Volume 12 - No. 4 - 1913 April
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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THE AERONAUTICAL BOOKSHELF
Epitome of the Aeronautical
Annual By James means
In one volume is contained the principal articles from the three annuals of 1895,1896 and 1897, published by Mr. Means. Contains the theories and experiments of Cayley. VVenham, Lilienthal, Maxim, Langley and others, written by themselves. Fundamental facts are given. Oneofthe absolutely necessary volumes. 111., 224 pp., $1.12
The Problem of Flight
By herbert chatley
A strictly technical book for the engineer.
111., 119 pp., $3.50
The Conquest of the Air
By the Late Prof. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH
A popular but authoritative book on the Ocean of Air, History of Aerostation, Dirigible Balloon, Flying Machine, The Future of Aerial Navigation. 111., $1.10
By DR. ALBERT F. ZAHM
In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays the progress of aeronautics.leaving out unproductive experiments. The pilots of today know little of the history of the machine they use daily. The percentage of those who are familiar with progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an absorbing volume which must take its place on every bookshelf.
111., 486 pp., $3.00
Art of Aviation
By ROBERT W. A. BREWER
One of the best handbooks on aviation. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for the amateur, experimentor and pilot. 111., 266 pp., $3.50
Langley Memoir on Mechan-
1 C1:„Ul By Pr«>f. S. P. LANGLEY ICal rilgnt and CHARLESM. MANLY
In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor Langley's previous work and contains wonderful photographs and scale drawings of all of the models and the engines constructed and tested by Langley and his assistant, Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight in the formulae and the practical man will find a vast amount of data. One of the scant dozen "best books."
Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50
Curtiss Aviation Book
By GLENN H. CURTISS and AUGUSTUS POST
A popular book. Describes Curtiss' flights, his early life, how he planned and worked out his machine—close view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck. Lt. Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. 111., 307 pp., $1.49
Maxim's "ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLIGHT"
Loening's "MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES"
Brewer's "ART OF AVIATION"
Hay ward's "PRACTICAL" AERONAUTICS
Bird-flight as the Basis of
Aviation By gustav lilienthal
Covers the gliding work of O. and G. Lilienthal.
III., 166 pp., $2.50
The Aeroplane in War
By C. grahame white and h. harper
A book with prophecies of the future. 111., $3.00 I
Experiments in Aerodynamics By Prof. s. p. langley
This with the other Langley book forms the keystone of the aeronautical library. Pur> ly technical. Details of the experimental machines of Professor Langl.-y. The indispensable book. 111. $1.50
Artificial and Natural Flight
By sir hiram maxim
Concise history of development of flying machines and Maxim's own ex periineutal work. There are but few worth-while technical hooks on aviation. This is one. Ills., 172pp.,$1.75
D* 1 By grover i
Biplanes c. loening
Covers design, construction and operation. The author has taken the work of the best known experimentors and analyzed the results, comparing them and averaging. Another necessary book. 111., 345 pp., $2.50
How to Build an Aeroplane
By robert petit
A handbook for the young man in school, or beginning building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply written. 111., 131 pp., $1.50
Building and Flying an Aeroplane By chas. b. hayward
A practical handbook, covering construction of models, gliders and power machines. 111., 160 pp., $1.00
By chas. b. hayward
Treatise on Dirigibles, Aeroplanes, Motors. Propellers, Practice, Future, etc. 111., 800 pp., $3.50
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/^JN March 28, Lieutenants Milling and Sherman in the Burgess Military Tractor Biplane, H34, flew from Texas City to San Antonio, 240 miles in 3 hours, 20 minutes, A rate of 72 Miles per Hour. Upon arrival they remained in the air 1 hour, two minutes longer, breaking the American Endurance Record for pilot and passenger, with a total of 4 Hours, 22 Minutes in the Air.
On March 31 the return trip was made in 3 hours, 50 minutes in very rough weather. :: :: :: ::
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Flying Boats and Motor Boating
Is a flying boat a motor boat zvith wings, or is it an aeroplane until a boat attached?
Captain W. Irving Chambers argues that the "flying boat," is simply an aeroplane in zvhich the boat part forms the body of the aeroplane; and that the simple "hydro-aeroplane" is but an aeroplane with attachments in the shape of floats.
Will flying boats, so called, or even hydro-aeroplanes of the single float or catamaran type, eventually come under the jurisdiction of the power boat associations or zvill the representative club of the international aeronautic federation seek to control water flying as it has tried to control land flying?
There arc some who say tliat the flying boat belongs zvith the motor boat. It 7nust be kept cither close to the water or moored in the water as a motor boat is maintained. ii'hilc ma-nocuvcring in the water it is most likely that the flying boat zvill be subject to the same rules or ones similar to those zvhich govern motor boats as to lights, right of zvay, and so forth.
Perhaps the flying boat particularly, is more nearly in the motor boat class than in the pure aeroplane class. We have motor boats whose supporting planes arc in the zvater zvhile the hull is out; zvhy not the reverse? Tlie former arc motor boats and arc subject to such rules as govern.
JVhile in the air, no doubt, flying boats and hydro-aeroplanes zvill be subject to rules of the air, if any such are in force. Here is the opportunity for national aerial rules along the lines of our national marine regulations. It is obviously ridiculous that these amphibious aircraft should be subject to governmental supervision zvhile in the zvater, and under private club rules zvhile in the air.
HE question was raised the other day: "How do the motor boat builders regard the hydro-aeroplane and flying boat?" The following letters from editors of the boating journals and officers |j of power boat associations *»ifc=»^ answer this- question suc-p cinctly.
There is no doubt that motor boat accessory manufacturers will find a new field for their products and even the hull designers themselves may be able to find an outlet for their services in the designing and building of floats or hulls for the individual or the wholesale manufacturer of marine aeroplanes. There is, however, a new line of work for the boat builder who attempts this. Lightness has not been such an absolutely important factor with motor boat designers. But in the aeroplane hull lightness must be combined with abnormal strength to withstand the buffetings of the waves and the shock of "landing" (.sic) on the water. The early products by the airboat makers of the present day met with misfortune by the sinking of their floats due to shocks.
Already the speed boat designer has been called in consultation by established and new aeroplane builders. Between the two, working in combination, rapid developments will take place in marine air-craft design.
BY HERBERT L. STONE
EDITOR OF "YACHTIXG"
WHAT the future of the flying boat may be as regards its use for water sport, I am hardly in a position to know, though I should think that the boat would make a distinct appeal to those who have gone in for record-breaking hydroplanes. I don't believe that it will ever displace the sane, conventional type of power boat. In other words, my idea is that it might appeal to a man who is looking for sport pure and simple, as against those who take to the water for the pleasures of boating.
I don't believe that it will permanently affect motor boat sport or hurt the motor boat industry though it is conceivable that special classes for these flying boats may eventually be recognized by some of the boat racing-associations. It ought not to be impossible
for aero clubs and motor boat clubs to work in harmony to promote such classes, although to my mind the flying boat is still too much of an air machine to make a distinct appeal to motor boat men. I do not believe that there is any danger to the sport of motor boat racing through the advent of this craft.
BY W. B. ROGERS, JR.
EDITOR OF "MOTOR BOAT"
IBELIEVE that the flying boat as developed within very recent period will provide one of the most exciting, most spectacular sports that one could desire to witness, or in which one might care to participate.
The speed possibilities of the flying boat are very great and will probably reach a now unthought of record within a short time. In spite of this, flying boats can be built so they will be safe, and so that they can be handled by anyone who can drive a fast motor boat or automobile.
I believe that a harmonious association will develop between the racing interests in flying boats and those who are now active in motor boat racing. This will probably come about without effort and as a natural sequence of things. I do not believe that flying boats will be detrimental to the sport of motor boat racing, rather than that, it will enhance it and add attractive events to motor boat meets.
BY ROBERT E. POWER
EDITOR "POWER BOATING"
TAKING snap judgment, I would look upon the Hying boat as merely an accessory to the interest already established in pleasure craft afloat. I doubt if it will displace any of the present tendencies either in design or use of existing types of hulls or ordinary methods of propulsion.
Unfortunately for the racing of these hydro-aeroplanes, the rules of all of our largest regattas require that the propeller or propellers work in or against the water which bars the aerial-driven craft from these important competitions.
The few devotees of the hydro-aeroplane whom I happen to know tell me that it is a very fascinating sport and that it has decided advantages over other forms of travel as far as thrills and sensations are concerned. Even so, I am not inclined to believe that the flying boat will become extremely popular because its use is comparatively limited and the com-
panionship of living and moving about with one's friends, which is the chief enjoyment of the power boat, are entirely lacking in the air craft.
The general public does not take the aeroplane seriously, either as a business or a sport proposition. Putting a boat under the wings helps some but there is still no comparison with the power boat.
BY MORRIS M. WHITAKER
SECV, AMERICAN POWER BOAT ASS'N
ITH reference to the influence of flying boats on the sport and industry connected with motor boats, I, personally, do not see that it has any bearing whatever. It is an entirely different sport and is only remotely connected with motor boats, the connection simply amounting to the fact that the aeroplane is equipped with floats to enable it to start from the water instead of from land. The aeroplane is as independent of the motor boat as the motor boat is of the automobile, the only connection between the automobile and motor boat being the fact that both are propelled with gasolene motors.
Aviation as far as I can see it, will not in any way interfere with motor boating. Some owners of motor boats may take to flying, in the same way that some owners of automobiles take to motor boating, or some owners of motor boats take to motoring. I do not see any connection between aero clubs and motor boat clubs any more than between automobile and motor boat clubs. The three sports are entirely independent, and, I do not see any way in which they will be called upon to work together.
BY M. J. BATES
SEC'Y, WESTERN POWER BOAT ASS'N
As to what effect the hydro-aeroplane will have on the motor boat game:
ITHINK it is but a step farther in the speed boat part of the game and should class in with yachting. The speedboat "bug" is near the limit on the water and the "flying boat'' is the next step. To drive one successfully, some knowledge of the water would be necessary. I don't think it will have any effect on the motor boat as only those looking for the ''thrills" would be interested. The real "speedboat" enthusiasts are few as yet, but the many, are those who are satisfied to go along from 20 to 40 M. P. H., and they would not be affected.
Who Will Build Flying Boat Hulls?
ABUILDER of flying boats gives it as sarily better fitted to design hulls for flying his opinion that motor boat hull de- boats; that they have had no experience such signers and builders are not neces- as the aeroplane builders have had in the at-
tainment of minimum weight with maximum strength through various systems of bracing and guying; that these hulls must be so formed as to give lift while in the air as well as in the water.
Most of the speed boat designers who have been interviewed on the subject incline the other way, more or less naturally. However, one prominent power boat racing official holds a brief for the aeroplane builder.
He says: "The hydroplane (type of speed boat) is too new for any builder to have very much data to go on, and those who have gone into the hydroplane so far have gone on the 3-B rule. They have experimented with hulls of different forms, all based on the gliding principle. Some of them have been fairly good and some of them have been fizzles. In order to have an aeroplane rise from the water, it must have some form of hydroplane underneath which will raise and lessen its resistance as the speed increases; otherwise, it will never get up to a speed where it can leave the water. The hydroplane of today is simply an application of the well-known phenomenon of a skipping stone, trusting to the reaction of the water against the bottom at the best angle to raise it. And, as I stated above, this is a matter, so far, of simple experiment, trial and error."
A distinction is made between the flying boat and the float system by one authority, a fast boat enthusiast from the Mississippi Valley, who believes "the men who have theoretically and practically developed the present high-speed hydro are the best suited to construct the hulls of the new craft. This view, however, is based on the subsequent development of the hydro-aeroplane along 'flying boat' lines; if it is to be along aeroplane lines fitted to start and finish its flight from water, the aeroplane builders are the ones to handle the complete outfit.
"To my mind the great future of the hydroaeroplane lies on the commercial as well as in the sporting field. This is particularly true in regard to our inland rivers. It will be a machine with a safe, comfortable and light hull, in combination with aerial planes and propellers. The (marine) screw will also be used" (for emergencies).
Others give it as their opinion that the expert boat builder, skilled in the building of speed boats is best qualified to construct the hulls of flying boats.
"Naval architects through years of experience, not only in the design of light high-speed boats and hydroplanes, but the running of them, have learned the best arrangement of materials and methods of fastening, to obtain the greatest strength with the least weight; they also know what is required as regards form for minimum resistance and seaworthiness.
"Several years ago, when aeroplanes were a curiosity the writer noticed that the frame
members, fastenings, etc., were crude in form and unnecessarily heavy. Since then they have, of course, improved, adopting in some cases construction long used in marine practice. If aeroplane designers can learn something from boat designers in regard to planes, etc., why start with ancient methods for the design and construction of the hulls for flying boats?"
"While simply the mechanical work, i. e., the building of a hydro-aeroplane could better be handled, we believe, in a boat factory," says another, "yet the work should in all cases be under the direct supervision of the designers and builders of the aeroplane themselves. There is certainly more likelihood of the hydroplane man going astray on the aeroplane than the aeroplane man going astray on the hydroplane features of the boat.'' It is not expected, however, that the hull builder will attempt to build the complete craft.
THE MOTOR BO ATI ST IN THE FLYING BOAT
When G. M. Heckscher stepped from the Curtiss flying boat, about the first questions asked him were not as to how he enjoyed it, but rather as to how the sensation of the ride compared with those of riding in Dixie IV, or other fast hydroplanes.
