Aeronautics

Volume 11 - No. 5 - 1912 November

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Price 25 Cents

►NTAINS ALL THE NEWS AERIAL

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Kirkham Motor Wins Again

w. t. thomas. m. e.. a. c. g. i. president qualified aviators

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Thomas Brothers

Mechanical Engineers Designers and Builders of Aeroplanes

aeroplanes

propellers

hydroaeroplanes

September 17, 1912.

pupils instructed

C. B. KIRKHAM, BATH, N. Y.,

Savona, N. Y. Dear Sir:—

You will doubtless be interested in hearing of the latest success we have achieved with

your motor which we are using in one of our standard exhibition biplanes.

At the Aviation Meet, held at the New York State Fair, at Syracuse, New York,

September 9-14th, our Mr. Walter E. Johnson, with one of your 65 horse power motors made a

clean sweep of the speed events, as the following official times indicate: 10-Mile Race. Monday, September 9th.

1st. W. E. Johnson, 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 10'42l"

2nd. B. Havens, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time. 14' 10"

3rd. W. B. Hemstrought. 60 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 14' 15i". 15-Mile Race, Saturday, September 14th.

1st. W. E. Johnson, 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 16' 111"

2nd. C. H. Niles, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time. 16' 26i"

3rd. \V. B. Hemstrought, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time,--4th. B. Havens, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total Time.---From the above figures you will see that our machine, driven by your engine, proved

itself SECOND TO NONE.

We wish to express our complete satisfaction with the faultless manner in which the

engine ran throughout the races and the regular time with which the machine ticked off each lap

of the course.

It is worthy of notice that the Model 10AX, above mentioned, has been in active use throughout two whole seasons making exhibition flights, and the planes were in poor condition. FACTS ARE TRUER THAN FICTION. Wishing yon continued success, we are,

Yours very truly,

THOMAS BROTHERS,

By O. W. Thomas.

YOU want this motor in YOUR plane if you expect to fill your contracts on time Better investigate to-day New Catalog sent on request

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM

MOTOR DEPT.

Savona, N. Y.

The Only

IMPROVED

Propeller

' SHjp mtlyj JlroppUrr that ta alfiu a 3Uy-I01iM'

The Only PATENTED Propeller

trade mark

patented march 14. 1911; july 25 1911: october 17. 1911: other patents pending

PARAGONS hold a special grip on all who strive for the highest and best—those who appreciate the maximum of strength, safety, service and efficiency as exemplified by the modern, highly developed and improved propellers known as Paragons.

Paragons are made and carried in stock in three grades:

Grades A and B are the strongest, most perfect, most beautiful and most efficient propellers in the world Their durability is so great we can afford to insure Grade A against all accidents of any kind while on the machine,—even at these prices—§45 to §58, according to pitch, for the 1\ ft. size. Other sizes accordingly. Grade B has all the strength of Grade A and nearly the toughness at a cheaper price. Grade C is made of beautiful hard Cherry throughout. In strength, durability and efficiency there is no other propeller equal to them (excepting our Grades A and B) either in the United States or abroad. Only $31 to §41 for the 1\ ft. size. Other sizes accordingly.

FOR HYDRO-AEROPLANES we are furnishing many Three-Bladed Paragons at only one and one-half times above prices. For hard service Paragons are pre-eminent, they never split.

Get our Information Blank, our Descriptive Matter and our Suggestions gratis, and be wise about PARAGONS. Visit our new factory. Inspect our goods, our specially designed machinery and other equipment. Seeing is believing.

With every Paragon, furnished upon full information as to the engine and machine, as provided on our printed form, we. give an absolute and unqualified guarantee not only that the propeller trill be perfect in itself but that it will be perfectly adapted to the requirements of the machine that it is to drive.

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.

BURGESS HYDRO TRAINING IS

PRACTICAL

^[Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flyer over Marblehead Harbor. <|The proximity of our manufacturing plant offers pupils an opportunity at no extra cost to become thoroughly familiar with the construction and design of the very latest types of air and water craft. We are now building hydro-aeroplanes, aeroplanes and flying boats for the U. S. Army and Navy. <jWe assume all risk of breakage and provide hydro-aeroplane for license test. CjBoth the U. S. Army and Navy send their officers to the Burgess school for training.

Chief Instructor: Phillips W. Page, Licensed aviator ^[Aeroplanes and hydro-aeroplanes for sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery. Booklet with full particulars on request. Flying at Marblehead until January. Winter school announcement later.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

£5 Licensees under the Wright Patents

BOSCH

Records—Of Course

NEW SPEED RECORD

Vedrines at Chicago, 111.

109 MILES AN HOUR

NEW ALTITUDE RECORD

Legagneux, France

18,761 FEET

GORDON-BENNETT CUP

Vedrines at Chicago, 111.

FASTEST TIME FOR THIS TROPHY

THESE new records are only a few of the long list evidencing Bosch superiority in the various phases of aeronautics. No aviator could hardly expect to accomplish maximum results without a perfect ignition system.

Be Satisfied, Specify Bosch Magneto and Bosch Spark Plugs

Bosch Magneto Company

223-225 W. 46th STREET, NEW YORK

Gyroscopic Force and Aeroplanes

By MATTHEW B. SELLERS

ERONAUTICS has received a number of letters ascribing some recent aeroplane accidents to gyroscopic force, and it may therefore be in order, to say a few words about it for the benefit of the lay reader. Gyroscopic action is well understood, and the force exerted can be calculated by means of a simple equation.

When the axle of a rotating wheel is tipped in any direction, so as to change the plane of the wheel's rotation, then a force is generated which presses the end of the axle at right angles to the direction of tip, i. e. causes the wheel to twist round in that direction. This force is known as the deflecting or precessional force and continues only as long as the direction of the wheel's axis is being changed. This statement while incomplete is sufficient for the present purpose. Precessional force is directly proportional to the moment of inertia of the rotating body, to the rate of rotation and rate of inclination of the axis.

If the top of an aeroplane's propeller, looked at from behind turns to the right, then when the plane is turned to the right, the precessional force will tend to make the machine dive, and if turned to the left will tend to make it rear. If the head of the machine is turned downward it will tend to make the machine turn to the left.

The Seguin Bros, found that a fifty-horsepower Gnome, mounted on a platform which made one complete horizontal revolution in 12 seconds, tended to turn in a vertical plane with a force of 58 lbs. at 39" radius. This means that if an aeroplane makes a complete circle in 12 seconds, or any turn at that rate, say 30° in one second, then this much force will be exerted to make it dive or rear. An aeroplane might be tipped

suddenly downward or upward 30° in y2 second, in which case the force due to the motor would be 116 lbs. at 39", or about 20 lbs. on the rudder (monoplane). The speed of the Gnome tested has not been given out, save that it was normal, or about 1200 r.p.m.

It must however be remembered that the propeller also, exerts gyroscopic force, which, for a large heavy propeller may be greater than that of the engine referred to. In Dr. Zahm's interesting article on gyroscopic force, published in the Scientific American Supplement of March 2nd, 1912, the moment of a Gnome engine is given as 52.6 lbs., while that of an 8 ft. 17 lb. propeller was 74.5 lbs. Therefore, for the same speeds, the gyroscopic force of the engine would be seven-tenths that of the propeller. It is important to provide for the effect of gyroscopic force on the framework, engine mounting, etc. It seems to be the general experience of aviators that gyroscopic force while noticeable is not troublesome; and if it be as dangerous as some people would have us believe, it seems, that, under ordinary conditions, it would be more noticeable and give more trouble than it does. It may however, together with other causes, have contributed its part in bringing about some accidents, which, without it, would have been avoided.

If, therefore, it is desired to eliminate or decrease gyroscopic force, I propose to drive the propeller from the Gnome engine by spur (or other) gear. The engine and propeller will then rotate in opposite directions, and with proper proportioning of weight the gyroscopic force can be neutralized. (The engine frame can extend around in front of the engine to form bearing for the engine and propeller shafts.)

(Editor's Note:—The proposal of Mr. Sellers is not patented and the idea is given to the public.)

By ORVILLE WRIGHT

[I F motors could be entirely non-I gyroscopic, it would be an advan-I tage. Gyroscopic effect of the heavy rotating motors is no doubt quite troublesome, as it effects the balance of a flying machine. Every time the course of the machine is changed either upward or downward, the gyroscopic effect of the motor causes one wing to be raised and the other wing to be depressed and every time the machine is struck by a wind gust which lifts one wing, the gyroscopic effect of a motor causes the machine to either turn upward or downward, according to the di-

rection of the rotation of the motor. However, the gyroscopic effect of the fly-wheel on our motor is so slight that only an expert can ever notice it at all. No accident that has ever occured on our machines has been due to this cause. I do not believe that many of the accidents on the other machines can be accounted for in this way. If motors could be made non-gyroscopic without adding to their complication, they would be desirable, but the trouble from this source is so slight in all motors excepting those having revolving cylinders that it is not worth bothering with,

From Earle L. Ovington

SfiSfiSfitfffliR SEE in your October issue that jjj t yj Mr. Thomas Preston Brooke has * A jfi favored you with a select line of iftftftHftfi abuse. This is no doubt due to the fact that you have failed to publish the various articles which he has sent you advertising his motor.

Mr. Brooke has written articles damning the rotary motor such as ordinarily used, claiming that the terrible gyroscopic force generated is what killed most of the aviators. Mr. Brooke has not only flooded the American aeronautic press with his self-advertising literature, but has also sent a liberal supply of it to the English aeronautic journals.

Probably owing to the fact that there are no prominent manufacturers of rotary aeronautic motors in this country, Mr. Brooke's nonsense has been allowed to pass without criticism so far, but it seems to me high time that some one took steps to counteract the effects of these false statements which he has made regarding the rotary aero motor.

I first met Mr. Brooke at Chicago during the aviation meet there. He told me, as he did most of the other aviators on the field, that they would sooner or later get killed if they persisted in flying with rotary motors. He had a little- model with which he endeavored to demonstrate his theories. This model was a series-wound electric motor with the shaft extending on either end. To the ends of the shaft were attached comparatively large fly wheels with most of their weight in the periphery. Mr. Brooke then ran this motor at a speed which I estimated to be between 4000 and 5000 revolutions per second and invited you to hold the arrangement in your hand and try and change the plane of rotation of the revolving flywheels rapidly. Of course if you did this, there was an enormous gyroscopic effect. Therefore, you would get killed if you used a rotary motor in an aeroplane.

But Mr. Brooke's model did not in any way illustrate the conditions in practice. In the first place, any one acquainted with a series-wound electric motor knows that its tendency is to go faster and faster with practically no speed limit as you feed it electric current. In other words, the more current you feed it, the faster it will go until something breaks if you feed it enough electricity. Now the speed of a rotary engine, such as used in aeroplanes, is nor-maly about 1200 revolutions per minute, and Mr. Brooke's model revolved at about four times that speed. The gyroscopic effect is proportional to the scjuare of the SDeed of rotation and, hence, Mr. Brooke had in his little model on account of the increased speed alone no less than sixteen times as

much gyroscopic effect as you get at a speed of 1200 revolutions per minute.

But he was not satisfied with this. He used two fly wheels which were very much heavier in proportion to the total weight of the entire mechanism than any rotary engine is compared with the entire weight of the aeroplane in which it is used. Roughly estimating, I should say that his fly wheels weighed twice as much as his motor and the base upon which it was mounted. This of course would result in a very much greater gyroscopic effect in proportion than you get in actual practise.

Still not satisfied, (such a greediness!) Mr. Brooke had no damping means on his mechanism. Now a rotary motor mounted in an aeroplane has its gyroscopic effect reduced on account of the damping action of the wings of the machine as well as the other canvas covered surfaces, such as the tail, elevator, and rudder.

Even allowing Mr. Brooke all the handicap which he gave himself, I grasped his model running at full speed and moved it at about the same relative speed through the air as one would make in a "vol plane" in an aeroplane, and changed the plane of rotation of the revolving fly wheels at about the same speed one would in practise when flying. The gyroscopic effect was almost negligible. The only time when you got a •pronounced effect was when you jerked his model around at- a speed which no man could possibly turn an aeroplane were he fool enough to try it.

There are enough impediments in the path of the development of the heavier-than-air flying machine without looking for a lot of imaginary bug-a-boos, and I claim that this gyroscopic bug-a-boo is one of the greatest with which aviation has been troubled. "Rocking chair aviators" have written lengthy letters to editors of aeronautic papers expounding their theories upon the danger of gyroscopic force in rotary aeroplane motors. And yet you haven't found a single aviator who has had any extensive experience with rotary motors complaining of the gyroscopic effect. If you will pardon me for mentioning my own flying career, I will say that I believe I covered more miles in a monoplane driven by a rotary motor, during the season of 1911, than any other American aviator, or I might go further and say than any other aviator in America, whatever his natiomlity. I made one hundred and seven flights in my Gnome driven Bleriot and I had a seventy horsepower, seven cylinder, rotating engine. If any one was going to be troubled with gyroscopic effect, I certainly should have been, and yet I can swear that in all of my flying career I have never noticed

any gyroscopic effect in the air. And I

doubt whether you can get any aviator of experience who will acknowledge that this gyroscopic effect has troubled him in the slightest.

Mr. Brooke acknowledges in his letter that Paul Peck found no difficulty from gyroscopic effect in his aeroplane, although he used a motor of the rotating type. Mr. Brooke further claims that Mr. Peck's death was due to the gyroscopic effect of his motor. Now it is a very easy matter to blame the rotary motor for Peck's death, particularly when poor little Peck is not here to say anything about it one way or the other. Mr. Brooke tells us all about the deadly gyroscopic effect in rotary motors driven by aviators who have been killed, but I notice he doesn't attack very vigorously the aviators who are still in the land of the living.

Now gyroscopic force, so-called, (for it is really not a force at all), follows certain well-defined and comparatively simple laws in spite of the fact that some people try to shroud the action of the gyroscope in mystery. If the gyroscopic effect is present in one case, it is present in another under exactly similar circumstances. In other words, if it has killed so many aviators, it certainly should trouble the aviators who are living at the present time and flying machines driven by rotary engines. And yet I have never found a practical aviator who has been willing to acknowledge that Mr. Brooke knew what he was talking about.

It is hardly necessary for me to say that I am not interested in one way or the other in rotary motors, nor connected in any way commercially with aviation. My opinion is not biased one way or the other. Mr. Brooke's opinion on the other hand, is decidedly biased, since he manufactures a motor in which he claims to do away with the gyroscopic effect. Brooke had one of these motors on exhibition at the Chicago meet in

1911. That was some time ago, and yet I notice that aviators, in any quantity at least, are not using Mr. Brooke's motor; in fact, I never heard of any flight of any importance being made with his motor.

It seems to me-that it would be far better policy on Mr. Brooke's part to get busy and prove to the world that his motor was what he claimed it to be, instead of wasting time throwing mud at the manufacturers of rotary motors which now hold practically all of the world's records. His attack upon you, it seems to me, is also uncalled for. You, as editor of your paper, do not care probably one way or the other whether the rotary motor or the motor having stationary cylinders proves to be the most efficient for aeronautic use. Your idea is to simply present to your readers subjects which will be of interest to those following the development of the aeroplane. And personally I do not see how any one can blame you for not publishing the articles written by a man whose sole purpose is to advertise his own product.

Our friend, Darwin, a few years ago expounded a theory which he called, "the survival of the fittest". If Mr. Brooke's motor is the most wonderful motor that ever was invented for aeronautic use, aviators will not be long in finding it out, but until he has been able to do what other manufacturers of engines have done it seems to me it would be better for him to conserve his energy and extend a little more of it on the development of his engine rather than in throwing mud upon a type of motor, which in practise at least has proved itself far superior to anything which he has ever evolved.

To the Editor: —

Very truly yours, (Signed) Earle L. Ovington, Newton Highlands, Mass., October 18, 1912.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

DIE DEUTCHEN PATENTS UBER FLUGAPPARATE By Dr. Alexander Katz

This brochure, large octavo, 750 pages, 924 illustrations, covers all Germain aero patents from 1S79 to June 30, 1911, classified under 10 different headings. Published at 25 M. by M. Kryan, Kurfiirstenstrasse 11. Berlin, TV. 57, Germany.

BRITISH MILITARY AEROPLANE TRIALS By A. E. Berriman

This is a valuable little pamphlet, with the results of the competition analyzed and tabulated; being a reprint of the matter previously published in "Flight." Dr. Berriman's new coefficient "x" is explained and applied. Obtainable at "Flight," 44 St. Martin's Lane, London, W. C., at 14 cents postpaid.

GASOLINE ENGINES, THEIR OPERATION, USE AND CARE, by A. Hyatt Verrill. 320 pp. 150 illustrations. Published at $1.50 by Norman YV. Henly Publishing Co., 132 Nassau St., New York. Describing what the Gasoline Engine Is; its construction am»I operation; how to install it; how to select it; how to use it anu how to remedy troubles encountered. Intended for Owners, Operators, and Users of Gasoline Motors of all kinds.

This work fully describes and illustrates tht> various types of Gasoline Engines used In Motor Boats, Motor Vehicles and Stationary Work. The parts, accessories and appliances are described, with chapters on ignition, fuel, lubrication, operation and engine troubles. Special attention is given to the care, operation and repair of motors with useful hints and sug gestions on emergency repairs and make-shifts.

