Aeronautics

Volume 11 - No. 3 - 1912 September

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Vol. XI, No. 3 SEPTEMBER, 1912 Serial No. 61

COMING AND GOING

F. C. HILD, IN AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE MONOPLANE

ROBERTS 4-x 50 H. P. MOTOR

Hempstead. L. I., New York, August Sth. 1912 THE ROBERTS MOTOR COMPANY, Sandusky. Ohio

Gentlemen:—Having recently installed one of your 50 H. P. Roberts Motors in one of our single seater lileriot-type monoplanes used as a School Machine, we have found the motor very efficient and satisfactory just as we have other Roberts Motors that we have installed in our crosscountry-type single seaters, and passenger-carrying monoplanes.

We are enclosing several photographs showing our monoplane in flight, the speed of which averages 65 miles per hour, which is far more than wc had expected.

Very truly yours, AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE. Per (F. C. Hild)

OUR NEW 36-PAGE CATALOG FREE

B0BEKK MOTOR G>

September, 191I

kirkham aviation motors 1912 models

Model B-6, 50 H.P., Weight. 235 lbs

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KIRKHAM Motors are used and endorsed by Thomas Bros.; Rex Monoplane Co.; Burgess Company and Curtis; Mills Aviators; Prowse Aeroplane Co.; Sparling-Craig Co.; Twin City Aviators ; American Aeroplane Mfg. Co.; Tarnopol Aviation Co., besides several individual owners, and are acknowledged to be the Best American Motor, regardless of price.

When you buy that new motor it is for your interest to investigate thoroughly before you buy any motor. There is a reason why the KIRKHAM has become so popular with those who know and buy on merit only.

- INVESTIGATE--

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM savon^e^ork

in>»»{n>>»?>»n>>»>>>>>t>>}t>in»»>»it»>>>n>tnit»t»tnMin>tMt»>turtiM»nnnMM»iit»iMMiittt»»tmttiw

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine

TRADE MARK

PATENTED MARCH 14. 1911; JULY 25 1911; OCTOBER 17. 1911: OTHER PATENTS PENDING

TWENTY REASONS:

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BURGESS SUMMER TRAINING SCHOOL NOW OPEN

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<J Unequalled facilities are provided for instruction in the operation of the marine flier over Marblehead Harbor and the bay adjoining. By giving training at our manufacturing headquarters we offer pupils an opportunity, at no extra cost, to become thoroughly familiar with jj the details of construction and design, and ensure against delays. Course consists of FOUR 5 HOURS actual flying during which time we assume all breakage risk. We provide hydro- $ aeroplane for license test.

Instructors: Howard W. Gill, Phillips W. Page, Clifford L. Webster—All licensed aviators

Booklet with full particulars furnished on request. CJ Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplants for military, sporting and exhibition purposes ready for prompt delivery.

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

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Simple Computations Relating to Aeroplane Design

WITH PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS By WINTHROP S. HORTON

1nce the aeroplane has proved itself worthy of commercial development, there have been many who have endeavored to build their own machines, only to meet with failure through a lack of knowledge of the engineering principles involved.

The novice has at his disposal any number of good books treating the aerodynamic theories but the'question of design from a purely physical standpoint seems to have been neglected.

While the design of an aeroplane from the former standpoint is of paramount importance, the designer should also thoroughly understand the laws of forces and strengths of materials. The scope of tho present article does not allow of more than a lew practical illustrations, but is written in the hope of pointing out the proper lines along which a more extensive study may be made.

In order to compute the actual sizes of the members of any structure it is necessary to carefully consider all possible, maximum loads which may be imposed on that part of the structure; bearing in mind that

checked glide or dip the load on the wing surfaces-may easily be found, for any given conditions. Assume for a lair hypothesis that the machine in flight weighs 1000 pounds, that due to a glide at 40' with the horizontal it attains, say, a speed of 120 miles per hour, or 17G feet per second; and, further, that it is brought to rest vertically, i.e., its entire vertical velocity is checked in two seconds. The load imposed on the wings is due to two forces; first, that required to produce the deceleration; and, second, that required to support the weight.

The force necessary to produce this deceleration, at any moment, is represented Ly the formula:

w

t

In which—w = weight in lbs. = 1000 g = 32.16 (constant) t = time in seconds — 2 Vj = Initial velocity in feet per second

Vo = Final velocity in feet per second

mechanical design of any kind is a compromise between theory and actual practical conditions; the success of such design depending to a large extent upon experience and what might be termed the "mechanical intuition" of the designer.

Perhaps the most important single member in an aeroplane is the main wingspar, a simple case being shown in Fig. 1. (Monoplane)

The length from tip to point of juncture with fuselage is 12 feet, while a single guy supports it at "(A," a distance of 7 ft. from its inner end.

The first step is to compute the maximum strain to which the wing may be subjected and considering that this is due to a rapidly

ho

nfi 1225

Since we are considering vertical velocity only, v, will equal the vertical component of the actual velocity of the machine; or 176 sin 40° and v, is o:

1000 17CX.643

whence f =- -

32.16 2

f = 17r.O

Hence, the total load on the wings Is 1750 -f 1000 or 27-">0 pounds. The load on each wing is 137." lbs. and if the total area is ISO sq. feet, the average pressure per foot is approximately 1"> pounds.

Actually, part of this load will be taken by the tail surface, but in the non-lifting type the percentage is negligible. Where a lifting type tail is used the method is simi

AERONAUTICS

Page 72

lar except that the wing and tail sections are computed separately, using in the formula the part of the weight supported by each.

The actual part of the load taken by the main spar will depend upon the spacing of the spars and somewhat upon the aero-curve. In the present case, assume 70% as a safe maximum. Therefore, in Fig. I, the total load on the spar is 1375 X .7 or 960 lbs. (approx.) and the load per foot is 960 12 or SO pounds. This assumption that the load is uniformly distributed will not alter the results where the ribs are spaced as close as the usual practice.

The guy wire divides the member into two unit beams, the first 7 feet being of the simple type (supported at both ends) whil? the outer end forms a cantilever (supported at one end only). It will be necessary to determine in which section the bending moment is greater, and find the required cross section to safely withstand the stress produced by that moment if, as is usual, the spar is of uniform cross section throughout.

According to the laws of moments of forces, the maximum bending moment for a simple beam evenly loaded comes at the center and is represented by the equation:

WI2 Ms =-

S

while that for a cantilever evenly loaded comes at the point of support, the equation being:

\VF

Mc =-

2

In both cases W = load per foot I = length in feet 80X49

Whence Ms =---= 490

S

80X25

and Mc =-=1000

2

Consequently, the greatest fiber stress comes at the juncture of the beam and guy wire, showing the importance of properly designing the fastening so as not to unnecessarily weaken the spar. Any holes should be as near the horizontal center line as possible and no holes should be made vertically nor near the bottom edge. It is also apparent that the lightest beam (of uniform cross section) is only possible when Ms equals Mc, a condition brought about by attaching the guy wire somewhat nearer the tip of the spar. Such an arrangement, however, lessens the angle of the wire (unless the top of tripod is carried well above the wings) and greatly increases the stress.

The pull in the Avire is represented by the equation:

L

P =-

in which P = pull on the wire in pounds

L = Total perpendicular load at

point of attachment. 0 = angle of wire with spar.

In order to determine L it is necessary to compute the combined perpendicular forces

SECTIOtt-

 

II

—j t> i—

,ibh3

 

-r|(H-h3)

KDI

iii(BH-bh3)

 

(5H3-br?)^CHbh (H-h)*

   
   

P

.CM-31 ba3

 

l(AB3-ab3)

Values of moment of /r7erf/'<? for various secf/ons '

of the two sections of beams at point of attachment "A", Fig. I. These consist of the reaction Ps of the simple section and that Pc of the cantilever section. As the beams are considered to be uniformly loaded the formulae are ;

WI SO X 7

Ps =-=--= 2S0 lbs.

2 2

Pc = WI = SO X 5 = 400 lbs. Whence L = 280 + 400 = 6S0 lbs. and if 0 = 30° 6S0

P =--= 1360 lbs.

.5

As P is inversely proportional to Sin 0, the advantage of having 0 as great as possible is evident. To this stress must also be added the direct pull due to the turnbuckle, or wire tightener, this being merely enough to insure tautness. It must also be borne in mind that this figure is the actual estimated pull in the member and the wire used should be good for two to four times

September, 1912

this amount, depending upon fhe safety factor desired.

In the case of more than one guy wire supporting the spar the computations are similar, except that each section between the points of attachment must be considered as unit sections as before, each bending moment being found and the maximum used in further computations.

The pull in each guy wire is found as before, making L equal to the sum of the reactions of the unit sections adjoining the point of attachment.

In order to determine the actual cross section of the spar, the known quantities may be substituted in the general equation for any type of beam;

SI

M = -

(J

in which M the maximum bending moment, S the allowable fiber stress of material, I the moment of inertia of cross section and C = V2 depth of beam (if symmetrical.)

Where the beam is not sy metrical C equals the distance from the center of gravity of section to extreme fibers in stress.

In Fig. 1, M was found to be 1000, C equals iy2 inches and S may be taken as 800 lbs. for spruce. Transposing the above equation we may write:

MC 1000 X 1.5

I =--= - = 1.9 (Approx.)

S 800

The moment of inertia for a rectangular beam in terms of its cross section (see table) is,

bh3

I = -

12

in which b = width in inches and h = depth in inches.

As I and h are known the equation may be written,

12 I 12 X 1.9

b = - =---= .84 inches

h3 27

The beam may therefore be 1 inch in round numbers, a suitable safety factor having been allowed by taking S as 800 lbs., as the breaking stress of spruce is about 10,000 lbs.

Such an important member should be built up or laminated.

If the spar is to be of tubular metal section, the general computations are similar, all conditions being the same. Consider the steel to have an ultimate strength of 100,000 lbs. allowing a safe working stress of 20,000 lbs. per square inch. To find the moment of inertia in terms of the stress MC

I = - as before.

S

If the tube is 3 inches outside diameter 1000 X 1.5

I =---= .075

20000

The expression for the moment of inertia of a tube in terms of its cross section is, from the table:

I = .0491 (D4—d4)

Which may be transposed and written:

4 I— .0491D4 d = V--

.0491

from which d = 2.9S5 inches. As this gives a wall thickness of only .007 inches (34ga.) which is far too thin for structural reasons a tube of smaller diameter may be used.

The secondary spar is treated in like manner assuming that it carries the balance of the load.

The ribs or that section of them between the spars are treated as simple beams, the maximum bending moment occurring in this section as the overhanging enCs are usually short. If the rib is built up of two flat strips of wood with blocks or spacers between, the moment of inertia in terms of the cross b

section is — (H3—h3) see table. 12

The total load carried by any rib is that imposed on the rectangle of wing surface between the ribs and the two spars. If the spars are 3% feet apart and the ribs spaced 12 inches each rib will support the load carried by the area 3.5 X 1 or 3.5 sq. ft. and if the average maximum pressure is 15 lbs. per sq. ft. the total load will be 15 X 3.5 = 52.5 lbs. and the load per foot 15 lbs.

The rib will taper from the front to the rear spar and in figuring its section the term C will be one-half the depth at a point midway between the spar.», which may be determined after laying out the aerocurve.

The stresses on the running gear members are almost impossible to compute as they may be very severe, as where landing on rough ground, and at best may only be estimated.

In the design of the fuselage, the actual question of strength is not of such paramount importance, the problem being rather one of stiffness or rigidity, considering always a proper stream line form. That section immediately between the wings must be strong enough to withstand the shocks transmitted by the running gear, but, as explained it is impractical to get at the sizes by any accurate computations. The use of wire bracing should be limited as much as possible and gussett construction substituted, the trend in aeroplane design seeming to be toward simplified construction, made possible by experience and more careful attention to the problems involved.

In conclusion the author would advise those who wish to go more deeply into the subject to read such a book as "Merrlman's Strength of Materials" which is a cSmpre-hensive elementary treatise.

AERONAUTICS

Remarks on the Analysis and Comparison

of Patents

By LEE S. BURRIDGE

fiOW that about ten patents are issued weekly covering aeronautical apparati under the index headings of aeroplanes, airships and flying machines, it is incumbent on experimenters and other devotees to understand the reading of patents and their relation to each other. The alluring advertisement of some patent solicitors "no patent, no pay" also "patent guaranteed" creates misconception in that it gives the impression that a patent must have value whereas many patents are utterly worthless. Practically every construction of apparatus that is not a copy or reproduction in all respects may be patented, but the claims may be so limited in scope that they may have no value and consequently such patent may have no comparative standing among patents.

The real merit and value of a patent resides in its claims. The specification and drawings serve to disclose the invention and how it is applied, or so much of a machine as may be necessary to leave no doubt of invention, but the patent covers only what the claims recite.

Suppose a patent to be voluminous having many sheets of drawings and pages of description, yet only one or two claims appear. Such patent may be worthless because it is reasonably safe to presume that it was prepared under the assumption that there were many novel features of construction, and no doubt the claims as originally filed were as voluminous as the description, but probably the Patent Office Examiner cited patent after patent anticipating one claim after another until finally the inventor had to be satisfied with the one or two claims left.

The Patent Office makes searches by experienced assistants to Examiners and endeavors to allow to go to issue only those patents having claims for new and useful inventions. Therefore the grant of a 1T. S. patent is prima facie evidence of validity, but nevertheless many patents are held invalid by the Courts because of anticipations not cited by the Patent Office officials while the applications were pending.

