Aeronautics

Volume 12 - No. 5 - 1913 May

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



FOR TEN YEARS

CURTISS MOTORS

Have Lead All American Motors in the Lightweight Field. To List All the Remarkable Achievements With Which They Have Been Connected Would Require a Volume. This Page Will Hold Just Enough Lines To Show the Year to Year Progress of These Wonderful Power Plants:

1903—Single cylinder —World's speed record for 1 mile. Time, 56 2/5 sec.

1904—Double cylinder—World's speed record for 10 mik-s. Time, 8:54 2/5 sec. *1905—Four cylinder —American distance record for dirigible balloons.

1906—Two cylinder —World's speed record for 1 mile. Time, 461/5 sec. *1907—Eight cylinder —World's fastest mile to this date. Time, 26 2/5 sec.

1908—Four cylinder —World's first public flight in aeroplane, March 12.

1908—Four cylinder —World's first public flight more than kilometer, winning Scientific American Trophy, July 4.

1909—Eight cylinder — Gordon Bennett International Speed Trophy, Rheims.

1909—Eight cylinder —American distance and duration records, aeroplanes, winning Scientific American Trophy, Mineola, L. J.

1910—Eight cylinder —American distance and duration records; Albany to New York City, 150 miles in 151 minutes; again winning Scientific American Trophy.

1910—Eight cylinder — First over-ocean flight; 50 miles at Atlantic City. *1910—Eight cylinder —Beachey flew under bridge at Niagara Falls and down Niagara Gorge in rainstorm.

1911—Eight cylinder —World's altitude record, Beachey, 11,628 feet.

1911—Eight cylinder —World's first successful hydroaeroplane.

1911—Eight cylinder —American biplane speed records, Chicago, *1912—World's endurance record for hydroaeroplanes, 6 hrs., 10 min. *1912—World's distance record for hydroaeroplanes, 392 miles. *1912—American altitude record for aeroplane and hydroaeroplanes. *1912—American distance record for aeroplanes, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U. S. N. *1912—American endurance record for aeroplanes, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U. S. N. *1912—American biplane speed records, Chicago.

*1913—U. S. Army altitude record for aeroplanes, Lieut. McLeary, U. S. A., 8-cyl. *19l3—U. S. Navy altitude record for hydroaeroplanes, Lieut. Victor Herbster, 6-cyl. *1913—World's distance record for Flying Boats; Washington to Annapolis, 171 miles in 185 mins., Lieut. Towers.

♦Stars show performances not yet equalled.

COMPETITIVE TROPHIES WON WITH CURTISS MOTORS

1908—Scientific American Trophy for distance record. 1909—Gordon Bennett International Speed Trophy. 1909—Scientific American Trophy for distance reord. 1910—Scientific American Trophy for distance record. 1911—Aero Club of America Trophy, for hydroaeroplane. 1912—Aero Club of America Trophy for Flying Boat.

Our Catalog Will Tell You What Curtiss Motors Are, What They Have Done, What They Are Capable Of, Ask

CURTISS MOTOR COMPANY

21 LAKE STREET, :: :: HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y.

May, 1913

PARAGON PROPELLERS

PAR AC ONS ^ave t^ie distinction of being the only propellers ever officially * ■f'^lv.rWJVyiliJ indorsed by any government. Let us send you a copy of the Report on Paragon Propellers from the Senior Aviation Officer to the Secretary of the Navy.

Standard Twn-Rlad^ Tvnp* This is the standard propeller, par ex-Oianaara IWO-Diaae lype. ceHence, unapproached for strength, safety, service and durability. Let us send you Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., showing four per cent, gain in speed and twelve per cent, in climbing—in comparative tests.

TViw<a*» Rlarltf* Tvntfk • Tliese g've greater flying thrust and more speed with 1 ill cc-uicxuc lypc. less diameter. Lieut. J. H. Towers, Senior Aviation Officer, U. S. N., reports, "The three-bladed Paragon gives more thrust and more speed than any other propeller we have had." This type of propeller has come into very great demand among our customers.

Twisted TvnP • For machines with chain or gear-driven propellers. These *■ WlblCU lypc. are not carved into shape but twisted and pressed under great pressure, heat and moisture. No cross grain. Seamless and jointless three-ply blade faces with the middle ply running cross-wise. Usual pitch required is one foot higher than other propellers—otherwise they turn too freely. Higher pitch, less slip, faster flying. Used and fully endorsed by U. S. Government Aviators.

Special Flexing Type for Flying Boats: °^M^lZ

are curved and designed in a manner that causes the pitch to change in proportion to varying loads on the propeller and to conform to irregularities in the air. With these propellers the engine is kept at its best running speed, very nearly constant, both on the ground and under all conditions in the air. They take the machine off quicker and climb better than any type of propeller we have ever produced. They run with practically no vibration and are almost silent on a muffled engine.

Paragons are not only best but also cheapest. Consult with us freely and get full information. We solicit correspondence, but do not urge anyone to purchase.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., BALTIMORE, MD.

Burgess Flying Boat Built for U. S. Navy

T

HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT

is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Already a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines.

Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes are still unexcelled. Motor equipment depends entirely upon the purchaser. We recommend the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type.

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at greatly reduced prices.

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, under the direction of Frank Coffyn, is located at Marblehead adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

Use

Spark Plugs

That Won't Break

BOSCH Spark Plugs have proven themselves to be superior by practically every kind of test, but your particular attention is called to their strength and sturdiness.

Mechanical injury to Bosch Plugs is practically impossible; their heavy Steatite insulator, their sturdy steel shell and generally massive design will v withstand almost any shock. Try a hammer blow on the insulator of any other plug—it will go into a thousand pieces; then try the same test on the Bosch Plug—it won't even crack. Every time your wrench slips you won't need a new plug, if it's a Bosch Plug.

If it's a question of " most for your money" —buy Bosch Plugs.

If it's a question of " efficiency, long service and economy"—buy Bosch Plugs. You will be satisfied.

Write today for "Locating the Spark Plug" an instructive book sent free on your request

Bosch Magneto Company

201 W. 46th STREET, NEW YORK

May, 1913

The Analysis of Pressure—The Location of Center of Pressure*

By GEORGE A. SPRATT, Jr.

Believing that there is some fundamental principle which give flying creatures an assurance of security, George A. Spratt, Jr., in 1896, began his researches in the realm of flight.

In 189S through his investigations, Mr. Spratt came in contact with Octave Chanutc, and from that time until the death of Mr. Chanutc a close bond of friendship existed between them.

As a result of the interest of Mr. Chanutc in the zvork of the IVright Brothers he secured permission from Mr. Spratt to communicate to the Wrights his method of measuring pressures. This resulted in Mr. Spratt's' presence at Kitty Hazvk with the ll'riglits in 1901, 1902 and 1903. Mr. Chanute's confidence in Mr. Spratt's work accounts, also, for the reference to the latter in Mocdebcck's Pocket Book.

Mr. Spratt believed that preliminary investigation had not been carried far enough and so, since that time, he has continued the zvork of pressure analysis w'ith indefatigable energy at his home, in the Pennsylvania hills.

Mr. Spratt's method of, and device for analyzing pressures which held Mr. Chanute's interest, has been perfected to such a degree that lie felt justified in bringing it before the public, and so for the first time offered it for the consideration of the members of The Aeronautical Society. The deductions from this instrument have enabled Mr. Spratt to construct an aeroplane which he claims is inherently stable; one zvhich flics without warping, n'ithout ailerons and can be flown zvithout rudders.

lp| HE purpose of the instrument I have here is to show the effects of air currents upon rigid surfaces, the values of various shapes and forms of surfaces for aeroplanes, and to study the effects of varying currents upon an aeroplane, and the design of aeroplanes best suited to meet varying conditions.

The exhibition consists of a blower, an air tunnel and the instrument upon which the model surfaces are to be placed in order to determine their value and characteristics.

The blower is an ordinary centrifugal hand forge blower. The air tunnel consists of the packing box in which the apparatus was shipped, and, but imperfectly, represents what should be an ideal tunnel. This should be a chamber sufficiently capacious to allow the more violent currents that are set up by the fan to become spent before reaching the outlet. The fan here forces air in at the bottom and the outlets are horizontal from near the top.

The form of the outlet should be determined by the purpose of the test; if the effect of curvature is sought, the surface in test should extend entirely through the stream in order that the results are not affected by an escape from the ends; if the value of aspect ratio and like information is sought, the outlet should be such that the entire surface is immersed in the flow. -The outlets, which are two in number, are here three inch tin tubes

* A lecture given before the Aeronautical Society, April 24th, 1913. See previous articles by Mr. Spratt in AERONAUTICS for March, 1908, Aug., Sept., Oct. and Nov., 1912, and reports on gliding experi ments in Dec, 1908, and March 1909, numbers.

and are sufficient to illustrate the purpose and use of the instrument.

'1 he instrument to which attention is particularly called, is of a twin construction—a left and a right member. Each is composed of two horizontally disposed iron rings, at the centre of each of which a vertically disposed pivotal post is carried on an arm which is in turn delicately hinged to the ring. The post carries a turret at its upper end so constructed that any point in the model secured in the turret, may be positioned in line with the post. Both the post and the arm upon which it is mounted have index pointers which read from the same scale, the one the angle at which the current attacks the model, the other records the direction of the resultant pressure upon the model. The models are mounted above the instrument in such manner that the pressures upon the model only enter into the record.

The models may be of any material, as their weight, either as a whole or disproportionate weight of its parts does not in any respect influence the records.

The capacity of the instrument here is easily two-pound models for all tests and for some tests the models might weigh 5 pounds. 'I he size is fixed only by the size of the air column flowing from the tunnel.

The tests in which one member of the instrument only is required will be considered first. And I may be permitted to say that the method of using the instrument and transferring the meaning of its readings to the field of aviation is as novel, perhaps, as the design of the instrument.

In placing this model surface, which is a plane of sheet steel three inches by six inches upon the turret with a point about 25% of the distance from the forward edge directly in line with the axis of the post, the pressure

May, 1913

of the current and the resistance of the post causes rotation which ceases only when the pressures centre along the line of the axis of the post. This rotation here ceases with the pointer at 19 degrees. Therefore, taking for granted that our surface is correctly placed, at 25% of the distance from its anterior edge, the pressures centre themselves at 19 degrees angle of attack; or, in the more acceptable order of stating the fact, we have found that at 19 degrees angle of attack the pressure centre is 25% from the anterior surface.

It is evident, therefore, that by beginning with 1% of the distance in front of the axis and advancing the surface 1% for each record the c. of p. may be tabulated very readily for any surface.

The pressure of the current and its equal resistance by the post is a condition quite analogous to the surface if it is considered as free in the air where the resistance and the weight are equal. The axis of the post, therefore, in every respect is analogous to the position of the weight centre, and changing the surface relative to this axis produces the same effect as a similar change of the weight centre relative to the surface of the model would when considered as an aeroplane, and the index arm records what the result of such a change would be. In this way the degree of fore and aft stability the model may have, may be determined, and here is the effect the position of the weight centre has upon its fore and aft stability under any conditions of angle of attack, velocity, or adjustment of the surface or outrigged vanes that may be produced with the model. Lateral stability also may be studied in the same degree by mounting the model perpendicularly to the position above stated. Likewise, any angle of attack may be obtained, and the index will record the result.

The second index arm records the direction of the resultant pressure upon the model, and, therefore, gives us a parallelogram of forces, that is uninfluenced by gravity or any other force foreign to our purpose. This arm here records, say, 65°. The pressure perpendicular to the air How is, therefore, the sine of 65° which is .Q06+. If, therefore, this surface proceeds as a wing surface horizontally at this angle of attack, .906+ of the pressure against it would be the lifting pressure.

If the surface be considered a propeller blade, the sine may represent the thrust, the cosine the tortion, the resultant the total power delivered at the screw. Relatively either for direct or centrifugal fan designing the sine may represent the amount of air delivered, the cosine the drag of the blades, the resultant the power required minus mechanical friction. This does not by any means exhaust the applications to which the parallelogram may be put.

The surface of our model when attacked at this angle breaks the force into two perpendicular components of which the arm gives us the resultant. The resultant is, therefore, the direction of the pressure exerted against

the model at that angle of attack, and, therefore, is the direction the model will move. Consequently, the resultant is the angle of descent of a glider relative to its angle of attack. For continued gliding the pressure normal to the surface must not incline backward, therefore the angle the model would descend is this recorded resultant plus the angle the angle of attack makes with the line normal to the plane. This gives the angle of descent with the vertical and the best angle of glide theoretically possible for this surface is this result based upon its highest recorded resultant.

The arched surfaces under similar treatment give far different results. The surface here used, which is of equal dimensions to the plane we have used, and arched about 1—12 fails to find a resting place between 0°—and 90° positive angle of attack. In fact there is no point between the anterior and the posterior edge of the surface which, if placed in line with the axis of the post, will indicate a pressure centre at a small angle of incidence, but in every instance the surface will rotate and present its convex side to the oncoming current.

