Aeronautics

Volume 11 - No. 2 - 1912 August

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



Vol. XI, No. 2 AUGUST, 1912

Serial No. 60

roberts motor g>

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KIRKHAM AVIATION MOTORS 1912 MODELS

Model B-6, 50 H.P., Weight. 235 lbs.

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY

Model B-4, - 35 H. P., - Weight, 185 lbs.

Model B-6, - 50 H.P., - Weight, 235 lbs.

Model B-G-6, - 70 H.P., - Weight, 255 lbs.

Model B-12, - 120 H.P. - Weight, 400 lbs.

KIRKHAM Motors are used and endorsed by Thomas Bros.; Rex Monoplane Co.; Burgess Company and Curtis; Mills Aviators; Prowse Aeroplane Co.; Sparling-Craig Co.; Twin City Aviators; American Aeroplane Mfg. Co.; Tarnopol Aviation Co., besides several individual owners, and are acknowledged to be the Best American Motor, regardless of price.

When you buy that new motor it is for your interest to investigate thoroughly before you buy any motor. There is a reason why the KIRKHAM has become so popular with those who know and buy on merit only.

- INVESTIGATE--

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM savon^_newjtork

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

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An Analysis of Flight

By GEORGE A. SPRATT, Jr.

Believing that the work of George A Spratt, one of the poineers in aerodynamics, will benefit experimenters and be of general interest, there are being published simultaneously in "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly," beginning with this issue, a series of articles introducing his theories on the center of pressure.

Mr. Spratt lias been a student of air pressures for many years. He was a close friend of Octave Chanute, and was at Kitty Hawk with Mr. Chanute and the Wright brothers.

Since those early days Mr. Spratt has continued his work in seclusion among the Pennsylvania hills. He has studied pressures almost continuously and when the full extent

of his work is known it will be seen that his scientific investigations are of a high order.

That this knowledge may be disseminated as widely as possible, Mr. Spratt has made a special arrangement with "AERONAUTICS" and "Fly," whereby the articles are to be published by them simultaneously.

The following article was given in condensed form before the Aero Club of Pennsylvania at the Bellevue-Stratford, March 10, 1912.

The matter published in March, 190S, AERONAUTICS will be included in the present articles but more condensed, more complete in its significance, and in better form.

Through ages Nature has been building— building, tearing down, rebuilding. Nature is the expression of a purpose steadily flowing into a mould whose limiting sand is uselessness. Nothing exists without a merited right to an existence, be it matter, life or spirit. Man's ability to destroy is his power for analysis. He can observe, and can see only what is; he can conceive of nothing that is not. In analyzing he uncovers ELEMENTS which are the accepted building ma-

terials of Nature. He can imitate and, having the elements, can imitate to his own purpose. Nothing that is conceivable to him is impossible to him. His imagination sets the limit to his achievement, the intensity of his desire determines the speed of accomplishment. This being true of the mass is, only in a less degree, true of the individual

This "creed" constitutes my only right to be a worker in the field of aviation.

ROM my earliest interest in flight I was convinced that there was some fundamental principle, some truth or truths, which gave to flying creatures an assurance of security, and which, probably because of its very simplicity, had remained unrecognized, for attempts to fly had met only with failure. This could be only because the analysis was incomplete, and I turned my whole attention, without reserve, to observing, separating, classifying and verifying, although without having had any training for such work. Opportunities nave opened unexpectedly to me. Success has attended my search in greater measure than I dared hope for. A science has sprung up and grown to greater proportions than I ever expected to see, bearing encouragement, and also a conviction that my search was not ill timed.

Among the opportunities referred to, three stand out with especial prominence. A little more than a year after I had started my search I made the acquaintance of Mr. O. Chanute, an acquaintance that began in 1S08 and continued until his death. Throughout this acquaintance he was earnestly and disinterestedly devoted to securing a solid advancement for the science, and his helpful encouragement was given freely to me. It was given in like spirit to all who knew him, or would accept. His work was of that kind that commands success, not fame. The achievements of today mark the place of his being, more than that of any other one man.

A home on a farm on the hills has been

mine with its opportunities for observation and investigation in the home of the flying creatures.

As a result of Mr. Chanute's interest in the work of the Wright brothers, he asked that he might communicate to them a method I had devised for studying pressures. This resulted in proving its value as a guide to construction and I was privilegea to witness the accuracy of deductions and calculations based thereon, and upon tables they prepared and incorporated in then machines at Kitty Hawk in 1901, 1902 and 1903. My interest, however, was centered in analysis, not in construction. That analysis would be complete when a verified solution could be given for every action observed resulting from the impact of a rigid body with air.

All my observations led to the belief that Nature's creatures fly in stabie equilibrium. If this could be proven, the solution of flight would be much simplified. Every observation confirmed the belief that the solution is simple.

The barn swallow calls her young to the open when they first leave the nest; distress is in her note only when they near obstructions.

The first flight of the butterfly is as perfect as any it ever makes; and, to a like degree, experience does not improve the blundering clumsiness of the beetle. Flying for flyers, and walking for walkers, is an equally simple acquirement. Man, being a walker, has first scientifically analyzed walking: flight has remained obscure.

The frequent readjustment of the vulture's surface has been advanced as evidence of the skill necessary to preserve equilibrium,

but the almost incessant readjustment of the steering gear of the steamboat is not accepted, with like reasoning, as a suun.* of equilibrium; Doth have a course to preserve through varying currents.

Nature's great variety of wings declare simplicity, although it has brought confusion to many observers; here is variety in construction, in shape and in action.

Note the feathered wing of the bird; the elastic membrane of the bat; the board-like wing of the butterfly. See the manner of jointing that permits folding. The wings of the bird, the house fly and the butterfly are familiar; the beetle tucks his curiously beneath his elytra; the wing of the flying grasshopper and wasp, fold together like a fan; the dragon fly has no provision for sheltering his. 'There are creatures with four wings, creatures with two, and the silver maple seed soars successfully with but one. Where there are four wings, note the variety in pairing in the wasp, the dragon fly and the beetle. Note the long-narrow wing of the sea bird, with its decided double curve from body to tip, and the blunt wing of the bird of the thicket. As types of action, note the noisy hovering of the humble bee, who moves forward, sidewise, 01 backwards, with equal ease; the peculiar wavy progress of the butterfly; the steady flapping of the crow; the quiet floating of the vulture.

There is no other conclusion possible than that there is some underlying principle that is at once so broad and so simple that it is readily within reach of this great variety, each of which is defining this principle with its own distinctive voice, all declaring a clearly defined simplicity.

If a like problem with a solution could be found it would lend assistance, both in preparing the mind to receive a solution, and also directly in solving the problem. But does not terrestrial locomotion supply this want?

Forget for the moment comparative anatomy, and to the general appearance of the means of flight, compare the general appearance of the means for terrestrial progression. Notice the joint that is midway between the body and the ground with its opposite bending in man and in fowl, and in the front and hind legs of the horse, while in the elephant this bend is in but one direction. Beside these with two, and with four legs, see the number in the insect; the spider, and the centipede. Consider the manner of action of those already mentioned and recall the toad; the snake; the snail. Surely the variety in construction, in shape and in action found in wings is no greater than in legs, but the mechanical action of the latter has long since ceased to excite interest, foi one word explains all— the h'rcr.

In the following analysis I hope to make clear fundamental laws that seem to me to

stand in the same relation to flight as do the laws of the lever to terrestrial locomotion.

If the reader's imagination is such that he can see in the wheel, the resemblance to a leg made perfect in its action, then in accepting my analysis, he will see that, as by means of the wheel all animal forms have been surpassed in burden bearing, endurance and in speed, in a like degree the wing will be brought to do the service of man.

THE EFFECT OF CURVATURE UPON PRESSURE

When the effects of the pressure upon a plane, such as a sheet of metal, are compared with those obtained with the same sheet after arching it, the results are, in certain respects, so different that the relationship of the surfaces so formed seems lost. These differences are, mainly, in the three following points: (1) When arched, one side only, the convex side leads when the sheet is let fall; (2) the point called the centre of pressure does not move the same distance as upon the plane, nor always in the same direction, for an equal change in the angle of incidence; (3) the pressure is greater than upon the plane when the concave side is presented to the current, is less when the convex side is presented, and a pressure exists when the chord is parallel with the current which acts perpendicular to the chord and current. Each of these results, which are peculiar to the curved surface, calls for a clearly defined explanation.

'The following experiment was made for the purpose of establishing the relationship between the action of these two surfaces, the non-existence of which relationship of action is inconceivable since the surfaces may be one and the same, and also to determine, if possible, where occurs this apparent loss of a regular conformity of action for so slight variation in form. The experiment is based upon the assumption that since it is a logical conclusion that the pressure due to velocity is equal in amount and distribution whether the surface or the current is considered as moving against the other, it is as logical to conclude that the pressures peculiar to curvature are of equal amount and distribution whether the surface or the current be curved.