To analyse a claim it should be divided into its component elements. Suppose there are 5 elements combined to bring about the new and useful result and out of the 5 there are 4 elements obviously old, because found on prior structures and in prior patents, then the novelty resides in the addition of the fifth element. Let us assume further

that this fifth element is not new in itself, but is common in mechanical structures of other arts; that does not indicate that the claim is not valid, but it is necessary that the addition of this fifth element produce a new and useful result which is absent without it, and which in the present combination was not known in any art.

It may aptly be asked here what constitutes invention if old features can be combined and a patent procured. The best answer that can be given is the exercise of the inventive faculty as distinguished; from mere mechanical skill. The mere ingenuity of an ordinary mechanician is not sufficient, and if the combination was so obvious as not to require the use of the inventive faculty, the patent or at any rate that claim may be adjudged invalid for want of novelty. The practice in the Patent Office is to reject a claim when considered to beJ a mere aggregation of well known elements! producing a result known in the art to which] the application applies. It is required thitj either a new result be obtained or that a newl combination of elements accomplish a known! result in a useful manner.

Returning to the supposititious claim of 5i elements of which all but the fifth are old asl combined, and the fifth is common but doesl produce a new effect or result, and you nowl find that it is very similar to what you arel constructing only that you are applying a' different fifth element from that found in this patent and you wonder if you infringe this patent claim. This depends upon several conditions; primarily the position the patent holds in the art, whether pioneer by disclosing an important improvement, no matter how simple, which entitles it to a broad interpretation and in which case almost any modification of the fifth element would still infringe the combination claim on the ground of equivalency. If, however, the structure disclosed by the patent does not differ materially in detail or result from other prior patents, then the claim under consideration is very limited in scope, and any material modification of j the fifth element or of the combination! recited by eliminating an element that may be essential to that combination, or by modifying the application of the 4 elements, would avoid infringement.

To illustrate a supposititious case, let us assume a pioneer invention for automatic, stability operated by a pendulum so mounted! that it is connected to the controls of tliel aeroplane to set them in motion by similar connections as ordinarily done manually by the operator. The controls and connections are old and the pendulum is certainly old,J

but assuming it had never been used for such a purpose before, the patent would be a pioneer one in this respect and the claims if properly drawn would cover broadly the use of a pendulum applied to aeroplanes to control automatic stability, and no matter how much the structure of the aeroplane or the controls may be modified in the endeavour to evade this patent, yet it would dominate all structures embodying a pendulum as the prime factor to accomplish the same result.

Supposing further that in a search for anticipations, in the hope of limiting the scope of this patent, that nothing be found in aeronautical patents thereby compelling a search of other arts and that a patent be found embodying a pendulum to control automatic stability of a ship's berth so mounted as to maintain stability by means of the pendulum during the rolling and tossing of the ship, the object being to overcome sea sickness. This would not. be a complete anticipation of the other (nor vice versa) because the structures to which the pendulums are applied as also the controls are different and require some use of the inventive faculty for application in either case, and consequently either patent might be pioneer.

It should be remembered however that neither the Patent Office nor the Courts grant more to the inventor than his claims recite, beyond a reasonably broad interpretation, and if he fails to incorporate claims to which he is entitled, the loss is his, even though the fault may be that of his solicitor, and there is no remedy except by re-issue if the omission or mistake is discovered in time and can be shown to be accidental and inadvertent. Therefore the importance of carefully prepared specification and drawings, and well drawn claims cannot be overestimated.

Taking up a different phase, let us suppose that you are the owner of a patent, whether issued to you or acquired is immaterial, and you propose to manufacture constructions in exact accordance therewith, do not take it for granted that you will not be infringing some earlier patents, notwithstanding that you are copying the structure described in your patent, because the specification and drawings give no indication of the non-infringement of the structure, and there may be a dozen earlier patents whose claims dominate that structure, so that it is incumbent upon you to make a thorough search before investing financially, and this search should be directed primarily towards the claims of prior patents, because the claims indicate the scope of said patents.

The circumstances when claims are of no interest are when searching for anticipations of a claim dominating a structure on which suit has been brought or infringement is feared. In such search the specification and drawings are all important because if a similar construction can be found described in a prior patent, even though not

identical, it will limit and perhaps invalidate the feared claim irrespective of what the anticipating patent may contain for claims.

In searching prior patents the date of issue is not controlling and the date of application should be noted also. This is always recited in the heading. For instance one patent may be issued long before another disclosing a similar invention, and the later one may have been filed long before the earlier patent was issued or before the application for it was filed. The delay may have been due to various causes, such as interference proceedings, purposely slow amendments, and so forth. It is quite possible also for the later patent to contain broader claims and even be a pioneer patent notwithstanding that patents disclosing similar inventions may have been issued months and even years earlier. What may have been the cause of delay can only be learned by obtaining the history of the application while pending, which is known in the Patent Office as the File Wrapper and Contents. This is furnished upon demand after a patent is issued, upon payment of the cost of copying. It includes a copy of the application as originally filed, also every action by the Examiner in charge reciting the objections and rejections upon citations named and the applicant's amendments; any interferences that may have been declared will also be referred to and the subject matter of the interference.

Interferences are declared when two or more applications contain one or more claims for the same invention. Interferences can be declared between a pending application and an unexpired patent, and while the Commissioner of Patents cannot invalidate a patent already granted, a second patent may be issued for the same invention including the same claims. The procedure is for each applicant to present proofs by sworn testimony before a notary or other official provided for by law, beginning with the junior applicant first (the one who filed his application last) to prove the earliest conception of the invention and its reduction to practice and the burden of proof rests on him to overcome the earlier date of application by his opponents. The interference is decided by the Examiner of Interferences but can be appealed to the Examiners in Chief, then to the Commissioner of Patents and finally to the tribunal of last resort, the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia. Interferences are very expensive luxuries and the probable value of an invention should be carefully weighed before engaging in an interference. If the subject matter at issue is disclaimed by you, the interference is quashed but your opponent or opponents will then obtain patents that will dominate your invention, notwithstanding that you may obtain a patent containing claims net included in the interference.

In conclusion, a few words regarding reduction to practice may not be amiss. A (Continued on Page Si)

Aviation's Fakes and Fakirs

HE exhibition faker is another of Aviation's vampires. There are two classes: the man who can fly and won't, and the man who might but can't. There are aviators and aviators. We daily see men with a copy of some well known machine in course of construction, writing on extravagantly worded letterheads to fair managers offering guaranteed flights for a fraction of the price asked by men of note in the exhibition field. The machine fails of completion, or is smashed in preliminary flights by the builder who has never taken a lesson in flight. The public is swindled and the fair manager solemnly swears never again will he book an aeroplane flight.

Once in a while we hear of a real aviator who feels no compunction at cancelling a date. We have heard of the same man making contracts at two or more places for the same date, all of which it is obvious he can not fulfill, just to keep some competitor from making that money. Another man gets his pilot certificate with a 'plane of his own construction which has made a few short flights. He gets a "date." In to the town he goes, gets some advance money from the manager or promoter to "get the machine out of the express office." Before morning the machine and the aviator are on the way home. This fraud got the aviator his carfare, but at what a cost to his self respect and to his reputation expected to be made. Suffice it to say, that man has no reputation on the good side of the ledger now and, besides, is "down and out." "Honesty is the best policy" for financial success as well as in the interest of morality.

A favorite scheme with unknown aviators is to refer to foreign training, pupil at the Bleriot school, or the Farman school, or to claim he was an instructor at the Deperdussin school, etc. Perhaps he will take unto himself a pilot certificate number, as did one well-known and accomplished flyer now residing on the Pacific Coast. He thought No. 12, French, suited him, despite the fact that it had been allotted to Santos Dumont, and he even used it in his advertisements.

There was a flagrant case of fake down in the State of Texas last spring that shows the limits to which the unscrupulous aviator hangers-on will sometimes go. A business man of a certain town of ten thousand population engaged a so-called aviator, claiming to own a standard machine, but which turned out to be a mighty poor copy, to make two days' flights on the basis of a

percentage of the gate receipts. The "aviator" showed up all right, accompanied by a mechanic. The first thing he did after meeting the promoter was to spring a hard luck story.

"Listen," he began after buttonholing the unsuspecting promoter, "I gotta have $250.00 to get me motor outa hock at the express office. I had it repaired in a shop at Dallas and they sent it on c. o. d."

It was a case of no motor, no flights, and the promoter dug up the money. The next day the "aviator" came around with another hard luck tale.

"I gotta have $50.00 to get a new propeller out. I broke the only one I had yesterday and wired for a new one at Dallas. It's coming out c. 0. d."

The promoter again dug, hoping to get it all back the next day when the "aviator" was advertised to make "dare-devil flights into the clouds," and all that.

The morrow came and the crowd gathered. The "aviator" was busy around his machine, and there was a continual hum of the motor which kept the crowd on edge for two hours. The promoter got uneasy and besought the "aviator" to "make a flight."

Finally, after a three-hour wait the "aviator" climbed into the trap called an aeroplane, started his four-cylinder, 18 h.p. motor and scooted across the field, bringing up against the fence. There was no apparent damage to the machine, but the "aviator" declared it had been "strained" and he could not "fly any more today."

The crowd that paid got its money back at the gates, along with a lot of others who had climbed over the fence. The "aviator" packed up and got out of town and the promoter, out several hundred dollars, was left to hold the bag.

It developed later that the "aviator" had never flown; that his machine had never been in the air; that the motor was not strong enough to lift any sort of an aeroplane, and that the "aviator" had simply had it shipped out of Dallas c. o. d. in order to get the money from the promoter to pay for it.

And yet there are hundreds of these so-called "promoters" who will hire an "aviator," unheard of in all the history of aviation, and carrying about a trap that would not lift off the ground if tethered to a balloon, simply because the faker says he is a flyer and will "fly" cheap. Promoters may take this as a rule: Any man offering to take a contract to fly for $200.00 a day cannot deliver the goods. Two hundred dollars

AERONAUTICS Page 77 Septemb.

a day will not pay the expenses of a first class aviator, his mechanics, railroad transportation, hotel bills and numerous other necessary items.

The Aero Exhibition Co., in Chicago, started out with big advertisements, pictures of a special train full of pupils. Lawyers for creditors who obtained judgments find the promoters disappeared over night. This concern wanted "Aviators for Our Exhibition Teams. * * * * Our Special Train Leaves Chicago for our Training Camp on Jan. 1st. * - * * The Total Cost of Instruction, Including Railroad Fares, Pullman Berths, Board and Lodging in Training Camps, is $300." "Can you beat that," say we; that's what this company said in their advertisement. They also add: "You Can Readily See We Want Aviators, Not Your Money." Another start was made recently in Des Moines by one Eastman of this concern, but he left there suddenly, failing to meet some obligations.

One of Chicago's brand of flyers has just closed an exhibition contract and stated to the fair manager that he flew a "Curtiss military hydroaeroplane." It is pretty rough on Chicago, the city of perhaps the greatest aeronautic activity, that so many objectional concerns are located there.

Philadelphia is now having its insight into aviation. The Society of Aeronautic Engineers, the "school with a reputation behind it," is having troubles with the Post Office Inspectors, it is alleged in the Philadelphia daily press. It is said a fair number of pupils were obtained but some of these apparently had a change of heart for they now complain "they know no more about aviation than when they started and that Hutson (the manager and president) knows no more about it than they do." Various claims were alleged to have been made by Hutson, among them, that his concern was connected with Aero Club of Pennsylvania and that said individual was a licensed pilot. Through some clerical error, no doubt, his name is missing from the list of certified aviators.

Presuming that Raub & Longo at least cared enough for their own operations to keep faith with their bank, the propeller was shipped by express. Six days later the check came back to the payee. The check was deposited once more and the drawers were wired:

"For the sake of your self respect see your check is honored when again presented."

No attention was paid to this, the check came back protested with the bank's notation "not good," and on July 5th the following complimentary expression was placed on the wire:

"For the neatest daylight robbery, commend me to your goodselves. Your worthless check is returned second time. Stung, but glad to know it."

It is not a criminal offense for one to overdraw on a bank where one is accustomed to keep a balance. However, it is criminal to obtain money or goods under false pretenses.

Another type of swindling concern is the Wood Waste Distilleries Co., of Wheeling, W. Va., which at present is using the official organ of the Aero Club of America for its field of operation, after having exhausted the aeronautical journals. The procedure is to get advertising rates, sign a contract for twelve months for a small space and then forget the bills for the advertising. When the account gets three months old the magazine turns it over to a lawyer or collection agency with the following result:

"Claim returned, nc. good. Party now in jail for using mails to defraud."

A new aeronautical engine is a good thing to graft with. A concern wires from Chicago for space, just as an issue is going to press, of which, of course, Lie expectant advertiser is aware. The magazine, having seen the advertisement of the concern in other aero journals may conclude "it's all right," and insert the advertisement. It does not know at the time that a suit has been brought by one of the other magazines to force payment. One such house just failed in "putting one over." It was late to insert an advertisement and the chance was not taken. Another journal was wired for credit information and the concern was reported "n.g." The advertiser was written that his wire was received too late but that there was plenty of time for the next issue and for the furnishing of references. No further correspondence was indulged in with this magazine but doubtless the concern succeeded with some other.

This is a sample of a growing number of similar concerns in aeronautics who, not only want to sell gold bricks through the magazines but who want to gold-brick the mediums themselves. That's carrying it to a fine finish, is it not?