If the axis of the post be made to cut the bisecting radius of the arc of the surface midway between the surface and the common centre of the radii, the result is at first appearance peculiar; for if given a small angle of attack it now rotates about the post advancing against the current in which it is immersed. The explanation is simple. The couple causes the rotation and the rotation is relative to the post only. It is unthinkable that by pressing the current could drazv tke surface toward itself. It is only explainable by reasoning that the pressures upon the surface are of such distribution and direction that their combined effect upon all points in the surface centres at a point on the opposite side of the post from the surface. By adjusting the surface so that the pbst about coincides with the common centre of the radii the result is again interesting, for now the surface remains as though insensible to the current. Here throughout a range of from 15° negative to 250 positive the current produces no rotation of the surface about the post. It is unquestionably a fact that the pressures upon a circularly arched surface centre at a point in space outside the surface.

In the former instance the surface rotated forwardly about the post. If it were an aeroplane in like relation to its centre of weight, it would similarly "duck" or lurch forward. In the latter instance with the weight centre near the common centre of the radii a variation of the angle of attack through this 400 would cause no rotation. That is, the equilibrium would remain undisturbed. The resultant direction of the pressure however would be violently altered. Thus, if advance-ing horizontally at an angle of attack of 8° an uptrend would suddenly change the angle of attack to 25°. The course would quickly become ascending but the change would have no tendency to alter the chord in its relation

to the horizon. This is the solution of inherent stability—there is no such result obtainable with a tandem arrangement of surfaces to a like degree, although I do not wish to go on record as denying virtue in a tandem arrangement of surfaces. This theory of inherent stability I have tested with models, very large surfaces presented to the wind, gliders upon which 1 have flown, and by motor driven aeroplane to my own complete satisfaction. I have tried to broadly cover the discovery in applications for patent.

In determining the angle of descent of an arched surface considered as an aeroplane, a line which connects two points at which the post may record a state of equilibrium at the same angle of attack must be substituted for the normal as stated for plane surfaces. The instrument may also be used for standardizing surfaces throughout the realm of surface pressures.

The left member of the instrument may be connected to the right by means of a thread attached beneath the central post and passing over a guiding wheel to a similar attachment to the right. Any plane surface may be taken as a standard and mounted in the left, normal to the current. In this instance the plane is the projected area of the arched surface. The arched surface is now to be placed in the right turret and, with the convexity toward the left, given any desired angle of attack The lifting component of the pressure upon the arc therefore draws the plane toward the right. Xow the angle of the resultant indicator of the plane is found at which the normal pressure upon the plane balances the lift component of the arched surface. The sine of this angle is the "lift'' of the arched surface expressed in the proportion of the normal pressure upon a plane of equal area and dimensions under similar air current conditions. Like records may be made for all angles of attack. Various shapes and forms of surfaces may be compared to this same standard or other standards having their values established by the foimer may be used for other series. Thus, once establishing the value of the standard under known conditions opens the whole series of records to mathe-

matical use. The instrument is so constructed that the lift, drift, or resultant, may be weighed with spring balances if desired.

Another use to which the instrument may be put is to be found in the following experiment which I can only describe, for the tardy arrival of the apparatus has not allowed me sufficient time for adjusting the parts, and, in fact, has prevented my showing the full merit of the instrument in many of the tests already made. Here are three model surfaces. The first is a metal sheet i inch by 6 inches and is intended as a standard to which these others are to be compared. It is mounted in the left instrument with its surface normal to the current. The second model is a cylinder one inch in diameter, six inches long, and may represent a smoke stack, stand pipe or other structure. The third is also six inches long but is one inch square. This may also represent a square stack or other structure. '1 he pressure of each may be compared to the pressure upon the standard as already described. Here is a small electric motor which may be attached to the arm of the instrument and by the necessary connections be made to rotate the models representing the structures.

I have found by other experiments, which I have published, that the effect of curvature is relative; that is, all those increases and changes in direction and movement of the centre of pressure that are peculiar to curvature of the surface, result in the same manner and degree, insofar as I have been able to measure them, upon the plane surface if the air current is rotating to a like degree of curvature as it comes in contact with the plane.

Here, by rotating the model as the current flows against it, we obtain a relative curvature, and the arms indicate) an increased pressure and an altered direction of the resultant. Here lies the possible solution of the many freaks of the whirlwinds, where forces are displayed which velocity alone fails to account for.

All communications regarding the device can be addressed to Geo. A. Spratt, Jr., Coates-ville, Pa.

Copyright, 1913, by George A. Spratt, Jr.

WILBUR

OBIIT, MAY

'T^HE tolling of a passing bell; J- A soul mounts swiftly to the sun; Perchance those other flights through space Had warned him that his race was run.

Courageous, quiet, firm and calm, Unfaltering, he, through good and ill. The riddle of the ages faced, And solved the problem by his skill.

Undauntedly he pierced the blue, Mounting like eagle to the skies: And, far from human help or aid, He calmly looked Death in the eyes.

WRIGHT

30th, 1912

The realm he conquered was his own; Xo fate could harm him in the air; And Death could not let fly his dart Till, back on earth, he met him there.

He died, as men have died before; Vet lives, as few may hope to live. He seized the "Empire of the Skies." And this the Gods could not forgive.

His countrymen will sing for aye, The story of his prowess rare; His name, his fame, will never die. Their own "Columbus of the Air."

J. c.

Technical Talks

By the Technical Editor

Aerodynamic Resistance of Solid Bodies

THE resistance encountered by a solid in a uniform air current, comprises that due to the disturbance of the air stream, and that due to friction.

According to Dr. Zahm, friction is equal to .000319S l^V1-*5 and Herr Franck finds it equal to .000305 SV*- both expressions being in metric units. There are good reasons for considering Dr. Zahm's formula more accurate, and friction experiments made in water would seem to indicate that the exponent 1.85 is correct.

That being so, if wc should assume, as does AI. Eiffel, that the total resistance of a body varies as V2; then, by calculations based on values obtained at low speeds, we should obtain for high speeds larger values than those actually observed; that is, the unit resistance would appear to diminish as the speed increased. Now, this variation is observed in case of fusiform and other bodies, but the amount and character of the variation precludes its ascription to this cause alone.

M. Eiffel determined the variation in the resistance of a body comprising a 20° cone with a hemispherical base, as shown in Fig. 1,

»--^

the base being toward the wind. For an increase in air velocity from 5 to 15 meters per second he found a diminution in unit resistance from .009 to .0065; that is, a variation of 28%. Likewise, the Farman strut

No. 3 (see Fig. 2) under the same conditions, showed a diminution from .04 to .026, a variation of 35%. On the other hand, strut No. 1 showed practically no variation.

This brings us to the consideration of another important point, viz.. that a body which possesses the bert form for penetration at low speeds, may not possess the same quality for high speeds. In the present case, the strut No. 1 is superior to No. 3 at 5 meters per second, but much inferior at 15 meters per second. It would seem that as the velocity increases, in the case of No. 3, a new regime of air flow gradually comes into being, whereby the air passes around the body with less and less disturbance.

The recent experiments of M. Eiffel with

spheres indicate something of this kind (see Acrophile, Jan. 15th, 1913). In this case, the values of the coefficient are high for small speeds, and decrease rapidly when the speed augments, up to a certain' speed, beyond which they remain approximately constant. This critical speed varies with the sice of the sphere; for a sphere of 16 cm. diameter it is about 12 m. p. s., for 24 cm. it is about 7 m., and for 33 cm. it is 4 m. The most remarkable diminution is for the 16 cm. sphere, since for an increase of speed from 12 to 14 m. p. s. the coefficient drops from .024

Sptare

dc 16

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Sphere

   

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Sphere

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Fig. 3 - Variations of the total effort R for spheres of different diameters

to .01, so that the pressure on the sphere here actually decreases with increasing speed, being 65 g. at 12 m. and 45 g. at 14 m. (see Fig. 3).

By exploring with a light thread M. Eiffel finds that below the critical speed a cone of rarifaction forms behind the sphere, but above that speed this cone disappears, and is replaced by a region in which the air is only slightly disturbed. M. Eiffel concludes from these results that the law of the square of the speed applies only beyond a critical speed, and that the law of similitudes is not always true. However, more experiments will be needed to justify general conclusions regarding all solid bodies.

.1/. B. Sellers.

WRIGHT MEMORIAL PARK

Wright Memorial Park will soon occupy the site of famous Huffman Field, where Orville and Wilbur Wright made their early flights. The park will contain a bronze statue by Gutson Borglum, typifying flight.

A commission has been incorporated for the purpose of commemorating the achievements of Wilbur and Orville Wright in the science of aviation by the construction and maintenance of a memorial park, 10 contain an appropriate sculptural figure in bronze, placed on the spot where man conquered the air by the first flight in a complete circle in a heavier-than-air machine, made September 20, 1904, by the Wright brothers."

The unveiling is to take place September 20th.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Department of Commerce and Labor reports no imports for March; exports of domestic aeroplanes and parts, two at $7,817; exports of foreign make, one at $4,700; remaining in warehouse, three and parts at $9,184.

IN 1897 an American patent was issued to Mr. L. P. Mouillard for a so-called soaring machine, and the twelfth claim of that patent reads as follows:

"A soaring machine having wings adapted to move in horizontal planes, a portion of the fabric covering each wing being stiffened by flexible slats and having its rear edge free from the frame of the wing, and cords attached to said rear edge for pulling it downwards substantially as described." The first thing to note with regard to this claim is that the present Farman machine uses a construction covered by this claim. Mouillard, however, intended his tips to be used wholly for steering, as his description shows, while Farman uses his ailerons wholly for banking. Although the construction of both is practically the same, the operation is radically different. To turn to the right Mouillard pulls down the right tip which retards this tip and thus the machine banks to the right; whereas to turn to the right, Farman pulls down the left tip and uses his rudder as an offset and to turn the machine to the right, therefor Farman infringes Wright's seventh claim. In the suits over the Wright patent it has been claimed and upheld that Mouillard's machine exists only on paper and that it can not be reduced to practice. The point I wish to analyze is just this: Is Mouillard's twelfth claim reducible to practice?

In last month's AERONAUTICS there was a letter by a Mr. Hetrich on the negative angle in which it was stated that a negative angle on the side to be lowered would lower that side but it would cause the tip speed of that side to increase. Of course, this is an error, for under no circumstances can increased resistance accelerate a wing tip. The important part of this letter, however, is the statement that the writer has observed buzzards turning and banking to the right by increasing the positive angle of the right tip. This is Mouillard's system and is covered by his patent and I am inclined to think it is reducible to practice.

The whole point of the case lies in this. The

moment the right tip is pulled down, the speed of that tip is reduced, but if the increase of the positive angle is slight (less than 7 degrees) the total lift of right wing and tip will increase in spite of the decrease of speed. This is what occurs in the Farman system and the rudder is used to retard the faster moving tip so that the machine will turn to the left. If, however, the right tip is pulled down to a large angle, say 15 degrees, then the reduced speed takes the lift of the right wing and tip less than it was originally in spite of the added lift of the tip alone. This is Mouillard's system but it is Mouillard's error that with his system he utilizes only the H component while it is Farman's error, and Wright's also, that they utilize only the V component. If Farman had seen the value of the negative angle and had moved his aileron up on the high side instead of down on the low side, he would have utilized both the H and the V components and would not have infringed Wright.

It is a characteristic of the positive angle that a slight increase means increased lift but that a further increase of angle means decreased lift owing to decreased speed, hence the need of an offset. This is what I call the fallacy of the positive angle.

If, however, an aileron were made small and connected in such a manner that when called into action it would pass immediately by the critical angle (7 degrees) to larger angles, it seems to me that the positive angle could be reduced to practice without the use of a rudder. Of course, this constitutes practically a rudder at the tip and the banking is produced by a change in the tip speeds. In a flying machine this would not be as good as a rear rudder but in the buzzard the span is much greater than the overall length and hence this increase in the positive angle on the tip to be lozvered constitutes an efficient rudder for the bird.

Of course I am not advocating Mouillard's system as against existing systems because he wastes the lift of his tip but I believe his system will work and the observations of Mr. Hetrich seem to support my belief.

X

Latest Boland Tailless Biplane

An Analysis of Mouillard's Claim Twelve

By ALBERT ADAMS MERRILL

THE 1913 machine produced by the Boland Aeroplane & Motor Co. is very similar to the machine described in AERONAUTICS, Nov., 1911, differing only in refinement of details. Since the death of the inventor Frank E. Boland, the business is being carried on by the company and Horace Kemmerle is the demonstrator, having been taught last year by Frank Boland. This is the same machine in general characteristics which created such amazement at the Mineola field when Boland, after working in comparative secrecy in New Jersey since J908, flew it in public.