A semicircular board of about 12" radius is attached to the floor, or table, so that it will turn horizontally about its centre. In a line that is tangential to this board, and not far from it, secure a piece of woou 1" x 1" x 36", to serve as a guideway. Out of the block of wood make a rider to slide upon this guideway.

At the circumference of the board erect a stiff wire to stand about 8" high and with a pointed upper end. Place a similar wire to stand erect from the rider. These serve as posts upon which the surraces are to be delicately poised.

(To be continued.)

Unique Grant - Morse Monoplane

S^JS^S^S^ffi^jURING the past Winter and Spring, flights have been SJpf | ^ made with a propeller—

I 1 ^§ driven monoplane by M. H. >v3 I J yj*e Simmons on the old James-l&X 2£< town Exposition grounds.

^i^^^^^S The machine is the design Wtti&fiS^J&W^ and work of R. R. Grant and c. O. Morse, of Norfolk, Va. ^Sl^^ui^^a The monoplane, in some respects, is a departure from the standard design, being a thrust instead of tractor type. The builders call it a tandem monoplane, but it might be called a staggered monoplane. "I believe we are the first," Mr. Grant writes, "to use the extreme stagger and over-lap system with open center, this part of our design being adopted in September of 1909, at the time we started our experimental work.

"The most important feature of our monoplane is automatic stability both laterally and directionally, and we can now positively state from tests in flight that we have overcome any tendency to slide backward, when the lift is lost in climbing too fast. When, under such conditions, the critical point is reached, the machine automatically drops on its gliding angle, and will land on an even keel independent of the operator, as it falls in a series of glides and recoveries, altho the operator can again gain control during the glide.

"During the past winter and spring we have made many experiments to test out our automatic stability system and have now perfected it. The fifth flight made during our last tests on May 1st, our operator, M. H. "Dick" Simmons, while climbing at a very high angle in a 25 mile wind, cut the power off at about 150 ft. high the

machine settled gradually coming into the gliding angle and landed without misshap. Simmons was entirely out of control during the fall. This is the fifth fall caused by mistakes in handling and the only damage done has been a broken skid brace or stay wire, this goes to show what automatic stability means when properly incorporated in the design of the machine."

"In regards to our automatic features, we do not use any auxiliary device, the auto-tomatic features being internal in the design. We call it natural stability, as the disturbing forces are used to make the corrections; in other words, the reaction of the disturbing cause makes the necessary correction, therefore, the correction is without time-lag."

The dimensions of the machine are as follows: spread 37-y2 it., length over all 33 ft., of surface 27S sq. ft., weight equipped for flight close to 1,200 lbs., power 100 h. p.; propeller 7 toot diam., 7 ft. pitch, (own make); engine speed 10<i0-1100 r.p.m., estimated speed of machine 75 to 80 miles per hour. Propeller thrust, 450 lbs., standing at 1000 r.p.m., width of blade 14 inches.

In the summer of 1911, some experiments were made with pontoons, on Wil-loughbay Bay. Hamilton Roads. Va. These pontoons were catamaran style, one on each skid. Dimensions: 14 feet long. 12 inches wide and 12 inches dee]), the bottoms concaved one high transversely. They were set at an angle of 4 degrees with their upturned bows out of the water and the sterns sunk to the deck line. In this position they left the water without any spray even in very rough weather. "Our machine's speed is close to GO miles per hour on the water, just before raising."

"The hydro-aeroplane experiments with our machine were made in the spring of 1911, and were, therefore, some of the first hydro-aeroplane tests made and the earliest with the catamaram system that proved successful."

By RUDOLPH R. GRANT

Consulting Electrical & Mechanical Engineer :—Asso. A. I. E. E.

The operating of the automatic lateral stabilizing system is both physical and mechanical, constituting a triple system, as the manual control is interlocked into the automatic system, so that the aviator becomes sensitive to all natural or automatic variations of the system. The part termed the "physical" operates when any variation takes place in the lift and drift pressures, as the forward surfaces are balanced against each other, so that an increase of pressure on one side instantly transfers to the other, thereby, equalizing itself; or in other words, the well known physical law that "every action has an equal and opposite reaction," has been applied throughout our machine, and all disturbing air current displacements in their reaction tend to oppose the action which produced them.

The mechanical system is in opposition to the physical, tending to restore the neutral state, and becomes a damper to prevent over action when rapid variations are taking place. The physical system is obtained by pivoting the forward planes a given distance forward of their centers of pressure, so that the pressure on the planes tends always to close or decrease the angle of incidence, the two forward planes are stayed to bottom and top struts mounted on the inner end of the plane and moves with them, as the angle changes. These strut members are then stayed together by heavy steel wires crossing the fuselage; a ball bearing thrust bar fastened to the fuselage, runs between the swivel points of the planes, on which they are mounted. Where the two lower plane supporting struts pass the lower horizontal member of the fuselage, they are fastened to the bit of the sprocket chains, which in turn pass over pulleys, and are connected by wire across the fuselage to form a closed loop transfer system; the center of the rear side of the transfer loop is fastened to the seat yoke lever, which is pivoted below the seat, so that a swaying of the aviator's body reversely changes the angle of the incidence of the forward plane; also through this system he is made sensitive to all automatic changes passing through the system, and can control any natural changes, if he so desires, at will. The stay wire between the lower plane supporting struts, when in flight, carries a heavy strain; in the present machine this strain being approximately 1200 pounds. The two struts are in perfect alignment when both planes are at equal angles and their relations are fixed by the

transfer loop system, so that any change from the neutral state is opposed and limited by the increased tension of the stay; this constitutes the mechanical and damper system.

During hundreds of test flights the aviator has given little or no attention to the lateral control, while many tests were made in heavy windy weather and in close proximity to buildings and trees. A further advantage of this automatic lateral system is: when turning only the rudders are necessary, as the increased pressure on the outside plane decreases its angle and increases the angle of the inside plane, so that the resultant of the lift and drift pressures become equal for any given turning moment. This equalization of pressure does not prevent the proper banking angle, but does prevent over banking, and at the same time prevents loss of stability while turning, as all pressures are kept in perfect balance by the automatic change in the angles of incidence. As the planes are rigidly stayed their form remains constant at all angles; therefore, the shift in the pressure centers is uniform at all angles, but changes just enough to make the necessary corrections; so that stability is not affected by quick changes in directions which may cause high banking.

The ailerons shown in the drawings have not been used during the latter part of our experiments, although, it is our intention to use them as auxiliaries with the automatic system when considered necessary for any special purpose. Their principle of operation is much the same as other types. They are connected together across the machine laterally, so that when one is at a positive angle the other is negative, their real difference from other types used lies in their aerodynamic function; the pivotal axis is located close to the front or entering edge, the axis being diagonal to the line of flight and converging forwardly, so that the entering edge becomes transverse to the resultant of the drift and side wind pressures; therefore, the windward or high side aileron receives the highest pressure, which will greatly assist in making the necessary recovery. This type aileron will also act, on the low side, in case of a side-slide, as an elevator or rudder to restore equilibrium, the high side under such conditions being masked by the machine. The longitudinal stability of the machine has proven to be almost perfect, having never failed in any incident, even under the worst of conditions, such as: loss of lift when climbing too fast and in very deep "volpianes," although these tests were made in strong wind and close to buildings and trees. Each feature has been repeatedly tested, both with and without the power, by the mistakes of an inexperienced operator, and in every instance the machine has recovered without accident machine has recovered without accident (more than a broken strut or stay in the skid system.) Some of these recoveries have

been from 100 to 200 feet heights, while others have been only 25 to 50 feet.

Longitudinal stability has been obtained by properly locating the lifting and gravity centers, the system being virtually a tandem, but differing from other tandem systems in that the following plane is placed some distance below the forward one. By this arrangement of planes, one of the most important conditions necessary to obtain automatic longitudinal stability is gained, as both the normal and the undulation pressures can be perfectly balanced off or displaced in the proper direction to assist recovery.

I wish to state here, as there seems to be some difference of opinion on the subject, that from many tests made in flight we have found no loss of lifting effort in the rear plane when the propeller is cut off, and no correction has been necessary by the operator from this cause. This may be due to the high efficiency of the propeller, the increased velocity just about off-setting the loss due to the turbulent condition of the air; such probably would not be the case if the propeller were greatly overloaded or inefficient. The machine has always shown a flying speed close to the pitch speed of the propeller; this speed can be accounted for in no other way than that the highest resistant point being placed front of the propeller, the drag recovery just about balances the propeller losses. I recognize the fact that there may be other recoveries in a properly designed propeller than placing in the rear of the highest resistant point, but will not attempt to discuss the merits of propellers at this time.