RAUB & LONGO BALLOON BI-PLANE CO. Conductors of Scientific Balloon Ascensions and Aeroplane Flights

The Gibson Propeeler Co.,

New York City, N. Y. Dear Sirs: —

We have your letter enclosed find Ck. for $29.75 for a Bi-Plane Propeller iy2 feet, we use a maximotor round hub plate and the engine turns to the left., Give us the best you have, Express at once as we need it bad. Hoping to soon hear from you, Yours very Truly., RAUB & LONGO, BALLOON BI-PLANE CO.

Page 78

September, 1912

An Analysis of Flight*

BY GEORGE A. SPRATT, Jr.

Believing that the work of George A. Spratt, one of the pioneers in aerodynamics, will benefit experimenters and be of general interest, there are being published simultaneously in "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly" beginning with this issue, a series of articles introducing his theories on the center of pressure.

Mr. Spratt has been a student of air pressures for many years. He was a close friend of Octave Chanute, and was at Kitty Hawk with Mr. Chanute and the Wright brothers.

Since those early days Mr. Spratt has continued his work in seclusion among the Pennsylvania hills. He has studied pressures almost continuously and when the full extent

THE surfaces are both of the same dimensions, 7" x 12". They may be made of paper with stiffening ribs of wood, or of sheet metal. One is to be curved along its longer dimension to the same curvature as th circumference of the board, the other is to be a plane. They are to be supported upon the wire posts with their surfaces vertical and their longer edges horizontal. Midway along the longer edges of each a flange, or tongue, is turned perpendicular to the surface. The flange, or tongue, on the lower edge should have a hole that loosely admits the post, bored close to the surface; the one along the upper edge should have a depression to engage the pointed end of the post.

Slip the plane upon the post on the rider, and the curved surface upon the post on the board. Connect the rider to the board by a narrow tape passing along the circumference, so that when the rider is drawn along the guideway, the tape unwinds from the circumference as it turns the board about its centre.

The conditions, now, are these: The plane is delicately poised upon its post and, when the rider is drawn along the guideway, moves straight through still air. The arched surface is similarly poised over the circumference of the board and, when the rider is drawn along the guideway, moves through still air in an arched path, the curvature of which is of the same radius as that of the surface. Each move the same distance with the same speed. Each have the same area, dimensions, and weight, and each have the same area in front of, and to the rear of, the posts. When each is given the same slight angle of incidence to its respective path and the rider is drawn along the guideway, each rotates to an equal degree about its post. (See diagram 1.) The pressure must, therefore, be of equal distribution and of equal amount. This test holds good for a rotation of nearly 90 degrees, but as the chord of the arched surface approaches coincidence with the radius of its path; that is, the radius of the board, the similarity of the conditions under which both surfaces act becomes lost.

of his work is known it Will be seen that his scientific investigations are of a high order.

That this knowledge may be disseminated as widely as possible, Mr. Spratt has made a special arrangement with "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly," whereby the articles are to be published by them simultaneously.

The following article was given in condensed form before the Aero Club of Pennsylvania at the Bellevue-Stratford, March 10, 19)2.

The matter published in March, 190S, AERONAUTICS will be included in the present articles but more condensed, more complete in its significance, and in better form.

a

A semicircular board a, carries arched surface b, upon post c. A rider d, upon guideway e, carries the plane f, upon post g. A tape h, passes around a and connects a with d. Th£ positions of b' and f' show an equal rotation of b and f about their posts when equally advanced as a result of drawing d along e.

Now exchange the surfaces, placing the arched surface upon the rider and the plane upon the board. Set the chord of the one parallel with the guideway, and the plane of the other tangent to the circumference or the board and repeat as before. In the previous test, it may be said that two like surfaces operate under like conditions, although one is a plane and one an arc. Tne results are alike. In this test, two like surfaces act under conditions that are dissimilar to an equal degree of dissimilarity. Here an arched surface engages a straight wind and a plane engages an arched wind with all the conditions equal in each. (See diagram 2.) The results, here, are dissimilar to an equal degree of dissimilarity; for, when drawn through the air, each surface rotates equally about its post, which again shows that the pressures are equal in amount and distribution, but now rotation is in opposite directions. (This phase of the experiment will be referred to later.)

The experiment shows that under like conditions like surfaces give like results and, therefore, if unlike results are obtained with like surfaces, the cause must be looked for in the conditions under which the results were obtained.

When the conditions under which the results are obtained in this experiment are considered, it shows, farther, that the dis-

*Begun in (he August number.

AERONAUTICS

     
     
 

Kg. 2.

 
     

The surfaces, here, are transposed. They rotate equally about their posts when d is drawn along e, but in opposite directions.

tribution of the pressure is effected to a great degree by the relation of the curvature existing between the surface and the current, and cannot be fixed for all currents by any fixed curvature of the surface.

There are three sets of conditions under which a relation of curvature may exist between a surface and a current, each of which will be considered in turn. 1st, a curved surface may move straight through still air, or be fixed against a straight current. 2nd, a plane surface may move in a circular path through still air, or be fixed against a rotating current. 3rd, a plane surface may rotate about an axis within itself while moving through still air, or while fixed against a straight current.

From the experiment just described it is also evident that it is pressure with which the problem has to deal, and that neither the air nor the body are of importance excepting as their state of being effects the pressure.

If the air is considered as moving against the body, the manner in which the surfaces of the body are presented is all important to the results obtained, for the surface is the means through which the energy of motion is transferred from the fluid mass of air to the rigid body. The manner of transference has long been recognized and formulated in the law: "Frictionless pressures are normal to the surface at the points of their application," and although the pressures considered here are not entirely frictionless, they will at present be considered so for the sake of analysis.

Every point of a surface, when immersed in a current, is in contact with matter that is in motion. Pressure, either greater or less in amount, and either positive or negative in direction, is communicated to every point upon the surface. For the present this pressure is to be considered frictionless, and therefore, normal to the surface at the point of its application.

In considering the first example, namely, a curved surface moving straight through still air or fixed against a straight current, the effects of the pressure will be compared with those obtained with a plane surface in a straight current, because of the more common familiarity with the latter. The circularly arched surface, however, is the simpler surface of the two in which to ac-

count for the results of pressure, and later the reasoning will be from the circularly arched surface to show a certain analogy of action with the plane, which cannot be arrived at by treating them independently, nor by reasoning from the plane to the arc, and which, when once seen, connects the various curves and the plane in a harmonious relation.

Before directly taking up the example, and as a review of the plane, let the following facts be brought to notice.

The pressure at each point in a plane surface is normal to the plane. Taken collectively at all points, they are parallel to each other in their direction, and therefore, their resultant is normal to the plane. The point at which the resultant intersects the surface is called the centre of pressure. A change in the angle of incidence causes a re-location of the point of intersection either forward or backward, which shows that the pressure is not equal at all points, and that its distribution is altered by a change in the angle of incidence. A force equal and contrary to the resultant, applied at any point along the resultant, will establish equilibrium. If such a force is applied at the surface, its point of application must vary forward or backward along the surface equally as the point of intersection of the resultant varies with the change in the angle of incidence, and if such a force is applied at any other point along the resultant, that is, at a point distant from the surface, an equal forward or backward variation is necessary, because for every angle of incidence, the resultant is normal to the plane.

This same line of reasoning, when applied to a circularly arched surface, leads to quite another conclusion. The pressure upon a circularly arched surface, in being normal to the surface at each point, is directed coincident with the radius at each point, and from all points, they are directed either positively or negatively through the common centre of the radii. Their resultant must, therefore, pass through this centre, although change in the angle of incidence may, to any degree alter the distribution of the pressure, or to any degree reverse the pressure. The change in the location of the point at which the resultant intersects the surface, that is, the so-called centre of pressure, is more pronounced than upon the plane, because a change in the angle of incidence causes a more pronounced re-distribution of the pressure, and consequently also a more pronounced change in the resultant pressure value. Since the point of intersection of the resultant varies with the change of the angle of incidence, and its passage through the common centre of the radii remains fixed, it is evident that a change in the angle of incidence causes also a change in the direction of the resultant. At some small angles of incidence the resultant of the pressure upon a shallow circularly arched surface fails to intersect

the surface, hut passes to the rearward of it. There is then no centre of pressure upon the surface, simply a couple exists. A force equal and contrary to the resultant applied at the common centre of the radii establishes equilibrium for all possible angles of incidence, for this is a point common to all possible resultants.

Experimental verification of the foregoing can be obtained with the following simple apparatus.

A gentle even breeze is of the first importance and, probably is the most difficult requisite to obtain, a shallow dish full of water, a circular disc of sheet cork about four inches in diameter, a piece of very thin sheet metal about two inches by five inches, a pin and a piece of fine thread, are all that is required.

Give the metal sheet a circularly arched curvature along its short dimension of a slightly less radius than that of the cork disc. Erect it upon the disc with its centre of curvature coincident with that of the disc. (It may be pressed into a circular shallow incision.) Now, when the disc is placed upon the water, the metal sheet represents an arched surface and stands erect from the cork float like a sail. The thread is to be attached to the float at any desired point.

The breeze should flow across the water steadily and gently engage the surface without pressing it noticeably out of the vertical. Its pressure is to be resisted by the thread, and while retaining the surface against the breeze, the thread represents a force acting in a straight line equal and contrary to the resultant of the pressure upon the surface, and therefore lies coincident with the resultant.

See figure 1.

Figure 1.

A, shallow dish of water; B, cork float: C, circularly arched surface; D, air current duct; E, retaining thread.

By repeated experiments, in each of which the thread is attached at a different point upon the float, the fact will be noticed that whatever the direction of the thread, if its line is projected, it passes nearly * through the centre of curvature of the surface, which is here coincident with the centre of the cork float. This verifies the statement that the resultant, at any angle of incidence, passes through this point.

If the float be pivoted about a fixed point at its centre, the surface will appear to be almost * insensible to the pressure at whatever angle of incidence it may be placed to receive the current, which again shows that the pressure centres at the common centre of the radii.

The circularly arched surface is the only surface possessing a centre of pressure in this fuller sense, and this centre is a fixed point and outside of the surface.

In this lies the solution of the inherent stability possessed by Nature's flying creatures who have arched wings, and which is being sought for for improvement in aeroplanes. Its application and service will be considered further under the treatment of "Equilibrium.''

Since the pressures coincide with the radii and centre at their common centre, it follows that, as the curvature of the surface is flattened, the centre of pressure, like the common centre of the radii, recedes with the increased length of the radii, and for the plane is infinity.

The pressure upon a surface having a parabolic curvature, in being normal to the surface and coincident with the radii, like the radii, are directed through a restricted area, but to no common centre. There is no one point that a force which is equal and contrary to the resultant can be applied to establish equilibrium for all angles of incidence, however, if such a force is applied at a certain distance from the concave side, it will need to be moved forward or backward a less distance when a change occurs in the angle of incidence, than if applied upon the surface.

The parabolic surface may be considered to be a succession of circularly arched surfaces of increasing radius lengths, or as a circularly arched surface connected with a following plane. A decrease in the angle of incidence from an already small angle of incidence causes the point of intersection of the resultant and the surface to move backward upon a circularly arched surface, but forward upon a plane. When the two surfaces are combined as in the parabolic surface, this opposite tendency reduces the actual distance of the change of the location of the point of intersection, and it may be a less distance upon either a plane or a circular arc of equal dimensions.

The second example of relative curvature, namely, "A plane surface may be moved in a circular path through still air, or be fixed against a rotating current," brings into notice a very interesting reversal of pressure. This reversal has been suggested by the opposite rotation of the surfaces shown in the diagram illustrating this example of relative curvatures, where the plane was carried in a curved path, and the arched surface in a straight path, with all conditions equal in each. As a result each revealed an equal amount of pressure, and an equal distribution of pressure, but a rotation about their central axes in opposite directions.

There is here a complete reversal in the

*The precision of this experiment has been limited by the words "nearly" and "almost," because the head resistance, the skin friction and mechanical imperfections, are disturbing factors; their effect, however, lessens with the amount of care taken in avoiding them.

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Special erades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids lJ4 diameter and under any length.

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TENT—3-pole medium duck tent, in first class condition, 40x80, original cost $350, for sale at $175 f.o.b., New York. Used for hydroaeroplane. Will house the biggest machine. Schill, c/o Aeronautics.—Sept.

CURTISS—Genuine 4 cyl. Curtiss biplane, present design, 4 cyl. Curtiss motors, has been flying. Perfect condition. $700 cash. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.

BLUE PRINTS: Military type 6S-in. model monoplane. Three sheets in detail, 2S x 39 in., $1.00. Corporal Thos. O'Brien, Co. M, 3d Battalion Engineers, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas.— Sept.

FOR SALE—New El bridge four. Bosch and G & A equipped. Perfect running order. $550 guaranteed. A. M. Williams, 1051 Eighth St., Douglas, Ariz.,—Sept.

"WANTED—Capital to rebuild a large monoplane (1400 sq. ft. supporting surface) non-cap-sizable. Patent applied for. Machine badly damaged, two days before completion when building enclosing machine was destroyed by wind storm. Arrange to call and investigate. Geo. H. Ellithorpe, Port Clinton, Ohio.—Sept.

CURTISS aeroplane for sale without engine, $135. X. Y. Z., 95 West St., Maiden, Mass.