Main Planes.—Span 35.5 feet, chord and separation 5.5 feet. Central section built as a unit; each wing on a side is one section, double surfaced, muslin fabric. Wright-type ribs 1 inch by 3/16 inch spruce strips with l/2 inch high spacer blocks between. The curve is 4l/> inches deep at 18 inch back, while in the earlier machine the wings were practically flat. There is a 2-foot overhang at rear edge which is quite flexible. Lateral spars of spruce, solid, 3^2 inches by 1 inch in centre section taper to 134 inches by % inch at ends. Struts are spruce; centre 3l/2 inches by il/s inches, others are 2^4 inches by 1 inch. At every strut there is a heavy rib of laminated spruce; cross v/ires inside fabric of wings in the sections formed by these heavy ribs. Struts have steel ferrules and fit in steel sockets which bolt to the lateral spars; 3-way terminals between socket and spar. In centre section the struts are rectangular at ends and special sheet steel fittings take in the ends of struts and the spars, both lateral and longitudinal. To "knock down," each wing comes off as a unit and the centre section comes apart in pieces, i. e., top and bottom surface and each skid with its bracing and upper member; the two complete skid and elevator supports then are packed side by side. The curved extremities of the skids come off with the elevator, and then detached from elevator. Each section between struts is guyed in usual manner with Roebling No. 30 steel wire and in only the centre and second sections is there diagonal wiring fore and aft. Cloth is tacked with copper tacks, without braid, starting from front spar and going back top and bottom to trailing edge, which is a small steel tube, where fabric is sewed. Tube is fastened to rib ends by little clips. Centre section is double wired in each direction; second sections are wired double to take up part of weight of engine section in lateral direction only.

"Nacelle."—The engine, pilot and passenger are located in the body or "nacelle." A dash in front of pilot provides place for the gauges and tachometer. The Boland speedometer described previously in AERONAUTICS, is mounted on the front outrigger, the dial facing the pilot. A cross-section of this body is oval at the forward end; at the rear seat the cross-section is a V, from whence it tapers off to sharp edge at rear. The engine

bed rails run from the cross-member forming back of passenger's seat to a point where they join the converging sides of the nacelle, just over the rear lateral lower wing spar. The body frame is covered with metal and upholstered around the top edge. In the body is also located the steering pillars and wheels, interconnected for use of either occupant. The wheels are mounted on wishbone shaped yokes.

Elevator.—Pivoted 13 feet 8 inches forward of front edge main planes, span 12 feet, 3.5-foot cord, camber 3 inches, one-third back. In flight the elevator carries half the weight but at a leverage so that the actual weight supported by elevator is 120 pounds. Elevator operated by rocking the yoke fore and aft in the usual manner. Four No. 36 Roebling wires connected the rocking levers with the short masts on the elevator. Elevator double surfaced, and braced with guy wires in usual manner.

Controls.—The principal feature of this machine and the one that gives its greatest claim to attention is the original method of balancing and steering. There is no rudder, ailerons or warping wings. Instead, there is a pair of "jibs" normally in a vertical plane, pivoted about an oblique axis (from lower end front strut to upper end rear strut) at either lateral extremity of the machine between the surfaces. Each works in one direction, inward only, and is controlled by 5/32 inch cable running around steering wheel. The operation is the same as that of steering an automobile. Pulling in one jib presents it at a negative angle and produces a downward tendency. In turning, the wheel is rotated in the direction it is desired to go, the jib on that side is pulled in and the machine banks and whirls around. To straighten out again it is necessary to pull in the other jib but for an instant only. It is claimed that side-slipping on a turn is impossible with this machine as the jibs provide the correct amount of bank at all times. Movement of the steering pillar fore and aft operates the elevator. In the machine illustrated herewith, seat for passenger is provided back of the pilot. Duplicate steering pillar and wheel is provided and connected so that either can operate the machine.

Stability.—Lateral stability is maintained by presenting the jib on the high side at a negative angle in the same manner as in steering. As a matter of fact, the machine actually starts a turn and bank to the high side, the machine comes up to a level keel on its way to a complete turn and bank and is stopped there as explained above. No rudder is operated to correct any tendency for there is no rudder.

"Any tendency on the part of the machine to rise on one side, or 'bank,' if not corrected in the manner described, viz., by turning wheel to high side, would be followed merely {Continued on pJge 174)

The Boland Tailless Biplane

Burgess 1913 Naval Flying Boat

ii=iiii=iiiiiiiiisiii

HE Burgess Naval Flying-Boat was designed primarily

Tailll to meet the requirements of the United States Navy. Its hull, power plant, and main surfaces, each form separate units capable of being assembled and taken down in the least possible time. The principal innovations in the design include : (i) The triangular arrangements of wing-struts allowing the upper plane to be staggered forward of the lower plane in order to increase the carrying efficiency; (2) the upper and lower wing surfaces permanently attached to each other, but capable of folding together; (3) the peculiarly shaped hull; (4) the detachable unit power section.

The aviator and passengers are carried near the bow of the boat, their seats being arranged in tandem. At the canoe shaped stern are located the elevator and the combination rudder for steering both in the air and on the water. The hull is built up on spruce and oak ribs double diagonally planked with mahogany separated by fabric.

Main Planes.—Spread of upper wings, 43 feet; spread of lower, 36 feet; depth of wings, 5 feet o inches; area of supporting surface, 307 square feet.

The construction of the wings is particularly interesting. 'While the lower wings include in their frame work both front and rear longitudinal members, the upper surface is constructed with a single heavy steel tube throughout its length, the ribs being so connected to this steel tube as to permit warping the surface without straining the ribs. There is an open space between the two halves of the upper plane. This is left open to permit of easy

access to the engine for cleaning and repairing. One will notice that the engine can be practically entirely overhauled without being-removed from the planes both from above and below. Also, the gap '"permits of greater efficiency in giving a vent for the accumulated air pressure caused by the head resistance of the motor itself."

By the release of the forward warping wire and the "breakin"" of the diagonal struts which are hinged in the centre, the upper plane drops of its own weight into a vertical position and the lower plane is then raised up from the rear edge so that it lies approximately parallel with the upper plane without moving any of the lateral panel wires. The two wings on each side can then be pulled out of their sockets and be shipped as a unit.

The separation between planes is 5 feet 6 inches. The camber of the wings are alike, /. e., 1 in 17, greatest camber being 33% back from front edge.

Power Plant— Renault 8-cyl. 70 H. P. motor, cooling effected with the aid of a fan blower driven by the motor. Propeller, 9.5 ft. in diameter and 6.9 ft. pitch, is mounted directly on an extension of the cam shaft thereby reducing the 1S00 R. P. M. of the motor to 900 revolutions of the propeller. The cylinders are approximately zYa inches in diameter by 4-,4 inches stroke. Weight of motor, 400 pounds. Bosch magneto.

Gasoline service tank, six gallons, evident in the photograph, is located above the motor. Two large tanks with a capacity of 42 gallons are carried in the central air tight compartment of the boat. The gasoline is pumped up from these to the service tank by a small gasoline pump operated by a wind mill just in front of the large propeller.

The motor is started by a large wheel instead of a crank which is grasped in both hands and which is much safer than a flying crank.

Stability.—With this new type, the lower wing is rigid and the upper wing does all of the warping from end to end about a girder located just forward of the centre of pressure. The warping is accomplished with a very much smaller range or movement of the lever and with practically no effort whatever. Mr. Coffyn says he could fly this machine almost indefinitely as far as the arm becoming exhausted while operating the control. The balanced system of wires in the rear are very similar to the present warping system on Burgess type machines, that the pull is forward to the front edge of the bottom plane where the wires from each wing are connected to the centre and reconnected to each other. In addition to this, there is an extra set of warping wires connected with the front edge of the upper plane and carried down to the front edge of the lower plane and there interconnected. By this system the entire plane is held rigidly from front and rear to the central spar on which it rotates and any moving of the warping lever compensates the pull on one side by the release of the same amount on the other side. The wing therefore can be either warped up or down. The Wright system of levers is used, as adapted in the Burgess military tractor.

Supplementary Surfaces.—There is a fixed surface 9 feet 4 inches by 2 feet 3 inches in front of the elevator set at an angle of 3 degrees to the front plane. The elevator is hinged to the rear of this surface. There is also a small vertical surface between the horizontal one and the hull.

Hull.—Built in two sections, forward sec-

tion being of double diagonal planked mahogany bottom and mahogany sides and having two water tight compartments located at either extremity and a well sheltered cockpit, in which are located the operators' seats. The after section is canoe shape in type, built of mahogany in two compartments. The length is 29 feet 6 inches. There is a small skid attached to rear end of hull. There is a concealed step in the hull 16 feet 1 inch back from bow, at which point the bottom presents in cross-section a concave surface in the water.

Rudder.—Conventional, 5 feet 3 inches high by 3 feet 8 inches at widest point pivoted 1 foot 3 inches back of forward edge, at stern post of hull.

Wing Floats.—Special Burgess design, internally braced; no guy wires or braces.

Elevators.—Same as in Burgess tractor. See AERONAUTICS for May-June, 1912.

General Information.—The length over all is 31 feet, height 8 feet 10 inches. Weight, including pilot, 48 gallons of gasoline, 4 galons of oil and passenger was 2102 pounds.

The Burgess flying boat completed its last test on May 17, that of gliding, when Frank Coffyn shut his power off completely, a little over 500 feet in the air.

The Board of Inspectors returned to the Burgess offices and there accepted the 'plane on the part of the Navy Department.

The machine is being thoroughly cleaned up and probably put into commission for Lieutenant Murray to fly in Marblehead previous to shipping it to Annapolis.

Fowler flew over the Panama Canal in a few minutes but it took Weeks to flv over Scranton.

BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

{continued from page /70)

by the right amount of turn to correspond with the banking. If these air puffs are counteracted as soon as they are felt, no tendency to vary from a straight course is noticeable. If, on the other hand, the pilot does not choose to correct them immediately or at all, he can not suffer any more serious consequences than varying in his course," says Mr. Joseph Boland, observing from the passenger's seat.

Running Gear.—The two skids extend far in front and surving to form support for the elevator; two 20-inch by 3-inch wheels on long axle 18 inches forward of front edge main planes, rubber shock absorbers. Skids arc braced with diagonal and vertical struts to lower plane.

Power Plant.—Boland 8-cyl. motor, V type, 60 II. P., water cooled, same as has been used for past three years. Cylinders 4 inches by 4 inches, jackets brass, heads un-jacketed, concentric valves with inlet auto-

matic, hollow built up shaft, one piece special bearings slipped on when shaft is assembled, oiling force and splash. Engine weighs with carburetor, and meagneto, 240 pounds. Connecting rods are forked at the bearing, one working between the forks of the other, thus concentric. Each pair of rods gets full benefit of 224-inch bearing. The chanks are steel discs which are drilled for lightness. They receive the oil from the gear pump at bottom of oil reservoir and distribute it by means of centrifugal force to the connecting rod bearings through small holes in cranks.

One piece rods are chrome nickel cut from solid forging. Oil pits under each pair of rods. Cam shaft mounted on R.I.V. ball bearings, centre bearing of shaft being same. Other shaft bearings are solid bronze. El Arco radiator. Propeller direct on shaft, 7.5 feet diameter and 5-foot pitch, turns left handed.

General Information—Weight complete machine, with gas, water and oil, without pilot or passenger, 900 pounds. Speed about 60 miles. Centre of gravity over the axle.

New Thomas Biplane

ANEW biplane as been produced by the Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Company, of Bath, N. Y., which will, no doubt, continue to add to the well-deserved esteem in which the Thomas brothers are now held.

This is fitted with a "nacelle" and an adjustable mica wind shield. Technical details of this new machine follow.

Main Supporting Planes.—Spread 33 ft. top plane, 23 ft. lower. Ribs laminated spruce, 3^4 in. cambre at 30% back of front edge, spaced \il/2 in., size 34 'n- by lVs in. and % in. by 1% in. Metal strips are used in fastening the ribs to lateral spars, front and rear. Front spar is D-shaped, in. by 1^4 in.

laminated. Rear spar rectangular, also laminated. Distance between spars is 44^ in. There are 8 sections to the planes, each 5 ft. 6 in. by 5 ft., joined together with Thomas sockets. Separation between planes 5 ft. Double covered Goodyear fabric tacked to the planes. Struts are solid. Roebling 3/32 in cord used for staying tightened with turn-buckles. Struts are vertical when machine is on ground.

Elevators—One elevator is used at rear 10 ft. by 2 ft., flat, 10 ribs to each elevator. Ribs 3J/6 in. by 1% in- Fabric tacked on.

Supplementary Fixed Surface.—To this elevator is hinged. Dimension 1 ft. by 10 ft., fastened with clips, fixed angle.

Rudders.—Four rudders, located in rear, operated by wheel. Fair leaders used in turnings corners with 1/16 in. control cable.

Stability:—Ailerons are used, two, size 2 ft. by 8 ft., located in rear upper plane, hinged to rear lateral spar. 1/16 in. cable used through fair leaders in turning corners. Ten ribs to each aileron, fastened with metal strips. Goodyear cloth, tacked.

Running Gear.—Thomas type, modified Farman-Wright, 4 wheels, 2l/2 in. by 21 in.

Goodyear tires, axle 30% back from front edge. Two skids 5 ft. long, tread 7 ft. 6 in., size 2 in. by 2}& in. Tubing used for bracing to skids.

Pou'cr Plant.—Maximotor, 6-cyl., 70 H. P., weight 380 lbs., cyls. 5 in. by 5^4 in., overhead valves. Drives direct Thomas propeller 7 ft. 6 in. diameter, 5 ft. pitch. Mea magneto, Busch radiator located in front of engine on front struts, Kingston carburetor. Thrusts standing 485 lbs. Gas tank is directly behind the pilot in the "nacelle." Pressure feed is used. Capacity 18 gals, and 2 gal. oil. Consumption of fuel per hour, 8 gal. gas and 1 gal. oil.