"With the possible exception of a very fast automobile, that is unquestionably the fastest machine I ever traveled in, and at the same time I feel that it is safer and more comfortable than the fast motor boats or hydroplanes now in use. With the fast hydroplane there is always the danger of hitting floating logs or other obstructions in the water. With the flying boat you can skim the surface just far enough above it to avoid the shocks incident to fast travel on either land or water."
"More than anything else, I was surprised," said Mr. Heckscher, "to find that the flying boat had really reached such a high state of development, that it handled so easily on the water; and surprised also to feel such perfect smoothness when traveling at a high rate of speed over pretty rough water. That was a good reefing breeze and it kicked up fair waves once we were out of the lea of the shore, but there was none of the bump and pound riding over them that one feels in riding in a fast hydroplane. Another interesting point was to find that unless I looked over the side of the boat I could not tell whether we were still on the water or sailing in the air. The actual sensation of leaving the water I have experienced in Dixie IV when, traveling at high speed, we hit a big swell; but in that case there was always a tremendous shock when the hull plunged back into the water. With the flying boat I expected more or less of a shock when we struck the water, but it was almost as difficult to tell when we touched the water again, as to decide just when we left it."
On an Article Entitled: "An Analysis gf the
Forces of Flight" *
By Professor HERBERT CHATLEY
^HERE can be little doubt that a knowledge of the "center of pressure" is a most important factor in aeronautical theory, and in his articles Dr. Spratt has endeavored to show that certain general principles may be applied to this question which will to a considerable extent solve the difficulties of stability.
His principal thesis is that the resultant pressure on a circularly curved surface passes through the center of curvature. I am not aware if this is the first public statement Dr. Spratt has made of this idea. If so he has not priority, because Professor Bryan says in his book "Stability in Aviation," page 50: "If the section of a surface is a circular arc of radius C, it is clear that the resultant thrust will pass through the center of curvature, and if the center of pressure be shifted forward through a distance 5s, * * * the direction of R will change by an amount equal to —Ss/c."
When I read this statement about Professor Bryan's book about a year ago, I queried it and am not even now, in spite of Dr. Spratt's corroboration, quite certain. It seems to me that with small angles of attack the friction plays so large a part that the departure of the resultant from the center of curvature may be very considerable.
I have also a doubt as to Spratt's extension of the idea to surfaces of varying curvature being quite legitimate, especially if there is a discontinuity of flow about the surface.
Dr. Spratt's important researches are referred to in Wilbur Wright's paper to the Western Society of Engineers (December, 1907—Smithsonian Reprint No. 1380, page 141), and in Moedebeck's Pocket Book, page 311, and there seems to be little doubt that
the Wrights were greatly indebted to him for his information as to the retrogression of the center of pressure on cambered surfaces.
I cannot, however, but express some dissatisfaction with the somewhat vague manner in which he refers to the center of pressure in these articles. There certainly is in all cases a point on the surface (produced if necessary) where the resultant pressure may be considered to act and this certainly is the "center of pressure" in the accepted physical meaning.
That there may be another point through which all the resultants pass, if possible, but that point can only conventionally be termed the center of pressure. It already has a name which is "metacenter." Dr. Spratt is presumably familiar with the use of metacenters in naval architecture and in the theory of aeroplane stability, but he makes no reference to it.
His second important statement is that a plane moving in a curved stream behaves similarly to (or in an analogous manner to) a similarly curved surface in a straight stream. His experiments certainly seem to indicate this, but do not appear to be sufficiently extensive (I refer, of course, only to the report thereof in his articles) to conclusively decide this fact. The stream line motion about a curved surface as yet transcends mathematical analysis, and when conditions of discontinuity occur it seems somewhat doubtful whether the resemblance will be so close as Dr. Spratt's researches imply. I do not venture to speak definitely on this point, but I have doubts as to the universality of his conclusion.
I hope to give this matter fuller attention later and hope that Dr. Spratt's work will receive proper consideration. At present I must confess I fear the way is not perfectly clear to fully accept it as an entirely applicable solution of the stability problem.
By Dr. GEORGE A. SPRATT, Jr.
PROFESSOR CHATLEY'S communication concerning my theory is very much appreciated, and in answering I would like to state that my first object in attempting this work was to gain a comprehensive view of the field, in which view, every observable result of air current flow would have a relation to every other such result, logically natural and harmonious.
I have attempted to briefly state this view stripped of its physical embodiment,—a theory,—and under "Applications" some of the effects of physical embodiment are referred
* See series of articles by Mr. Spratt in Aeronautics for Sept., Oct., and Nov., 1912.
to. Construction is always a compromise between theory and matter. The value of friction, eddies, i. e., broken stream lines, etc., when determined, will, I believe, serve to establish the theory. To have a clear conception of perfection is an advantage although perfection is not attainable.
In judging the theory as a possible solution of the problem of stability, as that problem is presented in the aeroplane, it must not be lost to sight that an aeroplane, by its construction, is fitted to but one angle of attack; to but one speed. Hence the adjustability of the horizontal control vane. While it is quite true that compromise precludes perfection,
the demands of an aeroplane upon the theory are limited. '
From experiments with models, gliders, and motor-driven aeroplane, I am convinced, beyond doubt, that the theory contains a very practical solution of the problem of stability; will increase safety, and will simplify both construction and control. Models made in accordance with this theory, when released in any position will assume a proper poise and descend at the predetermined angle of glide.
A satisfactory term for the point I have called "center of pressure" has not been found. In discussing the use of "metacenter." "Apo-center" would be of like the point with Mr. Chanute in 1905, he advised against derivation, and possibly more precise. If it may be my privilege to introduce the point, I am quite satisfied to let those more versed in such matters name it. It is a center in a fuller sense than the balancing point upon the surface so called.
This is illustrated in figure 1. Here, a force equal and contrary to the resultant, if applied at a, can establish equilibrium for but one angle of attack. Any change in the angle of attack will cause the resultant to depart frotn, and form a couple with, the force at a. If, however, the force a, is applied to the center c, no couple can form with the change in the angle of attack. The mind immediately suggests letting the force at a, be represented by the weight center.
On a shallow circularly arched surface formed from very thin sheet metal and subjected to an even and gentle current parallel with the chord, there is no point answering to the centre of pressure in the accepted physical meaning of the term.
If a resisting pressure be applied at the rear of this surface, as at A, figure 2, the front descends; if resisted at the front as at B, the rear ascends; such rotation occurs if the resisting pressure is applied at any point upon the surface. If the resistance is applied at a point beyond the rear of the surface as at C, however, the surface can be made to
poise. At D, it is explained. The point of resistance must be applied along the resultant, and the resultant here passes to the leeward of the surface. Equilibrium is better obtained,
however, by resisting the pressure at the center of curvature, and when equilibrium is obtained in this manner, the knowledge of the location of the accepted center of pressure is of little importance except in determining internal strains.
The cork float experiments shown in September Fly, page 12 and September AERONAUTICS, page 80, can be made to verify figures 1 and 2.
An umbrella crudely illustrates the pressure center outside of the surface. Grasp the handle well up in the dome, and the too presents itself to the wind ; grasp it low and it is apt to turn inside out. If compelled to devote but one hand to its management, the hand instinctively locates a position along +he handle at which control is easiest obtained. The umbrella, however, is a poor example of a circularly arched surface.
As a rough-and-ready example of relative curvatures, a palm leaf fan, if swept through the air in various curved paths, will convey a sense of peculiar pressure distribution.
The verifying of the theory that the lift peculiar to the curved surface is the centrifugal value of the air affected by the curvature, requires measurements that mv homemade apparatus is too crude to accurately yield. If the theory stands, however, it will probably bring "camber" within the reach of mathematics.
As to the present technical progress of German aviation the report of the Potsdam Chamber of Commerce says:
"The majority of the air-craft factories do not consider themselves in a position to make the construction of new types a part of their programs, because the means for doing so and for carrying out the necessary experiments are not at hand. The existing stagnation in the development and technical improvement of air craft is traceable before all to this situation. Since, for these reasons, it is impossible to effect essential improvements (new forms of construction, etc.), the industry for the most part seeks the alternative of increasing the motor power of the machines in order to attain higher speed and secure a greater independence from wind influences.
International Aeroplane Records
Duration Distance Altitude Greatest Speed Climbing Speed Climbing Speed Speed
500 m. 1000 m. 5 kil.
50 kil. 100 kil. 150 kil. 200 kil. 250 kil. 300 kil. 350 kil. 400 kil. 450 kil. 500 kil. 600 kil. 700 kil. 800 kil. 900 kil. 1000 kil. !4 hr.
17:57.2 1010.9 kil. **5610 m. $174.10 k.p.h. $3:35.00 4:56.50 $1:43.38 $3:27.87 $6:55.95 $10:32.51 $14:03.59 $17:34.88 $35:16.65 52:52.80 1:10:55.00 2:07:54.00 2:49:00.00 3:26:16.00 3:55:27.60 4:24:44.40 4:54:06.20 5:52:38.00 9:31:01.00 10:44:45.80 11:59:09.60 13:01:12.00
84.665 kil. 168.244 kil. 234.431 kil. 310.281 kil. 410.900 kil. 510.000 kil. 490.000 kil. 522.935 kil. 585.200 kil. 661.200 kil. 744.800 kil. 820.800 kil. 904.400 kil. 980.400 kil.
4:34:00.0 401.50 kil. 4360 m. 135.952 k.p.h.
112 kil. 3580 m. 102.855 k.p.h.
110 kil. 1120 m. 106.029 k.p.h.
25.74 kil. ***596 m. 87.251 k.p.h.
$9:00.0 2:58.0 4:24.8 8:51.0 13:18.6 17:44.8 23:13.0 44:36.6 1:07:10.0 2:03:49.0 2:39:37.0
2:52.0 5:45.0 11:59.4 17:52.6 22:44.4 29:37.4 59:08.0
3:48.0 6:16.6 12:03.0 17:37.0 23:11.0 29:47.0 56:33.0
3:34.0 7:08.0 14:00.6
Duration record only, 1:06:48.2
66.639 kil. 133.469 kil. 190.858 kil. 224.850 kil.
** This record since broken, though not yet official, by altitude of 6000 m. $ Made in United States. *** Since beaten.
* Revised speed records made by Vedrines at Chicago. Slower records previously reported to F. A. I. are included in F. A. I. report as official.
Practically all aeroplane records are held by Bosch equipped motors.
American Aeroplane Records
Speed Speed Speed
I, from Mark Carrying
500 m. 1000 m. 5 kil.
50 kil. 100 kil. 150 kil. 200 kil. 250 kil.
3548.5 m. $174.10 k.p.h.
1422 m. 101.762 k.p.h.
$1:43.38 $3:27.87 $6:55.95 $10:32.51 $14:03.59 $17:34.88 $35:16.65 53:04.73 1:10:56.85 3:32:56.4
40 kil. 80 kil. 166.6 kil. 141.97 kil. 214.57 kil. 283.628 kil. 0.445 m. 458 lbs.
6':13'.4 12:26.6 18:42.0 24:49.8 31:01.6
Duration record only, 1:54.0
24.14 kil. 36.24 kil.
* Passed by A. C A. as Amerian record but not yet by F. A. I. as an international one. it Hydro-aeroplanes. $ World records. ** Not yet passed.
MISCELLANEOUS WORLD RECORDS
* Since beaten. DIRIGIBLES
Duration—7 hours, 13 min.
Speed—37.808 kils. per hour. KITES
Altitude—$7265 metres. SOUNDING BALLOONS
$ Made in United States.
MISCELLANEOUS AMERICAN RECORDS
Distance—1887.6 kilometres. Duration—48 hours, 26 minutes. Lahm Cup—1172.9 miles.
Speed—31.559 kil. per hour.
Duration—2 hours, 1 minute, 50 seconds.
Altitude—*7265 metres. SOUNDING BALLOONS
* World record.
By the Technical Editor
Center of Pressure, Resultant, Tandem Planes
N this department I shall consider briefly a variety of subjects, which, for one reason or another, appear to deserve attention. Some definitions and explanations will be given for those having a limited knowledge of aviation or of mechanics.
When forces act on a body at various points, and a force is found which, in intensity, direction and point of application, balances those forces, then this balancing force will be equal in intensity and contrary in direction to their resultant, and the point of application of the resultant will be the centre of pressure.
When an aerofoil is exposed at a small angle to a current of air, it experiences a pressure above atmosphere on its under side, and below atmosphere on its upper side, varying at different points, and being normal to the surface at any point. It is evident that, in case of an arched aerofoil, when the pressure is greater near the leading edge, the resultant will be inclined forward of the normal to the chord of the arc, and vice versa. There is also the force due to atmospheric friction acting parallel to the surface, and tending to incline backward the resultant, so that, in case of a plane surface having a small angle of attack, the resultant would incline backward considerably (io° at 30 angle of attack, Eiffel).
Referring again to the case where the resultant pressure on an arched surface inclines forward of the normal to the chord; this resultant can be resolved into a pressure normal to the chord, and one "tangential," acting forward parallel to the chord. Lilien-thal, in his treatment of bird-flight with flapping wings, points out that when a wing, with its chord horizontal, moves downward while advancing, this forward inclination of the resultant will then produce a propelling force; as in this case the resultant will incline forward of the vertical, because the wing-meets the air at a fairly large angle, by reason of its downward movement.
There are, on the other hand, no trustworthy experiments to show that any aerofoil, no matter of what shape, when moving horizontally forward, or exposed to a uniform horizontal wind, will experience a force propelling it against the wind; that is, the resultant never, under these conditions, inclines forward of the vertical, while, at certain angles, it does incline forward of the normal to the chord. The greatest forward inclination for a cambre of 13.5 is about 30, which occurs at about 120 incidence, at which inci-
dence the c. of p. is nearest to the leading edge.
