Volume 11 - No. 4 - 1912 October
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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Vol. XI, No. 4 OCTOBER, 1912 Serial No. 62
$450.00 Per Minute
Aviator Jannus, winning $450.00 in one minute by carrying 3 in the Cicero Meet He uses a Benoist Tractor Biplane with a
ROBERTS 6-x 75-H. P. MOTOR
The total winnings of Roberts Powered 'Planes at Cicero and Grant Park were $4,915.58, excelling all other motors in this respect.
Not one user of a Roberts Motor had motor trouble. PROFESSIONALS LIKE THE ROBERTS BECAUSE IT GETS THE MONEY
EGBERTS MOTOR Cb
PtihU.hmJ A« AE?ffr\hJAfJTirQ DDITCC oen UA,-* GA*h C*-«»* YnrL
Kirkham Motor iff Wins Again
W. t. Thomas, m. e., a. c. g. i.
president qualified aviators
o. w. thomas, m. e.. a. c. g. i. vicepre6. and secy.
Designers and Builders of Aeroplanes
BATH, N. Y., September 17, 1912.
C. B. KIRKHAM,
Savona, N. Y.
You will doubtless be interested in hearing of the latest success we have achieved with
your motor which we are using in one of our standard exhibition biplanes.
At the Aviation Meet, held at the New York State Fair, at Syracuse, New York,
September 9,;14th, our Mr. Walter E. Johnson, with one of your 65 horse power motors made a
clean sweep of the speed events, as the following official times indicate: 10-Mile Race. Monday, September 9th.
1st. W. B. Johnson, 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 10'42l"
2nd. B. Havens, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 14' 10"
3rd. W. B. Hemstrought, 60 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 14' 15*". 15-Milc Race, Saturday, September 14th.
1st. W. E. Johnson, 65 H. P. Thomas Model 10AX. Total time, 16' 11 h"
2nd. C. H. Niles, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time, 16' 26i"
3rd. W. B. Hemstrought, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total time,---4th. B. Havens, 75 H. P. Curtiss. Total Time,----From the above figures you will see that our machine, driven by your engine, proved
itself SECOND TO NONE.
We wish to express our complete satisfaction with the faultless manner in which the
engine ran throughout the races and the regular time with which the machine ticked off each lap
of the course.
It is worthy of notice that the Model 10AX, above mentioned, has been in active use throughout two whole seasons making exhibition flights, and the planes were in poor condition. FACTS ARE TRUER THAN FICTION. Wishing you continued success, we are,
Yours very truly,
By O. W. Thomas.
YOU want this motor in YOUR plane if you expect to fill your contracts on time Better investigate to-day New Catalog sent on request
CHARLES B. KIRKHAM
Savona, N. Y.
" Srje mtltj Propeller thai is alan a ifly-ltlrjrel"
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patented march 14, 1011; july 25 101 i ; october 17, 1011: other patents pending
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Grade A Paragons are the strongest, most perfect and most beautiful propellers in the world. Their strength is so great we can afford to insure them against all accidents of any kind while on the machine,—even at these prices—$45 to $58, according to pitch, for the 7i ft. size. Other sizes accordingly.
Grade B has all the strength of Grade A and nearly the toughness. They are only $37 to §49 for the 7£ ft. size.
Grade C is made of beautiful hard Cherry throughout. There is no other propeller equal to them at any price (excepting our Grades A and B) either in the United States or abroad. Only §31 to §41 for the 7£ ft. size. Other sizes accordingly.
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AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md.
The Hydro-aeroplane Has the Call for 1912
<I Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flier over Marblehead Haibor and the bay adjoining. By giving training at our manufactuiing headquarters we offer pupils an opportunity, at no extra cost, to become thoroughly familiar with the details of construction and design, and ensure against delays. Course consists of FOUR HOURS actual flying during which time we assume all breakage mlc. We provide hydroaeroplane for license test.
Chief Instructor: Phillips W. Page, Licensed aviator Booklet with full particulars furnished on request. <J Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes for military, sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery.
BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.
Magneto & Plugs
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The Relative Constancy of the Wind Above
By PROFESSOR ALFRED J. HENRY
HE variability of the wind is proverbial. Even over the ocean in the region of the trades, absolute constancy in the direction or force of the wind is not assured. It is in the temperate zones, however, that the full measure of its variability is experienced. The writer has been much interested in the attempts that have been made in the United States, and elsewhere, to cover long distances in manned balloons by simply drifting with the air currents. Inasmuch as manned balloons are not well adapted to travel in altitudes much greater than one mile above the earth's surface, the air currents at that level become subjects worthy of very considerable attention. During the 12 months that ended June 30, 1912, 228 kite flights were made at the Mount Weather Observatory, each of which attained an altitude of one mile or more above the top of the mountain or substantially 7,000 feet above the sea level. Before remarking upon the results of these flights a word of caution is necessary.
Since kites cannot be flown except in winds of at least 10 or 12 miles per hour, the results which will be quoted later, especially as regards the force of the wind, apply only to those days on which there is some movement in the atmosphere. While the winds of winter are much stronger than those of summer, the success in kite flying is not greater in proportion to the increased strength of the wind. Probably the best months for kite flying are those in which the atmosphere is passing from the cold of winter to the warmth of summer or vice versa, when it begins to cool in autumn, as in October and November.
The direction of the prevailing winds at the mile level above Mount Weather is clearly from a westerly quarter as was previously indicated by observations on the motion of cirrus clouds which float at an average altitude of about G miles above sea level. It seems reasonable therefore to assume that the eastward moving stratum in the atmosphere approaches nearer to the surface of the earth than was hitherto believed.
An interesting fact in connection with the circulation of the wind above Mount Weather is the almost total absence of winds from any quarter but the west, thus there were observed from all quarters com-
*Published by permission of the Chief, U. S. Weather Bureau.
bined other than the west but 4 per cent, of the total.
The next point of interest in connection with the upper winds may be stated in the form of a question: How long do they persist without materially changing their direction? On this point the evidence of the kite flights all tends toward a variability of the winds at the mile level even greater than on the suface. If the direction of the wind aloft on two or more consecutive days is the same, it may be assumed that it has been constant for the time considered, although there is a possibility, of course, that it may have changed direction during the interval between two daily flights and then returned to the direction originally observed, but it is preferred to believe that such is not the case. An examination of the 228 flights available shows that in the 12 months considered there were but 25 periods of two days each when the winds, one mile above Mount Weather had the same direction on both days and that the longest period of similarly directed winds aloft was three days and that only two such periods were observed in 12 months. It is probable that with greater altitude greater constancy will be found—such is already indicated by the motions of the very high clouds. It seems, therefore, as if the wind a mile above the surface is less constant as to direction than at the surface. A similar count as to the prevailing direction at the surface for the same twelve months, gives forty-eight periods of two days each with similarly directed winds, twenty-four periods of three days each, and four periods of four days each, or more than twice the number of periods with identical winds.
The data of wind velocity afforded by the kite flights are far from being conclusive on any point. It has long been known, in a very general way, to be sure, that the velocity of the wind increases with altitude above the surface. While this is true in a majority of cases, there are numerous exceptions, and not infrequently, the velocity of the wind has been found to decrease with increase in altitude, so that some of the kite flights had to be brought to a close on account of failure of .the upper winds. Aside from the average velocities for the clays on which flights were made, given in tabular form below, few useful generalizations on the speed of the wind can be made. The very dangerous winds are evidently to be found in regions of "low pressure"—the "Low" of the daily weather map and the danger is probably directly proportional to the closeness of the isobars or the steep-
ness of the barometric gradient and this is especially true in the case of circular or closed isobars. It would be foolhardy in the extreme, to attempt to navigate the an when the weather map shows that for the region in question the air conditions are dominated by what is known as a "Low". Very high winds are also found in the rear of the "Low". These two dangerous conditions, first near the centre of a "Low", and second immediately in its rear are always recognizable by one skilled in reading a weather map. There are, perhaps, othei conditions when dangerous winds aloft ma> be recognized by surface conditions, but their existence is not always clearly manifest.
In regard to the course to be taken by a manned balloon in the United States, in order to cover the greatest possible distance, it would seem that the west-east direction offers the greatest advantage in all sorts of weather conditions. There are times when practically continuous air currents prevail from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada, but one must wait for such conditions and take advantage of them when they appear. There are also times when a course from the Da-kotas to Florida, or Texas, would be possible, especially in the cold season. For the reason that the lower winds which sweep from the Dakotas to Texas or Florida are generally strong with low temperature this course is not practicable. The direction southwest to northeast, or say from Texas to New England offers favorable conditions of weather, but the pressure distribution on which the winds depend is rarely favorable for such a journey. The north-south and the south-north winds will doubtless be found at elevations of one-half to three-quarters of a mile above the surface. The west-east winds have the greatest alti-
tude and the stratum is probably several miles in depth while both of the others named rarely exceed a mile in depth.
I have compiled, and give for what it is worth, a table showing the average velocity of the wind in English miles per hour at the three levels (1) the top of Mount Weather, whence the kite flights are made; (2) in the free air cue mile above the top of Mount Weather or 7,000 feet --ove sea level, and (3) two miles above the top of Mount Weather, or 12,303 feet above sea level. All of these figures are based on a single year's work, and may be changed by the addition of more observations. The ratio of the speed of the surface winds to that of the winds at the mile level is as 1:1.9 and there are only small departures from this value in the seasonal averages but large departures in individual cases. It has been noticed that when the surface winds are strong the increase in velocity with increase of altitude is generally less than when the surface winds are weak.
Average Wind Velocities at Different Levels (in miles per hour)
At one mile above
At two miles above
At one mile above
At two miles above
TYPES OF AEROPLANES FOR Ml LITARY SERVICE
It is until further notice, the intention of the U. S. Army aviation service to purchase and use only two types of aeroplanes.
One type will be known as "Speed Scout" aeroplane. This type is desired particularly for strategical reconnaissance, carrying only one aviator without passenger, and having a radius of operation of about 100 miles and a speed of not less than 65 miles per hour. With this type of aeroplane a military aviator is expected to locate and report large bodies of troops. This machine should be capable of ascending at the rate of about GOO feet per minute.
The second type will be known as "Scout" machine. It is desired for reconnaissance service when hostile armies are in contact or approaching contact. This service requires a weight-carrying-aeroplane, the crew consisting of two aviators, capable of
relieving one another as observers; the aeroplane should be provided with radio equipment. This type of aeroplane should remain in the air at least three hours to permit the observers to locate smaller bodies of troops accurately upon a map, make sketches, military photographs, etc. The Scout aeroplane should have a speed of not less than 45 miles an hour; the maximum speed must not exceed GO miles per hour. It should be capable of carrying a useful weight of 450 pounds, and with this weight ascend at least 2,000 feet in 10 minutes. The chassis must be designed so that it is capable of landing on and arising from soft ground, such as harrowed fields.
It is likely that the Signal Corps will give the consideration to any American aeroplane capable of fulfilling these conditions in practical service.
Amateur Aeroplane Builders
By EARLE L. OVINGTON
T is a peculiar fact, but nevertheless true, that a man seems to think that he is able, or competent rather, to design an aeroplane, whether he knows anything about the fundamental principles underlying aero-dynamics or not.
If a young fellow desires to become a doctor he goes to a medical school, spending four years or so studying what has been done before him. Even then he is not fitted to practice medicine, but must take an apprentice course in connection with some hospital or under a practicing physician. In other words, it is only after years of preparation that he is considered to be in a position to hang out his shingle as an "M.D.," and practice upon his fellowmen.
Likewise, if a man wishes to become an engineer, he either goes to college to learn the theory of the subject, and then takes an apprenticeship course, or else he starts in work with a practical manufacturing concern and begins at the bottom. In either case, years of preparation are necessary before he is in a position to do practical work.
Now what holds in medicine and engineering holds just as truly in aviation. As a matter of fact, aviation is a branch of engineering; and yet the average amateur aeroplane designer and builder of the present day in a great many cases has not the slightest idea of the fundamental principles underlying the subject, and has had no practical experience.
When I was in France, where I spent last winter to study aviation, there were a large number of such amateurs at the various aviation fields, principally at Issy les Moulineaux, where there were numerous hangars surrounding the field. Many of these were occupied by enthusiastic, but misguided, Frenchmen who were building all sorts of freak machines in the day-time and dreaming of wealth and fame which they would receive by means of them at night. I was not an expert by any means at that time, having obtained what I knew principally from books, but it was evident to me that most of these'misguided individuals were entirely on the wrong track.
I was also surprised to learn in conversing with them a short time that they had not read any of the splendid works on aviation.
I returned to America with a 70 H. P. Bleriot monoplane which I first installed at Belmont Park, Long Island. Here I found exactly the same conditions existing as I did in France. Many of the hangars were occupied by bright young fellows who were spending time and money "chasing rainbows" and attempting the impossible.
I remember two brothers who were building a small monoplane. A careful examination of their machine showed that they were going over all the old work which had been done many years before them. They had a low center of gravity and a sharp diehedral angle. Mechanically the machine was very bad. One could grasp the tail, and by quick movement cause the whole fuselage to bend. One day they asked my opinion about it, and I gave it to them frankly. I told them that possibly the thing might get off the ground, and they had it fitted with a 50 H. P. Gnome motor which had so much power for its weight that it would pull almost any old contraption up into the air. T told them, however, that the machine would never stay in the air for any length of time, for two reasons. In the first place, their surface was too small for their power, and in the second place the stability of the machine was bound to be very poor.
I questioned these young fellows more closely, and I found that they were practically putting every cent they could get hold of into this machine. I asked them if they had read certain books on aviation, naming over books of the most elementary character, but they frankly acknowledged they had never heard of them.
I thought it would be rather a thankless job, but I then endeavored to help them. I asked them if they would start in a ten mile race with a man if they knew he had an eight mile handicap, and in addition knew that he was a better runner. They acknowledged, of course, that they would not think of doing so. Then I explained to them that that was precisely what they were doing at the present time. I tried to make them see how very seriously they were handicapped in competition with such men as Bleriot, Farman, the Wright Brothers, Curtiss, etc., and how absolutely ignorant they were of the very fundamental principles of the science. T tried to point out that there was not any possibility whatever of their being able to succeed along the lines that they were following.
I have found by sad experience that when I talk to a young fellow in this manner he does either one of two things. Either he flares up at me, and says that I have a case of "swelled head" and think that T "know it all" or else he looks at mc in a pitying sort of way as if to say "You don't appreciate the wonderful qualities of my machine." It is ever thus with "us pioneers."
But these young fellows, much to their credit, did nothing of the sort. They were truly ambitions to succeed at their chosen calling, and determined if they were on the wrong track to get on the right track as soon as possible. I then gave them the names of some books which I thought would
be the ones for them to start reading, and the last I heard of them they were making rapid progress towards success.
Personally, I am of the opinion that sooner or later I will hear from those two young fellows, and that they will produce something worth looking at, for they were full of enthusiasm and determination, and only needed someone to put them on the right track.
There is no lack of enthusiasm and determination on the part of amateur aeroplane builders, but in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred their determination and enthusiasm are spent in the wrong direction.