General Information.—Total weight of aeroplane, without oil or operator, S50 lbs., speed 60 M. P. H.. capable of carrying 400 lbs. additional weight. Length over all is 25 feet. Center of gravity 30% back of front edge. Equipment includes clinomometer, anemometer, tachometer, pressure gauge and pump. A 100 H. P. Maximotor has been bought and is being installed in the flying boat.

BALLOON ASCENTS IN AKRON

R. H. Upson, has started the Goodyear Aero Club in Akron and the first ascents have been made using natural gas. The ascent was such a success that passenger trips will be arranged all during the summer in the "Goodyear" of 80,000 capacity. It will carry three with the natural gas. The first official trip took place on the 19th and fifty miles were covered in a th/ee hour sail.

If, in the future, I take up aeronautical work, I will subscribe for your magazine as I find it a valuable source of information.— E. W. O., Penna.

AERONAUTICS is well worth the price of sub-scrip'ion to anyone interested in the science.—H. ~s\. K.. J'enna.

Use War Fabric InTimes of Peace

Because of its dependability, both the U. S. Army and Navy use Goodyear Fabric extensively. Take a tip from Uncle Sam. Use Goodyear Rubberized Aeroplane Fabric. Use it because it's more reliable—SAFER.

The Moisture-Proof, Stay-Tight Fabric

This fabiic is so rubberized by the Goodyear process, that wet simply can't get to the fibre. So it won't shrink when it gets into the water. Ideal for Hydro-aeroplane use.

Neither will this fabric stretch when it becomes heated. That's because all stretch is taken out when the rubber is forced into the fabric.

Used also by The Cuniss Aeroplane Co.,The Wright Company. The Burgess Company & Curtis, Glen L. Martin Co., Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Benoist Aircraft Co. and other manufacturers.

Send for Details

We make everything; for Aeroplanes, including fabric, both rubberized and specially treated; and a complete line of the most serviceable T1RKS built. Tell us your wants. Perhaps we can help you effect a SAVING !

AKRON, OHIO

Rubberized Aeroplane Fabric

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY, Akron, Ohio

Branches and Agencies in 103 principal cities

FOR MODEL MAKERS

The Ideal Aeroplane & Supply Co., of No. 82 \V. Broadway, New York, is making a specialty of scale models of all the principal types of aeroplanes and is endeavoring to encourage the building from ready-made or rough parts these miniature machines rather than to foster the building of speed marvels, and cups are being offered for the best flights ohtained by models or supplies obtained from this concern. An interesting catalogue is published by the company which lists all sorts of supplies, such as thin skin surface coverings, rubbers, drills, fine wire, sockets, running gears, etc., all of microscopic size.

FOWLER'S FLIGHT OVER PANAMA

As the last issue was on the press came the news of Robert G. Coast-to-Coast Fowler's flight across the Isthmus of Panama in his Hall-Scott-engined Gage tractor, on April 27, with a moving picture apera-tor and camera, after preliminary flights over the city of Panama and nearby towns. Several previous aviators had previously anticipated the honor of being the first but gave up the idea after reconnoiter-ing. Even the intrepid James A. Hare thought discretion the better part of valor. The Hall-Scott Company is getting out a 100 H. P. motor which will be fully described in AERONAUTICS.

To the Editor:

Commenting upon Judge Hazel's decision in favor of the Wright Co.. I must say it does not look as good to me as to some others. * * *

For the good of the art allow m^ to submit a mode of controlling lateral stability which I am going to install in my next machine. It is a modification of the Voisin vertical partition and should give a semi-automatic control. The partitions, one at either side of the machine, are made in three sections. The centre section A envelops the front strut D and is fastened to the rear strut D' by the strap A'. The upper and lower sections B and B' are hinged to the section A and CC and CO. Each section, of course, will be framed. The control wires will be fastened at E and E'. The flap B on the left side will work in conjunction with flap B' on the right side and vice versa. They will work inwardly only.

In case the machine tilts to the left, flap B on the left and flap B' on the right would be operated. In a tilt to the right, tlap B on the right and flap B' on the left would be operated. When not in use the flaps would be held in place by a coiled spring.

I do not plan to apply for a patent on this control, so if anvone wants to u*e it he is welcome to it.

R. W. STEWART.

New Developments in Aeronautics

MODEL O-X CURTISS MOTOR

THIS new Curtiss motor is designed for operation at moderately high speed and shows 106 brake H. P. at 1800 R. P. M.; 95 H. P. at 1450 to 1500 R. P. M.; The weight of 310 pounds includes ignition, carburetor, et cetera, but not the radiator which weighs approximately fifty pounds, or the fuel tank. The price is $2,500.

Crank case is cast of a special alloy almost as light as aluminum and approximately 50% stronger; webbed to insure wide margin of safety. These webs also provide support for the five main shaft bearings, and make four divisions in the case, so that each throw of the shaft is properly lubricated. Lower half of the crank case has splash pan and reservoir holding sufficient oil for a run of six hours, specially designed for cooling of oil. Separate compartment for the gears is cast at one end of the case. Main bearings, high speed motor babbitt, die cast and interchangeable.

The crank shaft is made of Chrome nickel steel turned from solid billets. Propeller flange and bevel gear which drives the submerged oil pump, are forged integral with the shaft. Main shaft and all throws are bored out. The holes are securely capped, drive fitted and pinned. A large shoulder for thrust bearing inside the case is also lorged integral with the shaft, and a combined radial and axial Schafer ball bearing is used. Extreme length of shaft is 41 inches; diameter 1% inches, length of front bearing 2<Va inches, throw 3V2 inches, length of intermediate bearing 1 13/16 inches. On front end of shaft is an attachment for safety starting crank.

Cylinders are almost perfect tubes with spherical heads and valve steam guides cast integral.

Eight studs are used in attaching- each cylinder to the crank case. In addition to these small studs, four studs 11 inches long

extend from the flange in crank case to yoke over the top of the cylinder to make cylinder breakage impossible.

The exhaust port is provided with a boss for the attachment of muffler pipes if desired. Valve seats are cast inside the cylinder head, with spark plug seats in the centre of the head.

Water jackets are made of light, noncor-rosive metal welded to the cylinder flanges.

Pistons are of a special grade of steel with dome tops, well bridged. Each piston has three ring grooves and twelve oil grooves. Piston wall bored out and of uniform thickness except for flange at bottom designed to eliminate the chance of warping. Guide walls below piston pin bosses drilled in many places to reduce weight. Piston pin bears in the piston, which is provided with bosses of ample size.

Water circulation by centrifugal pump of conventional design.

Connecting rods are Chrome nickel steel drop forgiugs with round barrel which is bored out in finishing. The forgings weigh in the rough a little more than six pounds, while the complete connecting rod weighs a shade more than one pound.

Cam shaft of single shaft, drilled entire length for oil channel leading to different cam shaft bearings.

Lubrication by a combination splash and force feed systems. Rotary type gear pump, located at bottom of oil well, forces oil reverts to the splash pan and then through through cam shaft to opening in line with bole in cam shaft bearing and bosses leading to the main bearings; thence through opening in crank shaft to main crank shaft bearings and through the throws of the crank shaft to all connecting rod bearings. The surplus oil to the rear end of the hollow cam shaft, overflow pipes to main oil well. Cylinders and pistons lubricated by splash system, as indicated in the description of the crank case. Valves are of large size, the heads of cast iron electro welded to steel stems Y% inch in diameter.

Experimental work on this model has been carried on for more than a year and the results of changes in the valves and valve-operation of Curtiss motors has surprised even those who hoped most from the work.

Approximately 94 H. P. at 1500 R. P. M. was the brake showing made at the first tests last December.

After the further refinement of details this model was given a series of water brake tests which were very carefully checked by the observers, the cards showing a maximum of 106.4 at 1800 R. P. M.; 100.8 at 1700 R. P. M., and is rated at 90 to 100 H. P. 86 H. P. at 1350 to 1400 R. P. M.

AERONA UTICS

Page 1 79

Vublijhed Monthly by Aeronaulicj Trtjj

122 E. 25th ST., NEW YORK Cable: Aeronautic, New York •phone, 9122 Madison So.. ERNEST L. JONES. Pres'I - - THOMAS C. WATKINS/Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L.JONES, Editor — M. 6. SELLERS, Technical Editor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, S3 00 Foreign, $3 50

No. 69

MAY, 1913

Vol. XII, No. 5

Entered as second-class mailer September 22, 1908, at the Postoff ice, New York, under the Acl of March 3, 1879.

CJ AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.

C] Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.

cylero cTWart

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. Payment in advance.

MOTORS FOR SALE

FOR SALE—A few Model D-4 Gray Eagle motora, slightly used, that have been taken in trade for larger motors. In first-class condition, and guaranteed, at bargain prices. Kemp Machine Works, Muncie, Ind.—T. F.

ENGINE FOR SALE—8-cyl. "V," list price. $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

FOR SALE—Brand new 4-cyl., 45 H. P. Maximotor, with propeller, magneto and radiator, $700.00. Address, Maximotor, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 East 25th Street, N. Y. City.

AEROPLANES

CURTISS-FARMAN—Exceptionally well made passenger biplane of Curtiss-Farman type. Roebling cable, Naiad covered, 20-inch by 3-inch wheels, seamless steel tubing, laminated ash and spruce members, etc., $100. Buchanan, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in A! condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

MISCELLANEOUS

NEW AERIAL PROPELLER—Highly efficient. We specialize on four-bladers for flying boats; they deliver the goods. No experimenting. Why not try one? Just drop us a postal and ask for Catalog No. I. Do it today. Address nearest office. Double Stamp Propeller Co., No. 528 So. Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111., or Evansville, Ind., Dept. C—T. F.

HYDROAEROPLANES, AEROPLANES, MO TORS—30, 50, 75 H. P. Great Bargains. Demonstrations. Patterson, A986 Trumbull, Detroit,—July.

FOR SALE OR TRADE—My five passenger 30 H. P. Peerless touring car, for an aeroplane or balloon suitable for exhibition purpose. S. C. Allen, 700 Bristol St., Saginaw, Mich.

FOR SALE—Belgian patent right No. 247,110 and Canadian No.144,784 • for successful variable-pitch propeller. Address, Harry Elliott, 1609 Haskell Ave., Lawrence, Kan.

WISE—One copy of the rare book by John Wise, A System of Aeronautics, for sale to first comer at $10. First-class condition. This books is getting more rare every day. Address Sheahan. care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

WANTED—Back numbers of AERONAUTICS as follows: Nov., 1907; Feb., 1908; May, June, August, October, November and December, 1909; Jan. and March, 1910. Fiftv cents each for any or all of these. Address: Editor, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York.

WE ARE making contracts for Fair and Park flights. Get our price. Address, Monoplane Exposition Co., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

FOR SALE AT A SACRIFICE—One baby Far-man biplane. Will sell complete with power plant or separately. Address, E. C. Gillespie, Woodhaven, L. I., N. Y.

FOR SALE—Tractor biplane, 42 feet spread, 5 feet chord, double surfaced, Farman running gear, 8-cyl. 60 II. P. motor, Bosch magneto, Schebler carburetor, radiator, combination tank, 8-foot Paragon and Nor-male propellers, extra parts, tent, crates. Complete exhibition outfit. Would make fine hydro-aeroplane. Price, $1,200. Will sell without power, or power plant separate. F. Robinson, 191 Caledonia Ave., Rochester, N. Y.

WANTED—Tent for aeroplane, 28 by 30 or more. Chas. Kolb, 3932 44th Ave., Minneapolis, Minn.

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY

THE BOLAND MOTOR

S cyl. " V " type 60 HP. 240 pounds.

RELIABILITY MAXIMUM POWER.

DURABILITY MINIMUM WEIGHT.

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

TEST OF STURTEVAIMT MOTC R

Readers will be interested in a test recently conducted at the Sturtevant factory on a standard six cylinder motor rated at 60 H. P. at 1200. ordered by the Weckler-Armstrong-Lillie Co.. of Chicago, on condition that it be subjected to a four hour non-stop run at 1600 R. P. M. and develop not less than 80 H. P.

The test was witnessed by E. R. Armstrong, Albert A. Merrill and Charles H. Mower of London.

The motor was direct connected to an absorption water dynamometer. The water was supplied to the dynamometer from a float-feed tank which maintained as near as possible a uniform supply of water throughout the test. The force exerted*by the brake arm was recorded on standard Fairbanks platform scales. The gasoline used was the regular fuel of the trade, so called "motor gasoline," tested 64.50 Beaume. This was supplied to the motor from the tank supported on scales so that the weight of the gasoline used could be accurately determined. The water for cooling the motor was contained in a tank and circulated by means of the regular centrifugal pump on the motor. A thermometer was placed at the outlet and the temperature of the water at this point war. kept at 1600 F. by means of supplying cool water to the tank. These conditions were exactly similar to those when using a radiator.

The lubricating oil was contained within the base of the motor, a measured quantity being put in before starting and the remainder being-drawn off at the end of the run so that the total quantity used was determined in this manner.