A word, perhaps, on the relation of the center of gravity to the lifting center will not be out of place; this is an imperative point, and the very secret of longitudinal stability; it makes no difference whether the machine is flying in still air or an even keel or in disturbed air, in "volplane" or over climbing, the only change in the gravity pressure centers are corrective, and this is true even in falling straight down, which, of course, is one of the extreme conditions when the centre of pressure has made its greatest displacement to 50Cf from the entering edge. In such condition the over-balance is only forward and assists in bringing the machine into a gliding angle. Even under the above cited severe conditions the vertical relation between the center of gravity and lifting pressure has not changed, the displacement being wholly on the horizontal axis,—and this in a corrective direction.

Another point interesting to note is that the inertia pressure brought on top of the plane, when a quick change in direction downward is made, from any cause, will not result in a tendency to rotate around the center of gravity, as the pressure changes a balance state will take place between the forward and rear planes, their relation being the same to top inertia pressure as to the lifting pressures.

The vertical and horizontal walls between the propeller and steering surfaces, are termed the "stabilizers," which perform several functions, first; they correct the turbulent air currents before reaching the rudders and elevator, second; they absorb the torque reaction of the engine and propeller as the turbulent air is in opposition to the dynamic effect of the engine. The advantage gained by this reaction is that stability is in no way affected when turning in either direction—third; the vertical walls prevent gyrations around the vertical axis, also the position of these walls makes them very effective in case of side-sliding, to swing the machine around in the gliding position. This feature has been repeatedly proven during our tests.

Another important point toward automatic stability is the wing form or curve of the lifting surfaces. The curve should be such that smail changes in the angle of incidence or variations in the normal speed of flight will not cause radical change in the pressure center. After many experiments with different curves, we have adopted one which gives at all flying angles these necessary close relations, and at the same time, it is a most efficient lifting curve.

The curve mentioned above is the "Cis-soid of Diodes" or the curve giving the duplication of the cube, the formula of

which is Y2=-. In the development of

2 a—x

this curve for an aeroplane surface the diameter of the generating circle varies inversely with the speed of flight and directly with the weight of the machine. The curve of the planes used on our monoplane was generated from a 10" circle, which proved correct for the weight, speed and angle of incidence calculated.

Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press, 250 West 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres't — — ERNEST L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, S3.00 Foreign. $3.50

advertising representative: e. f. ingraham adv. co.. 116 nassau st., new york

No. 60 AUGUST—19 12 Vol. 11, No. 2

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postottice

New York, under the Act ot March 3, 1879. g] AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^> All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: £\ Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: ::

Curtiss Flying Boat

HE Curtiss factory has produced the ideal water machine now, it appears; a craft which will at once appeal to the motor boat enthusiast, the present most promising class of sportsmen to take up "aerial yachting." This machine is not an aeroplane with boats attached, but a Dona fide, dyed-in-the-wool, honest-and-truly motor boat with wings and is an improvement on the experimental flying boat tried out last January, described and illustrated in AERONAUTICS at that time.

The wings of this latest type spread the same as in the E-75 machine (described in A.pril number, with scale drawings). There is more of a drop between the front and rear beams, amounting to oY2". The cam-bre has been increased from Zy2" to 3TiS".

The sections* are, as usual, quickly demountable. The engine section is the only lone which is double covered with Goodyear cloth. The other sections are covered on the upper side only, leaving the ribs exposed. The trailing edge, which is in separate sections fastened to the rear spar, is flexible and extends further back than the usual, for 11% inches. The ribs butt against the spars, as shown in April number, fastened by metal straps. The struts are heavier than in the other machines, as well as are the spars. Every section is guyed laterally and fore and aft with Roebling steel cable. The guying in the lateral direction is in duplicate, and in the engine section guying in both directions is double.

The spruce struts have 5 laminations and measure 1 inch by 2y2 inches at the greatest

dimension, tapering to 1 inch round at the sockets. The wings are spaced a feet apart, and the chord is 5% feet.

The flying boat can be flown with or without a forward elevator, which may be placed the same as in the previous hydroaeroplanes. If used, rear elevators work inversely in conjunction with the forward one, by steel cables which pass through a portion of the boat and run in a direct line.

The shoulder brace aileron control system is standard. But one steering wheel and column is used, instead of the previous single column with double wheels in the case of two-man machines.

The construction of the boat is similar, generally, to the data given in the June number. It measures 2G ft. long, 2\-> feet wide back a little further than the rear spar. From here it tapers to a point at the stern. There are six watertight compartments. A patent has been applied for on the Curtiss float system.

A standard 75 h.p. Curtiss S cyl. motor drives a left hand propeller, S' diam. by 6' pitch. The engine is mounted rather high, considerably above the axis of the cell. Gasoline is fed by pressure from a 40 gallon tank located in the boat.

The occupants are protected from the spray by a collapsible, water-proof hood. The boat itself is so strongly built that it can be beached with safety, even through a high surf, and is capable of being handled the same as a fisherman would handle his dory. It may be housed afloat, like a motor boat, or anchored to a buoy like a yacht.

By reference to AERONAUTICS it will be found that the previous flying boat had the engine located in the bow of the boat, driving by chain two tractor screws turning

in the same direction. The chain drive produced complications and was discarded.

The "flying boat" makes great speed on the surface of the water, approximated at 50 miles an hour, and GO in the air. The rudder is submerged slightly and enables the boat to be turned around in almost its on length. The boat in the future will be made in two sections to facilitate shipment, and it is also possible metal will be employed instead of wood. The sides extend slightly below the bottom boards, making slight keels. Down the centre, fore and aft, is another small keel. Either the standard wings of the model E 75 can be used, or larger ones for weight carrying. The propeller is well protected from spray and water by the body of the boat and by the overhang of the wings.

A change has been made in the shoulder braces, the outside side bars of which are hinged to allow for facility in entry and egress. A lever disconnects or connects the control from the passenger's seat, so that

either man may operate without the other'H knowledge of any movements of the shoulder brace, or both together simultaB neously.

The Curtiss "aquaplane" is taking welll abroad. Paulhan now has 3 of the previous type, and is buiding 12 more on a royalty! basis, to be fitted with Curtiss engines! made here. Two machines have been soldi in Germany, one to Herr Kober, chief en! gineer of the Zeppelin company and th<! other to the General Aviation Co., of Berlin! Six machines have been taken by th<! Russian Navy, of which three have beer! delivered, and three more are being buil! for Japan. Three Japanese naval officers! are now here learning to fly. C. G. WhitJ the winner (?) of the 1910 Gordon Bennetl aviation race, is to introduce the machine* in England, operating with Paulhan. Motl ors are being ordered faster than they cai! be made and it is expected the U. S. Navjl will shortly have one of the new flyinB boats.

Donnet-Leveque Hydro-aeroplane

OME most interesting experiments with a new type of hydro-aeroplane invented and constructed by the French firm of Donnet-Leveque are being held on the river Seine, close to Juvisy.

This hydro-aeroplane, although a biplane, is exceeding speedy, and notwithstanding its comparatively small surface (183 sq. ft.) is able to '"plane" in a most remarkable way. It does not resemble any other water-going machine built abroad up to the present, and one of its principal features (on which the patent is based) is its single central float. This float can be compared to a long motor-boat of the hydroplane type, and this graceful fish-shaped fuselage is placed underneath the lower wings. The engine (a 50-H. P. Gnome) is placed between the upper and lower planes and at the back so that the head resistance is reduced to a minimum, the propeller wash encountering no obstacles.

The pilot's seat is inside the float, just in front of the lower plane, while the passenger's seat is just behind him, with enough space all round to carry bombs or any other luggage. In front of the blunt nose of the float and just above the water-line is a horizontal fin-shaped rudder, which not only prevents the machine from diving and consequently overturning when touching the water, but as it moves concurrently with the rear elevator, it affords a useful indication to the pilot as to the inclination

of the machine. All the controls are worked through a central pillar and wheel on the Deperdussin lines, while lateral stability is obtained by ailerons.

Just above the water-line is fixed a movable axle which can, with its wheels, be entirely folded upwards when it is desired to start from the water. When the pilot wishes to land on terra firma, these are immediately released into their ordinary position by a most ingenious method.

The whole boat is divided into several watertight compartments and the flat keel is horizontal from the rudder up to a point corresponding to the middle of the planes, while from there to the front elevator it is gradually curved. The continuity of these two surfaces is divided by a step, as in the keel of hydroplanes.

As soon as the machine has attained a sufficient speed, the tail leaves the water, and only the sloping front glides on the surface. Then as soon as the pilot moves his elevator the whole "winged canoe" rises gracefully into the air, after having rushed through the water over a distance of about 50 yards. One of the most extraordinary features of this remarkable little machine is its common speed, which is well over 70 miles an hour.

Alighting on the water is effected without the least difficulty, and the swooping movement resembles nothing more than that of a gull's. It is a marvellous sight to see this big artificial bird plane down from 1.000 ft. or more on to the water with hardly a splash. This new type of hydroaeroplane, considering the short time it has

THE DONNET-LEVEQUE HYDRO-AEROPLANE

AERONAUTICS

t --------------- - *

+ AVIATION DEPARTMENT +

i AEROPLANES, MOTORS, AND EQUIPMENT +

PAUL LACROIX AUTOMOBILE COMPANY, Inc.