Just because the development of the aeroplane is in its infancy, and aviation is a new science, do not labor under the delusion that there is nothing known upon the subject. The fundamental principles of aviation are far better known and understood than nine men out of ten who are working on the subject, appreciate. If you wish to become an aeronautic engineer you should go about it in just the same manner as you would if you were to become an electrical engineer, a mechanical engineer, or a mining engineer. In other icords, you should lay a firm foundation before you attempt to enter practical work. And the same rule applies to the study of aviation that applies to' the construction of a building, the broader the foundation, the more firmly the structure will stand.
If I remember correctly, the life insurance people prove that the span of life alloted to man is on an average about thirty years. Very few men do anything practically in this world until they have at least reached their twentieth year. In other words, we have on an average of ten years of practical work before each one of us. Of course I am speaking now of the whole average. Taking this into consideration why is it that civilization progresses? If man had to start in at the very beginning every time and work through all the early stages of development, our progress in this world would not be very rapid. The object of schools and other educational institutions, however, as well as books, apprenticeship courses, etc., is to serve as stepping-stones to permit the men of to-day to take advantage of all which has gone before. We learn from the mistakes and experiences of others. This is the progress of evolution, and it is evolution which has placed the human race where it is to-day.
Do not think for a moment that I am endeavoring to discourage the young inventor who has ideas in aviation but who has not the facilities of a Bleriot or a Curtiss.
Far from it. I believe thoroughly in the future of the aeroplane, and I believe that the young man who comes into the science in its early stages at the present time will reap a rich reward, provided he puts the same enthusiasm and careful thought into his ivork ichich would make him a success in any other line or endeavor. But what I do wish to discourage is the building of aeroplanes by amateurs all over the country who know nothing whatever about the fundamental principles of the science. Such effort is misplaced, and such enthusiasm is more than wasted. There are some magnificent books now on the market, and by a careful perusal of the available material an all around theoretical education can be obtained. Conversations with practical aviators and reading the aviation journals will also help a great deal. There is no excuse in the world, therefore, for a young man complaining that he hasn't the material with which to educate himself.
Nobody believes more firmly than I do in encouraging the enthusiastic beginner. I have simply written this article because my experience the past year has taught me that so many young men who otherwise might make a brilliant success in the field of aviation are doomed to bitter disappointment and failure simply because they are on the wrong track. If this article meets the eyes of any such, let them lay down their work and spend a few months in careful study and observation. // after this has been done they can come back and continue building their machine without any misgivings, the chances are they have something which may develop into a practical flying-machine. But if this course is followed, the chances are nine in ten that when the embryo aeroplane builder returns after obtaining his theoretical training, he will see so many weak points in his machine that he will give up its manufacture, and thus save valuable time and energy. If by writing this article I can save just one misguided inventor from the certain failure which is awaiting him, I will consider that my time has not been spent in vain.
imports and exports
In July, one foreign aeroplane was imported at a value of $524. Domestic exports totaled-5, value $17,100. In warehouse July 31, three foreign machines, value $11423. These figures are according to the July issue of the Monthly Summary of the Department of Commerce and Labor.
The Navy Department sent Lt. A. A. Cuning-ham of the Advance Base School at Philadelphia to the Burgess School a short time ago and his training was completed in five days under the instruction of Clifford L. Webster. He is now flying alone very successfully, having re-
ceived 2 hrs. 59 min. training. This is but an example of the ease and quickness with which a man can he trained on the hydro-aeroplane. Lt. T. G. Kllyson, a Curtiss pilot, has taken special training on the Burgess machine.
Repairs on the new War machine have been completed and it will go forward shortly to College Park.
Sam Barton, in the Barton-Rippenbein hydro (00 Kirkham), made a 40-minute flight around South Amboy and Staten Island waterways on Sept. 22. The Rippen-Barton company has 3 machines at Seidler's Beach. Pioneers will recall the early trials of Rippenheim and Barton at Mineola and B'elmont,
An Analysis of Flight
By GEORGE A SPRATT, Jr.
CENTRIFUGAL AND CENTRIPETAL FORCES.
THE centrifugal and centripetal forces latent in a rotating mass of air are made active by contact with a surface. If a portion of a mass of rotating air is caused to flow in a straight line tangential to its former course, that portion is freed from the force that held it in rotation. The centrifugal force in the freed mass is spent against the established rotating current, and the equal centripetal force is spent against the% object that caused the deflection. A plane tangential to a rotating current, and with its centre normal to the radius of rotation, accomplishes this by intercepting an advancing column of air, equal in section to its projection into the current, and causing it to pass in a straight line. A force is exerted against the plane toward the centre of rotation.
It is equally true, that, if from an established straight course, a portion is caused to adopt a rotary course, the centripetal force is spent against the original current, and the centrifugal force acts against the object which caused the rotary course. A circularly arched surface with its chord parallel with a straight current accomplishes this by intercepting a column of advancing air, equal in section to its projection into the current, which is compelled to follow the arc of the surface. A force is exerted against the surface radially from the center of the curvature and perpendicular to the chord.
A simple experimental illustration is as follows: Into an ordinary pail with slanting sides, lower a straight wire of such length that it will engage the opposite sides and remain an inch or two above the bottom. Pour in water until the wire is covered. Place upon the water a sheet cork float, from the under side of each end of which, two pins extend astride the wire. The float, guided by the wire, can now traverse the diameter of the pail. Erect a plane near one end of the float, with its center directly over the guide wire, and with its surface perpendicular to the diameter of the pail. Its fore and aft measurement may be about one-fourth of the diameter of the pail, its
height must be determined by the height of the pail.' By means of a paddle turning close to the under side of the cover of the pail, impart a gentle rotary motion to the air in the pail, and the centripetal force draws the plain to the center.
The effect of relative curvature may be Vlustrated with this apparatus by mounting upon the float surfaces that have a curvature of a known relation to the curvature of the current at the point chosen for their location. If the radius of the surface is greater than the radius of the current, the surface will be carried toward the center. If the radius of the surface is less than that of the current, the surface will be carried toward the wall.
This centripetal pressure effect may be observed in the miniature whirlwinds common to the hot months, as they sort out and retain within their radius of action those light bodies whose surfaces present gliding qualities, but scatter those of spherical form.
It has long been recognized that curved wing surfaces develop a lifting pressure with their chord parallel with the current. This force is, very probably, a quautity that is fixed by the relative curvature, and constant in amount and direction regardless of the angle of incidence, acting always centri-fugally, and, in the circularly arched surface, along the bisecting radius. It increases the value of all positive angles of incidence, and lessens the value of all negative angles of incidence. It reaches a maximum value when about 90 degrees of curvature are included in the surface. With a farther increase in the curvature, it diminishes and is not present in an arc of ISO degrees. It develops again until about 270 degrees are included, and when 3G0 degrees are included in the surface, it is again absent. That is, a half cylinder with its chord parallel with the current, and a whole cylinder, show pressure only parallel with the current. A circularly arched surface including any other number of degrees, with its chord parallel with the current, shows a pressure which may be considered as acting from the common center of the radii along the bisecting radius.
x, center of rotation of arm a, which carries ^ from s toward x au M v, > a. < and
the surface s. The direction of rotation is E show a I«>«tiye!> 'nc'°f1^! ti^f,U iri°0VeTsed
shown bv the arrow. The dotted lines show dence. i> and b show a neHaU\ei> lnciea
the current encountered. At B the pressure angle of incidence.
*Begun in the August number. . See AERONAUTICS for March, 1008 for previous article by Mr. Spratt
Centripetal force results from a fixed plane in a rotating current, or from a plane carried in an arched path. If the radius of the rotation is perpendicular at the center of the plane (see Figure 3, B, here the radius of rotation is represented by the arm, a), the centripetal force acts parallel with the radius of rotation from all points taken consecutively along the course. If the point of the attachment of the arm be moved toward the advancing edge of the plane (Figure 3, C), the effect is a positively increased angle of incidence. If moved toward the following edge (Figure 3, D), the effect is a negatively increased angle of incidence. Changing the angle the arm makes with the plane also changes the angle of incidence (Figure 3, E and F). By rotating the surface at the point of its attachment to the arm, the relation of the curvature is changed between the surface and the current. It is possible for the pressure from all points taken consecutively along the course to be made to center at the common center of the radii of the course, or at any desired point near this center.
In this, probably, lies the solution of the motion of the insect's wing and the flattened extremity of the bird's wing. The forward and the rear edges of the insect's wing may become alternately the leading edge, and intelligence may direct and utilize the pressure. This will be farther considered under "Applications."
If a sheet metal surface is rigidly attached at its center to the end of a perpendicular arm that is mounted like a walking beam, one end of which carries the surface, and the other end connected to a rapidly revolving wheel, so that the surface will rapidly and reciprocally describe an arc, a flow of air will be established from the center of the vibration. It denotes an equal reaction, a centripetal pressure against the surface.
AFORCE acting in a single line against a free body impresses the body with, or without, causing rotation, according as its direction does not, or does, pass through the centre of weight.
Every body that is free in the air is acted upon by gravity, and the reacting pressure of the resisting air, and each of these forces may be represented by their resultants. The poise and the course of the body must be considered in its relation to the direction and the location of each of these resultants, since the direction and location of the pressure resultant is peculiarly determined by the surface the body presents.
The resultant of gravity always acts from the centre of weight of the body toward the centre of the earth.
The principles underlying the location and direction of the pressure resultant has
been shown in the former papers. Briefly restated, this resultant is normal to the surface at the point of its intersection with the surface, which is the point upon the surface commonly accepted as the centre of pressure. In the circularly arched surface, it always passes through the common centre of the radii, and this point is the centre of frictionless pressure upon the circularly arched surface.
There is, probably, no better simple way of illustrating how the poise and the course are governed by the relative positions of the centre of weight, centre of pressure and the surface, than by releasing upon the air light bodies that are definitely proportioned, since each of these elementary parts are fixed structurally.
Model bodies for illustration may be made with surfaces of paper, and with a light wood shaft along which a lead weight is adjustable, and, with fine thread, outrigged so that the weight centre of the whole is brought to a desired point.
The surface presented by such models, however, is a longitudinal section of a cylinder, and its descent must be viewed accordingly, while the illustrations to be given here, preferably, represent sections of a sphere and a frictionless pressure. It also would be more desirable to consider only two opposing forces, but here, it must be borne in mind, that when a force acts in some other line than gravity, such as the inertia of rotation, inertia of glide or an encountered side current, or when a propelling thrust is purposely considered, the resultant of such force, or forces, taken with gravity, is obeyed as is gravity when acting alone. The results here recorded have been verified by another method of testing, in which all possibility of confusion with such complicating forces has been eliminated.
It might be noted here in passing that when a compound surface is considered, the resultant of the whole is to be taken as is the resultant of the single surface here used.
Let figure 1 represent any section of a sphere in which the centre of weight coincides with the centre of pressure. Equilibrium of poise is neutral in these bodies, for there is no couple possible. They will descend with the angle between the surface and the horizon unchanged from that given them when released. The model
verifies this in so far as theory is meant in its construction.
At A and at B the surface is shown with its chord parallel with the horizon. When in this poise the pressure resultant coincides with gravity, action and reaction are contrary, and the descent is vertical.
At C the direction of the pressure resultant is not contrary to gravity, and in consequence gravity is resolved into a vertical and horizontal component. The descent is a glide at such angle that the pressure resisting horizontal advance will equal the horizontal component of gravity.
Let figure 2 represent any section of a sphere in which the centre of weight is at some point other than coincident with the centre of pressure.
At A the centre of weight o is shown between the centre of pressure x and the arc of the surface; at B, beyond the arc of the surface; at C, to that side of the pressure centre opposite from the arc; at D, so placed that a line passing through the cen tres does not pass perpendicularly through the centre of the surface, in which case the descent must be a glide. At A, B, C and D an unstable poise is shown. At A', B', C and D' the poise is shown when equilibrium has become established.
Figure 2 evidences the fact that the surface may precede the centre of weight, may lie between the centres, may follow the centre of pressure, or may lie outside of the line that passes through the centres. It may be noticed here also that if a line projected through the centres, when they do not coincide, passes perpendicularly through the centre of the surface, the descent will be vertical.
The foregoing should be true regardless
and figure 2 can serve to illustrate the plane as well as the arc by mentally altering the proportions.
Herein lies the greater advantage of the arc, net that it yields a lifting pressure that is absent in the plane, but that the pressures are brought to such a state of concentration that it is mechanically possible to form definite couples between the weight and pressure.
A plane in the shape of a circular disc, when released horizontally upon the air, presents a surface, a centre of weight located at the centre of the disc, and a centre of pressure located at a point infinitely beyond, and perpendicular to the centre of the surface presented. It is poised upon a frictionless bed and sensitive to a marvelous degree. The least disturbance in the distribution of the pressure causes a variation from the horizontal poise, a horizontal component of gravity and a glide. The f rst change in the pressure distribution produces a couple that throws the centre of pressure off from the vertical line that passes through the centre of weight. Readjustment is found in the glide, for as the speed of the glide increases, the angle of incidence lessens and at the point of intersection of the pressure resultant and surface moves toward the advancing edge, which causes a contrary couple. This rotates the body again toward the horizontal. When the horizontal is reached the poise is the same as at the time of release, but the body is now possessed by inertia originating from two distinct causes, and producing two distinct results. It is gliding and it is rotating. The inertia from gliding acts as a new force horizontally applied, the resultant of which taken with
of the length of the radius, and every test verifies such belief. The plane, when considered as a very small section of a very large sphere, yields to the same analysis,
gravity must now be obeyed as was gravity when acting alone, and the centre of pressure must lie with the centre of weight upon this resultant before the couple
which is causing the rotation ceases. The glide continues until the inertia of advance has been spent against a positive angle of incidence that is produced by the couple. The couple will continue the rotation until the surface is perpendicular to its course, for then only does it cease to be. Before it ceases to be the course of the disc may become horizontal, or even ascending.
If the inertia of advance has been speni against the positive angle of incidence before the couple has overturned the disc, a new glide starts in the opposite direction to the former. In this case the whole descent is a series of darting, rocking vibrations of about equal amplitude about a vertical line. The descent, though not straight, is vertical as a whole.
In the descent of a narrow strip of paper the rotation carries the plane of the surface past the vertical. The former upper side is presented to receive the current as a new glide starts. The pressures are, therefore, controlled from a new centre, which, as before, is located at a point infinitely beyond and perpendicular to the centre of the surface presented. The former conditions are, therefore, repeated ana the new glide and rotation are in the same direction. The descent is a progressive series of such dives, along which the paper moves with a backward rolling appearance.
In a structure designed to embody this theory the pressures are not frictionless, head resistance is present, and the curvature is not perfect. From each of these sources a retarding pressure arises, which acts parallel with the current at the points of its origin, which must be considered as a component part of the pressure upon the whole.
The effect of this force is illustrated in figure 3, which represents the model with its chord vertically disposed. The vertical
component of the frictionless pressure Is shown at x. The resultant of the friction pressure at a, and the resultant of these combined may be represented at o. An increase in the friction pressure a, causes the point o and also the centre of rotation n, to lie nearer to the surface. When the centre of weight coincides with the point o no couple exists.
