burgess "Coast Defense" Hydro, with scale

drawings .................................. 58

New Cooke Tractor, with scale drawings...... 60

Wrights Win Two Suits.................... 62

New Developments in Aeronautics—The New Curtiss "Six-Sixty," Electric Starters for

Aeroplanes ................................ 66

News in General, including: Government Requirements and Tests, New Corporations.... 74

MARCH, 1913

Wright-Curtiss Litigation, full report of Curtiss

case ...................................... 85

Court of Public Opinion—History of Wright

Suits ..................................... 90

Some Light on the Patent Situation, by Lee

S. Burridge .............................. 91

Wright Versus Curtiss, by Albert A. Merrill 93

Curtiss Flying Boat, with scale drawings...... 95

New Developments, including: Goodier's Launching Car and Turntable, Dr. Rell's Stabilizer. U. S. Array Aeroplane Ten's, Spratt's Buoyancy-Indicator, Propeller Efficiency, New Poland Tailless, Wire Bending Tool, Aeroplane Release Device, Elliott Instrument

Board, Berthelot Bomb Device...........96, 102

Army and Navy Appropriations............... 98

Governmental Aeronautics: Aerodynamic Laboratory ................................... 108

Federal Control of Aviation.................. 104

News in General, including: National Registration Bill, Imports and Exports, New Corporations, Curtiss Runs Motor 40 Hours, Kemp

Runs Motor 5 Hours.................. 110, 112

Patents Issued............................... 116

APRIL, 1913

Flying Boats and Motor Boating, a Symposium 125 On an Article Entitled: "An Analysis of the Forces of Flight," by Prof. Herbert Chatley

and Geo. A. Spratt, Jr..................... 128

International and American Aeroplane Records 130 Technical Talks: Centre of Pressure, Resultant, Tandem Planes, by M. B. Sellers...... 131

Some More Recent Experiments of M. Eiffel,

by M. B. Sellers.......................... 132

On The Wright Patent Decision.............. 133

New Developments in Aeronautics, including: The New 80 H. P. Gyro, Aileron Equalizer,

Spring Axle, Aeroplane Mapping, On Monoplane Accidents, Cedar Boat Lumber, Necessity of Excess of Power, Automatic Balance, Three-Bladed Propellers, Aerial Navigation in Germany, Harlan Bomb Dropper, S. A. F. Speedometer, Sparman Teaching Machine,

Waterproofing Composition .............134, 142

Army News—New 2-man Record.............. 146

Patents Issued .............................. 148

News in General, including: Death of Lieut. Rex Chandler, $77,200 in Prizes for Security

^ in Aeroplanes ..........................150-154

Gyroscopic Effect of Rotating Engine......... 154

MAY, 1913

The Analysis of Pressure-The Location of

The Centre of Pressure, by Geo. A. Spratt, Jr. 165

Technical Talks: Aerodynamical Resistance of

Solid Bodies, by M. B. Sellers.............. 168

An Analysis of Mouillard's Claim Twelve, by Albert Adams Merrill...................... 169

The Boland Tailless Biplane, with scale drawings ...................................... 170

Burgess 1913 Naval Flying Boat, with scale

drawings ................................. 172

New Thomas Biplane, with scale drawings...... 175

New Developments in Aeronautics, including: Model O-X Curtiss Motor, Test of Sturtevant Motor, Pedersen Lubricator, Curtiss Flying Boat, Proofing Flying Boat Hulls, Lightweight Engine Parts, Massachusetts State Law ................................. 178, 183

Model Notes, with scale drawing............. 190

News in General, including: Imports and Exports for 1912, Incorporations, Knabenshue Airship, Langley Tablet, 21 Aeroplanes for Army, Death of Lieut. Park and others, New Pilots, Hydroaeroplane Pilot Rules 192, 194

Patents Issued .............................. 196

JUNE. 1913

Construction of Propellers, bv Spencer Heath 205 Technical Talks—Lateral Balance, hy M. B.

Sellers ................................... 208

Dyott Monoplane, with scale drawings, etc..... 209

M'cCormick's Curtiss Flying Boat, with

drawings .................................. 212

Reid and Vilas Curtiss Flying P.oat, with drawings 214 New Developments, including: Army Aeroplane Wireless Set, Army Aviators Pilot Tests, Monoplanes vs. Biplanes, Navy Pilot Certificate Conditions, Portable Steel Sheds, Automatic Stabilizing Devices, Description Roberts 1913 Motor, Shore Scleroscope, Reinforced

Wood....................................216-220

Cavanagh Hydro Model, with scale drawing.... 224 M. 1. T. Aero Laboratory, National Balloon

Race ..................'................... 228

Lamson vs. Wright Suit,^ Deaths of Drew, Bill-

ingsley, Gardner and Colovan .............. 230

Wright Wins Damage Suit in Accident Case.. 230 Imports and Exports, New Pilots, Knabenshue

Dirigible .................................. 232

Patents Issued .............................. -'34

detroita.ro power plant

COMPLETE &300 REA»Y TO RUN

INCL.PROPELler-carburetor-bosh magneto.