FOR SALE—Wolverine aero engine, little used. Performs good. 25 to 30 h.p. Cost $265. Sacrifice. L. B. Post, 1020 McBride, Syracuse, N. Y.

ENGINE—8 cyl. "V", list price $1500, new, never used. Thoroughly tested by maker who desires to sell last one in his shop. Complete with propeller, $1200. Easton, c/o AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE—Tractor biplane equipped with 8 cylinder go h. p. motor. Complete exhibition outfit. Owner going to Europe. Price $1800. Address Tractor, c/o AERONAUTICS.

LOST, STRAYED OR STOLEN—Interest and activity in AERONAUTICS. Finder will please communicate with the International Aeroplane Club, Dayton, O.

POSITION WANTED—Curtiss pilot-aviator, 6 months' exhibition experience. Can deliver the goods everywhere, dirigible balloon or aeroplane. Eugene Godet, c/o AERONAUTICS.— Sept.

WANTED—Licensed .monoplane aviator, preferably one who has operated the Nieuport wheel and skid alighting gear type. Call c/o AERONAUTICS.—T. F.

FOR SALE OR TRADE—My 60 h.p., 7 passenger, late model, Thomas Flyer touring car— will trade for a good aeroplane. Address, S. C. Allen, 1—6 Chase Block, Saginaw, Mich.— Sept.

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Hawaii ought to be a good field for aeroplane and engine makers. G. Schaefer, a hotel man of Honolulu, has had 'a Curtiss type built and flown with a Maximotor. It is said others are becoming interested there. There ought to be a promising outlook there for flying machines. The crop of experimenters in America has become afflicted with the San Jose scale, dry rot or something like that, and aero club members are afraid to fly, apparently. Aviation in 1912 has struck a "hole in the air."

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general direction of the pressure. When the current is parallel to the chord of the arched surface, the general direction of the pressure is from the centre of curvature of the surface toward the surface, and when the plane is tangential to the rotating current, and with the centre of the plane normal to the radius of rotation, the general direction of the pressure is from the plane toward the centre of rotation of the current. (This will be illustrated in the experiment to be described under "Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces.") In the experiment referred to, the centre of pressure upon the plane, that is, the point of intersection with the resultant, is against the following half, normal to it, and in general direction is toward the centre of the board, and not, as might be thought from a first glance, against the leading half and away from the centre of the board.

B

c

IT

This reversal may, perhaps, be more clearly shown by the diagram figure 2.

In Fig. 2, A shows an arched surface in a straight current; B, a plane in a rotating current, the centre of which is above the surface; C, a plane in a rotating current, the centre of which is below the surface. In each, W shows the direction of the current; S, the surface; P, the direction of the resultant pressure and the half of the surface upon which it is found.

Whenever there is a change in the relation of curvature between a surface and a current there is a change in the amount of the pressure, and a change in the distribution of the pressure. The fact remains, however, that the surface establishes the direction of the pressure.

When a circularly arched surface is suddenly subjected to a rotating wind of a short radius, the resultant of the pressure, although it may be suddenly changed in its direction and in its amount, still passes through the centre of the radii. Under such conditions the resultant of the pressure upon a plane will be as suddenly changed in its

amount and in the location of its point of intersection with the surface, but in remaining normal to the plane, will act along a line that at no point crosses its former line of action.

The third set of conditions in which there is a relative curvature, namely, "A plane surface may rotate about an axis within itself while moving through still air, or while fixed against a current," is well illustrated in the path taken by a block of wood, about four inches by one inch by three-eighths inches, when thrown swiftly forward with a backward rotation. The block will soar with a whirring sound. The rotation, combined with the advance of the block, establishes a relative curvature that is more effective for the advancing lower surface than it is for the relatively retreating upper surface.

This test is easily accomplished by placing the thumb and finger along the edges of the block holding it horizontal and perpendicular to the course it is to pursue, throwing it overhand, and allowing the lower edge to slip off the thumb first, the rotation is then imparted to it as its upper edge leaves the fingers.

Analysis of Patents

(Continued from page ~o) constructive reduction to practice is the date when your application is filed in the Patent Office. You may have made a practical machine before then, but in case of an interference with an applicant who filed before you did, the burden of proof will rest on you to prove diligence and that you have not slept on your rights by giving your time and attention to other matters. The inventor showing the most diligence in perfecting his invention and who first reduces it to practice is entitled to prevail, but there are extenuating circumstances in many cases. As a rule, it is wise to apply for a patent as soon as possible, but first you should be sure of complete operativeness to perform the required functions because a patent describing an inoperative structure or reciting claims for combinations of elements that fail to cooperate as set forth, will be invalid. It is therefore wiser to perfect an invention by a genuine and practical reduction to practice before making application for patent.

It requires great experience and study to prepare good patent papers and successfully prosecute applications through the Patent Office, therefore to insure your obtaining a good and valid patent that will stand the analysis and dissection to which it may be subjected in Court, it is of paramount importance that you entrust your invention to a reliable and successful patent solicitor who will properly look after your interests.

The Burgess Cup Defender

FTER a number of unsuccessful attempts on the part of the local clubs to persuade American manufacturers to independently design and enter machines for the Gordon-Bennett race, a "Cup Defender's Syndicate" was formed in Chicago among the members of the Illinois Aero Club which raised money sufficient to produce a racer.

A canvas of motor manufacturers quickly resulted in the selection 'of the iGnome motor and the final purchase of one of the three 160 HP, 14-cylinder Gnomes which have been manufactured by that company was made.

It was not so easy to decide upon the designer and builder of the racer, but W. Starling Burgess, president and chief designer of the Burgess Company and Curtis was finally selected and early in June preliminary drawings were made up. In all the designing work Mr. Burgess was constantly assisted by Greely S. Curtis and when the motor arrived from France on August 3, the aeroplane was ready for the installation of the power plant.

It will be noticed that the racer is a monoplane with enclosed fuselage and a wing spread of 130 square feet. It weighs, including motor, net 775 pounds. The running gear was especially strong and adapted to the rougher fields of American tracts. The plane measures, fore and aft, about 22 feet and the spread of wing is 29 feet.

Very careful tests were made of all parts which went into the manufacture of the plane. The factory tests were corroborated by tests at the Boston Institute of Technology. The factor of safety in the air of five was figured on all wires and metal parts. As a final check as to its strength,

the day before shipment two men were placed in the cock pit and two on the skids. The machine was then raised on horses from the wings at the points of the wire supports without any apparent give or strain.

The Wright-type wheel trucks on which the plane is mounted in the pictures shown were installed for practice flights. These will be replaced by a single pair of covered wheels.

As specified by the syndicate the Wright control is employed. Not everything has been sacrificed to speed.—The-design is not so radical as the Paulhan-Tatin, nor so cutaway as the latest Deperdussin. The Burgess Company has constructed a strong, practical landing gear, and retained sufficient surface for manoeuver'ing; nevertheless the machine will be dangerous except in the hands of a skillful and accustomed pilot.

AMERICAN FABRIC VARNISH

Aeroplane cloth, muslin or other, can now be treated by the builder himself if he seeks to save buying expensive standard fabric. Heretofore it has been necessary to purchase varnish from abroad. The C. E. Conover Co., 101 Franklin St., New York, has produced a varnish which is applied with a brush and dries in twenty minutes. Three coats are required to give a good finish. The film, it is stated, will not support combustion, is waterproof and on drying tightens up permanently the fabric, despite weather conditions. The tensile strength of the cloth is increased by twenty per cent. Coloring matter may be mixed in it to suit the user. It is being used by Mr. Gallandet and a sample board is on exhibition in "AERONAUTICS' "office.

AD AMS-FAR W EL L

REVOLVING MOTORS

have been in

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET,

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A-

U VIIUII vBU|LD YQUR °WN

lo foot: some full size Prinis 28"x36" <KM 1111 ONLY COMPLETE PRINTS

^°'UU EVER SOLO

AERONAUTICS. 250 West 54»h S'.. New York

How would you like to win a Race?

BUY A

French—American Balloon They always Win. Records Prove It

Kansas City National, 1912—6 competitors,

1st for distance and endurance. Kansas City National, 1911—1st, 2nd & 3rd money.

Kansas City International, 1911—"K.C. II." non-contestant — whipped the entire field, World's best Balloons.

Chicago International Contest, 1908—9 competitors, 1st for distance and endurance.

Indianapolis National, 1909—1st & 3rd money

St. Louis Centennial, 1909—1 st, 2d & 4th money

Peoria Contest, 1909—1st & 2nd money.

Indianapolis National, 1910—2nd money.

Insist on Records before buying anywhere.

We arrange Contests, Qualify Pilots, etc.

French-American Balloon Co.

4460 Chouteau Ave. St. Lonis, Mo.

rLE. Honeywell, Mjr.

AERONAUTICAL RADIATORS

Built in capacities and types for standard and special aviation motors

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your specifications for special designs

EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY

Broadway and 57th St., New York City Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types

THE AERO WHEEL CO.

Builds all Kinds of Wheels for Aeroplanes and Monoplanes Standard or Special Sizes at Very Low Prices 782 Eighth Avenue New York

J. C. (Bud) MARS, now booking season 1912.

Have never been connected with the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. and School of Aviation.

17 North La Salle Street, Chicago, Ills.

15

66

GRAY EAGLE MOTORS

Have less working parts and are accurately machined and fit up from the best material obtainable, and doubly strong throughout. Bosch Magneto Plugs, Cables and Schebler Carburetors, standard equipment.

Flying representatives wanted in all states and countries. Special proposition. Who wants to fly and represent us ? Write today.

Model E-6 50 H. P. Model D-4 35 H. P.

KEMP MACHINE WORKS

Muncie, Ind.

< BENOIST «e

Plarj°* were rnal irg geed while others were making claims

Cross Country Model, 3 passenger, 75 H.P. Land or Water Equipped

Benoist Aircraft Co. 662fTDLfcr sBivd

C. & A. Wittemann

Aeronautical Engineers

Manufacturers of

Biplanes Monoplanes

Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P.

Your Oitortunity—One single covered Biplane for immediate delivery. Slightly used, with 8 cyl. 60 H. P. Hall-Scott Power Plant.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road Established 1906 STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY Tel. 717 Tompkinsville

The Burgess Racer

A DEMOUNTABLE RIB

A demountable rib, wbich may be taken out of a surface or put in without harming the covering or taking it off, has been invented and patented by W. C. Durgan, of 115 Brown St., Syracuse, N. Y., who has an enviable reputation for fine wood-workmanship. Nothing but a screw-driver is needed to replace a rib. The tacks in the cloth are removed for a short distance so

the assistance of Charles Day. It is equipped with two seats and also a dual control system for operating. The seats are in tandem immediately in back of the motor. The power plant is composed of a 60 H. P. Hall-Scott motor driving a large tractor direct.

Although Mrs. Smith has had but little practice in operating her husband's plane she relieved him at intervals during the

that the fabric can be loosened up- Over the rib. The rib is made in two halves longitudinally, of course laminated, and of a "T" cross section. Small bolts with screw heads go vertically through the entire rib to hold the two halves together. Nuts in square slots in the vertical member of the rib act as lock nuts to keep the bolts from loosening.

SMITH TRACTOR

Flying a tractor biplane of his own construction and with his wife as a passenger, Floyd Smith of San Diego, Cal. flew from Santa Ana to Griffith Aviation Park on the morning of July 20, 1912.

Leaving his starting point at 5.21 a. m. he arose to an altitude of nearly 1000 feet. On account of an inland fog he was compelled to fly low in order to keep his course. Upon arriving at the outskirts of the city of Los Angeles he elevated to 1500 feet, flying over

the business section as well as the County Court House. His destination was reached at 6:28 a. m. making the total time, 1 hour 7 minutes and thej-mileage, 45. 7 gallons of gasoline and1 legation of oil were consumed during the flight. The plane used by Smith was built with

flight and after landing expressed a strong desire for more.

After spending a few weeks at Griffith Aviation Park experimenting in gearing down a larger tractor, the couple will make a short tour of the Middle West, entering the exhibition field.

CURTISS STUDENT CONTROL

This picture shows the device of Glenn H. Curtiss; Two complete steering wheels instead of one and is being used at his training school at San Diego, Cal. The pupil

is taken up with the inscructor aud allowed to steer the machine without the possibility of losing control, the aviator-instructor always having a steering wheel in his hand to counteract any false move on the part of the pupil.

CABLE CLAMP

A cable clamp for fastening wire cables is catalogued by the New York Aeronautical Supply Company. If the connection is a permanent one, the cables can be clamped tight by the screws and then a wiped solder joint may be made of the whole.

BLERIOT MONOPLANES

ARE THE BEST KNOWN AEROPLANES IN THE WORLD

A Few of Our Bleriot Monoplanes are Flown by—geo. b. mcnamara. horton, mass. j. albert brackett, boston, mass. e. j. marley, sumner, miss. willie haiipt, philadelphia. pa. a. c. merges, memphis, tenn. chas. w. spencer, philadelphia, pa.

our monoplanes fly 3 models single Seateri, racing monoplanes, passenger machines "learn to FLY" "enroll now" "we will teach you how." for prices and particulars

american aeroplane supply house^ 137-43 jackson str;et, hempstead, n. y., phone 427 hempstead

Felix Bischoff Steel Works

duisburg, germany.

the vital part of a motor is the

our high grade crankshafts are made from our special chrome-nickel auto-steel ZHr this steel has an elastic limit of 135-150,000 lbs. per sq. in., and enables you therefore to economize in weight and space. put this in your motor and you need never fear a broken crankshaft.

we are the MAKERS of the steel, and our aim is to produce the BEST.

we furnish crankshafts drop-forged or finished complete to the most prominent manufacturers in europe. our die cost is very low. we can quote f.o.b. your city, free of duty. send blue prints and all enquiries to our representative

♦ H. A. ELLIOTT, (majestic blog.) DETROIT, MICH.

aeronautics

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(FOUNDED 1907) yearly subscription one dollar, post free

Note:

a specimen copy will be mailed free on receipt of 10 cent*.