A New System of Supporting Surfaces For Flying Machines

RD. Andrews, at a meeting of the Boston Aeronautical Society on April 6, 1911, • showed gliding models embodying the principles of his system of surfaces and outlined a theory of their behavior. Some nine months later, early in 1912, there appeared in print an account of laboratory tests by the celebrated French engineer, M. Gustave Eiffel, on surfaces similar in essentials to those reported on by Mr. Andrews, and lately the B. A. S. issued a bulletin on Mr. Andrews' work.

In its simplest form the new system consists of two surfaces of equal size placed tandem and slightly inclined downward towards each other. "From this arrangement of two surfaces, properly adjusted, is obtained a degree of fore and aft stability not found by any other arrangement," states the bulletin, "and an efficiency, at certain flying angles, greater than the efficiency of either surface alone."

Ki

°v-.

   

0

 

v

   
     

0

       
   

\'

n

"N

 

\

 
 

\

"\

0

 

V

   
   

v\ ';

0

   

\ W !

\\ :

 
   

\ \ ■

m! \\

1

rl n

   

\\ ,\\

\.

,1"

\

   

1 1

l

1

J r

   

r

 
     

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r

       
   

1 r

       
       

-s | ojk <3 -5 1.0

20" jo' w 50' de la cords de L f/ayue afant ct du vent

Dispostltf I

K0.02 0.01 0.00

fig 07- — Smf.iccs i

._...+......—d'—ir

__*___d'—llt.

______A,k uniyue.

indent i<ol.iiiei cl cciitn.* de pouss^e.

"To make a flying machine stable it must he designed so that any rotation about auj axis will be opposed by a constantly increasing righting force which will come into existence with the disturbing force and will increase while the disturbing force decreases, Just this condition appears to exist with the Andrews system with regard to fore and aft stability, that is, rotation about the lateral axis. Any force tending to make the

machine dive, is opposed by a strong downward pressure upon the rear surface which brings the machine back to a safe position, and any force tending to raise the front surface is opposed by the sudden and g'reaf increase of lift on the rear surface which occurs under these conditions. The result of this would appear to be that the Andrews system will maintain an angle between its fore and aft axis and the surrounding air stream, which is approximately constant. This is shown by the gliding models which make a flight path which is straight aud not undulating like the flight paths of other systems. It would also appear to be impossible to move the fore and aft axis away a safe position by a wrong movement of the control surfaces, because the righting force produced by the rear surface will always be greater than any force introduced by the tecessarily smaller horizontal rudder.

"Mr. Andrews has shown that it is possible t.o maintain a glide having a fall of one in *ight. He has shown that if dropped from a height the glider will right itself and take a safe gliding angle to the ground, and he has also shown that the effect of a gust of wind on the glider is to move it bodily without disturbing, to any dangerous extent, its position relative to the horizon. All of these characteristics are inherent in the Andrews system and not dependent upon conscious control. This system must not be confused with the systems of tandem surfaces used by Ilargraves, Langley or Montgomery.

"These latter systems have no inherent fore and aft stability, as the experiments of Eiffel show. What stability was obtained by Langley and Montgomery was due to the large tail surface at a negative angle, and the stability of the Hargraves kite is due to the side planes and its large angle of incidence.

"Turning now to the experiments of M. Eiffel* we find they show the same results claimed by Andrews, so far as fore and aft stability is concerned.

"From these experiments we learn that at angles of seven degrees and higher the second system is more efficient than either of the others or than one surface alone. Also, with the second and third systems the center of pressure moves forward and continuously as the angle decreases, so long as the press-' ure is upward. When tin pressure becomes downward it jumps bacl< to the rear edge and so it still exerts a righting force. This condition makes for inherent fore and aft stability, and is not found in any system of surfaces in use on machines now flying. The fact about existing systems now in use, which makes them dangerous, is that as the flying angle decreases, say from fifteen to

*~A synopsis of these experiments will be found in AERONAUTICS for March and April.

(Continued on Page 182)

Experiments on the Fiesse Surface

I HE experiments have been made, on the electric chariot,

T)&X at speeds comprised between jH^j 17 and 23 meters per second, cg$ at the Institute Aerotechnique of the University of Paris.

In the following table, P represents the lift or vertical pressure or action of the air on the total surface formed of the two elements in tandem; T the drift or horizontal action of the air cn the same double surface. These two forces are given in kilograms, the air being considered at a temperature of 15° and a pressure of 760 millimeters. V represents the spe^d in meters per second.

Ky and Kx represent the "unitaires" coefficients as related to the square meter, which

P T

means that they are the quotients of — or —

by the total surface cf the two elements, which is 9.5 square meters.

p represents the lift on the first suiface alone on the installation, and Ky represents the corresponding coefficient "unitaire," that is the P

quotient cf — by the surface of the element.

that is 4.75 square meters.

Accordingly, the lift or vertical action, or the drift or horizontal action of the air on the double suiface at a speed V are given by

Ky X 9.5 X V2

= (^)VS = K*X 9-5 X Vs

and T

and the lift or vertical action cn the first surface alrne is given by

4.75 V2

I ">l ~V —„'— —L 1

TABLE

 

TOTAL SURFACE FORMED

BY THE TWO ELEMENTS

The First Kit

ment Alone

i

P

T

   

T Kx

Angle

P

 
     

K

K"

 

of the result-

 

K'y

       

x

P Kr

ant witli

 
       

the vertical

   

0,273

0,0282

0,0287

0.00296

0,103

5° 53'

0,190

0,0400

0,330

0,0280

0,0347

0,00294

0,085

4n 52'

0,220

0,0464

0,386

0,0292

0,0406

0,00307

0,0755

4° 20'

0,249

0,0522

0,443

0,0336

0,0466

0,00353

0,076

4^ 21'

0,275

0.0579

0,505

0,0412

0,0531

0,00433

0,0815

4 40'

0,305

0.0641

10°

0,568

0,0536

0,0597

0,00564

0,094

5° 23'

0,333

0,0700

12°

0,633

0.0720

0,0666

0,00757

0,114

6° 30'

0,357

0,0752

14°

0,700

0.0963

0,0736

0,01013

0,138

7° 52'

0,377

0,0795

16°

0.760

0,130

0,0800

0,0136

0,171

9° 42'

0,388

0,0817

18°

0,800

0,170

0,0842

0,0178

0,213

12°

0.352

0,0741

20°

 

0,348 !

0,0733

The angles i indicated are those of the plane part AB which supports the installation of the surfaces with the horizontal; the chord of the elements forms with AB an angle of 2° 50'. A

to the first element alone shows that the first element sustains moie than the second. This is shown by the position of the centre of pressure.

POSITION OF THE CENTER OF PRESSURE ON THE SURFACE FORMED OF THE TWO ELEMENTS. The centre of pressure, that is the point where the resultant of the actions of the air cuts the surface, is on the first element; its distance from the front edge of that element passes by a minimum equal to 53 centimeters for <=8 or 9°, and increases very slowly for lesser incidences, a few centimeters only till i=0°, and a little more rapidly for greater incidences till 66 centimeters for i=18°. The displacement of the centre of pressure in function of inclination is therefore very small.

REMARKS ON THE RESULTS. The comparison of the coefficients "unitaires" Ky and K'y relative to the complete surface and

A New System of Supporting Surfaces for Flying Machines

(Continued from Page 130)

three degrees, and while the pressure is still upward, the center of pressure moves towards the rear, whereas, to produce a righting force, it should move forwards. With regard to lateral stability Eiffel has nothing

to say concerning this system; but Mr. Andrews states that his experience with a great variety of models of this type leads him to believe that this system has a very large measure of lateral stability also, much more than exists in the present flying machine, and he thinks that with this design lateral stability attends fore and aft stability. It is, of course, difficult to test in the laboratory

P

The inflection of the values of — or K'y above

V2

16° has been verified in repeating the mesures for those inclinations, that inflection is, however, without importance Irom a practical point of view, for it corresponds to inclinations notably greater than the inclination in flying.

NOTE BY MATTHEW B. SELLERS

Mr. Fiesse proposes to use this arrangement of planes in the construction of a hydro which is now under way and a side elevation of which is here shown.

While the efficiency of the two surfaces tested is gratifying it does not necessarily follow that a larger number of surfaces so arranged will show the same efficiency.

for lateral stability, and the only way this can be tested satisfactorily is by the flight of a full-sized machine. Mr. Andrews, of course, intends to use horizontal and lateral controls in connection with his system, but the advantage of his system over all others seems to be safety in handling, as a false move or a gust could not stall the machine easily or cause it to dive. The illustration represents the Andrews system as applied to the fusilage of a monoplane."

NOTE BY MATTHEW B. SELLERS

Many years ago it was proposed that a rear plane at a negative angle to front plane (i. e., forming a dihedral angle opening upward), promoted stability. But it was thought that this disposition reduced efficiency and the rear plane was made small, acting chiefly as stabilizer. It remained for M. Eiffel to show that at large angles the efficiency of this arrangement was greater than that of a single plane. It would seem, however, that Mr. Andrews is the first to use a rear plane as large as the front one disposed in this way.

These experiments were made for Chas. Fiesse, of 702 G. St.t/ Washington, N. E. Mr. Fiesse has been long an experimentor in aerodynamics.

An Analysis of Flight*

By GEORGE A. SPRATT, Jr.

APPLICATIONS

Under this heading the theory advanced is briefly applied to the construction and flight of the bird and the diptera iu order that attention may be directed to those points where conformity is to be looked for.

The bird and its wing is far more than a flying mechanism just as a quadruped is far more than a locomotive. The wild horse upon the prairie, in a unit, represents the producing plant, the repair shops, the surveying forces, track construction forces, the watchmen and engine crew, and the vast office and field force that sees to obtaining fuel and water and all other materials for maintaining the organization; in fact, the whole system and its management with the added great convenience that, if business is dull, a new region can be occupied at the speed rate of the rolling stock. On the other hand, the locomotive represents an exceedingly small part of the anatomy of the horse, a few principles that, after acceptance, are again divested of much in order that concentration to the purposes of man may be gained. In order that he may possess the jewel, as ever, he has excavated and washed away tons of less desirable material, and then with labor and patience refined and polished.

The fundamental principles of flight lie within the wing, as does the lever in the leg, but the wing is not that principle. To take the form of the wing and apply it to the aeroplane is as crude logic to follow as to take the form of the leg and apply it to the locomotive. To excel nature in so doing could hardly be expected. The wing embraces so much more than a perfect application of the principles that those principles are obscured unless the observer has a clear conception of them.

Let figure 4 represent a gull. At A the section of the curved portion of the wing is shown with its relative position to the

a b

centre of weight. At B is shown the double curve so well marked in the long-winged sea birds. In all birds, and in bats, the arched portion of the wing is carried high. It is so with the elytra of the beetle. The friction pressure represented by a, figure 3, is great in the wing, for bone and muscle are housed within, and consequently the height of the arc of the wing above the centre of weight is less than the radius of

*Begun in the August number. See also. AEKOXAUTICS for March, 1908, for previous article by Mr. Spratt

the curvature. The points o and n, figure 3, lie proportionately near the wing surface.

By lowering this portion of the wings the centre of pressure o is lowered relatively to the centre of weight, and a couple results which causes rotation forward, likewise raising the wings causes rotation backward. By such adjustment the course is deflected downward or upward without invoking any additional surface pressure or resistance.

The flattened extremity of the wing partakes much of the nature of a thickened plane. In gliding the extremities are brought low in order that no couple may result from the pressure against them, and when the wings are raised or lowered this pressure increases the value of the couple. Let it be noticed that, when a couple is formed either for the purpose of directing the course or otherwise, it should be, and is, formed upon the line representing the resistance to advance, and, therefore, the motion of the wings, under ordinary conditions, is upward and forward, or downward or backward. These adjustments are very apparent in the gull, as he leisurely wanders over the water in search of food, especially so if the breeze is fitful.

By extending one wing and shortening the other, which in effect is to draw or swing the body, and therefore the centre of weight toward the other wing extremity, see figure 5A, a couple results which rotates the whole, causing the shortened wing to descend and the extended wing to rise. Gravity is resolved as a result of this poise, see figure 5B; a horizontal force propels toward the lowered wing and the course deflects in response. The resultant of the head resistance, which formerly was perpendicular to the forward margin of the wings and passed through the centre of weight, has now moved on to the lowered wing, since the course has become deflected with the lowered wing more or less in the advance. A couple results, which ro-

tates the whole about the vertical. See figure 5C. Therefore, again, the bird directs its course to right or left, Avithout presenting any surface or resistance, for that purpose.

The pressure always tends to place the longest axis perpendicular to the course, and always does so when the centre of weight and centre of the surface coincides, or when a line passing through the centres of weight and pressure passes perpendicularly through the centre of the surface.

A surface circularly arched to include the proper number of degrees develops a greater lifting pressure than a surface of any other form. It is the most stable form when properly used. Very wisely that portion of the wing' nearest the weight centre of the bird, and anatomically the most firmly braced to the body, is the most nearly circularly arched, and the most deeply curved. As the distance from the body increases the wing has increasing freedom of motion, and the curvature uniformly merges into a flattened extremity that, in some wings more than in others, is capable of presenting a concave, plane or convex surface.

The effect peculiar to that curvature near the body is obtainable, however, through-cut the whole extent of the wing by establishing the same relation of curvature in the path through which the wing is struck, as has been shown experimentally in a former paper, or, in this same manner, the effect peculiar to the circular arc may be obtained in the stroke throughout the wing.

The amount of pressure upon a surface is determined by its velocity relative to the air. It is the velocity of the wing in contra-distinction to the velocity of the body that sustains and propels. The stroke of the wing must be observed, not only in its relations to the air, but also in its relations to the centre of weight.

The stroke of the pigeon's wing, as the bird changes its place in the flock while feeding, is a downward forward curve, the chord of which is almost horizontal. The velocity of the bird is not sufficient for support, the curved portion of the wing, because of its fixed attachment to the body is of little value, but support is obtainable . from such stroke of the extremity. Excepting that the wing is brought back flexed the extremity describes a flattened ellipse. As the velocity of the body increases, and the curved portions increasingly yield support, the stroke changes to a circular path about the centre of weight in the reverse direction to that of a carriage wheel, gradually becoming vertical as the pressure from the flattened extremity is increasingly utilized for thrust. When that velocity is attained at which the desired amount of weight is carried by the curved portion, the stroke becomes cir-

cular in direction as the carriage wheel revolves and gives to the bird the appearance of rowing. The wing extremity now yields thrust sufficient to maintain that desired velocity.

The path described through the air by the wing extremity is such as will produce the desired relation of curvature. If the path is a straight line, there is rotation of fehe wing extremity; if the path is arched, the resultant pressure of the stroke bisects the arc and its chord and passes through the centre of weight.

This is more clearly illustrated in figure 6, in which this theory is applied to the flight of the dyptera. Here the dotted line represents the arc described by the extremity of a wing of this type. The arrow shows the direction of its movement along the arc. At A the advance stroke is shown, and at B the return stroke. The plane is set at a slight positive angle to its path and the perpendicular lines from its leading half represent the convergence of the resultant pressure to a common centre x from consecutive points along its path. The forward edge of the wing is shown leading in the advance stroke A; the rear edge as leading in the return stroke.

In the two figures A and B, the centre of convergence x, which is the centre of pressure for the stroke, occurs at opposite sides of the centre of the arc (x1) described by the path. If the advance and the return stroke are to have a common pressure centre, the path of the advance stroke must be in advance of the path of the return stroke. In so making them they describe a figure eight, as shown at C, D, and E.

It is possible, therefore, that from such wing motion the fly can present a centre of pressure and a centre of weight whose relative positions can control the poise and the course of flight. At C a position of hovering is shown. Here the centre of weight is below the centre of pressure, and both are on the same line of gravity; therefore there is no couple. If the pressure is greater than the weight, the body rises vertically; if less, the body descends vertically: if they are equal, the body hovers. Inertia absorbs the effects of the

variation in the direction of the resultant pressure from the consecutive points along the path of the rapidly vibrating wings, and the arc of the stroke can be considered in the same light as is the arched surface, except that the pressure direction is reversed and is here centripetal. At D the position of advancing flight is shown. Here the chord of the arc is inclined forward. Gravity is resolved against the arc of the stroke and a horizontal component propels. At E a similarly produced backward movement is illustrated. In like manner a horizontal component of gravity can be formed by operating one wing in a higher plane than the other, which will act to force the body sidewise.

* * *

Much of the foregoing may be summed up and its purpose, perhaps, made clearer in a comparison between watercraft and the aeroplane.

The watercraft is suspended between two fluids of different densities. The hull is so disposed that this difference in the density is preserved, the lighter above and the denser beneath the surface the hull presents. A pressure against the under side, which is equal to the weight of the craft, results.

The aeroplane is immersed in but one fluid, but which offers a resistance to motion, and whose density is disturbed by motion. At a certain speed a pressure equal to the weight is produced, which is preserved against tne under side, and

which acts much the same as the differ-erence in the densities of the fluids of the watercraft.

In watercraft originally equilibrium might have been obtained by outrigged floats, but with the recognition of the meta-centre, a form evolved that is more stable, stauncher, more serviceable and more economically operated than is possible of attainment with outrigged floats.