It is quite evident that the force reprc sented by a constitutes a factor in estali*-lishing the point of intersection of the resultant pressure with the surface, which is the point upon the surface commonly accepted to be the centre of pressure. Therefore, locating this point and its travel upon a rigid model surface, does not give absolute assurance that correspondence will be found in an enlarged copy of the form of the model when made of different material, especially if that material is flexible under the pressure to which it may be subjected.
Because of the complex origin of the force represented by a, its value varies with the angle of incidence, and may vary from other causes also. By proper construction, however, its effect upon an aeroplane can be kept easily within control.*
Pressure from a greater area of surface can be centred from a longitudinal section of a cylinder than is possible from a sphere.
Such a surface presents a plaue and an arc in perpendicular arrangement, or two arcs of greatly differing radius lengths may be likewise considered. The perpendicularity of the axes permits a free response to the pressure effects peculiar to each form of surface they represent, in that the axis of each is an axis of rotation to the other, and also in that one axis is much longer than the other, it becomes a controlling factor to the other, for the pressure causes, or tends to cause, the longest axis to advance perpendicular to the course. Pressure exerted upon the axis perpendicular to each of the other two affects the rotative value of the pressure upon one or both of the other axes.
*A few of the tests that have been made with a gilder were reported in the March, 1909, number of "Aeronautics," page 132. Motor-driven (lights have since been made over a small field, which have given every promise of inherent stability, combined with a simple design and a simple control, for which broad claims for patent have been filed.
(To be Continued)
Walter Johnson, the Thomas flyer, defeated Havens and Hemstrought of the Curtiss group in a ten-mile speed race at a santioned exhibition at Syracuse State Fair, Sept. 9. He used a Thomas biplane with a Kirkham engine. Plis time was 10:42.2 or 56 miles an hour.
The meet lasted three days and Johnson won first in all events including two 10-mile, a 15-mile race and bomb contest.
The Caudron Monoplane
(^fJjIIE miniature flying machine, the Caudron, ought to appeal if anything does. It's small, racy looking, flies fast and may be purchased at a reasonable figure—($3500) — ^ for Im'ported machines. Two of these have thus far been brought over by the Sloane Aeroplane Company, of New York, and more may be expected later. The builders also market a baby biplane. Visitors may see this latest type Caudron monoplane at its shed any day, at Hempstead aviation field, where one of the instructors, Mr. Gilpatric, is "on the job."
The fuselage is designed to reduce head resistance to a minimum, The framing is on the usual system, of ash spars and struts, guyed diagonally in sections. The cross pieces and vertical members are hollowed out on the sides to reduce weight. Two
small thin stays are tacked to outside of framing 'fore and aft, on all sides, to act as stiffening for the fabric.
The wings, set at a dihedral angle, are flexible. The forward portion of the ribs are laminated into one solid piece. At the rear of the rear steel tube the rib narrows down to about U" by y»" gently tapering to the end, after being split (see sketch). Two steel tubes are used in place of main spars, which go through the solid portion of the ribs, which are about by 3" here. Washers are placed each side of the rib at junction with tube and riveted through. The front edge of the wing is sharp and covered with aluminum sheet strip, 6" deep, screwed to ribs. The front spar is 3" back from the leading edge.
The ribs all have same curve to lateral extremity of wing.
At the extremity the wing tapers down to
a thin edge. The ribs are rectangular in cross section, of laminated hickory for the lower third portion. Above is solid white-wood. Where the wing supporting cables attach, the tube spars run through blocks of wood and secured by bolts. The fabric is linen, varnished and is very tight. What-
ever varnish is used, it contracts the fabric to a great extent. The cloth is folded back on the rear edge and sewed. The forward portion of the wings are double covered. Prom a point near the rear spar back, the cloth is single, on the lower side, with strips sewed over the top of the ribs. Flying, the angle of incidence seems to be close to 7 inches.
Lateral stability is obtained by warping. The elevator is one single flexible wing, (with one-inch camber) which warps, and is both single and double covered like the main wings. The rudder is mounted above the elevator and appears small, though no doubt amply large. This is pivoted about a mast.
The control is by a single lever mounted on a universal joint. Rocking sideways warps; forward and back elevates. Rudder is operated by foot yoke. Pushing out with left foot steers left, and vice versa. There is one pair of rocker arms at the universal joint, and one pair below on the tube which extends back from the axle. Between the ends of each pair are steel bars. The warping cables attach to a short upright projection on the rocker arms.
A six cylinder Anzani "forty-five" drives direct a 6'10" propeller clockwise. The engine is mounted in a steel frame at the head of the fuselage and braced to the fuselage by four steel tubes, one at each corner, and by another steel tube to the apex of the braces for the upper wing guy cables. Ignition is by a special magneto made for Anzani. This magneto is inside
(Continutd Opposite Page 123)
The Vlaicu Monoplane
By FRITZ EDELSTEIN
IXCE the first appearance of his product, which gave all those who were fortunate enough to be present at the first Aeronautical Exhibition in Vienna an impression of neatness in design and workmanlike construction, the Roumanian aviator-constructor Aurel Vlaicu, has characterized its existence in the aviation industry by its very original design. The machine has flown very successfully at the great International Meet which was held from June 23d to 30th, at Aspern.
This machine is constructed in a very uncommon manner. First, the Vlaicu monoplane is of the tail-first type, but carries triangular tail planes rearwards also. The most conspicious features are the planes and the drive with two propellors.
The principal dimensions are: span 30 feet, length 34' 8", height 12 feet. The plane is built of two ash cross members, one of which forms the tailing edge and the other forms the fore edge. The whole wing frame, is covered with fabric in three sections, the greatest of which lies in the middle. The two other sections are divided from it laterally by a small split on each side. There are no wing ribs. The curve is therefore, not stiff, but variable. She arises in flight according to the load.
The seat of the driver lies very low under the plane, also the 50 h. p. Gnome engine which drives the two propellers in opposite directions by chain and gears. Although the fuselage is apparently primitive, the various experiments have proved that it is of a very great fitness indeed. The machine is a one-seater. The landing chassis consists of three wheels, the rear one of which is mounted with a strong elastic spring. The front wheels are directly mounted on a steel axle,
y I ^
which carries in the middle a long curved ash skid.
In front of the pilot's seat is situated 50 h. p. Gnome engine, Bosch magneto, mounted in a steel tube frame and overcovered with a thin sheet of brass. The engine drives by means of a strong chain and sprocket gear wheels mounted on either end of a second shaft which is lead below the plane. The gears at the front and rear ends of the lower shaft mesh also with second gears mounted on the shafts of the propellers. The two propellers rotate in opposite directions.
The fixed middle axle of the two propellers is built of a very strong tube of aluminum, of 31 feet 2 inches length and 3 inches in diameter. This aluminum tube carries the whole load. The front end of this tube carries the elevator plane on the double-faced rudder planes. This arrangement of the rudder enables the Vlaicu monoplane to make the smallest circles in the air with a great lateral stability. The rear tail consists of two fixed planes, a triangular shaped, horizontal damping plane and also a triangular vertical keel-plane.
The damping effect of such an arrangement is very great and the natural stability of this primitive machine is very wonderful. The arrangement of the two propellers supports the stability very much. In such a manner is a gyrostatic effect prevented.
All wire bracing underneath the plane is fastened to two bows of brass, mounted on each side of the central ash skid. Above the plane wire bracing is fastened to two wooden masts, situated in the longitudinal middle axis of the planes.
The control mechanism consists of a hori-zontical steering column which carries a vertical wheel. By depressing or raising this column the elevator plane will be actuated; rotating the handwheel actuates the double rudder planes. Wing warping is not employed. Dismounting is possible in a fewT minutes by reefing the fabric and curving the wing frames. It is a prominent advantage of this simple machine.
The Vlaicu monoplane is one of the cheapest and most naturally stable monoplanes.
His price with 50 H. P. Gnome engine is $2,000 approximately. Its speed is G5-70 k.p. h. This is surely low in consequence of the great resistance of the back edges of wings. Mr. Aurel Vlaicu, a young Roumanian engineer has made many successful flights with his monoplane in storms and turbulent weather without any accident.
At the great international meet at Vienna, which was held from June 23d to 30th, he won the first prize for the smallest circle,-with a radius of but 6 metres, a prize in the "contest of necessity" and a prize in the "Cible-Michelin" for bomb dropping from an aeroplane. The first one-seater Vlaicu monoplane was bought by the Roumanian army for military uses.
OUR CALIFORNIA SCHOOL
Opens on November 15th at the fatuous Dominqnez Field near Los Angeles. This ideal location for an Aeroplane School is adjacent to splendid living accommodations; a short ride from the ocean and twenty minutes from the heart of Los Angeles. All the most attractive and romantic points of interest of this storied region are in eye-shot from an Aeroplane over our Field. We are able to secure special rates for the accommodation of our pupils at hotels and in private homes. We will gladly make all reservations.
Four Deperdussin Monoplanes; Two Caudron Monoplanes; One Bleriot Monoplane and One Speedy Biplane Will Be Our School Equipment
W. LEONARD BONNEY, one of the pioneer American Aviators, assisted by two notable flyers will constitute the teaching faculty. We teach exactly according to the methods used on the Plains of Champaign near Rheims, France. We use the same kind of machines with which Yedrines, the Deperdussin Flyer, won the World's Championship at Chicago. We have the most perfect imported Aeroplanes, use the most perfect Field and Shop teaching methods and are located on the most ideal spot in America. Our faculty and our equipment are sufficient to handle almost any number of pupils with thoroughness and expedition. Our pupils on Long Island have become aviators of notable skill in an average of six weeks. The cost is
$300 For The Complete Course
The pupil in our school is not discharged from his class until he has secured his pilot's certificate. There are no extra charges for anything. The pupil is also obliged to put up a guarantee of $250 for breakage in addition to his tuition fee. This small bond covers his use of the machine when he flies for his certificate. When the pupil is discharged from the school the $250 guarantee is refunded and he is given a rebate of ten per cent, of his tuition fee if he completes without breakage.
There is a great demand for real monoplane flyers. We know it because we cannot secure enough efficient ariators for our own purposes. We guarantee no person a position because we are not able to judge ability until we hare seen the candidate fly. But ice aid every efficient pupil to secure profitable employment.
This is the time, the place and the school to secure the training that will equip you for the big work to be done next season. A monoplane won the Gordon'Bennett for France this year. A monoplane will win the Gordon-Bennett race for America next year. 1)7 are going to build the Monoplane and we are looking for the champion who icill drive it. Are you that man ?
We are arranging to carry passengers on a series of Aeroplane Cross-Country Tours over California. Bookings are now being made.
Make your arrangements for the School and the Cross-Country Tours as soon as possible. Only a limited number of persons will be accommodated in order that the work may be done right.
WIRE WRITE 'PHONE
SLOANE AEROPLANE CO.
210 Merchants Trust Bldg. 1733 Broadway
2nd & Main Sts., Los Angeles, Calif. New York City
•Phone Main 3674 'Phone Columbus 5421
National Aeroplane Co. 606 S. Michigan Ave. Chicago, 111.
W. E. Boughton, Washington, D. C.
THE Deperdussin aviators, Vedrines and Prevost brought with them two racing monoplanes. These machines were identical except for the motors, though the wing curves may have been slightly different. Vedrine's machine was equipped with a 140 Gnome engine, while that of Prevost had a 100 Gnome engine. In construction these machines are radically different from anything ever seen in this country. The square fuselage held together by wires, bolts and turnbuckles has been done away with and in its place has been substituted a built up body called by the Deperdussin Company "monocoque." In appearance, these machines look a good deal like a large carrot; the fuselage is shaped like a cornucopia. The forward end corresponds In diameter to that of a motor. It tapers to a point at the rear, where it takes the rudder post. The fuselage, which is built on a form, is composed of three layers of poplar veneer. When the work of putting on this veneer is completed and the form is taken out, we have a cone-shaped body without any wires or cross-ribs. There are two longitudinals running the length of the fuselage, and in the forward end there is bracing to take the rear motor-bracket, the "chandelles", as they call masts carrying the upper warping wires and the landing gear. When this fuselage is completed we have a practically empty cone with a hole cut in it for the pilot and several small doors on the sides forward so that one can get at the carburetor and oiling system of the motor. The landing gear is composed of five pieces and a pair of disk wheels. The main parts of the landing gear are two 1) shaped pieces made up of laminated wood which fit into sockets in the fuselage and take the axle in the round of the D. Then there are two tie-rods, one in front of and one behind the axle. The axle is attached
in the same way as in the regular Deperdussin landing gear, heretofore illustrated in AERONAUTICS. All these parts have wherever possible, a stream-line form. The landing-gear is held to the fuselage by four bolts and four wires. The lower front wing-support wires run from wing to wing across the landing gear where they are attached under a little metal hook to the D shaped parts of the gear. The motor has a forward Y shaped bracket in addition to the usual rear bracket. When the motor is mounted a metal shield is placed around it which has a slightly larger diameter than the fuselage. This shield curves around three or four inches at the forward end so that it will not form a pocket for the air.
The propeller is mounted on the motor with a shield attached to it. This shield is designed so that it covers most of the motor and yet allows enough air to reach the valve chambers to keep the motor cool. This shield is like an inverted bowl with the bottom forward. It revolves with the motor with its small end forward, and, undoubtedly, cuts down the head resistance considerably.
The rear of the fuselage is split and the one piece stabilizing plane fits in there and is bolted fast by eight or ten small bolts. Then the elevators are attached. There are no wires of any sort on the tail other than the control cables. Cables are used in all the controls and to support the wings; both the turn-buckles and the cables used are much larger than those seen on the usual machines in this country. The elevators and rudders on the other hand are exceedingly small, because on account of the high speed attained a large area of controlling surface is not necessary. The wings have a chord of about four and one-half feet and are not much more than ten feet long. (Continued on Page 12U)
TROPHY HISTORY Looking Backward
F^l6 Ball Bearings
A Three Time Winner: 1910-1911-1912
1912—Jules Vedrines, at Chicago, September 9th, with Deperdussin Monoplane, Gnome 14 cylinder rotative motor, 140 h. p. ; F. & S. Ball Bearings. Distance, 200 kilometer ; time, 1:10:56.80; average speed 169.14 k. p. h. (105.035 m.p. h.) fastest speed 171.11 k.p.h. (106.259 m.p.h.). Two other French competitors : Prevost with 100 h.p. Gnome— Deperdussin, and Frey with 100 h.p. Gnome-Hanriot.
There were no competitors of these three Frenchmen, although America and Belgium had entered three each, England two, Holland and Switzerland one each, making thirteen in all entered.
Vedrines fastest lap was the 24th, in which he covered 6.666 kilometers (4.142 miles) in 2:20.24, a speed of 171.11 kilometers per hour (106.259 miles p.h.).
The prize winning list of world's record holders in Aeroplaning, all made on machines equipped with Gnome motors reads like the directory list in Who's Who in Aviation."
The Gnome fourteen cylinder air-cooled revolving motors use twenty-eight F. & S. Ball Bearings—Every revolving part is F. <S: S. equipped including even the crank shafts and connecting rods, and which is really unique in gas motor practice, the only other gas motors using ball bearing connecting rods being the Merkel and Schickel Motorcycles—also F. & S. equipped.
