Aeronautics

Volume 11 - No. 6 - 1912 December

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



Price 25 Lents

PublUhed by AERONAUTICS PRESS, 250 West 54th Street, New York

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Kirkham Motor Wins Again

W. T. THOMAS. M E.. A. C. G. PRESIDENT QUALIFIED AVIATORS

GUARANTEED FLIGHTS

PUPILS INSTRUCTED

O. W. Thomas, M. E., A. C. G.

vice-pres. and secy.

Thomas Brothers

Mechanical Engineers

Designers and Builders of Aeroplanes

AEROPLANES

PROPELLERS HYDROAEROPLANES

BATH, N. Y., September 17, 1912.

C. B. KIRKHAM,

Savona, N. Y. Dear Sir:—

You will doubtless be interested in hearing of the latest success we have achieved with

your motor which we are using in one of our standard exhibition biplanes.

At the Aviation Meet, held at the New York State Fair, at Syracuse, New York,

September 9-14th, our Mr. Walter E. Johnson, with one of your 65 horse power motors made a

clean sweep of the speed events, as the following official times indicate: 10-Mile Race. Monday, September 9th.

1st. W. E. Johnson, 65 H. P.Thomas Model 10AX. Total time; 10'42l"

2nd. B. Havens, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 14' 10"

3rd. W. B. Hemstrought, 60 II. P. Curtiss. Total time, 14' 15i". 15-Mile Race, Saturday, September 14th.

1st. W. E. Johnson, 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 16'11|"

2nd. C. H. Nilcs, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 16' 26i"

3rd. W. B. Hemstrought, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time,--4th. B. Havens, 75 II. P. Curtiss. Total Time,---From the above figures you will see that our machine, driven by your engine, proved

itself SECOND TO NONE.

We wish to express our complete satisfaction with the faultless manner in which the

engine ran throughout the races and the regular time with which the machine ticked off each lap

of the course.

It is worthy of notice that the Model 10AX, above "mentioned, has been in active use throughout two whole seasons making exhibition flights, and the planes were in poor condition. FACTS ARE TRUER THAN FICTION. Wishing you continued success, we are,

Yours very truly,

THOMAS BROTHERS,

By O. W. Thomas.

YOU want this motor in YOUR plane if you expect to fill your contracts on time Better investigate to-day New Catalog sent on request

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM

MOTOR DEPT.

Savona, N. Y.

The Only

IMPROVED

Propeller

The Only PATENTED Propeller

trade mark

PATENTED MARCH 14. 1911; JULY 25 1011; OCTOBER 17. 1011: OTHER PATENTS PENDING

PARAGONS hold a special grip on all who strive for the highest and best—those who appreciate the maximum of strength, safety, service and efficiency as exemplified by the modern, highly developed and improved propellers known as Paragons.

Paragons are made and carried in stock in three grades:

Grades A and B are the strongest, most perfect, most beautiful and most efficient propellers in the world. Their durability is so great we can afford to insure Grade A against all accidents of any kind while on the machine,—even at these prices—§45 to §58, according to pitch, for the ft. size. Other sizes accordingly. Grade B has all the strength of Grade A and nearly the toughness at a cheaper price. Grade C is made of beautiful hard Cherry throughout. In strength, durability and efficiency there is no other propeller equal to them (excepting our Grades A and B) either in the United States or abroad. Only $31 to §41 for the 7£ ft. size. Other sizes accordingly.

We are furnishing many Three-Bladed Paragons for Naval and Military Machines at one and one-half times above prices. For hard service Paragons are pre-eminent, they never split.

Get our Information Blank, our Descriptive Matter and our Suggestions gratis, and be wise about PARAGONS. Visit our new factory. Inspect our goods, our specially designed machinery and other equipment. Seeing is believing.

With every Parayon, furnished upon full information as to the engine and machine, as prodded on our printed form, we give, an absolute and unqualified guarantee not only that the propeller will he perfect in itself but that it viU be perfectly adapted to the requirements of the machine that it is to drire.

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

)

i

BURGESS HYDRO TRAINING IS

PRACTICAL

5

^ ^[Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flyer over d Marblehead Harbor. <jThe proximity of our manufacturing plant offers pupils an opportunity ^ at no extra cost to become thoroughly familiar with the construction and design of the very ^ latest types of air and water craft. We are now building hydro-aeroplanes, aeroplanes and flying boats for the U. S. Army and Navy. <jWe assume all risk of breakage and provide hydro-aeroplane for license test. IjBoth the U. S. Army and Navy send their officers to the Burgess school for training.

Chief Instructor: Frank T. Coffyn, Licensed aviator ^Aeroplanes and hydro-aeroplanes for sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery. Booklet with full particulars on request. Flying at Marblehead until January. Winter school located at Palm Beach, Fla., where training of U. S. Army officers will be continued. Applications for instruction should be made out at once for dating.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

Licensees under the Wright Patents

BOSCH

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Specify Bosch and insist upon having it— the excellence of the system has been proven by its tremendously extensive use, over A Million and a Half satisfying their owners.

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Aviation Today and A National Aerodynamic Laboratory

By CAPTAIN W. IRVING CHAMBERS, U. S. Navy

The status of aviation in the world today may be summarized as follows:

The work of established Aerodynamic Laboratories has transported Aeronautics generally into the domain of Engineering, in consequence of which Aviation has reached a stage of development wherein the methods of scientific engineers have replaced the crude efforts of the pioneer inventors.

The development of Aviation for marine or naval purposes has naturally been somewhat delayed, but, inspired by the early demonstrations of our Navy, the naval powers of the world are now devoting large sums of money to this phase of development. It may be asserted that although the aeroplane has not yet arrived at the state of perfection required by all the work contemplated for it in naval warfare, yet it is sufficiently advanced to be of great service in many ways, should it be required for use in emergency, and its satisfactory development for extensive use is fairly in sight.

Those who are engaged in the development of aviation for war purposes do not pretend that it is going to revolutionize warfare, but it has been fully demonstrated that of two opposing forces, the one which possesses superiority in aerial equipment and skill will surely hold a very great advantage.

What is Being Done Abroad

France leads the world in aviation ana all that she does is worth noting. A short time ago in response to an inquiry by the Minister of War over 3000 officers signified their desire to learn aerial navigation. Germany leads in aerostation, but is making great progress in aviation also. France has eight dirigibles, Germany thirty. The number of aeroplanes actually possessed by each is a rapidly increasing quantity, but France will probably possess about 350 before the end of the year, the ultimate aim being to possess 1,000 as soon as the requisite number of pilots can be taught to use them.

It is significant of German foresight that one of the first steps undertaken, when it was decided to construct a large aeroplane fleet, wras to found an Aerodynamic Laboratory. This is at Gottingen, where the best known course of instruction in aeronautics is ably conducted by Professor Prandtl.

The following statement, while it does not include all large sums that are being spent, will suffice to compare our own activity with that of some of the principal powers:

france................; $6,400,000 $1,000,000 s7.400.000

germany............| 1,500,000 750.000 2,250.000

russia...... 5,000.000 ? 5.000,000

great britain...... 2,100,000 , ? ,1 2,100,000

italy................... 2 000,000 ' 100.000 I 2.100,000

japan.................. (300,000 ? 600,000

united states...... 140.000 1 i 140.000

Exact details are lacking of the progress in many other countries, but all progressive powers are bent on keeping abreast of the times, especially the British Colonies, Russia, Japan and Austria. The latter country has produced one of the very best aeroplanes in existence, the Etrich, and is also developing the hydroaeroplane.

Development in the United States Navy

When Congress appropriated $25,000 for the development of Naval Aviation last year, three officers had been ordered to aeroplane factories for instruction, in anticipation of three machines which were finally purchased, two Curtiss and one Wright.

At that time a land aerodrome was necessary for practice and a hangar was accordingly built on Greenbury Point, Annapolis, Md., where a sufficient area of flat land was prepared for an aerodrome by the leveling of some trees and the partial filling of a swamp. This served its purpose until the Navy machines had all been provided with hydroplanes and we had demonstrated the practicability of carrying on instruction entirely over water. The aerodrome is now held in reserve for the housing of spare machines, for the exercise of the land attachment of the hydroaeroplanes and for any other emergency use.

It was originally contemplated to establish an Aviation School in conjunction with the Naval Engineering Experiment Station, where experiments could be expedited, but it soon became apparent that the desired number of officers and men could not be spared away from their regular duties for a sufficient period and that the progress of instruction would be seriously delayed until the machines had been suitably developed and equipped for issuing to ships of the Fleet, where practical instruction could proceed, with ample resources, in a systematic routine way. Incidentally, it was recognized that to get good service from these machines in the Fleet constant practice would be required and the personnel be made as

familiar with them as with other articles of equipment.

This was the first object in favoring the hydroaeroplane attachment.

Today it is recognized the world over that hydro-aviation offers one of the most promising fields of development, for the reason that a water aerodrome is nearly always available, is safer in landing, is less obstructed and the aerial currents over water are less treacherous than over land. A ship provided with aeroplanes will thus become the hangar and will he surrounded usually by an ideal aerodrome, i.e., by water sufficiently smooth for practice.

Last December the three machines with their aviators were transferred to San Diego, Cab, where a camp was formed.* * * *

After a season of winter work at San Diego, the camp was transferred again to Annapolis and located nearer the Engineering Experiment Station on the north shore of the Severn River. ******

INSTRUCTIONS AND TESTS

Many officers, interested in this work, have applied for instruction, but, as before mentioned, it has not been possiblle to detach from their regular duties, even temporarily, all who desire the experience. Eight officers have qualified.

At the end of August, 1912, a total of 59b flights had been made by the four instruction aviators in the three machines. The record stands as follows:

Lieutenants Ellyson and Towers made 402 flights, carried 211 passengers, flew 4,262 miles, with duration figured at 77 hours, 32 minutes, using Curtiss machines; with the Wright machine Lieutenant Rodgers and Ensign Herbster made 191 flights, carried Gl passengers, flew 21G0 miles, with time in air of 4S hours, 48 minutes.

During flights over water the aviator can usually count on a safe place to land. For this reason most of our hydro-flying has been done at an altitude of about 500 feet. But, as scouting and reconnaisance work will require flying at an altitude of about 3000 feet, Lieut. Ellyson has demonstrated that there will be no difficulty in flying the hydroaeroplane at 3000 feet or over. On one occasion he ascended to 2850 feet in 23 minutes and 25 seconds. On another occasion, in testing a lower grade of gasoline, he ascended 3200 feet, but it required 44 minutes to reach the first 2500 feet. Investigation of the different grades of gasoline shows that the difference in efficiency is considerable.

The longest flight yet made with passengers anywhere, in the hydroaeroplane, is that made by Lieutenants Ellyson and Towers jointly, from Annapolis, Md., to Hampton Roads, Va., and return, and this flight simply demonstrated three things, (1) the suitability of the "hydro" as a type for

long flights, (2) the practicability and utility of the dual system of control, and (3) the necessity for greater improvement in motors. The return flight was enlivened, in very cold weather, by a series of minor mishaps to the motor. In making such flights it is still advisable to follow a shore line convenient for landing in case of motor trouble.

Lieut. J. H. Towers, U. S. N., has recently made a flight of 6 hours, 10 minutes and 20 seconds, with the standard Navy Curtiss hydroaeroplane. This was made in due course of regular work but it stands as a world's record for flight in a hydroaeroplane. And any American endurance record in any kind of a machine. A performance of five hours only would have been satisfactory.

As a part of the instruction and a fruitful means of informing us concerning necessary improvements, many repairs have been made by the aviators themselves and the enlisted mechanics detailed for the purpose have received instruction in this way. A new Wright machine has also been built in this way from spare parts purchased from the Company.

It has not been possible, under the circumstances of a meagre appropriation and few officers, combining instruction with experimental work, to establish a thoroughly satisfactory system of instruction as yet. The idea would recpiire each aviator student to obtain a course of study in aerodynamics and meteorology up to date, of about four months, such as that recently established at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the theory preceding the practical work, if possible. Such a course would be best attained by the establishment of a school for aviators in connection with the lectures at a National Aerodynamic Laboratory.

Experimental Work. The work of instruction has been handicapped by a practically continuous series of experiments, with the result that long delays in repairing have rendered work in both particulars slower than was anticipated. On the whole, this method of experimentation for the solution of problems other than the improvement of minor structural details and the test of navigating instruments is very unsatisfactory. Important experiments involving physical research should be relegated to an aerodynamic laboratory and its aerodrome annex. Other important experiments, such as the development of wireless, requiring frequent changes, should be made at an aircraft factory where extensive repairs and reconstruction are facilitated. Special facilities already exist for doing such work at the Washington Navy Yard.

Some experimental work has been done on different methods of installing the wireless plant, but intermittently, owing to the absence of the expert officer whose suggestions were being followed. Although the

AERONAUTICS

Page 159

work is unfinished, it has given promise of realizing a range of 50 miles at a sacrifice of 50 lbs. only in weight.

Most of the experiments have been devoted to improving mechanical details of the motors and to trying different models of hydroplanes, the result of laboratory investigation at the Model Basin.

Much useful information has been gained thus about hydroplanes and many uncertain but alluring ideas have been eliminated. There are seven different types of hydroaeroplanes now in France, but our efforts have been confined chiefly to two distinct American types, the single boat with balancing pontoons and the catamaran type with two pontoons. Both types have given great satisfaction, but the single boat, which has been used on both the Wright and the Curtiss machines, seems best for our purpose. It is superior in rough water and it is the father of the flying boat, towards which our ideas have always been inclined.