Natural wind is not uniform, and there is evidence that in apparently horizontal natural wind, for a given angle, the lift and lift-ratio are both greater than when the wing is moved through still air at the same relative speed.
As is well known, the centre of pressure, for small angles, moves toward the trailing edge of an arched wing when the angle of attack is diminished, and, in an aeroplane, this movement would produce an effort tending to still further decrease that angle, thus promoting instability. But, while this is true of the wing, it is not necessarily true of the whole machine; the use of a negative or a non-lifting tail can be made to modify this condition, so that the c. of p. of the machine will move forward with decreasing angle of attack, promoting stability (see Monoplane Balsan, Eiffel, p. 195). In this case the forward and rear surfaces form an angle with each other having its vertix downward. The same is true in a lesser degree, when both forward and rear surfaces are lifting, provided they maintain a large enough angle with each other. This is known as the "longitudinal V," whose stabilizing properties have been recognized by aeronautic writers for more than 20 years.
The longitudinal V is exemplified in most modern monoplanes, some biplanes, in the Voisin Canard, the Drzewiecki tandem, etc. The tandem, therefore, is not unique in this respect.
However, the tandem (Eiffels disposition II) possesses the advantage of superior efficiency at large angles of attack. This matter has been considered at length by Mr. Andrews, Mr. Merrill, and Captain Chambers, in articles recently appearing in AERONAUTICS; and I shall examine the subject from a different point of view.
By efficiency I mean here "lift-ratio" or lift over drift; and in a complete machine, lift over total resistance to advance. By drift I mean the resistance of the wings alone; and by head resistance that of the rest of machine.
Comparing now the monoplane and the tandem II, we find that the best models, tested by M. Eiffel, show their maximum efficiency around 8°. Now, this is just about the angle at which the tandem surfaces, disposition II, show their superiority in lift and lift-ratio. It follows that an aeroplane with this disposition will exhibit greater maximum efficiency (e. g., a better gliding angle), than a monoplane; especially if we assume that the head resistance varies with the wing area.
This assumption is, however, not always justified by practice. We build our fuselage and chassis with as small resistance as possible, depending on the type of running gear, and the space we are willing to allow, for pilot, etc.; and whether, within certain limits, we lit large wings with small unit lift, and high efficiency; or smaller wings with larger unit lift and lower efficiency, makes little difference in our head resistance; and, for a given speed, the more efficient are the wings the less power we shall require; provided, of course, that the wings are large enough to carry the required weight at their most efficient angle of attack. Therefore, for any kind of wing, there is an inferior limit to speed, below which the wing required will be too large. This depends on the amount of unit lift at the wings' efficient angle.
We are distinguishing here between two conditions, one in which the aeroplane as a whole is most efficient, i. c, offers the least resistance for the weight carried; the other in
which the zvings are most efficient, i. c, have the greatest lift ratio. The first generally occurs at large angles (8° to io°), the second at small angles (20), and, in a general way, the further these are apart numerically, the greater the economical range of speed. In the tandem they are about the same angle.
The tandem is criticised by Captain Duchene (Aerophile, Dec. 15th, p. 556) for its lack of "weathercock" stability, which is the property of turning more or less quickly into the relative wind, and depends on the disposition of the surfaces with reference to the centre of gravity. It is criticised also by M. Leyat (Aerophile, Feb. 1st, 1913, p. 52), because of the impossibility of varying considerably the angle of attack; and for its sluggishness in responding to control. I have not space to consider these objections.
What I have said does not imply that I condemn the tandem, but merely suggest its probable limitations.—M. B. Sellers.
Some More Recent Experiments of M. Eiffel^
By M. B. SELLERS
EFERRING again to the tandem and the longitudinal V (see "Technical Talks" in this issue), AI. Eiffel has recently tested two dispositions of the tandem: one, the "canard" with small plane in front; the other, the "ordinary" (monoplane), with small plane behind. The Breguet-type wings were used, one 90 x 15 cm., the other 45 x 15 cm. The horizontal spacings of the wings were 20 and 40 cm.; and the planes were inclined at an angle to each other of 2°, 40 and 6°.
For the canard it was found that, for a given inclination, the wider spacing gave the better efficiency; and, for a given spacing, the inclination could be increased to 4° without impairing the efficiency; but for 6° the efficiency was appreciably diminished. The stability increases with the inclination and wider spacing of the planes.
For the ordinary disposition the smaller spacing gave the greater efficiency but at the expense of longitudinal stability.
In comparing the two dispositions we reach the following conclusions for machines with wide spacing: for small unit lift corresponding to high speeds, the canard is the more efficient; for large unit lift, the ordinary disposition is best.
By inclination is meant here the angle formed between the prolongations of the wing chords.
AI. Eiffel has also made some determinations with the model of the biplane of Chalais-Meudon. The cell (the two planes with their
struts, etc), separated from the fuselage, showed a resistance to advance 18% less than that of the complete machine; this 18% being, therefore, the resistance of the fuselage, etc. The lift of the cell alone was 14% more than that of the complete machine, showing that the air deflected downward by the planes produces a downward pressure on the tail, etc.
To determine the part of the lift contributed by each plane, the upper one was attached to the balance while the lower one was held in its proper position by an independent support. It was found that the upper plane behaved as if alone; while the lower one, tested in a similar manner, showed a lift one third less than if alone. It seems, therefore, advisable to reduce the size of the lower plane.
* From "Aerophile."
NEW THOMAS BIPLANE
A new biplane has been produced by the Thomas Brothers, at Bath, N. Y. The span of the upper plane is 33 feet; the lower is ^3 feet. As one will see from the photograph, it is equipped with a "nacelle" and adjustable mica wind shield. Other details of equipment include clinomometer, anemometer, tachometer, pressure gauge and pump. The skids are much shorter than usual and the gas tank is placed back of the aviator in the nacelle. The fabric used is Goodyear metalized cloth which was treated with a special preparation after the machine was finished, giving it "some" finish. Special attention has been paid to details. C. A. Hermann, the newest pupil at the school placed his order for a duplicate. Needless to say, the motor is a Kirkham, Sixty-five.
BY GREELY S. CURTIS
BURGESS CO. & CURTIS
ITH reference to Judge Hazel's decision in the Wright-Curtiss suit, we are heartily satisfied with the decision and feel that simple justice has been done to the pioneers who alone made flying possible.
As you know the attitude of our company ever since its organization, has been that the Wrights were morally entitled to the fruits of their invention, whether their patent claims were cleverly phrased or not.
It has never seemed to us quite square to make use of a basic principle, invented and patented by pioneers, without their consent even though the wording of the patent-claims may have been difficult of exact interpretation. Acting in accordance with these beliefs, our company arranged with the Wright brothers as soon as the opportunity offered, to obtain a license from the Wright Company by which the inventors should profit through their invention, as provided by the patent laws of this country. That the patent should have been upheld by Judge Hazel, was to have been expected on general principles.
The opinion has more than once appeared in print that the development of aviation in this country would be seriously retarded if the Wright patents were fully upheld. Experience shows examples of the fallacy of this idea, particularly when basic patents are held by a company under broad minded and progressive management. Reference may be made to the adjudication of the basic telephone patent, which has resulted in giving to this country telephone instruments and service far in advance of those found in the most inventive countries of Eurooe. We have every reason to hope that the aeroplane patents held by the Wright Company will, to a like degree, forward the rational development of the science of aviation.
THE FOREIGN ATTITUDE ON WRIGHT DECISIONS
According to VAcrophilc, the official organ of the French National Aero Club, which expresses what might be termed a not unbiased view, it seems that the Supreme Court decision in Leipzig, Germany, reduces the validity of the Wright patent "to the simultaneous operation by means of the same element for the warping of the wings and the steering rudder.'' The report adds, editorially: "The German aviation industry breathes once more."
Further, this journal quotes a firm of lawyers who represented the French makers at Leipzig, as follows:
"The Supreme Court at Leipzig has decreed that the warping and steering rudder existed prior to the Wright patent, even embodied in the same machine, and in consequence the principal adjudication of the Wright patent can only cover the special combination devised by the Wrights, and described in their patent, which consists in a connection controlling the warping and turning the steer-
ing rudder when the first is operated, the steering rudder is forced to turn on the side where there is found the least angle of incidence; furthermore, no constructors of aeroplanes employ this combination."
The French decision, VAcrophile says, differs greatly, and "that the Wright patents have for object not solely the connection of warping with the steering rudder, but particularly the co-existence of the two means of operation." As in the previous decision "a commission of experts is ordered to determine if there does not exist anticipations opposed to the objects of the patent and it will only be after the filing of the report of the experts that the case can be decided finally."
ENGLISH EN PERT AT VARIANCE.
Griffith Brewer, who is too well known to require introduction, answers questions as to what the German decision really means by saying in Flight:
"The judges at Leipzig, in giving their decision, expressed the view that the Wright brothers were the inventors of the warping per se, and also of the combined warping and rudder, and they made no statement that the warping and rudder control had to be mechanically connected in order to come within the ambit of the claims. Statements as to that limiting effect may therefore be disregarded." In other words. Air. Brewer adds that anyone in Germany can build a machine using the warp, provided the machine does not have a rudder, without infringing.
It has been impossible, as yet, to obtain copies of the French and German decisions.
After a hearing in U. S. District Court on April 9, Judge Hazel fixed the bond for the appeal in the Wright-Curtiss aeroplane patent suit in the sum of $io.ooo.
Glenn Curtiss was present at the hearing, and expressed his confidence in the outcome of the appeal, and at the same time his surprise at the interpretation given in America to the patent decisions in Germany and France. "Recent cable reports." he said, "gave the impression that the Wrights had won sweeping decisions in the European courts, whereas," he pointed out, "the German decisions uphold the Wright claims for the use, in combination, of the wing warp and vertical rudder, but refuse the claims on these devices working independently, and also deny that the Wright patent in any way covers the ailerons (lateral balancing surfaces') as employed by Curtiss. In all the machines now manufactured, including those made by the Wrights, the wing warping and vertical rudder are used independent of one another. The general effect of the recent French decision is said to be similar to that of the Germans."
A pioneer patent does not shut, but opens, the door for subsequent invention.—Justice .^hi-ras.
On the Wright Patent Decision
New Developments in Aeronautics
THE NEW 80 H. P. GYRO
Besides the low compression cam, the mechanical intake valves, the oil shields and auxiliary ports, the new 8o H. P. Gyro rotative motor has a new scheme of radiating fins designed by R. S. Moore of the company. These latter, it is claimed, constitute a marked advance in cooling revolving cylinders and add greatly to their strength, stiffness and power development.
In revolving cylinder motors there is a constant current of air rushing from the central portion of the motor to its periphery.
This current of air is now sucked through the tubes, because in revolving through the air the top of each tube travels at a rate of approximately 150 feet a second and this causes a siphon action at right angles to the tubes, which draws the air out of them.
Each motor is provided with a rachet wheel so that when used in hydro-aeroplanes, the motor may be started by a lever from the seat of the aviator.
Such a provision for passing a forced current of cool air through the 36 tubes of each cylinder, which form an integral part of the cylinders themselves, is more efficient than the usual radial fins, half portions of which are always shielded by the cylinder being in front of them. The outer corrugations of the cooling tubes add the usual surface cooling to the inner air currents.
To further cool the cylinders there is added two disc radiating fins to the top of each cylinder, the head of which at that point being now cone or dome-shaped. All valves are now made of nickel steel and are likewise dome-shaped to increase their stiffness without adding to their weight.
In a paper read before the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, by Mervyn O'Gor-man, on "Stability Devices," there is mention of systems shown the writer by one V. Gregory, in May, 1911, which introduce either a differential gear in the control wires or a method of cross-connecting the wires to the ailerons so as to equalize the pressure upon them. The system devised by Gregory is illustrated herewith.
"This secures an approach to balance of drag," says Mr. O'Gorman. "The balance is more closely exact between the plus and minus lift of the two flaps, but the resistance, or drag, may for his purpose be taken, as proportional to the lift, and therefore balanced when the plus and minus lifts are balanced."
It is quite common knowledge here that a differential system of wiring has been in use in Curtiss machines for a considerable time. Several patents are pending on similar devices in the United States Patent Office, and the question of priority is now being1 fought out in the Office. There are several different methods of wiring to obtain the desired result.
COOK SPRING AXLE
The illustration shows the spring axle used by Weldon B. Cooke in his Roberts engined tractor biplane. It has been found that the
clamp fastening the spring and struts together is more or less unsatisfactory and this will shortly be replaced with a steel casting.
AERONAUTICS Page 135 j4pril,\9\3
Latest Type Thomas Biplane
The first aerial map to be made by army officers in a long distance flight is that drawn by Lieut. Sherman, passenger with Lieut. Milling, on the return non-stop cross-country flight between Texas City, Texas and Fort Sam Houston at San Antonio, Texas, on March 28 and 31. The total distance covered was 480 miles, in the Renault-engined Burgess tractor. It was originally intended to make the flight by compass, but the air was very rough and the atmosphere so hazy that after striking Santa Fe the railroad was followed to San Antonio. Part of the country is flat and treeless. From Eagle Lake to San Antonio the country is rolling with forests
interspersed with cultivated areas. On both trips the air was "extremely rough" over the forested country. On the return mapping trip the temperature was very high and great difficulty was experienced with up and down trends. The latter predominated, and, combined with the gusts, made climbing very difficult. The machine dropped on one occasion about 600 feet and it was frequently necessary to dive it 50 to 100 feet, when one wing dropped, to gain equilibrium. Some of the severest gusts occurred over absolutely flat country and following a period of comparative calm. It is believed these were due to the action of the sun on the moist ground, as they were particularly noticeable in the vicinity of marshy lands. One gust even tore away the "skid plane."