Nearly every world's aeroplane record for Speed, Time, Distance, Duration, Height, Climbing Speed and Speed in Kilometers per hour was made on F. & S. Ball Bearings, the Dependable Kind, made in Germany.
^y^RK^Z^(p M PANY
^1/ KJK Ball Bearings
^JO Wc#t Fifty- fourth, JV<tw >oy-/o
N 190S an effort was made by Darwin Lyon, of New York, to interest several members of the Aero Club in a plan to make a record balloon trip, employing liquified hydrogen. Nothing came of this, despite the fact that a full description of the plan, with the apparatus, was published in ■AERONAUTICS for March, April and May of that year.
The patent* just issued in the United States to a German employs a similar system. It will be apparently feasible, by a study of these articles and the patent, to make a trip lasting for days.
The invention provides means by which a body of liquefied hydrogen may be conveniently and safely carried by such a vessel and the gas obtained by the vaporization thereof admitted to the balloon as desired.
"Heretofore," says the inventor, "liquefied hydrogen has not been employed for the purpose stated because there were not known means by which it could be conveniently transported." The advantages obtained by being able to use this material will be readily appreciated. A kilogram of liquefied hydrogen will produce eleven cubic meters of hydrogen gas which is sufficient to support a load of fourteen kilo-
*U. S. Patent 1,035,560 filed Jan. 24, 1910, issued Aug. 13, 1912.
grams weight. Therefore it will be seen that in a vessel adapted to transport such material the load bearing capacity can be greatly increased as the liquid returns to gaseous form.
Referring to the accompanying drawing, which illustrates, more or less diagram-atically, an embodiment of the invention, a designates the car or body of an aerial vessel. This car is as usual suspended by suitable ropes from a ring-like frame b supported by an inflatable bag i. Suitably supported near the frame b is a container for liquid hydrogen comprising two concentric holders or receptacles c, e. These bag-like receptacles are formed of the same material as the supporting balloon i and the space separating them is filled with a suitable light weight material adapted to serve as heat insulation for the inner liquid receptacle c. Eider-down is particularly adapted for thus filling the space d separating the inner receptacle in which liquefied hydrogen f is placed from the outer casing c. A conduit h having a valve g therein leads from the interior liquid receptacle e to the balloon i and a branch k connects said conduit with the space d.
If desired the inner receptacle may be provided with a lining m of material, such as cotton adapted to absorb liquefied hydrogen, and the capacity of said receptacle is such that a sufficient quantity of liquefied hydrogen can be carried to replace the gas escaping from the balloon i during a long flight. For example, for a balloon having a capacity of 500 cubic meters the receptacle e would be of sufficient size to receive about 100 liters of. liquefied hydrogen having a weight of approximately 7 kilograms.
Whenever it is desired to increase the lifting capacity of or materially replenish the gas in the balloon i the valve g is opened when rapid gasification of the liquid body f will occur. The space d surrounding the receptacle e being in constant communication with the conduit h may receive a portion of the gas thus delivered through the conduit h and the conduit k provides for permitting such gas as may accumulate therein and any heated air within said space to pass to the balloon i so that the inner receptacle e is effectually insulated from heat and its contents can be maintained in liquid condition for a long period of time.
If it is desired to supply gas from the receptacle e more rapidly than is possible by manipulation of the valve g alone a current of air may be caused to pass through the space d about the receptacle e by opening suitable inlet and outlet valves q, r. The passage of air through the body of insulation material in the space d will raise the temperature of the liquefied hydrogen and thus increase the rapidity of the gasification thereof.
CURTISS v MOTORS
are used by the majority of professional men in exhibition work.
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•I 774 GIRARD STREET :: WASHINGTON, D. C.
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New Developments in Aviation
LEWIS AEROPLANE GUN
The recent experiments at College Park with a special gun designed for use on aeroplanes, gives an idea of what may be expected from the aeroplane as a weapon of offense. The gun was invented by Lieut. Col. Isaac N. Lewis, of the U. S. Army Coast Artillery Corps. The shots were made by Captain Chandler, with Lieut Milling as pilot.
Captain C. De F. Chandler, Signal Corps, U. S .Army, reported on the gun as follows: "The gun is air cooled, weighs 25 lbs, 6 oz., and shoots the service small-arms ammunition. The rate of firing can be adjusted by controlling the gas used in the operation from about 300 to 700 per minute. Fifty cartridges are placed in a drum and this drum slipped over spindle on the gun. The firing at College Park was done with the gun adjusted for about 500 per minute, which, with continuous firing, would empty the drum in six seconds. On the 7th of June Colonel Lewis gave me instructions in operating the gun, and I fired one on the ground for practice. The control and operation of the gun appeared so simple that I had no hesitancy in trying it immediately from an aeroplane. The Wright Type B aeroplane was used, with Lieut. Milling as aviator.
"On account of my lack of experience with gun and possibly endangering the lives of the officers at the Aviation School, the first experiment was made from an altitude of only 250 feet The target used was a piece
of cloth about 6 feet by 7 feet. The speed of the aeroplane being about 42 miles per hour, the target was passed in about 1-10 of a second, therefore it was necessary to begin firing just before reaching the target and discontinuing as soon as it was passed. Three trips of this kind were made across the target. Upon examination five bullet holes were found in the target and there were other holes in the ground a short distance in front of the target, all within an area of about 4 yards by 20 yards. No sights were on a gun at this trial; sighting was accomplished by looking over the barrel of the gun. The second trial of the Lewis machine gun was made from an aeroplane on the 8th instant, the target having a size of 2 yards by 18 yards, and the firing was done from an altitude of about 550 feet by the same officers and aeroplane. Forty-four shots were fired at the target, five of which hit and the others fell a short distance beyond the target. The experiments on this date were witnessed by Colonel Scriven, Signal Corps, all officers of the Aviation School, and a number of newspaper representatives and other civilians who were interested."
As aluminum has six times the heat conductivity of steel and but one-third its weight, this very effective method of cooling the gun adds but a few pounds to the total weight carried. Another novel feature which differentiates the Lewis gun from all other gas-operated guns is the small inclosed operating spring which is located near the trigger-piece at the breech far removed from all injurious heat effects. The temper of this spring cannot be affected by either direct or transmitted heat no matter how rapid and long-continued the firing.
When firing at full speed it takes approximately four seconds to discharge a magazine of fifty cartridges, and the empty magazine may be replaced by a full one within two seconds. The drum magazine used with this gun is S*4 inches in diameter and 1V2 inches deep. It is stamped from sheet steel, has an aluminum center piece to hold the cartridges in place, and resembles, somewhat, a reel used for winding cinematograph films.
Colonel Lewis designed the gun primarily for infantry and cavalry use, but its flameless feature coupled with the absence of recoil and its light weight brought to mind the possibilities of the rifle for aeroplane use, and a test was decided upon with the success already noted.
Captain "W. Irving- Chambers has incorporated in a handsome booklet the contents of his articles in AERONAUTICS and other publications on safety in flight and the use of instruments. This data will be found of great value and interest.
Copies of the June number of the Proceedings of the U. S. Naval Institute contain this data.
STEVENS "LIFE PACK"
The "life pack" designed and built by A. Leo Stevens, 2S2 Ninth Ave., New York, has been tested out pretty thoroughly. Parachute drops have been made from a flying aeroplane a number of times with it. Harry Bingham Brown, Wright aviator, has been pilot on several occasions, and F. R. Law, who has been parachuting from the Liberty Statue, bridges and high buildings with a similar parachute to that used in the "life pack", has been the artist who has made the drops.
The parachute itself is wrapped in a square of cloth. As the jump is made the parachute opens up, the cloth cover remaining with the belts. A pin with spring affords release.
The Wright Machine used by Brown has been altered so that there are no guy wires to prevent his jumping out in case he so desires.
The cotton and linen, single layer cloth, with a diameter of 16 feet, is attached by 16 Italian hemp ropes to a steel tube spreader about 15 feet below the top of the parachute. Two short ropes go through the tube and the other sixteen are spliced into these, eight in each. Two additional ropes, 2 feet shorter than the ones which go to the circumferance of the 'chute, go direct to the twelve inch hole in the center. In dropping, the strain comes on these two ropes first and insures the 'chute's opening; then the strain is evenly divided between them all. F^'om the steel tube is an arrangement of two belts of leather, one of which goes under the jumper's arms and the other around his waist. The man can relieve the pull on the straps by putting his hands on the bar if he wishes. Three ropes are sewn in the fabric, one around the central hole, one midway and one on the
outer circumference. The lines from the steel bar run to the circumference and from there all the way to the inner ring of the rope. The leather straps are connected by short lengths of rope which are snapped to the guy ropes above.
HOW THE DROP IS MADE "When I reached an elevation of 4,000 feet," said Harry B\ Brown, "I motioned to Law to prepare to give me a return motion of the hand, indicating that he was ready to go, 1 nodded my head and away he went. I saw no more of him until I reached the starting point some eight minutes later, when I was notified that he reached the earth two and one quarter minutes after making the jump. As he released his weight from the moving machine, I felt myself go up rapidly and the machine acted very much as if it were suspended by a (fable and was being pulled up rapidly in jerks, this lasted perhaps for about ten seconds. The machine all this time was on an even keel."
"In my mind, not as an exhibition stunt, but as a safety factor, it is the greatest move which has yet been made towards the aviator's safety. You can readily see if a machine were to get on fire or break in two how secure the aviator and his passenger would be; by merely rolling off or falling off, descend with perfect safety."
STREAM LINE TANK.
At the recent Berlin aeronautical exposition, many accessories were shown. Among these was a stream-line gas and oil tank, of aluminum or brass; soldered, clinched and welded. Experiments with welded tanks, dropping them from good heights, show
that they suffered dents only and were not broken so as to leak. These tanks, made by the Rheinischen Aerowerke G. m. b. H., in Diisseldorf, have explosion-proof caps. After covering the outside of the tank with gasoline and setting it on Are, the contents were untouched. These tanks are made with lips at each end for attachment to the main beams.
Otto W. Brodie, license 133, now has charge of the "Standard" School at Clearing, 111.
Although fair France receives the cup, through Jules Verdines, the winner, The Aero Club of Uncle Sam still leads the world at dinner. E. N. F.
Dayton International Aeroplane Club refuses aeronautical magazine and Postmaster of that city returns it to the publisher. Aero clubs must be getting fed up with aeronautics these days to not even worry about periodicals for their libraries.
George Dyott, Semeniouk and Boyd are out on exhibition work with the Rex monoplane which attracted considerable attention at the show. Dyott is filling dates for the Morok Aeroplane Company. This little machine is a low priced all-Anierican monoplane with speed and sells at $2,500, guaranteed, with repairs at cost price.
Co pou tofjo apparently tfjfnfe "Aeronautics;" a philanthropic institution,
Qtfje follotoing letter stfjoulb tie an inspiration. &eab it!
(Elje original fjatf been frameb anb fjttng in a conspicuous place.
Sept. 10, 1912
New York. Dear Sirs:-
I am enclosing check for $6.50 in payment of my subscription for this year and last. Though the rate is only $3 per year, the uniformly courteous treatment I have received
.....dispose me to do the right
thing, also. When you have discounted my check, the surplus will only be interest on your investment and the cost of the extra postage you have used on me.
Your fight on sham advertising is good; what you lose in money you will gain in reputation.
Your sincere well-wisher,
3f pott bon't mant tfje magazine,
M pott bo toattt it,
Farman Running Gears Complete, as above - $47.50
Everything to build any type flying machine.
New Catalogue with working drawings of Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot-type machines in course of construction and will be mailed free upon requ.st to all parties as soon as received from the printer. Write for quolations.
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Agents: Eames Tricycle Co., San Francisco and Los Angeles ; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago ; W. E. Bo ugh ton, Washington, D. C.
TEST OF THE STURTEVANT MOTOR.
'The accompanying table shows the results of three tests recently made at the B. F. Sturtevant Company's works on a Sturtevant six cylinder aeronautical motor. The first was a fuel consumption test, lasting thirty minutes and showing a fuel consumption per horse power hour of .C4 pounds of gasolene. The second was a brake horse power test, lasting four hours and showing an average actual developed horse power of G3.85 at 1304 (average) R. P. M. The third was a maximum horse power test in which the motor developed S6.3 actual horse power at 2037 R. P. M.
B/?aa-£ 7~£3 r or Srt/# revsrrr D~6A£fHi More* No. // DttrtcrCoHMCcrco ro ab30*rrto* W*rc* OvHAMO»ercx Lexer* or Btr*#r A** J Fccr At/ousr 23./9/£.
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It is interesting to note that the six cylinder motor upon which these tests were made is rated by the makers at sixty horse power at 1300 R.P.M.
During these tests, no adjustment was made and no one was allowed to touch the motor except to supply the oil necessary. As can be seen in the table which has been photographed from the original and reproduced here, the tests were made in the presence ofi witnesses. Lieutenant Cunningham of the Navy Aviation Corps witnessed the tests unofficially.
PATTERSON DEMOUNTABLE SOCKET.
R. F. Patterson, the scale drawings of whose steel hydro were published in AERONAUTICS recently, has, for this machine, employed a novel strut socket. The fish-
shaped steel struts are, of course, filled with spruce. Allowance is made at the ends of the wood filling for the projection of the steel casting. The steel plate to which guy wires attach by turnbuckles is bolted to the main beams.
The special casting has a shoulder top and bottom. The lower end of casting fits in hole made in the plate; the other end fits in the end of strut. A steel sleeve fits over the strut and the casting and prevents strut from moving out of place. For removal of strut, the cotter pin through sleeve and strut is pulled out and the sleeve slid up until the casting is exposed when the strut can readily be slipped out. "When all are out, the wing sections lie flat against each other, ready for crating, with all wires attached ready for insertion of struts again.
More than 100 drawings comprise the complete set of blueprints which are sold by AERONAUTICS at Eight Dollars. For the amateur builder, nothing could be more complete. From these every single part ol the machine may be built, or in part, purchased from supply houses ready made.
Joseph Pastorel, of Asbury Park, N. J., has patented the construction of boats having ribs of hard rubber covered with sheet rubber or cloth, capable of being moulded in sections if desired, with arrangement for inflation of air pockets.
Not So Very Bad! The technical articles by Mr. Sellers, and the one by Winthrop S. Hoi ton are unquestionably of great value to the experimenter ami designer. ***** The scale drawings are neat and clear and a valuable asset to the render. You are to be congratulated for your unceasing e^orts in editing a magazine of such a generally considered pioneer subject.
J. A. \V., Pennsylvania.
Keep right on the way you are now going. You are running the little magazine just the way I should want to if I were doing it. Thai's saying a good deal.
F. W~. K.j Pittsfield, Ills.
Details of Scott's Winning
Note:—The following is the first and only complete and authortative report that has appeared in any journal anywhere.