The Flying Boat was discussed in the early days, about 1905, between Mr. Glenn II. Curtiss and representatives of the Bureau of Equipment. The first real flying boat was made and tested at Hammondsport, N. Y., a year ago last summer, and flown last winter at San Diego, Cal. After several alterations in the location of the motive power, the Curtiss flying boat tested this summer, with great satisfaction, by Lieutenants Ellyson and Towers, is regarded as a decided advance in hydroaeroplane design and gives promise of extended usefulness in rough water.

Catapult. Tentative experiments with a compressed air catapult for sending aeroplanes in flight over the shortest possible track have been made and their early completion is expected to avoid requiring a ship to carry a demountable platform. ****** Lieutenant Ellyson has successfully performed the daring experiment of showing the possibility and facility with which a hydroaeroplane can be sent in flight from a ship in smooth water over an improvised single wire cable, but I would not recommend the use of this device on a ship with rolling motion. Lieut. Ellyson also eagerly subjected himself in a hydroaeroplane to the extreme shock of the catapult device in order to test the effect of such a shock, not only on the aviator but on the motor attachments and other fittings. This crucial test was entirely satisfactory in its revelations, although the aviator and machine got a ducking, and it will probably never be required again. *********

A simple and convenient self starter is a practical necessity to the hydroaeroplane .before issuing it for ship use. Several mechanical devices have been tried with varying success, but other more promising devices are about to be tried and there is reason to believe that the very best will soon be in use on all of our machines.

Instruments. Aviators and manufacturers have been slow in making use of instruments which not only make flying safer, but which may be made to relieve the aviator of much of the nervous tension and strain of long flights and flying in uncertain weather. A constant increase in the number of disasters has disturbed the people of France for some time, with the result that special attention has been given to the problem of safety; special efforts have been made not only to improve inherent stability and structural strength, but to provide means for controlling the equilibrium automatically. * * * Simple and reliable automatic control devices which may be added without sacrifice of too much Aveight are now being eagerly sought and some that may be rigged to work automatically, semi-automatically or not at all, at the will of the aviator, are being made.

The Air Compass. Much important work for which the aeroplane will be useful in the Navy will not necessarily require the air pilot to navigate in a fog or at night or out of sight of his base, but in sea scouting, which I think is destined to be one of his principal spheres of usefulness, the pilot may be caught in a fog, he may be obliged to navigate at night and will have to lose sight of his base frequently. It must be possible, therefore, to navigate as accurately in air as it is to navigate a ship by dead reckoning at sea.

Motors. Improvements have been confined principally to the correction of small defects which have been made as soon as discovered. Much more could be said about what is still needed. When anything goes wrong or when trouble begins in a flight that promises well, some trifling detail of the motor is usually at fault, a small pin here, a pump connection there, but nearly always something new and unexpected. It was so with the early motors of automobiles and this thought inspires confidence in the perfection of aviation motors, although the demand is still greater for increased power or speed rather than reliability and durability.

A weight carrying aeroplane such as a hydroaeroplane necessarily needs a motor with considerable range of speed and the same kind of motor is needed to reduce the danger of alighting. This is not the kind of a motor and combination of motor and surfaces that now wins the speed contests such as that for the Gordon Bennett Cup. 1 think aviation would be improved if the terms of future speed contests were arranged so as to require each contestant to go over the course twice, the second time at an average speed 20 per cent, lower than his highest average.

Requirements. A year ago our manufacturers requested specific information as to the conditions to be satisfied in adapting the aeroplane for naval use. The answers at

that time were necessarily indefinite, but with the benefit of a year's experience we have been able to issue a set of "general requirements" sufficiently broad in scope to permit a wide latitude for ingenuity and improvement.

These requirements cover not only the peculiar conditions to be satisfied in Naval Aviation, but, for the first time, require our builders to show that their machines are designed in accordance with up-to-date practice. Builders are required to provide technical data which will eliminate from competition all who depend on haphazard methods. Complete stress diagrams under different conditions of load and all the fundamental characteristics, a knowledge of which is indispensible to an intelligent comparison of designs are demanded. The stamp of approval is given to the introduction of improved methods for the automatic control of equilibrium and our builders are encouraged to attain a high degree of efficiency, to improve the factors which govern safety and nothing is demanded that may not be readily accomplished under the limitations of the art as it is generally understood at present. **********

Influence of Foreign Laboratories

Little more than a year ago our knowledge of the effect of air currents upon aeroplane surfaces was almost entirely a matter of theory. The exact information available was so meagre that aeroplanes were built either as copies, slightly modified of other machines, or else by way of haphazard experiment. This state of affairs obtains to some extent in the United States to-day although in Europe aeroplane construction is now largely based on scientific data obtained at notable aerodynamic laboratories.

The intuitive, hasty and crude methods of the pioneer can not succeed in competition with the accurate and systematic methods of the Scientific Engineer, and it is beginning to dawn upon our perceptions that through lack of preparation for the work of the scientific engineer, i.e. through delay in establishing an aerodynamic laboratory, a waste of time and money, a decline of prestige and an unnecessary sacrifice of human life has already resulted.

Students of aviation do not need to be informed of the practical necessity for aerodynamic laboratories. They have repeatedly pointed out, in aeronautical publications, the immense commercial advantages to be anticipated from the establishment of at least one in this country and they have naturally expected that some philanthropic patriot of wealth and scientific interest would come to the rescue with a suitable endowment fund that would enable such work to be started in short order without government aid. The fact that no patriot has responded is disappointing, in view of the large private donations that have done

so much for aviation in France, but in my opinion, it simply indicates something lacking in the manner of disseminating information concerning the importance of the subject. 1 am not willing to believe that our people will refuse to establish one when they are fully acquainted with the advantages to humanity and to sane industrial progress and when a reasonable concrete proposition is advanced for their consideration. I have submitted such a proposition which follows in general outline, the ideas advanced in an address to the Fifth International Aeronautic Congress by one of the greatest authorities in the world, the Commandant Paul Renard, President of the International Aeronautic Commission.

A National Aerodynamic Laboratory

Before considering the character of tbe work to be done and some details of the needed plant, it will facilitate matters to show what should not be done at such a laboratory.

There are those who dream of supplying the laboratory Avith all the instruments known to mechanics, to physics and even to chemistry, in order to have a creditable and complete national institution. They would concentrate in one locality all the scientific instruments and acumen available with the false idea that economy would result. This would be a grave error.

The financial resources, however great, are sure to be limited and a too ambitious or a superfluous installation would squander the sources of power and indirectly menace the initiative of other industries. The Bureau of Standards and Measures and other Government branches in Washington (and various civil bodies) also offer facilities which it would not be wise to duplicate in such a laboratory. * * * *

TWO DISTINCT GLASSES OF WORK

An aerodynamic laboratory should be devoted to (1) experimental verification, (2) experimental research. The first is concerned with testing the qualities of existing appliances, propellers, sustaining surfaces, control mechanism, etc. Usually these tests are made at the request of interested parties (as is now the case with water models at the Navy Yard Model Basin). A constructor or a designer will bring, for example, a propeller and will wish to know its power or thrust at a given speed on the block or on a moving appliance under the conditions of flight, or he may bring several propellers to compare their performances and to ascertain what power they absorb at different speeds.

One of the very successful appliances de-| voted to this work at St. Cyr is a movable-car in which an aeroplane may be mounted' and tested at speeds, in perfect safety, as( to its strength, its efficiency and the suita-l

bility of its control mechanism. This device is specially adapted to make actual service tests of sustaining surfaces—in other words, to try out, in perfect safety, the relative efficiencies of finished aeroplanes. It is a most important adjunct, as it supplements and rounds out the important research work on models in the closed laboratory.

Tests of this character, i.e., verification tests, constitute, so to speak, standard work. They are performed at the request of manufacturers, clubs, independent investigators and other interested parties on condition of payment for the actual cost of the work. They, therefore, contribute to the support of the establishment. * * * * * * * The research work, which prosecutes continuously and patiently systematic, thorough and precise investigation of new ideas, or of old ideas with new applications, with the specific intention of discovering laws and formulae for advancing the progress of aerial navigation, is of greater importance, because it is the short cut to substantial efficiency, economy, improvement and prestige.

This work is concerned with developing adequate methods of research in all branches of aerial navigation and in furnishing reliable information to all students, engineers, inventors, manufacturers, pilots, navigators, strategists and statesmen. The knowledge thus gained should be disseminated regularly through publications, lectures, open-air demonstrations and by exhibitions of apparatus, instruments, materials and models—in fact, by all the facilities of the aerodrome, the showroom, the library and the lecture room.

An exact knowledge of aerodynamics can best be acquired in such a laboratory by experimentation with standard scale models in air tunnels such as those used by M. Eiffel and others. In this way reliable data is obtained of the air resistance to be encountered and the efficiency at various velocities, the amount of lift, the effect of varying impact at different angles of attack on the stability, in fact all the exact data which, reduced to curves and diagrams, enables the engineer to design a machine in a scientific manner. From such data the performance of a new machine can be closely predicated. The performance of the finished product can be verified, later, as before described.

Much of the research work will be prosecuted at the request of technical men outside of the institution to whom the laboratory should offer, gratuitously as far as possible, its material and personal resources. *****

THE COUNCIL AND ORGANIZATION To obtain benefit from those researches it will be necessary to know that they are worth the time and expense, and a body of men—a "Council" or a "Board of Governors" —should be authorized to accept or reject requests for this work. This will be a delicate task, but the principal duty of the

council should he to establish and correct, from time to time, a program of the research work to be executed by the Director and his Staff and to co-ordinate the work to the best advantages within the limits of the money available. *****

ENDOWMENTS, PRIZES AND REWARDS

If the laboratory should obtain, in addition to the funds required for prosecuting researches by its staff, any endowments of financial aid in excess of immediate needs (and 1 am confident it will eventually), it would accomplish useful work by offering prizes and granting rewards for important results achieved outside of the institution.

The complete role of an ideal aerodynamic laboratory can be summed up in a few words in the natural order of establishment: (1) Execution of verification tests by means of nominal fees; (2) Facilities to technical men for prosecuting original researches (3) Execution of researches in accordance with a program arranged by the Council; and (4) Reward of commendable results accomplished outside of the laboratory.

NATURE OF THE PLANT

Researches and tests can be made on either a large or a small scale, preferably on both. The use of small models can be made prolific in results because of the comparatively small cost, provided we understand the laws governing transformation into the full sized products.

Certain classes of tests with large models, such for example as the block test of propellers, do not require much space. But the conditions are altered when such tests are made on a machine in motion. These more difficult tests are absolutely indispensable and very important to the usefulness of an official laboratory.

Experiments and tests with small models being comparatively inexpensive, private establishments often undertake their execution, but when we attempt to draw conclusions from results we are obliged to admit that the laws of comparison with full sized machines are debatable the world over. Comparisons are sensibly true between small surfaces and larger surfaces that have been extended proportionately to the square of the linear dimensions, even to surfaces five or ten times larger, but when we pass to much larger surfaces, as we are obliged to, we are forced to adopt formulae with empirical coefficients about which there is indefinite dispute. * *

The laboratory should comprise, therefore, two distinct parts, one devoted to exper-ments on small scale models and the other to experiments on surfaces of larger dimensions.

When we have studied separately each element, of an aeroplane, for example, it will be necessary to test the complete apparatus. An aerodrome annex is therefore,

necessary, or, at least, the laboratory should be located in proximity to an aerodrome of which it can make use. In order that the observations may not only be qualitative but quantitative, it will be necessary to follow all the movements of the complete machine, to know at each instant the speed, the inclination, the thrust of the propellers, the effective horsepower, and, in fact, to conduct a true open air laboratory for aircraft, after the manner of certain tests that have been prolific of results in France.

The English have established close relations between the Royal Aircraft Factory and their Laboratory, the function of the former being that of the reconstruction and repair of aeroplanes, the test of motors and the instruction of mechanics.

LOCATION OF THE LABORATORY.

The location of the model testing plant, the headquarters of the Administration Staff requires comparatively small space and there is no reason why it should be remote from a city or from intellectual and material resources. Tt is advantageous to have it easy of access to many interested people who are not attached to it.

The location of the open-air laboratory should obviously be at an aerodrome, as near as may be convenient to the model testing plant or headquarters. Close proximity of the two parts is desirable but not necessary. * * * We are fortunate in having here, at Washington, ideal conditions for the location of both parts. The model laboratory should obviously he located on the site of Langley's notable work at the Smithsonian Institution where the nucleus, an extensive library of records and certain collection of instruments, are still available. The National Museum is also an ideal location for the historical collection of models that will result.

No more ideal location for the annex, the open-air laboratory or aerodrome, exists in all the world than that afforded by the as yet undeveloped extension of Potomac Park. This is government property which is of doubtful utility as a park only, but which would be of immense utility and interest as a park combined with a scientific plant of the character under consideration. * * * One of the most attractive features of this location is the advantage it offers as an ideal aerodrome for both the Army and the Navy, for both land and water flying, and the opportunity it affords for co-operation in all branches of the work of instruction and experimentation. Furthermore, it is near to the shop facilities of the Navy Yard, the accomodations of the Washington Barracks, the conveniences of the various government hospitals, and it would doubtless add to the information and interest of the nearby War College Staff and the

General Board of the Navy. Its location would enable our statesmen in Congress and a great number of officials in all departments to keep touch at first hand with the progress of aeronautics, with the quality of the work done and with the manner in which the money appropriated was being expended. The educational facilities afforded by the work and by the lectures would be invaluable to the course of instruction for Army, Navy and civil students of aeronautics. * * * *

THE APPARATUS NEEDED.