-head office:-

3 London Wall Buildings, London, England amarican office: 250 west 54th street, new york

Detroit™ power plant

complete $300 ready to run

incl.propeller-carburetor-bosh magneto. oil pump-cable-switch-mounting bolts,

: -s GUARANTIED to

210 lbs. min.stat10nary thrust 158 lbs max.weight(complete), 36 hours delivery

LIFT AND FLY CURTIS BY PLANES BLERIOT IT MONOPLANES DEMOISELLE MONOPLANES OR CRAFTS OF SIMILAR MAKE

DETROIT/tROPLANE CO.

wire

We make an'extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

. trenton, n. j.

- thomas aeroplanes

Are Safe and Reliable

having been developed by Actual Performance

SCHOOL OF AVIATION

write for full particulars

THOMAS BROTHERS

SHANNON BLDG. BATH, N. Y.

seventy per cent, of record-breaking american flights with american aeroplanes were made

with propellers bearing this name

CHARAYAY

we will tell-you why if you ask us SLOANE AEROPLANE CO. ; 1733 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY

AgenU: Eamea Tricycle Co., San Francisco "ancMos Angeled; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago ; W. E. Boughton, Waihington, D. c.

T a time when everything in aeronautics is virtually new it seems inappropriate to refer to any particular machine as out of the ordinary, but the stereotyping influence of the popularity of one - or two leading make's ' ha-s already had a marked tendency in fixing ideas in aeroplane construction so thaijt is, after all, a matter of necessity to say of the newest Etrich monoplane, that it is a nfacbine of uncobamon design and exceptional fnterest.

The Etrich Limousine

By FRITZ EDELSTEIN

In the first place the body of the Etrich air limousine forms a very neat, fish shaped unit, whose frame is built up with wooden channel-section side members, which are covered with thin sheets of aluminum and fabric. This point in contruction is worthy of immediate reference as it serves to emphasize the completeness of the whole structure. The wing construction, and the other details, ie. control mechanism, power plant, etc., are the same as it was in the case of the predescribed "pigeon."

The most important feature is the body which contains, inside, four seats, for the driver and three passengers. These seats are arranged by twos, side by side. The right front seat is the place for the driver. The frame of the body consists of 12 wooden rings, which are held in position by long eliptical longitudinal members, which preserve the fish shape of the body. The spaces between the front rings are covered with wire gauze and celluloid in order to realize windows and to protect the occupants from weather and wind, and to get a good view of the ground. The 60 H.P. four cylinder Austro-Daimler engine is situated at the head of the body in order to acquire a strong cooling draught for the engine. This motor has the Bosch 2-spark magneto.

The new machine whose principal dimensions are the same as of the pigeon type has been successfully flown with three passengers at Josefstadt. Remarkable is a new patented speed-change-device which allows various speeds. The landing carriage carries three wheels, one of these wheels is mounted -under the forward part of the fuselage, in order to absorb the first great landing shocks and to prevent a turn over when the machine is landing on uneven ground.

The Etrich "Swallow"

By FRITZ EDELSTEIN

SHORT time after the first great successful record flights of the Austrian Etrich monoplanes of the "pigeon"-type, a new monoplane was completed in the Etrich aeroplane factory at Oberaltstadt, near Traut-enau. The "swallow,"— this is the designation of the new machine,—differs in various points from the well known "pigeons" but her natural stability is so great that wing warping is not employed. The shape of the wings and of the horizontal tail plane is altered in order to realize exact swallow wings, but the proved "Zanonia" principle has been preserved in the negative angle of incidence of the wing tips. The wings and the balance of the "swallow" monoplane are the results of many experiments. The wings are characterized by a marked change of angle from shoulder to tip. Near the body they have very steep camber and an attitude represented by a positive angle of incidence of about 5°. At the extremities they are flat and their tips are upturned in such a way, that the attitude hereabouts presents a distinct negative angle.

Constructionally, the "swallow" is as interesting as it is in design, for almost the entire machine is built of steel tubes, with exception of the wooden wing ribs and wooden fuselage and body rings, which are covered with fabric. The machine is built for military use as a three-seater. The two passenger seats are arranged in tandem fashion and rearwards is the seat for the driver. At the right and left hand from the seats are arranged on each side in the sup-

porting surface, three little windows which are covered with celluloid. In the forward portion of the body is the 60 h. p. four cylinder Bosch equipped, Austro-Daimler engine, situated, which drives directly an "Intergrale" propeller of 6' 9" diam. at 1300 r. p. m. Behind the engine is a great honeycomb type radiator.

The controlling device consists of a vertical steering column, which actuates the elevator plane by warping and the rudder by rotation of the hand wheel; warping mechanism for the wing tips not being employed. The lateral stability is obtained automatically by the flexion of the wings. The landing

chassis is also quite simple in its design. It consists of two wheels, carrying a thin steel axle with a central curved ash skid. The skid is suspended to this, steel axle, supported on the two wire wheels by elastic springs. The tail also rests upon a curved ash skid. The body itself is mounted on an A-type carriage, of which the principal members are constructed of steel tubes and ash; its diagonals are also made of steel tubes.

Weighing 500 lbs., the machine has been designed for a speed of 70 miles per; hour

and to carry its triple human load for a non-stop flight of three hours.

In the matter of speed the intentions of the designer have been more than realized, for in practical tests, that have recently taken place, this 70 miles has been handsomely exceeded.

The monoplane "swallow" undoubtedly represents a considerable advance on the admittedly sound work of the Etrich establishment, and if sheer merit goes for anything these days, it should pave the way for an exceedingly prosperous business year.

Somerville Auto-Stable Biplane

HAT the inventor calls an automatically stable machine has been built by William E. Somerville, formerly mayor of Coal City, 111. Several previous machines have been built, more than a year ago, embodying his idea of upturned wings, and his experiments were described and illustrated in AERONAUTICS at the time.

Recently a tractor machine has been built along the same line and a manufacturing company is being organized. In writing of his machine he says: "The stability of the machine in the air was something of a revolution to my aeronautical friends who\saw tht test. The N aviator, Edward Konh, explained after he landed that he was astonished at the hying qualities of the machine. The machine, on being banked, would insist on always coming back to a level keel. There is no question but that inherent stability is possible without sacrificing efficiency."

The wings spread total 47 ft. There are five 7-foot sections, .the curved wing-ends making up the balance. The spacing between planes is 5-1/6".

The control system is of the Farman type. A Hall-Scott 80 h.p. and another 50 h.p. engine designed by Somerville himself are

being used. The ailerons offer a resistance on the high side as well as opening the surface; nothing is done to the low side in correcting lateral balance. Both the systems A and B have been tested. The B system is more efficient but slower in righting effect. "With properly designed plane in combination with upturned wing tips, ailerons are not necessary as the machine will automatically maintain lateral stability," says the inventor, "but we found that some mechanical system must be used when getting up, or landing especially, in a side wind, as the upturned wings act too slow. After j the machine is in the air it will take care of itself laterally, with an occasional touch from the rudder on the high side.

AEROPLANE SURFACES

Invisible coverings for aeroplanes. Why not use electroplated nickel and beat out all the coverings in use today in every quality. Hydroaeroplanes operating on salt water need a non-corrosive, non-rotting covering v\hich dampness will not stretcn.

Edison's prediction that nickel would substituted paper in the manufacturing of books suggests such a coating. Nickel when once applied would be permanent as regards weathering the elements. Breakages alone would necessitate removals. A 'plane whose framework is built of steel tubing and

(Continued on page 92)

. Li'

Somerville Biplane

ALBATROSS ENGINES

Made in two sizes

50 H. P. 6-cyl. Air-cooled, £gf£

PRICE, $650.00 Complete

100 H.P. 6-cyl. Water-cooled, jftffi

PRICE, $850.00 Complete

Catalog Free Agents Wanted

ALBATROSS COMPANY

detroit, mich.

AERO WIRE WHEELS

Save Money, Buy From Manufacturer ALL SIZES IN STOCK —Any Size or Type Hub

20nx2in Wheels........§4.00, with Tire........$6.00

20"x3n " ........ 4.75. " " ........ 8.25

Farman Type Gears, Complete - $42.50 Stock Hubs, 6" wide, | or |n knock-out axle or bushed to fit 1" Tubular Axle. l£n and Un furnished special. Hydro-Floats and 34" Wheels for same.

Don't fail to write for complete list of wheel* Terms: Cash or Deposit. Balance C. o. D.

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., Manufacturer

examination allowed. dept. a., 132 wot 50th street, new york

' 'THE ELECTRICAL MAGAZINE FOR EVERYBODY"

for (he notice, the amateur, the experimenter and the student. rphe brightest and most interesting "plain English" A eleetrieal monthly magazine published, nearly five years old. 112 to 144 pages monthly. new department on aeronautics.

the authority on wireless rphe magazine to read if you want to keep up-to-A date on wireless and progress in electricity and aeronautics. With one year's subscription to Modern Electrics for a limited time only we are making the following:— three offers

i bleriot model monoplane *■ guaranteed t» fly. frea. o marble'a pocket screwdriver and Prest-o-Iite Key. Three sizes of blades locked in nickel plated handle which closes up like a knife. Closed 3^2 in. Open 5)4 in. Just out and it's a dandy. free. o doable magnetic ** reveraible engine with speed contact lever 1000 to 2500 revolutions per minute. free. send $1.50 to-day in cash, stamps or M. O. and get modern electric* for one year and jour ehoice of the above offers prepaid abiolouly free. Money refunded immediately if not pleased in every way. modern electrics, 298 fulton st.. new york

15c.perCopy (ActSgy °f) S1.50 perYeir

WE GIVE EVERY

BOY OR /-v\jr» GIRL UJNH,

ABSOLUTELY

FREE

for a little time and less effort than you think.

you unconsciously advertise us while playing, driving or touring in the cyclemodile.

the cyclemobile is a newly perfected machine not on the market for sale on account of our large exclusive contract with the inventors. it ts built like a real motor car with two speeds, forward and reverse, besides a neutral coaster speed. the body and hood are pressed steel and second growth ash, supported on a chassis frame of rolled steel angle iron, capable of carrying the weight of five full grown men. the axles are also of steel and wheels rubber tired. the front wheels pivot on regulation motor car steering knuckles, eliminating all danger of upsetting on curves. we simply can not give you one hundredth part of the real specifications in this limited space, but send in the coupon and we will tell it all.

M9T9RCAR

MOTOR CAR PUB. CO..

KANSAS CITY. MO. Dear Sirs: auts

Kindly mail me full details and Specifications of your CYCLEMOBILE offering, and oblige,

Sincerely yours.

Name......................

Address ...................

Farman Running Gesre Complete, as above - $47.50 AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Everything to build any type flying machine.

New Catalogue with working drawings of Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot-type machines in course of construction and will be mailed free upon request to all parties as soon as received from the printer. Write for quotations.

A FEW IMMEDIATE DELIVERY PRICES

Curtiss Steering Wheels - §9.00 FREE with

° v~ s50.00

every $50.00

order for Aeronautical Supplies FLEECE-LINED AVIATOR CAP.

Curtiss Seats - 5.50

5-Gallon Tanks - - 6.15 Aviator Caps - - - 1.25 Outrigger Fittings - - .29 Oval Post Sockets - - .17 Aluminum pulleys with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 2i» 30c, 3" 40c. Wheels and Tires complete, Eclipse Hub:

20x2±" $6.75 20x3" $9.50 E. J. WILLIS COMPANY, New York City 85 cbambera street (telepbone 3624 worth) 67 reade street

WELLES & ADAMS MOTORS

One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually made good.

50 H. P. 4 CYCLE

LET US SEND YOU OUR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING FRED EELLS' GREAT FLIGHTS OVER THE

Weight 200 lbs.

Valves in Head

Cylinders Cast Separate

Every Moving

Part Oiled Automatically

CITY OF ROCHESTER IN BIPLANE EQUIPPED WITH THIS MOTOR. If you wish to do something better than "Grass-Cutting"

Consult

WELLES & ADAMS

Bath, N. Y.

*******

1 Alumina Aeroplane Fabric Ligh,asa

'Beautiful as Day."

Feather."

Finest Imported Linen,1 ; thoroughly Waterproofed, and,; then coated with Aluminum. ; Heat and moisture proof. Strong- ; est and Most Durable Aero- ; plane Cloth on the Market.

OUR PRICES WILL SURPRISE YOU.

i

} Send for samples and price '. j list and be convinced.

I AERIAL NAVIGATION ; J COMPANY 2! AMERICA :

J Girard, Kansas.

4 ¥^¥*¥¥******¥**amh^¥¥********

ELBRIDGE ENGINES

So simple anyone can operate them

So strong nobody breaks them

So cheap anyone can buy them

Made in a dozen sizes, to suit all types of machines.

The most generally successful engine known to aviation, for both amateur and professional work. Catalog or folder on request.