THE contests for the Michelin prize for dropping bombs from aeroplanes were closed on August 16th. As has been noted in these columns before, the Michelin prizes were donated by the famous French rubber manufacturers in August, 1911, and consist of the sum of 150,000 fr. ($30,000), one-half of which was made available for the year lbl2 and the other half for 1U13. In addition, Messrs. Michelin later offered a special prize of 10,000 fr. ($2,000), to be given to the inventor of the most scientific and practical apparatus entered in competition for the other prizes. Therefore, there was 85,000 fr. available in 1912, which sum was divided as follows:
(1). A prize of 50,000 fr. ($10,000) to the contestant placing the greatest number of bombs, each weighing 15'i> lbs., in a circular ta'get of 10 metre* [32.8 ft.] radius from a height of 200 metres [656 ft.I or more, each contestant being required to carry and drop 15 bombs, one at a time, and being given 50 minutes for the purpose.
(2). A prize of 25,000 fr. ($5,000) to the contestant placing the greatest number of bombs, as above described, in a rectangular target 40 x 120 metres, [131 by 394 ft.] representing the hangar of a dirigible balloon, from a height of 800 metres [2624 ft.] or more, each contestant being required to carry and drop 16 bombs, one or more at a time, and being given one hour in which to do it.
(3). A prize of 10,000 fr. ($2,000) to the inventor of the most meritorious apparatus. This prize could be divided among two or more inventors, in case the jury considered the apparatuses equally meritorious.
SCOTT'S LATEST DEVICE USED IN TRIALS.
The contests for these prizes commenced in February and continued at intervals until August 15th, there being about 12 periods of "fire" in all. Altogether, there were 12 entries, nine military and three civilian aviators. Each period of "fire" consisted of two clays, so that all contestants were enabled to "fire" at least once and usually two or three times each period. This naturally added to the chances of those having inferior apparatuses, as in so many trials, the chances of accidentally making a good score were increased.
The contests closed on August 15th with a complete victory for Lieut. Scott, an American and the only foreigner taking part. The apparatus of Lieut. Scott was mounted on a Wright biplane with the French aviator, Gaubert, as pilot. It will be remembered that Scott was the first man in the world to make tests In
scientific "bomb"-dropping from an aeroplane, having carried out a successful series of tests at College Park last October on a Wright aeroplane piloted by Lieut. Milling.*
It was with an almost identical equipment, but entirely constructed in France, that the Michelin prize was won. On August 11th, Scott and Gaubert won the prizj of 25,000 fr. by placing S out of 15 bombs in the target from a height of S20 metres (just V2 mile). On August 15th they ran the second prize of 50,000 fr. by placing 12 out of 15 bombs in the target from a height of 230 metres (765 ft.). Also, the special prize of 10,000 fr. was awarded to Lieut. Scott for having invented the most scientific and practical apparatus. Altogether, the victory was conclusive in every way, although there seems to have been considerable feeling displayed by some of the contestants. In fact, to judge from an aricle in one of he Parisian sporting weeklies, one would conclude that anything hut a sporting spirit was displayed in tb» matter. We quote the following extracts from an farticle which appeared in 'TEcho des S>ports" under date of August 21, 1912:
"The competition was very severe, too much so in fact because certain incidents occurred that can only be regretted.
"It should be proclaimed from the house tops, first of all, that the victory of the Gaubert-Scott combination was due primarily to the intrinsic value of the apparatus invented by the American lieutenant, and that the victory was entirely justifiable. The device of Scott was the only one embodying a definite scientific method and founded on serious lines; the others contained only haphazard means leaving altogether too much to chance.
"Towards the end of the contest when the combination Gaubert-Scott was at the head, due to the excellent firing and by right depended upon the impartiality of all those in charge of the competition, there were some clumsy efforts on the part of friends of French competitors to modify the results. It would not do to cite names for the guilty ones will surely be the first to regret their hasty action, impelled by a spirit of friendliness towards other competitions which it is firmly believed will never recur again.
"It is truly deporable that intelligent men of good standing and education, for the sake of friendship, should endeavour to rob one another of the fruits of their labor.
"It happened that some of the projectiles fired by Scott which fell within the target, were rolled aside: as though a strange error in calculation gave the benefit to some French competitors. Luckilv some of those present, not blinded by friendship, brought order and justice out of chaos, together with the indignant intervenion of some spectators who yelled at the attempted injustice."
We certainly hope that the assertions above quoted are not strictly true and that the lamentable spirit of exaggeration, of which our own press is not free has colored this article too strongly. We cannot too strongly insist that the officials of our own Aero Club exercise the greatest care in all contests, especially of an inernational nature, in order that no taint of favoritism or injustice may be attached to their acts and decisions. Unfortunately, we cannot assert that the decisions of our national body have always been above reproach.
*A complete description of the Scott device, with method of calculation of time for launching and speed over the ground while in the air, have previously been printed in AERONAUTICS.
October, 1912 95
Liberal three months terms to test lout and pay for a Gray Eagle Motor. The proof of the motor is the actual flying: test. Is this not a fair proposition? Full particulars and terms on request.
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World- Wide Contests as Follows: Chicago International Contest, 1908—9 competitors, 1 st for distance and endurance. Indianapolis National, 1909—1st and 3rd St. Louis Centennial, 1909—1st, 2d and 4th Peoria Contest, 1909—1st and 2nd Indianapolis National, 1910—2nd Kansas City National, 1911—1st, 2nd and 3rd Kansas City International, 1911—"K.C. 11." non-contestant — whipped the entire field, World's best Balloons. Kansas City National, 1912 —1st, 2nd and 4th. Colorado Springs, 1912—l<-t and 2nd.
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THE CRUDE FR 1.—Arrangement of Lieutenant Terrisse:.. H is device consists of an automatic lever scheme operated by the aviator himself permitting the cartridges to fall as seen in the illustration. 2.—Arrangement of Lieutenant Bousquet: A simple box placed under the seat...A connecting lever under control of the aviator allows the projectile to drop through the opening in the extension of the box...3.—Scott's Apparatus.
The fourth contest for the international aviation trophy offered by J. G. Bennett, proprietor of a New York newspaper, was won by Jules Vedrines, Deperdussin-110 Gnome-monoplane, at Chicago on September 9. His only competitors were Maurice Prevost (100-Gnome-Dep) and Andre Frey (100-Gnome-Hanriot monoplane); the latter did not finish. All three represented France. No other country was represented in the race, although 10 oher entries were made by Belgium, England, Holland, Switzerland and America.
The 6.066 kilometer course, which was made the most perfect ever seen by the progressive Chicago club, was circled 30 times by Vedrines and Prevost. Vedrines' time for from 5 to 200 kilometers would have established new American records, naturally, if it had been possible to time over a 5 kilometer course. He failed to exceed his international speed records for this distance established in his elimination trials to pick the French team.
Vedrines' total time for 200 kils. was 1:10:56.-S5, an average speed of 169.139 k. p. h. (105.035 m.p.h.); fastest speed 171.11 k.p.h. (106.259 m.p.h.) in 21th lap which he made in 2:20.24.
Prevost's time was 1:13:10.}>2 an average speed of 163.97 k.p.h. (101.i>2 m.p.h.), a difference between that of Vedrines' extra 40 h.p. speed, of 5.169 m.p.h. Frey covered 23 laps in 1:02:13.70 and dropped out of the contest. His average speed was 147.827, k.p.h. (91.70 m.p.h.).
4.—Arrangement of Ensign Lafont: On each side of the seat of the operator is found a row of bombs which the inventor throws as well as he can.. 5.—Arrangement of Lieutenant Maille-fert:..The procjectiles are placed in a box at the side of the seat and the observer, who is placed behind the aviator launches them through a hole between the box and the seat. Note the shield protecting the marksman.
PREVIOUS G-B RACES.
The following new records were made by Vedrines:— American speed for 2U0 kiloms. American speed for 20 kiloms. World speed for 20 kiloms. A special flight was made for three laps of the course and officially timed in 6:55.95, which gives a speed of 173.09 k.p.h. (107.IS m.p.h.).
Trophy valued at $2,500 for international competition, goes to winning club. Cash .$5,000 donated by Bennett to winner for each of first three years. In addition, entrance fees and forfeits are divided among competitors. The first contest, and prize offered, in France. Each international club may enter 3 machines, witli native born pilots, fee $100 each entry. A club must win trophy three times consecutively to become permanent holder. Plaques have been given winners yearly. Distances flown and other conditions have changed yearly. For 1912 the prize in cash was not offered. Won two times for America. First flown in 1909.
1909—Won by Glenn H. Curtiss, at Rheims, France, with Curtiss biplane, Curtiss S cyl. 50 h.p. V motor, Dist. 20 kil.; time 15:50.60; average speed 73.6 k.p.h. (17.00 m.p.h.); fastest speed 76.7. k.p.h. Three starters from France and 1 from England.
1910—Won by C. G. White, with Bleriot, monoplane, at Belmont Park, 100 h.p. Gnome motor. Dist. 100 kil.; time 1:01:01.74; average speed 9S.23 k.p.h. (61 m.p.h.) fastest speed 102.1 k.p.h. (63.59 m.p.h.). Five other starters —America 2, England 1, France 2.
1911—Chas. T. Weymann, at Eastchurch, England, July I, with JMieuport monoplane, Gnome 100 h.p. motor. Dist. 150 kil., time 1:11:36.20; average speed 125.69 k.p.h. (78.05 m.p.h.); fastest speed 83.5 m.p.h. Three French and 2 English were other starters.
THE AMERICAN CUP DEFENDER.
Early in July Norman Prince, representing the "Cup Defender Syndicate" in Chicago, visited Marblehead for the purpose of finally closing an order with the Burgess company for the design and consti-uction of a cup defender. For more than four months preceding overtures were made in various forms by the Aero Club of America and individual clubs and members looking towards interesting American manufacturers in the construction of a racing machine.
Pressure, however, was brought to bear upon the Burgess company and Curtiss, to design and build an aeroplane suitable for the 160 horsepower Gnome power plant which had been purchased. Finally the Burgess company agreed to design and build the aeioplane in six weeks, but at the same time took no responsibility whatever with regard to the furnishing- of the aviator either for the test flights or for the race.
When the machine arrived, there was at once a question as to who should drive it. No definite arrangements seem to have been made and conditions were aggravated by the fact that contrary to the company's advice the Wrright system of control had been installed. After a number of days' delay it was finally decided that Mr. Glenn L. Martin of Los Angeles would undertake to drive the machine. A number of local people criticized certain details of design and construction. The use of single wires with a factor of safety of over six was criticized, and at the same time the large wing surface, 130 square feet, with a camber of 2 inches, was said to be too large for the horse power. Some did not like the landing gear and others thought the tail was incorrectly designed and so on.
When the request was made that smaller wings be furnished, the company believed that this was contrary to good judgment and was reluctant to aid in any changes made by those who perhaps lack the experience and skill which has been evident in the Burgess products. Small wings were hastily put together in Chicago even though the large wings had never previously been tested out. If it had been possible to thoroughly train a man with large wings the question of smaller wings would have been, of course, in order, but with the horse power furnished the original design was by no means excessive in amount of surface, and limited time naturally prevented the highest possible development which can only be reached by experiment.
In the meantime day after day passed in Chicago without any real work being accomplished, other than racing back and forth between Chicago and Clearing and the exchange of endless dissertations.
The aeroplane arrived on August 20 and from that until the day of the race was not actually tried out. The Burgess company finally built a small set of wings, extra propellers and shipped sufficient spare parts there to build an entirely duplicate machine should it have been necessary. Tiie small set had 120 sq. ft., with a camber of but \y2 inches.
The real difficulty in the whole episode boils down to the principal criticism: the construction of an aeroplane at the eleventh hour without any arrangements for the training of the aviator in the two weeks which remained between the date of delivery and the race.
A description, with drawings, of the "Defender" was published in the last issue of AERONAUTICS.
SLOANE OFFERS AID.
One man in the trade, at last, now realizes the advantage of having America represented by an American machine as well as an Ameri-
can pilot. John E. Sloane wants to raise a fund to build a challenger for 1913 along lines to be adopted by a conference of American designers, and offers to subsrcibe $1,000 toward a syndicate and offers any facilities his plant may afford. In arguing his point, his letter to the Aero Club of Illnois, he says:—
'Let us call a meeting next month in Chicago of the most notable Aeronautical Engineers in America. This group should include Orvilie Wright, Capt. W. I. Chambers of the U. S. Na\y Aeronautical Bureau, Frederick Chara-\ay, E. R. Armstrong, Matthew B. Sellers Charles M. Manly and any other serious, competent Aeronautical Engineer, who can be induced to participate. These men are practical and brilliant workers in the activity. Let us ask them to pool their talents to devise for us the swiftest, staunchest, most efficient aircraft the world has ever seen. Engineer Moore of the Gyro Motor fame is prepared to build the most perfect engine his factory has produced. All the resources of my factories, shops, fields and the services of my staff ar; at the disposal of the group who will build the challenger.
"It will take about $15,000 to build a challenger and send it to France. To get this money I suggest this: Let us open a subscription list and ask sportsmen and clubs in all parts of America to pledge themselves for a small proportion of the sum total to defray the cost. The machine will in this way be thoroughly representative of the enthusiasm of all American Aeronautical Sportsmen. The burden of its cost will not fail heavily on any individual or group of individuals. I am perfectly willing by all the means at any disposal to organize a national syndicate to plan, devise and finance the challenger. In order to start the subscription list I herewith pledge myself to contribute one thousand dollars."
Bennett Balloon Race
America will be represented by two baloons in the international race at Stuttgart on Oco-ber 27, the "Uncle Sam," Capt. H. E. Honeywell pilot, and the "Kansas City II," John Watts, pilot. The aides are not yet selected. The "Uncle Sam" and K. C. II" finished one-two in the elimination race from Kansas City July 27. The contestants will leave New York on the Princess Louise, sailing October 10.
Three balloons each are expected from Belgium, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and France; two from Italy and one each from Denmark, England and Russia. In all twenty-two are looked for as starters.
"UNCLE SAM'S" RUN IN NATIONAL ELIMINATION RACE. By Capt. H. Eugene Honeywell, Pilot.
From the first we were beset with an innumerable lot of difficulties, some of which floored some of our competitors early in the game. Storm first night.
In drawing for places, order of start, we drew first off, making a pretty getaway at 5:11 p.m. July 27, just one hour and three minutes earlier than our last competitor, who had a decided advantage,—a balloon full of contracted gas.
At 5:40 our good ship "Uncle Sam of K. C." passed over the pilot balloon with marriage party which landed near a farm house. Our altitude 1,500 ft., course N. N. E. Sighted electrical storm approaching from N. W. 10:30 dropped down and trailed heavy for 12 miles, retarding speed. Changed course to North to avoid storm, where response to a question proved that we were near Parnell, Iowa, at 4 a.m. over Waterloo, storm passed and we picked up our trail rope and followed in the storm's wake.
Passing over the Mississippi river at 6 a. m., we sighted Peoria far to the south, altitude 7,000 ft., course East. Sighted Chicago and Lake Michigan at 11.30 a.m., and passed over southern portion of lower edge of lake. Lost sight
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as a sporting proposition, are infinitely more desirable than automobiles and motor boats. Nothing that you can imagine is more thrilling or more exciting than speeding over the water faster than the fastest motor-boats, or making air flights with safety better than sixty miles per hour.