It is useless to discuss here the various instruments and methods which have been subjects of some dispute abroad. All have some good feature, but time has shown where some of the cumbersome and unnecessary installations may be eliminated to advantage and where others may be improved. The new plant of M. Eiffel at An-teuil may be regarded as a model for the wind tunnel and the aerodynamic balance. A duplicate of that plant alone would be of inestimable value. ********

The moving-car previously referred to for tests of verification would be the most useful open-air plant and would soon repay the outlay required by the value of the information obtained from its use. A miniature duplicate of this method for preliminary tests on models with a wire trolley would be of value in a hall of large dimensions. It would be useful in winter work but not invaluable. *********** An ideal endless track may readily be arranged at the Potomac Park extension, preferably of rectangular form with rounded corners. A railway track would be preferable, but excellent results could be obtained from auto trucks run on macadamized road beds. Good results could be obtained by the use of suitable hydroaeroplanes or flying boats suitably equipped with instruments.**

A COMMISSION RECOMMENDED.

Inasmuch as more definite information regarding the actual cost of a dignified and creditable but modest and sufficient installa-sion should be obtained and as the details of the plan, the scope, the organization and the location of such an important undertaking should not be left to the recommendations of one man, a Commission or Board should be appointed to consider and report to the President, for recommendation to Congress, on the necessity or desirablity for the establishment of a National Aerodynamic Laboratory and on its scope, its organization, the most suitable location for it and the cost of its installation.

Editokial Note: On December 19th, President Taft appointed a commission to report to Congress on the subject of a laboratory.

TRADE

MARK

160 Pounds Weight

From the 11 MO TOR WAGEN'' of Nov. 20, 1912

In the testing establishment of Dr. Bendermann at Adlers-^Uhof (near Berlin) a 7-cylinder Gyro Motor was recently tested. In a 5-hours endurance run and at 1,000 R.P.M., an average of 45.7 H.P. was obtained. The fuel consumed was 14.7 Kg gasoline per hour and 3.06 Kg lubricating oil, which is more favorable than the Gnome motor of the same horsepower. The weight of the motor was 73 Kg.

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel throughout

Sizes 3, 5 and 7 cylinders representing 22, 35 and 50 horsepower Under Construction: 7-cylinders, 80 H. P., 5-cylinders, 60 H.P.

Send for Catalogue

1 THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 GIRARD STREET :: WASHINGTON, D. C.

Agents for SIMMONS Propellers In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Page 164

My Voyage in the International Balloon Race

By H. EUGENE HONEYWELL

®$88K8§SiS8lPON Bearing God's country and our own shores on board the "Amerika", I will try to give you a brief description of the pleasures and hardships we experienced in the "Uncle Sam" during the Gordon-Bennett balloon race starting from Stuttgart, Germany, October 27th, 1912. An elaborate social program was arranged for our entertainment and preparations for the start of the great race were most complete. Our number was 22 the last contestant to leave the earth, in the strongest contested race ever put up; there were by far the most competitors of any of the international races.

We had a good opportunity to observe the movements and the course of the balloons. The first ten or twelve balloons seemed to get away at a fairly good speed and direction, but the balance of them hung around the starting vicinity. We left terra firma at 5.22 p.m. in fine shape. Ascending to an altitude of 500 meters, we gradually pulled away from Stuttgart with eight of our competitors on my favored course, northeast, with Russia as the destination. About 10 o'clock that evening we passed over three more of our competitors and spoke one immediately below us, his course being north, while ours was still northeast. The pilot answered in French "Number ten," which proved to be "Isle de France". Shortly after midnight, a. heavy blankets of clouds obscured our view of the earth. We were traveling very fast then, to the north and I knew what that meant—a storm was brewing in that direction. We ascended to 700 meters which bore us more to the east. We could hear sweet music and singing a good deal of the time, and caught occasional glimpses of lights of cities through the breaks in the low clouds. We had a beautiful moon above the great masses of ever-changing clouds which resembled huge snow banks,—a perfect night in cloudland. At 7 a.m. we crossed the River Elba. Good old Sol came out bright and warm, chasing the clouds away and affording a magnificent view of German farms, with every foot under cultivation. We noticed no farm houses, as in our country, but dozens of well kept villages a few kilometers apart dotted the earth. On looking about, we discovered only one of our competitors, high up and far to the East. Mr. Lang, my faithful aid, failing to get response to his call to ascertain our whereabouts, turned his attention to the lime stove and breakfast,

About 2 p.m., we crossed into Russia, a God-forsaken country. Immediately over one of the garrisons could see Cossacks drilling within the enclosure. 1 made a pic-

ture of this scene, as 1 did of many interesting German subjects earlier, our altitude being 2,000 meters.

The second evening we dropped down to 300 or 400 meters and at S o'clock passed over the only city we saw from the balloon in all Russia. We took this to be Warsaw on the River Weichsel, course northeast. Howling dogs and wolves made music and song that night. At 2 a.m. clouds shut out the beautiful moon aud soon after that it began to rain. "Hell," 1 said, and began throwing sand until daylight. We were running between two cloud stratas. At about G a.m. we decided to slide down on expansion and ascertain, if possible, our position and direction; no sooner had we passed through the lower clouds when it began to sleet and snow. It was very cold and our gas bag resembled an iceberg. The gas contracted causing us to descend rapidly, and we both began throwing sand by the sack. This was in vain; all we had went overboard, but this was not enough. The balloon crashed into some dead trees with a great noise, tearing many large holes and the hurricane finished it in short order. The bag was a total wreck.

Despite the early hour hundreds of peasants, some with guns and axes, gathered. None could read their own language, much less talk ours. We drew a picture of a horse and wagon. They shook their heads. We then rubbed our stomachs, chewed our thumbs and pointed up and down the railroad track. One long haired fellow pointed west, holding up five fingers, by which we understood "five verstes to town." We gave him some luggage and motioned him to lead the way. We floundered through the deep ice and snow after him, bringing up at the station two hours later, about 9 a.m.

There we met an English-spoken lady, who proved to be a good Samaritan. Learning our location, Sapadsen-Dwina, we secured breakfast and a place to sleep in her house; no hotels or the likes in that country. About noon we secured a hand car and plenty of willing help went after what was left of the balloon. Most everything was stolen from the basket and the foot ropes cut off from the netting, we picked up what was left, leaving the balloon, and headed back for the station. That evening at 7:30 we boarded a train for Eydtkuhnen, a German border town. At 2:30 in the morning we were dragged off the train at Rieschitsa and locked up until 7 a.m., when we were placed on an east-bound train and taken back to Weliki Luki, near where we landed, and hauled before the Prefect of Police who stripped us of most of our clothing, searched us for maps, etc., which were confiscated, together with our films. We were even refused the privilege of wiring our Consul at St. Petersburg. We were

(Continued on Page 17'')

Resume of the 1912 Aero Show at Paris

By LIEUT. RILEY E. SCOTT

point of decoration, arrangement and completeness, the 1912 Aeronautical Salon was far ahead of any of its predecessors. The immense hall of the Grand Palais, draped with thousands of vari-colored streamers mingled with stands of the tri-colored flags of France, beneath which reposed scores of various types of aeroplanes —affectionately called "les oiseaux de France"—with glittering motors and immaculately finished parts, made a picture long to be remembered.

Yet, to one reasonably familiar with the basic principles of the aeroplane, it was scarcely necessary to make more than one tour of the stands to realize that, so far as principles are concerned, the aeroplane stands to-day virtually where it stood when Wilbur Wright made his memorable flights at Le Mans in 1908. Aeroplanes are safer and faster to-day because motors are more reliable and more powerful and because of structural refinements, hut, beyond that, improvements have been "nil." This assertion scarcely needs argument when we stop to consider that the most successful makes of the present depend, for their stability and direction in the air, upon the wing-warping (or ailerons) and the vertical and horizontal rudders of the primitive aeroplane. In fact, it may be truthfully said that the improvement of the internal combustion motor— the invention and development of the Gnome motor, in particular—has been a greater-factor than any other in the development of the aeroplane. Much has been said and written about automatic stability, but the writer has seen nothing in Europe that leads him to believe thatt this all-important problem has been practically solved.

In completeness of exhibits, the 1912 Salon led its predecessors by a wide margin. All the standard makes of France were well represented—and there are more than a score of them—as well as several newcomers and a few foreign makes. Of motors, propellers and accessories, there was a confusing variety, not to mention free balloons, toy aeroplanes, demountable hangers, field tents and the annual Michelin exhibit. The old timers, such as the Farmans, Bleriot, Astra, Sommer, Nieuport, Deperdussin, Breguet, Morane-Saulnier, Borel, Hanriot REP, Savary and Voisin, occupied one or more stands each and, in most instances, exhibited a machine which had performed some remarkable feat during the year. For example, I noticed the Maurice Farman with which Fourny flew 13 hours IS minutes

without landing; the monocoque Deperdussin with which Vedrines won the Gordon-Bennett Cup the Nieuport hydro with which Weymann won the race from St. Malo to the island of Jersey and return; the Bleriot with which Garres broke the world's altitude record, and several others.

Most of the old constructors have remained faithful to their classic types, with few changes and variations. The use of steel, however, has greatly increased, several constructors showing practically all-steel machines, the most striking of these being an all-steel Hanriot monoplane. This machine is coustruced entirely to steel tubing, even the entire wing structure and landing chassis. A novelty is also the kinged fuselage, the rear portion of which folds over framework is also detachable.

Among biplanes, the Maurice Farman seems to be better designed and constructed than any other French biplane, and unquestionably leads all other in performance and records. It is of robust construction, carefully put together, beautifully finished, and, mounted with the reliable 70 H.P. renault motor, stands a model of aeronautical design and construction. Among monoplanes, there seems to be little to choose between several makes, especially the Nieuport, the Deperdussin and the Hanriot. These machines resen ble one another in their main features, are equally well construced, are all Gnome motored and have many enviable records to their credit. The monocoque Deperdussin holds, for the moment, the world's speed record and was easily the most popular machine exhibited, on account of its having brought to France the long-coveted Gordon-Bennett Cup. AVe should not forget, how-over, that it was the Nieuport that took the Cup from England to America, and while no special speed machine was built this year, I have been told by one high in the councils of the Nieuport company that this machine will not be missing next year in the defense of the Cup. The Hanriot. a later machine, shows most excellent design and construction and excited much interest among French and foreign military officers during the Show. In fact, the little esca-drille of Hanriots made a remarkably good showng during the recent French raan-euvres, having covered several thousand kilometres without a single breakage. This monoplane will undoubtedly make a name for itself during the coming year.

Of course, the Bleriot stand was complete and popular, the "piece de resistance" being a new military two seat monoplane, pro-

tected with light armor and mounted with a machine gun. There was also exhibited the famous one seat type with which Garros won the Grand Prix of the Aero Club this year. While the workmanship on these machines was excellent, the writer hesitates to put them in the same class with the three monoplanes above mentioned, on account of the great number of accidents that have happened to this make and, particularly, on account of specific cases of bad construction that the writer has examined personally. However, out of some seventy aeroplanes that took part in the recent maneuvres, twenty-three are said to have been Bleriots, which indicates that this maker is still in favor with the military authorities.

Among the less well-known machines, there is one, the Moreau monoplane, that deserves particular mention. This machine can be pronounced by far and away the most ingenious and original in the Show. In general construction, it is somewhat on the Train principle, in so far as the pilot's seat is placed immediately under the wings, whilst the motor—a 70 h.p. Gnome—is placed in front on a level with the latter. The noteworthy point, however, is the automatic longitudinal stability device, which from the results obtained, constitutes the greatest progress yet made in this direction. Briefly, the invention comprises an oscillating seat, on which the pilot and passenger are placed, and which, when in flight and only when so desired, is mobile in the longitudinal direction, thus forming a pendulum. This pendulum remains, under every condition of flight, perpendicular to the ground, and by its weight automatically actuates, through a connection of jointed steel tubes, an immense tail surface of some seventeen square metres, either depressing or elevating the same without the pilot's intervention. This does not affect lateral stability, which is obtained by ailerons in the usual way. Monsieur Moreau states that he has flown by ailerons twenty minutes without touching the controls, and, in calm weather, can rise or move about without affecting the stability of the machine.

One of the most interesting features of the Show was the appearance for the first time of the hydro-aeroplane, which has been introduced into Europe during the past year. America stole a march on France in the development of the hydro and, in my opinion, still leads in this important branch of aviation. The principal water planes exhibited were the Farman, Nieuport, Sanchez-Besa, Astra, and Donnet-Leveque. All of these consist of standard types with floats attached, with the exception of the Donnet-Leveque, which, like the latest Curtiss, is built directly upon a boat-like float. The hydro-aeroplane is being taken up by practically all the principal French constructors, but the St. Malo races, with their many accidents and numerous repairs to floats, plainly

showed that the hydro is not yet an everyday, rough-weather machine.

Several new motors were exhibited this year, namely, the Burlot, Favata, Esselbe, Laviator, Le Rhone, mostly radial and rotary. However, a general survey of the machines on exhibit showed that the Gnome rotary, the Salmson radial water-cooled and the Renault V-shaped air-cooled motors reign supreme. The Anzani firm, which was among the first to put aviation motors on the market, also exhibited several very interesting new types, all radial.