In the aeroplane, at the present time, equilibrium is obtained by outrigged vanes, but when the point herein described as the centre of pressure is recognized a form will evolve that will be more stable, stauncher, more serviceable and more economically operated than is possible of attainment with outrigged vanes.

The foregoing covers but briefly the main points of a theory that has gradually developed from laboratory experiments and observations, that has for several years withstood close search for contrary evidence and has fulfilled actual application in so far as I have been able to carry such tests.

It is here offered in the hope that it may find an influence in advancing the development of the perfect aeroplane. For this device, with the locomotive and the steamship, will take its place as a force of civilization. A far greater place, for its pathway is the ever present boundless air; the greatest force yet entrusted to man and destined to both invite and compel lives worthy of the common brotherhood of man. (Concluded)

GOOD MARKET FOR AEROPLANES IN NORWAY

A splendid market in Norway for the sale of aeroplanes, especially hydroplanes, is overlooked by American mamufacturers. Aeroplanes were introduced into Norway only six or eight months ago, when the army officials purchased two Maurice Farmam biplanes of the military type, with 70-horseipower Renault motors, and the navy officials bought a "Rumpler-Taube" with a lUO-horsepower N. A. G. motor. Besides these machines a civil engineer in Christiania has purchased a "Grade" aeroplane and the Norsk. Flyveselskab (Norwegian Aero Club) has bought a "Deperdussim" monoplane with 70-horsepower Gnome motor.

In the near future, it is stated, both the army amd navy will be in the market for additional aeroplanes, as their value for war purposes is recognized by the department chiefs of the Norwegian army and navy. The general public a'so affords a splendid opportunity for the sale of aeroplanes, as their use as a sport particularly appeals to Norwegians, who are a sport-loving people, and with their "skiing" are used to performing feats of balancing and flying through the air. Many people in Christiania can afford the sport of flying aeroplanes and hydroplanes; the latter might supplant, in part at least, the large number of small yachts constantly used on the harbors and fjords

Many yachtsman and others who devote much time to sports state that a reliable hydroplane, not too expensive, would find ready sale here if properly demonstrated. No manufacturer has as yet considered it worth while to demonstrate a machine in Christiania and the first who does so should find an excellent mar-

ket. Names of members of the local aeroplane club may be obtained by addressing the secretary of the Norsk Flyveselskab. Horr Drifts-bestyrer Barth, Christiania Elektriske Sporvei, Christiania.

[From Consul General, Chailes A. Holdem, Christiana].

TRADE OPENING IN ARGENTINE

Manufacturers ought to be able to contest French trade in the Argentine Republic. * military school has recently been created with 4 monoplanes, 3 biplanes anil 7 .balloons at Buenos Ayres. The Aero Club of Argentine, at Buenos Ayres, is alive and has presented the .Government the balloons and 3 of the aeio-planes. The technical instruction remains under the Aero Club which has supplied the pilot instructors, instruments, et cetra, free of cost. There are 3 'plane pilots and \ instructors in aerostatics. There are no hydroaeroplanes in tho country.

The number of European aeroplane buildeis who specialize in both monoplanes and biplanes or at any rate in more than cne type, is steadily increasing. The following is a fairly complete list, hut even so mav not he exhaustive: —

AUSTRIAN: Etrich. BRITISH: Aeronautical Syndicate ("Valkyrie" mono and "viking" biplane). Avro, British and Colonial Aeroplane Co. (Bristol, Dunne, Howard Wright. Humber. Neale, Short Bros., FRENCH: Astra (biplanes and triplanes), Caudron. II. Faitnan, Paullian (monoplanes and triplanes).—Biplane apparently abandoned, Summer, GERMAN: Aviatik (German Farman) Euler (biplanes and triplanes), Rumpler (German made Etrich), ITALIAN: Bossi.

Symposium on Screw Standardization

Editor's Note:—

Some time ago the Aeronautical Society's committee, E. V. Lalliers, Chairman, obtained the views of several propeller makers on the subject of standardization. To an abstract of these, we have added two other opinions.

It would be desirable if engine builders would, in conjunction with propeller builders, arrive at a means to allow different makes of propellers to be quickly placed on the shafts. It is obvious that good would result to both sides. This is a matter which is also being considered by the Aeronautical Manufacturers Association.

GIBSON PROPELLER CO.

HE entire science of aerial propellers has mainly been evolved by the cut and try method because of the absence of any effective means for testing propellers of more than model dimensions and the term efficiency is now a very vague expression; but, after all, efficiency in flight is the vital desideratum in aerial propellers.

Therefore: Specify that propellers shall be rated in terms of the lbs. thrust delivered per h.p. at 30, 45, 60, and 75 miles per hour; thus in the case of one typical propeller it would be rated 7, 6, 5, 4, as representing that it develops seven lbs. thrust per h.p. at 30 miles per hour, six lbs. at 45 m.p.h., five lbs. at GO m.p.h. and four lbs. at 75 m.p.h.

Thus an aeroplane manufacturer would choose the above propeller for use with a machine designed to fly at 45 m.p.h. having 300 lbs. head resistance at that speed and equipped with a 50 h.p. engine; unless he could find another propeller which would give more, in which case so much the better for the business and everybody concerned.

In any case, if such standardization were adopted an aeroplane manufacturer would have something definite to work upon, and if he were assured of the propeller performance he would in the case of poor success of the whole machine, eliminate any doubts thereon from his mind and immediately attack the real root of the trouble.

The effect of such a standardization would be to call the attention of every manufacturer and user to this vital point, that all tests of propellers made by means of a scale or thrust reading device holding the machine anchored to the ground are deceptive and absolutely misleading. I make this statement without fear of contradiction by those who know the subject.

Further, propellers may be designed to be more effective at any desired speed and it is that consideration which concerns the user, and he should be so informed as to enable him to choose that which suits the circumstances best.

Coming back to the term "efficiency," I think it will be seen that the practical efficiency of a propeller is the work that it will do for the work that is done upon it, and that efficiency has nothing to do

with the ability of the propeller to travel axially through the air as fast as its pitch angle would provide or at any less or greater speed.

One propeller may be of maximum effectiveness at 40 m.p.h. and another equally effective at 60 m.p.h. and still each be of the same pitch.

It is very misleading for a user to have a propeller which is not marked as to its pitch, this feature of the propeller being more or less difficult of measurement by the average user with the ordinary methods at his command, and I, therefore, suggest that all propellers should be marked accurately as to diameter, pitch and direction of rotation.

Hubs might be standardized as to diameter but not as to length, and 1 suggest 6" dia. for 30 h.p., 7" dia. for 50 h.p., 8" dia. for 100 h.p., when run at engine speeds of say 1100 or 1200.

Flanges might also be standardized and considering the present high position of the Gnome engine I suggest the adoption of the Gnome flange as standard. It is made to metric sizes but involves a center hole of 2%" dia. and eight bolt holes of %" dia.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO.

WE think it would be a most excellent plan to standardize such features of the propeller as do not depend for their excellence upon the special skill in design or mode of construction, upon which the efficiency and general excellence of the propeller depends. To standardize these would be to put all propellers on a level as regards their excellence, and further development and improvement could only be made by departing from such standards as might be established.

Regarding the features which we think might be standardized to advantage, we would suggest that standard templets for hub boring be adopted by propeller makers in conjunction with engine builders, so that propellers of different manufacturers would be interchangeable on the same engine. !A series of, perhaps, three templets could be established, based upon the A. L. A. M. rating of the engine. Speaking off-hand, we would say that for less than 25 horsepower, a bolt-circle of 3V& inches might be adopted, using six % inch, or 5/16 inch bolts; for 25 to 75 horsepower, the circle might be 4 inches or 4*4 inches with six % inch bolts. For greater than 75 horse-

power, a circle of about 4y2 inches, or 5 inches might be adopted with eight % inch bolts, or possibly six 7/16 inch bolts. The center hole might also be standardized, if the engine manufacturers can be gotten together on this. We do not think the center hole should ever be more than 2y2 inches if it can be avoided.

The length of hub might also be standardized, and we would suggest 4y2 inches to 4% inches as a suitable hub length for 25 to 75 horsepower; for less power a length of Zy2 inches to 4 inches would probably be good.

The diameter of the propeller in relation to the size and weight of the entire machine, might also be a proper subject of standardization.

Many builders do not provide for a sufficient propeller diameter, not realizing that the efficiency depends very much upon the amount of traction obtained, and that this varies approximately as the square of the propeller diameter, hence the diameter should always be as large as possible (within reasonable limits) regardless of the power of the engine (the difference in pitch taking account of the available power and consequent flying speed).

With the advances that are being made in an experimental way to determine the flying head-resistance of different kinds and sizes of machines, at different speeds, it should be possible in the near future to lay down definite rules as to the number of square feet of area of propeller sweep per unit of head-resistance of the machine.

A most inviting field of calculation is opened up in this direction, which should be productive of the most useful engineering results leading, as it does, to the tabulating and diagraming of the necessary propeller diameters required for different percentages of efficiency as worked out from the flying thrust, or head-resistance at different speeds. As soon as this information becomes generally available, standards of propeller diameters will doubtless be definitely established.

Regarding competitive tests of propellers this, of course, to be of any value, would have to be carried on under practical flying conditions.

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.

S FAR as we can see, from our varied experience with propellers, it will always be impossible to standardize the diameter and pitch of all makes. The same diameter and pitch in two different makes of propellers will give entirely different results. For example, our regular Charavay type propeller for a 50 h.p. Gnome is 8 ft. diameter by 4% ft. pitch, while the propeller for the same engine of the Charavay Normale type has the same diameter with a 5 ft.

pitch. We have a propeller for the same engine for passenger-carrying, which has the same pitch as the first and a greater diameter. ,For speed work with that same engine you would use a smaller diameter and a greater pitch, depending upon the head-resistance to be overcome, and the speed desired. The diameter and pitch, and design of a propeller depend upon so many variables that it seems to me that it will be impossible to standardize these.

There is an opportunity, now, to standardize the hubs. There is no reason why we should not have a standard bolt circle for 20 to 35 h.p.; a larger sized bolt circle for 35 to 60 h.p.; and a larger one still for 60 to 100 h.p., and so on. The size of propeller bolts can also be standardized, a certain sized bolt for each sized bolt circle.

If possible, it would be a very good thing to standardize the central shaft-hole of the propeller. However, that depends on the size of the crank shaft of the engine, and it is probable that the manufacturers of engines will not come to a uniform size in cranks. It would be a very good thing if we could get the engine manufacturers to adopt a uniform size of crank shaft for the propeller.

Another thing which could be standardized and should be is the style of the hub itself. This should be made as simple and strong as possible and should be uniform in design for all sizes.

R. O. RUBEL, JR., & CO.

IN THE standardization of propellers will say that we are hardly in favor of this movement.

I hardlv believe that it is practical to have all propellers, regardless of diameter and pitch, to be of one standard size; but there is no doubt but \\hat it would give the manufacturers of propellers an opportunity to find out their weak points if we can get the motor builders to standardize their propeller shafts.

The only objectional feature which I can see at this time is that it will require at least one year to bring the manufacturers of power plants to anything like a standard size hub as it would require the change of their specifications and no doubt some of these manufacturers have already contracted for the necessary material to be used on the motors they will build this season.

THEODORE I. CAMP

The only attainable standard at present would be in the hub diameters, and, providing the engine makers could agree on it, the shaft hole diameter. For that matter, they could, as well as not, agree on the standard five hole flange such as we know has been used on the majority of the propellers iu the country today.

U. S. Army Aeroplane Specifications

HE Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army, Brigadier General James Allen, has issued specifications for the two types of aeroplanes the Army has decided are most serviceable. 'i hese requirements follow: A SPEED SCOUT MILITARY AEROPLANE (1) Carry one person with the seat located to permit of the largest possible field of observation; (2). Ascend at the rate of 1500 feet in three minutes while carrying fuel for one hour's flight; (3). Carry fuel for a three hour's flight; (4). Must be easily transportable by road, rail, etc,, and easily and rapidly assembled and adjusted; (5). The starting and landing devices must be part of the machine itself and it must be able to start without outside assistance; (6). The engine must be capable of throttling; (7). The engine will be subject to endurance test in the air of two hour's continuous flight; (S). Speed in the air of at least 65 miles an hour; (9). Capable of landing on and arising from plowed fields; (10). The supporting surfaces must be of sufficient size to insure safe gliding in case the engine stops; (11). The efficiency and reliability of the system of control must have been demonstrated before the purchase order is Dlaced. The aeroDlane must be capable of executing a figure eight within a rectangle 500 yards by 250 yards, and without decreasing its altitude more than 100 feet at the completion of the figure eight. This test to be made by aviator alone without carrying extra weight; (12). The extreme

BRICKBATS AN

Urbana, O., Oct. 20th, 1912. E. L. Jones, Editor, New York City. Dear Sir:

I don't think "Aeronautics" is a "philanthropic institution", the object of philanthropy is doing- good and I can see nothing in your publication but obituary notices, advertisments and chronicles of foreign triumphs. Your attitude and the position of others like you have made American Aeronautics a joke and a byword the world over.

Not a single American machine dared enter the G.-B. race at Chicago—why, because we ar^ forced to contemplate the things of yesterday— we have no eye for to-morrow.

J. E. Sloane proposes to do something for next year by calling a consultation of prominent builders of American machines—but don't you see that these men are all interested in their own inventions and that no harmonious action can be expected from them.

For more than three years I have been offering to build a plane that can cover the distance between New York and Chicago in ten hours or less of continuous ilight but no one wants such a craft. If it were built it would establish a new world's record, but if we wait much longer the French will have that offer capped, they stand 631 miles in 13 hours and 22 minutes but of course it would be very improper to let in a little mew gray matter and apply a few me-

width of the aeroplane supporting surfaces must not exceed forty feet.

FOR SCOUT MILITARY AEROPLANE (1). The aeroplane must carry two persons with seats located to permit of the largest possible held of observation for both; (2). The control must be capable of use by either c-perator irom either seat; (3). The machine must be able to ascend at least 2UU0 feet in ten minutes while carrying a weight of 600 pounds, including the aviator and passenger, 15U pounds oi gasoline and extra weight to make 600 pounds. All of the extra weight must be carried on the engine section and not distributed over tho wings; (4). The fuel and oil capacity must be sufficient lor at least tour hours of continuous flight. This will be determined by a trial flight of at least one half hour, measuring the consumption of gasoline, wane carrying the passenger and weight stated in paragraph 3; (5). Same as No. 4, above; (6). Same as No. 5, auove; ((). The engine must be of American manufacture ana capable of throttling to run at reduced speed; (8). Same as No. 7, above. This test will be made with aviator and passenger, extra weight and fuel enumerated in paragraphs 3 and 4; (9). The aeroplane must develop a speed in the air of at least forty miles an hour. This test will be made with aviator and passenger, extra weight and fuel enumerated in paragraphs 3 and 4. The maximum speed must not exceed 65 miles an hour; (10). Same as No. 9, above. This test will be made with aviator, passenger, extra weight and fuel enumerated in paragraphs 3 and 4; (11). Same as No. 10, above; (12). Same at No. 11, above; (13). Same as No. 12, above.

d bouquets

chanical ideas in the United States—so you can continue your jokes about amatures and let the progress go across the Atlantic.

Last spring I wrote you, when you asked for money, that if you would print am article written ,by me and touching of the future of Aeronautics that I would continue to take your paper, otherwise not—your negative was so abrupt that it was almost profane and I supposed your paper would stop, in fact it did stop once or twice but a few days ago it bobbed up with a bad smell and the usual obituaries and second hand notices.

Now if you would not help advance the art in America for God's sake don't devote your time to obstructing the way for those that would.

I can not build the craft described in the enclosed folder for less than $25,000 and I can't afford to put that much in it unless I can see my way out at once—this machine would not do to cut papers around a racetrack, it would cross the continent with not more than 3 stops and at 100 m. p. h. this is all based on work all ready done by others, and surely you won't deny me the right to study the performances of other planes.

Unless you change your plan and look to the future you will soon be without a clientele, for Americans soon lose interest in defeats.

Now if you want to poke fun at my name It is, Charles Michael Wanzer.

The Two-passenger Deperdussin

^^^^S$jjHE Deperdussin Monoplane is the creation of an original and highly capable mind. The "Dep." bears the name of its financial godfather; but its real parent is M. Bechereau, one of the most eminent designers and engineers who have turned their hand to aeroplane work. The Deperdussin first came into prominence and gained a reputation extending beyond the frontiers of France during the European circuit when Vidart and James Valentine achieved some brilliant performances. Vedrines has now become the chief racing pilot of the French parent firm, and at the time holds the principal world's speed records and the Gordon-Bennett Aviation Cup. To achieve a speed of 107 miles an hour constitutes no mean triumph of engineering skill, whatever its practical utility.

It is of interest to note that the "Dep." of today is not such a materially changed machine from the early type at the 1910 Paris show. Its many distinctive features place it in the very tront of modern aeroplanes. Readers will find it of value to refer to the October 1911 number which contained a detailed description, with drawings, of the two place Dep. of that year.

The Sloane Aeroplane Company now has two Deps, a single and a double-seater. both of which have gone to Los Angeles for winter school work. It is of the latter that the following information relates.

Perhaps the most noteworthy, as being the most distinctive feature of the standard Deperdussin type, is the fact that the fuselage and the chassis form two wholly separate entities, connected by the most slender means and yet in the most effective fashion. The chassis, in other words, forms no part of the main structure The details of the

arrangement whereby this is effected will be referred to hereafter.