Lieut. Sherman carried a cavalry sketching case. A rough sketch was attempted. For orientation, the board was held parallel to the sides of the fuselage and the compass bearing of the machine noted. A time scale was used. The map was made in sections on a long strip of paper, the map being rolled as each was completed. The entire map is about 18 feet long, being in sections showing the country covered in each interval of 10 minutes. The map is complete in every detail, showing the railroad, wagon roads, towns, streams, woods, hills, prairies and other topographical markings that might be of interest in military work. It is believed that after some experience sufficient accuracy may be attained to fulfill the requirements of a strategic reconnaissance and locate the larger units of the enemy. This is particularly the case where it may afterward be compared with a smaller scale map.
On the reverse side of the map is a note showing the particular part of the country embraced. Numbers on the side of the map show the time of the afternoon the particular place was passed, and letters the course followed. The signs used on the -map are the conventional signs used in I nited States army topographical work.
SAVES H. P. BY REVOLVING NOSE
According to M. F. H. Gouverneur, who has been experimenting with surfaces on full size scale with electric trolley cars and all wholesale facilities on the electric lines near Wilmington, N. C., the reduction of resistance by the use of a revolving nose attached
to the propeller amounted to a saving of u H. P. at 60 M. P. H. This experiment was made with a full size monoplane built with resistance reduced to the minimum, using a 4-cylinder Roberts motor, with which machine "great'' speed was obtained.
CEDAR BOAT LUMBER
When you take up the question of buying suitable lumber for planking your new boat, you will find that white cedar has more advantage for this kind of work than any other lumber. One of the first considerations in selecting a suitable boat-board is the weight. A piece of dry white cedar 1 inch thick and 12 inches square will weigh \y2 pounds. A piece of dry white pine the same size will weigh 2l/2 pounds. A piece of cypress the same size will weigh 3 pounds, and a piece of dry yellow pine the same size will weigh 3J/2 pounds.
The above figures show everything in favor of white cedar for weight. An additional advantage of white cedar over all the other woods named is that it contains an oil which prevents the absorption of water. All the other woods mentioned will increase in weight when in use as a boat-board about 50 per cent., whereas white cedar will not take up water even after years of service.
Cedar boat lumber may be obtained in thicknesses of 1, 5/4, 6/4, etc., up to 2l/2 inches, 6 inches and up wide, 12 to 20 feet in length. This number is also furnished 12 to 20 inches wide for making special floats, and the like, by fishing and ducking associations, etc. The Jordan Bros. Lumber Co., of Norfolk, Va., deal exclusively in cedar boat lumber, carry a large stock of dry boat-boards of different sizes and lengths at their Norfolk yard, and are prepared to cut to order any special orders required.
Cedar lumber is free from tendency to twist or get out of shape when exposed to the sun and weather. This is a very important char-
acteristic in the construction of pontoons and boats which are wet and dry alternately.
THE AEROPLANE TOOL CHEST
The mechanic's tool chest lately put in service by the Signal Corps may be of interest.
The material is all of the highest grade. The chest itself is made of the best selected oak stock, straight-grained, thoroughly seasoned. The sides are dovetailed and the remainder of the chest assembled with screws. No nails are used in the construction. Each chest is fitted with mild steel bands, wrought-iron hinges, mild steel hasps, and with heavy iron drop handles mounted on the ends. The drawers and the interior are sandpapered and given two coats of shellac. The outside receives two coats of best quality paint. The chest is fitted with a Corbin padlock.
The tools are so fastened that they will not be jarred from position when the chest is moved about end over end.
A typewritten list of tools and numbers on a heavy linen bond paper is securely fastened in the cover of each chest. One cushion is furnished for each drawer, tray, or section, made of 8-ounce cotton duck, khaki shade, and fills snugly all space left after tools are in place; those in drawers are held down by two straps with buckles. Each separate article must be securely fastened in place and be capable of removal with the least possible disturbance of the other articles. With the exception of certain items .each tool must be stamped with the number assigned to it. A brass plate is secured alongside of each tool, bearing a number corresponding to the number on the tool.
This chest contains 27 tools, and sets of 9 drills, 14 files and 14 bits.
Did you hear about some aviator "out West" who took his girl up in an aeroplane and then jumped out ?
No, is that so! What happened with the girl? Oh, she was a chippy and flew away.
Despite all this talk of poor prospects, and so forth, on these fine spring days one must admit that things are looking up.
EXCESS OF POWER A NECESSITY
After completing a round trip between the camp at Texas City and San Antonio, under weather conditions such that Major General Carter in command says, "I would not have ordered the trip," making a new American two-man duration record and within 12 minutes of the world record, and almost equalling the world's longest distance record for pilot and passenger, Lieutenants Milling and Sherman reported to the Chief Signal Officer in favor of an increased reserve of power. Already it is reported that a new 100 H. P. Renault has been ordered by the Signal Corps to replace the 70 Renault now in the Army's Burgess tractor and that the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. has ordered a 140 H. P. Gnome for use in a military tractor.
Too much emphasis cannot be laid on the necessity for great strength in construction. In some of the severe gusts and dives to recover equilibrium, stresses were put on the machine many times the ordinary stresses of flying. It is doubtful if a less staunchly built machine would have held together for the trip.
The fuselage type with tractor is believed to be the most desirable. It interfered in no way with the view either of pilot or observer, and the centrally located weight aided materially in recovering lateral equilibrium. With the weight more distributed laterally, it would have been more difficult to recover. The position of the pilot's seat, which gave a view of the entire plane, was found to be a decided advantage in gusty weather.
At a banquet given to Mr. Raymond Poincare, the new President of the French Republic, Mr. Quinton, president of the French National Aerial League, made the following announcement:
"An automatic means for steadying aeroplanes can be considered as discovered. The apparatus is that of Mr. Moreau, who has flown with a passenger for 35 minutes, controlling his apparatus with only the levers for rising and descending. On that day the wind attained 7 meters (23 feet) per second.
The principle of the device is that of a pendulum. The machine is a monoplane in type. The engine, gasoline tank, and wings form a compact mass, while the seats for pilot and passenger, hanging beneath, act as
a pendulum. The mechanism of the monoplane is quite simple. If the machine leans to the right, the weight of the pilot warps the left wing so as to maintain equilibrium. When the machine pitches, the seats, hung swing-wise, act upon the tail and adjust the aeroplane. \\ nen the oscillations become too great, owing to eddies or "air holes," there is a means by which the pendulum may be stopped."
The U. S. Patent Office files contain a number of similar devices, as listed monthly in AERONAUTICS.
ADVANTAGES OF THREE-BLADED PROPELLERS
What advantages, if any, appertain to the use of propellers with three blades, is a question which has been frequently discussed, but to which definite and conclusive answers are not always easy to obtain. In view of the considerable interest attaching to propellers of this type through their use by the U. S. Navy, the Curtiss Aeroplane Co., the Gallaudet Engineering Co., and others, the American Propeller Company elucidates as follows:
The advantage of this type lies in the fact that either a greater efficiency can be obtained by using the same diameter as a two-bladed propeller, or an equal efficiency with a very much smaller diameter. In many cases the three-bladed propeller will give better results even with a smaller diameter. The three-bladed type is to be preferred on hydro machines or wherever it is essential to keep the diameter as small as possible.
It is also valuable as a substitute for double propellers where it would not be possible to get an equal efficiency with a single propeller without using a diameter larger than the machine could swing. Another advantage is that the three-bladed propeller does not have to turn at very high speed to get its full tractive or propulsive effect on the air. This makes it possible often to use a pitch equal to or larger than the diameter of the propeller which is always desirable in both air and marine practice.
Occasionally there is a machine for which we would not especially recommend a three-bladed propeller but these are rare, except in the Wright Type machine. With these machines probably the only improvement would be in getting better ground clearance with a smaller diameter.
ON MONOPLANE ACCIDENTS
A British Government committee was appointed to investigate three certain monoplane accidents in 1912. The main conclusions arrived at by the Committee and their recommendations in connection therewith may be briefly summarized.
(i.) The accidents to monoplanes specially investigated were not due to causes dependent on the class of machine to which they occurred, nor to conditions singular to the monoplane as such.
(ii.) After consideration of general questions affecting the relative security of monoplanes and biplanes, the Committee have found no reason to recommend the prohibition of the use of monoplanes, provided that certain precautions are taken, some of which are applicable to both classes of aeroplane.
(iii.) The wings of aeroplanes can. and should, be so designed as to have sufficient strength to resist drift without external bracing.
(iv.) The main wires should not be brought to parts of the machine always liable to be severely strained on landing.
(v.) Main wires and warping wires should be so secured as to minimize the risk of damage in getting off the ground, and should be protected from accidental injury.
(vi.) Main wires and their attachments should be duplicated. The use of a tautness indicator, to avoid over-straining the wires in "tuning tin," is recommended. Quick-release devices should be carefully considered and tested before their use is permitted.
(vii.) In view of the grave consequences which may follow fracture of any part of the engine, especially in the case of a rotating engine, means should be taken to secure that a slight damage to the engine will not wreck the machine. Structural parts, the breakage of which may involve total collapse of the aeroplane, should, so far as possible, be kept clear of the engine.
(viii.) The fabric, more especially in highly loaded machines, should be more securely fastened to the ribs. Devices which will have the effect of preventing tears from spreading should be considered. Makers should be advised that the top surface alone should be capable of supporting the full load.
(ix.) The makers should be required to furnish satisfactory evidence as to the strength of construction and the factor of safety allowed. In this special attention should be paid to the manner in which the engine is secured to the frame.
(x.) Engine breakages should be systematically investigated and reported on, and the reports should be submitted to the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
(xi.) No machine should be taken into use until after examination and approved test, and all machines should be regularly inspected, especially after any serious damage or repair. Parts of machines in course of construction should be inspected and passed before being assembled.
(xii.) Two or three skilled mechanics for each squadron should be specially engaged for a time to act as instructors and to set a standard of technical workmanship.
(xiii.) In case of any serious accident, care should be taken to preserve and identify damaged portions of the machine which may help to account for the cause. It is desirable to obtain the assistance of the police authorities in this matter.
With regard to the machines already in use at Larkhill, the Committee recommend that they be carefully inspected by a skilled engineer, and, if necessary, modified so as to bring them as far as possible within the recommendations of this report.
The Committee also desire to recommend that the following questions be specially referred to the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for further investigation and report:—
(a) The general question of the stability of aeroplanes.
(b) Detailed investigation of the strains and stresses in aeroplane wings, especially monoplane wings. Tests on the strength of wooden struts and beams as used in aeroplane work.
(c) Aerodynamic investigation of aeroplane wings designed to have sufficient strength without external bracing.
(d) Investigation into the strength of aeroplane fabrics, wounded and unwounded; and into the effect of the application of dopes and of exposure.
(c) Investigation of engine breakages.
(/) The methods of testing a complete machine and the test conditions to be fulfilled.
(g) Investigation into the conditions of the vol pique in respect to monoplanes and biplanes.
AERIAL NAVIGATION IN GERMANY
The Potsdam Chamber of Commerce has devoted a section of its 1912 annual report to the German air-craft industry. There are, it states, 12 to 15 air-craft factories of considerable size in Germany, compared with about 20 in France, 6 in England, and 5 in Austria. The industry in Germany is, however, by no means in a flourishing condition. It is plain the report says, that a state of over-production prevails, due principally to several hundred small factories which sprang up, then disappeared as soon as their available funds were consumed in fruitless experimentation. Their existence, though fitful, affected the larger undertakings, and the whole industry is suffering from slackness of business.
Beachey has retired, stating^ his feats have caused many deaths through attempting to copy his feats of daring.—One newspaper clipping.
Beachey has signed a contract at Grand Rapids and will carry up a parachute jumper.—Another newspaper clipping.
Bill Pickens must be trying his hand at press-agenting.
"Published Monthly by Aeronautics "Press
122 E. 25t- St., NEW YORK Cable: Aeronautic. New v ork "Pi-one, 9122 Madison Sq. ERNEST L. JONES. Pres't — - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor - M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor
Umted States, S3 00 Foreign, S3 50
Vol. XII, No. 4
Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at Ihe Posloftice, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.
<j AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th.
C| Make alt checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted.
RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. Payment in advance.
MOTORS FOR SALE
FOR SALE—A few Model D-4 Gray Eagle motorsi, slightly used, that have been taken in trade for larger motors. In first-class condition, and guaranteed, at bargain prices. Kemp Machine Works, Muncie. Ind.—T. F._
ENGINE FOR SALE—S-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address, "Eight Cvlinder," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York._
FOR SALE—Double opposed 30 H. P. aero motor complete, at sacrifice. Never mounted on aeroplane or used. Address H. I. Muus, 2II9J4 Second Ave., Seattle, Wash._
CURTISS-FARMAN—Exceptionally well made passenger biplane of Curtiss-Farman type. Roebling cable, Naiad covered, 20-inch by 3-inch wheels, seamless steel tubing, laminated ash and spruce members, etc., $100. Buchanan, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York._
SACRIFICE—A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall-Scott 60 II. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York._
FOR SALE—1912 genuine Curtiss aeroplane with hydro-aeroplane attachment. Model "D" exhibition type. Brand new Curtiss Model "O," 8-cylinder, 80 H. P. motor. Extra parts, crates, etc. The ideal high-powered exhibition machine. Quick sale necessary. If interested write at once. Address Curtiss Hydro, care of AERONAUTICS._
HYDRO PONTOONS—In our stock of duplicate parts we have a number of extra sets of pontoons for standard Curtiss hydro-aeroplanes. These sets include the complete boat, the small pontoons for ends of planes, all necessary braces, etc., everything com-pleee and ready to put on. As they occupy space we need for other uses we will sell these few sets tor less than the cost of making the pontoons. Write today if you want a bargain. Curtiss Exhibition Co., Ham-mondsport, N. Y._
NEW AERIAL PROPELLER—Highly efficient. We specialize on four-bladers for flying boats; they deliver the goods. No experimenting. Why not try one? Just drop us a postal and ask for Catalog No. I. Do it today. Address nearest office. Double Stamp Propeller Co., No. 528 So. Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111., or Evansville, Ind., Dept. C.—T. F.