To a military man, the most interesting and instructive exhibit was that of the French War Department. In the military stands could be seen over a score of machines of various types, some having made famous raids, others new, the gifts of various persons, business houses and cities during the recent national subscription for military aviation. But the most interesting of all was the exhibit of military automobile trucks for the transportation and repair of aeroplanes in the field. Over a dozen such trucks, dust covered from participation in the recent maneuvres, were on exhibition, showing the automobile adapted to various uses, such as a travelling store house for motors and spare parts, commissary and mess trucks, complete repair shops, etc. The most striking of these, however, was the "camion-atelier Crochat" (Crochat's workshop truck). This consists of an immense automobile truck with electrical transmission, equipped with a Brasier motor of 90-140 h.p., capable of transporting <±y2 tons of useful load. It really affords a roomy workshop, with several machine tools and a complete outfit of ordinary tools, vices, anvils, a forge, etc. It is well lighted by electricity, which also supplies the power for the machine tools. In completeness and practical arrangement, I have seen nothing approaching this field workshop. Its serviceable qualities are proven by the fact that it went through the hard service of the maneuvres, was then sent to take station on the eastern frontier and was afterwards recalled to Paris for the Aero Show. It is only one of the features, however, of the wonderful equipment and organization by means of which France has attained and maintains supremacy in the air. Many official delegations and hundreds of individual officers of foreign armies swarmed around these military exhibits, studying and profiting by the progress that France has made in military aviation, but, among them all, the United States seemed to be unrepresented, at least officially. It has often been said that the Civil War would have lasted less than a year had the government been prepared for war, and everybody knows that, at the beginning of the war with Spain, we were fortunate rather than formidable. The neglect of Congress with respect to military aviation, upon which other nations are spending millions

(Continued on page 175)

The Harlan Military Monoplane

published even

*d(^5§j5HB up-to-dateness of German constructors is exemplified in the Harlan factory (Harlan Werke G. ni. b. H., Johannisthal, near Berlin, Germany). It is next to impossible to secure detailed drawings, lor the data for same, from any manufacturer. Makers object, as a rule, to having plan and elevation drawings of their machines with general dimensions only. Such data must, naturally, be obtained either from the makers themselves, or by magazines and individuals from the machines themselves in the hands of good-natured private owners. The Harlan company is more broad-minded and has sent, on request, three sheets of scale drawings printed from plates at rather great expense. These are reproduced in this issue.

This machine holds the four—and five— world endurance records and has won many prizes, one has been used about Constantinople.

The general construction oil the. apparatus may be seen from these drawings. The body is of trapezoid cross-section using selected wood. The struts and cross-pieces are fish-shaped.

The machine is furnished as desired, either with or without covered body, or with a windshield in front of passenger, which hardly interferes with the observer's view below. With the latter arrangement the radiator is furnished in extra small size leaving enough room to right and left of it for unobstructed downward view. It is this arrangement that is particularly recommended for military purposes; while the completely covered body is adapted for sports on account of its elegant appearance and less head resistance.

By mounting 4 wheels instead of 2 on one axle, the apparatus is able to land on verv

rough ground. The added wheels also increase the running surface, so that the apparatus sinks less deep in plowed ground and needs less starting spaie

Into tubular steel fastenings, welded to the connections of the body, are fastened four running gear supports made out of fish-shaped ash. The two front supports slant towards the front so as to receive landing shocks perpendicularly and are connected through laminated springs with the steel armored ash skids. The latter are curved up so as to protect the propeller in landing. These laminated springs mitigate partly any very hard shocks resulting from an awkward landing on rough landing place. The wheels are movable to the right or left. The axle itself is provided with rubber rings.

In the duplicate steering gear double control wires are all conducted over pulleys. A patent on a connecting device through which the two can be instantly disconnected by a touch of the pilot in the rear, has been applied for. Through this device the pilot is enabled to disconnect his passenger in front of him from the steering apparatus if they disagree in a perilous situation, or his pupil, if he makes any grave mistakes. This device is so constructed that any steering system can be connected in this manner. This is of importance to those pilots who have been trained to a different system of steering.

The carrying ability of the wings has been considerably added to through experiments with an extensive number of wing shapes. At the same time in spite of their proven solidity the wings 0' ail models have been considerably strengthened. The wings which span 13.8 meters, are open in the rear. This aperture is for the purpose of letting out, though the rear edge of the wing, any air which may be found between the coverings through some

Page 168

hole in same, which might cause unequal pressures on the wings.

The fabric is rubberized cloth, treated in addition for strength, insusceptibility to climatic changes and to make cleaning of the surface possible.

The blocks between the ribs of the wings are not solid Avood, as in common practice, but consist of three layers of wood glued together crosswise. This results in obtaining extraordinary strength and permits the screws which connect blocks and ribs to be screwed into the Avood against the grain instead of with the grain where they hold poorly. A big proportion of the wood fibre of the block runs parallel Avith the rib which permits a strong gluing together.

The flexible wing has great adA^antages over the stiff type, because it acts as a stabilizer. It is common practice to construct the elastic wing ends of bamboo. The Harlan company use double spruce strips,

laid over one another, which \vhen they have obtained a certain limit of elasticity become stiffened against each other and thus preventing a strip from becoming strained past the breaking point. This is accomplished through a thin plate on one strip with a slot through which a pin glides. This pin moves in the opposite slot Avithin the limits prescribed by the length of the slot, thus preA-enting the bending of the rib to the breaking point.

Defects in the materials of important parts of flying machines have resulted in falls. To avoid this the wires, bolts and connections Avhich transfer the pull of the wings to the body are, therefore, arranged in such manner that even Avith a defect in material and resulting break of a wire, connection or bolt, an accident is out of the question because of the double construction. Each of two wires running from point to point along side of each other is fastened in two eyebars. Each wire, or other part has a multiple factor of safety and has been retained at this strength although two may be used where formerly one only Avas deemed ample.

The main "frame piece of the Aving being of such dimensions in the new machines of big carrying capacity that it is impossible to prove its faultless quality, is cut apart. The resulting pieces, each of which is computed of sufficient strength to carry the entire load alone, are shifted and then glued together, so that here too any defect in the material would not mean danger to the occupants of the machine."

All connections are fashioned out of forged steel. Steel has even been used where a break seemed to be excluded; while all other parts, on account of effecting repairs under Avarlike conditions, are made of wood.

The skids as Avell as the motor-bridge, consist of wood armored with steel. Through the wood on one side and steel bands on the other a high elasticity of these much used parts is obtained.

A large gasoline tank is provided wltn a pressure gauge. The machine is also provided with a tachometer, ignition and carburetor leArers, a barometer and a rolling map device. The gasoline pipes are of flexible tubing in places exposed to vibration. To prevent unnecessary running of the apparatus on unfavorable ground a brake is provided.

The stabilizing planes as well as the rudder are not curved and do not form any angle with the line of flight.

By pushing forward on a lever, the machine is headed dOAvn, and vice versa. The lever can be locked in position, leaving the hands free. By pushing a foot lever down on the high side, low side is lifted and the high side depressed, and vice versa. The vertical rudder is operated by a wheel in the same way as in an automobile.

An Argus, Bosch-equipped, 100 h.p. 4 cyl. motor drives a 2-bladed tractor of 2.7 meters diameter.

The engine shaft, exactly balanced, is made out of high grade chrome nickle steel, hollowed out by boring, and provided with ball bearings to take up the aerial thrust of the propeller. The connecting rods are made "I" shape out oi chrome nickle steel.

The carburetor is regulated automatically. The consumption of gasoline and oil is abnormally Ioav in the Argus motor, because it consumes at its highest efficiency of from 102 to 106 h.p. only 21.5 kg. of gasoline and 3 to 4 of oil. With a working load of 250 kg. the machine climbs about 100 meters per minute. The area of main wings is about 30 sq. meters. It has been assembled in 63 minutes and dismounted in 24 minutes by unskilled men. In setting up, the wings are mounted correctly avoiding necessity of measuring. The speed is measured at 112.5 km. per hour.

New Developments in Aeronautics

NAVY AEROPLANE CATAPULT

The Navy Aeroplane Catapult is a simple device for getting aeroplanes away from a ship in the quickest manner and over the shortest track, the object being to avoid carrying on board ship any more paraphernalia than necessary to accomplish the object.

It has been demonstrated several times that an aeroplane can leave a ship by its own power over a suitable platform that is long enough and can even alight on such a platform, under favorable circumstances, but it is desired to avoid the encumbrance of a platform.

The Catapult is so small that it occupies little space, it can even be mounted for use

on top of a turret, it can be transported to any location on the ship and it can be readily dismounted and stowed away clear of the guns.

Compressed air is used for the power, as all ships carrying torpedoes are supplied with air compressors. When preparing the apparatus for use the air is pumped, to a suitable pressure, into a receiver which is connected with a small cylinder conveniently located on deck. The piston of the cylinder has a stroke of about 40 inches and the piston rod is connected with a small wooden car by means of a wire rope purchase which multiplies the travel of the piston to any desired extent or to any limit fixed by the travel of the car on its tracks.

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS

Manufacturers of

Biplanes

Monoplanes

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+ C. & A. Wittemann f

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Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Parts Built \ .^»» Z.to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock.

Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P.

Your Opportunity—One single covered Biplane for immediate delivery. Slightly used, with 8 cyl. 60 H.P. Hall-Scott Power Plant.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY

X Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville 4.

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ADAMS-FARWELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN

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21 ATHOL STREET,

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HYDROS

build your own

Over 100 complete drawings. Scale 1" to foot; some full size Prints 281x36:

ONLY COMPLETE PRINTS EVER SOLO

AERONAUTICS. 250 West 54lh St.. New York

$8.00

I FT JftHTS i

Aerial Sight-seeing Tours Arranged on Demand

Piloted by

FAMOUS AVIATORS

instruction and licenses used material, motors, 'planes, etc.

"AERONAUTICS" •250 West 54th St., New York

Phone, Columbus 4833

TOURS

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

el ARC0 radiator company

Broadway and 57th St., New York City Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types

THE AERO WHEEL CO.

Builds all Kinds of Wheels for Aeroplanes and Monoplanes

Standard or Special Sizes at Very Low Prices

782 Eighth Avenue New York

^1

J. C. (Bud) MARS, now booking season 1912.

Have never been connected with the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. and School of Aviation.

17 North La Salle Street, Chicago, Ills.

Aero

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line Payment in advance required.

GNOME FIFTY—who wants it? Has been used by Charles F. Willard. Perfect condition. Make offer. Address, "GNOME," c/o Aeronautics.

RARE BOOKS—Occasionally it is possible to secure copies of Wise and Astra Castra. These are very scarce and are two of the absolutely necessary books for an aeronautical library-

ASTRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor, Cloth, London, 1S65, many fine plates. $10.

A SYSTEM OF AERONAUTICS, Comprehending its Earliest Investigations and Modern Practice and Art, Designed as a History for the Common Reader and Guide to the Student of the Art, by John Wise, Svo., cloth, Phila., 1S50. $10. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

ASSORTMENT of complete power plants, including; Curtiss 25 h. p., 4 cyl.; Clement-Bayard 30's; Kirkham 60; Hendee (Indian) 7 cyl., 50. Bargains at 50% below cost.

Immediate delivery of genuine Bleriot and several antiquated but successful aeroplanes of unexcelled workmanship "for a song." Address, Assortment, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., N. Y. City.

SPECIAL, GOOD BARGAINS—1 Gnome engine, 50 h. p., complete with mountings for biplane, everything ready to run. Can demonstrate. Nearly new. Fine condition. $2,000.

Complete set of parts for Gnome 50, enough to assemble complete engine; all kinds socket wrenches and tools for same; mounting frames, controls, etc.

Bleriot type monoplane for Gnome engine, two Bleriot types with Anzani engines. Sets of parts.

All these from well known concerns. Everything can be seen before purchase. Cheap for cash. Address Mono, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City.

ENGINE FOR SALE—8-cyl. "V," list price, $1,500, new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of those few real bargains that aren't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $SO0. Address. "Eight Cylinder", c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

LATERAL STABILIZER—Wish $300 to complete lateral stabilizer. Have experimented successfully in actual flight with crude mechanism. Entirely eliminates periodic oscillation. Address "Stabilizer," care Aeronautics, 250 W. 54, New York.

AN UNUSUAL OPPORTUNITY for big profits in Aviation School connected with established aeroplane factory. Well located. Fine prospects. Investment of $5,000 admits investor as director of corporation with brilliant future. Investigate. Address, J. B. c/o Aeronautics.

FOR EXCHANGE—Wanted to exchange one 5-passenger EMF - 30 automobile, in fine shape, for an aeroplane motor or complete aeroplane. Theo. Brode, Plaquemine, La.

THIS MONTH—Ford "22", will fly light 'plane, only $60. Six cyl. high tension magneto, A-l, $20. Radiators, $25. Model supplies.—H. Gleason, 16 Bellevue St., Worcester, Mass.

Mart

WANTED an aviator with some ex

FOR EXCHANGE—Will exchange 22 H. H., Buick automobile, in good running: order, for aeroplane motor. It. Vosatko, Box 38, Uvalde, Texas.

U. S. Patents

(Continuedfrom Page 170) ISSUED DECEMBER 3

1,045,S50, John Jirasek, Newark, N. J., AEROPLANE and means for tilting main planes and ailerons.

1,046,023, Francois Rilleau, Los Angeles, Cal., PARACHUTE capable of sustaining, sufficient for the purpose, aeroplane and passengers.

*1,046,02S, Ludwig Schmidl, or W. Neustadt, Austria Hungary, AEROPLANE in which the lateral extremities of the wings may be "reefed" or folded.

1,046,219, William Phillips, Chicago, 111., FLYING MACHINE.

1,046,372, Linton T. Bassett, Newburgh, N. Y., PROPELLER.

1,046,3S5, Herbert E. Hawes, New York, N. Y., PROPELLER.

ISSUED DECEMBER 10

1,046,CS2, Otto Trossin, Hamburg, Germany. FLYING MACHINE.

1,046,721, James H. S. Bartholomew, Occidental, Cal., and Eugene F. Heath, Santa Rosa, Cal., BOAT, for aeroplanes.

1,046,S20, Davis L. Marry, Idabel, Okla., FLYING MACHINE.

1,046,S95, Bernard B. Stubblefield, Nashville, Tenn., FLYING MACHINE.

1,047,010, Gustave F. Eklund, Dracut, Mass., FLYING MACHINE.

1,047,03S, John R. Gammeter, Akron, Ohio, AEROSTAT in which the envelope is composed of a fabric of woven metallic ribbons, etc.