The wings are pronouncedly rectangular in shape, of distinctly small aspect ratio; they are cut away both at the entering and trailing edges in the centre where they abut on the fuselage in order to increase the downward field of view of the passenger, who is seated in front, and of the pilot in the rear. The wing structure is exceptionally strong. The front znd main wing spar is built up in I section, the top layer being ash, the center spruce, and the lower layer Columbia pine, the reason for this method of assembly being that the under surface is in compression and tns upper one in tension. This spar measures 3 ins. by 1]<2 ins-The rear spar is similarly built up, with the exception that both top and bottom layers are of ash, since, owing to the warp, both are in tension, but is of smaller dimensions, only measuring 2 ins. by iy3 ins. Alternate ribs are built up with an ash strip both top and bottom and solidly filled in, thus forming air-tight compartments.

The staying of the wings—always a vital point—is well carried out. Each main spar is stayed by three cables overhead (these being carried to the top of the characteristic double pylone) and three cables underneath running down to the front of chassis. In addition a cable runs from the rear of the cnassis to the outer cable attachment on the main spar. The former three cables therefore act as drift and lift wires, the latter as a lift wire pure and simple. The stays to the rear spar consist in effect of the three warping-cables to the upper surface and a similar number to the lower surface; these cables are joined into one thick cable which passes over the pulley in the pylone overhead.

The stay attachments to the spars are solid and designed specially so as not to weaken the spars by piercing. At the point

of attachment solid wooden blocks are let into each side of the spar; the attachment bolts go through these blocks, leaving the spar itself unimpaired. An aluminum plate is interposed between the wing fabric and the steel plates to which the cables are fastened, the whole being strongly bolted together.

The front spars run through the fuselage and are solidly joined together, the rear spars, however, are only bolted onto the fuselage members. The pylone, as many of the other members, consists of Columbia pine bound round with canvas.

The entering edge is an oval strip of wood against which the rib-ends butt. A preparation called "Emaillite" renders the fabric moisture proof and nearly oil proof. The trailing edge of the cloth is laced to each rib-end through eyelets in the fabric. A strip of wood runs along about an inch from the rear edge between the upper and lower chords of the ribs.

The chord of the wing is C'7" at the tips and 6'8" near the body. The cambre is 3^ inches, 24 inches back. There is a small dihedral angle to the wings.

The control is of the familiar Deperdus-sin type. The warping wheel is mounted on the framework constituting the elevator; the two elevators are connected up by rigid rods. The pilot's warping cable passes straight onto the bell crank lever actuating the warp. The rudder is controlled by a footbar. Pushing forward on the "U"-shaped yoke steers down through crossed cables to the elevator. These cables are inside the body for a short distance. Turning a hand-wheel, mounted on this yoke, to the high side lifts the low side and vice versa. From the foot lever the cables run straight, i.e., without crossing.

The fuselage is square in section and built up on the usual lines. From the engine the longitudinals run back perfectly parallel until the fixed tail is reached. There is a "step" here in the upper longitudinals into which the tail is fitted; so that the cambered upper surface of the tail forms a stream-line continuation of the fuselage which also tapers off from the same point to the rudder. All joints are tightly bound with canvas.

The fuselage comes apart just back of the pilot's seat. The longitudinal spars butt together in an open-sided square steel socket about 8 inches long. At this point these spars are close to 1 inch square. They taper from l1^ inch square at front end of the fuselage to % inch square at the rear end. Fabric is used on all four sides of the rectangular (cross-section) fuselage; tacked on the bottom and lower edge of sides. Top edges of sides have grommets inserted and lace over the longitudinal spars to the panel on the top side of the fuselage. The diagonal stay-wiring of the fuselage is similar to Blcriot's method. The passenger sits in front of the pilot, just forward of the rear lateral wing spar. Both are protected from oil and wind by a high aluminum windshield, just aft of the gravity gasoline tank. The sides

of the front end of the fuselage are covered with aluminum sheeting, fitted with doors to give access to the magneto, oil pump, piping, etc.

To the top of the fuselage is affixed a covering, made of three-ply wood in the ordinary manner with the openings for the two cock-pits. The lower part of the fuselage, forming the bottom of the well, also consists of a shaped wooden cover, also built up of three-ply wood but applied in strips crossing each other diagonally, both sides being further covered with canvas; a method of construction combining strength with lightness to an exceptional degree.

The chassis consists of a pair of A struts forward running vertically downward, and of another pair behind directed forwards; in addition a pair of struts run diagonally from the tops of the rear pair to the bottom of the front pair. A steel tube crossmember connects the lower ends of these struts in front and another in the rear. Each pair of struts is braced by two diagonal 10-gauge steel wires, which incidentally, are the only uncovered wires in the whole aeroplane. The landing arrangements consist of two short tusk skids and rubber-spring disc wheels of 3 ft. diameter—an exceptionally large size— giving a 4 ft. 6 in. wheel base.

As has already been stated, the chassis suspension is highly original and ingenious. A heavy endless wire is slung beneath the fuselage and received in a nick in the head of each strut, which is only prevented from shifting along the fuselage in a fore and aft direction by being received in a slot. The landing stress therefore is thrown onto the whole fuselage instead of being taken up— as is usually the case—by a single member.

Every one of the chassis struts is made of stout Columbia pine, bound round with several thicknesses of canvas and varnished over. The main object of this substitution of Columbia pine for the more generally employed ash is that the members all work under compression. In such a case ash often shows an unpleasant tendency to whip which is absent from the Deperdussin chassis.

The power plant consists of a 6 cylinder Anzani motor driving anti-clockwise (facing it) Charavay propeller 8'3" diam. by 4' pitch. The ignition is Giboud, G & A carburetor, a revolution counter. The combined gas and oil tank, gravity, is mounted in front of the passenger's seat ahead of the two masts and supply. Another reserve gas tank, is attached just under the pilot's seat from which gas may be forced up into the gravity tank by a hand pump at the passenger's right, fastened to the fuselage spar. The front end of the fuselage is covered with a steel cap, or plate, to which is bolted the crankcase of the motor. The mixture is drawn from the carburetor into the rear compartment of the crankcase, from which it is distributed to the different cylinders by short lengths of tubing. This compartment thus acts as a manifold and reservoir for gasoline vapor.

Weight, without operator, gas or oil 900 pounds. Speed is 65 m.p.h.

Two-place Deperdussin

AERONAUTICS

Page 142

Burkhart Biplane

OH'N C. Burkhart, of Portland, Ore., has been flying for some time now a biplane of his own construction. It is along standard lines and was built for actual flying and exhibition work rather than in the attempt to evolve something new. The builder is well known to a great many in aviation, having taken engineering at Cornell with special reference to aviation. During the 190S Kitty Dawk experiments of Messers. Wright he was the only stranger present to view the flights. He spent the following years in experimenting and studying the present types of machines.

This machine was made with the object in mind of producing a substantial and simple machine, both as to construction and operation. Two men have learned to fly this machine in a small race track where the only smooth place is a stretch 50 feet by 1000 feet, without any accidents save those caused by the engine quitting.

All surfaces are double covered. The main planes spread 35 ft. by 5 1/2 ft. chord, giving an area of 364 sq. ft. These are built in 3 sections: to ends of 14 ft. and a center one of 7 ft. Spruce spars are used, save in the lower center section where ash is employed. Ribs are constructed of two strips of spruce, with spacing blocks between, the curve being 1 in 20; deepest camber, 2/5 from leading edge. Ribs spaced 12 ins. on lower plane and 14 ins. on upper end sections. Small skids, not shown in photos, have been placed under the wing tips. These have saved harm to the wings many times and are of value. A combination of glue and formalin is applied hot with a brush. This is not absolutely waterproof but makes the surface tight. The fabric is ordinary cambric sheeting.

The elevator and rudders are hinged from the fixed surfaces. The elevator helms were made of tubing and were used as rudder pivots as well, doing away with considerable trouble. These operate as in the Cur-tiss system of control. The elevator has a large area and requires but little movement, so the cables are hooked close to the pivot in steering post. The machine is not oversensitive but has ample movement of elevator for emergencies. Roebling 5/32 inch, cable, with wire core, is used for control wires.

The ailerons are operated by a shoulder brace, using the single wiring system as employed on the earlier Curtiss machines.

The running gear is after the Wright system, using four 2 by 20 inch Weaver wheels, with Goodyear tires and rubber shock absorbers. The skids are of ash, iy2 by 2 inch.

An S cylinder "V" engine of 60 horsepower drives direct anti-clockwise in the breeze, a 7 by 4Vl>-foot propeller of builder's own make.

The speed of the machine is about 45 miles an hour; weight empty 750 pounds. The angle in flight is 3 degrees.

It may be of interest to some readers, who are not altogether blind to the aeronautical situation in America, to note that some aero clubs are so little interested in progress that even standard aeronautical periodicals are not to be found on the library table by members who are interested in advancement of aeronautics: of course, presuming that some aero club members do actually, strange as it may seem, have more or less slight interest in aerial locomotion. The Postmaster of Dayton, Ohio, the birthplace of flight, has notified one publisher that his periodical is "refused" by the secretary of the "International Aeroplane Club," of that city.

flurl eva n T Aeronautical Motor

The First Aeronautical Motor to successfully fly a passenger carrying Hydro-Aeroplane, when equipped with starting crank and effective muffler.

The first Sturtevant Motor made private fl'ghts two years ago.

Perfected and placed on market just previously to the New York Aero Show, May, 1912. At this show conceded to be the best constructed motor on exhibit.

Used by Phillips Ward Page in a Burgess-Wright biplane at Boston Aviation Meet, July, 1912, in every event without adjustment or repair to the motor.

Adopted as standard equipment by Burgess Company and Curtis and used in their school daily for two-passenger flights.

Favorablv commented on by Army Engineers, after having witnessed rigid lefts.

Backed by the guarantee of the largest builders of air moving machinery in the world.

If you want such a motor that shows ten hours continuous runs at full load, send for catalog 200-U, and ask for copies of test sheets and power curves. Catalog shows construction features and gives complete specifications.

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

HYDE PARK, BOSTON, MASS. And All Principal Cities of the World

Mimic Battle in Air on Goodyear Fabric

One man in a Wright-Burgess Biplane, towering in thesky until 4,000 feet high, put to naught all the plans of more than 1,000 men inarching to attack Xew York in the mimic battle between the Hods and Blues. The man was Lieut. Foulois, of the U. S. Signal Corps.

The fabric vas

QoodJyear

Rubberized Aeroplane Fabric

Used by the United States Government and by all who want to get results.

Tests prove this the stroiisre^t, most durable aeroplane fabric made. It is so made that it's irea her-proof. C;in't rot nor mildew because moisture can't set to the fibre ol the fabiic. Won't shrink nor stretch because nnaftVcled by heat and cold. It stays tight—hence is speediest, steadie-t, most reliable. The recognized standard of quality.

write for our circular

Fully describes Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric, Springs, and No-Kim Cut Aeroplane Tires. Address

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

AKRON, OHIO

MOISANT

AVIATION

U.S. ARMY SCHOOL

Winler Headquarters

FIELD

AUGUSTA, GA.

W bile our contracts with Foreign Govern in cuts may require the entrance of a considerable number of Artny Officers, we have increased our facilities so as to afford ample accommodation to our regular pupils. Enrollments should however, be made as promptly as possible.

Write/or beautiful free, booklet and address all communications to

Moisant International Aviators

U. S. RUBBER BUILDING Broadway and 58th Street, New York, N. Y.

Scale Drawing of Burkhart Machine.

HUGH ROBINSON

Hugh Robinson, who has been with the Curtiss Company, at Hammondsiport, for the last two years, has bought an interest in the Benoist Aircraft Company, at St. Louis. While Mr. Robinson has been identified with the aeroplane business for many years as experimenter, builder and flyer, he is best known to the aero fra-tprnity as the "veteran hydro man" as he was the first man in the world to make a success of flying a hydroaeroplane.

He first came into prominence as a hydro flyer in the winter of 1910-11 when, in connection with Glenn H. Curtiss at San Diego. Curtiss developed the first successful hydroaeroplane. Robinson flew this plane all through the season of

JOINS BENOIST.

1911 at exhibitions, having the only hydro shown at the international aero meet held at Chicago in 1911.

Early in 1912 Robinson was sent to Europe to demonstrate the capabilities of the hydroaero plane, taking part in several meets, and showing up the plaine to such good advantage that a goodly number of these machines were ordered before his return, many being ordered by foreign governments.

The Benoist company by adding Robinson to their designing staff, already consisting of Tom Benoist and Tony Janmus, seem to have so strengthened their organization, that bigger things will be expected of them in 1913 than were even accomplished in 1912.

New Developments in Aeronautics

START YOUR OWN MOTOR

It is naturally expected that some day all aeroplane engines will be started otherwise than by the propeller. The private owner will demand reasonable improvements which will do away with the actual necessity for a "chauffeur."

With the Sturtevant motor fitted with a starting crank, as installed in Burgess' planes, it is possible for the aviator to start his own engine without leaving his seat. Seated beside the motor, the aviator grasps the starting crank, which, as can be seen in the illustration, is similiar to the automobile starting crank, and pressing it inward against a spring until it engages with the crank-shaft, he pulls it toward him giving the motor a half turn in a clockwise direction, thus starting the motor.

The use of the Mea magneto, which is so constructed as to give as hot a spark when retarded as when fully advanced, makes it possible to start the motor with the magneto and with certainly as much ease as the ordinary automobile motor is started with batteries.

The exhaust pipes leading from the engine to the muffler, pass through an aluminum panel in the lower plane. This is made by replacing the covering on the plane by a strip of sheet aluminum on both sides of the plane.

The muffler is made so effective in this position that the only noticeable noise is that made by the chains driving the propellers, so that the aviator and the passenger may converse easily. As you can see, this is a great advantage, especially in school machines, as instruction can be given the student and he is not distracted by the roar of the exhaust.

The motor runs from the front, clockwise; the same as an auto engine. The Burgess

hydro flies regularly with the Sturtevant four with starter and muffler, carrying pas-enger, oars, life preservers, etc. The muffler does not reduce the power of the motor more than four or five per cent. A magneto cut out switch is located on the steering lever.

There is a valve-lifting mechanism, which lifts the exhaust valves from their seats, remaining raised until released.

"V" MOTOR IN WRIGHT

The proposition of putting a high powered motor in a model B Wright copy has been watched with interest. This has been successfully accomplished by the Frontier Iron Works. One of their 60-70 8 cyl. "V" type motors has been flying in the 'plane of a well known aviator at the Hempstead field and the flyer states he has had his speed accurately measured as 54 miles an hour and this with the throttle but partly open. The photograph shows the method of installation.

This engine has been mounted on spruce spars 2" thick in order to bring the center of the crankshaft in the same position as that of the Wright motor. A change of but one link in each chain was made and the gearing is 15 on the engine sprocket to 34 teeth on the propeller sprockets. The propellers turn in the same direction as usual. A pair of Charavay propellers, same pitch and diameter as the Wright, is being

fitted; in these ash laminations are used to strengthen same to enable higher speed. Under the engine hickory ribs have been placed to withstand the heavier weight of the big engine. The aviator sits between the gas tank and the engine now. The standard radiator has also been replaced by a larger one. The Mea magneto is gear driven and the engine starts easily with the spark retarded and throttle closed. Once in the air the spark is kept advanced and the control is by the throttle. The engine has compression releasing means which enables the sime stoppage as in the case of the Wright motor. On the ground the Frontier engine throttles to a "pussy cat's purr" and at 200 feet altitude the engine can scarcely be heard by spectators. A starting crank is provided for in case of hydroaeroplane work. The machine has been fitted with duplicate and entirely independent sets of control wires. General praise has been acccrded the nights that bave been made with the big motor.

HORSEPOWER RATING.

The A.L.A.M. formula in general use in this country oftentimes is said to underrate as it does not directly take into account the stroke. That it does, will be seen later. It is:

da n

H.P. =--2.5

(where d = diam. in inches; n = number of cylinders).

Example:— S cyl. motor, 4x5.

4 X 4 X 8

H.P. =------=50.1.

2.5

There is a British formula, called the Dendy-Marshall, which directly uses the length of stroke. This is as follows: — d2 s n H.P. =---12

(where d = diam. in inches, s = stroke, and n = number of cylinders).

The Royal Automobile Club formula is the same as the A.L.A.M., which is based on horsepower delivered at 1,000 feet per minute piston speed. This, therefore, does take into account stroke. Another way of putting this formula is: 4 ds n. The British Institution of Automobile Engineers uses the following:

.45 (d + s) (d — l.lS)n (where d = diam. and s = stroke in inches and n = number of cyls.)

The Technical Committee of the French automobile club has recommended the following formula to the government for the purpose of taxation of touring cars in that country where piston speed does not exceed 6 meters per second. This is based on a mean effective pressure in the cylinder of

about 75 lbs. per sq. in. With this you can figure horsepower at any speed. This is:

n r H. P. = -(d- 1)--2 10s

where d=bore in millimeters l=stroke in millimeters, r=r. p. m. and n=number of cylinders.

The French club suggested in all four different formulae for different classes of motors. The one for aeronautic motors reads: —

n r

H.P.=-(d- 1) —

1.6 10s

Where n=number of cylinders, d=di-ameter in millimeters, l=stroke in millimeters and r=r. p. m.)