The accompanying chart is a record of

readings taken at various intervab during the four hour run. The end of each reading is recorded, the revolutions per minute and the net weight that the brake-arm exerted on the scales. The horsepower is derived from the Prony-brake formula of H.P.—2 v l n r- in

3300

which L is the length of the brake-arm in feet; N, the number of revolutions per minute; and P, the pressure registered on the scales. Mechanical loss due to the friction in the bearings of the dynamometer had previously been very carefully determined by driving the dynamometer by an electric motor and measuring the power required to do so at various speeds. Therefore, the last column of figures on the chart shows the actual brake horsepower developed by the motor at the time of each reading. The average of these figures shows 83 B. H. P. at an average speed of 1616 R. P. M. for the entire period of four hours. It will be seen that the last reading was at the same speed as the first and that the drop in power amounted to only 14 H. P. or 6/10 of \'/< at the end of the four hours.

The total fuel consumption of 190 pounds or 31.6 gallons of gasoline shows the excellent figure of .572 pounds per H. P. hour, while the oil consumption of 2^ gallons for the entire run is equally good.

Previous to running the four hour non-stop test, the motor was run for a period of about one-hour during which time horsepower readings were taken at various speeds from 1,000 to 1,870 R. P. M., and from these readings a horsepower curve was plotted as shown on the accompanying chart. It will be seen that at a speed of 1870 R. P. M. the motor showed 90 B. H. P. It is interesting to note that during this test at these widely varying speeds, not a single adjustment was made to the two Zenith carburetors, which are standard equipment.

Time

R.p.n

He r Weight on Scales

z7tlnp 33 000

Mech.Loss in ornanonerer

brake House Power

Remarks

9.37

Motor Started

   

Length or FfuN

4

hrs.

9.45

/6/2

89

81.9

I.I

83

A vera oe Speed

16/6

R P.M.

/O. 01

16 33

89

83.3

I.I

84. A

Average Horse Power

83.0

B.H.P.

IO./O

16 OB

89

81.7

/.I

8Z.B

Temp, of Water at Outlet

I60"

FA HP.

ZO.25

I6Z?

89

8Z.6

/.I

93.7

Gasolene Test

64.5°

Baume

10.37

i6o&

89

81.7

I.I

ez.e

 

Gallons

Lbs.

10. SO

1616

89

8Z.I

I.I

83.Z

Total Gasolene Used

31.6

ieo

II.OO

16/9

89

02.3

I.I

83.4

Total. Oil. Used

Z.S5

19.22

II. (5

16/0

89

8I.O

1.1

82.9

Gas.Coaisumpt/on per HP Hour

.095

.572

II.30

1626

89

82.6

I.I

83 7

Oil Consumption per HP. Hour

.0O76

.OS 8

11.45

I630

i jr

83

828

g ? s\

I.I

83.9

£73 /

Witnesses

 

tic ,C/<s

12. IS

I&2Z

I6IO

88.5

o4,.u

81.3

I.I I.I

OS . 1

82.4

 

I2.30

1609

88.5

81.3

I.I

82.4

 

12.4-5

16//

88.5

81.4

I.I

82.5

I.OO

161/

88.5

81.4

1. 1

8Z.5

1.15

1607

88.5

31 2

I.I

82.3

April 8, 1913.

I.30

1612

80.5

81.4

I.I

8Z.5

1.37

Motor stopped by Switch

B. F. Sturtevant Co.

Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.

 

1

 

Maximum Honse Power Test

 

| 1870 | 83 | 88.6 \ 1.4

90

THIS ILLUSTRATION SHOWS A FOUR CYLINDER

(.reg. u. S. pat. off.)

AeronauticaI Mlotor

equipped with MUFFLER and STARTING CRANK installed in one of the U. S. Navy Hydro Aeroplanes. This machine has been in daily use at the Navy Winter Aviation Camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, during the months of January, February and March.

In these 90 days Lieutenant Cunningham made 1 39 flights, without experiencing any engine trouble or replacing a single part of the motor.

Write for Bulletin 2002

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

HYDE PARK, :: :: :: BOSTON, MASS.

And all the Principal Cities ol the World

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR

The accompanying drawing shows a new multiple feed rotary pump lubricator brought out by the Pedersen Lubricator Co., 644 First Avenue, New York. A novel feature of this lubricator is its extreme simplicity. While it may be made with any number of feeds, and each feed individually adjustable, it has only two moving parts. Another feature is that it allows for a wide range of attachment to a motor, as it may be connected either directly to the oil supply tank or at a considerable distance from same, since this pump has strong suction and discharge power, it may be placed in any desired position, either horizontally or vertically, and will work

?-n--, " ......-S°

O--.......-fa

equally well in either direction of rotation without any change or adjustment.

This pump comprises a casing or cover, the casing having a cylindrical end bore with inlet and discharge openings. Within the casing there is a rotating shaft, with head and stem fitting the bore of same, and with the end of the head wearing against the under surface of the cover. This head is recessed in its outer face and transversely slotted, with a sliding piston fitting in same, this piston being also recessed, forming at one end a head, and at a middle a pin or stud. Fastened in and projecting from the under side of the cover are one or more studs, according to the number of feeds required. Equally spaced between the fixed studs in the cover and passing through same are adjusting screws having tapered ends. These act upon the neck of the piston, which is of a corresponding taper. This action takes place when the piston is in line with the outlets port. The amount of discharge can be varied by means of the taper ended screw, as when same is at its extreme inward position it gives the piston its greatest movement, consequently discharging more oil, and vice versa when at its outward position.

Tn the face of the casing is a circular recess having openings leading to the circular bore, forming inlet or suction ports. Equally spaced between these are discharge ports, communicating direct from the bore to the outlet connections. The operation of the pump is as follows: By rotating the shaft the piston is given a transverse movement opposite the inlet port. This draws in the

oil, which is confined between the casing and the piston until opposite the outlet, when the piston is again acted uoon by the tapered screw, and the oil discharged.

The frame shown is specially made for the Gnome motor, and same varies with different types of motors in which the pump is used. The Gyro Motor Co. has been using these pumps for some time with practically the same arrangement of frame. A great many of the model T-X pumps are also used for aeroplanes, either with or without sight feed indicators.

CURTISS FLYING BOAT HATCH

A new step in the development of the Curtiss flying boat is shown in these sketches of the forward entrance. When the boats are called on for twenty-fiive to forty trips a day, as is each of them at the camp on Lake Keuka, the time spent in discharging the passengers and taking on new ones counts up

very fast. Under the old system the flying boats were run high and dry up a runway and onto a turntable, swung half way 'round, and the door of the cockpit opened on the high side. The new way permits the boat to be run up to a dock head on, the windshield is hinged in the middle and the upoer half, when turned back, serves as a gangway. This is cleated to give passengers a good foothold.

Experimentors with hydroaeroplanes may take a leaf from a notebook of the chronicler of Monaco meet and prepare for increased power, for there almost every machine had trouble getting off the water except against a fair wind or with a good sized sea running. Other lessons include the necessity, in water machines using floats, of having them fitted with shock absorbers ; the need for increased strength, and proper fore-and-aft balance.

THOMAS SCHOOL

Chartered by the University of the State of New York. Superior opportunities offered. Training- under Walter E. Johnson. Learn over land or water. Complete your course on the

THOMAS FLYING BOAT.

Tuition complete, $-50.00.

More than 10000 successful passenger-carrying flights have been made on Thomas Machines, without a single serious accident.

Thomas Aeroplanes embody the latest American and European ideas

in design and construction. ■■^■"■"^^ For full particulars, address

FRENCH AEROPLANES

ENGI NEERS INVENTORS AVIATORS CONSTRUCTORS

I

TAKE NOTICE!

For all photos, descriptions, data, news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below:

Etudes Aeronautiques

ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.C.P. 20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (,Vosges\ France

ADAMS-FARWELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET,

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.

BATH, N. Y.

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

Broadway and 57th St , New York City Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types

Jeffervs Marine Glue

^ATERPROOfjj

[J-IftVID GLAfl

C QUALITY *L- FERDINAND &

USE OUR

WATERPROOF LIQUID GLUE

or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for waterproofing the canvas covering of Flying Boats. For use in combination with calico or canvas, between veneer in diagonal planking, and for waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use. etc.

L W Ferdinand & Co., boZ^.Ka.

LIGHTWEIGHT ENGINE PARTS

That magnalium can be used for a substitute of cast iron in aeroplane engine cylinders is the belief of Morris R. Machol, who lectured before the Aeronautical Society recently. The following was taken down from his talk. The principle advantage that magnalium cylinders have over iron ones is that of weight, the former weighing about l/z as much.

Magnalium is an alloy of aluminum and magnesium, manufactured in Germany by a patented process. Since magnesium is much lighter than aluminum, magnalium is also somewhat lighter than pure aluminum.

Magnalium also has a greater tensile strength than aluminum, it being 23,000 pounds. Its elastic limit is about 17,000 pounds. Magnalium shows no tendency to crystalize under continued vibration. Magnalium is unusually tough, and its physical characteristics makes magnalium a valuable alloy for use in aeroplane engine construction for crank cases, etc.

The thermal conductivity of magnalium is 14 times as great as that of iron, which means that the cooling problem in an aeroplane engine with magnalium cylinders is eliminated. In the case of a water cooled engine, the problem of getting the heat through the walls of the cylinders and into the water is eliminated and the only problem remaining as regards cooling is that of getting heat away from the water when the water gets to the radiator. In the case of an air cooled engine, the higher thermal conductivity of magnalium is a very direct advantage. The metal will carry the heat from the inside wall to the ribs and it is then simply a question of sufficient rib area to transmit the heat from these ribs to the surrounding atmosphere.

Aluminum will not stand the wear of piston travel, but it has been conclusively proven that magnalium will. It naturally follows, that magnalium will stand the wear of piston travel when used as cylinders in connection with an iron piston, it will also stand up when used as a piston in connection with iron cylinders. This has been tried out in a great number of motors, operating under many different conditions and the results of many of these tests have produced the information given here.

The casting shrinkage is about 5/64 of an inch to the foot and the same patterns that are used for iron pistons can be easily used for magnalium pistons.

Magnalium is not as hard as iron but it is a better bearing metal and experiments with magnalium bearings have shown that this is even a better bearing metal than bronze or babbit.

One of the lirst advantages of the use of light weight reciprocating parts for piston purposes is the remarkable reduction of vibration. It can be readily understood that the rapid reciprocation of moving weights is what really causes vibration. When the weight of the piston is reduced, however, this vibration is reduced tremendously.

1 he melting point of magnalium at atmos-

pheric pressure is 12560 F. This melting point is considerably less than the temperature often attained in the cylinder.

However, magnalium pistons do stand up in actual practice, and the theory is that the dome of this piston never gets as hot as that of the iron piston, as the thermal conductivity is fourteen times that of iron and the heat is carried awav from the dome of the piston to its walls and through the walls of the cylinder to the water jackets.

Since the dome and walls of magnalium pistons would be nearer to each other's temperature than would be the case with iron pistons, there would be less tendency to distortion due to the difference in temperature between the dome and the walls of the piston.

The reduction of the weight of the reciprocating parts by approximately two-thirds correspondingly reduces the inertia forces and by the reduction of the inertia forces the horse power is effected. During two full strokes of the four strokes of the cycle, the actual pressure exerted on the bearings at both ends of the connecting rods are due almost entirely to the inertia of the reciprocating parts. As the piston nears the top of its stroke, for instance, and the inertia force approaches its maximum the angle between the crank and the centre line of the piston is approaching zero. When the maximum inertia force is reached none of it can be transmitted to the fly-wheel and it must all be taken up by the bearings at the two ends of the connecting rod. This hammer like action is certainly reduced by using light weight pistons. Reducing the inertia force reduces the actual amount of friction on the bearings proportionately, which means an actual increase in horse power.

The inertia forces effect the horse power only as they effect the friction At the same speed, the reduction in the inertia forces reduces the amount of friction between the piston and the cylinder walls, at the wrist pin bearing and the connecting rod bearings ; and the friction at the crank shaft bearings. Reducing the amount of friction means that less horsepower is required to overcome this friction and this horse power then becomes available for use. Thus the reduction of this friction increases the horse power output at the same speed. The motor can then run at a higher speed, which means another increase in horse power.

The difficulties that have been experienced in the use of magnalium pistons have been principally finding out the correct clearance. In the first place the co-efficient of expansion of magnalium is .0000225, a little bit higher than that of iron. The best results are with about half to three-quarters of a thousandth of an inch per inch of diameter of cylinder, in addition to what is allowed regularly for cast iron pistons.

Magnalium is the cheapest metal with which to get extremely light weight reciprocating parts because it does not involve the cost of dies or the expense of machining pistons from solid blocks of metal.

Now hack at its home in

GARDEN CITY

L. I.

Best equipped school in this country

MOISANT AVIATION SCHOOL

Establish Your Standing

IN AVIATION BY PURCHASING A

KIRK HAM

FLYING BOAT TRACTOR BIPLANE AVIATION MOTOR

THEY ARE THE ACME OF PERFECTION OR.

TAKE A COURSE IN THE

Kirkham School of Aviation

which is NOW OPEN

Instruction can be had on either Monoplane or Tractor Biplane, under the personal direction of AVIATOR ART SMITH

Enroll NOW so as to be ready in time for this season's exhibition work

Full particulars sent upon request

Kirkham Aeroplane & Motor Co.