*

* 4* *

* *

*

New York: 1780 Broadway. Telephone, Col. 1335

GNOME

ANZANI

RENAULT

Paris: 63 Avenue Champs Elysees

In

Stock

MORANE AND TRAIN MONOPLANES, ASTROL VARNISH, HELMETS, ETC., ETC.

Chicago Representative: A. L. S. McCurdy, CICERO FIELD

HOW TO LAND A HYDRO

"The use of a standard speed, well within the critical limits, is desirable during hydroaeroplane flights in fickle winds and it should always be possible to increase the speed of the motor in turning," Says Captain W. Irving Chambers, head of aeronautics in Cue Navy. "The turns should not be made 100 sharp in high winds nor at a low altitude."

"With the considerable head resistance and load of the hydroplane the acceleration of speed required for substantiation, on turning to run before a strong wind, requires an appreciable time during which, if too sharp an augle of descent is given for acceleration, the center of horizontal head resistance on the upper surface of the machine, which is

applied considerably below and usually forward of the center of pressure of the sustain) ing surfaces, may suddenly force the machine to dive quickly.

"On landing it is always desirable to take the water at a small rearing angle, to avoid sticking the bows of the hydroplane in the water first.

"The landing should always be made either before the wind or directly into the wind and with double hydroplanes, special care should be used to prevent 'side-swiping' and to have both boats touch the water at the same time.

"The speed should not be cut off until after touching the water.

66

GRAY EAGLE MOTORS"

Have less working parts and are ac" curately machined and fit up from tlie best material obtainable, and doubly strong throughout. Bosch Magneto Plugs, Cables and Schebler Carburetors, standard equipment.

Flying representatives wanted in all states and countries. Special proposition. Who wants to fly and represent us ? Write today.

Model E-6 50 H. P. Model D-4 35 H. P.

KEMP MACHINE WORKS

Muncie, Ind.

been in existance, has created quite a stir in military and naval quarters in France, and several foreign missions have come to witness the trials. Should the forthcoming sea trials come up to expectations, it is to be hoped that the British Navy will send a representative to witness them, for the usefulness of this new water-plane for scouting purposes cannot be denied.

The only solution of the hyrdo-aeroplane problem seems to be in the central float, as the multi-float system will no doubt prove of little use in anything but fairly smooth weather, and the Donnet-Leveque appears to have adapted that system in a most simple and efficacious way.

Two items of interest will serve to confirm the good opinion widely held as to the qualities of this hydro-aeroplane. In the first place, Andre Beaumont has be-

come the General Director of the Bonnet-Leveque firm. Next, and of greater interest to the English reader, there is a rumour, founded on a most substantial basis, that the British rights are about to be acquired by a British firm which occupies a foremost position in aviation and in many other branches of manufacturing industry. And finally, it would be well to be prepared for a startling achievement by the hydro-aeroplane within the next few weeks.

—From British AERONAUTICS. There is a curious similarity between this machine and the latest Curtiss. The boat has the same general lines, under the wings are the same air tanks, the engine is mounted high. It is not beyond possibility that the idea came from the pictures published of the former Curtiss flying boat in AERONAUTICS a year ago.

sturtevant engine in page's burgess

For the mounting of this engine the chain drive and transmission had to be reversed, new transmission and special engine bed ribs made. The speed of the aeroplane was slightly in excess of that with the Wright

motor. At the Boston meet, in one speed race around a mile course Phillips Ward Page made times of 1 min. 36 sec; 1 min., 36 sec; and 1 min, 37 sec, showing good consistency of running for these three laps. In this race he beat Farmum Fish with a standard Wright motor by something over

100 yards. "On the whole," says Mr. Page, "the Sturtevant has proven very satisfactory, and to date has given that oalance of power above the Wright's which we need for passenger work with the hydro."

new pilots

13s carl t. sjolander (curtiss), san calif., may lb.

139 floyd e. barlow (curtiss), san calif., may 18.

140 lieut. benj. 1>. foulos (wright), park, md., june 5.

141 cecil peoli (baldwin), mineola, june 22.

142 george a. gray (burgess-wright), atwood paik, mass., june 23.

143 fred j. schuman (curtiss), los angeles, calif., june 27.

1 >iego, diego, college l. 1.

n

a. a. s. h. reduced prices

the american aer. s. h. of hempstead, l. 1., in. y., reports that in view of the success achieved by their cross country types of "bleriol monoplanes" and in order to facilitate for uiose interested the purchase of a reliable hying machine, they ha\e reduced all juices of their bleriot monoplanes for one month only, as f< 1-lows: single seater monoplanes fmm $1,500 to $900; passenger (jarring monoplanes from $1,900 to $1,200; pacing monoplanes from $2,000 to $1,300.

they further report having three machines on hand for immediate delivery.

in criticising an extravagant story on the dangers of hying. which article appeared recently in a new york sunday paper, a young aeronautical author writes as follows:

"as you know, 1 am deeply interested in aviation and am giving 17 hours each day to encourage its development. 1 lia\ e no financial interest in the matter and am doing all of it in the belief that i am helping a good cause. (if the story in the newspaper is true). 1 must be morally responsible for sending scores upon scores of young chaps to their death. you know 1 write and edit fully one-third of the aeronautical literature that appears in america."

e. percy noel, alfred w. lausen and others, please note. we were wondering who wrote most of the aeronautical literature.

Burgess-Gill Twin Engine Aquaplane

HE first American machine to successfully fly with two power plants, each capable of flying the 'plane independently, or in combination, was produced by the Burgess Co. & Curtis and Howard W. Gill and flown as a hydroaeroplane during May and June at Marblehead. This was constructed for the Gould two-motor contest which prize proved unfortunately a will-o'-the-wisp.

As will be noted, the two engines were placed in line, each driving its own pair of propellers. One was a standard Wright and the other a Hall-Scott. The Wright motor was speeded up to over 1500 by making the gearing 10 (instead of 11) to 34. The apparatus was awkward to handle and proved to Gill's satisfaction the uselessness of such a contraption as a practical machine. Following is a detailed description. Main planes of standard Wright size and construction, Spread 39', chord G' 1%", the trailing edge on each end being slightly rounded off. Distance between planes 5' 5%", slightly less than the depth of the plane. Planes are separated by twelve 1" by 1%" uprights.

Planes themselves built up of 2 beams spaced apart by ribs built up from two strips of wood by 1%" wide spaced

apart by ten wooden blocks. While these ribs are very stiff, extra strong ones made from y2" by 1%" solid wood are placed between each fore and aft upright. Both top

and bottom planes are built in three sections, a center and two ends. The bottom center, which carries the weight of the engines, fuselage and passengers; is made exceptionally strong with heavy built-up ribs and broad ash front and rear beams, the whole being braced by inch broad steel cross bands.

Each of the three sections made separately, and the cloth put on. The ends are then fastened to the center section at the two main beams by hinged joints and the surface cloths laced together both top and bottom.

The cloth before being cut out to shape is cut diagonally and sewed together so that, when on the finished plane, the main threads instead of going straight across run diagonally as a means of extra bracing for the wings. Where sewed together the overlap is arranged to present a smooth joint to the plane's passage through the air. Between the front and rear beams pockets are sewed to the bottom cloth and from the -ear beam back to the trailing edge to the top cloth. Through these pockets the ribs go, holding the cloth up in front and down in i he rear so that the surface conforms to the shape of the ribs. The advantage of this construction is that in changes of weather it allows the cloth to give all over and therefore presents a more uniform surface than is possible where the cloth is tightly attached at each rib by braids and tacks.

Whenever it is necessary to drill a hole through the main beams, for attaching wires or stanchions, the beam is strength-

Two Years in the Lead on Aeronautic Supplies

The fact that the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. has had two years more experience in making Aeroplane products than others largely explains our commanding position. For to be two years in the lead, in a new industry, means as much relative advantage as 25 years would in an old, established line.

The Fabric Used by Veteran Aviators

Ask any veteran aviator what fabric lie uses. Nine chances in ten he will say, "Goodyear." Ask any maker of Aeroplanes the same question. Nearly all will say, "We use Goodyem' and none other." Goodyear Fabric doesn't stretch, or loosen, or tear, or rot, or mildew. Made in various colors including metallized surface to match machines trimmed in aluminum or nickel. It is permanently iceather-proof. If you want to know just how this has been accomplished, drop us a postal for the latest Goodyear Aeronautic Catalog.

Aeroplane Tires That Lead

With 13 years automobile experience, with the most up-to-date factory in the world, with the most expert tire makers money can employ, we were well equipped to enter the aeroplane field.

Goodyear Aeroplane Tires, made under such conditions, could hardly have failed to lead.