The above is based on a mean effective pressure of 02.3 lbs. per sq. inch. Translated into English measures, this formula becomes:—

n(d2 l)r H.P. =---10.900

In this case d and 1 values are in inches. Using the example first above given, the H. P. would figure as follows at 1200 r. p. m., without consideration of limit on piston speed.

SX4X4X5X1200

H.P. =--•-- - 70.45

10,900

CONTROL CHECKS

The suggestion is made by Albert Adams Merrill in a letter to the Aeronautical Society, in New York, that all machines should have checks on controls to prevent a man from taking a dive altogether too steep, as Beachey often does. "Unfortunately, all men have not his skill," Mr. Merrill says, "and therefore some of them are dead. Every accident that has occurred must have been preceded by some move that placed the machine in a dangrous condition, either by the wind or the aviator. It ought not to be possible for the aviator to place his machine in a dangerous position. * * * * With a check Welch could not have made the fatal dive which caused his death. I suggest spring checks."

Checks on control are worth considering but is must be remembered that there are times when we have to use all the control available to fight the gusts. If you limit the control, you limit the machine's ability to fly in gusty winds.

I have no "kick" about the magazine, in fact it far outclasses************ in that it is neat and snappy and has original pictures and accounts. It is certainly the only magazine over here that can class with the continental magazines. O. J. H.

You are certainly deserving of hearty support for your splendid magazine. It. E. A.

ROBERTS MOTOR

WEARING QUALITIES ARE UNSURPASSED

THE ROBERTS MOTOR CO.

Read This Letter

New Haven, Conn., October 21st, 1912

Gentlemen:—I have delayed answering your letter of September I4th, in order that I might report fully the latest tryout of the 4-X Roberts motor that I purchased from the Tarbox Safety Aircraft Co., of Washington, D. C. in May, 1912.

Upon my return from the White Mountains I took the motor out of the Shneider biplane which I was flying there and installed it in my new Curtiss type with results that both surprised and pleased me. With a 7l2 x 4.58 ft. Paragon propeller the motor developed 340 lbs. thrust and flew the plane in fine shape.

I have made over fifty flights with my new pla le under variable weather conditions, flying one day for forty minutes in the rain. The motor has given me entire satisfaction, never as yet failing to run smoothly and deliver its power.

I consider this worthy of note for the reason that this is the second motor built by your Company and on which, up to the present time but ten (10) cents have been spent on repairs.

Will send you some pictures of plane, motor, etc. in a few days, meanwhile will you kindly advise me as to the latest developments in your product, as I am coming out with a Hydro in the spring and can see nothing but a six Roberts now.

Very truly yours.

RAVMUND V. MORRIS.

SEND FOR CATALOG TODAY

ROBERI5 Go

=^ohio.v: S. a.

Wright Hydroaeroplane School now open at Glen Head, L. I.

Lieut. Arnold

Atwood

Brookins

Brindley

Bonney

Beatty

Burgess

Coffyn

Capt. Chandler

Drew Elton

Lieut. Foulois

Fowler

Gill

Lieut. Lahm Lieut. Milling Mitchell C. P. Rodgers

Lieut. Rodgers

Parmalee

Page

Reynolds

Simmons

Turpin

Welsh

Webster

And a score of others

Our Schools at Dayton and New York are now open and pupils may begin training at once if they wish. By enrolling now you can reserve date most convenient to you for training.

^ZZr=r^I^Z Write for Particulars ^^^^^^

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H. P. STIMSON

Wright Flyers !

1912 Models

In addition to those features which in the past have made Wright Flyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the new models can be furnished with Automatic Control, Silent Motors, and Hydroplanes. These special features make the 1912 machine unusually attractive to sportsmen.

Exhibition Machines

For exhibition work we have other models especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "EX" Model that Rodgers made his wonderful flight from Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.

Wright Schools of Aviation

Training consists of actual flying, in which the pupil is accompanied by a competent teacher. No risk and no expense whatever from breakage. The most famous flyers in America are graduates of our school and include such names as—

Formerly with Hotel Impelial

! NAIAD | Aeronautical Cloth

THE WRIGHT

DEPT A

COMPANY

DAYTON. OHIO

Manufactured Especially for --—- Aeroplanes-

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request

The C. E. Conover Co.

MANUFACTURERS

101 Franklin St., New York

MARK

160 I Pounds Weight

DESIGN

Revolving cylinders Mechanical intake valves Variable compression Double exhaust system

Large ball bearings throughout

Positive lubrication

Positive gasoline feed

Standard Magneto, tachometer, etc.

Easy starting device Aviator starts motor from his seat if required

"GYRO" ENDURANCE RECORD TO DATE

pT" 4 Hours, 23 Minutes "9i at 60 Miles an Hour

Stopped on account of Severe Thunder Storm

Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel throughout

J Sizes 3, 5 and 7 cylinders representing 22, 35 and 50 horsepower Under Construction: 7-cylinders, 80 H. P., 5-cylinders, 60 H.P.

Send for Catalogue

jj THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY J

:: 774 G1RARD STREET :: WASHINGTON, D. C.

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

MILITARY AVIATION IN FRANCE

During July C. McK. Saltzman, Major, Signal Corps, U. S. Army, visited the French military aviation center at Saint Cyr. Some of the facts which he presents in his report to the Adjutant General will be found of interest.

The aeronautical work of the French Army is regarded as confidential, Major Saltzman was informed by the military attache of the United States Army. It appears that it is very difficult for foreign Army officers to obtain permission to inspect or visit any of the aviation centers of the French army. It is currently reported by French officers that France, realizing the supremacy of England on the sea and the great strength of the German Army, has determined to have supremacy in the air and to have the strongest aerial fleet in the world.

The aviation field at Saint Cyr is rough and some portions covered with high grass and shrubbery, but the French authorities have not desired to clear and level the field, believing that a field covered with grass and small shrubs will more nearly conform to the conditions to be encountered by aviators in actual service.

The station includes 11 large hangars. These hangars are of a portable type made of wooden frame-work covered with canvas. They can he taken down, packed up, and carried to the field in motor trucks. The enlisted men on duty at this aviation center were quartered in portable houses which can be taken apart and transported in motor trucks.

The machines at Saint Cyr are all biplanes, 11 being of the M. Farman type, and all of the officers there were adherents of the Farman school of aviation, and believe his biplanes to be very satisfactory. Each machine was equipped with a map case and a compass, located in front of the pilot's position; and were also provided with apparatus for sketching. There was also being tried out a new type of French aeroplane known as the Zodiac.

As to how many aeroplanes were owned and operated by the French army, no one was able to tell definitely, but it is believed that they have over 200 aeroplanes of various types. The aviators are all commissioned officers of the French army. The mechanicians and assistants who care for the machines and repair them are enlisted men of the French army.

The following questions were asked of officers and mechanics connected with the aeronautical service of the French army, and also of officials of the Aero Club of France.

1. Do you consider the monoplane or the bipane the most satisfactory for general military service? The answer depended entirely on whether the officer interrogated

had been trained in a biplane or a monoplane, each insisting that his type of machine was the most suitable.

2. Which type of aeroplane, the monoplane or biplane, do yon consider the safest for military use? From the replies received I am of the belief that the biplane is the safest.

3. Are aeroplane accidents most generally caused by defects in the aeroplane, or mistakes of the aviator? The answer was invariably that they were caused by the mistakes of aviators.

4. What is most generally the cause of aeroplane accidents? (a) Lack of experience on the part of the aviator; (b) Over-confidence, which breeds carelessness.

5. Are enlisted men suitable for aviators of military aeroplanes? The answer was always "No." The duty is one involving a high degree of intelligence and judgment. The duty is important and should be performed by officers. The French are of the opinion that the aeroplane is of great value in reconnaissance and scouting and that good results can only be obtained by having pilots who are trained officers and appreciate military situations.

6. What type cf motor do you consider the best for aeroplanes? The Gnome motor.

7. What type of an officer makes the best aviator? A young, athletic man who- is keen and alert and has good judgment. It is generally believed that an aviator should be younger than 38 years of age.

8. Do you consider that there should be any organization in the aeronautical service, or is each machine a unit by itself? All persons of whom I asked this question were surprised that I should ask such a question, it being their belief that the aeronautical machines and personnel must be organized into large and small units for administrative purposes, etc., just as the field artillery is organized into batteries, battalions, regiments, etc.

As a result of his investigation. Major Saltzman recommends that an officer of the aviation service in the United States Army be sent to France to learn to operate one of the best types of French machines, preferably a Breguet or a Nieuport.

It is also recommended that the United States Army purchase a Nieuport monoplane and a Breguet biplane, the former to be equipped with a 70 H. P. Gnome motor and the latter with the type of motor recommended by that company.

In case only one foreign machine is purchased, it is recommends, that it be a Nieuport machine.

There is not one page from cover to cover that any air man could not want. You could not improve it one whit for the price.

J. II. J., Alabama.

ELEVATOR ACTION OF THE RUDDER

When is an elevator a rudder—and vice versa? Expert aviators discuss this but, until a note appeared in Flight, no public mention has been made of transposition, to any extent, of the functions of the elevator and the rudder. This may have a bearing on the unfortunate death of Paul Peck.

In turning, the outer wing speeds up and the machine automatically banks. When this occurs, the rudder is tilted sideways, and there is a small vertical component of the air pressure on its face. The rudder has actually begun to be an elevator.

Assuming that the condition is exaggerated to the point at which the machine is banked to 4-5°. The lateral and vertical components of the pressure are now equal, and the rudder plane is just as much an elevator as it is a rudder.

"The consequence of the combined effect is to make the tail swing upwards and outwards, thus promoting a dive. It is, therefore, reasonable to suppose that the elevator itself will now be put up to check the dive, in which case, the elevator beini likewise tilted at 45° from its normal position, acts as much as a rudder as it does as eu elevator. So, although it may neutralize the elevating effect of the rudder, it is only by the difference in their respective areas that it will be able to actually depress the tail. If the bank is less than 45', as it would be of course in practice, the disparity of its influence is less marked, but, in any case, it augments the ruddering effect and so tends to lock the machine in its spiral path, which if the speed increases, will augment the natural bank until it may in fact approach to the value of 45°. On a steep spiral p?th, it is by no means easy to say exactly how much the machine is really banked, but it would appear as if it may easily introduce conditions analogous to an excessive amount, so far as they influence the action of the tail in the manner above described."

It is at any rate clear that the rudder must no longer be maintained in the same position once the machine has assumed a high velocity downwards. By throwing the rudder over to the outer side, i. e., ruddering outwards from the spiral, both the ruddering and the elevating effects produced by the rudder plane are immediately reversed, that is to say, the rudder not only tends to straighten the flight path, but to reduce the steepness of the descent. This influence, although perhaps comparatively small in itself, is augmented by the action of the elevator proper, which is already in position for depressing the tail, it is not surprising, therefore, if an instantaneous flattening out of the machine follows this operation of the control. Any tendency to straighten the flight path likewise tends to obliterate the bank, which in turn tends to restore the elevator to the full exercise of its normal function.

GERMAN MOTOR CONSTRUCTION.

The motor makers, "Rotor-Werke G. m. b. H.. Frankfort, Germany, have produced two types of rotating motors, a 70 and a 90 horsepower. In these the removal of the cylinders is done in a very short time. The intake valve arrangement is interesting. A

rocker arm pivots on the wrist pin. The valve is placed to one side of the center of the piston head. i. e.. the side towards that to which the motor rotates. It is claimed for this position that less oil enters through the valve into the explosion chamber.

TO DETERMINE THE PITCH OF MODEL PROPELLERS

This can be applied only when the pitch is small. Supposing we have a 9-in. propeller with a tip angle say of 50°, first draw to any desired scale a line equal to 2 n that, is to the path traced out by the tip during one revolution, which in this case is 22/7 X 9, that is 28 2/7 in. Call this line AB. From A draw a line AC making an angle of 50° with AB, and from B draw a straight line vertically upwards to meet AC in C. BC is the pitch. This is obviously the case; take a full-size drawing. If we wrap the paper on which figure is drawn round a cylinder 9 in. in diameter, point C will come vertically above point A and will therefore represent the distance between two consecutive threads.

If P=pitch we have by Trigonometry I'=2 7t r tan a; a being the angle, in this case 50°. The latter is a very convenient method if one possesses a table of Natural Tangents.

Applying these two methods to the above we find by the first method the pitch to be 33.5 inches and by second 33.C6.

If BC=BA then the pitch is evidently equal to 3 1/7 times the diameter. In this case a=45° and tan a we know equals 1.

Conversely a pitch of 2H> times the diameter gives an angle at the tip of about 38°, and times the diameter an angle of 25°.—Flight.

J9

UNCLE SAM

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SURFACE TESTING DEVICE

The accompanying illustration shows the device used by the Curtiss aeroplane company in testing out the efficiency of sur-

face panels. The experiments have been carried on for some time past with excellent results. Heretofore, all experiments of the kind have been made in a wind tunnel where the conditions are not quite the same as in actual flight.

The panel is supported on a system of float levers in such a way that the lift and drift are each shown on an independent set of scales. This was mounted on a standard hydroaeroplane and flown over Lake Keuka, and in this way the results obtained were under true flying conditions. The test plane can be set at various angles. The readings resulting serve for comparative data only, the figures obtained not being absolute for any single surface; they do show relative efficiency of the various planes tested.

FLYING BOATS FOR NAVY.

' The makers of hydroaeroplanes should find it profitable to endeavor to meet the ideas ol the Navy in the matter of evolving a suitable military flying boat. The Navy has a certain amount of money which it can spend without calling on Congress.

Under Captain W. Irving Chambers, the Navy is now experimenting on its own account at Annapolis with the boat portion of the 'plane and Ensign Victor Herbster, with a passenger, has already made flights in the new Wright 6 cylinder machine fitted with Navy leatheroid hydroplane which is of a modified Curtiss type. The machine was constructed by the Navy aviators and their mechanics from spare parts.

A new Curtiss hyrdoaeroplane has been delivered at the Washington Navy Yard and Lieut. Ellyson has been flying it. This is being held there for use in the experiments Captain Chambers is making. The Navy's owm design hydroplane will be tried on it. The Navy's.new Curtiss flying boat should be ready in December and can be looked forward to with interest.

Both the Army and Navy are active to a greater extent than ever before, and it should

be possible for makers to produce machines available for military use and acceptable to the authorities.

THE GAGE TRACTOR

Robert G. Fowler, the "coast-to-coast" aviator, is one of the latest professionals to adopt the headless tractor, his new model being a Gage biplane built by the Gage-McClay Co., of Griffith Aviation Park, Los Angeles, California.

Fowler made his initial flight with the 'plane on October 19th, flying from the aviation park to the Cawston Ostrich Farm in South Pasadena and return. This flight was of 31 minutes and was repeated the next day

The design of the machine follows close ly to that of the 'planes manufactured by the same company for aviators Roy Francis, Phil O. Parmalee and Clifford Turpin— all being of the single tractor type.

The upper plane has a spread of 41 feet while the lower surface measures 30 feet. The 5 foot extensions can be readily detached thus increasing the speed of the machine. With the extensions the 'plane flies at a speed of GO miles per hour.

Power is derived from a 60 h.p. Hall-Scott motor which drives a 7-foot blade direct. The motor is equipped with an extra oil pump which has a capacity of about 5 gallons. A 25 gallon gasoline tank

is located in the fuselage over the center of pressure. The 'plane is operated similar to the Farman type with an exceptionally heavy control wiring system.

THE THOMAS BIPLANE

The illustration shows the Thomas headless biplane, Kirkham motor, used by Walter Johnson in making the new 2-man endurance record and by Niles in his 4-hour flight for the single endurance record. In Johnson's flight there was no windshield and the pas-

senger sat cn the lower surface. Note the location of the gasoline tanks holding 60 gallons. The upper plane overhangs and spreads 37' G". The tail is dismounted by removal of one bolt. The vertical rudders are attached to elevators and the same post acts as king post for elevator. Stability is by large ailerons attached to top plane only.

BEST STRUT SHAPE

The bar shape found to offer the least resistance is the one illustrated. This is according to a communication made to the Aeronautical Society o- Great Britain, by A. P. Thurston, B. Sc., after tests made at the University of London for the Society.

A large number of bars having sections of various geometrical constructions and all inch thick had been obtained. They were all made % inch thick because this thickness is well within the limits of the tunnel.

Templets of the various shapes had been prepared and supplied to the carpenters. The bars which they made showed grave departure from dimensions supplied and in some cases want of symmetry. Three different carpenters and pattern makers of the highest skill were tried with no better results. It was therefore evident that the bars for the purposes of experiments such as these should be machine cut. The author suggests that this should be done in

future experiments since it has proved that apparently trivial differences of shape may, in some cases, greatly alter the resistance obtained. Each particular section was represented by bars of 12 inches, IS inches and 30 inches in length, and in some cases by additional lengths of 6 inches and 24 inches. The resistances of all these specimens reduced to the standard velocity of 20 miles per hour were determined, in some cases by many experiments, and the results were plotted.