OIL PUMP-CABLE -SWITCH -MOUNTING B0LT5.

■s GUARANTEED to

210 LBS MIN.STATIONARY THRUST 156 LBS MAX.WElGHTiCOMPLETE), 36 HOURS DELIVERY

LIFT AND FLY CURTIS BY PLANES BLERIOTB MONOPLANES DEMOISELLE MONOPLANES OR CRAFTS OF SIMILAR MAKE

DETROIT/tROPLANE CO.

A FTE 1 i, nati

TER surprising the ves of Porto Rico

Harry Bingham Brown

The Greatest of the Great

has returned to the States and will demonstrate shortly the Greatest piece of Aerial Ingenuity ever projected by man

Assisted b}^

Law and Lapham

The Two

DARE-DEVILS OF THE SKY

under contract to perform the

"Stevens Pack Act"

during the Season of 1913.

Managers of high standing that want something extraordinary will do well to address

A. Leo Stevens

Box 181, Madison Sq. N. Y. City

f *++++>

PAT E NTS SECURED OB FEE RETURNED

Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office record*. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Main Offices

724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.

PATEN TSRATENTS

HONEST ADVICE AND REAL PATENTS

Patents and patent causes. S ecialist in Aeroplanes and Gas Engines.

JOHN O. SE1FERT 50 Church Street New York, N.Y.

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-membcr Examining Corps, U. S. P«tent OHieo Attorney-at-L*w and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON. D. C.

AEROPLANES and FLYING BOATS

-That Won't Tip Over-

CHARLES H. BURLEIGH, South Berwyck, Me.

" Ideal " Plans and Drawing's

are accurate and areaccompanied by clear, concise building instructions, postpa;d at the following' prices: Wright 3-ft. Biplane, 25c. Bleriot 3-ft. Monoplane, 15c. "Cecil Peoli" Champion Racer, 25c. Curtiss Convertible Hydro. aeroplane'(new), 35c. Nieuport 3-ft. Monoplane, 25c.

COMPLETE SET OF FIVE, . . . $1.00 Postpaid Send for our new40-pp. ' Model A eroplane Supply

catalog, fully illustrated. 5c. brings it. (None free.) IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO,, 82a Wesl Broadway, New York

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids l}4 diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. ■"Siffin*-.

ifcPHV*

AEROPLANE CLOTH

Samples and prices on request

JOHN BOYLE Z> CO., Inc,

112 Duane Street, New York City

HYDRO - AEROPLANES

READY FOR POWER

-WILSON-

Port Jefferson

New York

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

———— Write for circular -^■

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO.

638-G44 First Avenue, New York, U. S. A.

JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES ART-ILLERY

A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.

Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.

$2.50 a year.

With Index to Current Military Literature, $2.75.

Building Season Now On

Full line of woodwork. Metal Fittings and accesories for all types in stock, ready for immediate delivery.

Builders should have our catalogue, describing 750 parts and fittings, for reference.

Buy Direct From the Manufacturers and Save Money and Time

Send 10 cents for catalogue

Cordeaux - Etter Mfg. Corporation W2J

(formerly New York Aeronautical Supply Co.) Q 11, 13, 15 McKibben St., Brooklyn, N. Y.

EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, equipped with a 60-70 h. p. 1YIAXIMOTOR

Maximotor Makers. Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913.

Dear Sirs:—Wish lo inform you thai I have today successfully filled the requirements in a number of flights lo qualify for my pilot license. The MAXIMOTOR stood with me right through to the end and no other motor on ihe field has anything on your new product. I wish you the most of success during this coming season.

Sincerely, EARL V. FRITTS.

Maximotor Makers

DETROIT

No. 1528 East Jefferson

Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES

Has long been regaided as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.

Each number has forty pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good type, and illustrated with many attractive half tones.

The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph

The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the price asked for subscription.

Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.

Foreign Digest.

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' assoi iation notes. Items of Interest.

A department devoted to "Discoveries."

Reviews of the new photographic books.

Description of the latest novelties and specialties brought out by dealers and manufacturers.

ONE DOLLAR FIFTY A YEAR SUBSCRIBE NOW ' FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY

Foreign Subscription, Two Dollars A Sample Copy Free

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION

135 West 14th Street, : : : New York

HALL-SCOTT MOTORS

H

OUR LINE FOR 1914

ALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO. announces the following types that are now upon the market :

100 H-P Eight Cylinder V Type 60 40

(especially adapted for hydro work)

a

U

u

u

u u

These motors are built from the best materials, and equipped with the - finest fittings obtainable, regardless of cost to us.

Special attention is called to our new 100 H-P motor. This equipment is the most powerful (for aviation purposes) on the American market today. Its lack of vibration combined with the powerful and smooth running qualities, makes it the ideal equipment for the flying boat.

Power is required for water flying.

Write for our interesting catalogue upon this motor

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.

818 Crocker Building :: :: :: SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

In anszvering advertisements please mention Uiis magazine.


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