You, too, can become a successful aviator. You do not heed a knowledge of practical mechanics—the Curtiss Hydro-Aeroplane has made this possible.
The Curtiss Hydro-Aeroplane seats two and is as easy to operate as a motor car. The new model, designed by Mr. Curtiss, is a thoroughly practical and efficient water and air craft.
Leam with little practice and no cost, as tuition applies on purchase price.
Write for full information. Training grounds in New York and California.
Curtiss Aeroplane Co., Dept. B., Hammondsport, N. Y.
ONE 50 H. P. Roberts 4-cyUnder motor with 8-ft. Parajron Propellers, weight 165 lbs., list $1,500.00 good as new will sell for $500.
D. C. DORM AN, Minot, N. D.
NEW WORLD ALTITUDE RECORD
Paris, France, Sept. 17.—George Legagneux made a new height record of 5720 metres (IS,701 ft.) in a climb of 45 minutes. He used oxygen to facilitate breathing after reaching 5000 metres. This record exceeds that made by Garros on Sept. 6. Legagneux i sed a Morane-Saulnicr monoplane, Gnome motor, Bosch magneto.
GI2SON PROPELLER CO.
PROPELLERS ARE STILL ON THE MARKET
WAITING FOR THE AWAKENING The "Worcester" Type Surpasses all Standard Propellers OUR STANDARD PROPELLER CLEARANCE SALE AT 1-4 LIST PRICES
Our Standard Propellers cannot be surpassed except by our "WORCESTER" type
Fort George Park, New York
Wright Hydroaeroplane School now open at Glen Head, L. I.
In addition to those features which in the past have made Wright Flyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the new models can be furnished with automatic control, silent motors, and hydroplanes. These special features make the 1912 machine unusually attractive to sportsmen.
For exhibition work we have othermodels especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "EX" Model that Rodgers made his wonderful flight from Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.
Wright Schools of Aviation
Training consists of actual flying, in which the pupil is accompanied by a competent t. acher. No risk and no expense whatever from breakage. The most famous flyers in America are graduates of our school and include such names as—
lieut. lahm lieut. milling mitchell c. p. rodgers
and a score of otheri
Our Schools at Dayton and New York are now open anil pupils may begin training at once if they wish. By enrolling now you can reserve date most convenient to yuu for training.
' Write for Particular! '.
THE WRIGHT COMPANY
DEPT. A DAYTON. OHIO
NEW YORK Broadway at 54th Street
' Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 minutes, al.-o7lh Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station
Headquarters for Aviators and Auto-mobilists.
New and Fireproof
Strictly first class. Rates reasonable.
Send for booklet Ten Minutes' Walk to Thirty Theatres
H. P. STIMSON
formerly with hotel imperial
1 NAIAD ! Aeronautical Cloth
Manufactured Especially for
Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof
Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request
The C. E. Conover Co.
101 Franklin St., New York
the start of the national race
of the city at 12:30, altitude 10,000 ft., course E. S. S. E., storm clouds on every side.
Passed over Ft. Wayne, Ind. 6 p.m., 5,000 ft. course East at 9:30, two storms gathered in the rear, with lightning- at 11.30, it was very dark, with occasional moon breaks through clouds, we were very tired, as there Mas no sleep for either of us save "cat naps" Aide Donaldson at the wheel—reports mountains ahead, balloon behaving beautifully, altitude 4,000 ft. I ordered him to make it 7,000 to avoid eddy currents. About 3 a.m. a heavenly sight greeted our eyes. The cloud formations rapidly changed, with a big wall of storm clouds in rear and lightning playing through them—loud thunder claps. Imagine if you can a beautiful garden, foliage of all sizes and kind with walks leading through them—thus grew the flimsy clouds in the foreground, with a luminous wall of fire for a background. It was surely a garden of Eden—beautiful, grand, magnificent!
Daylight came at 4:30. The Alleghany and Blue Ridge mountains are passed with Chesapeake B'ay about 30 miles in plain view ahead. Storm almost upon us, 5,000 ft. altitude—few drops of rain.
Feeling sure that we had outdistanced all our competitors, there was only one of two things to do, and we must decide quickly: either—buffet the storm for the remaining thirty miles with a chance of being forced out to sea and becoming disqualified; or land. We chose the latter, making a hasty descent. The big red sun smiled on us from the horizon—as we made a beautiful landing on the old historic, battlefield of Bull Run. Seven sacks of ballast on board and much other junk.
The actual distance covered being about twelve hundred miles by air line and credited for 914, the longest trip ever made wholly on American soil and only exceeded by A. R. Haw-ley who landed in the wilds of Canada.
I wish to comment on the excellent quality of gas. The well arranged and policed grounds for which we must thank Mr. Geo. M. Myers and his staff; also. Mr. Myers made it financially possible for "Uncle Sam" to reach Washington.
Mr. A. B. Lambert being ftie starter, all got a fair deal with no favors shown.
15S Osmond T. Belcher, (Gage biplane) Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 7.
159 Clifford B. Prodgers, (Wright) Hempstead, L. I., Aug. 14.
160 Peter Colovon, (Wright) Chicago, Aug. IS.
161 Nels J. Nelson, (Curtiss) Chicago, Aug. 18.
162 W. C. Robinson, (Wright) Chicago, Aug. IS.
163 E. Norman Hunt, (Moisant monoplane) Hempstead. L. I., Aug. 20.
164 Walter E. Johnson, (Thomas biplane) Kingston, N. Y., Aug. 12.
165 Lt. Lewis C. Rockwell, U. S. A. (Burgess biplane) College Park, Md., Aug. 22.
166 Lt. Harold Geiger, V. S. A. (Curtiss) College Park, Aug. 29.
167 Taras Weiner, * (Wright) Chicago, Sept. 1.
16S Alexander C. Beech, * (Wright) Chicago, Sept. 1.
169 Grover C. Bergdoll, (Wright-" Manoa, Pa., Sept. 9.
170 Alberto Salinas, (Moisant monoplane) Hempstead, L. 1., Sept. 12.
171 John Guy Gilpatrick, (Deperdussin) Hempstead. L. 1., Sept. 12.
172 Gustavo Salinas, (Moisant) Hempstead, L. I., Sept. 13.
173 Bernetta Adams Miller (Moisant) Hempstead, L. I., Sept. 14.
Note: *These two men ha\ e been granted licenses subject to the approval of the foreign clubs of their respective nationalities.
A notice to the papers sent out by the Aero Club of America on August 31, stated:—
"In view of the exceptional circumstances and at the urgent request of the Aero Club of Illinois, the Contest Committee of the Aero Club of America has removed the suspension against aviation pilots:—Charles K. Hamilton, Lincoln Beachy. Glenn L. Martin, Phillips W. Page, Farnum T. Fish, Paul Peck, Arch Freeman, F. J. Terrill."
GILL AND PECK MEET DEATH.
Aviation has suffered severe losses by the untimely deaths of two of America's most prominent flyers, Howard W. Gill and Paul Peck. Of the pioneer flyers, but one or two are left. When those are taken whose friendship lias been ours, whose work has been materially aiding the backward progress in this country, the blow is especially severe.
Gill was killed on September 14th, at the Chicago meet where he was flying an EX Wright, with Hall-Scott engine. George Mestach. another conmetitor in the race, flying a Morane with 50 Gnome, caught up with Gill and Mes-tach's running gear caught in the tail of the Wright and Gill had, therefore, no control over his machine. Both mac.nes struck the ground, the Morane fairlv safe and Mestach was not badly injured. Gill's back was broken and he di^d on the way to the hospital. Hugh Robinson states that Mestach made no attempt to either swing out and pass Gill or to go above or below, that both machines were flying straight ahead; that the running gear of the monoplane seemed to catch and tear the tall completely from the bi-plane at the same time turning it completely over and giving it a half turn around the left. In this position it struck the ground and threw Gill out.
DEATH OF PECK.
Paul Peck lost his life three days previously, on the 11th, in trying out a fast "Columbia" B'i-plane.
Peck was trying out his small span, small surfaced biplane in a wind. Peck started into a spiral dhe, and kept making the spiral shorter and shorter until it appeared he could not bring it out. There seemed to be a force holding his inside wing which he could not counteract.
Careful examination of his machine after the crash re\ealed the following:
For ailerons he used trailing flaps like the Farman and, like the latter machine, connected the two with a strut. This strut was of hollow oval tubing about 22 gauge, approximately % x %". The strut on that wing which appeared to have been retarded was found bent, bringing the two ailerons together.
It is the belief of many that in trying to bring the machine out of the spiral dive Peck placed an unusual strain on that strut which caused it to buckle up, and thereafter that wing was retarded beyond his power to straighten it up.
Peck was fatally injured and died in the hospital several hours later. Peck learned in record time on a Rex Smith machine in 1911, later flying the Columbia monoplane and biplane.
Gill was a former holder of the American duration record, and Peck was the holder at the time of his death. All holders of this record have met death flying. Readers will remember Gill's work in the construction and flying of the double power plant Gould prize machine, described in a previous issue.
An officer of the Illinois Aero Club has stated to AERONAUTICS:—•
"The official time sheet bears out the statement of judges that Mestach started to climb above Gill on his last completed lap. The accident occurred on the back stretch.
As near as can be learned Mestach had not climbed the 150 feet provided in the rules to pass Gill, nor was he 75 feet to one side. It also appears that Gill, contrary to rule, worked out from his position at the pole and also raised up a trifle.
It is apparent that just before the crash Gill looked back and saw Mestach upon him and tried to dive to get out of the way. To dive, he raised his elevator which hooked on one of Mestach's skids. Gill was thrown out of the biplane and his death was caused by his fall upon the ground. Mestach, strapped in, shoved his elevator control ahead. His machine struck the ground nose on, se\eral feet farther. Mestach was cut and bruised a trifle, but not seriously hurt.
It seems apparent to us that the accident followed a violation of the international code of the air, of which both flyers were in a measure guilty.
Hitchin, England, Sept. 6.—Captain Patrick Hamilton and Lieut. Wyness Stewart were killed near here flying cross country on the Army's Deperdussin monoplane which won second prize at the trials and was purchased for $5,000. He was flying under orders at the time. Captain Hamilton flew at Nassau Boulevard last season and was flying with Dyott in Mexico. He was an experienced "Dep" flyer. His death is deeply mourned by all who had the pleasure of knowing him. The cause of the accident is ascribed to part of the engine coming off and hitting the bonnet, breaking a guy wire, allowing the wings to double up.
Berlin, Sept. 6.—Lieut. Steger was killed flying a German biplane. He was reconnoitering in local maneouvres.
Dresden, Saxony, Sept. 11.—Lieut. Siebert killed scouting in maneouvres. Companion seriously injured.
Oxford, England, Sept. 11.—Lieut. C. A. Bet-tlngton and Lieut. E. H. Hotchkiss killed In Army .maneouvres.
Greene, N. Y., Sept. 11.—William B. Chambers died from injuries received in an exhibition flight on Sept. 6 at this place. It is reported the propeller of his biplane broke in the air.
Belfast, Ireland, Sept. 21.—H. G. D. Astley. a well-known English aviator, was killed in a race with James "Valentine. He used a Bleriot monoplane.
Freiburg, Germany, Sept. 21.—Lieut. Berger and Lieut. Junghans were killed in a monoplane in a flight from Chemnitz to Berlin.
Turin, Italy, Sept. 25.—Lieut. Raggazoni, Army aviator, killed in Chiribiri monoplane.
DEATH U. S. ARMY FLYERS
Washington, D. C, Sept. 28.—Lieut. Lewis C. Rockwell and Corporal Frank Scott, both of the S:gnal Corns were killed in landing' the old original Wright with which tin se officers have been flying.
Descending within 40 feet of the ground for some, as yet, unascertained cause, the machine failed to "straighten out" and struck the earth at a steep angle. An investigation is being made.
Hemrstead, L. I., Sept. 20.—Lieut. J. L. Long-staffe was killed flying a Farman-type biplane. Coming down to within 25 feet of the ground, the aviator headed it steeply down and the skids caught and turned the machine completely over, Lieut. Longstaffe and his passenger, a mechanic, being thrown out. The mechanic escaped with minor injuries, but the lieutenant was crushed by the machine which came to rest on top of him.
Tannenberg, Germany, Sept. 30.—Lieut. Wi'ly Hefer collided with a tree in Army manoeuvres and was killed.
Canton, China, Aug. 25.—Fung Puy, a pioneer Chinese aviator, reported killed with a biplane.
Douai, France, Aug. 28.—Lieut. Louis F. M. Chandenier killed flying for his Army pilot license. The 'plane caught fire on reaching the ground and the officer was burned fatally.
The list of fatalities in power machines totals 212 with the above.
C. P. WALSH KILLED
Trenton, N. J., Oct. 3.—One of our pioneer flyers, Charles F. Walsh, was killed giving an exhibition at the Trenton Fair. His early flying in California we recorded in AERONAUTICS. He obtained a national reputation and last year joined with Curtiss and has become a second Beachey in his sensational flights.
He was spiralling in a thrillingly sensatio' al flight when his left wing collapsed, according to witnes>es.
Shenandoah, la., Sept. 20.—Russell Blair of Kansas City, killed in a fall from 30 feet in leaving the ground; he had just made one flight and had started on another. Blair was a novice and had attempted exhibition flying.
Bevier, Mo., Sept. 20.—George Underwood died as result of injuries in a flight at Catao Fair. He used a Curtiss-type built by G. N. Sparling.
Corinth, Greece, Sept. —Alex. Casamanlaki was drowned when his Bleriot fell into the sea.
CLEVELAND CLUB NO MORE
The Postmaster at Cleveland, Ohio, reports the Cleveland Aero Club "disbanded."
Kenosha School of Aviation, Kenosha, Wis.
Central Aviation Company; $2,400; building airships and other mechanical apparatus; Lewis F. Jacobsen, Daniel L. Madden, A. I. Jacobsen.
United States Aircraft Company, Chicago; name changed to Imperial Aero Service; capital stock increased from $25,000 to $75,000.
The Safety Aviation Company of Manhattan; $10,000; John Casap, Alexander A. Mayper, Mihaly Bobovnik.
Shreveport, La.—The Dorian Aeroplane Com-panv. Capital $10,000; Incorporators: Tom Flournoy, Charles A. Dorian, R. D. Webb and others.
Maria Sartori and Domenico Sartori of the Bellanca Aeroplane Company of New York City Capital $100,000.
RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line Payment in advance required.
TENT—3-pole medium duck tent, in first class condition, 40x80, original cost $350, for sale at $175 f. o. h., New York. Used for hydroaeroplane. Will house the biggest machine. Schill, c/o Aeronautics—Sept.
WANTED—To borrow money in order to secure training in one of the leading aviation schools. Have had considerable mechanical experience. Your terms are mine because I mean business. For particulars write L. E. Clayburg, Route #3, Red Cloud, Nebraska. October.
ONE Roberts 4 by 50 H'. P. Motor complete, new, in perfect condition, $675. M. F. H. Gouverneur, Wilmington, N. C. Sept.