It was found that in most cases the resistance of a bar is less with the thin end to the wind than with the blunt or thick end. This appears to be contrary to general belief which is to the effect that all bars have least resistance with the blunt end to the wind. The author, hesitating to publish which appears to be so contrary to existing knowledge, has delayed the publication of this fact for twelve months and has, in the meantime, further investigated the point. All the weight of evidence and proof being in support of these results it was felt that publication should not be delayed further.

It may therefore be stated as a general fact that resistance of most bars is least with the thin end to the wind with the exception of a few shapes which are the forms lor minimum resistance.

In these exceptional cases the resistance is least with the blunt end to the wind.

A curve in one of the figures in the report shows the value of K for bars each % inch thick and 2'/, inches deep, the section being-formed by arcs of circles struck from a line perpendicular to the long axis and passing through one apex tangents being drawn from the other apex to touch these arcs. The position of the line from which the arcs are struck is varied. The limiting case is the circular based triangle 2y2 inches deep. The position of the maximum thickness was \aried from % inch through the values 1/3, 1/2. 2/3. 3/4 to 7/8 of the depth from the front edge.

The resistance of the type of bar shown is less with the blunt end to the wind and is least when the maximum thickness is % the depth from the front edge. The bar shown in the illustration appears to have the least resistance of all the bars tested.

The author states, however, that it is obvious there are shapes having a smaller resistance than this bar.

BLERIOT MONOPLAN ES

SPECIAL PRICES-THREE MONTHS ONLY — IMMEDIATE DELIVERIES. Single Seater Bleriot Monoplanes equipped with 50 H. P. Roberts Motor, $1,800.00. TUITION FREE to purchasers—Illustrated Catalog Free. Send for it today. SPECIAL MACHINES Built to order. Send drawings for estimate.

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Farman Running Gears Complete, as above - $47.50

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Everything to build any type flying machine.

New Catalogue with working drawings of Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot-type machines in course of construction and will be mailed free upon request to all parties as soon as received from the printer. Write for quotations.

A FEW IMMEDIATE DELIVERY PRICES

curtiss steering wheels - $9.00 FREE with

curtiss seats - - - 5.50

5-gallon tanks - - 6.15

aviator caps - - - 1.25

outrigger fittings - - .29

oval post sockets - - .17

every $50.00

order for Aeronautical Supplies FLEECE-LINED AVIATOR CAP.

aluminum pulleys with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 2*" 30c, 3n 40c. wheels and tires complete, eclipse hub:

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ALBATROSS ENGINES

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WIRE

we make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

AERONAUTICS

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Post Free

'Mrkf~.__a specimen copy will

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agenti: eames tricycle co., sao francisco and los angeles; national aeroplane co., chicago ; w. e. boughton, washington, d. c.

Free Instruction in the Operation of the

CURTISS FLYING BOAT

WILL BE GIVEN To Those Taking a Regular Course of Training at the

Curtiss School of Aviation

SAN DIEGO, CAL.

FINISH OF HYDROAEROPLANE RACES AT HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y. David McCulloh in his "Flying Boat" leads; he is accompanied by Mr. Curtiss, Lincoln Beachey is second, accompanied by Lansing Callan, while Franci* Wildman, instructor at Hammondsport School, is third with the Standard Hydroaeroplane.

Among the men who have learned aviation at Curtiss Schools are:

Lieut. T. C. ELLYSON, now in charge of the aeroplanes of the U. S. Navy.

Lieut. J. H. TOWERS, who just established a new World's Hydroaeroplane Record of 6 hrs., 10 min., 38 sec.

H. ROBINSON, who recently introduced the Hydroaeroplane in Europe and is now instructor in a Curtiss School.

C. C. WITMER, now in St. Petersburg demonstrating Hydroaeroplanes to the Russian Navy and Army.

Lieut. J. W. McCLASKEY, instructor in a Curtiss School.

LINCOLN BEACHEY, "The World's Greatest Aviator."

S. C. LEWIS, now instructor in the Morane School in France.

J. LANSING CALLAN, now an instructor in a Curtiss School.

FRANCIS WILDMAN, now an instructor in a Curtiss School.

BECKWITH HAVENS, now a demonstrator.

W. B. ATWATER, now demonstrating to the Japanese Government.

Resides, a score of men who own their own machines and fly in contests and exhibitions and a dozen others have taken positions with either manufacturers or exhibition concerns.

OUR SAN DIEGO, CAL., AVIATION TRAINING GROUNDS, situated on North Island, in San Diego Harbor, are the finest in America, if not in the world. North Island is leased by us exclusively for Aviation purposes, and comprises one thousand acres of flat, level sand, unobstructed by rock, tree or building, thus offering every advantage as a flying course. The island is entirely private, yet within a few minutes of San Diego, one of the most progressive and attractive cities on the Pacific Coast.

THE FIRST CLASS BEGINS INSTRUCTION DECEMBER 1st. THE SECOND CLASS WILL START JANUARY 1st, 1913.

A $100 00 deposit will reserve a place for you in this class. Mail or wire it to-day. Our Booklet "TRAINING" mailed upon request.

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO.

HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y.

PITOT TUBE SPEED METER

0. E. Williams, of 1703 Madison Ave., Scranton Pa., has combined in his new biplane, several interesting features of which he has proven the value.

The engine is centrally located with braces extending down a short skid. The driver's seat is to the left of the engine and his weight is counterbalanced by an iron brace on the end of the right wing, and by the torque of the engine and propeller.

Tensual form F ailerons provide lateral stability. These have one-ninth the area of the lifting surface.

A speed indicator, geared by a cord drive running over grooved pulleys, from the camshaft, and so calibrated as to read in revolutions per minute, assures him that the engine is up to speed before any flight is attempted.

Attached to the strut at the driver's left, is a Pitot tube for reading the speed of flight.

TURNTABLE FOR HYDROS

The water shed at the Curtiss school has been fitted with a turntable for convenience

WIUJAm -"U'-jruBE 5PEJD0ritTf-R

This consists of a U-shaped glass tube having a forward extension, and partly filled with water colored slightly with red ink. The wind blowing into the extension raises the level of the water in the opposite side of the tube, and this is read on a scale placed beside it. To calibrate the tube the following formula is used: S=>4000X H, where S is the speed in feet per minute, and H is the head, or diffierence in height of water in the two arms of the tube. In other words, the speed in feet per minute in still air equals 4000X the square root of the head in inches. By using a slide rule for obtaining square roots of various valves of H, the velocity in feet per minute can be read instantly.

A sufficient number of nights have been made by Mr. Williams to satisfy him that he has a satisfactory machine. The test flights have been from 25 to 300 feet in height and from one half mile to two and one-half miles in length, in the hilly country of Northeastern Pennsylvania.

in turning the hydro-aeroplane around when it comes in from a flight.

kellogg control

Herbert Kellogg, 130 W. Mill St., Kewanee, Ills., has built a monoplane with a friction gear capable of a wide range of speed on the ground. An adjustable steel propeller with ribs is used, which weighs but IS lbs. The pilot and engine are close to the ground under the wings; of course, the drive is by chain. His control column is novel. The pillar "A" is mounted as a universal J tint. From the axis of the wheel is another tube "B" about at right angle to the former, p.lso universally mounted where it joins a strut "D." Swinging the wheel-column operates

ailerons; turning wheel, the rudder; and pushing or pulling on the tube "C" in tube "B" operates the elevator.

NEW DURATION RECORD

A new American one-man duration record was luaue on Oct. G by Lt. John M. Towers, L. S. Aa.y, using Curtiss hydroaeroplane, Curtiss motor with .Bosch ignition, at Annapolis, lvid. lie hew continuously tor b hrs. l\j mins. 36 sees., beating the late Paul Peck's lecord of 4 hrs. 33 mins. 15 sees, made in May 2-ith last.

NEW 2-MAN ENDURANCE RECORD

Walter E. Johnson, Hying a Thomas biplane, maae a new .jnernan enumance record, carrying one passenger, liom the field of Thomas A.iation bchool, at Bath, N. Thuisday, Uct. uist. inis time was thiee hours, htty-otie minutes, fit teen seconds. The record previous to this was made by ^eorge Beatty, at Chicago August 19, lbll. The time was three hours, 43 minutes, 22-ys seconds.

Johnson earned as a passenger Arthur Bla-sair, wlio weigns 16o pounds, a mechanic of the Thomas School. The flight was one of endurance, not only tor the machine, but for the men themselves. A strong, cold wind was blowing throughout the flight, and both aviator and passenger suhertd intensely; they were assisted from their seais on landing.

The machine was equipped with a 6t> H. P. Ivirkliam six-cylinder motor. A special tank, holding thirty gallons of gasoline, was hung from tne upper plane, on the opposite side from the passenger. Enough remained in the tank alter the landing to have carried them far over the four-hour mark. Two and a half gals, of oil were used.

On the machine used, no provision was made for accommodating a passenger with seat, and B'lasair was forced to sit on a board tied to the lower plane. The record was remarkable for the fact that it was made under such unfavor-ao.e weather conditions and at such a late time in the season. But for the intense cold, there is no doubt but that Johnson would have bettered the record by a full hour. The aviator kept to a le\ el of about 350 feet and traveled in a circle of about two miles in circumference. At on time did he throttle the motor, but tiaveled at full speed for the entire time, covering a distance of about 235 miles.

Referring to this flight, Mr. Johnson stated: "The last 12 minutes were a nightmare. When I had broken the record, I expected to make it at least four hours, but nothing in the world could have kept rne in the air longer with light clothing and in the intense cold."

NEW AMERICAN 2-MAN ALTITUDE RECORD

Harry Bingham Brown, with Miss Isabella Patterson, of Vancouver, B. C, made a new Amerkan altitude record for aviator and passenger, going up to 5300 feet at the Aeronautical Society's flying festival at their new grounds at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island, on Election Day, Nov. 5. The previous record was made by White, in a Nieuport, at Nassau, Sept. 30th, 3347 feet. Brown's flight lasted 46 minutes.

MORE AMERICAN RECORDS

The following new American speed records made by Vedrines at Clering, Illinois, September ! th, 1912, in a Deperdussin monoplane with 111 11. P. Gnome engine have been officially passed.

5 kiloms. in 1:44.21; 10 kiloms. in 3:27.60; 20 kiloms. in 6:55.95; 30 kiloms. in 10:45.71; 40 kiloms. in 14:19.15; 50 kiloms. in 17:51.SO;

100 kiloms. in 35:40.20; 150 kiloms. in 53:1S.70; 200 kiloms. in 70:56.85.

The speed record for 20 kilometers has already been certified as a world's record.

NILES FLIES NEARLY 5 HOURS

Charles P. Niles, in a Thomas biplane, was forced to land with dead motor, from VuOO ft. altitude, at Bath, N. Y., November 4th, after Hying 4 hrs. 45 mini. 10 sec, in an attempt to orea.v the American Duration Kecord for aviator aione; otricially observed.

i\nes used the same machine and motor used by Waiter E. Johnson in securing the American Duiation Carrying Passenger.

±'rouuie developeu m motor when a bearing gripped, and finally burned out. Niles kept the macnine in the air 45 minutes after he first noticed kocking in motor—result, all bearings uunned out and connecting lod plunged through cranK shatt casing.

AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY EXHIBITIONS

The Aeronautical Society formally started the Hying at the new grounds at Oakwood Heights on October 12, when riarry B. Brown, (Wright), Horace ivemmerle (Baldwin), E. Weeks (Williams;, Miss. Ruth Law (Wright) and George B'eatty (Wright), all flew. Onion Hoffman snot toy balloons from Brown's 'plane and the latter took up Rodman Law, the parachute jumper, to a height of 5500 feet before the jump was maue, a reoord height tor America in passenger aUitude Hying, as well as for 'plane-parachute jumping. This was the first time Law had been witnessed in public aftans around New York and his jump was the sensation of the day. A description of his apparatus was printed in the October number of this Journal.

'the plane flown by Weeks was one made by O. E. Williams of bcranton, .fa., and is of a modified Curtiss type with Curtiss motor. In this machine the aviator sits beside the engine, on the lower surface. Weeks' flying was very last and won general commendation.

The Election Day exhibition brought a still greater crowd and the flying was incessant ano. interesting. It was on this day that Harry B. Blown, with Miss. Isabella Patterson, made a new American altitude record for aviator and passenger, going up 53J0 feet. Other Hyers weie Charles k. Hamilton, Miss Ruth Law, Cecil Peoli and George B'eatty. A shooting competition was held with Charles L. Calder, marksman, shooting toy balloons from Beatty's Wright and Dillon Hoffman from Brown's. Wright; the match was won by Calder. Homing pigeons released during flight was another feature. Peoli flew the Baldwin "Red Devil", and Hamilton a Curtits.

Peoli took up his mother after adding surface to the "Red Devil" in the endeavor to beat the record of Brown but owing to darkness the attempt had to be abandoned after rising 1000 feet.

George M. Dyott had promised to come with his Rex Bleriot monop.ane but the Fennsylvani R. R. lost track of the car in a wreck between Macon, Ga. and this city.

At the last minute Chas. K. Hamilton agreed to take his place and his 'plane was shipped at 10 P. M. Monday from New Britain, Ct. and arrived at 12.30 Tuesday and was then set up in 2 hours.

R. G. Sharrotts, Private, U, S. Signal Corps, was taken up by Brown and observations made

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We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

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t main offices - 724-726 ninth st., im. w. - washington, d. c.

PATENT

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Manufacturers are writing me for patents obtained through me. Send for three books with list of 200 inventions. A postal will bring them free. My clients' patents gold free. Personal services. Aeronautical expert. DEPT. 5 OWEN BLDG

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AMERICAN MONOGLIDER $9R

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Plans and Specifications l^o in. to 1 ft., $1.

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Founded 1905

SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES

Goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AV1AT1C" and a small order will tell you why those who know send to us when they want the best ;it the right price. Let us give you a special figure on that supply list.

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at more than interesting prices. Bleriot and Curtiss K. 1). outfits our specialty. "IMPORTED" helmets in stock. Wheels with tires 20" x 214n s6.60. 20" x 3" s9.25. 22 page catalogue A sent upon receipt of 6 cents

New York Aeronautical Supply Co.

50 Broadway, New York

AEROPLANES MADE TO ORDER

send drawings for estimates on all special machines My work is first class, ask for list of satisfied customers

W. C. DURGAN

115 Brown Street :: Syracuse, N. Y.

PATENTS

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ex-member ex.mining corps, u. s. p.tenl office Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill BIdg. WASHINGTON, D. C.

'Ideal" Plans and Drawings

are accurate and are accompanied by clear, concise building instructions, postpaid at the following prices: Wright 3-ft. Biplane, 25c. Bleriot 3-ft. Monoplane, 15c. "Cecil Peoli" Champion Racer, 25c. Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane (new), 35c. "Ideal" three-foot Racer (new), 15c.

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The three .sheets constitute the best set of monoplane working drawings now on the market. There is no need for the purchascrof a set of these drawings to guess at anything; since all dimensions of every part of the machine are given, together with the thickness, and gauge of every piece of wood or steel used in the construction.

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PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

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AERONAUTICS

Coming Events

Cast your shadow towards the

King of Attractions

HARRY BINGHAM BROWN, English Pilot ?

Elevating

FREDERICK RODMAN LAW

In his WRIGHT AEROPLANE to |

a height of 4,500 feet, disposing of his *

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descends by the aid of a PARA- f

CHUTE. I

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Every click of the watch a J

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MANAGERS, Booking, will do well to address

A. LEO STEVENS

and notes written by Sharotts during flight were dropped im tubes attached to miniature parachutes.

AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY MOVES

The Aeronautical Society now has new quarters in the Engineering Societies Building, 29 West 39th Street, New York, where a large lecture hall is available for the public meetings. The great library of the Engineers Club is also open to members of the Society for reading and research work.

DEATHS IN AMERICA

Savona, N. Y., Oct. 6. Motohisa Kondo, a graduate of the Curtiss school of aviation at San Diego, Cal., where he secured his pilots license in May of this year, was killed in falling with his machine from an altitude of 200 feet. He was flying at an altitude of 200 feet when he turned to the right which took him over the highway and over a farm house and buildings, and had made the turn, when, for some unknown reason, he pushed his control forward, sending his machine straight down over a barn. He came down until within 30 feet of the ground when he changed his control and righted the machine but struck the frame of a steel windmill about 10 feet from the ground.

Kondo was thrown from the machine and instantly killed. His head struck on one of the steel uprights of the windmill and crushed the skull on the entire left side. His neck was broken and his jaw was fractured in two places. The impact was terrific and the windmill which was of steel angle-iron construction, was nearly broken in two halves, and buckled over the aeroplane wreckage. Mr. Kondo was a native of Osaka, Japan, and came to this country im June, 1903. He was born in December, 1SS5. He was flying a Kirkham tractor biplane with a 70 horse power Kirkham motor, which was a different type of machine than Mr. Kondo had been using.

Birmingham, Ala., Oct. S.—"Joe" Stevenson died from injuries received from a fall October 7, in an exhibition flight, using a headless "Curtis-type" of his own make. Stevenson was well known in New York and was the butt of many a joke on his experiences in the air, for nearly every "flight" of a mile or so ended in a wreck. Flying certainly was not a natural art with him. A national registration and license law would have avoided this fatal accident. George M. Dyott, who was flying a Rex mono at the same place, states that the the day was windy, bad eddies and downward air currents, machine did not climb rapidly, got into bad eddy, sideslipped and crashed to ground, rose first about fifty feet up.