1,047,098, Walter G. Madison, Ames, Iowa, FLYING MACHINE.

IDouble Hydro Floats, weight, 55 lbs. each, pair. $250- I Running Gears, Farman or Wright, complete, $42.50. I Hubt, knock-out axle or to fit, I", I}4", 1J4", or l1/-*". I

AEROPLANE WHEELS

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Mfr., 132 West 50th Street, N. Y Wheels, 20" x 214", complete, $6.00 — 20" x 3", $8.25, with Curtiss or Farman type stock Hub, 6" wide. We make any size or type of wheel. Send for list. Compare my prices with all others.

that can furnish a motor to help me fly my machine for an interest in my patents. I have a machine complete ready for the motor that will interest you and it will cost you little to write me for cuts and descriptions of my invention, which is covered with patents and then if you can't see anything in it, you needn't go any further, for if I can't convince any thinking man that I have the completest aeroplane that has been patented, to date, I don't expect him to take any interest in it whatsoever; but if you feel that an interest in the best machine patented, to date, would interest you, write to G. W. Thompson, Kingston, Okla.

The aeroplane of course rests upon the car and, when a flight takes place, both are projected from the tracks together in about iy2 seconds, the pressure being automatically and gradually accelerated throughout the stroke. The car drops into the water when free from the tracks and is hauled on board by a rope attached to it.

The device, as used at the Washington Navy Yard, Nov. 12, 1912, was mounted on

a float (see Fig. 1) so that the bottom of the the aeroplane, were made before the final test of Nov. 12th and curves of speed and pressure were obtained in each case. These curves are reassuring and demonstrate the possibility of getting, by this method, the curve of velocity to follow any trajectory desirable within practicable limits.

Figure 3 represents the car weighted with sandbags for a test at the Navy Yard and

Figs. 3 and 4

hydroplane was not more than two feet above the water. When discharged the hydroaeroplane gradually arose in a steady beautiful flight, as soon as it left the tracks, without any tendency to seek the water, (see Fig. 2 in which the car is seen just dropping clear of the hydroplane.)

During a previous trial, at Annapolis, the device was mounted rigidly on a wharf. The car and machine were both free to lift from the tracks during any part of the stroke and after the aeroplane motor had been started full speed, the full pressure of 290 lbs. was turned on at once. On this occasion the machine reared at about mid-stroke and, as a cross wind was blowing, the right wing was thrown up and a corkscrew dive into the water resulted. Lieut. Ellyson, the aviator who managed the machine on both occasions and whose iron nerves were relied on to stand the shock, was fully satisfied, by this extreme test, that the shock ought not to deter any good aviator. It was also gratifying to note that no part of the machinery or fittings was ruptured or showed any signs of weakness.

When tried at the Washington Navy Yard, November 12th, the float enabled the apparatus to be pointed towards the wind, which, however, was nearly calm at the time. The car was held down to the tracks by reverse flanges and extra wheels and the balanced valve of the cylinder was arranged to be gradually opened to full power by a simple wedge shaped cam attached to the travelling block on the piston head. The aeroplane was also held down to the car by an iron strap, the ends of which were tripped automatically at the end of the stroke by studs on the tracks.

Several preliminary tests of the device, with sand bags to represent the weight of

Figure 4 shows the car with its sandbag burden just leaving the tracks. It is interesting to note in this picture some of the heavy sandbags and the block to which the holding down strap was attached suspended in midair, while the comparatively light car is dropping away from them.

The picture Fig. 4 also shows the airflask, the cylinder, the piston rod and the cam.

FLYERS' EYE SHIELD

The eye and nose shield recently marketed by the Sanitary Sales Co., of Bradford, Pa., ought to appeal to air motorists. The

shield is very light and gives clear vision on all sides, which is not accomplished by the usual goggles. A bit of gauze protects the nostrils from flying dust. Harry B. Brown has been flying with it and announces it a success.

BLONDIN LATERAL CONTROL

The description of a new system of lateral control designed to obviate the use of warping or ailerons has been sent to AERONAUTICS by Joseph A. Blondin, of Los Angeles, Calif. He wishes to have this system of his invention given publicity in order to forestall any attempts to monopolize it in any way.

The system carries vertical "keel-rudders," adapted to the skid frame design, the rudder portions of which normally form part of the keel. These rudder portions are restrained from swinging inward and operate, one at a time, only in an outward direction.

Considering that comparatively widely separated skids be used, Mr. Blondin says: "Losing lateral balance, the machine begins to 'toboggan' in the directions of the low side (See Fig. 2). This action is resisted by a resulting air pressure against the keel (1') covering the skid. Gravity then acting inside the point of resistance will tend to lower the high wing and will be aided by the operation, outward, of the keel rudder on the high-wing side, (2'). This rudder will decompose the air pressure then acting against it in two forces: one, tending to 'right' the machine through a side pressure exerted under the center of gravity of the machine, and the other (3') tending to turn the machine toward the high side, by reason of the rudder's drift-resistance on that side; which later action is, in reality, the sole power at the disposal of aviators flying all existing types of aeroplanes. So, in addition to this last named power, the 'Blondin system' supplies two others; one of which is automatic and, the writer believes, capable, in itself, of restoring balance under most ordinary conditions of flight. * * * The system comprises the use of the usual vertical steering rudder, although it is conceivable that the latter might very well be eliminated following a series of development of the system in question."

CAPDEVILA CONTROL SYSTEM A locking control device has been invented, (and patents are pending in the United States), by F. Capdevila, of 24S West 45th Street, New York. In a general way, the arrangement resembles the Curtiss type of control, pillar and wheel. In use, all operations are normally locked. Pressing one

small lever on the wheel releases the rudder control; another releases the elevator for operation, and a third, the stability. A foot pedal releases all but the warping (or aileron control. Having reached the desired

elevation and direction, the controls may be locked to save the pilot from fatigue, or they may be locked for the purpose of making notes or taking photographs.

The elevator is operated by moving the pillar and wheel toward or away from the pilot. Direction is obtained by turning the the pillar about its vertical axis, and the stability is secured by turning the wheel only. The outfit, which is placed on the market, lists at $150. Its weight is 28 pounds, seat included. The device has all-ready been tried in flight by aviator Fitz-simmons.

You ask me if I am satisfied. I should say, "Yes". Your paper is all right in every way, and I am waiting for every one of your magazines that comes out.—P. H. S., New Jersey.

I like the magazine very much and think it is worth the monev. Wishing you success,— M. D. C, Mississippi.

I hate to miss any number of your excellent magazine, which is the best of its kind that I know of.—S. B., Penna.

Another Record for the

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AERONAUTICS

New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1913

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Eighty-Five Cents Post Free

^J_i._.__A specimen copy will be mailed

i'ulc* free on receipt of 15 cents.

-HEAD OFFICE:-

3 London Wall Buildings, London, England American Office : 250 West 54th Street, New York

Free Instruction in the Operation of the

CURTISS FLYING BOAT

will be given To Those Taking a Regular Course of Training at the

Curtiss School of Aviation

SAN DIEGO, CAL.

FINISH OF HYDROAEROPLANE RACES AT HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y. David McCullah in his "Flying Boat" leads; he is accompanied by Mr. Curtiss, Lincoln Beachey is second, accompanied by Lansing Callan, while Francis Wildman, instructor at Hammondsport School, is third with the Standard Hydroaeroplane.

Among the men who have learned aviation at Curtiss Schools are:

Lieut. T. C. ELLYSON, now in charge of the aeroplanes of the U. S. Navy.

Lieut. J. H. TOWERS, who just established a new World's Hydroaeroplane Record of 6 hrs., 10 min., 38 sec.

H. ROBINSON, who recently introduced the Hydroaeroplane in Europe and is now instructor in a Curtiss School.

C. C. WITMER, now in St. Petersburg demonstrating Hydroaeroplanes to the Russian Navy and Army.

Lieut. J. W. McCLASKEY, instructor in a Curtiss School.

LINCOLN BEACHEY, "The World's Greatest Aviator."

S. C. LEWIS, now instructor in the Morane School in France.

J. LANSING CALLAN, now an instructor in a Curtiss School.

FRANCIS WILDMAN, now an instructor in a Curtiss School.

BECKWITH HAVENS, now a demonstrator.

W. B. ATWATER, now demonstrating- to the Japanese Government.

Besides, a score of men who own their own machines and fly in contests and exhibitions and a dozen others have taken positions with either manufacturers or exhibition concerns.

OUR SAN DIEGO, CAL., AVIATION TRAINING GROUNDS, situated on North Island, in San Diego Harbor, are the finest in America, if not in the world. North Island is leased by us exclusively for Aviation purposes, and comprises one thousand acres of flat, level sand, unobstructed by rock, tree or building, thus offering every advantage as a flying course. The island is entirely private, yet within a few minutes of San Diego, one of the most progressive and attractive cities on the Pacific Coast.

THE FIRST CLASS BEGINS INSTRUCTION DECEMBER 1st. THE SECOND CLASS WILL START JANUARY 1st, 1913.

A $100 00 deposit will reserve a place for you in this class. Mail or wire it to-day. Our Booklet "TRAINING" mailed upon request.

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO.

hammondsport, n. y.

TESTING MOTORS AND PROPELLORS

An interesting engine and propeller testing device has been described in a German periodical by a Herr Scheit. The aeroplane is pivoted on a stand, Fig. 1, the pivots being located on an elongation of the motor axis, so that the torque or turning effort, which rotates the propeller, strives to turn the machine around the axis, muck as a

pendulum would swing. This torque is equal to the torque of the motor and is measured by putting a weight, W, on the scale pan so that the balance Keeps even and the aeroplane remains horizontal laterally. To calculate the horsepower delivered, let R equal the length of beam to the axis, N the observed r.p.m. of the motor, W the weight in pounds. The effective power can be found by applying the formula—■

W X 2ti-R X N H. P. =----33000

The principle used here is the same as is frequently adopted in automobile factories in this country for testing engines for power

F,a 2

and endurance. It has an advantage, in that no cooling devices are necessary on the brake or power absorbing device.

To test the tractive power of a propeller the base of the stand may be mounted on pivots F. The wire M is connected with a weight G, which is placed on the scales. If the motor is running, the propeller will raise the weight Gr The tractive power is measured by putting on the scale-pan N another weight, G2, until it balances. The formula then is—

Gt — G2 = Tractive Power With the same apparatus, one could substitute a spring balance for the weights Gx and G2 and read the tractive power direct.

SINGLE BURGESS FLOAT

A single float or pontoon has been attached to a converted Wright biplane for the Navy by the Burgess Co. & Curtis. A 4-cylinder Sturtevant muffled engine is used and no sound can be heard at a height of 250 feet.

The single boat is a new Burgess type hydroplane having two steps, center step located at. about the longitudinal center of pressure and having bottom lines extending at a distinct angle upwards, concave in form at the step running aft to a flat surface. The step is ventilated.

Extensive experiments justified the design. At rest the boat is practically horizontal with the water. As the speed increases it climbs on the forward step until it planes on this step alone.

The slightest inclination of the elevator then throws the weight back onto the rear step and at the same time presents the wings to the wind at a satisfactory cllnm-ing angle enabling the boat to leave the water easily and without suction.

The landing is easier and effected with less splash than with the older type hydroplanes. The material used for the sides is the best Spanish cedar planking, reinforced by trusses; the bottoms are of copper reinforced with small longitudinal keels and the tops are copper. Air tanks are attached under each wing-end.

THE ANDREWS SURFACE SYSTEM

INCE the publication, in the November issue, of the article on a system of surfaces experimented with in models by Mr. R. D. Andrews, readers have contributed many interesting remarks.

Writing from San Francisco, Mr. Allan F. Bonnah says that for years he has been constructing models with automatic stability as the objective, working through the placing of the surfaces. "Mr. Andrews has reached a result very similar to those of my experiments but entirely different in form," states Mr. Bonnah, and he says further—

"Mr. Andrews uses tandem planes of equal surface but placed at a fore and aft dihedral angle. My system has a tail plane having a negative angle to the line of flight and a negative camber. Models having this fitted to them have flown with perfect longitudinal stability." Later Mr. Bonnah is to try out his ideas in a tractor biplane now building. During a visit at Mr. Andrews' home Mr. Earle U Ovington saw flying model examples of the Andrews system and is convinced that the latter "has hit upon an arrangement which will be of the greatest practical value to the science of aeronautics." He concludes by expressing that "it would be of advantage to manufacturers of aeroplanes to experiment along the lines which Mr. Andrews has laid down."

William A. Brewer, N. E., of Pittsburgh, another of the many who are interested, has been issued a patent on a system which he says is closely comparable with Mr. Andrews' own description.

GYROSCOPIC ACTION

I N the letter of Earle L. Ovington, i published last issue, replying to X the Theories of Thomas P. i Brooke, a typographical error was made regarding the speed of the Brooke model gyroscope, stating it erroneously as 4,000 feet a second. Obviously, "minute" should be read for "second."

The article also states in the fifth paragraph, "The gyroscopic effect is proportional to the square of the speed of rotation." This should be. "The gyroscopic effect is proportional to the square of the radius of gyration."

SELF STARTERS

I HE advent of the hydroaeroplane k I 1 i and the flying boat will create, in X i the interests of safety, a demand i for engine starting devices. It is obviously impossible for an aviator to restart by the present method after being forced to descend into the water for some minor adjustments. It is unquestionally dangerous for the mechanic, or the inexperienced bystander, to "crank" an engine by the turning of the propeller. With magneto ignition only, as is the general custom, it is no fun trying to start a cold motor.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press, 250 Wett 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic, New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres't — — ERNEST L. JONES, Treas'r-See'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

subscription rates

United States. $3.00 Foreign, $3.SO

advertising representative: e. f. inoraham adv. co., 116 nassau st.. new york

NO. 64

D E C E M B E R—1 9 1 2 Vol. XI, No. 6

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postofflci New York, under the Act of March 3,1879.