CURTISSi—Genuine 4 cyl. Curtiss biplane, present design, 4 cyl. Curtiss motors, has been flying. Perfect condition. $700 cash. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.
ASSORTMENT of complete power plants, including: Curtiss 25 h.p., 4 cyl; Clement-Bayard 30's; Kirkham 60; Hendee (Indian) 7 cyl. 50. Bargains at 50% below cost.
Immediate delivery of genuine Bleriot and several antiquated but successful aeroplanes of unexcelled workmanship "for a song." Address Assortment, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City
ENGINE—S cyl. "V", list price $1500, new, never used. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $1200. Easton, c/o AERONAUTICS.
WANTED—Licensed monoplane aviator, preferably one who has operated the Nieuport wheel and skid alighting gear type. Call c/o AERONAUTICS.—T. F.
SPECIAL GOOD BARGAINS—1 Gnome engine, 50 h. p., complete with mountings for biplane, everything ready to run. Can demonstrate. Nearly new. Fine condition. $2,000.
Complete set of parts for Gnome 50, enough to assemble complete engine; all kinds socket wrenches and tools for same; mounting frames, controls, etc.
Bleriot type monoplane for Gnome engine. Two Bleriot types with Anzani engines. Sets of parts.
All these from well known concerns. Everything can be seen before purchase. Cheap ror cash. Address MONO, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th Street, N. Y. City.
FOR SALE—SO yards Naiad 2 C. unopened from factory—sold to first order. Price 30c. per yard delivered. J. H. J. c/o Aeronautics.
MOTOR WANTED—New or second-hand 4 cycle, 50 h. p. or thereabouts. Aero motor wanted. Send full details of condition, age, service and lowest cash price. Address, LAKE, c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York. Oct.
FOR SALE. 50 H. P. French Gnome Motor, cost $2,600, in Paris and 45</e. Duty, $1,170. The machine it was purchased for was not a success so will take $2,000 cash for the motor, R. V. Jones, Hotel Nelson, Seattle, Wash.,—Oct.
MOTOR FOR SALE—Must sell at once my 4 cyl. 50 h.p. aeroplane motor outfit. Send for price and specifications. J. J. Parker, Fulton, N. Y.—Oct.
FOR SALE, MOTORS—One fifty horse power "Kirkham." One fifty horse power "Indian Rotary." AEROPLANES—One seventy "Kirkham seventy horse power" Tractor passenger biplane"—has made several flights with passenger —Must sell immediately therefore exceptional bargains each—Everything offered guaranteed in perfect condition. Write Prowse Aeroplane Co., Hopkinsville, Ky.
AVIATOR, licensed by the Aero Club of France, flying Bleriot and Curtiss machines, constructor of a number of Bleriot machines wishes engagement. Two years' experience as aviator and mechanic.
Aviator c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th street, Vew York.
ARTISTIC AVIATION PHOTOGRAPHS, large assortment, 6 for $1; beautiful sample and complete list 20 cents. Chas. E. Durso, 25 Mulberry St., N. Y.—Oct.
TRACTOR BIPLANE, S Cylinder 60 h. p. motor, for sale. Everything in first-class condition. Will sell separately or exchange for touring car. Apply F. Robinson, 191 Caledonia Ave., Rochester, N. Y.
BLERIOT,—with 70 Gnome, extra pair of wings and other new parts. Two-place machine, latest type. Cost, with dpty, over $6,000. For a very few hundred dollars, broken propeller and rudder can be replaced. Any reasonable offer accepted. Property of the late Miss Harriet Quimby. Address Estate of Miss Quimby, c/o Aeronautics, 250 West 54th St., New York.
AEROPLANE—Must sell at once. New and in perfect order. My latest type 'plane. With revolving motor, shipping crates and all. Complete outfit. Cost $2500.00. Will sell for $1500.00. Photos and details on request. Address— J. J. Parker, Lock Box 190, Fulton, N. Y.
FINANCIAL BACKING—wanted to build and exploit aeroplane fitjted wlith an automatic stabilizer. Something entirely practical; nothing freakish. Machine may be kept automatically in any position desired while in motion. Edwin H. Godfrey. 5222 Ventnor Ave., Atlantic City, N. J.
RARE BOOKS—Occasionally it is possible to secure copies of Wise and Astra Castra. These are very scarce and are two of the absolutely necessary books for an aeronautical library.
ASTRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor. Cloth, London, 1S65, many fine plates. $10.
A SYSTEM OF AERONAUTICS, Comprehending its Earliest Investigations and Modern Practice and Art, Designed as a History for the Common Reader and Guide to the Student of the Art, by John Wise. Svo., cloth, Phila., 1S50. $10. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.
Double Hydro Floats, weight. 55 lbs. each, pair, $250. I Running Gears, Farman or Wright, complete. $42.50. I Hubs, knock-out axle or to tit. 1". IV, I'a". or IV- |
J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Mfr., 132 West 50th Street, N. Y. Wheels, 20" x214". complete, $6.00 - 20" x 3". $8.25, with Curtiss or Farman type slock Hub, 6" wide. we make any size or type of wheel. .svn<7 for list. Compare my prices with all others.
WELLES & ADAMS MOTORS
One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actuallyjnade good.
50 H. P.
Weight 200 lbs. Valves in Head
Cylinders Cast Separate
LET US SEND YOU OUR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING FRED EELLS' GREAT FLIGHTS OVER THE
CITY OF ROCHESTER IN BIPLANE EQUIPPED WITH THIS MOTOR. If you wish to do something better than "Grass-Cutting"
Part Oiled Automatically
WELLES & ADAMS
Bath, N. Y.
Made in two sizes
50 H. P. 6-cyl. Air-cooled, 2w0eifbhs!
PRICE, $650.00 Complete
100 H.P. 6-cyl. Water-cooled,
PRICE, $850.00 Complete Catalog Free Agents Wanted
Modeles d'aeroplanes, leur construction, par A. Fieux, ingenieur. Un volume de 150 pages,
abondamment illustl'e. Prix...... 2 francs.
Librairie Aeronautique, 40, rue de Seine, Paris.
Les jeunes gens passionnes d'aviation, aussi bien que les chercheurs, liront avec fruit l'ou-vrage de M. Fieux.
Divise en trois parties: historique, description et construction, il est remarquable par la quantity de renseignements precieux qui s'y trouvent contenus. Les inveneturs y consulteront avec profit la nomenelature des fournitures gene-ralement employees dans la construction legere et solide des modeles; ils trouveront aussi l'his-toire tres detailee des appareils antSrieurement construits, ainsi que des schi'unas, descriptions et dessins per.mettant de les reproduire.
Le texte est clair et precis, les figures sont d'une simplicite sans egale, ce qui permettra a tous de construire des aeroplanes en reduction, k tres peu de frais et sans aucune con-naissance speciale.
The Caudron Monoplane
(Continued from Page 107
the fuselage. At the left hand of the operator, who sits in a cockpit in the fuselage, are air and throttle levers. The G & A carburetors used with Anzani engines have auxiliary air device. At the right hand is a magneto cut-out. Of course, there are sight feed oilers. An aluminum shield protects the aviator from oil thrown out of the exhaust pipes of the engine. The gasoline tank itself forms a wind shield. The sides of the fuselage near the engine have aluminum sheeting fastened on in the same manner as storm curtains on automobiles.
The landing gear is simple and strong. The details of this are shown in the drawings. The rear skid is mounted with a swivel joint as well as with rubber shock absorbers. This scheme is fully shown in the sketch. Brazing is a feature all over the machine, wherever tubing is used.
The wheels are very large and strong, and triple spoked.
The taking down of the machine may be done in 10 minutes and is easily crated. With the 45—50 Anzani a speed of over 80 miles an hour. The weight of the machine alone is 385 lbs. and can carry a load of 275 lbs.
NEW YORK'S TOURNAMENT
The Aeronautical Society opens formally its new field at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island, on October 12th. The aviator-tenants and a number of others will participate in a meet or exhibition which will be open to the public at an admission fee of 25 cents.
Hydro-aeroplanes are expected to fly up the Hudson and maneouver over and about the great fleet of warships which will be anchored for four or five miles up the river's course.
Among those who will surely fly or expect to be on hand are: Captain Thomas S. Baldwin with a new hydro, George W. Beatty (Wright), Geo ge \V. Dvott (Caudron), II. B. Brown (Wright) Chis. K. Hamilton (Curtiss), Nicholas Rippenbein (Cur tiss-tn pe hydro), L. W. Bonney (Caudron or Dep), Mis Lan (Burgess). O. E. Williams of Scranton, Theodore Windell and O. G. Simmons.
R. L. Law will make parachute drops from Brown's aeroplane with the Steven's "life pack."
Invitations have been sent to officers of the fleet and it is expected that Captain Chambers will send one of the Navy Hydros to take part.
There are more than four square miles of flying field at oakwood Heights, which is within New York City limits and can be reached for id cents fare round trip from the Battery. Admission ticket can be secured with transportation ticket.
HOW TO GET THERE Take Staten Island Ferry at the Battery and Staten Island Rapid Transit R. R. to Oakwood Heights. By automobile after leaving St. George turn to left passing through Stapleton to fingerboard Road, follow latter until just before second R. R. crossing when turn to left to Southfield Ave. (Boulevard) follow latter to Guyon Ave. then to left where Aviation Field is located.
The new field of the Society is bounded on one side by the Kill von Kull, which affords an ideal waterway for hydro flying.
Glenn Martin with his own machine (Curtiss-motor) and Anthony Jannus in a Roberts-engined Benoist about divided honors for the biggest purse and Martin received $4S54 and Jannus $4003 from the land bound meet at Cicero and the hydro and land events at Grant Park.
Jannus made an American duration four-man record of 1 minute.
Jannus, Martin and Havens flew their hydros consistently. Jannus had to remove his floats for land flying and vice versa which gave him lots of work. The Brooks hydro met with an accident to its float. On the last day Beachey was an added attraction. The other flyers were: Lillie (Wright), DeLloyd Thompson (Wright), W. C. Robinson (National), Maurice Prevost (Dep.), "Bud" Mars (Curtiss-type), Howard Gill (Wright), M. Tournier (Nieuport), J. R. Mon-tero (Bleriot), Earl Dougherty (Somerville), Horace Kearney (Curtiss), A. C. Beech (National), C. J. Sjolander (Curtiss-type), George Mestach (Borel), C. L. Wiggins (Wright), Far-num Fish (Wright), A. C. Engle. In all $24,000 was divided.
WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT TRIED
The Wright-Curtiss case was to havlT come to trial at Buffalo on the 16th of October, but the Curtiss lawyers asked the Court for a postponement of the case in order to allow them to take some more testimony, so that the case now comes to trial at Buffalo on the 31st of this month.
ARMY AERO NEWS
There are now at the Aviation School at College Park ten officers as pilots or under instruction; thirty enlisted soldiers of the Signal Corps, who handle the aeroplanes on the ground and make repairs; and one civilian machinist.
The other aviation station is in the Philippine Islands, near Manila, where Lieut. Frank P. Lahm has a type B Wright aeroplane, and he has instructed several officers in flying.
The Army has ordered three Wright scout aeroplanes and two Wright speed scout machines. These are being tested at College Park by Mr. Kabitzke, aviator for the company. One of the scout machines completed the test several weeks ago and is now in use as a hydro at the Washington B'arracks branch of the Aviation School. The other Wright machines are now' undergoing official trials at College Park. All but one of the Wright machines have been delivered.
AERIAL SIGHTSEEING TOURS
The Sloane Aeroplane Co., of 1731-1737 Broadway, New York City, will embark upon the most ambitious aeroplane work that has ever been planned in this country, out in Southern California this winter. It has secured the use of famous Dominquez Field, near Los Angeles, from November 1st to May 1st. Four Deperdussin monoplanes, two Caudron .monoplanes, one school B'leriot monoplane and one 80 horsepower Curtiss-type biplane will form the nucleus or the equipment which will be shipped West. Other craft will be forwarded later.
The Deperdussin machines include 35 h.p. and 60 h.p. craft and the Caudron complement have the 35 h.p. and 45 h.p. motor equipment. Messrs. W. Leonard Bonney, John Guy Gilpatric, Charles Baysdorfer and one other aviator will be on the school staff as well as a thoroughly trained corps of mechanical experts.
Field is composed of 16,000 acres of ideal California flying territory and is but 20 minutes from Los Angeles.
Additional to the school activities, the passenger-carrying Deperdussion monoplane will be put into operation on a regular schedule of aerial tours within a radius of 50 miles around Los Angeles. These tours will start from Dominguez Field and will include flights over practically all the famous scenic spots of lower California and the terminal points of these tours will be fixed at the celebrated towns and resorts. There will be regular landing harbors and stations. It will be the first time that such aerial excursion service has ever been inaugurated with aeroplanes. Placards have been distributed at all hotels and tourists headquarters, where passengers can book their flights.
The flying course costs $300. A pupil is not discharged from the school until he or she has secured a pilot's certificate. The pupil is encouraged to be careful by the inducement of a ten per cent rebate of the tuition fee if the course is completed without breakage.
3F" JEL JElm
Will be supplied by
throughout the united states
will you help by sending a donation, no matter how small
MISS BOOTH 118 W. 14th Street, New York City
Wcitcro Statu, CommUjioocr Eitill, 669 S. State St., Chicajo
future international races.
The Scientific American wants to know editorially "Why should not the rules stipulate that each country shall be represented not only by one of its citizens, but by a citizen seated in a machine made in that country?"
This same observation was made editorially in AERONAUTICS a couple of years ago, and last year the Aero Club of America proposed embodying this condition in future G-B rules but the international convention, which is a French institution in practice, thought otherwise.
(Continued from Page 112) The wings which they used in Chicago had a chamber of about one inch but they had a considerable heavier curve on the upper side. The cables and warping wires were attached in the usual Deperdussin style. Hickory spars are used; the ribs are of "I" cross section, made of fir wood. The angle of incidence is judged to be 5°. In finish, these machines are very similar to the passenger Deperdussin which the Sloane Aeroplane Company has recently received from abroad. Both the body and the surfaces are highly polished. When the pilot is in the seat only about half his face is exposed to the wind and there is a cushion for him to rest his head against. In flight these machines carry their tail slightly higher than the head. Under the tail is a small skid with rubber shock absorber out of sight in the fuselage. Side steering is by foot lever. "Bosch equipped of course."
FROM Mr. THOMAS PRESTON BROOKE.
Chicago, Ills., Sept. 6, 1912.
To the Editor:
In sending you the inclosed proof sheet of my new article on the danger of gyroscopic force, I do not presume that you could possibly see any good in if and so far forget yourself as to publish something that might be of material benefit to aviation and to humanity in general; I merely send it to you that you may file it with other articles (Some from Mr. T. P. B.) that would have assisted in the advancement of the art and that you have undoutedly shelved to give space to a lot of utterly impossible rot that has appeared from time to time in your magazine. When the world has learned all the aviation truths, in spite of you and your magazine, you will have a fine lot of good things on file that you can read over and you will then wonder how you happened to pick out so many "bum guesses" to publish and missed out on so many others that would have helped advance the flying game in the United States.*****
Anything that is beyond your comprehension, that is a little too far advanced for your narrow, Diaseci mirici, you lrnmertiateiv Diand as - ineoiy" and refer to the authors as "Bugs."***** Otherwise you would class among the "gyroscopic Bugs" such noted scientists and Engineers as:—M. Bouchard-l'raceig, Society of Engineers of France—Prof. A. E. B'erriman, H. H. Turner, Dr. Shaw, Sir William White, members of the British Society of Engineers, and Albert Kapteyn, President of the Dutch Aero Club. (And t. P. B.)