WISE—One copy of the rare book by John Wise, A System of Aeronautics, for sale to first comer at $10. First-class condition. This books is getting more rare every day. Address Sheahan, care of AERONAUTICS. 122 E. 25th St., New York.
WANTED—Back numbers of AERONAUTICS as follows: Nov., 1907; Feb., 1908; May, June, August, October, November and December, 1909; Jan. and March. 1910. Fifty cents each for any or all of these. Address: Editor, care of AERONAUTICS,
2 E. 25th St., New York._
FOR SALE—Roberts 4-cyl. 50 II. P. motor. New. Perfect condition. Ideal for hydroplane. Bargain for cash. C. K. Myers, Wilmington, N. C.
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY—A well-known aeroplane and motor company, with an established reputation, offers a few shares of 77c Preferred Stock for public subscription, in order to increase output. Good opportunity for the small investor. Address Investment, care of AERONAUTICS._
FOR SALE—SO.000 foot balloon, made especially for the International Races last year. Complete, new, and in perfect condition. Cole Motor Car Company. Indianapolis.
FOR SALE—Tractor biplane, 42 feet spread, 5 feet chord, double surfaced, Farman running gear. S-cyl. 60 H. P. motor, Bosch magneto, Schebler carburetor, radiator, combination tank, S-foot Paragon and Nor-male propellers, extra parts, tent, crates. Complete exhibition outfit. Would make fine hydro-aeroplane. Price, $1,200. Will sell without power, or power plant separate. F. Robinson, 191 Caledonia Ave., Rochester. N. Y.
IDouble Hydro Floats, weight, 55 lbs. each, pair. $2S0- I Running Grars, Farman or Wright, complete, $42.SO- I Hub», knock-out axle or to fit, 1", 1^", 1J4". or |
J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Mfr., 132 West 50th Street, N. Y. " Wheels, 20" x2>4\ complete, $6.00 - 20" x 3", $8.25, "
with Curtiss or Farman type stock Hub, 6" wide. We make any size or type of wheel. Send for list. Compare my prices with all others.
BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR COMPANY
THE BOLAND MOTOR
8 cyl. " V " type, 60 H.P. 240 pounds.
RELIABILITY MAXIMUM POWER.
DURABILITY MINIMUM WEIGHT.
THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE
equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) and BOLAND MOTOR.
THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of control which is basic in principle. Write for particulars.
Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J.
Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK
THE HARLAN BOMB DROPPER
During the recent German bomb dropping contests at Doberitz, the Harlan device made its appearance, attached to the monoplane. On a movable aiming tube (telescope) are mounted front and rear sights. Also, there is attached to the aiming tube a plate divided into degrees, which gives the exact angle at which the aiming tube is pointed. By varying the aim i/io mm. at a height of 500m., there is a difference in the result hit of but 1 m. The chief value lies in the table of angles, which are figured out in a painstaking manner for heights of from 50 to 100 m. and 500 to 575 m. The former height has to be
considered against inanimate objects where the living machine has to avoid the effects of the explosion, while the second has to be maintained against living targets, where possible shots have been thought of. Tables for any other heights, of course, can be made. In these tables the aeroplane passenger finds everything that is to be taken in account in aiming. At the angle given there he points the aiming tube. As soon then, as the target shows through the sight he releases the bomb.
The angle of the aeroplane axis can be read off an angle meter at any time. By correctly aiming, according to the tables, the probability of a hit is very high and dependent only on the facility in aiming of the operator. The device is applicable to all machines where the bombs fall by gravity only.
From the above description it is plain that the operation of the device is similar to Lieu-
tenant Scott's apparatus, which has been fully described in earlier issues. As the Scott device is being patented in foreign countries, the conflict between infringing ap-parati will be of interest to war offices.
THE MCCORMICK POWER PLUG
An ignition device, distinctively new in design and operation and known as the McCor-mick "Power Plug," is now being marketed.
The noticeable feature, other than the substantial construction, is the use of a unit electrical device with large and novel spark terminals. A large number of intensified high-frequency sparks constantly moving around the terminals are produced. These sparks take place within a sparking chamber having a single restricted opening. During compression gas is segregated in this chamber and exploded therein. A flame of burning gas is projected through the single opening from the spark chamber instantaneously and effectually exploding the mixture in the cylinder within surprisingly wide limits of quality and compression. The position of the terminals and the firing process prevents sooting, over-lubrication and other spark plug troubles. The liberal design and the fact that the sparks are constantly changing position overcome the gradual burning of the terminals—a well known source of mis-firing and loss of power. Of particular interest is the fact that tests on machines
operating under conditions of every-day service have shown through the use of the Mc-Cormic Power Plugs an increase of horsepower of 15 to 20 per cent, with a material reduction in fuel consumption.
The McCormick Mfg. Co. of Dayton. Ohio, make these plugs and sell them at two dollars.
A line addressed to them mentioning AERONAUTICS will bring printed matter and full information to interested parties.
J FRENCH AEROPLANES
ENGINEERS INVENTORS AVIATORS CONSTRUCTORS
For all photos, descriptions, data,news, drawings, etc., regarding FRENCH AVIATION, address below:
ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.C.P.
20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (Vosges\ France
HAVE BEEN IN
21 ATHOL STREET,
DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.
Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors
Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs
EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY
Broadway and 57th St., New York City
Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types
First School Chartered by Regents of the University of New York State
" Learn Over Land or Water "
WALTER E. JOHNSON, - Instructor
Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co.
BATH, N. Y.
(REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.)
"AERONAUTICAL MOTORS IN GOVERNMENT SERVICE
The motor mentioned in the following clipping from a Washington paper is one of the several muffled STURTEVANT motors in daily operation at the Army and Navy Aviation camps.
Army Officers in Southern Camps Making Reccjtls. Four New Det
Notice has been receives- at the War Department of several Jfmportant flights made by the army aviators at their southern winter camps, Lreut. Thomas Milling:, In what Is knapn as the Burgess tractor, with Lieut.jfeherman as passenger, flew from Galreston to Houston and returned, a total distance of ninety miles, in about an hour*and a half. He circjed the city of Houafon in the course of the flight and phased through two rainstorms.
Lieut. Harry Graham, with Lieut. Call as passenger, flew over approximately the same course in the Burgess machine equipped with a Sturtevant motor. They covered a distance ot about eigTity miles and passed through one Yainstorm in the course of ^the flight.
Lieut. Finland, with Sergt. Idzarik a> passenger, started over the same course, but after covering about forty-five miles was compelled to stop on account of the rain.
SEND FOR CATALOG No. 2002
B. F. STURTEVANT CO.
And all principal cities of the world
AVIATORS' NURSING BOTTLE
For birdmen in tbe nest and those sprouting their winglets, a sort of nursing bottle has been devised by the Curtiss flyer Beck-with Havens. Mr. Havens is a grown-up birdman, so doesn't really need anything of this kind but he has invented it and put it to practical use to see if it would work.
The idea is to provide hot coffee, hot Scotches, hot milk, hot soup or other hot liquids to the pilot or passengers during a cold winter's (lay flight. The galvanized tank, which may be attached to any convenient part of the 'plane, has double walls. The top locks on. A glass bottle is inside. Through the cork of the bottle is one
breather tube and another to which a long rubber tube is attached; on the end of which tube is the usual rubber nipple. Hot water is taken from the circulation system into the hollow walls of the tank at the top and out through the connection at the bottom back into the system again. The long rubber tube is brought around within easy reach of the aviator.
THE S. A. F. SPEEDOMETER
A number of different speed registering devices have been tried out by Boland. Chambers, Conneau, Breguet, Legrand, Commandant Dorand, Capt. Felix and others, among which particular mentions should be made of the special speedometer of Capt. Eteve.
A new one that has been successfully used is a device made by the firm of "Aera" and known by the name of SAF. This consists of a quadrant divided in three sections of different colors and an indicating needle with a red disc at the end is controlled by a helicoidal fan with narrow blades slightly curved and inclined to the direction of movement so as to present the same angle of in-
cidence to the air as the aeroplane surfaces. The result is that the dynamic action of the air is transmitted to the needle as to the planes so that the sustentation may be de-
termined in varying speeds as well as temperature and altitude under which conditions so many devices fail, such as the Pitot tubes. It is claimed that when this device is used together with a barometer and motor speed counter, it offers, with the least effort, full knowledge of the machine's behavior.
It is recommended that by reason of the advantage of such devices that they should be included in the regular equipment of aeroplanes together with a barometer and compass.
THE SPARMAN TEACHING MACHINE
At the great aviation field near Vienna, Herr Sparman has established a school in which he employs a teaching machine. A monoplane, with ailerons, is universally
mounted on pivoted bearings. This is used in windy weather. Lateral equlibrium can be obtained by the ailerons. The elevator can be moved to balance the machine fore and aft; the whole system operates as though in actual power flight.
Melt a pound of paraffine in a large iron pot. When melted, add a gallon of gasolene AFTER REMOVING IT FROM THE FIRE. When thoroughly mixed, the composition may be painted on the cloth with a large brush, working it well into the canvas. Do not put it on too thick. You can color this by adding dry paint obtainable at any hardware or paint store.
BETTER THAN EVER
Have you seen our new price list ? Write for it. A price for everybody.
SLOANE AEROPLANE CO., - 1733 BROADWAY, New York City.
Agents: Eames Tricyle Co., San Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago.
Made in two sizes
50 H. P. 6-cyl. Air-cooled, Xo'fi!
PRICE, $650.00 Complete
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detroita.ro power plant
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INCL.PR0PELLER-CARBURET0R-80SH MAGNETO. OIL PUMP-CABLE -SWITCH -MOUNTING BOLTS.
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LIFT AND FLY CURTIS BY PLAN ELS BLERI0TE MONOPLANES DEMOISELLE MONOPLANES OR CRAFTS OF SIMILAR MAKE
New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1913
The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to theTechnique and Industry of Aeronautics.
Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Eighty-Five Cents Post Free
■M — f^.__A specimen copy will
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3 London Wall Buildings, London, England American Office: 250 West 54th Street, New York
We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS
John A. Roebling's Sons Co.
TRENTON, N. J.
crvRP-E^TZ^ (ompany 11 Bearings
2-5 o West Fifty— fourth , A'<i» >'<>rj^
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J. C. (Bud) MARS, now booking season 1913.
Have never been connected wilh the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. and School of Aviation.
North La Salle Street, Chicago, Ills.
THE Minneapolis Charter Commission and the Secretary of the State of New York are reported to be drafting state bills for the registration of aeroplanes and the licensing of operators. This would be a step in the right direction were it not obviously better to have a national law. But one lone aero club has even gone so far as to place itself on record. It is so easy to sit in front of the fireplace and write press notices.
curves, and is very much more steady in the average wind than is the machine with the power plant set much higher up.
IT is interesting to note that at least one daily newspaper is alive to the importance of aeronautics in warfare and is intelligently conversant with the subject. Unlike other New York papers, which generally exploit aerial catastrophies and speak alike of aeroplanes, balloons and dirigibles as "airships," the New York Tribune has consistently shown an intimate knowledge of the subject. The editorial of March 30th urging Government activity in this country is indicative of the spirit which seems to prevail in its news columns and special articles, of which an interesting page appeared on this date concerning dirigible development.
THE picture on the front cover this month is that of the Benoist flying boat, with Hugh Robinson piloting it above the Mississippi River.
After repeated trials, covering a period beginning about January 10th up to the middle of March, the makers are satisfied that their new machine has reached the perfection that will justify them in offering it to the general public or those of the general public who would buy a flying motor boat for pleasure or sport.
Adverse criticism met the statement that they were placing their motor down in the hull of the boat, but after repeated trials to find the best location of the motor and center of mass for the best results, it was found that the most advantageous place, everything considered, was to set the crank shaft fourteen inches below the lower planes, bringing the tops of the cylinders about four inches above the lower planes so that with the chain, propeller and propeller shaft and radiator above the center of gravity, and the aviator and passenger within the boat, the machine "balances with the least amount of oscillation below the horizontal center of gravity with a minimum of instability above."
The new flying boat, as will be noticed by the illustrations, takes a natural bank on
RETURNING from Europe "Orville Wright has a bone to pick with American newspapers," says the Cincinnati Star. "According to Mr. Wright, the reason why aviation is almost at a standstill here is because the newspapers have placed too much emphasis upon the accidents that have befallen aviators and not enough on their successes."
This newspaper has apparently hit the nail upon the head. Detailed descriptions of new machines could scarcely be called "news" in the light of present day newspaper journalism and the flights that have been made during the past twelve or eighteen months, with several extraordinary exceptions, were, from a newspaper standpoint, repetitions merely of "the same old stunts, many of them obviously foolish and unnecessarily hazardous."