{T AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages cloie on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :t

Make all checks or money orders free of exchanet ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not tend currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: ::

The necessity for an aeroplane engine starter of some 100% efficient type is apparent. Captain W. Irving Chambers has not overlooked this feature in his report on the needs of aviation.

AVIATION IN THE UNITED STATES ARMY

AJOR SALTZMAN of the Signal Corps, U. S. Army has recently reported to the Adjutant General that in his opinion the Government should purchase certain French built aeroplanes in preference to American aeroplanes. In other words Major Saltzman recommends that because the Government has in the past failed to encourage American manufacturers of aeroplanes as it might have it should now withdraw support completely from such manufacturers and by its patronage assist in developing further the aeroplanes built by our possible opponents in Europe. Such a policy would seriously throttle the aviation industry in this country.

French military aeroplanes are built on distinctly different lines from the commercial aeroplanes. The military type can be constructed only for Government service. Without generous support from the Government such a type would not have been developed in France and will not be developed in the United States. Consequently if the United States is to remain abreast of its European rivals it must be prepared to provide generous support for those American aeroplane manufacturers who are both willing and competent to build aeroplanes equalling, if not surpassing, the best now to be found in the European market.

A YOUNG MAN OF CORNELL

YOUNG man of Cornell has the preposterous idea that AERONAUTICS is a philanthropic institution. His subscription expired with the April issue, 1911. Through some oversight his card and address plate was not cancelled at the non-receipt of a renewal, and copies of this alleged valuable journal have been going to him for the twenty months subsequent thereto. He now discovers that he has received these and writes that in 1910 and 1911 he enjoyed the publication and has no doubt but that "it is even better at the present time;" but during these twenty months, he says, he has not had time to read a single article in the numbers which were sent "gratuitously."

Though the unfortunate student had been duly notified of the expiration of his subscription, and no doubt received, as have others, stamped and printed return, envelopes with request for advice as to decision regarding renewal, it took twenty months for the principles of common, courtesy and business custom to penetrate the dense fog which serves him in lieu of brains and ripen into an idea

The best course in psychology is that obtained by conducting an aeronautical periodical; the longer the course the less the understanding of human nature. But if a dwindling estimation of our own preceptive powers is any claim to wisdom, we are sorry, Air. Cornell, to have you for the eye opener.

The Paris Show

(.Continued from page 166:

of dollars, not to speak of the refusal to increase the navy, would indicate that we are ignoring the lessons of the past, which is to invite disaster. The present plight of Turkey shows the awful cost of unprepared-ness, the price that a people must pay who put politics above patriotism.

The principal lesson taught by the 1912 Salon is that constructors must look more and more to governments for the sale of their products. In fact, the military aspect has become altogether dominant, with the result that construction is subordinated to military and naval requirements. Military types were the rule rather than the exception, and of the scores of machines sold during the Show, I am informed that very few were sold to private individuals. As a matter of fact, the aeroplane is too dangerous to become a general vehicle of sport; and. as soon as the novelty wears off, its use by private owners will become rare. No one at present doubts its great utility in warfare, where danger is a part of the game, and present indications are that governments will become the principal, if not exclusive, purchasers of aeroplanes.

The striking features of the 1912 Salon may be summed up under the following heads:

General refinement and standardization of construction.

Tendency to subordinate construction to military and naval requiremeuts. The military exhibit. Development of the hydro-aeroplane.

Absence of freak machines and freak construction.

Forty-five complete flying machines were exhibited and all but four had Bosch magnetos. In the entire show there were 167 motors shown of which 12S were Bosch equipped. Five had no ignition. The balance of 34 motors was divided between 5 other ignition manufacturers.

Balloon Race

(Continued from page 164)

however, allowed to eat in the station restaurant if we paid. We were also allowed and forced to sleep on a desk in the room where we were locked each night. We protested, but to no use.

On the third day a wire came from St. Petersburg releasing us and we were then hustled on the train and out of their country. Thank God we got out and are home once more!

We returned by way of Stuttgart to ascertain our position and found we took third prize, which I think was doing very good, considering that I had an inexperienced aid and in a foreign country.

DEATH OF KEARNEY AND PASSENGER

On December 14th Horace ("Sure Shot"! Kearney and his passenger Chester Lawrence, a well known California newspaper man, lost their lives on an attempted flight from Los Angeles to San Francisco over the Pacific Ocean in Kearney's hydroaero plane. Kearney was an experienced exhibition flyer and was known all over the country. He was, however, not an expert with the water machine as he had only lately started in with this type. No trace of the lost machine and its occupants has been found by the motor boats and vessels which have been searching for wreckage, save a part of a float which was found near Redondo Beach.

NEW WORLD ALTITUDE RECORD

At Tunis, December 11, Garros made the new high mark of 5S01 metres (19,027 feet) in a flight of 1 hr. 11 m.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

During the month of September, 5 aeroplanes and parts were imported, value $17,358; domestic exports, 3 'planes and parts, $6033; exports of foreign make, 5 at $29,251); in warehouse September 30, 4 at $17,128.

Some can not, others will not, I must not do Without AERONAUTICS.—H. B. N., Calif.

I want to say that you and your people are as white as they make them.—J. N. S., Illinois.

A campaign joke.—A Massachusetts subscriber was written regarding his overdue subscription. Some of his familv evidently opened the letter, for it has been returned to AERONAUTICS with the following unsigned inscription: "He said that if YVlson was elected he would leave the country; and he has."

For details of everything in the flying machine business AERONAUTICS has it on them all.—M. P., Ohio.

AERONAUTICS is the only American magazine published on the subject that is of any real value and I can't afford to be without the litth. book.—H. L. W., North Carolina.

I have bad AERONAUTICS since January 1910 and would regret being without it.—A. R., New York.

NEW PILOT LICENSES ISSUED

H. Roy Waite, Atwood Park, Cliftondale, Nov. 10, 1912—Burgess-Wright. Samuel J. Crossley, Cicero Flying Field, , 111., Oct. 1, 1912—Wright. •Ruth Bancroft Law, < >akwood Heights, Island, Nov.. 12, 1912—Wright. Lieut. C. Nakashima, North Island, San Cal., Nov. 12, 1912—Curtiss. ■George B. Dalwigk, North Island, San Cal., Nov. 12. 1912—Curtiss. David Edehnan, Hempstead Aviation Nov. 23, 1912—Moisant.

186-Mass.,

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190— Diego,

191— Field,

COMPETITION OF AEROPLANE PARTS

A competition of parts is to be held in Vienna in 1913, organized by the k.k. Oester-reichischen Flugtechnischen Verein.

At this competition there will take part private constructors and industrial firms. It is open to all nations. It comprises any article, divided in three groups as follows:

"Group 1: Parts of conjunction between the carabins, etc. Group II. Conjunctions serving as well as straining organs as hooks and eyes, carabins, etc. in organic connection with straining locks. Group HI. Fittings serving alone for straining of organs of traction as straining locks etc. There will be prices for: High-bearing-craft, high blow work, least opposition to air light and quick fitting up and cheapness of cost."

There will be distributed prizes totalling 2000 Marks.

Entries are to be addressed to the Secretary of the k.k. Oesterreichischen Flugtechnischen Verein, I Aspernplatz-Urania, Vienna I, till February 15, 1913. Each construction is charged with Kr. 10 as nominal expense. Detailed rules are dispatched free on demand.

INTERNATIONAL BALLOON RACE

NEW WORLD DISTANCE RECORD II. Eugene Honeywell, the balloon builder of St. Louis, and bis aide, II. F. Lang, in Honeywell's balloon "Uncle Sam," won third place in the international balloon race from Stuttgart on

October 27th, landing at Sapadnaja, Russia, after a journey of 1S00 kins. (HIS miles).

The winner of the contest was Maurice Bienaime (France), in the "Picardie," who touched the earth at Rjasan, in Russia, 2191 km. His duration was 46 hrs. The second prize went to Alfred Leblanc (.France), in the He de France". Leblanc made 2001 kms. in 45 hrs. These distances are according to official figures.

Both Bienaime and Leblanc broke the world distance record in this race.

The American balloon "Kansas City II," pilot John Watts, aide Arthur T. Atherholt, burst at the start from over-inflation and the Germans, who are lovers of true sport and treat foreign competitors with fairness, courteously loaned them the "Husseldorf II," in which the aeronauts traveled to Pescow, in Russian Poland, a distance of about 1600 km. The third American entry, the "Mill. Population Club." (John Berry and Albert Von Hoffman), descended at Stettin, Germany, going 700 km.; placed fifteenth.

There were 20 actual starters: America 3, Belgium 2, Denmark 1, Germany 2, England 1, France 3, Italy 2, Switzerland 3, Austria 3.

The "Dusseldorf II" was unplaced as it started out of its order and the last of all the contestants with the possible advantage of uniform temperature and colder gas, due to the accident.

Honeywell earned in prizes 6625 marks, plus a valuable, trophy and a share in the entrance fees and forfeits which amounted to about 800 marks. The winner received a total of 10,000 marks, cup valued at 2,400 marks, and the fees amounting to 2,400 marks.

Honeywell's experience is told by him in this issue.

LOS ANGELES MEET

The fourth aviation meet here closed Dec. 1. It was entirely successful and was held at Ascot Park, on five cent car line, thirty minutes from the center of the city.

There was perfect flying and the program was run off without accident. Beachey. Kearney, Tom Gumi, Francis, Bryant and Irving participated. The policy of restricting the entries to enough experienced flyers to fill the program with novelties worked admirably. Gunn flew to the mountains and successfully found a forest fire. Kearney carried a military observer, discovering infantry ambushed in the hills. Francis took a passenger daily for parachute drops from biplane. Aviators got their money daily and all bills were paid by opening day of meet. This is the second meet here which made profit. The affair was "unlicensed".—Geo. B. Harrison.

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT

A hearing was had on November IS in the Circuit Court at Buffalo in the Wright-Curtiss suit. The lawyers for both sides argued the case, using models, and briefs were presented for the Court's digestion. An opinion is not expected before another month.

LAMSON VS. WRIGHT

The suit of Charles H. Lamson vs. the Wright Bros', company, of Dayton, alleging infringement of Lamson's patent on improvements in aeroplane construction, is to be tried in the United States District Court during May term at Dayton.

SLOANE

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60 H. P. Anzani Deperdussin

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Stay-Ti^ht Fabric For Aeroplanes

Experience has taught aviators the advantages of a fabric that stays perpetually tight. It means greater speed—greater steadiness. For this reason veteran airmen are using

Rubberized Aeroplane Fabric

This fabric not only stays tight, but it possesses great strength. Due to the method by which it is impregnated with rubber, this fabric is wholly unaffected by heat, cold, dampness or moisture. It is weather proof—won't rot. It neither shrinks nor stretches—it stays tight.

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AKRON. OH O

MOISANT

Winter Headquarters

U.S. ARMY FIELD

SCHOOL

AUGUSTA, GA.

ties regi mad

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Wh i 1 e our contracts with Foreign Governments may require the entrance of a considerable number of Army Officers, we have increased our facili-so as to afford ample accommodation to our lar pupils. Enrollments should however, be e as promptly as possible.

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We

Moisant International Aviators

U. S. RUBBER BUILDING Broadway and 58th Street, New York, N. Y.

Only One Motor Used Throughout

A Great Victory for the ROBERTS SIX

World's Record Hydro Tour

1973 Miles

Omaha to New Orleans

43

Exhibitions

WESTERN UNION NIGHT-LETTER

New Orleans, La., Dec. 16, 1912.

THE ROBERTS MOTOR CO.VIPANV, Sandusky, Ohio.

Janinis arrived today at eleven. Covered 1973 miles, gave 43 public exhibitions on the river between Omaha and New Orleans. Elapsed flying time, 31 hours, 43 minutes, averaging more than 60 miles per hour. Carrying motion-picture operator and machine St. Louis to New Orleans, 1192miles, besides 50 lbs. other freight. Used same six-cylinder Roberta Motor for whole trip; finished with same pontoon. Had to replace three piston rings, besides parts of plane destroyed by fire at St. Louis.

TOM W. BENOIST.

ROBERTS MOTOR G>

;QHIO.V.J'.A7

EXTRAORDINARY OFFER

WE have a limited supply of booklets "Elementary Science of Aerial Navigation" which have become a tritie soiled and shelf worn; these regularly «ell at 50c. each. We did not care to bring them with us Irom Kam-as City, wlfii we removed our entire plant to Garden City, N. V , hence, they have been left there for quick disposal.

This booklet starts at the very beginning of the aerial discoveries and inventions, giving the history of man's first attempts at flights and showing illustrations of the early models and the progress of this wonderful me msof transportation, to its present day perfection.

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INCORPORATIONS

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Bath., N. Y.. $10,000. William Thomas, Walter E. Johnson, M. Cox.

FLYING BOAT FOR ARMY

The new "flying' boat", built by Glenn H. Curtiss for the War Department, has completed the official tests before the Board of Army officers appointed to observe the trials.

The climbing test, which required a climb of 150 feet per minute, was accomplished when the machine rose to an altitude of 1200 feet in 6% minutes.

The speed trial was the first to be undertaken and was accomplished successfully. It figured put 54.S miles per hour. There was a ten mile wind blowing at the time, diagonal to the course. In a calm the speed would have been several miles per hour faster, but the machine is well above the requirement, which is 45 miles per hour.

In the two hour test, a total weight of 900 lbs. was carried. Aviator Wildman was accompanied by John D. Cooper, another Curtiss Aviator, on this trial. J. Lansing Callan was a passenger on the speed and climbing trials.