Published Monthly by Auronautics Press, 250 Wett 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic. New York •Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres'l — — ERNEST t. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor
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Nl. 62 OCTOBER—19 12 Vol. 11, No. 4
Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postottlce
New York, under the Act ot March 3, 1879. rfT AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^ All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :; ^T Make all checks or money orders free of exchangt ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. ::
It is extremely unfortunate for America that a man as biased and short-sighted as you appear to be should have been in charge of one of our aeronautical magazines. No wonder we lag behind other countries. (Isn't it an awful shame?) Of course, you are the boss of your own magazine and are at perfect liberty to publish or turn down anything that comes to you, according to the degree that it soaks into you, but you must not overlook the fact that all these men on whom you heap ridicule are sincere in their efforts and cannot but object to being called "crazy" or "Bugs" or "crazy Bugs." ***** My advice to you is, don't roast these men, simply because their ideas may be a little beyond your understanding, so that when the world has finally recognized them as benefactors you won't have so much "crawfishing" to do.
(Signed) Thomas Preston Brooke. (The editor is duly chastened and accepts the apology of Mr. Thomas P-r-e-s-t-o-n Brooke in the manner in which it is intended.. The Bold Face is ours).
HIKE AND THE AEROPLANE. By Tom Graham. With four illustrations in two colois by Arthur Hutchins. Cloth 12mo, $1.00 net; postpaid, $1-10.
This aeroplane story is not only full of action but is one of the few ever written by a man who is personally acquainted with aviators and the technicalities of the various makes of machines. It is a book written expressly for boys by one who understands them, and it will be highly appreciated.
Hike Griffin discovered an inventor with an aeroplane which had the greatest stability and speed ever known.
How he flew it across the Continent, rescued refugees, fought moonshiners, escaped from kidnappers with the help of his chum, Poodle Darby, and the War Department, saved a ranch from Mexican desperadoes, underwent hazing for his exploits when he went hack )o school in the Fall and won the foot-ball game— Tom Graham tells most graphically, and in a real technically correct way.
FLIES 13 HOURS
Etampcs,' France, Sept. 11.—Fonrny broke world distance and the duration record by fling, non-stop, 13 hrs. 22 min. and covered 1017 kiloms. (631 miles). He used Maurice Farman biplane, Renault engine, Bosch ignition.
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U. S. Patents Gone to Issue
Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.
Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.
It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear .manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. Tn a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."
The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment up on merits or demerits.
Where patent seems to have particular interest, the date of filing will be given. Editor.
ISSUED JULY 30. 1,034,120, Joseph J. V. Kaulyn^kas, Philadelphia,
Pa., July 30, 1912. FLYING MACHINE. 1,034,142, John J. Rechtenwald, Mount Oliver
Borough, Pa., July 30, 1912. INFLATABLE
FLOATS for aeroplanes. 1,034,242, Carl V. Johnson, Goldfield, Nev., July
30, 1912. Multiple power plants for aeroplanes,
with means for starting, clutch, etc. 1,034,245, Oliver W. Johnson, Geneva, Ohio, July
30, 1012. Man-power aeroplane. 1,034,257, Victor H. Latendorf, Bayonne, N. J.,
July 30, 1912. AEROPLANE.
ISSUED AUGUST 6.
1.034.429, Thomas A. Dring, Trowbridge, England, August 6, 1912. HELICOPTER.
1.034.430, Thomas A. Dring, Trowbridcre, England, August 5, 1912. HELICOPTER.
1,034,544, Maurice H. Webster, Evanston. Ills., August 6, 1912. Filed Aug. 7, VC9. AILERONS hinged to rear beam with means for operating them simultaneously in opposite directions.
1,034,556, Michael J. Zmuidzinowicz, Cleveland, Ohio, August 6. 1912. FLYING MACHINE.
1,034,578, Julius Brown, Peeksklll, N. Y., August 6, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.
1,034,638, George F. Mentz, Attica, N. Y., August 6, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.
1,034,655, Putnam D. Smith, Oakland, CaL. August 6, 1912. RECIPROCATING PLANES.
1,034,700, Francesco Filiasi, Naples, Italy, August 6, 1912. Device for facilitating the alighting of aeroplanes on moving warships.
1.034.95S, Reuben L. Bernard, Mountain View, CaL, August 6, 1912. FLYTNG MACHINE.
1,035,017. Gus M. Kaiser, and Alfred S. He^ht, New York, N. Y., August 6, 1912. TOY AEROPLANE.
1,035,103, Gerhardt Rasmussen, New York, N. Y., August 6, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.
1,035,396, Frank W. Stodder, Somerville, Mass. AEROPLANE.
1,035,479, Anselm Shaeffer, Elizabeth, N. J. PROPELLING Device.
*1,035,560, Hugo Erdmann, Charlottenburg, Germany. BALLOON, .method of refilling during a flight bv using liquid hvdrogen.
1,035,583. Charles Albert Hamilton, New- York, N. Y. HELICOPTER.
1,035,660, Dickran G. Terzian, Washington, D. C. AEROPLANE.
1,035,6S7, Thomas Wm. Carey, Jr., New Orleans, La. STABILTY system. Combination of usual ailerons with "equilibrium planes," each of latter pivotally mounted on axis at right angle to axis of ailerons; means for simultaneously operating same so that the equilibrium planes slope toward each other forming a dihedral angle, etc.
* 1,035,701, C. A. B. P. Hawkins & Bertram Ogilvie, Napier, New Zealand. STABILITY, automatic: planes are hinged at forward edge and so, connected that pressure moving one wing upward moves other correspondingly downward. Filed Aug. 31, 1909.
1.035.794, George Herbert Kellogg, Syracuse, N. Y., STABILITY; tilting wings, etc.," as below, operated by pendulum: fluid means, piston, etc., not claimed. Filed Jan. 27, 1909.
1.035.795, George Herbert Kellogg, Syracuse. N. Y., STABILITY; "tiltable wings," or pivoted wing sections at lateral extremities of supporting plane operated automatically by a pendulum and swinging support; fluid operated piston, valves, etc.
1,035,858, Willard B. Clements, Veedum, Wis., FLYING MACHINE.
1.036,033, Harry La V. Twining, Los Angeles, CaL, OPN1THOPTER; pair of wings, 2 post levers, rigid links from foot levers to wings, two hard levers and rigid links.
1,036.044, Roy D. Wheeler, New South Wales, and Betrand L. Wheeler Melbourne. Victoria, Australia, ROTA TABLE PLANE.
*1,036,17S, Joseph A. Blondin, Los Angeles, Cal. DIFFERENTIALLY constructed ailerons and elevators having plurality of members. An elevator in which the upper and lower embraces move to an unequal extent, by means of special belt crank. Ailerons are/ likewise made for actuation differentially to exert equal stabilizing effects. Filed August S, 1910.
1,036,249, Carl V. Johnson, Goldfield, Nevada, AEROPLANE.
1.036,2S7, John Maljkovich, New York, N. Y., AEROPLANE Machine.
1,036,431, James Bowie, Edinburgh, Scotland., PROPELLER; similar to a worm.
*1,036,532, Richard Alexander-Katz, Berlin, Germany. Shelter for Dirigibles and Balloons.
1.036;667, Charles T. Matson, Chicago, 111., FLYING machine of reciprocating tvpe.
1,036,732, David Segal, Washington, 1). C, STABILITY; moveable weight, beneath machine, sliding on shaft, etc.
1.036.780, John G. Bauer, Cleveland, Ohio, ORN1THOPTER.
1.036.781, John G. Bauer, Cleveland, Ohio, means for changing lifting, screws to propelling one's by gears, etc.
1.036,834, Charles R. Haas, B'rightwater, B. C, Canada, PROPELLER; llexible rotatable blades attached to arm at right angle to shaft.
1,036,964, James A. Conterio, Santa Barbara. CaL, FLYING MACHINE.
1,037,050, Jules Raclot & Camille Enderlin, St. Mauer-des-Fosses, France, FLYING MACHINE.
1,037,136, John G. E. Danielson, Omaha, Neb., AEROPLANE, surfaces tandem and stepped.
1,037,214, Anthelme Desaye, Clifton, N. J., Sept. 3, 1912, MONOPLANE .
1,037,278, John R. Martin, St. Louis, Mo., HELICOPTER AEROPLANE.
1,037,353, Abram B. Springstead, Kalamazoo, Mich., FLYING MACHINE.
1,037.411, .lames H. S. Bartholomew, Occidental, and Eugene F. Heath, Santa Rosa, CaL, STABILITY: ailerons operated by swinging body portion. Filed Aug. S, 1911.
1,037,450, Johann J. Daniels, New Rochelle, N. Y., AIRSHIP with plurality of gas bags; covering used as para chut'.-.
1.037,651, Robert McMnllen, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia, AEROPLANE in which wings tilt laterally and fore and aft: ailerons at ends of wings operated in conjunc-
1,037,657, Albert E. Petrucci, New York, N. Y., AEROPLANE, in which upper surface is bowed downward toward lateral extremities; operating in center top plane for release of "trapped air;" lift propeller in c>i ening and thrust propeller besides.
1,037,65s, James Aloysius Rabbitt, Yokohama, Japan, AEROPLANE.
*1,037,704, Samuel S. Yarrinyton, Del., AEROPLANE with hydroplanes, so connected to levers as to be capable of being raised or lowered, auxiliary levers for aileron control. Filed Nov. 4, 1911.
1,037,749, Alexy Feall, Los Angeles, Cal., PARACHUTE, normally part of main surface of an aeroplane.
1,037,800, Fred Louis Schaufler, Mattoon, 111., EQUILIBRIUM planes and manner of arrangement and operation.
•1,037,804, Traugotte A. Tanner, Flint, Mich., AUTOMATIC STABILITY: ailerons operated by gyroscope which does not affect longtitudinal balance. Filed Dec. 21, 1910.
1.037.S53, Erastus S. Bennett, New York, N. Y., AEROPLANE.
1,037,043, Wade II. Lowry, Jacksonville, Fla., PARACHUTE device to be attached to aeroplane.
•1,037,959, Lee Miller, Chicago, 111., PARACHUTE device in which parachute is folded in an envelope which is disposed about the head
and shoulders of an aviator; harness for the body. Filed Dec. 7, 1911. This is apparently similar to the Stevens device illustrated in the October number.
1,038,073, S. H. Benoist, Deceased., Los Angeles, Cal., HELICOPTER.
1,038,100, Edward F. Fisher, San Diego, Cal., AEROPLANE in which the "car" is located close to upper plane and is pivoted to swing in a space provided in lower planes.
1,038,16S, James E. Marshall, New York, N. Y., HELICOPTER—AEROPLANE.
John G. Quigg, Pittsburg, Pa., PARACHUTE attachment for aeroplanes.
1.03S.306, Dorsette A. Davison, Richmond, Va., WINGS turned laterally and longitudinally.
1.03S,317, Frederick G. Donner, Pittsburg, Pa., PLANE provided with 'plurality sections connected together and inclined so as to cause air to pass downward through the surface.
•1,038,435, Bert J. Pressey, Newport News, Va., claims of STABILITY patents 458234 and 463460. Filed Oct. 17 and Nov. 19, 190S. The object in this patent is to lessen the influence of the rear member of a plane and maintain c. of p. as nearly as possible coincident with transverse pivoted axis of the plane. Filed Oct. 25, 1909.
1,038,602, Charles A. Kuenzel, Buena Vista, Colo., GAS BAG.
1,038,633, Gory O'Bryan, Louisville, Ky., AUTOMATIC STABILITY: ailerons operated by swinging "car."
1.03S,964, Charles T. Rogers, Newton, Ala., HELICOPTER AEROPLANE.
•1,038,507, G. A. Crocco & O. Ricaldoni, Rome, Italy, LONGITUDINAL STABILITY. Filed Mach 27, 1909.
A self acting steadying device comprising: movable pianos provided at the tail of the moving body; elastic connections between the movable planes and the moving body conveniently
disposed to counteract the action of the fluid impinging obliquely on the plane and to stop the latter in a position in which its angle of deviation is greater than the angle of deviation of the axis of the moving body; and means whereby the points to which the elastic connections are secured to the moving body can be shifted in order to cause the movable planes to act as ordinary rudders.
In the sketch the main planes, etc., are omitted.
1,039,092. Frederick Brackett, Washington, D. C, AEROPLANE.
1.039.115, Russell H. Froelich, St. Louis, Mo. In an AEROPLANE, the combination with a body frame, of wing plane sections arranged in series extending upwardly and outwardly from said body frame, said sections being spaced vertically and offset from each other in a direction transverse to the line of flight with the outside lateral edge of each section approximately beneath the inside lateral edge of the section next above it.
1.039.116, Charles A. Furtaw, Philadelphia, Pa., NOVEL AEROPLANE. There are 32 claims in this patent.
1.039.117, Emanuel Gerber, Kansas City, Mo., AEROPLANE which may be quickly folded into a tent.
1,039.160, Ernest H. Mattson Chicago, 111., FLYING MACHINE.
BRITAIN FORBIDS MONOS
The British Army has forbidden, at least for the present, the use of monoplanes by it's officers on official flying. In the recent manoeuvres the planes were so successful in scouting duty that each side knew all the movements and strength of the opposition.
COLORADO SPRINGS, Aug. 2S.—Colorado Springs was the scene on August 28, of the first balloon race ever held in the Rocky Mountain Region. Three of the big gas-fllled bags participated, and with the exception of the "X," the same men who had piloted the entries in the Kansas City elimination race were at the helm.
Captain H. E. Honeywell, who won the elimination race and will represent the United States at the International contest in Germany this fall, piloted the "Uncle Sam," with Bruce A. Gustin, a Colorado Springs newspaper man, as his aide. "The Kansas City II" had as its pilot, John Watts of Kansas City, with Frank P. Blair as aide. Balloon "X," a rubber bag, was under the direction of Paul J. McOullough of St. Louis and R. A. D. Preston of Akron, Ohio.
The balloons left Washburn field at Colorado Springs late in the afternoon, "Kansas City II" being the first to get away, at 5:45 o'clock: followed shortly afterwards by the. "Uncle Sam" and "X". They took a northerly direction. The "X" was the first to land, coming down at Palmer Lake, about 23 miles north of Colorado Springs. The "Uncle Sam" traveled a little farther, landing six miles west of Larkspur and 25 miles from Colorado Springs.
The race was won by Watts, "Kansas City II," which alighted on a hillside six miles south of Castle Rock and 42 miles north of Colorado Springs, at 7:45 o'clock, two hours after leaving.
Pittsfield, Mass., Sept. 2S.—Jay B. Benton, H. H. Glavton, and J. L. Peltret in the "Boston to Barre, Vt.
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