We make Aeroplane Tires in 3 types—the Goodyear " No-Rim-Cut,'' the Goodyear Single Tube, the Goodyear Clincher. Each

type is the utmost achievement of men who perfected the No-Rim-Cut Auto tire.

The Goodyear Aeronautic Catalog pictures and describes these tires.

The Bleriot Type Shock Absorber

We are the sole American makers of the lileriot Type Shock Absorber. This Absorber possesses wonder/id strength and elasticity. Made of a special construction of moulded rubber, thoroughly vulcanized. It is exceedingly tough and durable. Ovington, Rubel, Benoist and other American flyers and manufacturers use this Shock Absorber. (Complete description on page 17 of new

•Cioodyear Aeronautic Catalog.)

Balloons of All Types

It is no longer necessary to send to Europe for balloons. Goodyear Balloons are unexcelled in

•quality and there's no import duty to pay. Our facilities for quick-delivery are unsurpassed. Any kind you want, completely equipped, if desired.

Dirigible Balloons, Spherical Balloons free or captive—large or small—for advertising use— for exhibition—for excursion service.

Please advise name and adih'ess and we irill 7nail yon an attractive, illustrated new catalog that tells much ahont Aeroplane Fabrics, Tires and Springs; and about Balloons, Balloon Fabrics and Balloon Accessories.

Goodyear Pneumatic Tires are guaranteed when filled wilh air at the recommended pressure. WheD filled wilh any substitute for air, our guarantee ii withdrawn.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio

Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities We Make All Kinds of Rubber Tires, Tire Accessories and Repair Outfits Main Canadian Office, Toronto, Ont. Canadian Factory, Bowmanville, Ont.

Good.

c^lero cTHart

RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line-Payment in advance required.

ENGINE FOR SALE—Airship engine, 2 cyl., 4 cycle, S h.p.; also frame, shafting, propellers and net of airship "Comet." Electric Pianos for sale. Geo. E. Yager, Omaha, Neb.—Aug.

TENT—3-pole medium duck tent, in first class condition, 40xS0, original cost $350, for sale at $175 f.o.b., New York. Used for hydroaeroplane. Will house the biggest machine. Schill, c/o Aeronautics.—Aug.

WANTED.—Aviation apprentices to operate latest type racing monoplanes. Instructions free.

Aerial Co., c/o Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St., New York.—TF_

RARE BOOKS—Occasionally it is possible to secure copies of Wise and Astra Castra. These are very scarce and are two of the absolutely necessary books for an aeronautical library.

ASTRA CASTRA, by Hatton Tumor. 4to, cloth, London, 1S65, many fine plates. $10.

A SYSTEM OP AERONAUTICS, Comprehending its Earliest Investigations and Modern Practice and Art, Designed as a History for the Common Reader and Guide to the Student of the Art, bv John Wise. Svo., cloth, Phila., 1850. $10._

CAPITAL WANTED—$15,000 to form a new company to build a lately patented, high-speed monoplane, that is automatically balanced and acts as a parachute in case the motor stops while in the air. The machine itself acts as a parachute, and has absolutely no umbrella-like or auxiliary parachute attachment. Address, Monoplane, Post Office, Box 68, Station D, New Y'ork, N. Y".—Aug.

CURTISS—Genuine 4 cyl. Curtiss biplane, present design, 4 cyl. Curtiss motors, has been flying. Perfect condition. $700 cash. Aeronautics, 250 W. 54th St.. New Y'ork.

FOR SALE—$750 Roberts 4x motor complete, New and in perfect condition. M. F. H. Gouv-erneur, Wilmington, N. C.—Aug._

FOR SALE—New eight cylinder Hall-Scott, Sixty h.p. motor with propeller. Guaranteed perfect, price $1,000.00. R. Trember, 167 Penn Str., Brooklyn, N. Y.—Aug._

FOR SALE—The following goods, perfectly new, less than half price. 1—30 h.p. El. Arco Radiator. 1—6ft. Requa Gibson propeller. 1— 30 h.p. Harriman motor. 1—7 h.p. Curtiss Motor. 1—Curtiss Type Frame. 1—7 gal. gasoline tank. 50 yards Naiad Aeronautical Cloth. 1—Bosch magneto. 3 steel wheels with tires. J. \V. Roshon, Harrisburg, Pa.

BLUE PRINTS: Military type 6S-in. model monoplane. Three sheets in detail, 2S x 39 in., $1.00. Corporal Thos. O'Brien, Co. M, 3d Battalion Engineers, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas.— Sept._m

WANTED—Capital to rebuild a large monoplane (1400 sq. ft. supporting surface) non-cap-sizable. Patent Applied for. Machine badly damaged, two days before completion when building enclosing machine was destroyed by wind storm. Arrange to call and investigate. Geo. H. Ellithorpe, Port Clinton, Ohio.

FOR SALE—50 h.p. Bradley Aeroplane Motor; 8 cylinders, Bosch Magneto, Perkins Carburetor. Guaranteed, J. O. Eberhard, Jr., Bulletin Bldg., Philadelphia.—Aug._______

FOR SALR:— "MAXIMOTOR" Aeroplane Motor, 1912, Model F, 75 H. P. six cylinders, iour cycle, vertical, water cooled, double spark system, weight 300 lbs., also new radiator and propeller. This motor is new—never been used, just tested, and was purchased for use in an extra large, two passenger Biplane which was never completed.

Best offer takes it. Guaranteed by the Factory.

For particulars, write "ORIGINALITY" 317 Erie Street, Canton, Ohio.

C. & A. Wittemann

Aeronautical Engineers

Manufacturers of

Biplanes Monoplanes

Hydro-Aeroplanes Gliders Propellers Parts

Special Machines and Parts Built to Specifications

Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P.

Yom Oi'I'ortunitv—One single covered Biplane for immediate delivery. Slightly used, with 8 cyl. 60 H. P. Hall-Scott Power Plant.

FLYING AND TRAINING GROUNDS

Established 1906

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY Tel. 717 Tompkinsville

View On Wheels, Before Attaching Float

ened by several layers of heavy linen which is wrapped or soaked in hot glue forming an exceptionally strong joint.

These linen wrapped joints are lighter and they always fit snugly around the part to be reinforced. There is a certain elasticity to them that allows them to compensate for any future shrinkage of the wood.

'The method 'of construction employed apparently represents the final ideal construction hit upon at the start, in that it allows of the utmost flexibility between the engine and propeller sprockets at the same time retaining the center of the sprockets at a constant distance apart. Adjustment for taking up chain slack is very easily made. The failure of other designers to secure satisfactory results with double propellers and chain drive has in practically every case been due to their failure to appreciate and provide for suitable flexi-

bility in their transmission which caused them to be either very wasteful of power, or the more serious result,—a broken transmission.

To drive the propellers in opposite directions and eliminate any centrifugal tendency, one of the chains is crossed, and this has been the source of considerable arguing and unfavorable comment. It is usually a source of worry to the flyer when he first starts out, but a curious point is the fact that the crossed chain gives less trouble than the straight one. The only cases of chain breakage on record have both occurred in the short chain.

It is customary to take both chains off and examine them often, approximately every twenty hours of flying, after which they are soaked in hot grease and graphite before being replaced. On these occasions, rollers are often found missing and in every

Plan-View of Gill Machine

case the straight chain has had over twice the number of missing rollers. These facts, and the tendency of the straight chain to stretch, soon made the flyers of double chain driven planes more careful to examine the straight chain than the long chain.

To brace the main planes, tail, etc., solid wires are used varying from 750 to over 2000 pounds tensile strength. Eyes are bent in the ends of these wires in a machine that gives a uniform bend to the eye. This machine rolls the wire as the eye is made, retaining in the wire, its full tensile strength. After the eye has been made, the end of the wire is joined by a double wrapping of thin tin, well soaked in solder. This makes not only a tight joint but an exceedingly neat one.

Repeated tests have proven that a joint made in this manner is stronger in the eye and joint than the wire itself. The usual practice of using a flattened piece of copper tubing, through which the end of the wire is slipped and then bent over has a decided tendency, when put to a strain, of creeping around and tightening up the eye, and tests of the two methods of fastening a wire have shown that where just the flattened copper tubing is used the eye is of variable strength:—but where the eye is made by a machine and the end is then fastened rigidly by a soldered joint the eye is invariably stronger than the wire.

These machine-made eyes are uniform in size and snugly fit the rivets to which they are fastened. Where the eye is too large the strain of usage elongates it, but where the wire is not provided with a turnbuckle, causes it to loosen up.

The biplane type of main planes used is undeniably the strongest known type of construction, and the ideal form for ;a weight-carrying safe machine. It has been used in connection with a so-called monoplane-type tail, which fuselage runs directly through the plane and in this fuselage is mounted both engines and the operator, one behind the other, greatly reducing the head resistance and allowing the motors to be coupled together in the simplest possible manner.