The aeroplane is of the latest "flying boat" type and has many features especially designed for Military requirements. The engine is fitted with a starting device so that it may be stopped and started again while the machine is in the water.

ANOTHER LOS ANGELES MEET

The Aero Club of California, at Los Angeles, will hold its "Fourth International Aviation Meet" during the month of January, 1913. Application has been made for sanction. The dates for the Meet have not as yet been defln-etely decided upon but it will probably be held about the middle of January.

It is planned to hold the Meet on a strictly competitive basis, offering as prizes, a percentage of the receipts. No guarantees or advance money will be paid.

The United States Aerial Navigation Co., of Hempstead, N. J., is building a biplane similar to the Wright Machine in the main wings, with Curtiss ailerons and a closed body. It will be equipped with a Frontier motor of G5 horse power.

They have eliminated nearly all the wires, and have a stronger, lighter and more elastic construction.

MOISANT WINTER SCHOOL

The Moisant Aviation School will remove from Garden City, L. I., the early part of next week to Augusta, Ga.. at the Army Aviation Field, for the winter seastn. There will be five Anzani and two Gnome Motor 50-H. P. machines in the school for the exclusive use of our pupils.

There are about twenty-five pupils in the school during the summer and eleven pupils have obtained their licenses this year. Mr. S. S. Jerwan, Chief Instructor, will be assisted by Mr. Geo. H. Arnold, during the winter.

NEW SLOANE FACTORY

The Sloane Aeroplane Company has moved into a new, large fireproof factory in Long Island City. This building is located within short distance of B'owery Bay so that they will have every facility for hydroaeroplane work. The factory is situated on a plot 100 x 100 and gives ample space for the assembling of machines and repairing of machines and motors.

The Fanier Aerial Motor Works which is controlled by the Sloane Aeroplane Company will occupy the same building with their complete machine equipment. This will give the Sloane Aeroplane Company the most complete aeroplane equipment in this part of the country. They will be in a position to turn out aeroplanes and motors in the shortest possible time and will be able to attend to all kinds of repair work. The Panier Company has made a speciality of repairing high grade aviation motors and supplying duplicate parts for them. This department is to be kept up and enlarged.

The Sloane Company carries in stock a full line of spare parts for Anzani and Gnome Motors. Deperdussin and Caudron Monoplanes. Some of the aeroplanes now in use in their school were built by them. One type with a 3 cyl., 35 H. I'. Anzani Motor is being sold for $3500.

The Sloane School of Aviation is in active operation on Dominguez Field. Calif. It made a very successful debut November 23rd and has been very active since then. The machines and equipment have caused a great deal of interest and comment all over the Pacific ("oast. It is considered that this is the finest equipment ever seen in that part of the country.

On Thanksgiving Day John Guy Oilpatric, the young graduate of the Sloane School, made a new passenger-carrying altitude record in the big 60 H. P. Military Type Deperdussin. This machine was equipped with an Anzani Motor and Charavay propeller. He was in the air an horn? and sixteen minutes and attained an altitude of 5006 feet. The motor was perfectly cool and everything was in fine condition at the end of the flight.

AT THE BURGESS SCHOOL

Flying has been especially good since the middle of November. Among pupils training at Marblehead, Lieutenant Loren H. Call of the Coast Artillery and II. L Brownbaek have completed their training and are Hying the hydro-aeroplane alone. Lieutenant E. L. Ellington of the Cavalry is in the midst of his training which should be completed within a few days.

The winter school will be located at Palm Beach, Fla., and will probably be in charge of Frank Coffvn. The U. S. Signal Corps has arranged to have an Eastern hydro-aeroplane winter station at the Burgess Camp. Lieutenants <\ill and Ellington will probably be detailed for this service. .

It is noteworthy that the English Michehn Cup was taken this year by the Burgess aeroplane which did such gord work for :\lr. Sop-with at the Nassau Boulevard Meet last year and which has since been in constant service in England.

Burgess machines have recently been purchased by George A. (".ray, of Boston, a Wright pupil of last vear, John F. McGee of Pawtucket, H I., and Harry M. Jones of Providence, 11. I.

AERONAUTICS

JANNUS FLIES FROM OMAHA TO NEW ORLEANS

On December 15, Antony Jannus, in his Benoist tractor hydroaeroplane with Roberts 2-cycle motor, arrived at New Orleans, the end of his long journey down the Mississippi River, the longest journey yet made by a hydroaeroplane. He carried with him letters for the mayors en route, a moving picture operator and apparatus, baggage and a case of beer between St. Louis and New Orleans. The distance, following the river, is around 1500 .miles. He left Omaha on Nov. 6. Exhibitions were given at nearly every stopping place and numerous passengers were carried into the air on short trips.

The trip was not a race. Some days were lost by rain and the weather was bad the whole trip. Other davs were spent in hunting. At St. Louis the 'plane caught fire at the start and repairs had to be made which consumed two days.

Jannus says: "It has not been necessary to undergo half the hardships, nor even the dangers that a trip of this length by automobile would have necessitated anywhere in the LTnited States. The first 771 miles was made in exactly fifteen hours and thirteen minutes flying time. At times when the wind was in the right quarter, I could make as high as eighty and ninety miles an hour, but at other times of course was only able to make about fifty miles.

"I find it possible to fly a hundred miles at a time, at no time getting more than ten feet above the water. In this way, one gets the fascination of speed which is so noticeable in an automobile, and cannot help but feel the absolute safety of its craft, in case of anything happening to the machine. All these things together, when realized by the automobile enthusiast, and those who have any sporting blood in their veins at all will add a great impetus to the manufacturer of hydroaeroplanes, or flying boats, and of course this great increase in interest is bound to redound to the profit of the manufacturer, who will strain every nerve to increase the efficiency of his machines to

get the business, and thereby duplicate the great strides made in the automobile business from 11)00 to 190G.

"Difficulties have consisted in .muddy landing places, current, and inability to obtain supplies. The weather, except rain, is of practically no consequence as a hydro can always find safety near the water. of course there are many places where motor failure would make a great deal of trouble but as there has been no motor failure the exact results are not known. However, during the early part of the trip, I had some very annoying times on account of spark plugs. On one occasion I could not remove the plugs, having no tools, so I continued on three cylinders. On a six throw two-cycle engine, each three cylinders, front and back, are balanced so that I proceeded without any unusual vibration. By teasing the machine along, 1 was able in twenty minutes to climb some two thousand feet circling down from this height at Nebraska City. The weather was ideal, and near sunset as it was, conditions of lift were exceptionally good. However, I have always found it possible wi-tb our hydros to continue flying on three cylinders regardless of weather conditions, but usually have all I can do to keep off the water."

"Do not forget," the builder of the motor states, "that this trip was made with one Roberts Motor with practically no adjustment, and Jannus wrote us from Vicksburg that all he did to the motor was to polish the valve, take up the pump packing and clean carbon. I am willing to bet a year's salary that no fourcycle motor could have gone through this trip without any replacements or frequent repairs."

BENOIST FLYING BOAT

The Benoist Aircraft Company, of St. Louis, is now building a "flying boat," of which scale drawings and full details will be publshed in the next issue. This has a number of novel features but in the main follows the well established lines of the Benoist machines.

WELLES & ADAMS ^MOTORS—

One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually made good.

50 H. P. 4 Cycle

Weight 200 lbs.—Valves in head—Cylinders cast separate—Every moving part oiled automatically.

Let us send you our illustrated catalogue showing Fred. Kells' great flight over the city of Rochester in biplane equipped with this motor.

If you wish to do something better than "Grass-Cutting" ———Consult •

WELLES & ADAMS, Bath, N.Y.

MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES

THEIR DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION and OPERATION. THE APPLICATION of AERODYNAMIC TH :ORY WITH A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION AND COMPARISON o/THE NOTABLE TYPES By GROVER C. LOENING, B.Sc, A.M., C.E.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I. TheDesign of Aeroplanes; Historical Introduction; Aerodynamic Theory; Aeroplane Calculations

Chapter 1. Introduction. II. The Resistance of the Air and the Pressure on Normal Planes. III. Flat Inclined Planes. IV. The Pressure on Curved Planes. V. The Friclional Resistance of Air. VI. The Center of Pressure on Flat and Curved Planes. VII. 1 he Effect of Depth of Curvature and Aspect Ratio rpon the Lift and Drift of Curved Planes. VIII. Numerical Example of the Design of an Aeroplane.

PART II. Detailed Description of the Notable Aeroplanes

Chapter IX. Introduction. X. Important Types of Monoplanes. XI. Prominent Types of Biplanes.

PART III. Com&rison of Types; Controlling Systems; Accident"; The Future

Chapter Xll. Comparisons of the Prominent Types. XIII. Controlling Apparatus. XIV. Accidents. Sale Flying Limited by Wind Conditions. XV. The Variable Surface Aeroplane. Index.

12mo. (6x8!4 inches) 340 Pages, 278 Illustrations. Cloth.

Price $2.50 Net, Postpaid AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th ST., NEW YORK

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AEROPLANES

AERONAUTICS

Page 179

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to gh e in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the ratent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patent's starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given. —Editor.

ISSUED OCTOBER 29

1,012,594, William E. Pearson, Boston, Mass. HELICOPTER.

1,042,758, Joseph E. Bissell, Pittsburgh, Pa., AEROPLANE. Combination of main frame and extensible auxiliary frame pivoted to main frame, propeller rotating in auxiliary frame and means for effecting variation in extension of extensible frame to accomplish a variation in relative speed of propeller and its shaft; directing rod through hub of propeller with stability plane attached to said rod.

•1,042,80s, Augustus F. W. MacManus, Pine Bluff, Ark., STRUT.

1,043,004, David Alma Flanigan, Springville, Utah, HELICOPTER.

ISSUED NOVEMBER 5

1,043.079, Ernest F. von Dreden, and Herbert R. Hoffman, New York, X. Y., AEROPLANE.

1,043,147, George W. Schultz, Wayne. Pa., FLYING MACHINE.

1,043,222, Alois Goebel, Marble Falls, Texas, FLYING MACHINE.

*1,043,37G, Melvin Vaniman, Deceased, Atlantic City, X. J.; Ida L. Vaniman, Administratrix, EQUILIBRATOR composed of meshing cylindrical buckets in longitudinal alignment, ball and socket connection between buckets.

1,043,173, Alburt A. Shillcutt, Little Rock, Ark., FLYING MACHINE.

1,013,538, Thomas Ernest Raymond, Liverpool, England, apparatus for controlling aerial vehicles by wave transmitted electricity.

1,043,636, Fred L. Smith, Salt Lake City, Utah, LONGITUDINAL STABILITY system in which elevators are operated by carriage and pilot acting as a pendulum.

1,043,668, Erwin C. Chase and Arthur B. Chase, Seattle, Wash., LATERAL STABILITY using motor etc. as pendulum with means for correcting oscillation.

1,043,781, Peter Levins, Deceased, late of San Francisco, Cal., Grace L. Levins, Administratrix, FLYING MACHINE.

ISSUED NOVEMBER 12

*1,043,830, Spencer Heath, Washington, D. C, SCREW PROPELLER and method of manufacture of the same. Propeller .made of blank of sheet metal folded longitudinally, blades with reinforcing portions bent over them, forming hollow shell like centra] portion.

1,043,836, William A. Hodge, Milford, Conn., PARACHUTE.

1,043,949, John Marshall, Klinhurst, England, ORNITHOPTER.

1,043,969, Christopher Peterson, Stockton, Cal., MULTIPLANE.

1,044.064. Christain Lorensen, Harrow, England, HELICOPTER.

*1,044,161, Johan Richard Froberg, Richmond Cal., ATTACHMENT for holding an aeroplane while testing or starting, etc, with instant release.

1,044,375, John Peter Glover, Leeds, England FLYING MACHINE.

*1,044,3S2, Ernest B. Harris and Adolph Zamr-sky, Fort Stevens, Ore., UPPER SURFACE which is flexed automatically (or otherwise) by variation in pressure.

1,044,466, Eugene H. Kelly, Deceased, Buffalo, N. Y., W. Darwin Phelps, Temporary Administrator. AEROPLANE.

ISSUED NOVEMBER 19

1,044,600, Giulio Silvestri, Vienna, Austria Hungary, HELICOPTER.

*1,044,635, Halvor Olsen Eiane, San Diego, Cal., STABILITY system in which warping; or ailerons may be actuated automatically by swinging vertical surfaces.

1,004,691, George M. Robinson and Jesse O. Parker, Los Angeles, Cal., AEROPLANE in which outer sections of planes are hinged to swing up or down.

*1,044,914, Byron C. Riblet, Spokane, Wash., LAUNCHING AND LANDING PLATFORM FOR AEROPLANES.

1,004.945, Rene Tampier, Paris, France, DEVICE for transmitting the power to either the propeller or running gear by clutch and gears.

1,044,997, Long Dan, Portland, Ore., AEROPLANE.

1,045,030, Alexander Horton, Portsmouth, England. ELEVATOR PLANE.

1,045,035, Arthur Johnston, Johnstown, Pa., STABILITY system employing suspended weight for operating the balancing means.

ISSUED NOVEMBER 26

1,045,152, Earl H. Kelsey, Bawlf, Alberta, Canada, for housing aviator and machinery to reduce resistance.

1,045,167, Morris Newgold, New York, N. Y., FLYING MACHINE.

1,045,209, Thomas C. Starr, Stockton, Cal., AEROPLANE.

1,045,337, Charles Spilka. New York. N. Y., DIRIGIBLE with plurality of gas containers.

1,045,657, George M. Absalon, Caistor Centre, Ontario, Canada, FLYING MACHINE.