Inc.

SAVONA, N. Y.

\ C. & A. Wittemann f

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS

Manufacturers of

Biplanes

C,We have graduated Miss Mois-ant. Miss Miller, Messrs. Jerwan, de Murias, Seligman, Kantner, Bates, McKay. Wbrden, de Giers, Alvarez, Bolognesi, Richter, Reichert, Hunt, Alberto and Gustavo Salinas, Ruiz, Lamkey. Edelman, Arnold, Juan and Eduardo Aldasoro.

CA Magnificent Aerodome. A Splendid Equipmentof Machinesand Expert Pilots,Congenial Surroundings. Best Living Arrangements. Write today for booklet.

THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS

1790 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, N. Y. ::

Monoplanes

Hydro-Aeroplanes | Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Part* Built to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribe, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY

Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville

Aeronautical Supplies

MAKE BIG MONEY GIVING EXHIBITION FLIGHTS.

Build your own flying machine. We supply all parts and fittings at extremely low prices.

1913 CATALOGUE with working drawings of 3 well-known flying machines mailed on request.

E. J. WILLIS COMPANY

85 Chambers Street 67 Reade Street

NEW YORK

Telephone: 3624 Worth

STYLES & CASH ^ Stfners

Lithographers

established 1865 6 r

Aeroplane, Motor and Accessory Catalogues Circulars, Brochures, Bulletins, etc. :: ::

135 W. 14th STREET

NEW YORK

SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES

Goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind. Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AVIATIC" and a small order will tell you why those who know send to us when they want the best at the right price. Let us give yon a special figure on that supply list.

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO.

208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash.

SPARK PLUG HOOD

The advanced idea of entirely enclosing the ignition system so as to prevent straying of the electrical energy is made possible without alteration of the motor design, or the u e of special spark plugs, through the adoption of Bosch spark plug hoods. Dampness, water or other form of liquid current conductors cannot possibly reach the live electrical connections when the hoods are in position.

The hood illustrated is especially noteworthy on account of its simplicity of construction and the method of attachment. There are but three parts : The Steatite hood, the asbestos washer and the insulated terminal thumb cap.

To place the hood in position, the knurled terminal nut regularly supplied with the Bosch plug is removed, the asbestos ring is pressed into the groove at the base of the hood and the hood is then placed in position, the cable is set in its recess and its loop terminal passes over the threaded central pin of the sparkplug. The insulated cap is then screwed in place holding all secure. The large inside diameter of the insulated thumb cap bears against the insulation of the cable and expands it sufficiently to completely fill the opening in the Steatite hood through which the cable passes.

The ignition cable can he detached without tools or without delay and the removal of any part of the protecting hood proper is unnecessary. When it is desired to detach the cable, merely the thumb screw is removed in the same manner as regularly applied to spark plugs.

The spark plug terminal is completely insulated so that the cable may be removed or a connection made more secure while the engine is in operation. There need be no fear of electrical shock.

PROOFING FLYING BOAT HULLS

For waterproofing air-tight compartments, or for waterproofing canvas, in combination with calico for the waterproof skins of diagonally built boats, for attaching rubber, glass, linoleum, cork and canvas, to wood, iron and other substances, one can use Jeffery's marine glue. \

Stretch the canvas thoroughly before laying. After being melted over a moderate fire, spread the glue on the surface of the wood with a stiff wire-bound brush, leaving on a good body; lay the canvas on the glue and pass an ordinary hot flat-iron over the canvas and make the glue sweat through, taking care not to have the iron so hot as to scorch the canvas. (Experience will immediately show the heat required.) Another way of application is to coat the canvas on one side and lay it glued-side downwards on the wood, or other substance requiring to be covered, passing the iron over as before—the canvas will then be found perfectly waterproof, and adhering tightly to the wood, etc.

For the planking of boats, use glue made expressly for use in combination with calico between the double planking of diagonally built row boats and motor boats. Melt the glue as before, and paint it on the first series of planks with a stiff wire-bound brush; the calico should then be laid on and ironed through; another coating of glue should be painted over, taking care to well cover the calico; after that put on the outside longitudinal planking, and apply the copper rivets in the usual way. The boat will then be found to be perfectly water-tight, and the glue will expand and contract with the timbers without cracking.

This glue may be obtained from L. \V. Ferdinand & Co., 201 South St., Boston, Mass.

SKY SCRAPINGS

May 17—Domingo Rosillo flies from Key West to Havana, winning that city's prize of $10,000. lie used a Morane monoplane without floats. Distance is 90 miles. Time, 2 h. 30 min.

Augustin Parla had a Curtiss hydroaeroplane and without waiting to complete his training at the Curtiss School hurried his machine to Key West, but Rosillo stole a march on him. Two days later he started and flew to Muriel Bay, near Havana, on the 19th; time 2 h. 55 min., receiving $5,000 as a second prize.

April 13—Lieut. Samuel McLeary (Curtiss), climbs 8,400 geet; up 1 h. 16 min. Flying cross-country 63 miles. Lieut. J. D. Park (Curtiss) flies crosscountry 100 miles in 2h. 5 min., at an altitude of 6,000 feet; both at San Diego.

April 24—Altitude record for hydroaeroplanes twice broken at Annapolis by Lieut. P. M. L. Bellinger (Curtiss), who attained an altitude of 3,710 feet and by Ensign Victor Herbster (Wright machine with Curtiss pontoon, Curtiss 5-cyl. motor) who climbed 4,450 feet.

May 9—Lieut. J. II. Towers and Ensign G. de C Chevalier, both of U. S. Navy, fly from Washington Navy Yard along Potomac and Chesapeake lo Annapolis in 3 h. 5 min., using Curtiss flying boat with dual control, each operating part of the way. Distance, about 169 miles. Started with 35 gallons of gasoline and 3 gallons of oil. Used 23.25 gallons of gasoline or 7.536 gallons per hour and used 1.625 gallons of oil, or 0.527 gallons per hour.

May 10—De Lloyd Thompson flies Chicago-Joliet in one hour.

WE SELL NOTHING BUT THE BEST

A

Only the best methods and the best equipment will insure you satisfaction.

THE

SLOANE SCHOOL

provides these

Ask Our Pupils AEROPLANES, MOTORS AND ACCESSORIES

MANUFACTURED AND SOLD Agents for

Deperdussin Caudron Anzani Gnome

Renault Clerget

Le Rhone "Fixator" Metal Fittings

SloaneAeroplaneCo.

Main Office 1733 Broadway - New York 'Phone Columbus 5421

1913 ROBERTS Aero Motor

has gear train of spur gears only, on ball bearings.

These gears are encased and run in oil.

Bosch H.L t}Tpe dual system of ignition. Starting crank.

A better motor has not been made.

The new features place it ahead of all other aeroplane motors.

Write for catalog to-day.

STANDARD EQUIPMENT. PARAGON PROPELLERS

THE ROBERTS MOTOR CO., 1

430 COLUMBUS AVE. SANDUSKY, OHIO.

AERONA UTICS

May, 1913

HOW LAPHAM MAKES THE DROP

The column illustration shows Lapham with the Stevens "pack" in three stages of a drop from a high building or flying aeroplane. After getting clear of the machine, a cord is pulled and the "pack" opens. This is the same apparatus Rodman Law has been using. Lapham is under Leo Stevens' management and his drop from Brown's Wright was one of the features of the Aeronautical Society's carnival the end of .May.

MASSACHUSETTS STATE LAW

Another State has passed a registration and licensing bill, Massachusetts. In the face of this, aero clubs seem to be willing to sit by and wait for the ultimate conglomeration of seriocomic, serious, ridiculous and altogether conflicting restrictive State laws while well-meaning, doubtless, but misguided writers condemn a federal statute which would smooth out all difficulties and provide advantageous regulation.

It could not he possible that aero clubs would rather see interstate air touring handicapped by a hodge-podge of State laws than to broad-mindedly give up their attempts at certification of all classes of aviators and urge a uniform national statute?

Even the newspapers are sane on the subject. The Washington Post believes if aeronautics is ever to become of real use to the world, it must be "under the same supervision that is given to ships of the ocean. If inexperienced men were permitted to take ships to sea there would be no end of accidents. Pilots must have licenses and the captains of ships must have a long training before they are permitted to take charge of ships with passengers aboard. There is no reason why greater license should be permitted with reference to aerial craft."

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania is the only club to inaugurate a movement for national legislation and the Aeronautical Society the only club to second its action.

NATIONAL BALLOON RACE

It is announced that the national elimination balloon race will be held in Kansas City on July 4th. Among the promised entries are: William E. Ass-man, who stated that he would have three balloons in the race. Ivy Baldwin is expected to represent the Pacific Coast Aero Club. Arthur T. Atherholt has a new balloon coming from Europe. The Million Population Club will be represented by at least one bag. John Watts will sail the Kansas City II. Capt. II. E. Honeywell will be another, and other entries are assured.

BALLOON ASCENTS

May 3—A. T. Atherholt, 11. II. Knerr and Clarence P. Wynne, from llolmcsburg, Pa., to Weymouth,

May 13.—Dr. T. E. Eldridge, Lloyd Barnett, E. S. McUure and Carlton Eldridge in the "Phila II " from Pt. Breeze to Yardley, Pa.

May 18—A. T. Atherholt and A. W. McLellan to Lebanon, Pa., from Ilolmesburg, in a rainstorm.

•

< BENOIST «g

PLANES hold fhe iollowiug records:

World's long dis'aiice hydro record wilh one passenger. World's long distance hydro record with two passengers. American endurance record, aviator and three passengers. Have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. The first successful Tractor Biplane built in America.

The A>7. Benoist Flying Boat

Records indicate superior efficiency. Why not get an efficient machine ■while you are about it ?

BENOIST AIR CRAFT CO.

6628 DELMAR BLVD. ST. LOUIS, MO.

50 H.P.

160 POUNDS

GYRO MOTOR

80 H.P.

207 POUNDS

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout

Endurance Record to Date 4 hrs., 23 min.

From the

"MOTORWAGEN" of Nov. 20, 1912 In the testing establishment of Dr. Bendemannat Adleishof (near Berlin), a 7-cylinder Gyro Motor was recently tested. In a 5-hour endurance rim and at 1,000 R. P.M.. an average of 45.7 H.P. was obtained. The fuel consumed was t_j.7 kg. gasoline per hour and 3.06 kg. lubiicat-ing oil, which is more favorable than the Gnome motor of the same horse-power. The weight of the motor was 73 kg.

Send for Catalog

THE 0YR0 MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.

MAGNALIUM

Lit l-Sii LIGHTKU, IT*". STRONGER

AND OVER TEX TIM ICS AS TOUGH AS THE BEST ALUMINUM CASTINGS. WEIGHS OXK-THIKD AS MUCH AS IKON'. :::•.!

FOR CYLINDERS, l'ISTOXS, CRANK CASKS, SOCKETS AN 13 OTHER AEROPLANE FITTINGS

G. A. CRAYKN & CO.

81 NEW STKKUT, X.Y. C.

METAI. DKI'T.

MORRIS R. MACIIOL

BUILD YOUR OWN

Over 100 complete ^ dniwinjrs Scale 1" to foot: some full size

I'rin s28"x36" ONLY COMPLETE PRINTS EVER SOLD

AERONAUTICS, 122 East 25th St., New York

1 you aie ,nter. csted in a reliable, efficient and economical power plant. —-vlhal is the only kind we build. F<

'JU l,<._L"4_LfJ —.v thai is the only kin ■A9 vI .niA -J.'.l. ; build. Four sizes.

Kemp Machine Works

Muncie, Ind.

AERONA UTICS

May, 1913

THE Lauder model pictured here is the one which won the hand-launched duration contest at Murray Hill, N. J., on October 20th, 1912, with a record of 143 seconds. At this contest it made the wonderful performance of flying over 130 seconds eight times in eight consecutive flights. These flights were witnessed by a crowd of about fifty people and were officially timed with stop watches. Among the judges who witnessed the flights, were: Edward Durant, Charles Hon, of Plainfield, N. J., and \V. M. Myers, of New Providence, X. J., who kept the record of the flights.

The fuselage of the model is 40 inches long, and is constructed of silver spruce 5/16" by 34" at the middle and tapering toward the ends. The main sticks are oval in section. The surfaces are built up with spruce and bamboo and covered with Japanese silk paper. The dimensions are 13 inches by 5 inches, and 27 inches by 7 inches, respectively for the front and rear surfaces. The propellers are 12 inches in diameter and have a blade surface of i4l/2 square inches each. The pitch is 34 inches; they are practically true screw.

The motive power consists of two ounces of flat stranded rubber which drives the propellers at about 500 revolutions per minute. The weight of the complete model is 4^4 ounces. The machine is guyed as shown with No. 34 steel wire. The drawing is to scale.

G. F. FORSTER.

OFFICIAL RECORDS

WORLD'S MODEL FLYING RECORDS.

America

Hand launch ......Dist...Armour Selley..2,653 feet

Dur... Armour Selley. 158 4-5 see.

Off ground .......Dist.. .Armour Selley.. 1,408 feet

Dur... Curtis Myers......73 sec.