Montgomery, Ala., Oct. 23.—Louis Mitchell was killed making a spiral dive in his Wright. Mitchell was known as the "heaviest aviator," weighing about 225 pounds.

OFFICIAL FINDINGS ON ARMY DEATHS

1. The Board of Officers appointed to investigate the cause of the accident to Lt. Rockwell and Corp. Frank Scott reported as follows:

Immediately after the accident, the Board proceeded to examine the wrecked machine, and upon this examination found that the control wires were all intact. From the testimony of eye-witnesses, the Board is of the opinion that the accident was caused by the aviator misjudging his height from the ground and his failure to bring the machine out of the glide in sufficient time to clear the ground.

NEW COMPANIES

Harry N. Atwood Private School of Aviation, Inc., Boston, $10,000. Harry N. Atwood, L». R. Soule, S. S. Atwood.

Batson Air Navigation Co. and the Batson Aircraft Co., of Springfield, Mass., inc. under laws of N. J., cap. stock of each $500,000. B. S. Mantz, S. A. Anderson and C. H. Jarvis.

American Aviators Promoters Ass'n, Okla-

homa City, Okla., $10,000; C. E. Bishop, Howard Pendleton and James S. Watson.

The Flying Machine Improvement & Parcel Post Delivery Co., of America, Kittery, Maine; $500,000; H. Mitchell, H. A. Paul.

AERO CLUB ADOPTS "AERONAUTICS"' PLEA

Seven flyers successfully passed the 1912 requirements for the Aero Club's "expert aviators' " certificate. These are as follows:

1 Max Lillie

2 Glenn L. Martin

3 2nd Lieut. T. de W. Milling, 15th Cavalry

4 2nd Lieut. H. H. Arnold, 29th Infantry

5 Capt. C. de F. Chandler, Signal Corps.

6 Capt. P. W. Beck, 17th Infantry.

7 1st Lieut. B. D. Foulois 7th Infantry Expert certificates are granted without trials

to U. S. A. aviators who have passed the special army requirements and have been certified by the Secretary of War as entitled to the grade of "Army Aviators."

The army requirements differ somewhat from those of the Club but are fully as difficult, and in some respects more so. The tests for army aviators have been printed in AERONAUTICS.

The plan of giving superior certificates to real flyers to distinguish them from any old grasshopper who fulfills international conditions was first urged by AERONAUTICS. The Club is to be complimented on this most sensible step.

NEW PILOTS

The following are the international licenses which have been granted since the issuance of the October number:—

174—H. C. Richardson, at Hammondsport, N. Y. Aug. 20, 1912 (Curtiss hydro); 175—Charles L Wiggins, at Cicero, 111., Sept. 12, 1912 (Wright); 17 6—Cord Meyer, at Hempstead, L. I., Sept. 28, 1j12 (Wright); 177—John S. Schaefer, ai Cicero, 111., Sept. 1 and Oct. 1, 1912, (w right); 17S—Robert Elliott, at Cicero, 111., Oct. 1, 19L (Wright); 179—P. H. Reid, at Hempstead, L. 1., Oct. IS, 1912, (Deperdussin); (Mr. Reid's license has been granted him subject to approval of the Royal Aero Club of the United Kingdom). 180—John S. Sverkerson, at Cicero, 111., Oct. 15, 1912 (Wright).

177 John S. Schaefer, Cicero, 111., (Wright), Oct. 23, 1912.

17S Robert Elliott, Cicero, 111., (Wright), Oct. 23, 1912.

179 P. H. Reid, Hempstead, (Deperdussin), Oct. 23, 1912.

ISO John S. Sverkerson, Cicero, 111., (Wright), Oct. 23, 1912.

181 Charles F. Niles, Syracuse, N. Y., (Curtiss), Nov. 6th, 1912.

152 Horacio Ruiz, Hempstead, (Moisant), Nov. 6th, 1912.

153 William Anthony Lamkey, Hempstead, (Moisant), Nov. 6th, 1912.

184 Glen M. Tait, Bath, N. Y., (Thomas), Nov. 6th, 1912.

1S5 Ralph Myron Brown, Bath, N. Y., (Thomas), Nov. 6th, 1912.

BEACHEY AND FISH SUSPENDED

On October 29th, 1912, the Contest Committee of the Aero Club of America suspended the licenses of Mr. Lincoln Beachey, aviation pilot No. 27, until 12 o'clock noon, July 1st, 191^, for violation Of Rtsolution passed by the Board of Governors on Aiarch 27th, 1912, when he flew over Michigan Avenue, Chicago, at the time of the Chicago Meet and Mr. Farnum T. Fish, aviation pilot No. 85, until 12 o'clock moon. July 1st, 1913, for violation of Resolution passed by the Board on November 13th, 1911 when he flew over the Vanderbilt Cup Race at Milwaukee, Wis.

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT

The Wright-Curtiss suit has again been postponed to Nov. 18th, when lawyers for both parties will argue before the Court at Buffalo.

Aviation is rapidly getting to be a poor man's sport, .lust because this sport has made a lot of poor men. or a lot of men poor, is no reason for calling the sport poor. Even the poor man can now learn to fly. The Thomas Brothers are cataloging their course at $250, using two-man machines with duplicate control.

Your cooperation has been of great value to us, which is very much appreciated. Success to your truly aeronautic journal.

—An advertiser

An eight cvlinder 72-horsepower "V" type air cooled motor will shortly be placed on the market by the Kemp Machine Co., of Mu.ncie, Ind., the makers of the Gray Eagle. A club has been started in Muncie. with a field, and the Kemp people offer free use of their motors to experimentors at that field, subject to purchase if motors prove successful in their machine.

The Chicago meet was a very satisfactory one for the Hall Scott Company, as they sold eight motors within three weeks in Chicago. H. F. Kearnv was a big attraction up to the arrival of Lincoln Beachey, and then Kearnv pnd Beachey gave some demonstrations of fanov flying whi"h were wonderful from a snec-tacular point of view. Kearny used a Hall Scott 10 H. P. motor, flying throughout the meet with it. and used it for something over nine hours, getting second place in endurance.

Arnold Kruckman. formerly Secretary of the Aeronautical Society, has become affiliated with the Sloane Aeroplane Co., of New York, and was elected its Secretary. Mr. Kruckman will be in charge of the Los Aneeles activities of the Sloane Aeronlane Co. The Service Bureau which he instituted is one of the most successful departments of the Aeronautical Society. It has enabled many persons to avoid falling into the clutches of fraudulent school promoters and fake exhibition promoters. It has also brought many aviators and mechanicians in contact with erood positions.

Harry B. Wise, on the staff of the Sloane Aeroplane Po., has been appointed Superintendent of Equipment and Construction, in connection with the activities of the Company at Los Angeles. Mr. Wise is an expert aeronautical architect, engineer and motor specialist. He was for many years in charge of the activities of the Christv Motor Co. When Charles K. Hamilton began to tour me country with his aeroplane Wise was in charge of the mechanical end. Later he was in eharffe of the aeroplanes and motors when the Moisant Companv sent the Internatinnal Aviators on their tour around the United States and Mexico.

The Burgess Military 1912 machine has been entirely' rebuilt by the LT. S. Signal Corps and equipped with a Sturtevant motor, completely muffled. The navy has placed an order for a Sturtevant muffled motor to go on their Wright machine, the installation to be done by the Burgess Company. The new military hvdro-aeronlane under order from the Signal Corps, U. S. A. is now being assembled. It will be equipped with two hvdroolane boats of a new type built of a combination of materials not heretofore used.

It contains many new features in detail construction looking towards quickness in assembling and dissembling, accessibility of all metal parts as well as the exposure of vital members to easy inspection.

Lieutenants Ellyson and Cunningham of the United States Navy completed their training last month. Among the men now training at

Marblehead are found Lieutenant L. H. Call of the TJ. S. Army, Mr. Frazier Curtis of Los Angeles, Calif., and Mr. H. L. Brownback of Nor-ristown, Pa. Lt. Ellington of the TJ. S. Army is expected immediately on his return from a furlough.

The new flying boat type with the Renault motor for the U. S. Navy is now in the designing room.

The Italian, Japanese and Russian governments have been supplied direct with Curtiss flying boats, or will be supplied when completed. The German government has been sold through an agent. In England, the big engineering firm of Vickers Sons has the agency; this concern will in the future build Curtiss 'planes on royalty and buy the Curtiss motors. Louis Paulhan, who obtained some notoriety in America a couple of years ago, is building the machines on royalty in France and will shortly manufacture the motors as well.

At the Tamise, Belgium, hydro meet, Barn won first with a Curtiss; also obtaining the first prize for best starting device.

The Gyro Motor Co. promises a 7-cylinder motor of SO H. P. and a 5-cylinder of 60 H. I'. The latter may be on the market at such a figure as to compete in prices with any other aeronautical motor on the market and be superior in performance." The company reports that the German Government tested a 7 cylinder Gyro motor in a 5 hour's block test and reported a steady reading of 46 H. P. "Inasmuch as a revolving cylinder motor never shows up as well in a block test as when in the air, we think that the result of the German Government test has been highly complimentary."

The Washington Aeroplane Company is now building a new "Columbia" racing and flying boat which will be equipped with an SO H. 1. self-starting Gyro motor and a three-bladed Simmons propeller, and will have all the latest wrinkles and frills known in aeronautics. The same Company has retained aviator Oscar Allen B'rindley for testing their aeroplanes. Brindley is now flying the "Columbia." The flying boat, when finished, has already been spoken for ani> practically bought by a well known aviator.

The new altitude record made by Legagneaux on the I7th of September was made with a Moraine monoplane, powered with a Gnome motor, and Bosch equipped "of course." The altitude record of 4950 meters, which was made by Garros and was superseded by the above mentioned record, was made with a Bleriot monoplane, powered with a Gnome motor and Bosch equipped. It also is worthy of note that Vedrines' Denerdtissin monoplane, which won the Gordon B'ennett Trophy, was Bosch-equidped. Practically world records are held by Bosch magnetos.

"T am going to build the best 'plane that can lie built, and I am going to stand behind this 'plane, and the buyer; so that when the big business comes our product will be so good, and our name so well known that you will have confidence in us because of work well done." —Tom W. Benoist.

This paragraph appears in the new Benoist catalogue. It is a good paragraph! Benoist is already well and favorably known and his promise only bears out what is already known. Tony Jannus started November 6 on a trip down the Mississippi River from Omaha to its outlet, using Roberts-motored Benoist hydroaeroplane. The distance is over a thousand miles.

With the Trade

cy4ero cTHart

RATES : 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line Payment in advance required.

GNOME FIFTY—who wants it? Has been used by Charles F. YVillard. Perfect condition. Make offer. Address, "GNOME," c/o Aeronautics.

MOTOR WANTED—New or second-hand 4 cycle, 50 h. p. or thereabouts. Aero motor wanted. Send full details of condition, age, service and lowest cash price. Address, LAKE, c'o Aeronautics, 250 YV. 54th St., New York.

FOR SALE. 50 H. P. French Gnome Motor, ccst $2,GOO, im Paris and 45%. Duty, $1,170. The machine it was purchased for was not a success so will take $2,000 cash for the motor, R. V. Jones, Hotel Nelson. Seattle, Wash.

FOR SALE—Fox De Luxe, 60 h. p. motor, brand new, with radiator and propeller. Complete, ready for investigation, bargain. Win. Sylvester, Oakwood Heights. S. I., N. Y.

RARE BOOKS—Occasionally it is possible to secure copies of Wise and Astra Castra. These are very scarce and are two of the absolutely necessary books for an aeronautical library.

ASTRA CASTRA. bv Hatton Turnor. Cloth, London. 1S65, many fine plates. $10.

A SYSTEM OF AERONAUTICS, Comprehending its Earliest Investigations and Modern Practice and Art, Designed as a History for the Common Reader and Guide to the Student of the Art, by John Wise. Svo., cloth, Phila., IS50. $10. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

ASSORTMENT of complete power plants, including: Curtiss 25 h. p., I cyl: Clement-Bayard 30's: Kirkham 60: Hendee (Indian) 7 cyl. 50. Bargains at 50% .below cost

Immediate delivery of genuine Bleriot' and several antiquated but successful aeroplanes of unexcelled workmanship "for a sons." Address, Assortment, c o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., N. Y. City.

BLERIOT—with 70 Gnome, extra, pair of wings and other new part's. Two-place machine, latest type. Cost, with duty, over $6,000. For a very few hundred dollars, broken propeller and rudder can be replaced. Any reasonable offer accepted. Property of the late Miss Harriet Quimby. Address. Estate of Miss Quimby, c b Aeronautics, 250 West 54th St., New York.

FOR SALE—Bleriot Monoplane, without power plant, in first class condition. Would be a bargain at $600.00. First check for $400. takes it. 30 U. P. Detroit aero motor guaranteed in first class condition, $125. one fiyift. dia. bv 4y2ft. pitch, Detroit propeller $20.00. One 7ft. dia. by 5ft pitch, Gibson propeller, $30.00. The above are bargains and you will have to act nu.ok to get them. J. iiorat, S27 Main St., Lafayette, Ind.

SPECIAL GOOD BARGAINS—1 Gnome engine, 50 h. p., complete with mountings for biplane, everything ready to run. Can demonstrate. Nearly new. Fine condition. $2,000.

Complete set of parts for Gnome 50, enough to assemble complete engine; all kinds socket wrenches and tools for same; mounting frames, controls, etc.

Bleriot type monoplane for Gnome engine, Two Bleriot types with Anzani engines. Sets of parts.

All these from well known concerns. Everything can be seen before purchase. Chean for cash. Address MONO, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City.

ENGINE FOR SALE—S-cyl. "V," list price, 11,500, new, never used. The one who buys this motor gets one of th"se few real bargains* that aren't picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $800. Address. "Eight Cy..rider," c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

WANTED—Magneto for S-cyl. motor, Bosch preferred. C. Ford, 161 Oak St., Bingbamton, N. Y.

WANTED TO BUY—Curtiss biplane complete except motor. Must be cheap. What have you to offer. George Schermerhorn, Eyota, Minn.

FOR SALE—1 Roberts 4-X Motor 50 H.P. new. Guaranteed to be in perfect condition. Price, $550.00. M. F. II.. Gouverneiir, Wilmington. N. C.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Pittston, Me., Oct. 30.—Jay B. Benton and William Van Sleet in the "Springfield" from Pittsfield, leaving there midnight. Duration 7 hrs. 30 min. Dist. 225 miles.

Indianapolis, Oct. 27.—Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh, passenger Andrew Farrell, in the "Cole" U Lynn, Ind. Duration IS hrs. 42 min. Dist. 65 miles. A circular tour of the state was made before the balloon finally landed.

For records, add also the 3 trips made by Americans in the Internation-al race at Stuttgart.

AVIATOR WINS PRIZE FOR FLIGHT WITHOUT A MOTOR.

The prize offered by M. Bernard .1. Dubos to the first aviator who, without the aid of a motor, should succeed in flying a distance of more than one metre at a height of not less than ten centimetres, .was won Oct. 1!), at the Pare des Princess, by M. Sigmar Rettich. The successful experiment was made in the presence of M. Dubos and M. Emmanuel Aime the first named acting as official time-keeper of the Arro-Club de France.

After a number of failures, M. Sigmar Rettich finally tlew a distance of three metres, on two occasions, in opposite directions, as required by th» conditions under which the prize is awarded. His machine was an ordinary bicycle with two 'planes, each a metre and a half long, attached to the handle bars,

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Imports and exports of aeroplanes and parts for the month of August, are as follows: Imports, 5 valued at $31,116. For S months previous, 10 at $42,720. Exports of domestic. 4 at $13,630. For S months previous. 22 at $S2,795. Exports of foreign make, none. For S months previous. 9 at J2S.753. In warehouse August 31, S at $41,296.

Double Hydro Floati, weight. 55 lbs. each. pair. $250- I Running Gears, Farman or Wright, complete. $42.50. I Hubs, knock out axle or to fit, 1". l'x". 1L.»\ or IV- |

AEROPLANE WHEELS

J. \. WEAVER, Jr., Mfr.. 132 West 50th Street, N Y " Wheels, 20" x2'in. complete, $6.00 - 20" x 3". $8.25, " with Curtiss or Farman type stock Hub. 6" wide. We make any size or type of wheel. Send for lint. Compare my prices with all others.

So simple anyone can operate them

So strong nobody breaks them

So cheap anyone can buy them

Made in a dozen sizes, to suit all types of machines.

The most generally successful engine known to aviation, for both amateur and professional work. Catalog or folder on request.

Elbridge Engine Company

10 Culver Rd. Rochester, N. Y.

WELLES & ADAMS

MOTORS

One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually

made good.

50 H. P. 4 Cycle

Weight 200 lbs.—Valves in head—Cylinders cast separate—Erery moving part oiled automatically.

Let us send you our illustrated catalogue showing Fred. Eells' great flight over the city of Rochester in biplane equipped with this motor.

If you wish to do something better than "Grass-Cutting"

Consult

WELLES & ADAMS, Bath, N. Y.

SLOANE

Our California School

Opened November 15th at the famous Dominguez Field near Los Angeles. This ideal location for an Aeroplane School is adjacent to splendid living accommodations ; a short ride from the ocean and twenty minutes from the heart of Los Angeles. All the most attractive and romantic points of interest of tins storied region are in eye-shot from an Aeroplane over our Field. We are able to secure special rates for the accommodation of our pupils at hotels and in private homes. We will gladly make all reservations.