Elbridge Engine Company

10 Culver Rd. Rochester, N. Y.

The Thomas Tractor Biplane

i\HE Thomas Brothers, of Bath, N. Y., have recently successfully tried out a tractor biplane, which will be marketed as Model 10 ATH. This machine is equipped with a 50 h.p. Kirkham six cylinder motor . and is designed for either land or water work. The running gear consists of two skids, attached to the lower engine section by a strong, steel, tubular construction. Each skid carries a pair of wheels, mounted on a hollow steel axle, from which the aeroplane is suspended by means of rubber spri^rs. The wheels are built up with hubs for a plain axle and steel rims which are equipped with double tube detachable tires.

The planes are a standard set of Model 10 planes, which have proved to be very efficient and have shown high speed and glide at a very efficient angle.

The control system has been adopted with a view of establishing a universal control.

Every moving vehicle on the market at the present time is operated by a system of controls which has been universally adopted by manufacturers in this country and abroad. As examples, take the cycle, the motorcycle, the automobile, the locomotive, and all vessels. While the controlling levers, or the steering wheels, as the case may be, vary in detail in each of these different forms of locomotion, still they are the same in each type of vehicle.

The speed shown by this model is 50-55 miles an hour, and it is surprisingly stable in high winds.

The dimensions are as follows: Spread, 3V/Z ft.; chord, 5y2 ft.; camber of planes, 3

in.; length over-all, 25 ft. Net weight, 735 lbs.

The skids are suitably reinforced, so that uniform strength is kept throughout their length. The design of these skids permits the whole weight of the aeroplane to be carried on the upturned tips of these skids, with the machine standing in a vertical position.

Two radiators are used, as in all the other models, and are mounted integral with the fuselage. The fuselage is built in two halves, which facilitates shipping in exhibition work. The front half of the fuselage can be detached from the main planes by removing eight nuts, and it is packed in one crate for shipping purposes. The front half of the fuselage carries all the controls. The motor controls consist of hand and foot throttle, magneto control and short circuit switch. The controlling surfaces are operated by a universally mounted steering column, carrying a laminated wood wheel in a fork at its upper end. The rudders are operated by turning this wheel in a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. The ailerons are operated by movement of this column to the right or to the left. The elevator is controlled by moving the whole column backwards or forwards.

When the machine is used for water work, the land running gear can be replaced by a pontoon and braces, in about ten minutes.

The rear half of the fuselage carries the control wire leaders and control wires, which are provided with snaps, which disconnect a short distance behind the joint which the rear half of the fuselage makes with the front half. The rear elevator and rudders are the same combination of controls used on all standard Thomas machines. The foot operated brakes used on the previous models have been discarded and a

metal shoe attached to the front and rear ends of the skids, which allows either end to be used as a brake, according to circumstances.

Landings have been made with this machine in plowed fields, hay fields, grain fields, and in corn fields, without in any way injuring or straining the landing gear.

These models are built so stoutly throughout that it is almost impossible to have a smash even with a very poor landing.

.Messrs. Thomas Brothers report that they have had machines of this model turn completely over on to the top plane without

in any way injuring the aviator or breaking a single portion of the machine.

Thomas aeroplanes have been very highly commended for their design and sound construction and are well considered among the best of American aeroplanes.

Aviator Walter E. Johnson, of the Thomas team, who has been flying one of the Model 10' AX hydroaeroplanes, has covered over 550 miles since July 8th in flights over the water without experiencing any trouble with pontoon or machine. Since January, 1910, one of the standard Model 10A Thomas aeroplanes has covered over 1500 miles in passenger and exhibition flights.

The Sopwith Tractor

$^S^}S^S^S^)RACTORS are all the rage now. Burgess, Benoist, Thomas, Martin, and scores of others have built tractors and abroad they have long been common. They possess many of the attractive and desirable features of the monoplane, with the added strength and capabilities of the biplane. Another tractor with Wright wings, along the lines of the recent Burgess army machine, but bigger, has been built by T. O. M. Sopwith, who took a Burgess-Wright back with him to England. The control of the new machine is similar to that put on the Burgess-Wright last year—a lever for elevator and warping, and foot yoke for rudder.

The dimensions are as follows: Spread, 44 ft.; chord, 6 ft.; camber, 3^ ins.; gap, 6 ft. 4 ins.; length over-all, 26 ft. 4 ins; supporting surface, 520 sq. ft.; elevator, 40 sq.

ft.; rudder, 12 sq. ft; weight, about 950 lbs.; motor, 70 h.p. Gnome, driving a 9' 6" Chau-viere.

The planes, as stated, are built roughly on the Wright model; the stanchions are of picked silver spruce, iy4 in. by 2% in. The leading edge of the planes is fastened to the ribs by aluminum strips. The ribs, also of silver spruce, are spaced 11 ins. to 1 ft. apart.

The main plane spars measure 1% in. by 2y4 in. for the back spar, and 1% iQ- bv V/2 in. for the front spar. The body is 24 ft. long; in front it is particularly broad and deep, and, of course, covered in; but behind the planes the skeleton is left bare. It is fitted fairly high up between the planes, and the space between the body and the lower plane is covered in with fabric. The body spars are of iy& in. ash, tapering to 7/g in. At the nose it measures 3 ft. in width by 2 ft. in depth, tapering to 1 ft. 6 in. at the tail.

The chassis—silver spruce throughout— is of the new modified Wright type, but is likely to undergo a change before the next public appearance of the machine.

The pilot's seat is in the rear; the two passengers' seats are arranged in front, side by side.

nickel surfaces (Continued from pope 89)

stamped aluminum ribs, along the Curtiss lines, in panels could very easily have the nickel supporting surface applied. A panel approximately five feet by five feet would not need a very large plating tank. Paraf-fine paper applied with a carbon graphite coating perforated at ribs and beams would give the plating its shape. The perforation would allow nickel to fasten to the framework.

By properly placing the anodes in plating tank nickel could be deposited thicker near ribs and beams where strength is needed most.

BLERIOT

Monoplanes

CNO CONNECTION WITH ANY FIRM OR INDIVIDUAL IN THE U.S.A. NO BLERIOT MONOPLANES ARE GENUINE UNLESS MADE IN OUR FACTORIES.

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In 1909:

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In 1910: The First Circuit de l'Est

In 1911:

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C. Get a demonstration flight first. Then ask those who have flown Shneider machines:

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We know of a number of good fliers who haven't quite enough of the "ntcessary" in pocket to get a good engine. And there are others in that position. This is their opportunity. A first class, reliable engine is all they need to "make good."

One new man cleared $10,000 with (ZvwMttfo MAKFDC Maximotored Curtiss at Spokane, his MAXJMOTOR in 3 months. ^KV^Sfc U^Kb One of many hundreds of Max,-Why can't you? DEPT. 8 DETROIT motored flights the world over.

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The official Patent Office report, just published for 1911, gives a total of 360 aeronautical patents issued during that year. These are divided according to the odd classification employed, as follows:—balloons, 10; flying machines, 122; airships, 79; aeroplanes, 149. As is well known, aeroplanes may be found under "airships," etc.—a ridiculous method!

SCOTT WINS MICHELIN $5,000.

R. E. Scott, a former U. S. Army lieutenant has won the Michelin $5,000 prize for bomb dropping, which competition closed the 16th of August. He has been able to make 50(/o hits with his device, of which a full description was given sometime ago in AERONAUTICS. In his last trials abroad he put S out of 15 in ;i target from a height of 3.000 feet. During all the trials a French Wright wa« used, of huge spread, with Renault 70 h.p. engine, driven by Gau-bert.

The English papers curiously enough have not discovered that the prize has been won— but one mentions the fact and does not give either Scott's name or his nationality. However, one remembers one or two Olympic games.

The French Club has not "officially confirmed" the award so it may yet be possible to find that the winner wore his cap backward or fractured some other technicality of the rules; if he were a German a lynching would more likely be the proper thing.

$24,000 PRIZES AT CHICAGO MEET

After the international race at Clearing, Ills., near Chicago, on September 9, the Chicago club has arranged for a meet from September 12 to 21, divided between Cicero field and Grant Park on the Lake front, where last year's meet was held. The Grant Park events are for hydroaeroplanes.

The total of prizes amounts to $24,000, divided as follows:

DURATION

For aeroplanes, 10 days....................$9,000

For hydroaeroplanes, 5 days............... 1,000

SPEED

Biplane Handicap, 1 day................... 575

Biplane Passenger Handicap, 1 day...... 575

Monoplane Handicap, 1 day.............. 575

Monoplane Passenger Handicap, 1 day____ 575

Biplanes Scratch, 1 day.................... 575

Monoplanes Scratch, 1 day................ 575

All types Handicap, 1 day................. 1,150

OTHER CONTESTS

Landing Motor Off, from 1000 Ft., 2 days.. 600

Flag Landing from 1000 Feet, 1 day...... 300

Mail Delivery in a Net, 2 days............ 600

Quickest Getaway, 1 day.................. 300

Bomb Dropping at Target, 2 days........ 600

Undivided Lake Front Prize .............. 1,000

Figures Eight for Hydros, 5 days ........ 1,500

Handicap Crib Race for Hydros, 5 days . . 2,000

Steeplechase for Hydros, 5 days.......... 1,750

Special Prizes ............................ 1,750

Total.......................... 124,000

The duration money is in general, divided daily on certain days pro rata for total number of minutes in the air during official flying hours. The hydroaeroplane pilots obtain their money pro rata on basis of number of events completed.

For the handicapping events, an entrant must first enter a trial to determine the relative speed of his machine with a certain standard set by the contest committee. In the actual contests, competitors will start in succession, according to the amount of the time handicap, and these contests will be run off in heats. These will be over a course of 20 kilometers, except the "All Types," which is over 40 kills.

In the "Flag Landing" contest, the observers approximate the altitude and signal thJ aviator to stop his motor; the nearest to a marlS wins.

The hydroaeroplane events will be held about "pylons" established in Lake Michigan between! the shore and the "4-Mile Crib."

In the "Steeplechase," the hydros will have] to jump the hurdles, touching the water be-l tween each.

The special prizes cover the longest 2-man flight during the meet, the longest 3-man flight,! and 4-man flight; the greatest number of pas-l sengers, all at least 125 lbs. weight.

GORDON BENNETT 'PLANE RACE

The actual entrants in the G-B race may notl be completely known until 24 hours before thel race, as, according to the rules, the names ofl the pilots need not be announced before. Fol-i lowing are the entries of the countries, withl names of pilots so far as known:—

France—3 machines.

Jules Vedrines (Deperdussin) Maurice Prevost (Deperdussin)

Andre Frey (Hanriot)

Belgium—3 machines.

England—2 machines. Probably white andl

another. Holland—1 machine. Switzerland—1 machine. America—3 machines.

But one American machine will likely appear,i the Burgess monoplane. It is expected that Del Lloyd Thompson will be the pilot. Thompson isl a recently "breveted" pilot and thus far has notl even been in the Burgess machine. It is a feat] for the expert to fiy a pure racing model, let I alone more or less of a novice. It would be thel sheerest luck should America succeed in retain- I ing the trophy. It is not unlikely that at least 1 one of the French machines will break all speed records up to 200 kilometers in this race. J

Edson F. Gallaudet sometime ago had the' misfortune to smash his wonderfully fast "Bullet" and there has not been time to rebuild it. No other constructor has offered a machine under the Aero Club's proposition to pay $10,000 for each lOO-.mile-an-hour machine produced in America.

Vedrines in his trials has made 106.4 miles an hour over the same distance of 200 kilometers.

The site for the G-B aviation race has been selected at Clearing, Ills. Thirty circuits of a 6.666 kilometer (4.142 miles) course will make up the required 200 kilometers. A strip 400 feet wide around the pylons has been prepared, it is claimed by the A. C. of Illinois, on which 'planes can alight anywhere.

The course is generally in th'e form of an ellipse, all the angles, 6 in number, being of 120 degrees. There will be no admission charged for the event.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

For the 12 months ending June 30, 17 foreign machines were imported into the U. S. A. at a valuation of $59,713. Of these, 11 were sent back again, valued at $35,S31. Domestic exports totaled 2 in June, $3,100; and 29 for the entire 12 months, $105,S05. Three foreign machines remained in the warehouse or in bond on June 30, valued at $11,423. It will be noticed that domestic exports far exceeded imports of foreign aeroplanes. Patents are applied for in the U. S. A. and foreign countries.

8

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Well-known Moisant School Graduates licensed by The Aero Club of America.

Most of our Licensed Pilots Employed bp us.

Miss Mathilde Movant Mr. Harold Kantner Mr. F. E. DeMurias Capt. G. W. MacKay Mr. Francisco Alvarez

Mr. S. S. Jerwan Mr. M. F. Bates Mr. J. Hector Worden Miss Harriet Qiiimby Mr. Jesse Seligman

Mr. Clarence de Giers MOISANT MONOPLANES USED

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[ Monoplane Flyers ! Are in Demand

% /TNHERE are more competent biplane flyers than there are positions

X 1^fc

4. flying monoplanes. In exhibitions the monoplane commands from 70 to

there are positions. This is the time to earn the big money in j monoplanes. In exhibitions the monoplane commanc X 100 per cent, more compensation than the biplane. In the

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

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X monoplane flying is taught on a genuine famous Deperdussin Machine.