This tail extends 13', S" from the trailing edge of the main planes. The top edge extends back in a straight line so as to mount the elevator centrally between the two planes, the rear edge curves up, coming to a point in the rear, giving the tail a streamline form and plenty of ground clearance. On this tail the double horizontal rudders are mounted, each measuring 2', 3" by 2', 6". These rudders are separately mounted and individually connected up. On the extreme rear of the tail is mounted the elevator. This elevator is 15' broad by 3' deep in the center, the ends tapering to a point. The front 15 inches of this elevator are braced by wire guys at a central mark so

as to remain stationary. The ribs are of ash and the elevator is flexible.

The ability to warp this surface, coupled with its excessive breadth, gives to the plane a big range of vertical control. The full extent of this control can best be realized from the fact that in trying out the machine the center of gravity was moved forward 14 inches from that of the standard plane, and the vertical control was equally effective. The natural tendency of the machine was changed, as with the center of weight back, the tendency of the standard Wright-type to stick its nose up in the air and stall is quite noticeable.

When the motor accidentally stops, this tendency to sit up on its tail often results in a broken machine as the operator has to be quick in pushing forward his elevator to catch the machine before it stalls. With the center of weight further forward, and an accidentally stopped motor, the tendency of the machine is to point its head down, assuming a natural gliding angle. In the standard Wright type this center of gravity is 26 inches from the front edge of the main planes, or just slightly more than the generally accepted third of the chord. Actual experience in the air, with the same plane surface, gives a personal preference by Mr. Gill for a location of the center of gravity further forward than the accepted third of the chord length.

Both of the power plants are separate, and distinct, in every detail, the cooling water being supplied by separate radiators, and the gasoline from separate tanks. The forward or main power plant is the more powerful, being a HalhScott 60 h.p. S-cylinder motor which drives through sprockets and chains two forwardly mounted tractors S', 6" diam., variable pitch, which is 12', 4" at the tips. The rear, or auxiliary power plant, is a standard 4-cyLnder 30 h. p. Wright motor operating through sprockets and chains two propellers, S , 6" diam. by 12ft. pitch, mounted in line with the forward pair.

To connect these two motors together, the ends of their crank shafts are extended, and on the extension of the rear engine shaft is mounted a small diameter leather faced cone clutch, used to connect the two power plants together when they are to be driven in unison or as a means of starting either engine. This clutch is arranged so that it can be worked from the operator's seat through pulling back a long hand lever which, through a wire connection, engages the clutch. A means is provided on the clutch operating lever, so that it can be locked in place when the two engines are to be run together. A foot pedal governed magneto on the Wright ana a hand lever, the carburetor on the Scott, as motor controls.

As a means of control the standard Wright system of levers is used. Separate gas tanks supply the motors, each holding 12 gallons.

| Monoplane Flyers ! Are in Demand

SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION

J /"TAHERE are more competent biplane flyers than there are positions + for their services. There are less good monoplane flyers than

% there are positions. This is the time to earn the big money in

J flying monoplanes. In exhibitions the monoplane commands from 70 to j

* 100 per cent, more compensation than the biplane. In the +

+

* monoplane flying is taught on a genuine famous Deperdussin Machine. J + The course is an exact duplicate of the course as it is taught by the * % Deperdussins at Rheims, France. *

JThe tuition <I*0 Af| for the ful1 *

fee is <pOUU course %

% If the pupil completes the course without breakage 10 percent, of +

J the tuition fee is refunded. A guarantee of $250 for breakage is required. *

+ The pupil is made competent to comply with the most rigid license test. J

% No bond of any kind is required when the pupil flies for ?

J the license. %

+ Of the seven pupils who entered the school during the first *

2 month one was certified as proficient after three weeks of the course. +

J He finished without any breakage whatsoever. %

* Visit the school. It is located on the famous Long Island flying * 4. field near New York.

* - t

i t

? Deperdussin Monoplanes are the safest and most

j ms^^i v*v*.JCFi»* uiuiiu|/iunv« efficient flying machines j

4. in the world. Hold 90 per cent, of the world's records. *

I Caudron Monoplanes TPu;k and trem-dously

i i

£ Atl73 til IVlnfrAf*Q ^old t*ie un'Que record of giving tremendous *

t "UlCUII lflUlUI O speed, reliability, efficiency and safety. No *

1 fatal accident during the year has occurred with an Anzani Motor. *

? _ *

J WIRE 'PHONE WRITE *

+ *

! Sloane Aeroplane Co. 1733 Broadway, N. Y. City *

I !

I Benoist Biplanes f f NAIAD f

Aeronautical Cloth

Are in a class by themselves and do not cost much more than poor planes.

3 Models to pick from.

We conduct the Benoist School of Aviation.

Benoist Aircraft Company

|| 6628 DELMAR BLVD., ST.LOUIS, MO.

Manufactured Especially for + -— Aeroplanes- J£

Light, Strong J

Air-Tight and I

! +

Moisture Proof J

Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request +

The C. E. Conover Co. %

MANUFACTURERS %

101 Franklin St., New York | OILING SYSTEM

Pump; Drive Rod; Pipe, to Oil Sight Jacket; Distributing Pipes to Cylinders.

WOULD NOT

Has Flown Wright (Genuine) Curtiss Bleriot Farman Train Antoinette Dirigibles

and

Speed Boats

USED THE WORLD OVER FOR YEARS

take chances with an engine you know to be poorly lubricated. Yet you know that at the high speeds-of aviation engines the oil soon becomes boiling hot; as thin as water. That means inefficient lubricating and a big waste of steaming oil. By the MAXIMOTOR system the oil is pumped from the base reservoir, through the ice-cold oil jacket around the intake manifold and thence distributed to the cylinders.

- RESULTS -

1. Oil always at a good working temperature.

2. Intake warmed enough to prevent "carburetor freezing.''

3. Oil circulation in plain view above carburetor.

4. Oil pump continually self-priming in bottom of reservoir.

Just a few more reasons for that wonderful record over every other quantity-produced aeromotor in the world.

EVER HAD A FATAL ACCIDENT

If you want a GOOD motor

WRITE

DETROIT

Dept. 7

\imr,]RRTi EVERAL, men of wealth have been |jj O jjj pointed to with pride by the clubs Sfi ^ Sfi to which they belong as great SfiKKifiifiifi patrons of Aviation.

What a joke are they making of themselves!

Thousands of dollars spend on "Mustard plasters," "Merry Widows," "Umbrella Machines," "Multiplanes," "Flying Tenements," "Paraplanes," and the like—a laughing stock for the aeronautical world, an aero club side show, with the backer for the "come-on."

One chap knocks the bottom of a dish pan, stretches a rubber band across its larger diameter and flies it before Harold McMorgan, who promptly is induced to finance a full sized machine.

Somebody else thinks an aeroplane ought to fly sideways and he sees Willis Rocker-gould who as quickly "falls" for the novel freak. When the machine rolls over standing on the ground, a couple of monoplane wings are stuck on in the usual fashion to keep the machine from falling over when the engine is started. Another man has a machine with flapping valves, or a plurality of paddle wheels to beat on the air. That these inventors are not wholly innocent of all but practical knowledge is shown when E. Z. Mark pays $4,800 for Gnome engines which can be bought anywhere for $3,200 or less. Who made the difference?

The come-on, unfortunately, is blind on his pocketbook side and any suggestion from a friend that he is being taken-in is resented as an insult to his intelligence.

If one could see any fun to be obtained out of spending large sums for foolishness of this kind, there might be an excuse; but a Lick Observatory telescope would fail to discover anything humorous in the situation, where men of supposed business acumen are being bled by a group of wild-eyed inventive leeches.

What a world of good might have been done with the quarter of a million, or more, said to have been squandered in this manner by one man, if properly applied? What a lot of aeroplanes this would buy for himself and friends to fly? What a series of cross-country reliability races would this insure? What a start for an aerodynamical laboratory? What a result from this sum offered for research work?

This would bring a dozen Gordon Bennett racers into the field, would produce 24-hour American engines, would buy 50 aeroplanes for the Army and Navy and keep the manufacturers busy, for a year, would produce an American dirigible, or keep an aviator in fast automobiles for the rest of his natural life.

CERTIFICATES OF MERIT WSfiSfiifilfiK OLLOWING the suggestions and « "R S appeals in recent issues of AERO-W ffi NAUTICS, the Aero Club of

ififfiSSfilfitfi America announces its special certificate of merit plan. These certificates are to be given to those aviators (already "licensed") who meet the rigid requirements imposed. This will form a class of "expert" flyers who will honor the certificate as a measure of efficiency. This plan will also tend to dampen the exhibition activities of some well known men who are now "pilot aviators," and make the present international "license" of still less value, which fate it deserves.

This is a good step and the A. C. A. will, no doubt, profit in prestige therefrom.

"SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN" CRITICIZED

SSfiifiKtfW T is most unfortunate that there jjj T jjj should have been a misunder-ij; ifi standing in regard to the rules, SfiSfiifiifiSfiSfi which were drawn up by the Scientific American. "A prize of $15,000 has been offered ***** for the most perfect * * * * flying machine equipped with two or more complete power plants so connected that any power plant may be operated independently, or that they may be used together." * * * * "At least two machines must be entered in the contest or the prize will not be awarded," said the rules.

Mr. Gill and the Burgess company built their machine in the belief that if two entries were made, the contest would be held.

A council was held in the Burgess factory and it was unanimously decided that the two entries made an award certain. The 'plane was built and flown a month before June 1, the closing date. When Howard W. Gill made his formal entry, on June 1, he was imformed by the Scientific American that they interpreted their rules to mean that two "operative" machines must actually be on the field selected on July 4 in order that an award be made. This was a new turn to the situation. An investigation showed that there was no likelihood of their even being another machine on the ground—and there wasn't.^ This condition nullified the possibility of any one successful builder's going into the contest independently of another. The winning of the prize, therefore, depended not on the builder's own efforts but on those of some other contestant.

Had Mr. Gill known of this interpretation before starting to build, this "freak" machine would never have been produced.

Not only do the rules, as partially quoted above, at first glance allow the Scientific

American to have awarded the prize to Gill for having produced the most practicable of the machines entered (plans and descriptions of all machines entered having been filed with the entries), but it is clear that the intent of the donor was to provide a substantial reward for the performance of a feat which, at the time the prize was offered, appeared, to him at least, to be a desired step in the advancement of safety in flight.

It seems most probable that Gould wanted to encourage a contest of brains in the devising of a new type of aeroplane—a contest of gray matter for the accomplishment of a certain desired object.

There was a bona fide contest of brains. Eleven people formally made entry and furnished drawings and descriptions, to the best of their ability, of the machines they hoped to build. That one man did build and fly a machine which fulfilled the operating conditions makes no less a contest. He did produce the "most practicable" machine—• the only one that was proven practicable.

Not only has Gill lost his prize through the failure of others but has lost it just so completely through misinterpretation of the published rules.

Discussion from all sides has produced the statement "the prize was never intended to be awarded."

At any rate, the prize could be considered in that class which Joe "Weber would term "a good offer."

THE BOSTON MEET ****** 1THOCT doubt the Aero Club jjj \A/j{j "P"-t its foot in it" when it W * suspended eight aviators by ****** reason of their taking part in the unsanctioned Boston meet.

The situation might have been met in a manner thoroughly dignified from the Club's standpoint, in a way calculated to insure the sympathy and active co-operation of all "licensed" aviators, and to speed the time of bona fide sporting meets on a sport basis pure and simple.

The sanctioning of meets by some governing body, in which contests the granting of a sanction depends upon the deposit of the total prize money in the bank subject to the demand of properly authorized individuals and upon definite and guaranteed assurance of proper conduct thereof, is beyond all doubt or argument an act to be desired from many points of view; for the advancement of aviation, or aerostation, as a sport, for the protection of participants, for the benefit of the public in general. Sanctioning has, thus far, devolved upon the Aero Club of America.

Here was a ticklish situation. The Club had made errors through the individual advices of its officers, and by waiting too long before taking action. The aviators were between the devil and the deep sea. The management had failed to secure funds in advance and the Boston meet was perpetrated when it should have been forgot-

ten among the plans and prospects of the future.

The Club might have called the men together, had a heart-to-heart talk, with admittance of faults all the way 'round, and an understanding or agreement reached' (to be ratified in some form, later by all licensed pilots in the country) by which the Club would agree in the tuture to demand that the prize money be deposited in a proper way not less than, say, three weeks before the date of a proposed affair, or withhold sanction; and the aviators agree to make no contracts with any management of a competitive meet prior to three weeks before the date thereof, or otherwise without definite knowledge form the Club in writing or by telegraph confirming sanction. The Club, in the Boston matter, doing this, might have gently chided the aviators for flying after they were on the ground and to avoid the clutches of the law, and preserved its attitude of authority.

The results of such a conference are obvious. There is no need to point them out. It is enough to say that the present friction would have been avoided and the Club would have added to its advertised prestige instead of detracting therefrom.

PENN CLUB URGES NATIONAL BILL

****** HE Aero Club of Pennsylvania is jjj Hp jjj to be congratulated on its pro* * gressive step, taken in the best ****** iuterests of aviation without regard to club affiliation or private schemes for aggrandizement, when it passed and presented to Congress resolutions urging upon that body the necessity for the passage of a national statute for the regulation and control of aerial locomotion, and for the issuing of licenses under government supervision to competent aviators.

This national statute has been argued in AERONAUTICS many times. The advantages of such a law are obvious save to clubs who seek to keep in their own hands, no matter what the cost to progress or reason, what they are pleased to call "control."

The motor boat owner finds the national regulations for traffic, for lights and anchorages of advantage. There is no red tape to unwind when he passes within the bounds of another state. The individual states examine chauffeurs for competency, railroad engineers are examined for physical fitness, the Army has rigid conditions for its aviators. Has the civilian driver of air craft any less need for physical capability?

The presentation of resolutions to Congress amounts to nothing. A bill must be framed, pushed in and out of committee, and passed before we received any benefit.

It will be interesting to note whether or not the other aero clubs of the country support such a bill. Their non-support or antagonism will be proof positive of motives not for the advancement of aeronautics.

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>; one that has withstood every test—the >{ j Miss Mathilde Moisant Mr. S. S. Jerwaii *

>; discriminating- buyer will make no ^ Mr. Harold Kantncr Mr. M. F. Bates *

S mistake ill adopting the "Frontier." % * Mr. F. E. DeMurias Mr. J. Heetor Worden *

£ y £ Capt. G. W. MaeKny Miss Harriet Quimby J

!♦! >! * Mr. Francisco Alvarez Mr. Jesse Selijrman J

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A The flights made bv Beattv with * J

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Welles & Adams Motors

One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually made good.

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Girard, Kansas. j

El Arco Aeroplane Radiators

CARRIED IN STOCK

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CO

-A-

motor "Lightweight" dimensions h.p. price weight

*23 *30 *38 *45 (io 75 90

$40.00 48.00 52.00 60.00 70.00 78.00 84.00

17lhs.

21 " 24

27 "

34 "

40 "

4g "

a 8 in. 10 " 12 "

14 "

15 " 18 " 21 "

b 19 in. 19 " 19 "

19

22 "

'Featherweight"

weight price

13 lbs. $50.00

17 " 60.00

20 " 68.00

23 " 75.00

30 " 88.00

35 " 98.00

38 " 106.00

* 4lso carried in stock, rightsandlefts, with fittings as shoivn dotted, for installing on either side of driver's seat.

there is no lighter radiator made than our Lightweight, except our Featherweight.

10 East 3i«t Street New York

El Arco Radiator Co.

New Benoist Tractor

HE new Benoist tractor machine, known as the type twelve, is the result of the last several months' application to the refinement of details, and close attention to accomplishing many small improvements over the preceding machine. While these improvements considered separately and alone would not have marked a very great difference from the two passenger school machine of 1911 and '12 style, all of them in an aggregate causes one at first to get an impression that the machine is a new type entirely. The drawings give one a good working impression of the construction of the machine, while the photographs will demonstrate its general appearance.

Like the older machine, it uses steel springs instead of rubber shock absorbers. These have not been changed at all, as they have been found to be very successful, in fact successful enough that the wide awake European manufacturers have copied these with certain variations several times in the last few months. The six cylinder Roberts motor is set clear out in front, and with the radiator mounted between the tractor and the engine, makes a very compact assemblage. The ailerons are very large, each one having twenty square feet of surface. The tail is non-lifting, and, like the rudder and ailerons, flex for control.

The running gear construction lends itself quite readily to the attaching of pontoons, and both pontoons and wheels can be furnished with the 'planes so that it can be used interchangeably as a hydro or land 'plane.

This machine is a two-place, and will carry enough gasoline for a two hours' flight with both seats occupied. Comfort has been considered in the seating of passengers, as both seats are wide and roomy, and the lower part of the body is protected from the wind because of the deep boxes. With all this, however, there is but very

little head-resistance as the radiator, engine, passenger and aviator are all mounted tandem in a stream line. The standard machine is equipped with twenty by four inch clincher tires, and covered all over with Goodyear No. 10. The standard gasoline tank holds fifteen gallons, and is mounted inside of the engine frame, earring an air pressure of two pounds. This assemblage eliminates a great amount of the danger from fires as a result of a smash up, in which the gasoline tank is hung above the engine, thereby breaking the gasoline lead, and setting fire to the wreckage.

The spread over all is 45 feet. Spread of main planes 35 feet. Chord 4 feet, 9 inches. Aspect ratio 7.3:1. Gap 5 feet. Spread of tail 10 feet and depth 32 inches. Seven sections in main planes, each <5 feet long. Skids each 7 feet long and project one and one-half feet in front of vertical line of advancing edge of main planes.