Hydro ......,.....Dur... Armour Selley.... 53 sec.

England

Single tractor .....Dist...H. R. Weston..252 feet

Dur...F. W. Jannaway. . .22 sec.

AMERICAN MODEL FLYING RECORDS.

Hand launch ......Dist... Armour Selley.. 2.653 feet

Dur... Armour Selley. 158 4-5 sec.

Off ground .......Dist.. .Armour Selley.. 1,408 feet

Dur...Curtis Myers......73 sec.

Hydro ............Dur...Armour Selley....53 sec.

LAUDER

MODEL

\VA.I.AUDE^.

ELEVATION

J1ER0NA UTICS Page 19 1 May, 1913

BALDWIN

Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any strength or color.

"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

Private Flying Field

Fine private field with smooth water frontage for hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS FOR 1912

Following is a statement showing, by countries, imports and exports of American aeroplanes during the twelve months ending December 31st, 1912. These include aeroplanes "and parts."

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. Countries Number Value

France .......................... 8 $20,200

Germany ........................ 3 14,400

Russia Europe ................... 5 28,500

Canada .......................... 20 56,060

Venezuela ....................... 2 3,500

China ........................... 1 1,000

Tapan ........................... 1 350

Panama ......................... 2 7,500

British Tamaica .................. 1 2,500

Cuba ............................ 2 7,000

Brazil ........................... 3 7,500

Australia and Tasmania .......... 1 5,054

Philippines ...................... 1 7.191

$167,255

IMPORTS.

France .......................... II $49,496

Germany ........................ 1 524

Belgium ......................... I 2,509

France .......................... 14 51,604

England ......................... 1 4,700

Mexico ..............r........... 1 900

$109,733

INCORPORATIONS

Durham-Christmas Aeroplane Sales and Exhibition Corporation, Washington, D. C, $10,000 to $50,000; C. A. Durham, J. G. Capers. L. B. Perkins.

The Ajelle Hvdro-Aeroplane Company, Pittsburg, $50,000; Vincent Ajello, Automa Floccker, Fabio D. Alessio, all of Pittsburg.

BUSINESS TROUBLES

Mt. Pleasant's (Iowa) Commercial Club has purchased for $57 at sheriff's sale one aeroplane, the sale having been made to partly satisfy several claims filed against the alleged "Greater Des Moines School of Aviation" and one A. Eastman who possibly is the Eastman so well but unfavorably known in Chicago, Mt. Clemens and Des Moines. Later the club sold the machine for $212.50 to A. J. Ilartmann of Burlington.

MOISANT SCHOOL AT HEMPSTEAD

The season has opened propitiously at the Hempstead Planes aerodrome and great activity is promised during the next thirty days. Chief Pilot, S. S. Jerwan of the Moisant School arrived from Augusta, Ga., during the last week in April, bringing with him a carload of six aeroplanes and the whir of the propellers can now be heard from early morning until late in the afternoon. Among the corp of Moisant pupils is Lieutenant Dante Nannini of the Guatemalan Army who has just commenced his instruction.

The Moisant Aviation School occupies the entire block of five concrete hangars, one of which is used by the Moisant Club and is fitted up for the use of the pupils and other members of the club.

Mr. S. S. Jerwan continues as Chief Pilot at the school. Mr. Harold Kantuer, one of the best all around pilots of the Moisant aggregation, is busy on construction work at the factory, Winficld, L. I. A dozen pupil? are on hand for the course.

KNABENSHUE AIRSHIP

The balloon builder has been getting disgusted with the advent of the aeroplane and the cessation of the sport of ballooning formerly indulged in to some extent in this country. However, he may take heart again. Roy Knabenshue, of airship fame, convert to the aeroplane and backslider to the dirigible, has quietly finished a 150 foot "dig" and, with Walter Brookins, another apparent backslider, has tried it out in a 45 minute sail in Los Angeles.

The "ship" is 150 feet long, 30 feet in diameter, contains 76,000 cubic feet, and has a gross lift of 4940 pounds. The balloon with balloonette weighs 1120 pounds, or car complete with water and 25 gallons of gas, 1378 pounds, leaving a net lift of 2392 pounds. The engine is a 35 H. P. Hansen, 4-cyl., 4 54 inch bore by 4y2 inch stroke, water cooled, develops 39 B. H. P., driving two propellers at 425 R. P. M., pitch speed being 90 M. P. H. Approximately, the speed of the craft is 30 M. P. H. The car is 112 feet long, suspended by Roebling cable lA inch diameter 7 feet below the balloon. The car is equipped with aeroplanes both front and rear, each containing 120 square feet of surface. The rudders are 6 by 10 feet. In the trials, the aeroplanes, which are capable of being tilted, steered the ship up and down with ease.

TABLET IN MEMORY OF LANGLEY

Seventeen years ago, on May 6, 1896, the first actual flight of power model aeroplane was achieved by Samuel Pierpont Langley at Quanticom, Va., when his "aerodrome" flew across the Potomac River. In commemoration of the event a bronze tablet was unveiled at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, on May 6, 1913.

It is made of bronze and is oblong in shape. It is 4yi feet long by 2yi feet wide. The bas-relief represents Langley seated on an open terrace, watching the flight of birds, while at the same time he sees in his mind's eye his "aerodrome" soring high above them.

On this occasion Glenn II. Curtiss was awarded the second "Langley Medal" for development of the marine aeroplane.

21 AEROPLANES FOR THE ARMY

By the end of 1913, the U. S. Army will have twenty-one aeroplanes in service. All will be biplanes. The range of types will be as follows: 3 Curtiss eights, 1 Curtiss military with 160 Gnome. 2 Curtiss tractors, 6 6-cyI. Wrights and 3 4-cyl. 1 Wright with 90 II. P. Daimler, 2 Burgess military tractors with 70 and 100 Renaults, 2 4-cyl. Burgess machines, and 1 Burgess flying boat. The first Wright is not included as it is in Smithsonian Institution. There are 31 Army aviators.

A. A. S. H. FLYING SCHOOL

The American Aeroplane Supply House is operating a school at Hempstead under the tutelage of F. C. Hild, certified pilot. A passenger carrying monoplane will be finished shortly and passenger carrying will he a feature. _ Flights are being made daily in the school's Bleriot-type-Roberts-engined monoplanes.

Friends of Walter L. Brock, Herring's Assistant when he was selling pocket size aeroplanes to the War Department, will be surprised to learn that for the past six months has been flying at the Deper-dussin school at Hendon, England, and till the last few weeks, chief pilot in charge. Brock was an Armour Tech. man and interested in aviation since a small boy.

Page 193

May, 1913

A

FTER surprising the natives of Porto Rico

Harry Bingham Brown

The Greatest of the Great

has returned to the States and will demonstrate shortly the Greatest piece of Aerial Ingenuity ever projected by man

Assisted by

Law and Lapham

The Two

DARE-DEVILS OF THE SKY

under contract to perform the

"Stevens Pack Act"

during the Season of 1913.

Managers of high standing that want something extraordinary will do well to address

A. Leo Stevens

Box 181, Madison Sq. N. Y. City

MILITARY AVIATOR KILLED

First Lieutenant Joseph D. Park of the Fourteenth Cavalry, a military aviator, who started from San Diego on a flight to Los Angeles, was killed at Olive, nine miles north of Santa Ana, where he stopped to inquire his way. Upon arising the left wing of his Curtiss hit a tree, completely wrecking the machine, and the engine and radiator fell on Lieut. Park. He was only 15 feet in the air when the machine hit the tree.

DEATH OF CIVILIAN FLYER

Charles Carlson, of Milwaukee, was killed at Akron, Ohio, on May 5. It is reported that he deliberately committed suicide.

OTTO W. BRODIE KILLED

Otto \V. Brodie, certificated pilot 135, was killed at Clearing, Ills., in a Farman biplane, said to be the very one used hy Paulhan in the London-Manchester flight. The cause of the accident was not capable of ascertainment. P>rodie learned to fly at Hammondsport in 1909, and since then has piloted various monoplanes and biplanes in exhibition work.

NATIONAL LABORATORY

Smithsonian Institution has started work on the inauguration of a national aeronautic laboratory under the title Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory in advance of any appropriation or bill of Congress.

NEW PILOTS

Following is a list of pilots certified since the last issue.

|192—P. J. Sakamoto (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Nov, 29, 1912.

$193—Chas. Bayersdorfer (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Nov. 29, 1912. 194—Lt. C. Yamada (Curtiss), San Diego, Dec. 1, 1912.

* 195—Erhard Scholvinck (Curtiss) San Diego, Dec. 1, 1912.

196—Dr. Frank J. Bell (Curtiss), San Diego, Dec. 7, 1912.

J197—Wm. A. Hetlich, Jr. (Curtiss) Los Angeles,

Dec. 14, 1912. 198—George II. Arnold (Moisant), Augusta, Ga.,

Dec. 21, 1912. $199—Genzo Nojima (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Dec.

21, 1912.

200—Lt. Lewis E. Goodier (Curtiss), San Diego, Dec. 27, 1912. J201—Grover E. Bell (Curtiss), Santa Monica, Cal.,

Dec. 29, 1912. 1*202— Didier Masson (Curtiss), Santa Monica, Cal., Dec. 29, 1912. 203—II. von Figyelmessy (Curtiss), San Diego, Cal., Dec. 29, 1912. i204—Harry Holmes (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Tan. 12, 1913.

205—Robert R. Tohnson (Benoist**), St. Louis,

Jan. 24, 1913. *206—Wm. H. Bleakley (Benoist**), St. Louis,

Jan. 24, 1913. 207—°T. Floyd Smith (Rleriot), Los Angeles, Jan.

18.

208—JJ. M. Bryant (Curtiss-IIall Scott), Palms,

-JJ. M. Bryant Cal., Jan. 24.

209—C. Marvin Wood (Moisant), Augusta, Ga., Feb. 21.

210—Lt. Sam'l H. McLeary (Curtiss), San Diego, Jan. 15.

211—Lt. L. H. Brereton (Curtiss), San Diego, Jan. 23.

212—Frank II. Burnside (Thomas-Kirkham), Bath, Feb. 10.

213—Earl V. Fritts (Thomas- Maximotor), Rath, Feb. 14.

214 Filing (). Weeks (Thomas-Kirkham), Bath, Feb. 14.

215 Allan S. Adams (Dcp-Anzani), Los Angeles, Feb.. 14.

216—**F. C. Hild (AASH mono), Mineola, Feb. 28. 217—Juan Pablo Aldasoro (Moisant), Augusta, Ga., Feb. 28.

218—Edwardo Aldasoro (Moisant), Augusta, Mar. 3. 219—Takayuki Takasow Sunset Aviation Field, Alameda, Cal., modified Farman biplane, Hall-Scott motor.

220—Charles C. Roystone, Dominguez Field, Los

Angeles, Cal., Depe.rdussin monoplane, 3-cyl-

inder Anzani. 221—J. A. Ridell, Dominguez Field, Los Angeles,

Cal., Curtiss biplane, 40 H. P. Hall-Scott. 222—Klaus August Bergenthal, San Antonio, Tex.,

Wright model B, 30 H. P. Wright. 223—Toseph D. Park, San Diego, Cal., Curtiss 60

II. P. motor.

* Granted subject to approval of German, French and Swede aero clubs respectively.

t These were reported as genuine Curtiss machines. There apparently seems to be an error as the tests marked t were made with Hall-Scott engines.

t Made with Hall-Scott engine.

° Gyro motor.

** Roberts engine. Moisant machines have Gnomes. Genuine Curtiss machines have Curtiss engines.

HYDRO-AEROPLANE CERTIFICATE. 1—Adolph C. Sutra (t), San Francisco, Feb. 11, 1913.

EXPERT CERTIFICATES 1—Max T. Lillie (Wright), Chicago, Sept. 14, 1912. 2—Glenn L. Martin (Martin), Chicago, Sept. 14, 1912.

3—Lt. T. D. W. Milling.

4—Lt. H. II. Arnold.

5—Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler

6—Capt. Paul W. Beck

7—Lt. F. B. Foulois.

8—De Lloyd Thompson (Wright), Chicago, Oct. 5, 1912.

9—Lt. Harold Geiger (Curtiss), Nov. 8, 1912. 10—Lt.. L. E. Goodier (Curtiss) San Diego, Feb. 14, 1913.

11 —Lt. Roy C. Kirtlandt, U. S. A. 12—Lt. Samuel II. McLeary, U. S. A. 13—Lt. Lewis II. Brereton, LT. S. A. t Hall-Scott motor used.

HYDROAEROPLANE PILOT RULES

Special rules for the "licensing" of marine aeroplane pilots have been adopted. These provide: (1) Two proofs of distance, each over a closed course of at least 5 kiloms. without touching the water; (2) height test to altitude of 50 meters. The altitude test may be made at same time as one of the former. The course flown over defined by two buoys 500 meters apart. Figure "eights" should be flown around the buoys in series each turn of the figure comprising alternatively one of the buoys. Ascent and descent must be made on the water between the two buoys.

At least one of the three Benoist flying boats en'ered in the Great Lake Reliability Cruise will be equipped with a 6-cyl. Sturtevant motor, recently purchased after seeing a test. These engines will be standard equipment of Benoist 'planes this season.