£ The course is an exact duplicate of the course as it is taught by the

+ Deperdussins at Rheims, France.

j The tuition *OAA for the full

* fee is tDuUU course

+ If the pupil completes the course without breakage 10 per cent, of

X the tuition fee is refunded. A guarantee of $250 for breakage is required, X which also is returned at the completion of the course. The pupil is + made competent to comply with the most rigid license test and the X course is not considered completed until the pupil obtains his certificate.

No bond of any kind is required when the pupil flies for the license.

Of the seven pupils who entered the school during the first month one was certified as proficient after three weeks of the course. He finished without any breakage whatsoever. + Visit the school. It is located on the famous Long Island flying

X field near New York.

* -

I Deperdussin Monoplanes sci^ sflaS

4> in the world. Hold 90 per cent, of the world's records.

I Caudron Monoplanes a£edsyafe md

% A1172) Til lVlnf ftl*Q hold the unique record of giving tremendous J rkUitOMU ITIUIUI O speed, reliability, efficiency and safety. No + fatal accident during the year has occurred with an Anzani Motor.

I WIRE 'PHONE WRITE

Sloane Aeroplane Co.

'Phone 5421 Columbus

1733 Broadway, N. Y. City

G-B BALLOON ELIMINATION.

Captain H. E. Honeywell, in the varnished cotton balloon "Uncle Sam" made by his own factory, the French-American Balloon Co., with Roy F. Donaldson as aide beat their nearest competitor by 264 miles in the elimination race to select the American G-B team. They landed at Manassas, Va„ after being in the air some 35 hours. The first three have been named to comprise this team.

Following is the Jirst publication of the official standing of the contestants.

"Uncle Sam," (S0,000) Capt. H. E. Honeywell and Roy F. Donaldson, to Manassas, Va., 914 miles, dur. 35 hrs.; 50 m.

"Kansas City II," (78,000), John Watts & Geo. E. Quisenberry, to Willis, Mich., 650 miles; dur. 23 h. 32 m.

"Drifter," (65,000), Albert Holz & Charles Trautman, to Calhoun, Wis., 449 miles; dur. 17 h. 43 m.

"Million Pop. Club II." (7S.000) Paul Mc-Cullough & John Hart, to

Spring Green, Wis., 377 miles; dur. 15 h. 16 m.

"Million Pop. Club I," (S0000), John Berry & Albert Von Hoffman, to Wadden Grove, Ills., 347 miles; dur. 10 h. 30 m.

"Goodyear," (7S000). G. L. Bumbaugh & Ralph H. Upson, to Polo, Ills.. 342 miles; dur. 10 h. 47 m.

"Cole," (S0000), Dr. L. E. Custer & Andrew Farrell, to McGregor, la., 330 miles; dur. 9 h. 51 m.

The Uncle Sam landed not far from the old Bull Run battle field. Its occupants estimated they had covered an actual distance of about twelve hundred miles.

The balloonists landed here for fear they would continue on into the Atlantic Ocean.

Neither Captain Honeywell nor his aide had a wink of sleep during the thirty-five hours they were in the balloon. They had food to last many days and they left with the farmer, who was first to greet them on their descent, what remained of their provisions.

"Did you ever hear of using ice cream for ballast?" asked the captain. "Well, that is what we used; for we had several gallons when we left Kansas City and what was left next morning we threw overboard.

"We had plenty of good things to eat en route. As a stove to heat soup, we put lime between two buckets and then slacked the lime. While passing over Chicago at noon Sunday we had our midday meal, canteloupes, soup, boiled eggs, cold tongue, coffee and grape juice."

AERO SOCIETY LECTURE SERIES

The Entertainment Committee of the Aeronautical Society has mapped out the following program for the next three months:

September 12th—Technical Lecture, second in series of hydroaeroplane course: Capt. W. Irving Chambers, U. S. N., in charge of Navy Aeronautical Bureau, lecturer.

September 26th—Address and Reception. B.

F. Yoakum, chairman of the Santa Fe Railroad lines, or William McAdoo, the tunnel builder, will be the distinguished guests.

October 10—Technical Lecture, third and last in the hydroaeroplane course. Prof. A. A. Merrill, lecturer on aeronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or Lieut. T.

G. Ellyson, U. S. Navy Aviator, will be the lecturer.

October 24—A general entertainment will be arranged for this evening.

Further features wil be announced when the Committee has formulated its plans.

DYOTT IMPORTS CAUDRON:

The first Caudron monoplane, one of France's miniature machines, to be seen in America is being brought over by George M. Dyott, the Deperdussin flyer. His connection with the Sloane school has been served and it is probable he will start out for himself with the Caudron and a couple of Dep. copies he has made. The former will have one of the new-three cylinder "Y" Anzani motors which gives

a speed of 65 m. p. h. As pilot of the Sloane school he graduated two pupils and started several others along. Among these is L. W. Bonney, a former Wright flyer, who now is instructor for John E. Sloane.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS.

'.Vig. 26. A. Leo Stevens and Mrs. James Young, fle"w from Brighton Beach over Long Island to Northport, in a miniature hydrogen balloon of 8,500 cubic feet.

Aug. 21.—Five ascended in a balloon at Venice, Calif.

Fittsfield, Aug. 2.—J. J. Van Valkenburgh and William C. Hill to Mt. Adams, Rowe, Mass. Alt. 9840 feet.

St. Paul, Ind., Aug. 10.—D. L. Dennis made his eighth ascension during his home coming.

Kansas City, July 27.—H. W. Jacob piloted the "Kansas City III" with Dr. Milo E. Hart-man and Miss Violet Davis 22 miles to Smith-ville, Mo., after the two latter were married in the balloon.

Omaha, Neb., May S.—Lts. F. H. Bohen,

D. L. Roscoe, C. A. Rrafo, Karl Drushill, with Wm. F. Assmann as pilot in a government balloon. Hydrogen ascent.

DEATHS.

Brooklands, Eng., Aug. 3.—Charles L. Campbell (Bristol biplane); "stalled" his machine; "error of judgment."

Salisbury Plain, Eng. Aug. 13.—R. C. Fen-wick in a "Mersey" monoplane of his own construction, which, since his death, is alleged to have been faulty in construction.

Munich, Bavaria, July 27.—Fischer and his mechanic Kugler.

Bourg-en-Bresse, France, July 15.—Olivieres.

Lamar, Colo., Aug. 22.—George Thompson, of Denver, killed when machine struck tree.

Doeberitz, Germany, Aug. 6.—Sergeant Lach-manti died from effect of fall on July 23.

INCORPORATIONS.

Benoist Aircraft Co., St. Louis, Mo., $50,000; Tom W. Benoist, J. C. Henning and A. Cassidy.

Aeronautical Aerodrome of Manhattan, New York; $10,000; L. S. Burridge, Louis R. Adams,

E. D. Anderson.

Empire Aerial Navigation Co., New York; $100,000. John C. McGreevy, Hornell, N. Y.; Wm. C. Clark, 90 Hamilton Place, and John A. Neville, 1 Greenwich Ave.. N. Y. City.

Atwood Park Aviation Co., Boston; $100,000. Albert C. Day, Henry P. Mason and Owen Goldsmith.

Blondin Safety Aeroplane Co., Los Angeles, Calif. Organized by Joseph A. Blondin, a veteran balloon man, formerly of Albuquerque, N. M.

Shreveport Aeroplane Co., Shreveport, La., $10,000; C. A. Rerian, J. B. Herold and P. A. Phelps.

Prowse Aeroplane Co., Hopkinsville, Ky.; $25,000; C. O. Prowse, Lee Ellis, G. E. Kolb, R. E. Cooper,. George Boddie, L. E. Fowler, and others.

Peekskill Hydroaeroplane Co., Peekskill, N. \ .; $12,000; Amos Purdv, Julius Brown, Alexander Brule, E. Y. Loomis, Albert Von Wittering.

ON MISS QUIMBY'S DEATH

In further support of Earle L. Ovington's fiindings in the wreck of Miss Quimoy's Bleriot, statements in affidavit form are made by two other witnesses who were with Mr. Ovington when he made his examination, agreeing that one of the control wires leading to the rudder was caught over the lower end of the lever which warps the wings and "that this wire was unhooked bv Mr. Hardy." the mechanic, in their presence. Miss Quimby's death has been ascribed bv T. B. Brooke, of Chicago, to the effect of gyroscopic action. None of the observers whose opinions were printed in AERONAUTICS ooincided with that view, and all were experienced flyers and were on the ground and ought to know.

Glenn H. Curtiss has gone to Europe—says there is a great field there for hydroaeroplanes.

WHAT HAPPENED TO VANIMAN.

The makers of the bag of the Vaniman airship, the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., whose president, Mr. Seiberling, was the generous financial backer of Vaniman's experiments, have made an exhaustive inquiry into the causes of the fatal accident.

No definite cause can be determined. Out of all theories the most plausible is that the suspension ropes broke when the dirigible was 2500 feet high. The detailed report of the Goodyear Company says:

"This theory has not to our knowledge been advanced before, but it would explain all the observed tacts and has strong evidence to recommend it. The size rope used for supporting the car gave a nominal safety factor of about three, and they had been tightened up much beyond their proper allowance. We have it from two of the mechanics that these ropes had been breaking frequently when simply standing in the shed. If two or more happened to break at once, the others would speedily follow suit, thus throwing all the strain on the bottom fabric, tearing it open and ripping the whole bag from the car."

Other theories seem not so plausible. (1) No evidence of an explosion from tanks or engines: gas over 80% pure; no signs of fire on part of the bag. (2) No evidence of rupture of bag from inherent weakness or rot; fabric had a safety factor of S, built to stand pressure of 8 inches of water when but I inch was specified; all seams triple reinforced and no seams strained as near as could be found. (3) Propellers slow speed and their breakage im>-probable.

The wreckage was raised and every possible examination and test was made. The company Is enthusiastic on the dirigible subject and looks for development here equal, at least, to that abroad.

NEW PILOTS.

144 Victor Carlstrom, Los Angeles, Calif., December 31, 1011.

145 Oliver G. Simmons, Wickatunk, N. J., April 1 and 5-18-12.

146 William H. Hemstrought, Hammonds-port, N. Y., July 13, 1912.

147 Henry L. Hattemer, Marblehead Bay, Mass., July 13, 1912.

14S Katherine Stinson, Chicago, III., July 19, 1912.

149 W. Irving Twombly, Hempstead, L. I., July 23, 1912.

150 John P. Gray, Marblehead Bay, Mass., July 7, 1912.

151 Lieut, Wm. C. Sherman, U. S. A., College Park, Md., July 20, 1912.

152 Lieut. Harry Graham, U. S. A., College Park, Md., July 20, 1912.

153 Capt. Frederick B. Hennessv, U. S. A., College Park, Md., July 23, 1912.

154 Corporal Vernon S. Burge, U. S. A., Ft. McKinley, P. I., June 14, 1912.

155 Lt. Moss L. Love. U. S. A., Ft. McKinley, P. I., June 27, 1912.

156 Chauncy M. Vought, Cicero Flying Field, Chicago, August 6, 1912.

157 William Bbuldin, 3rd, Garden City, L. I., N. Y., August 9, 1912.

Chicago, Aug. 30. 1912. Some of us who are members of the Illinois Aero Club appreciated your recent reference to a certain millionaiie who is wasting his money on freaks.

It. M. P.

Hurrah for your editorial on supported freaks! It is a shame that this is the case here in Chicago almost exclusively.

A. E. S., member A. C. I.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press, 250 West 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic. New York •Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres't — — ERNEST t, JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

subscription rates United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

advertising representative: e. f. inoraham adv. co.. 116 nassau st.. new york

No. 61 SEPTEMBER—1 912 Vol. 11, Nfl.3

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postottlce

New York, under the Act of March 3,1879. ^T AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^ All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: :: ^T Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: ::

AERONAUTICS is always glad to have articles reproduced, in whole or in part, provided credit is given. Among most newspapers and periodicals there exists a sense of propriety and honor. Where one paper originally prints articles of enough value to be republished with credit by competitors, the original publisher may feel flattered. The publisher who takes articles and prints them word for word is a thief. The Peoria Journal in one day printed two articles from AERONAUTICS verbatim. Not a line of credit can be discovered. This paper admits it was not "intended" that any copyright rights be violated and published the stolen items without being "aware" they "did" violate any rights.

Chicago, July 17, 1912. My Dear Colleague:

Permit me to congratulate you on the wonderful issue of Aeronautics dated Ju; On page 4, under the heading of "Aviator Factories and Their Methods," you have laid before your readers some very valuable information and gave them the truth in nude form. Tills is what the magazines pertaining to aeronautics should have published long ago, and thanks to you for the interest you have taken in the game in coming forward with it at the present time.

It has taken several months of hard work to clean out of Chicago some of the Fly-by-Night and Wild Cat Aviation Concerns, although there are one or two srill in existence. It will be but a short time when we will have them entirely eliminated.

Under the head of honest advertising, there is something every reader, firm or corporation, aviator or otherwise, should co-operate with you in trying to eliminate the frauds who advertise and swindle the poor interested enthusiast cut of the small sum he may have to contribute.

H. B. W.

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Patents Gone to Issue

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened clays, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we. have used the word "Hying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits. Editor.

1,020,754, John R. Hendrickson, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, June 18, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,030.312, Henry Laprise, Holyoke, Mass., June 25, 1912. SAFETY device comprising parachute and floats.

1.030,363, Floyd E. Whitlatch, Windsor. Ills.. June 25, 1912. Automatic STABILITY by-pendulum actuation.

1,030,518, Joseph R. Machado, Vallejo, Cal., June 25, 1912. Combined AEROPLANE— HELICOPTER.