♦1,045,666 Louis Bleriot, Neuilly-Sur-Seine, France, AEROPLANE in which the body is comprised of a girder divided in two elements so connected that their angle of inclination mav be modified in accordance with the load, the" lower face of girder being flat and the depth greatest at a point rearward of the front end of body and then quickly decreasing to comparatively small figure which is maintained substantially constant to rear end of body; tail surfaces connected to sides of body and merged into upper and lower faces of the body; longitudinal cross and peripheral laths supporting the tail covering, etc.

1,045,696, Chauncev M. Gould, Collinsville, Conn., PARACHUTE ATTACHMENT for flying machines.

1 045,70S, SvdneV V. James, Chicago, Ills., AEPiOPLANE in which the greater dimension of main plane is in fore and aft direction, with under surface bulged downwardly for major portion of fore and aft dimension, deflected downwardly in a fore and aft direction at a rear part through a minor portion of fore and aft direction, and bulged downwardly transversely to fore and aft dimension, and substantially throughout fore and aft dimension.

1 045.746, Earl M. Ralls, Sacramento, Cal., STABILITY; cut-out portions of planes with flexible planes secured under cut-out portions, warped by swinging weights.

(Continued opposite Puye 171)

Index for Volume XI

Note.—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907. Volume II started with the issue of January, 1908. Volume III started with the July, 190S, issue. Volume IV started with the January, 1909, number. Volume V started with the July, 1909, number. Volume VI started with the January, 1910, issue and Volume VII started with the July, 1910, issue. Volume VIII started with January, 1911, number. Volume IX with the July, 1911, issue. Volume X with January, 1912 and Volume XI with July, 1912.

Only principal articles are indexed. News notes in general, and smaller mentions are not indexed.

JULY 1912

On the Death of Wilbur Wright.............. 1

Aviator Factories and Their Methods...... 4

Columbia Monoplane......................... G

Notes on Eiffel Experiments, by M. B. Sellers 7 The "Fallacy" of the Dirigible, by Carl

Dienstbach and T. R. MacMechen......... 10

Mattulath Patent Application, by Lee S.

Burridge ................................... 12

Concentration of Weight in Flying machines and its Effect on Stability, by Albert A.

Merrill ..................................... 14

C. H. Paterson Biplane ...................... 15

The Gressier "Canard" with scale drawings.. 17

Ramsey Composite Monoplane................ IS

Hillery B'eachey Biplane...................... 19

Twining Monoplane, with scale drawings.... 20 Duplicate Control System, by Archibald

Black ...................................... 23

Composite Hydroaeroplane, by R. F. Patterson, with scale drawings ................... 2-1

Practical Aids to Aviators, including Aileron Equalizing Means, Burgess Starting Device, Lewkowicz Angle Indicator, Curtiss Propeller Making Machine, .................. 34-36

News in General, including: Wright Damage Suit, Aeronautical Society's Staten Island field, Imports and Exports, Death of Welsh and Hazelhurst and others, New Pilots, 37-40 Safety in Flight, by Capt. W. Irving Chambers ........................................ 41

Patents Issued .............................. 43

Death of Miss Quimby ...................... 44

AUGUST, 1912 Analysis of Flight, by George A. Spratt, Jr... 45 Grant-Morse Monoplane, with scale drawings. 47

Curtiss Flying Boat ......................... 51

Donnet-Levecque Flying Boat, with scale •

drawings .................................. 52

Sturtevant Engine in Burgess Plane. ....... 55

Burgess-Gill Twin Engine Water Plane, with

scale drawings ............................. 56

Benoist Tractor Biplane, with scale drawings. 01

Boston Meet ................................. 64

On the Death of Miss Quimby, symposium.. 67

10-Hour Test of Sturtevant Motor .......... 68

News in General, including: Boston Meet, Imports and Exports, Balloon Ascensions...... 70

SEPTEMBER, 1912 Simple Computations Relating to Aeroplane

Design, by Winthrop S. Horton ........... 71

Remarks on Analysis and Comparison of

Patents, by Lee S. Burridge .............. 74

Aviation's Fakes and Fakirs ............... 77

An Analysis of Flight, by George A. Spratt,

Jr.......................................... 7S

Burgess Cup Defender, with scale drawings.. 82 Demountable Rib, Smith Tractor and Curtiss

Student Control ........................... 84

Etrich Limousine and Swallow, by Fritz

Edelstein, with scale drawings.......... S6-87

Somerville Auto-Stable Biiplane, with scale

drawings .................................. 89

Thomas Tractor Biplane .................... 91

Sopwith Tractor Biplane, with scale drawings ........................................ 92

News in General, including: Scott Wins Michelin, Imports and Exports, National

Balloon Race, Balloon Ascensions, New

Pilots .................................. 94-96

Patents Issued .............................. 97

Aviation in U. S. Army Manoeuvers........ 98

OCTOBER, 1912

Relative Constancy of Wind above Mt.

Weather, by Prof. Alfred J. Henry ...... 99

Amateur Aeroplane Builders, by Earle L.

Ovington .................................. 101

Imports and Exports ........................ 102

An Analysis of Flight, by George A. Spratt,

Jr......................................... 103

Caudron Monoplane, with scale drawings . . 107 Vlaicu Monoplane, by Fritz Edelstein, with

scale drawings ........................... 109

Deperdussin Gordon Bennett Racer.......... 112

Long Distance Ballooning, using liquid hydrogen .................................... 114

New Developments in Aviation, including: Lewis Aeroplane Gun, Stevens "Life Pack," Stream Line Gas Tank, Test of Sturtevant Motor, Patterson Demountable Socket .115-117 News in General, including: Details of Scott's Winning Michelin Bomb Prizes, Gordon Bennett Aviation Race, New Pilots, Deaths of Gill and Peck and Walsh, Chicago

Meet .................................. 118-122

Tatents Issued ............................ 125

Balloon Ascensions ......................... 126

NOVEMBER, 1912

Gyroscopic Force and Aeroplanes, Symposium by M. B. Sellers, Orville Wright and Earle L. Ovington .............................. 127

The Andres System for Supporting Surfaces, with note by M. B. Sellers ............... 130

Experiments on the Fiesse Surface, with note by M. B. Sellers...................... 131

An Analysis of Flight, by George A. Spratt, Jr......................................... 133

Symposium on Screw Standardization ...... 136

LT. S. Army Aeroplane Specifications........ 138

Two-Passenger Deperdussin, with scale drawings ................................ 139

Burkhart Biplane, with scale drawings .... 142

New Developments in Aeronautics, including: Sturtevant Motor Starter, Frontier Motor in Wright Machine, Horsepower Ratings, Control Checks, Military Aviation in France, Elevator Action of Rudder, German Motor Valve Construction, Pitch of Model Propellers, Curtiss Surface Testing Device, Gage Tractor, Thomas Biplane, Best Strut Shape, Pitot Tube Speed Meter, Turntable for Hydros, Kellogg Control ............ 145-150

News in General, including: New Records, Aeronautical Society Exhibitions, Deaths in America, New Pilots, "Special Certificates," ................................151-155

Patents Issued ............................. 156

DECEMBER, 1912

Aviation Today and a National Aerodynamic Laboratorv, bv Captain W. Irving Chambers ........................................157

Mv Trip in the International Balloon Race, bv H. E. Honeywell........................164

The Paris Show, by Lieut. Riley E. Scott----165

The Harlan Monoplane, with scale drawings ........................................1G7

New Developments, including: The Chambers Navy Catapult Launching Device, Flyer's Eye Shield, The Blondin Control System, Oapdevila Steering System, German Motor and Propeller Testing Device, Burgess Single Float ......................170-173

News in General, including: Imports and Exports, Death of Kearney, Jannus's 1500-Mile Flight, Garros's New Altitude Record ...................................175-178

I'atents Issued ...............................179

Index to Volume XI .........................ISO

Coming Events

Cast your shadow towards the

HARRY BINGHAM BROWN, English Pilot *

Elevating *

FREDERICK RODMAN LAW I

In his WRIGHT AEROPLANE to !

a height of 4,500 feet, disposing of his *

human freight at a dizzy height, who J

descends by the aid of a PARA- +

CHUTE. J

Every click of the watch a J

"THRILLER," something worth |

going miles to see. *

No other act like it in the WORLD. *

*

_._ *

MANAGERS, Booking, will do well to address

A. LEO STEVENS

Box 181, Madison Square, New York J

+

PAT E NTS SECURED OR FEE RETURNED

jj «l

Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

victor j. evans & company

Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.

i

PATENTS PATENTS

HONEST ADVICE AND REAL PATENTS ■

Patents and patent causes. Specialist in Aeroplanes and Gas Engines.

JOHN O. SE1FERT 50 Church Street New York, N.Y.

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Ex-member Ei.mining Corps, U. S. P.tent Office Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bldg. WASHINGTON, D. C.

Ideal" Plans and Drawings

are accurate and are accompanied by clear, concise building' Instructions, postpaid at the following prices: Wright 3-lt. Biplane, 25c. Bleriot 3-ft. Monoplane, 15c. "Cecil Peoli" Champion Racer, 25c. Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane (new), 35c. "Ideal" three-foot Racer (new), 15c.

Complete Set of Five...............$1.00 Postpaid

Send for our new 40 pp. "Ideal" Model Aeroplane Supply

catalog, fullv illustrated. 5e. brings it. (None Tree). IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82a Wesl Broadway, New York

AMERICAN MONOGLIDER $25

*■ COMPLETE READY TO FLY ^ W

Wings 20' x 5'. Length 16'. Weight 50 lbs.

Immediate Delivery Flights Guaranteed

Plans and Specifications Wi in. to 1 ft., $1.

AVIATION DIRECTORY, LAWRENCE, KAN.

Founded 1905

HYDRO - AEROPLANES

READY FOR POWER

-WILSON-

jj! Port Jefferson ::

:: New York

SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES

Goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind. Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AV1AT1C" and a small order will tell you why those who know-send to us when they want the best at the right price. Let us give you a special figure on that supply list.

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO.

208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash.

«> MONOPLANE

DRAWINGS, Bleriot XI Type. 3 Sheets.

Complicated Parts Full Size. Price $g QQ

The three sheets constitute the best set of mono- " plane working drawings now on the market. There is no need for the purchaser of a set of these drawings to guess atanything; sinceall dimensions of every part of the machine are given, together with the thickness, and gauge of every piece of wood or steel used in the construction.

:♦::♦::♦:>: aeronautics, 250 w. 54th St., New York

SUPPLIES

at more than interesting prices. Bleriot and Curtiss K D. outfits our specialty. "IMPORTED" helmets in stock. Wheels with tires 201 x 21/4Z §6.60, 201 x 3j 19.25.

22 page catalogue A sent upon receipt of 6 cents

New York Aeronautical Supply Co. 50 Broadway, New York

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

-Write for circular ^

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO.

636-644 First Avenue, New York, U. S. A.

AEROPLANES MADE TO ORDER

Send Drawings for Estimates on all Special Machines My work is first class, ask lor list of satisfied customers

W. C. DURGAN

115 Brown Street :: Syracuse, N. Y.

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids l}4 diameter and under any length.

804-810 Jefferson St., Hoboken, N. J.

J. DELTOUR, Inc.

Wright Hydroaeroplane School now open at Glen Head, L. I.

Wright Flyers

1912 Models

In addition to those features which in the past have made Wright Flyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the new models can be furnished with Automatic Control, Silent Motors, and Hydroplanes. These special features make the 1912 machine unusually attractive to sportsmen.

Exhibition Machines

For exhibition work we have other models especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "EX" Model that Rodgers made his wonderful flight from Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.

Wright Schools of Aviation

Training consists of actual flying, in which the pupil is accompanied by a competent teacher. No risk and no expense whatever from breakage. The most famous flyers in America are graduates of our school and include such names as—

Lieut. Arnold

Atwood

Brookins

Brindley

Bonney

Beatty

Burgess

Coffyn

Capt. Chandler

Drew Elton

Lieut. Foulois

Fowler

Gill

Lieut. Lahm Lieut. Milling Mitchell C. P. Rodgers

Lieut. Rodgers

Parmalee

Page

Reynolds

Simmons

Turpin

Welsh

Webster

And a score of others

Our Schools at Dayton and New York are now open and pupils may begin training at once if they wish. By enrolling now you can reserve date most convenient to you for training.

VVri'fe for Particulars

THE WRIGHT

DEPT A

COMPANY

DAYTON, OHIO

Hotel Cumberland

NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street

"Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 minutes, also 7th Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station

Headquarters for Aviators and Auto-mobilists.

a a 3

Jfi Hi!

New and Fireproof

Strictly first class. Rates reasonable.

$2.50

With Bath

and up

Send for booklet Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres

H. P. STIMSON

Formerly with Hotel Imperial

+ +

NAIAD

Aeronautical Cloth

Manufactured Especially for -— Aeroplanes--

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request

t The C. E. Conover Co.

£ MANUFACTURERS

f 101 Franklin St., New York

■■■■■■MHHM1MMMBMMMMB1H11MMMM111M1MMM11EH11M1I

AVIATION POWER PLANTS

s c o

T T

Again show their supremacy, in EXCELLENCE, RELIABILITY and EFFICIENCY

4th International Meet, Los Angeles

60%

Entrants had machines HALL-SCOTT equipped.

II. F. Kearny, ("Sure Shot Kearny"")

Tom Gunn, (Head of Chinese Gov't Aviation Corps)

Roy Francis, (Flying with Irving, Parachute jumper)

1C\r\oL Entrants used HALL-SCOTT equipment, IVJ\J /<J before close of meet.

Lincoln Beachev, (Greatest of all aviators) used HALL-SCOTT, 80 II. P. equipment for his sensational Drop of Death.

John Bryant, purchased HALL-SCOTT, 80 II. P. equipment, before close of meet.

Could you ask for any higher endorsement of HALL-SCOTT EQUIPMENT than this? Handsome catalogue sent on request.

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR COMPANY


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