The reporter almost got lost the other day in the woolly section of Brooklyn trying to find the Cordeaux Etter Mfg. Corp. (not "corpse") at their new address. When found, however, he saw a room that should have been an office filled with propellers, swell brass fittings, magnetos and aeroplane cloth, while in the shop a lathe, drill press or other real machinery could be found hiding modestly amid mountainous packing boxes addressed to Canyon, Texas, or Land's End, Mass. Overhead the rafters were covered with beams and struts and various woodwork and the walls—well, they had been "papered" with sockets, t.b.'s, steering wheels, wheels, so forth and et cetera. Messrs. Watts and Shulman were discovered digging a Panama through the barrels and boxes to the telephone. And then they say aviation has gone to the dogs!

A New Wright Flyer

We will present this season a new model, known as Model "E", designed especially for

EXHIBITION FLYING

This model will be equipped with either four or six cylinder motor, turning a single propeller. It is so designed that it can be taken down for express shipment and reassembled within a few hours.

The old models, refined in details, will be continued for use of those who wish to fly for pleasure and sport.

All models may be equipped with HYDROPLANES.

The Wright School of Aviation

Our School of Aviation will open at Simms Station (Dayton) about xVpril ist with a corps of competent instructors. The school will be under the personal supervision of Mr. Orville Wright. Tuition for a complete course will be $250.00. Enroll now.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

Dept. "A", Dayton, Ohio

New York Office, - - 11 Pine Street

Hotel Cumberland

NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street

"Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 minutes, also 7th Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station

Headquarters for Aviators and Auto-mobilists.

New and Fireproof

Strictly first class. Rates reasonable.

$2.50

With Bath

and up

Send fi.r booklet

Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres

H. P. STIMSON

Formerly with Hotel Imperial

I NAIAD f Aeronautical Cloth

AND

Aero Varnish

We were the first in the field, and the test of time is proving that our product is the best.

& Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request

! The C. E. Conover Co.

J MANUFACTURERS

J 101 Franklin Street, New York

+ + +

%

+ +

+ + +

+ + +

+

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter"' if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, (ven, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given.—Editor.

Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and prior art of which are unknown to you—William Alacombt r.

ISSUED APRIL 8.

* 1,058,390—William B. Seekins, Los Angeles, STABILITY mechanism consisting of a plane carrying frame having horizontal and vertical frame members secured to the main frame by universal joint, rudders, and means for altering the transverse angular relation of the plane carrying frame with respect to the main frame.

*1,058,422—Edson F. Gallaudet, Norwich, Conn., STABILITY device in which balance is restored or banking is accomplished by expanding the back-wardly inclined rear surface of the wing by sliding an auxiliary or supplemental surface back behind the following edge to increase the area of one wing. If desired, the area of the other wing may simultaneously be decreased. The claims also provide for advancing other supplementary surfaces forwardly beyond the entering edge and reversely on the opposite wing, together with a system of control mechanism. Filed April 30, 1910.

1,058,485—Charles Stiriz, New York, HELICOPTER.

1,058,573—Nikolaus Fischer, Philadelphia, AEROPLANE, in which the plane of rotation of propeller may he altered at will.

1,158,63-4—William D. Scott, Springwells. Mich., WING STRUCTURE in which provision is made for the air to pass between the upper and lower fabrics of the wing.

ISSUED APRIL 15. 1,058,712—A. C. Bennett and Ralph D. Wilcox. Minneapolis, Minn., STABILITY patent; forward and rear reciprocating balancing planes arranged to be projected laterally bevond lifting plane.

* 1,058,983—Edmund Kikut, Berlin, Germany, SURFACE SYSTEM, comprising two supporting planes fixedlv mounted one behind the other thereon in step formation, the angle of flight of the front plane being a few degrees greater than that angle which corresponds lo the approximate limit of proportionality hetween elevating force and magnitude of angle, the angle of flight of the rear plane being less than that of the front plane, but still within the approximate curve of proportionality between elevating force and magnitude of angle; the centre of gravity of the flying machine being located about half the breadth and at least a third of the breadth of the plane in front of the front edge of the rear plane, an auxiliary adjustable plane over the centre of gravity and means for adjusting the angle of flight of the auxiliary plane.

1,059.036—David Hamilton Coles, Brooklyn, N. Y., AIRSHIP.

1,059,247—Ulvsses G. White, Boulder, Mont., AIRSHIP.

ISSUED APRIL 22. 1,059.480—Walter L. Marr, Flint, Mich., STABILITY and steering patent claiming a pair of rudders between main planes near extremities, each rudder

pivoted on vertical axis with allowance for movement in a horizontal aileron which pivots about an axis transverse to line of flight.

1,059,905—Emile Pupin, 185 Wardour St., London, England, STABILITY patent claiming with three or more supporting planes arranged on two or more levels, a vertical keel and means for twisting same, means for twisting keel and turning rudder at same time; also means for altering angleof incidence of one or more of the wings during flight.

ISSUED APRIL 29, 1913.

1,060,058—Myron L. Atwater, Akron, Ohio, Combination BALLOON and aeroplane.

1.060,115—Olof Ohlson, Newton, Mass., STABILITY device consisting of vertical surfaces pivoted on vertical axes above and below main planes, and operated automatically on careening of machine to oppose careening movement.

1.060200—Robert L McLaughlin, New York, N. Y., "CENTRIFUGAL AEROCYCLE."

1,060,273—Chester B. Melott, Yonkers , N. Y., STABILITY device in which surfaces in form of an X are placed immediately back of propeller to resist cyclonic action of air set in motion thereby, etc.

* 1,060,530—William J. Bond & F. A. Bond, Clifton Heights. Pa., Supporting SURFACE, elevator and rudder capable of being warped about their forward axes.

1,060,531—William L and Frederick A. Bond, Clifton Heights, Pa., FOLDING PONTOON.

ISSUED MAY 6, 1913. 1.060,597—William P. Holzmark, St. Louis, Mo., "Nongyroscopic" Aeronautic ENGINE in which crankshaft sections turn in reverse directions by bevel gears.

1,060,703—Adolph Persson, Greenwich, N., Y. PARACHUTE.

1.060,958—Paul Tichay, New York, N. Y., PARACHUTE attachment for aeroplanes.

1,061.108—Axel R. Nordstrom, West Lynn, Mass., AEROPLANE in which motor, passenger platform, etc., are carried below the main planes to secure low centre of gravity.

1,061,198—Axel R. Nordstrom. West Lynn, Mass., AEROPLANE of above type with special running gear and float system.

1,061,242—Benjamin T. Babbitt Ilvde, New York, N. Y., and Andrew Gaul, Jr., Ridgefield, N. J., AEROPLANE.

ISSUED MAY 13, 1913. 1.061,363—Lewis T. Evans, Kirk-wood, N. Y.. AIRSHIP.

1.061,434—Ernest T. Willows. Cardiff, England, DIRIGIBLE propeller arrangement by which propellers are capahle of angular movement in their own plane to effect propulsion in anv direction.

1,061,445—Carl D. Browne, Hot Springs Township, Napa Co., Cal.. STABILITY device in which at each extremity of wing is a cross (-4-) journaled on its longitudinal axis.

PATENTS SECURED OR FEE RETURNED

Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office record*. Write for our Guide Book* and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY

Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.

PATENTSPATENTS

HONEST ADVICE AND REAL PATENTS

Patents and patent causes. Specialist in Aeroplanes and Gas Engines.

JOHN O. SE1FERT 50 Church Street New York, N.Y.

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Ottie*

Attorney-at-L«w and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invintion. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bids. WASHINGTON. D. C.

AEROPLANES and FLYING BOATS

-That Won't Tip Over-

CHARLES H. BURLEIGH, South Berwyck, Me.

Ideal" Plans and Drawing's

are accurate and areaccompanied by clear, concise building instructions, postpaid at the following prices : Wright 3-ft. Biplape, 25c. Bleriot 3-ft. Monoplane, 15c. "Cecil Peoli" ChampioD Racer, 25c. Curtiss Convertible Hydro-aeropIaDe'(new), 35c. Nieuport 3-ft. MoDoplaDe, 25c.

COMPLETE SET OF FIVE, . . . $1.00 Postpaid Send for our new40-pp. 'ModelAeroplane Supply

catalog, fully illustrated. 5c. brings it. (None free.) IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82a West Broadway, New York

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids lJ4 diameter and under any length.

J. DELTOUR, Inc. ^IJS?;.8'-

AEROPLANE CLOTH

Samples and prices on request

JOHN BOYLE 4 CO., Inc,

112 Duane Street, New York City

HYDRO - AEROPLANES

READY FOR POWER

-WILSON-

Port Jefferson

New York

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

——~—■—— write for circular ~-~~~~~"~—■

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO.

636-644 First Avenue, New York. U. S. A.

JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES ARTILLERY

A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.

Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.

$2:50 a year.

With Index to Current Military Literature, $2.75.

Building Season!Now On

Full line of woodwork. Metal Fittings and accesories for all types in stock, ready for immediate delivery.

Builders should have our catalogue, describing 750 parts and fittings, for reference

Buy Direct From the Manufacturers and Save Money and Time

Send 10 cents for catalogue

Cordeaux - Etter Mfg. Corporation 102J

(formerly New York Aeronautical Supply Co.) (\

11, 13, 15 McKibben St., Brooklyn, N. Y.

CHARAVAY PROPELLERS

BETTER THAN EVER

Have you seen our new price list ? Write for it. A price for everybody.

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO., - 1733 BROADWAY, New York City.

Agents: Eames Tricyle Co., San Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago.

ALBATROSS ENGINES

Made in two sizes

50 H. P. 6-cyl. Air-cooled, J&ffi

PRICE, $650.00 Complete

100 H. P. 6-cyl. Water-cooled, 3^0e'it!

PRICE, $850.00 Complete Catalog Free Agents Wanted

ALBATROSS COMPANY

DETROIT, MICH.

AERONAUTICS

4* New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1913

t

4* The Leading British 4*

Monthly

+ Journal Devoted to the Tec hnique

+ and Industry of Aeronautics. 4>

4. (FOUNDED 1907)

* 4" 4-

Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Eighty-Five Cents Post Free

Nnfp.__A specimen copy will be mailed

1,ulc' free on receipt of 15 cents.

HEAD OFFICE:

3 London Wall Buildings, London* England American Office: 250 West 54th Street, New York

detroita.ro powerplant

complete $300 ready to rum

1NCL.PROPELLER-CARBURETOR-BOSH MAGNETO. 0ILPUMP-CABLE-SWITCH-MOUNTING BOLTS

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210 LBS MIN.STATIONARY THRUST 158 LBS MAX.WEIGHT(COMPLETE) 36 HOURS DELIVERY

LIFT AND FLY CURTIS BY PLANES BLERI0TS MONOPLANES DEMOISELLE MONOPLANES OR CRAFTS OF SIMILAR MAKE

DETROIT/tROPLANE CO.

detroit •

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WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

The Bowden Patent Wire Mechanism

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

SOLE IMPORTERS 250 WEST 54th ST., NEW YORK

V-Ray Spark-Plugs Never Lay Dow

m

The V-RAY CO. Marshalliown, la.

J. C. (Bud) MARS, now booking season 1913.

Have never been connected with the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. and School of Aviation.

Hyde Park Hotel,

......:.......

Chicago, Ills.

Page 199

MORE POWER PER CUBIC INCH OF PISTON DISPLACEMENT THAN ANY

OTHER TYPE MOTOR EVER BUILT

IT

WILL PAY YOU WELL TO INVESTIGATE OUR NEW OVERHEAD VALVE MOTORS

WRITE FOR CATALOG

EARL V. FR1TTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, equipped with a 60-70 h. p. MAXIMOTOR

Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y.. Feb. 5, 1913.

Dear Sirs:—Wish to inform you that I have today successfully filled the requirements in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The MAX1 MOTOR stood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything on your new product. I wish you the most of success during this coming season.

Sincerely, EARL V. FRITTS.

Maximotor Makers

DETROIT

No. 1528 East Jefferson

Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES

Has long been regarded as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.

Each number has forty pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good type, and illustrated with many attractive half-tones.

The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph.

The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the price asked for subscription.

Some of the other regular features are

Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.

Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictoriali sts.

Foreign Digest.

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' association notes. Items of Interest.

A department devoted to "Discoveries. '

Reviews of the new photographic books.

Desciiption of the latest novelties and specialties brought out by dealers and manufacturers.

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THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION

135 West 14th Street, : : : New York

May, 1913

HALL-SCOTT

Bob Fowler Installing his HALUSCOTT AVIATION POWER PLANT-previous to his daring and successful flight across the Panama Canal.

RELIABILITY, POWER and SMOOTH RUNNING qualities are again demonstrated.

Fowler would only undertake this so-called impossible Ocean to Ocean flight with HALL-SCOTT equipment.

If you are planning a busy and successful season for 1913, whether for business or pleasure, you certainly will be interested in and cannot afford to overlook our power plants.

WRITE FOR OUR CATALOGUE TO-DAY

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.

SAN FRANCISCO, - - - CALIFORNIA

Press of Styles & Cash, New York,


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