"When the aeroplane was new the newspapers published column after column concerning the wonderful invention. The early triumphs of the aviators were given the widest publicity. If less is said to-day than formerly it is because there is so much less to say. The public has lost much of its early interest. Aviation was decidedly more than a nine days' sensation, but the time came when to record the performances of the flyers amounted to nothing more than reiteration.
"In the meantime serious and often fatal accidents began to multiply and were duly chronicled. That such unfortunate occurrences should be given prominence is only natural.
"If American aviators would do something new, something worth while, something that would show that they are progressing and not at a standstill, they would find that they have as little cause as ever to complain of the attitude of the American press."
The manufacturers might give a traveling exhibition of hydro-aeroplanes. Stir up the motor-boat clubs by a series of club-to-club aerial cruises, organize a reliability tour, urge national registration and licensing; clubs might offer purses for definite practical achievements, have a country-wide lecture campaign, syndicate free to a thousand newspapers, weekly articles of timely interest written by one who can see from the editor's chair; aero club members might buy aeroplanes and show why they belong.
Model B, 4-cylinder, 60-70 h. p.
Weight complete 260 lbs. 500 lbs. thrust
Three other models correspondingly
SIMPLE, COMPACT, POWERFUL Write for catalog
1528 E. Jefferson Avenue
Best equipped school in this country
MOISANT AVIATION SCHOOL
C,We have graduated Miss Mois-ant. Miss Miller, Messrs. Jerwan, de Murias, Seligman, Kantner, Bates, McKay. "Worden, de Giers, Alvarez, Bolognesi, Richter, Reichert, Hunt, Alberto and Gustavo Salinas, Ruiz, Lamkey, Edelman, Arnold. Juan and Eduardo Aldasoro.
CA Magnificent Aerodome. A Splendid Equipment of Machinesand Expert Pilots,Congenial Surroundings. Best Living Arrangements. Write today for booklet.
THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS
1790 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, N. Y.
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES
Has long been regarded as the standard American Authority on photographic matters.
Each number has forty pages of interesting photographic text, printed on fine paper from good type, and illustrated with many attractive half-tones.
The cover for each month is printed in varying colors, and is ornamented with a different and pleasing photograph.
The valuable and authoritative formulae furnished throughout the year are alone worth the price asked for subscription.
Some of the other regular features are
Articles on practical and timely photographic topics.
Illustrations showing examples of the work of the best American and foreign pictorialists.
Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and photographers' association notes. Items of Interest.
A department devoted to "Discoveries. '
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TWO-MAN RECORD BROKEN
After making a cross-country flight from Texas City to San Antonio, Tex., and establishing a new-American endurance record for two people, on the 28th of March, Lieut. Milling, with Lieut. Sherman as passenger, made the return trip to Texas City on March 31st. The trip was started at 1:21 P. M. and completed at 5:11 P. M., making the time to cover the 240 miles, 3 hours and SO minutes. The return trip was more rough than the outgoing _ one, which was made without difficulty. The return trip completes two of the longest non-stop cross-country flights ever made in this country, not only by military aviators but by any aviator. The actual measured distance covered was 480 miles, with one stop; however,_ the actual distance covered was about 540 miles. Lieut. Milling remained in the air for over an hour after arriving at San Antonio, thus establishing a new American endurance record for two people of four hours and twenty-two minutes. The flight was even more remarkable on account of it having_ been made entirely over land and over a country with hut few landing places in case of engine accident. The machine used was the Burgess tractor with a 70 II. P. Renault motor.
The flight from Texas City to San Antonio was made under very unfavorable weather conditions. The distance between the two places was 240 miles, and was covered in three hours and twenty minutes. After arriving at San Antonio, Lieut. Milling stayed in the air for additional time of one hour and two minutes, thus breaking the American endurance record for pilot and passenger.
On the way to San Antonio a gust of wind tore away the right triangular vertical "skid plane" but the flight was uninterrupted. A map was made by Lieut. Sherman, the passenger, complete in every detail; showing the railroad, wagon roads, towns, streams, woods, hills, prairies and other topographical markings that might be of interest in military work. The map was made in sections on a long strip of paper, the map being unrolled as each was completed. The entire map is about 18 feet long, being in sections showing the country covered in each interval of 10 minutes. This is said to be the first map ever made from an aeroplane covering such a distance as this.
The record up to that time was 3 hours and 51 minutes, made by Walter Johnson, in his Thomas biplane, Kirkham engine. At times during the trip, the machine dropped from 100 to 150 feet, due to the wind currents. Lieut. Milling piloted the machine for the entire distance and time. The world's endurance record for pilot and passenger is 4 hours and 37 minutes.
Earlier in the month Lieutenants Milling, who is in charge of the school at Texas City, and Sherman in the Burgess tractor had flown from Texas City to Houston and return, followed by Lieut. Harry Graham, in the Burgess standard Sturtevant 40 H. F. machine, who took approximately the same course as did Lieutenants Milling and Sherman, covering eighty miles non-stop, passing through a rainstorm on the way. Lieut. Kirtland, with Sergeant Idzarik as passenger, used the Wright in this 3-cornered event, but stopped on account of rain after covering about 45 miles. After the rain was over he also finished the round trip.
The Signal Corps Aviation School is now located at Texas City, Texas.
Lieut. Sherman in a flight of 19 minutes in a 16 mile wind, passed successfully the wind test for the military aviator's certificate. Lieut. Graham made a flight in a 15 mile wind for 9 minutes, also complying with the wind test requirements.
Lieut. Geiger, who is in command of the Army
aviation camp at San Diego, Cal., spends his time in making short cross-country flights and in instructing the younger officers.
Lieut. Brereton has completed all tests for his military aviator's certificate, except the wind test.
Lieut. Park is preparing for the military aviator's tests.
According to Lieut. Geiger, the Curtiss experimental tractor is now fitted with a geared down 2-hlade propeller, and that it seems to be a more efficient type of transmission than any other. He believes that this type of machine with a higher power motor will prove to be the most efficient for military use, both land and water.
A Sperry gyroscope has been experimented with by Lieut. Geiger, and while it has not proved an absolute success, it is a step in the right direction towards automatically stable aeroplanes.
Lieut. McLeary has completed tests for military certificate at San Diego. Cross-country flights have been a feature here, Lieut. Park flying 24 miles to Ocean Beach and back; McLeary from North Island to Ocean Beach, across the bay to National City, around San Diego and by way of Coronado, covering 55 miles in 1 hour, 5 minutes, at an altitude of 6,500 feet.
The navy's camp at Guantanamo has been broken up and removed to Annapolis.
The presence of the hydro-aeroplanes and the flying boat with the fleet has familiarized officers and men with them and has enabled a wide range of estimates concerning their future usefulness in naval operations to be made.
Many passengers, mostly officers of all ranks, during the brief intervals off duty, have been taken up in flight, and many zealous young officers have received instruction in addition to their other duties with the fleet.
Lieut. Towers and Ensign Chevalier, in the navy flying boat flew to Santiago, a distance of 45 miles, in 46 minutes, at an altitude of 1,950 feet, the wind blowing at 15 miles per hour from northwest. They returned in 1 hour, 17 minutes at an altitude of 2,700 feet, the wind blowing at 20 miles per hour from north. After another flight on the same day, Lieut. Towers enjoyed the distinction of having as a passenger with him, the Hon. Lemuel P. Padgett, Chairman of the House Naval Affairs Committee, during a flight of 10 minutes at an attitude of 400 feet. On the same day Ensign Herbster had as a passenger with him in one of the Wright machines, the Hon. E. R. Bathrick, member of the House Naval Affairs Committee.
On the following day Rear-Admiral C. McR. Win-slow, Commander of the 1st Division Atlantic^ Fleet, was a passenger with Lieut. Towers during a flight of 14 minutes, at a height of 575 feet.
Oh, I'm the clerk and editor bold, And devil of the aeroplane mag,
And publisher bright and managerite,
And cetera—but don't want to brag. —From a Subscriber, and with apology to Life.
Allow me to say that AERONAUTICS puts one over them all.—G. R. C, Texas.
I get AERONAUTICS every month and have received more helpful information from it than from any other aviation magazine, and I take them all.— H. D. C, Ind.
Inclosed is subscription. I can't get along without it. Have been getting it from an agency.—G. C. L., New York.
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$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS
We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.
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724-726 NINTH ST., N. W.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
HONEST ADVICE AND REAL PATENTS
Patents and patent causes. Specialist in Aeroplanes and Ga^ Engines.
JOHN O. SEIFERT 50 Church Street New York, N.Y.
C. L. PARKER
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American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bide. WASHINGTON, D. C.
AEROPLANES and FLYING BOATS
■That Won't Tip Over-
CHARLES H. BURLEIGH, South Berwyck, Me.
"Ideal" Plans and Drawings
are accurate and are accompanied bj-clear, concise building instructions, postpaid at I lie following prices: Wright 3-ft. B.plane, 25c. Bleriot 3-ft. MonopUn-, 15c. "Ce< il Peoli" Champion Racer, 25c. Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane (new), 35c. "Ideal" three-foot Racer (new), 15c.
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catalog, fully illustrated. 5c. brings it. (None freei. IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82a West Broadway, New York
Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids 1)4 diameter and under any length.
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PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS
have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor
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JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATE S ARTILLERY
A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and other matter relating to coast defense.
Published under the supervision of the School Board, Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Virginia.
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Cordeaux - Etter Mfg. Corporation^
(formerly New York Aeronautical Supply Co.) (l
11, 13, 15 McKibben St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
U. S. Patents Gone to Issue
Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.
Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.
It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the i>atents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to gi\ e in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we ha\ e used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. "Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."
The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.
Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given. —Editor.
Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and prior art of which are unknown to you—William -Macomber.
ISSUED MARCH 11, 1913.
1,055.325—G. D. Goodrich, Somerville, Mass., FLYING MACHINE.
1.055,379—John W. Wilson, Boston, Mass., AEROPLANE, with planes supported at inner ends and movable about parallel axes, which are oblique to the perpendicular, and means for operating; vertical rudders movable on axis ohlique to perpendicular, also movable laterally.
1,055,393—Porter C. Fox, Spokane, Wash., PROPELLER drive; propellers at front and rear of a machine, means for driving at a given speed, for changing angle of blades.
1,055,468—Chas. R. Johnson, Topeka, Kan., HELICOPTER.
1.055,533—John N. Highland, Detroit, Mich., HELICOPTER.
* 1,055,990—A. J. A. Deperdussin, 19 Rue des Entrepreneurs, Paris, France, FUSELAGE construction,
supported by skids, with a hull secured underneath the fuselage taking the place of the usual cross-members.
ISSUED MARCH 18, 1913.
1.056,150—Herbert M. Cooley, Mexico, Mex.. FLYING MACHINE, in which propeller is shiftable for steering, and in which pivoted wings are capable of extension or retraction.
1.056,179—Alkin Huth. Chicago, 111., AUTOMATIC STABILITY device; curtains used similarly to ailerons, actuated to increase resistance by pendulums and clutch mechanism.
1.056,192—James W. Lyons, Moline, 111., FLYING MACHINE.
1,056,247—Julius C. Christiansen, New York, STEERING; a propeller capable of movement at various angles to the direction of flight.
1,056,329—Johan R. Froherg, Richmond, Cal., STEERING device, comprising a seat mounted to
oscillate about a vertical axis, elevator and rudders, means for oscillating elevator and permitting use of rudder without affecting angle of elevator, etc.
1,056,390—Paul Anderson, Freeport, N. Y., and Aage Nielsen, New York, AEROPLANE in which motors, etc.. on platform suspended from a transverse propeller shaft.
1.056,503—Toseph E. Cooper, Cripple Creek, Colo., DIRIGIBLE.
1.056,643—John F. De Villa, San Francisco, Cal., AEROPLANE with planes pivoted at forward edges, brace wires attached to rear edges, means for compensating tension, tail planes and elevator.
ISSUED MARCH 25, 1913.
1.056,772—Frank- M. Bell, El Paso, Tex., AEROPLANE.
1,056,786—Joseph Freud, Mendota, 111., Parachute.
1,056,791—Albert von Hoffman, St. Louis, BALLOON or dirigible with non-collapsing gas chamber.
1,056.844—John T. Simpson, Newark, N. J., *STAI'»IL1TY device, elastic landing gear and wind brakes. The wings are separately connected to the frame, and have a rack and gear device for shifting one or both wings laterally to obtain stability. Shifting one wing sideways to the low side the c. of g. is thus shifted to counterbalance the lowering tendency on the one side. The twin rudders can be turned broadside to the wind to stop the machine en landing.
* 1,057,221—Toseph M. and Elmer R. Conner, Port Richmond, N. Y., PARACHUTE and harness for aviator or passenger, in general similar to the Stevens "life pack" already described in AERONAUTICS.
1,057.225—Harry R. Decker, Houston. Tex., MOTOR of rotating type with blades carried by the cylinders to obtain thrust from the motor itself.
1,057,246—Wm. R. Kirkpatrick, Baltimore, Md., AEROPLANE.
ISSUED APRIL 1. 1913.
13.548—Original No. 1,047,038. of Dec. 10. 1912, a re-issue, John R. Gammeter, Akron, O., BALLOON; flexible sheath of metallic ribbons.
1.055,444—Samuel D. Mott, Passaic, N. L, HELICOPTER.
1,057,831—Max A. Herbert, New York., DIRIGIBLE, composed of separate detachable rigid sections.