1,030,542, John T. Rydberg, Garwood, X. J., June 25, 1912. WARPING mechanism.

1.030.704, Louis P. Bancroft, Hartford. Conn., June 25, 1912. AILERON stability device.

*1,030,772, David Richard Davis, Eau Claire, Wise, June 25, 1912. Means of construction to allow extreme flexibility of surfaces for AUTOMATIC WARPING.

1,030,803, Svdnev Borman, Attelboro, Mass., June 25, 1912. STABILITY device.

1,030,826. Anton Mayer, Chicago, Ills., June 25, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1.030,942, John C. Telfer, Spokane, Wash., July 2. 1912. Tandem multi-surfaced HYDROAEROPLANE.

*1,030,968, Emile Bourdelles, Paris, France, July 2, 1912. Automatic STABILITY through change in the angle of incidence of either wing instantly and automatically as struck by wind gust; wings vertically oscillatable about axis in direction of flight.

1,030,994, Pasquale Giordano, Boston, Mass., Julv 2, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,031,148, Attilio Ranza, Rome, Italy, July 2, 1912. Automatically—Deformable BALLOON.

1,031.230, John Weslev Batdorf, San Jose, Cal., July 2, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,031,452, Georg Korf, Hamburg, Germany, July 2, 1912. WING; formed of feather-like sections.

1,031,401, James P. Olsen, Jr.. Salt Lake City, Utah, July 2, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,031,569, Henrv Miller, Washington, Penn., July 2, 1912. AILERON system, in which ailerons are capable of being reefed or changed as to area.

1,031,597, Joel N. Thompson, New Madrid, Mo.. July 2, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,031,623, Maurice Ferdinand de Redon de Colombier, Paris, France, July 2, 1912. FLAPPING WING model.

1.031.705, William Friese-Greene. Brighton, England, July 9, 1912. Gyroscopically equilibrated DIRIGIBLE.

1,031,797, John M. Janesone, Richmond Hill, N. Y., July 9, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

I,031,S07, Ernest Molnar, Cleveland, Ohio, July 9, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,031,840, Albert I. Crenshaw, Chicago, Ills.. July 9, 1912. AEROPLANE with fan-shaped main surface.

1,031.904, Bernard Montgomery Beskow. New York, N. Y., July !>, 1912. STABILITY device in which ailerons are automatically operated .by air pressures.

p 1inii''IS°T(^>Ylph R' Essig' Canton, Ohio, July

1,032,050, Harry Houlette Elliott, Lawrence, Kans., July 'J, 1912. PROPELLER.

1,032,093, William Edward Joseph Vavasour, London, England, July 9, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1.032,162, Niles C. Sorensen, Chicago, Ills., July 9, 1912. PROPELLER.

1,032,233, Francis Nyilas. New York. N. Y., July 9. 1912. STABILITY device which a pendulous weight hangs below the C. of P.

1,032,394, Bradley A. Fiske. The United States Navy, July 16, 1912. Method of and Apparatus for Delivering Submarine Torpedoes from aircraft.

1,032,587. Spencer M. Brown, Portland, Ore., July 16, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,032,651, Frederick Brackett, Washington, D. C, July 16, 1912. Apparatus for TESTING Flying Machines.

1,032,699, Charles J. Payne, Philadelphia, Pa., July 16. 1912. Means for universally mounting PROPELLERS each driven by self contained gas turbines.

1,032.729, Jesse W, Baker, Pittsburg, Pa., July 16, 1912. PROPELLER BLADE weighted at ends and with concavity at ends at an angle to plane of rotation.

1,032,744. Lemuel S. Cunningham, Clinton, Wash., July 16, 1912. ORNITHOPTER.

1,032,812, John Oasap, New York, N. Y., July 16, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

*1,032,852, Gottlieb U. MuIIer, Philadelphia, Pa., July, 16, 1912. STABILIZING apparatus using magnets and means for oscillating to energize simultaneously one fixed and one movable magnet, etc.

1,032,868, George E. Thompson, Pittsburg, Pa., July 16, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1.032.966, Michael Todisco, Brooklyn, N. Y., July 16, 1912. PARACHUTE safety attachment.

1.032.967, Leon Trixler. New Orleans, La., Julv 16, 1912. HELICOPTER-AEROPLANE.

1,032,976, Jens Wulff, Erwin, S. d., July 16, 1912. AILERON system.

1,033,148, William A. Bond, Lynn, Mass., July 23, 1912. LAUNCHING DEVICE for Flying Machines.

1,033.155, Bessie W. Compton, Raywood, Tex., Julv 23, 1912. PARACHUTE.

1,033,180, August Merckens, New York, N. Y., July 23, 1912. AIRSHIP.

1,033.234, Charles Ehlers, West Hoboken, N. J., Julv 23, 1912. AIRSHIP.

1,033,2S7, Gustav Staib, Port Richmond, N. Y., Julv 23, 1912. AEROPLANE.

1,033,399, George Hevlman, North San Diego, Cal., July 23, 1912. AERIAL TOY.

1,033,452, Pehr A. Nilson, Philadelphia. Pa., Julv 23, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1,033,460, George T. Peay, Jr., Provo, Utah, Julv 23, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1,033,510, Robert Ross Zell. Birmingham, Ala., Julv 23, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

1.033,646. John W. Wilson. Boston, Mass., July 23. 1912. In an AEROPLANE, means for flexing one or more tail elevators about an axis oblique to the perpendicular, independently or simultaneously; means for tilting main supporting planes about axes oblique to perpendicular and also about axes approximately parallel to longitudinal axis of machine.

1,033,710, John J. Lauer, Alturas, Cal., July 23, 1912. GYROSCOPIC device for changing angle of incidence or tilting planes around axis parallel to longitudinal axis of machine.

1,033,827, Thomas F. Pearson. B'illerica, Mass., Julv 30, 1912. HELICOPTER.

1,034,042. Isaac Henrv Storey. Ambleside, England, July 30, l!H2. SUPPORTING Surface of Annular shape.

Wright Hydroaeroplane School now open at Glen Head, L. I.

yers

1912 Models

In addition to those features which in the pa*t have made Wright Hyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the iifW models can be furnislvd with Automatic Control, Silent Motors, and Hydroplanes. These speci il features make the 1912 machine unusually attraclive to sportsmen.

Exhibition Machines

For exhibition work we have other models especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "EX" Model I hat Rodgers made his wonderful flight fmm Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.

Wright Schools of Aviation

in which the pupil her. No risk and The most famous )f our school and

Training consists of actual flying, is accompanied by a competent tai no expense whatever from breakag flyers in America are graduates include such names as—

Lieut. Arnold

Atwood

Brookins

Brindley

Bonney

Beatty

Burgess

Cof'yn

Capt. Chandler

Drew Elton

Lieut. Foulois

Fowler

Gill

Lieut. Lnhm Lieut. Milling Mitchell C. P. Rodgers

Lieut. Rodgers

Parmalee

Page

Reynolds

Simmons

Turpin

Welsh

Webster

And a score of others

Our Schools at Dayton and New York are now open anil pupils may begin training at once if they wish. By enrolling now you can reserve date most convenient to you for training.

Write for Particular*

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

DEPT. a DAYTON, OHIO

AVIATION IN THE MANOEUVERS

During the extensive Regular Army and National Guard Manoeuvers in Connecticut and New York State. August 13-17, the Signal Corps' Burgess and the Glenn Curtiss, two in all, were used in practical ways for the gaining of information. There was a second Curtiss, flown by Beckwith Havens, a member of the X. G. Havens is a recent recruit and has had no military training, so that he was unable to furnish much information. The Corps' Curtiss was flown by Lieut. Milling twice on the one davit was used, flying 43 and 53 minutes respectively. Engine trouble was experienced. Milling and Lieut. Geiger tried a passenger flight but gave it hurriedly up.

The new Burgess tractor had been accepted by the Signal Corps and Lieutenants Arnold and Kirtland attempted to fly it from Marblehead to the general headquarters of the manoeuvers at Stratford, Conn., a distance of around 114 .miles via water route. Thirty miles were covered, landing at 1 luxbury. Starting from here again on Aug. 13 a mishap occurred seven miles further, at Plymouth, and the machine was damaged and shipped back to the factory.

On August 12. 13 and 14 Foulois and his Burgess was attached to the empire's staff at general headquarters. On the first day he was given a triangle to reconnoiter, around New Haven, Derby and Stratford. He was up 1 hr. 7 min., and attained an altitude of 3S0'J feet. A great mass of information was obtained as to the location and disposition of the up-posing forces, the Reds and Blues.

On the 13th he was up 1 hr. 32 min., recon-noitering the territory included in the triangle of Sti afford, Zoar Bridge and Sandy Hook lailroad station. Milling, in the Curtiss, was up 43 minutes and covered Stratford, Derby and Long Hill. Again Milling ascended and covered in 53 minutes approximately the same territory as Foulois. On the 14th the territory was Stratford, Derby and Redding Ridge. On this day Foulois had engine trouble and was forced into landing near Derby in one of New England's miniature fields. A broken skid was quickly repaired and the flight made back to Stratford. On the two following days the weather was bad.

Beginning the 17th, Foulois was assigned to the Blue army, which was on the move and reports had to be made to the commander along the roads. This was a busy day. He left camp 6:29 a. m. and Hew over into New York State landing at Brentin 7:20. Left 10 minutes later, reporting to Commanding General of the Blues a mile east of Bethel at ■i:55. Scouted arcund the Newtown ridge as far as Cold Spring from ^:35 to 9:15 a. m. At 10:30 made reconnaissance over both forces, landing 11:10; sent report to Commanding General by messenger who was on the spot when he landed. He found the Red army on his previous trip and was ordered up again, ps there was a heavy "fight" on for the holding of the Newtown ridge. He found the Blue forces heavilv involved and coming back took the only landing place that could be discovered, a tiny bit of a stony field.

Heie the officer waiting got the information ivst before the Reds ca.me up and captured the machine at 12:10. From here Foulois flew back to the camp at Stratford, arriving 12:35. The t< tal time in flight this day was 2 hrs. 50 min.

During all the flying, the minimum altitude allowed was 2000 feet. A recording barograph was a necessity. Over all this territory

there is scarcely to be found an acre of ground which is not built upon, heavily wooded, rough farms <-r swamps. The Danbury, Naugatuck, Saugatuck and Housa tonic "rivers" are streams with high and rocky banks, running at times through deep ravines where a buzzard would find it hard to save hitting his wings. This whole country is hilly, rough pnd rugged, as far as furnishing aerodromes is concerned. On one occasion Foulois corkscrewed his way through a hole in the trees to a doll size field and to keep from annoying the Forestry Service, "pancaked." and then stuck his tees (skid tips) in the ground to stop further progress.

And Congress won't grant any monev for aerrnautics, and bus killed the bill to increase the pay of officer-aviators.

September, 1912

BALDWIN

Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any Strength or Color.

"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

Silk Dirigible, Complete, with Tent, Will Sell at Low Price

f

Coming Events!

Cast your shadow towards the

King of Attractions

HARRY BINGHAM BROWN, English Pilot

Elevating

FREDERICK RODMAN LAW J

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In his WRIGHT AEROPLANE to | a height of 4,500 feet, disposing of his J human freight at a dizzy height, who | descends by the aid of a PARACHUTE.

Every click of the watch a "THRILLER," something worth going miles to see.

No other act like it in the WORLD.

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MANAGERS, Booking, will do well to address

A. LEO STEVENS

Box 181, Madison Square, New York

AERONAUTICS

1200V480a

This means a saving of from

50% to 75%

NOW AT

We GUARANTEE each ?

J machine to fly at least 1,000 ft. {

* in height and at least 10 Miles of * 4- cross-country flying before delivery. *

J We GUARANTEE our {

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* ished machine to be superior to * all competitors. J

J To owners of REX MONOPLANES t

* we will replace wings, wheels, *

* chassis or any other parts broken J J during the entire life of the machine J

J at COST PRICE I

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1200^toH800^ I

} Rex Monoplane Co. I

} SOUTH BEACH, S. I., N. Y. J

Phillips W. Page Flying in Burgess-Wright Machine Equipped with 40-H. P. Sturtevant Motor

The Latest and Best principles of gasoline motor construction, carefully tested and proved by the foremost builders of engines in this country and abroad, are found in the

uneven Aeronautical Motor

A four cylinder 40 horsepower STURTEVANT motor was used by Mr. Page in a Burgess biplane flown by him during the Boston Aviation meet. Although used in every event during the entire meet, absolutely no adjustments or repairs were made on the motor, which operated perfectly, carrying the plane to altitudes of over 5,000 feet. Such absolute reliability is due to sound engineering principles in design and superior workmanship in construction.

Ask for Catalog No. 200 Q B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

HYDE PARK. BOSTON MASS. And Principal Cilies of lhe World.

P

KIT

Complete Aviation Power Plants

Backed by the Hall-Scott guarantee of excellence, reliability, flexibility and power, to a greater degree than can be found in any other motors (with equal number of cylinders and size in bore and stroke).

50

75

Total Entries Los Angeles

International Oakland Meet

HALL-SCOTT EQUIPPED

Hall-Scotts purchased, used, and endorsed by the greater number of professional aviators

Send for new catalogue (now ready)

Address: Capt. THOS. S. BALDWIN P. O. Box 78, Madison Square, New York

or write direct to

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.

818 CROCKER BUILDING SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.


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