Four Deperdussin Monoplanes, Two Caudron Monoplanes, One Sloane-Bleriot Monoplane and One Speedy Biplane Will Be Our School Equipment

W. LEONARD BONNEV,one of the pioneer American Aviators, assisted by two notable flyers will constitute the teaching faculty. We teach exactly according to the methods used on the Plains of Champaign near Rheims, France. We use the »ame kind of machines with which Vedrines, the Deperdussin Flyer, won the World's Championship at Chicago. We have the most perfect imported Aeroplanes, use Ihe most perfect Field and Shop teaching methods and are located on the most ideal spot in America. Our faculty and oui equipment are sufficient to handle almost any number of pupils with thoroughness and expedition. Our pupils on Long Island have become aviators of notable skill in an average of six weeks. The co-it is

$300 For The Complete Course

The pupil in our school is not discharged from the class until he has secured his pilot's certificate. There are noextra charges for anything. The pupil is also obliged to put up a guarantee of S'-'")0 for breakage in addition to his tuition fee. This small bond covers his use of the machine when he flics for his certificate. When the pupil is discharged from the school the S2T>0 guarantee is refunded and he is given a rebate of id per cent, of his tuition fee if he completes without breakage.

We are arranging to carry passengers on a series of Aeroplane Cross-Country Tours o^er California. Bookings are now being made.

Make your arrangements for the School and the Cross-Country Tours as soon as possible. Only a limited number of persons will be accommodated in order that the work may be done right.

wire write 'phone

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.

210 Merchants Trust Bldg. 1733 Broadway

Broadway & 2d St., Los Angeles, Cal. New Vork City

'Phone Main 3(574 'Phone Columbus 5421

National Aeroplane Co.

60fi S. Michigan Ave. Chicago, Til. it'. E. Bouijhton, Washington., D C.

THAT NATIONAL LAW

T~~~~ HE death of Joe Stevenson is another example of the need for a national registration and license — law. Had there been such a statute in force, Stevenson would not have been permitted to contract to give exhibition flights to his own danger and that of thousands of spectators. Stevenson, despite two years of attempting to fly, never succeeded in becoming an accomplished aviator. A law with almost any old conditions for license would have barred him from public flying. If the clubs of this country would spend some of their energy now devoted to the "control" of aeronautics, in the encouragement of regulation of the movement along obvious lines, what might not result?

FRONT COVER

THE cover illustration shows two of the aeroplane in the first race of the kind new Curtiss flying boats and a hydro-ever held. The race was arranged for the students and visitors at the Curtiss aviation school at Hammondsport on the afternoon of October 28. All who witnessed the race are unanimous in the opinion that yachting with the flying boat is destined to be the greatest of sports.

The sight of three machines jockeying for position was inspiring, while the close finish of the return trip would stir the blood of any sportsman. The 'three machines were all fitted with the same engine power, but the flying boats proved speedier in the air and faster in making turns on the water, a rule of the contest being that the machines must round the buoy on the water and could fly only between the starting and finishing points, excepting on the third lap, which was the finish.

VOLAMEKUM, Handbuch fur Luftahervon Ansbert Vorreiter und Hans Boykow; published by J. F. Lehmann's Verlag, Munchen, Germany, at 4 M. S mo, cloth, 16S pp., illustrated, tables and charts.

Das vorliegende Taschenbuch soil die Luft-fahrer namentlich bei der Navigation unter-sturzen. Daher sind alle neuen Methoden be-sprochen und die notwendigen Instrumente kurz beschrieben. Ferner soil das Buch dem Luft-fahrer bei der Landung in fremden Landern als Spracbfiihrer dienen.

Da neben dem Ballon jetzt auch Luftschiffe und Flugzeuge in Bewegung sind, ist auf die Verhaltnisse dieser Luftfahrzeuge Riicksicht genommen. Die erste Ausgabe wird sicher noch Mangel aufweisen; um diese zu beseitigen, bitten wir erfahrene Luftfahrer, die dieses Taschenbuch benutzen, uns ihre Erfahrungen mitzu-teilen und Verbesserungsvorschlage zu ma-chen.

Mr. George H. Arnold is at the present time in College Park, Md., demonstrating the Moisant monoplane, ard has made splendid flights there. Miss Mary C. Sims has recently sisnerl a contract to enter our school and has already started her tuition at Card en City. Mr. J. H. Worden is now flying for the Mexican Government for scouting purposes. Reports state he made a beautiful flierht over the rebels fnr 120 miles without stopping, returning to the headquarters of General Huerta with valuable information. One more officer, Mr. Salazar. of the Mexican Government, arrived a few davs ago at the Moisant Aviation School, at Hempstead, L. I., for the purpose of taking a course there.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press, 250 West 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic. New York "Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres'i — — ERNEST L. JONES. Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor - M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States. s3.00 Foreign. $3.50

advertising representative: e. f. inoraham adv. co.. 116 nassau st.. new york

NO. 63

NOVEMBER—1 9 12

Vol. XI, No. 5

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postofflci New York, under the Act of Inarch 3, 1879. AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^» All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: :: f| Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not tend currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: ::

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP

In compliance with Postal Order 6531, the following statement is furnished the Postmaster General by AERONAUTICS: EDITOR, Ernest h. Jones; MANAGING EDITOR, Ernest I,. Jones: .BUSINESS MANAGER, Ernest L. Jones: PUBLISHER. Aeronautics Press, a corporation, more than 1 per cent, of the stock in which is owned by Ernest L. Jones. There are no security holders save as above—no bonds or mortgages.

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor. Sworn to and subscribed before me this 26th day of October, 1012.

CHARLES NETTER, Notary Public (N. 3031).

WHAT HAS BECOME OF -?

Glidden's New York-Boston airship line? Flying by A. C. A. members of the Club's Nieu-port?

The Auto Club of America's thousand dollar

motor competition? That Christmas flight to Washington? The A. C. A.'s hydroaeroplane race to Boston? That transatlantic aeroplane prize? New York's municipal aviation field? Ditto "Isles of Safety?" The Aero Exhibition Co.. of Chicago? Fowler's Flight to New York? The Hendee rotarv motor? The Curtiss cup defender?

The Parseval airship that was to sail nightly

over New York? Amherst's aerial signs for bnlloonists? The great Springfield aero park? Tillinghast?

Many of the aero clubs which have been formed and of which nothing more was heard?

The Wright aeroplane to have been purchased by the A. C. A. for members' use?

The Baldwin airship that went to Germany?

Brucker's transatlantic airship voyage?

Ditto, Martin's across-the-ocean flight?

The Aeronautical Reserve.

That aerodynamic laboratory?

The Wright memorial?

The Queen Aeroplane Co.?

The Lamson-YVrlght suit? For that matter, the

Wright-Curtiss suit? The Walden-Dyott Co.—and dentist Walden,

too?

The "Popular Aeronaut," and the other two aero magazines whose name we have forgotten.

U. S. Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

lt would take an entire Issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to gi\e in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we ha\ e used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given. -Editor.

ISSUED SEPTEMBER 24

*1,039,181, Roy M. Palmer, Washington, D. C, AUTOMATIC STABILITY: ailerons are operated electrically, using magnets and a shifting fluid column, etc. Filed June 16, 1011.

*I.039.228, Jesse S. Vogt., Long Green, Md., AUTOMATIC STABILITY: Warping or ailerons operated by compressed air. Swinging of a pendulum opens main valve to cylinder with pistons, etc., Feh. 14, 1912.

1,039,240, Bruno Zobel, Chicago, 111., HELICOPTER.

1,039,251, Frederick Brackett, Washington, D.

C, AIRSHIP.

1,039,295, John Kratofill, Chicago, 111., PARACHUTE attachment for aeroplanes.

1,039,345, Claes Eric Winterros, Takoma Park,

D. C, AEROPLANE.

1,039,384. William L. Green, Monroe City Mo., FLYING MACHINE.

1,039,456, George Percv Bragg Smith, Mit-cham, England., AEROPLANE, with top plane at a dihedral angle and bottom plane curved up to meet ends of upper plane.

*1,039,457, Thomas Noah Smith, San Angelo, Texas. AEROPLANE: rear edge of wing supported in both directions by springs to impart resiliencv in wind, etc.

1,039,530, Aubrey C. Harry, Portsmouth, Ohio, FLYING MACHINE.

1,039,625, Frank D. Willis, Burlington, Vermont., STABILITY: means for increasing angle of incidence in flight when the machine strikes a "hole in the air."

1,039,679, Harry Hardgrave, Dalhart, Texas, FLYING MACHINE of the heating wing type.

ISSUED OCTOBER 1

1,039,716, George H. Feller, Beach City, Ohio, FLYING MACHINE.

*1,039,889, Lucien Brianne, Paris, France. A device for supplying power from the ground to Experimental machines, or models.

*1,040,089, Eugene Yeamans, Collegeport, xexas. AUTOMATIC STABILIZER, employing the gyroscope as the actuating means.

1,040,136, Nat Elmer Brown, Grand Haven, Mich. HELICOPTER, comprising extending arms supporting lifting planes, the whole rotating about a stationary axis; a "gyroplane."

*1,040.241, Louis J. Rouchleau, Arlington, Cal. PARACHUTE for use in connection with aeroplanes, 'ihe device is attached to aviator or passenger. The parachute, is forced into an open state by using compressed air from a tank. This, with the other patent mentioned last issue, may be found of interest in view of the jumps now being made with parachutes from aeroplanes.

ISSUED OCTOBER S

1,040.434, Laurence O. Schopp, St. Louis, Mo. STABILITY; planes capable of moving about central longitudinal axis; body with motor hung below.

*1,040,533, Robert Esnault-Pelterie. Billan-court, France. AEROPLANE, in which the wings are rotatably mounted on a transverse shaft located at the entering edge. The rear of the surface is. spring connected so that sudden gusts of wind automatically decrease the angle of incidence. Forward and rear elevators interconnected with rocking main wings.

1,040,600, Valentine Wojciechowski, Brockton, Mass. AEROPLANE capable of being disposed in a parachute form.

1.040,608, Horace G. Baker", Harlan, Iowa. Automatically tilting SUPPORTING SURFACE, operatable by wind currents (or manually) to an ascending position.

1.040,695, Julius Koiw, Port Arthur, Texas. PROPELLER; feathering blade paddle wheel arrangement.

1,040,7K5, August Seaver, Morttague, Mich. STABILITY; pendulum system for lateral balance.

1,040.0^, Ernest H. Anclrae, Dallas, Texas, STABILITY; sliding surface increases lift on low side.

ISSUED OCTOBER 15

1,041,131, Robert E. McBride, Mullen, Nebr. AEROPLANE; wing ends curve upward; fixed tail set at dihedral angle.

1,041,136, Lawrence P. McKeone, New York, N. Y. STABILITY; multiple resistance Vanes hinged under the main surface.

1,041,620, Thomas D. Greer, Norton, Kans. STABILITY; pendulum device.

1,041,630. Marie Jascogrre, Paris. France. SURFACE curved laterally with convex face downward; oscillate about extreme front edge.

ISSUED OCTOBER 22

1,011,759, Edward .1. Elsas, Kansas City, Mo. AFJRc )PLANE.

1,041,779, Felix Gregoire, St. Jean Baptiste, Man., Canada., Oct. 22, 1912. Combination Autoboat and Aeroplane.

1,041,781, David Hacker, New York, N. Y., FLYING MACHINE.

1,041,825, Charles J. Low, Chelan, Wash. PR<) PELLER.

1,041.876, V\ illiam S. Romme, New York, N. Y. AEROPLANE; circular in plan, with opening in center.

1,041,942, Franz H. Albeit, Lodi, Cal. FLYING MACHINE.

1.042,082, Joseph Canty, Concord, N. H. BALANCING mechanism using a suspended weight.

1,042,311, Paul Behrens, Tacoma, Wash. STEERING means; shif table body position; movable propellers; eliminating rudders.

1,042,327, Joseph J. Costanzo, Alexandria, Egypt. Life-Saving GARMENT for aviators, composed of plurality of inflatable spTing suspended chambers.

1,042,338, Frederick W. Goyette, San Francisco, Cal. FLYING MACHINE.

1,042,349. Leslie L. Hill, Los Ange'es. Cal. "Airship LIFE-PRESERVER;" parachute device.

WRIGHT ESTATE $279,298

An accounting of the estate of Wilbur Wright by Orville Wright, Executor, showed a total value in personal property and real estate of $2?9.2rS. In the distribution of the estate that remained after the payment of all just debts, Uenehliin, Katherine and worin Wright each received $50,000. Milton Wright, the father, was given $1,000.

BALDWIN

ft

Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any Strength or Color.

"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

6C

GRAY EAGLE MOTORS

KEMP MACHINE WORKS

f|[Liberal three months terms to test □lout and pay for a Gray Eagle Motor. The proof of the motor is the actual Hying test. Is this not a fair proposition? Full particulars and terms on request.

Model E-6 50 H. P. Model D-4 35 H. P.

Muncie, Ind.

tsd^.- * _...... - ■ _

BENOIST AIRCRAFT CO.,

< BENOIST ^

CH y d r o p 1 a n e was biggest winner at the Chicago Hydro Meet. The Benoist Tractor Biplane made the only record during the complete meet. Carrying aviator and 3 passengers. The Benoist gets results and costs no more than other 'planes.

6628 Delmar Blvd.

ST. LOUIS, U. S. A.

LEARN on a THOMAS — T u 1T' ° N, $ 2 5 0

Write to-day

No Additional Charge for Breakage

C.A THOMAS WON all speed events at the N. Y. State Fair.—A THOMAS will win next year. We have more speed. The result of 4 years' experience. C.THOMAS PLANES have proved that their design was correct from

the first. Write for description of our new model

$1800 complete

THOMAS BROS., Bath, N. Y.

GIBSON

GIBSON PROPELLER CO.

PROPELLERS ARE STILL ON THE MARKET

WAITING FOR THE AWAKENING The "Worcester" Type Surpasses all Standard Propellers OUR STANDARD PROPELLER CLEARANCE SALE AT 1-4 LIST PRICES

Our Standard Propellers cannot be surpassed except by our "WORCESTER" type

Fort George Park, New York

£♦+++++++++++++**++++*+++*+**+

* C. & A. Wittemann f

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS *

Manufacturers of 4>

Biplanes

Monoplanes

Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock.

1 tall-Scott Motors, 40-60-SO H. P.

Your Opportcnitv—One single covered Biplane for immediate delivery. Slightly n>ed, with 8 cyl. 60 11. P. Hall-Scott Power Plant.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY

Established 1906

Tel. 717 Tompkinsville £

I FLIGHTS I

Aerial Sight-seeing Tours Arranged on Demand

Piloted by

FAMOUS AVIATORS

Instruction and Licenses Used Material, Motors, 'Planes, etc.

"AERONAUTICS" 250 West 54th St., New York

Phone, Columbus 4833

ITOURSi

******************************

FRONTIER MOTORS

8 Cylinder-60-70 H.P.

This is the advertisement of a real motor

THE EIGHT CYLINDER MOTOR IS THE LOGICAL AEROPLANE MOTOR

IT is non-gyroscopic ; it does not use power to rotate a heavy mass ; it can be kept in shape by any automobile mechanic; it is most easily adapted to streamline bodies. All this, and more, is susceptible of proof.

OUR motor has a conscience and we merely ask the opportunity to prove to you our claims. If yon are in the market for a Eood motor, you owe it to yourself to give us a chance to make good our statements. The intending purchaser owes us an investigation.

GEORGE \V. "BEATTY is (lying his Wright with our motor at Hempstead field, and is prepared to demonstrate same on request.

WRITE us and make appointment for flight and inspection. If you purchase an engine from us, we will refunil your transportation within a radius of 250 miles. Give us an opportunity to show you what we have.

FRONTIER IRON WORKS

BUFFALO :: :: NEW YORK

H -A. JL* SCO

Aviation Power Plants

Roy Francis in his HALL-SCOTT powered, tractor biplane

HALL-SCOTT:

The equipment for altitude work

Douglas, Wyoming,

September 28th, 1912.

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., San Francisco, Cal.

Gentlemen:

Have had grand success in this high altitude, filling dates in Loveland, Colo., Ft. Morgan, Colo., Sidney, Nebr., and here.

My next flight will be in Denver, where I fly with Beachey, from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth of October.

Yours truly, (Signed) Roy N. FRANCIS, Aviator.

Backed by the HALL-SCOTT guarantee of EXCELLENCE, RELIABILITY, FLEXIBILITY and POWER, to a greater degree that can be found in any other motors (with equal number of cylinders and size in bore and stroke).

Francis and Bryant made a record for altitude flying at Goldfield, Nevada, last 4th of July. 5,000 feet altitude to start from. All flights successful. $4,000.00 paid them in full for three days flying. Hall-Scott Type A-2 Equipment used.

"SURE SHOT" KEARNY, who never disappoints, never fails to fill flying dates as contracted for, who is doing more flying than any other aviator in the country. SECOND in endurance at Chicago Meet with HALL-SCOTT 80 h.p. equipment. HALL-SCOTT IS THE ANSWER.

If you want the best write for catalogue today

Hall-Scott Motor Car Company,

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA


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