1,057,999—Samuel H. Gilson, Salt Lake Citv, Utah, FLYING MACHINE.
ISSUED APRIL 8, 1913 1,058,169—Walter Fischer, Hanover Germany, Haven for DIRIGIBLE.
1,058,256—Carl Paulal, Vienna, Austria, assignor
to Jacob Lohner & Co., CHASSIS for aeroplanes.
depends upon your equipment. No matter how good an aviator you may be, If you have a crude, poorly constructed aeroplane or a cheap, unreliable motor you cannot hope for success. This is proven every day all through the country by the large number of failures in aviation. Do not take a chance with a cheap product. It is very expensive and extremely dangerous.
Insure Yourself I Against Failure By Purchasing a
And if you are unable to fly, take a course in the
Kirkham School of Aviation
Why not profit by our experience and assure yourself of success by becoming associated with us.
A Word to the Wise is Sufficient
KIRKHAM AEROPLANE AND MOTOR CO., i„c.
SAVONA, N. Y.
C. & A. Wittemann
Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts
Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications
Laree stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribe, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P.
FLYING AND J TRAINING GROUNDS |
Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road T
STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY + Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville J
MAKE BIG MONEY GIVING EXHIBITION FLIGHTS.
Build your own flying machine. We supply all parts and fittings at extremely low prices.
1913 CATALOGUE with working drawings of 3 well-known flying machines mailed on request.
E. J. WILLIS COMPANY
85 Chambers Street 67 Reade Street
Telephone: 3624 Worth
STYLES & CASH Pri";r
Aeroplane, Motor and Accessory Catalogues Circulars, Brochures, Bulletins, etc. :: ::
135 W. 14th STREET
SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES
Goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind. Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AV1AT1C" and a small order will tell you why those who know send to us when they want thf best at the right price. Let us give you a special figure on that supply list.
HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO.
208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash.
At its first meeting of the new re-organization the Kirkham Aeroplane & Motor Company, a progressive program was adopted, which will prove interesting and valuable for a motor purchaser. Edwin H. Skinner, who conducted the Rex Monoplane Co., has joined hands with Mr. Kirkham.
Mr. Kirkham's experience with motors for aviation purposes dates back to 1903, when, as the manufacturer of the motors used on the Curtiss motorcycle, several motors of one and two cylinders and one 4-cylinder, were made for various parties, one of these being for a dirigible known as the "Montana Butterfly." Since that time several motors have been sold for aviation experiments, one of which was purchased by J. A. D. McCurdy to put into the "Silver Dart," one of the machines built by the Aerial Experiment Association. The "Silver Dart" being Mr. McCurdy's production. With this motor flights up to twenty minutes duration were made in 1909. Later this motor was installed in the "Baddeck II," a bi-plane of 53 feet spread. This machine made several successful flights, one being 45 minutes duration. In a number of flights a passenger was carried. In August, 1910, a duplicate of this motor was sold to Tod Schriver, who at once became famous for his quick rise as a flyer. One of his early flights being of 51 minutes duration by moonlight, made at Mineola in September, 1910, which is believed is still the record for night flight. In 1911 and 1912 numerous motors were sold to pleased buyers.
The company announce that it will put on the market for 1913 a 4-cylinder 45 H. P., a 6-cylinder 65 H. P., a 6-cylinder 65 H. P. gear drive and an 8-cylinder 110 H. P. These motors are conservatively rated and will develop at brake test at least an excess of 5 H. P.
SLOANE FLYING BOAT
The Sloane Aeroplane Co. is getting out a flying boat which is rapidly nearing its completion. The hull of this boat has been designed by William Gardner, a well-known yacht designer. He has designed numerous racing yachts, steam yachts, torpedo boats and steamers of various descriptions; perhaps the best known yacht he has designed is the "Atlantic," which won the Emperor's Cup in the Trans-Atlantic race.
The hull of the flying boat will be built of mahogany and cedar, and the approximate dimensions will be 25 feet by 4 feet. In designing special care has been taken to make it so strong that it will withstand the shocks of landing the heaviest seas. The whole affair will be a veritable sea-going flying boat, capable of getting away and flying in the roughest weather.
The Sloane School opens up on Long Island about May 1st, and will probably have eight or ten pupils in the first class. The staff and personnel will be the same as last year as the instructors and aviators have proven very efficient in their work in California.
The longest aeroplane tour made in California was negotiated by L. \V. Bonney, Sloane school instructor, and Miss Margaret Stahl in a school Dep on March 23, flying from Los Angeles to National City, near San Diego, a distance of 120 miles in 108 minutes flying time. Stop of a few moments was made at Oceanside. The next day they flew over to North Island to visit the Curtiss camp.
A previous attempt to fly at' San Diego was made in February by Glenn Martin, who covered 88 miles
in a roundabout tour in a drenching rain, starting from Pomona, stopping at Venice and Long Beach, finally ending the contemplated trip at Santa Ana.
LIEUTENANT KILLED IN HYDROAEROPLANE
San Diego, Cal., April 9.—Lieut, Rex Chandler, Coast _ Artillery _ Corps, U. S. Army, was drowned, and his companion, Lieut. Lewis H. Brereton, slightly injured in a hydro-aeroplane accident. A week before Lieut. Brereton had completed his last lest for military license and had made a 55 minute flight in the army's Curtiss water machine.
Lieut. Brereton was flying the machine at an altitude of about 150 feet and began to turn to the right. The wind was blowing at about 15 miles an hour, but was very puffy. While making the turn, the machine began to settle with the right wing low and the machine slightly pointed down. Lieut. Brereton then tried to land the machine but due to the fact that he was not high enough, he did not have sufficient distance to completely straighten out before striking the water.
The floats of the machine were broken, due to hitting the water in this abnormal position and both pilot and observer thrown from their seats.
Lieut. Brereton was thrown clear of the machine and escaped with very slight bruises. Lieut. Chandler was caught beneath the wreckage and drowned before he could be disentangled.
Apparently the accident was in no way the fault of the machine breaking in the air, or the pilot not being able to use the controls. It was an accident that could happen to any person using a power driven machine of any character.
Lieut. Brereton is out of the Hospital and practically completely recovered from the accident. Lieutenants Brereton and McLeary had just previously received their military certificates.
GREAT LAKES AIR BOAT CRUISE
The present status of the preperations of the Aero and Hydro Great Lakes Flying Boat Cruise assures the start of at least five aero hydroplanes from the lake front, Grant Park, Chicago, July 8, on a 900 mile run to Detroit. These 5 machines have been entered and fee paid. Other entries are promised. Three of these will be Benoist machines.
Italy has equipped the warship "San Marco," recently sent to Turkish waters, with a Curtiss hydroaeroplane. This is the first time a hydro has been made a part of regular equipment of naval vessels.
THOMAS SCHOOL HAS REGENTS CHARTER
The Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York has granted "The Thomas School of Aviation" a provisional charter to give instruction in the construction, use, care and operation of aeroplanes and hydro-aeroplanes. Such provisional charter to be replaced by an absolute charter if within five years the corporation shall acquire resources and equipment deemed sufficient by the Regents for its chartered purposes and be maintaining to their satisfaction a school of approved standards.
First Drummer.-—I sold forty aeroplanes in that last town.
Second Drummer.—Well, I hope your trade doesn't fall off.
< BENOIST <g ACTIVITIES IN 1912
FIRST: A WORLD'S RECORD. Made the first parachute jump from a speeding aeroplane.
SECOND: An AMERICAN RECORD. Designed and built the first successful tractor biplane in America. Since then practically every other manufacturer in America has followed suit.
THIRD: An AMERICAN RECORD. Won the American endurance record for four passengers. This was in September, 1912, but the record still stands.
FOURTH: A WORLD'S RECORD. World's long distance hydroaeroplane record, Omaha to New Orleans, 1963 miles.
FIFTH: A WORLD'S RECORD. World's long distance hydroaeroplane record, aviator and passenger, St. Louis to New Orleans, 1250 miles, besides carrying more than 150 pounds excess baggage.
OUR STARTER FOR THE 1913 RECORDS
The New Benoist Flying Boat
Address BENOIST AIRCRAFT COMPANY
6628 DELMAR BLVD. ST. LOUIS, :: :: :: U. S. A.
MOISANT SCHOOL RETURNS NORTH
The Moisant school opens at Hempstead the first of May after a busy winter in Augusta, Ga. _S. S. Jerwan will be chief pilot, assisted by Marwin C. Wood, one of the recent graduates. Four Anzani 30s and two Gnome machines will comprise the equipment.
The second ascension of the M. T. Bane balloon, was made on April 6, sailing three times across the city of Peoria during the afternoon.
It carried M. T. Bane, the owner, H. E. Honeywell, builder of the balloon, Geo. E. Smith and Tom Webb.
American Flying Yacht Manufacturing Company, Chicago, $200,000; flying machines; G. Milton Dun-lap, Paul Compart, Otto Brodie.
Judgment was entered against Dr. Henry W. Walden, April 27, 1912, $51.38, in favor of Aeronautics Press.
The Alleas Aviation Co., of Boston, has been enjoined for non-payment of taxes.—N. Y. Commercial.
Emerson Engine Co. obtained judgment against Universal Aerial Navigation Co. of St. Louis, for $530.41, balance due on engines purchased.
SOUTH BEND AERO CLUB FORMS
An aero club has been formed by young men in South Bend (Ind.), with Leon Avery president, Henry D. Copland vice-president, Marvin D. Woofter secretary, Jos. Avery treasurer. The club was actually organized in 1912, but re-formed in March of this year. The club has three gliders, and Messrs. H. L. Avery and Copland are constructing a Curtiss type biplane. Only those actively interested in aeronautics are admitted to membership. If you want them on the wireless, call HC South Bend.
The Perry Victory Centennial, held from July 4th to Sept. 13th, celebrating the hundredth anniversary of Commodore Perry's victory, has provided for an "aviation week" from August 17th to 24th. Out of an appropriation totalling $1,000,000, the sum of $5,000 has been allotted for hydro-aeroplanes, and the committee is ready to receive final proposals from responsible concerns under five schedules. Full information may be obtained from Lawrence A. Sackett, Perry Centennial Regatta, Inter-Lake Yachting Ass'n, Columbus, O.
AIRSHIP ADDED TO S. &. B. LINE
A three-passenger airship will be added to the Stevens-Brown line in the near future, with Harry Brown as prima donna. Brown says aviation is getting too common nowadays and he just must get into something with more class. Miss Florence Seidel, with her Martin biplane, will be Brown's partner in school and passenger flying at Oakwood Heights in the meantime. In the winter, A. Leo Stevens will inaugurate a hydro-aeroplane school in Porto Rico, from whose Insular Fair, Stevens and Brown have returned a couple "of weeks ago, "safe," as he says, and "that means a great deal in these days."
With two famous dirigible impresarios, Knaben-shue on one coast and Stevens on the other, airship tripping ought to become popular.
In spite of all this "Doctor" Watts says aeronautics is going to the demnition bow-wows.
$77,200 FOR SECURITY IN AEROPLANES
from consul-general frank n. mason, paris.
The necessity of obtaining greater security for aviators, has led to the formation of L'Union pour la Securite en Aeroplanes, is affiliated to, and with headquarters at the Aero-Club de France, 35 rue Francois Ier, Paris.
This association announces the opening of a com-
petition in the hope that the inventions brought forward may contribute to a considerable degree in securing greater safety for the "hcavier-than-air" machines.
The association lays down no strict limits as to the nature of the inventions which may compete for the prizes, and only states for the guidance of persons or firms wishing to enter therefor that they will consider: Flying machines, the general arrangement whereof show a marked progress from the point of view of security; stabilisators; arrangements increasing the ease of handling when in flight, or facilitating landing—modification of wing surfaces, speed changes, brakes, landing carriages, life-saving arrangements, etc.
Only machines in proper working order, ready _ to be tried under the same conditions as though in active service, will be allowed to take part in the competition.
The jury will examine neither plans, nor statements, nor models on a reduced scale regarding inventi'ons which have not been presented as stated in the previous paragraph.
A "Grand Prix" $77,200 will be awarded to the inventor of _ a machine which the jury considers of exceptional interest from the point of view of safety. This prize cannot be divided. There will be other less important prizes. Every entry must be accompanied by a subscription of $38.60, a short but clear description of the machine shown, and of the method of using the same, with sketches or designs in addition; this description must point out the details which, according to the competitor, show improvements as regards safety; declarations relieving the union of certain responsibilities; and an option in favor of the French Government for the purchase of the invention, should it obtain a prize of at least $9,650, this option to be good until January 1, 1915.
PARCEL POST FLYER FINISHES
Harry M. Jones, the Boston-New York parcel post flyer, finally completed his trip which he began from Boston, Tanuary 13th, when he landed on Governor's Island on March 25. He left Rye, N. Y., March 23rd, at night, and flew to Flatbush, Brooklyn, and from there to Governor's Island.
I TIMONI AUTOMATICI NEI DIRIGIBILI, by Capt. G. A. Crocco. No. 6, Vol. 1. One of occasional bulletins, annual subscription 13.50 lire, from Stabilimento di Experienze e Construzioni Aeronau-tiche del Genio, Viale Giulio Cesare N. 2, Roma, Italy.
That little meeting of aeronautical editors in New York, of which the publishers from the wild and woolly have made so much in their pamphlets, was not quite so serious as reported, according to Joe Faucher, who acted as liquid dispenser at the Cumberland during the visit. At any rate, sine the departure of said editors, Main Street, New York, has assumed again its wonted atmosphere of peace and quiet, while Mr. Lawson's offer still holds good, according to last reports.
Bosch magnetos were shipped during March at the rate of 23,773 per month. Doubtless, this is a world record. It is safe to say, with some regrets, that these were not supplied to American aeroplanes. Guess when aeroplane production will reach this figure.
Captain Baldwin has solved the cost of high living. At his private aeroplane field, on the shore of Hydroaeroplane Bay, Oakwood Heights, Staten Island, witli a two-story shed for housing machines, machine shop, observation tower and sundry, Captain Baldwin provides two cozy bungalows; with more in prospect. From the porches of these one may take his morning dive in the ocean, a sun bath, and be in starving trim for a breakfast of clams dug by the cook during the swin and broiled over a fire provided by the favoring tides and winds which heap the beach with driftwood. A steady but mild breeze deprives the daily troubles of their terrors and a wakeless sleep follows a cool plunge and a dinner of fish caught from aforesaid porch, with mosquitoes banished by express order of the Captain.
On or Over the Water
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Learn to fly at a school where you can make a name for yourself. One pupil recently made a new American altitude record, Gilpatric. Another, Miss Stahl flies with instructor Bonney from Los Angeles to San Diego, over 125 miles —these are recent examples of school work.
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AERONAUTICS IN FRANCE
Seven new dirigibles were constructed of a total power of 1,760 11. 1'.. total capacity 64,500 cubic metres, made 400 voyages of a duration of 1,591 hours, covering 36.363 kilometres, and carrying up 3,694 people.
Estimated. 1912. 1913.
Aeroplanes built .............. 1,425 2,000
Total horsepower ............. 86,000 ......
Distance flown, kils.......... 3,000,000 ......
Duration, hours ............. 33,900 ......
People flown ................. 12,900 ......
No. of trips of over 10 kil..... 9,100 ......
Motors built ................. 2,217 4,110
Horsepower .................. 158,200 285,900
No. of propellers ............ 8,000 14,900
Tn France, 412 balloon ascensions were made in 1912, using 492,500 cubic metres of gas; 1,268 people were taken up, traveling 78,280 kiloms; total dura-ation 2,609 hours. Fifty-nine pilots earned certificates, bringing total up to 295.
ON THE NEGATIVE WING TIP
To the Editor:—
Mr. Merrill has advanced the theo'.y that an aeroplane can he turned by the use of one aileron. lie claims that by raising the aileron on the side to which direction the aviator wishes to go will first depress that side and automatically bank the machine without loss of kinetic energy. On that point the writer agrees with him. But he says that additional raising would produce the proper couple to turn the aeroplane in the direction desired. (From article published in Fly magazine, July, 1912.)
According to my way of thinking, here he is wrong. It is my opinion that the operation would cause that side of the machine to dart forward and downward —directly opposite to the theory of behavior advanced by Mr. Merrill. This downward and forward movement of one side, in my opinion, is extremely dangerous and quite likely to cause the midline to turn turtle unless the aviator has other means of control at hand.
Mention is made of the fact that birds are supplied with no vertical rudder; true. The writer has spent many an afternoon watching soaring buzzards through a strong field glass. The buzzard is the model of perfection whtn it come to flying, and the best expert aviators will have to take off their hats to him.
Upon careful observation it will be noticed that the wing-tips of this bird are almost in constant motion, and in turning he does just the opposite to the theory just discussed. He pulls down on the side to which he turns. To explain this, my theory is that by pulling down on the right wing-tips if he turns to the right he retards that side, and, by retarding that side also causes it to fall, thereby producing the exact result desired by Mr. Merrill, by doing just the opposite to Mr. Merrill's theory. The writer does not claim to knozv anything about the science of flying and the technical solutions offered are in many cases beyond his comprehension, but
desires merely to excite comment and study on the part of those who do know and hopes that such comments will reach them.
ARTHUR C. HETRICK,
838 S. Poplar St.,
Business is looking brighter every day.—Kemp Machine Works.
As a ready market for the good, old bull New York always impressed us as the garden spot of the world. Boston next.—Aero.
That is, Chicago being first.
The spring class at the Curtiss Training Camp, at llammondsport, N. Y., already exceeds the number set as the limit and that, in justice to the men there now, further enrollments cannot be accepted until the mid-summer class opening, June 15.
GYROSCOPIC EFFECT OF ROTATING ENGINE ON THE PROPELLER
Calculations and experiments have been made at the Royal Aircraft Factory (Great Britain) to determine the amount of the gyroscopic action of the rotating engine (100 H. P. Gnome) and propeller. The engine is assumed to be running at 1,200 revolutions. The amount of the gyroscopic effect depends also, of course, on the rate at which the machine is being turned. In the calculation made it is supposed that this is such that a complete circle would be described in 20 seconds. Consideration of the maximum rate probable in a sudden dip leads to a nearly equal result. The moment due to this cause is then of the order of magnitude of that which would be produced by a force of 20 lbs. acting on the horizontal or the vertical rudder.
"The couple due to gyroscopic action will have an effect as regards (a) increase of stress, (b) steering. There is no reason to anticipate serious consequences on either ground. There is no difficulty in taking up additional stress of the amount indicated. Probably the most important consequences would arise in the event of any insecurity in the mounting of the engine. This is a further reason for attention to this matter. In its relation to steering, the effect may be compared with that of a small gust, of known direction, and should cause no difficulty to the flier," says the Government's Committee on Monoplane Accidents.
H&H FLYING SCHOOL
RIGHT NOW is your first opportunity to learn to drive a high, powered
Monoplane for $300.
We use dual controll machines and will turn out our first class in ample time for this year's exhibition work. Come out to the Hempstead Plains Aerodrome and have a real joy ride. _
THE HAMILTON & HARRIS FLYING SCHOOL
P. 0. Box 478 MINI OLA, L. I., N. Y. 'Phone G. C. 1095
Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout
Endurance Record to Date 4 hrs., 23 min.
" MOTOR WAGEN"
of Nov. 20, 1912
In the testing establishment of Dr. Bendemann at Adlershof (near Berlin), a 7-cylinder Gyro Motor was recently tested. In a 5-hour endurance run and at 1,000 R. P.M., an average of 45.7 H. P. was obtained. The fuel consumed was 14.7 kg. gasoline per hour and 3.06 kg. lubricating oil, which is more favorable than the Gnome motor of the same horse-power. The weight of the motor was 73 kg.
Send for Catalog
THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C.
A Course at the Curtiss Training School
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Flying. Trade Demonstrators. Private Operatives. I An open field for pleasant remunerative employment.
tjOffers these unique advantages: A $50,000 equipment of Standard Aeroplanes,
Hydro-Aeroplanes, and Flying-Motor-Boats. ^] Classes limited to ten students under the personal supervision of Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss. <1 Opportunity to keep directly in touch with latest developments in Aviation.
ILLUSTRATED LITERATURE AND INFORMATION FREE. KINDLY ADDRESS
CURTISS AEROPLANE COMPANY
21 LAKE STREET HAMMONDSPORT. N. Y.
20.000 KILOMETERS THROUGH THE AIR, by Helmuth Hirth. An absorbing story (in German) of the flights and records made by this famous German flyer, his early life and his adventures in the machine shops of the United States. His observations and experiences during flight are recounted. Written for the aviator and the dilettant as well. Published by Gustav Braunbeck, Lutzowstrasse, 102, Berlin, at 5 Marks.
AN EXTENSION OF THE DEWEY DECIMAL SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION APPLIED TO THE ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES, by L. P. Breckenridge and G. A. Goodenough, was originally issued as Bulletin No. 9 of the Engineering Experiment Station in 1906. The filing and classification of engineering data has become a matter of much importance, and this bulletin was prepared for use as a guide in carrying out such work. The original edition of Bulletin No. 9 was subject to the usual gratuitous distribution, and the subsequent demands were such that a second edition was printed and ultimately distributed. This has now been accomplished and the revised bulletin, much extended as compared with the original edition, is ready for distribution. It presents subdivisions of subjects in such detail as to constitute a complete classification for most engineering industries,_ even though they are highly specialized. The revision has been made in accordance with the 1911 edition of "Decimal Classification" by Melvil Dewey.
A copy will be sent post-paid upon the receipt of fifty cents.—W. F. M. Goss, Director of the Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111.
over them stretch a number of breadths of your mother's silk dresses, neatly sewed together. If your mother is addicted to the hobble, you may have to resort to grandma's wardrobe. Now tack the silk on the frames by means of brass-headed tacks taken from the parlor furniture. If you cannot remove them any other way, burn the burniture, being careful not to pick up the tacks until they have cooled off. When the frames are finished connect them at the corners by means of spindles taken from the front hall banisters. The engine must have a firm foundation, so let us borrow the head of one of the brass beds and fasten it firmly to the lower plane. As it is difficult to construct at home an engine of 60 H. P., the best way is to take papa's checkbook, write a check for a thousand dollars, carefully forging papa's name. This can be done easily after a few months' practice. A thousand dollars will buy a very nice engine, which can be used for many purposes about the house, such as sawing wood, operating a rotary fan, the sewing machine, etc. The engine must be firmly bolted to the framework of the biplane. Bolts will be found in papa's automobile that will do nicely. Now you are ready to soar aloft and the whole thing hasn't cost you a cent. Let your first trip be over the nearest cemetery. Then if you drop it will not be necessary to hire a coach and hearse. Children should always think of the economy before the pleasure. "A dollar saved is worth two in the bush," as Plutarch once said.—Walter Shulman.
P. S. If you are building a flying boat, use veneer from the grand piano.
EN QUOI CONSISTE LA STABILITE, par Alexandre See, published by Gauthier-Villars, 55 Quai des Grands-Augustins, Paris. Small pamphlet.
HOW TO BUILD AN AEROPLANE
There is no reason why every girl and boy who reads AERONAUTICS shouldn't have an aeroplane of his or her own, made of materials picked up about the house. No expense is attached to it— all one needs is skill and ingenuity
First, the frame must be made. Rip about forty yards of picture molding from the walls, being careful to first remove the pictures. Then make two oblong frames, this machine is to be a biplane) and
A striking commentary on one advantage of the hydro-aeroplane over the land machine is afforded by the "for sale" advertisement of the Curtiss Exhibition Co., on another page, where a number of extra sets of Curtiss hydro-aeroplane attachments are offered at less than cost. It seems that, following their usual policy, the exhibition company has made up duplicate sets of pontoons for all the exhibition machines, for use in case of emergency, which parts they have had no use for, because hydro-aeroplanes have proved to be almost absolutely free from the minor breakages common to land machines, especially where they are being shipped around the country for exhibition purposes. As the pontoons and other fittings now occupy space needed for other uses in an already crowded factory, the company proposes to get them out of the way by selling them at less than the manufacturing cost of the parts. Details of this equipment can be had by addressing the Curtiss Exhibition Co., at Ilammondsport, N. Y.
write us unless you are interested in a
reliable, efficient and economical power plant. That is the only kind we build. Four sizes. Reasonable prices.
KEMP MACHINE WORKS, :: Muncie, Ind.
Vulcanized Proof Material
For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any strength or color.
"Red Devil" Aeroplanes
That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.
Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.
Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.
Private Flying Field
Fine private field with smooth water frontage for hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island.
CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN
Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York
ER surprising the ives of Porto Rico
Harry Bingham Brown
The Greatest of the Great
has returned to the States and will demonstrate shortly the Greatest piece of Aerial Ingenuity ever projected by man
Law, and Lapham
DARE-DEVILS OF THE SKY
under contract to perform the
"Stevens Pack Act"
during the Season of 1913.
Managers of high standing that want something extraordinary will do well to address
A. Leo Stevens
Box 181, Madison Sq. N. Y. City
A New Wright Flyer
We will present this season a new model, known as Model "E", designed especially for
This model will be equipped with either four or six cylinder motor, turning a single propeller. It is so designed that it can be taken down for express shipment and reassembled within a few hours.
The old models, refined in details, will be continued for use of those who wish to fly for pleasure and sport.
All models may be equipped with HYDROPLANES.
The Wright School of Aviation
Our School of Aviation will open at Simms Station (Dayton) about April ist with a corps of competent instructors. The school will be under the personal supervision of Mr. Orville Wright. Tuition for a complete course will be $250.00. Enroll now.
THE WRIGHT COMPANY
Dept. "A", Dayton, Ohio New York Office, - - 11 Pine Street
NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street
"Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 minutes, also 7th Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station
Headquarters for Avi itorsand Auto-mobilists.
New and Fireproof
Strictly first class. Rales reasonable.
Send for booklet
Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres
H. P. STIMSON
Formerly with Hotel Imperial
I NAIAD I Aeronautical Cloth
Wc were the first in the field, * and the test of time is proving J that our product is the best. +
+ ============== *
+ Sample Cook A-6, Data and Prices on Reque:t ^
+ — ~ _ ~ ~ *
e C. E. Conover Co. +
J 101 Franklin Street, New York J
HALL-SCOTT equipment in R. G. Fowler's machine, showing power plant arrangement for the tractor type of bi-plane
was, of course, used by
ROBERT G. FOWLER flying
across the Isthmus of Panama with passenger and moving picture machine. Motor worked perfectly, Fowler cabled April 28. This event of international interest is his second ocean-to-ocean flight. Two previous attempts to cross the Isthmus given up.
Success attained by Hall-Scott Equipment.
LET US FIGURE ON YOUR EXACT REQUIREMENTS
Catalogue sent on request
Hall-Scott Motor Car Company
SAN FRANCISCO :: :: CALIFORNIA
Press of Styles Sc Cash, New Yor