The ailerons and elevator are operated by a single lever in the right hand mounted universal. By pushing the lever to the right it will bring down the right side when high, and by pushing it left, it, of course, will bring down the left. By pushing it forward causes the machine to descend, and by pulling it backward toward the aviator, causes the machine to ascend. There is a double crank arm connected to the back part of ailerons, by the use of which the running of the control wires through pulleys is eliminated. The photograph shows this. This works the arm at No. 33 on the front view. The ailerons are constructed somewhat different from anything else used in this country or abroad, and as they were used in the old school machine of 1911 and '12, and have proved so successful, they were not changed in this new machine. The ribs of the ailerons are built up of pieces of steel spring, being reinforced on each side by oak strips. The steel springs furnishing strength, and the oak strips stiffness to the ribs, as these ailerons are not hinged but flexed. Great efficiency has been added to them by virtue of the fact that the oak strip stiffeners are much stiffer

(Continued on page CJ)

ELBRIDGE ENGINES

So simple anyone can operate them

So strong nobody breaks them

So cheap anyone can buy them

Made in a dozen sizes, to suit all types of machines.

The most generally successful engine known to aviation, for both amateur and professional work. Catalog or folder on request.

Elbridge Engine Company

10 Culver Rd. Rochester, N. Y.

Wright Hydroaeroplane School now open at Glen Head, L. I.

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XI X XJ XV" kJ * 1912 Models

HYDROSJ

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Over 100 complete drawings. Full Dimensions of every part. Only complete blue-prints ever sold. Standard type.

Scale 1 inch to foot; some full size. Blue-prints 28" by 36"

PRICE $8

In addition to those features which in the past have made Wright Flyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the new models can be furnished witli Automatic Control, Silent Motors, and Hydroplanes. These special features make the 1912 machine unusually attractive to sportsmen.

Exhibition Machines

For exhibition work we have other models especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "EX" Model that Kodgers made his wonderful flight from Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.

Wright Schools of Aviation

Training consists of actual flying, in which the pupil is accompanied by a competent teacher. No risk and no expense whatever from breakage. The most famous flyers in America are graduates of our school and include such names as—

Aeronautics,

250 West 54th St. NEW YORK

Lieut. Arnold

Atwood

Brookins

Brindley

Bonney

Beatty

Burgess

Coffyn

Capt. Chandler

Drew Elton

Lieut. Foulois

Fowler

Gill

Lieut. Lahm Lieut. Milling Mitchell C P. Rodgers

Lieut. Rodgers

Parmalee

Page

Reynolds

Simmons

Turpin

Welsh

Webster

And a score of other*

Our Schools at Dayton and New York are now open and pupils may begin training at once if they wish, liy enrolling now you can reserve date most convenient to you for training.

1 Wri're for Particulars n^!^^^^^

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

DEPT. A DAYTON, OHIO

Felix Bischoff Steel Works |

X

DUISBURG, GERMANY.

The VITAL part of a Motor is the

Our HIGH GRADE CRANKSHAFTS are made from our Special CHROME-NICKEL AUTO STEEL ZH. This steel has an elastic limit of 135-150,000 lbs. per sq. in., and enables you therefore to economize in weight and space. Put this in your motor and you need never fear a broken crankshaft.

We are the MAKERS of the Steel, and our aim is to produce the BEST.

We furnish crankshafts drop-forged or finished complete to the most prominent manufacturers in Europe.

Our Die Cost is Very Low.

We can quote f.o.b. your city, free of duty.

Send blue prints and all enquiries to our representative

I H. A. ELLIOTT, (majestic blooDETROIT, MICH.

AERONAUTICS

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(FOUNDED 1907) Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Post Free

Nr»fr*»*__A specimen copy will be mailed

MUlc' free on receipt of 10 cents.

-HEAD OFFICE:-

3 London Wall Buildings, London, England American Office: 250 West 54th Street. New York

DETR0ITA.R0 power plant

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WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

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TRENTON, N. J.

MAGNALIUM

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AND OVER TEN TIMES AS TOUGH AS THE BEST ALUMINUM CASTINGS. : : : :

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G. A. CRAYEN & CO. Metal Dept.

81 New Street MORRIS R. MACHOL N. Y. C.

THE AERO WHEEL CO.

Builds all Kinds of Wheels for Aeroplanes and Monoplanes Standard or Special Sizes at Very Low Prices

782 Eighth Avenue New York J. DELT0UR, Inc.

Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan for Skids lJ4 diameter and under any length.

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Seventy per cent, of record-breaking American flights with American Aeroplanes were made

with propellers bearing this name

C II ARAYAY

We will tell you why if you ask us SLOANE AEROPLANE CO. 1733 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY

Agents: Eamei Tricycle Co., Sao Fraocisco and Los Angeles; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago ; W. E. Bonghlon. Washington, D. C.

AERONAUTICS

HAS WIRELESS STATION.

The Aeronautical Society.— William E. Russell, a member, who is an officer of various wireless organizations and Chief of Scouts of the N. Y. N. G., at the General meeting: on July 11th. delivered an intensely interesting lecture on the transmission of electrical energy by wireless.

Mr. Russell made a special feature of the application of wireless transmission to electrical energy to the various problems of aeronautics. He demonstrated by actual experiments how messages can be sent by wireless to and from aeroplanes and dirigible balloons, and how large mines of high explosives can be discharged by-wireless transmission from aircraft. It is his purpose to demonstrate that the wireless apparatus ran be utilized for many purposes not commonly known.

Tn order to illustrate his discourse he used a wireless plant that he has been good enough to set up in the Society's rooms. This plant is very complete. Its use has been donated to the Society by Mr. Russell. The equipment is capable of transmitting messages for more than 50* miles and it can receive messages from a radius of 500 miles. Mr. Russell will also set into operation a wireless telephone and will equip the new aerodrome at Staten Island with another plant.

The wireless plant is now in operation in the Society's quarters. Members who wish to communicate with the Society by wireless should call "WR" which is the temporary call. Later

the station in the Society's quarters will be formally listed in the Government Blue Book undfr a call to be assigned by the authorities at Washington.

Aero Club of California. New Officers elected June 4. Prof. H. La V. Twining, pres.; Jay-Gage, v. p.; C. E. McClay, v. p.; Van M. Griffith, sec, Park Hyde, treas.

BOYS AERO CLUB IN OMAHA. The Boys' Aero Club of The Y. M. C. A. of

Ornaha, Neb., has been organized with a membership of nineteen. The following officers were elected: Arthur Schrum, 2622 Charles Street, President; Edwin Greevy, 2914 Hickory Street, Secretary; Wilbur Bradley, 60S S. 27th Street, Treasurer. They have adopted the constitution and bylaws, which call for a meeting every second and fourth Friday of the month. The objects of the Club are: to promote model aeroplane meets, and to give general information to its members concerning aeronautics. The members themselves take part on the program, making talks or reading articles from magazines, and outside speakers are called in frequently. Major Carl P. Hart-mann, commander of Fort Omaha, was the principal speaker at the meeting, July 26th. Model meets are to be held about every six weeks.

The Aero Club of Nebraska has offered a fine silver challenge cup as first prize. Second, third, and fourth prizes are usually offered. The next meeting will be some time in August.

New Benoist Tractor

(Continued from page 01)

in the rear, so in the rib, the deepest part of the curve will occur nearer to the advancing edge of the ailerons, thereby taking advantage of the properties of the usual curve, which, of course, has greater efficiency, when the deepest part of the cambre is nearer the front. This is an advantage original with the Benoist machine. Other ribs probably have been built up of steel springs and oak stiffeners, but in no case were they ever constructed so as to automatically take a cambre of the highest efficiency.

ARTICLES COMING

Symposium on Propeller Standardization, by Gibson

Heath, Charavay and others. Christmas Biplane with Scale Drawing. Simple Computations Relating to Aeroplane Design, by

W. S. Horton. Amateur Aeroplane Builders, by Earle Ovington. Construction of a Weather Bureau Kite, by Prof. A. J.

Henry.

Leonardo da Vinci and Flying, by Charles Beecher Bunnell.

Efficient Development, by Hugo C. Gibson. Columbia Monoplane, with Scale Drawings.

A. F. Speedometer. Sparman Teaching Machine. Fakes and Fakers of Aviation. Patents.

Pitot Tube Speedometer. Curtiss Turntable for Hydros. Kellogg Control. Lewis Aeroplane Gun.

Analysis and Comparison of Patents, by Lee S. Burridge.

WE GIVE EVERY

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The CYCLEM013ILE is a newly perfected machine not on the market for sale on account of our large exclusive contract with the inventors. It Is built like a real Motor Car with two speeds, forward and reverse, besides a neutral coaster speed. The Body and Hood are Pressed Steel and second growth ash, supported on a Chassis frame of Rolled Steel anglo iron, capable of carrying the weight of five full grown men. The Axles are also of Steel and Wheels Rubber Tired. The frontwheelspivoton regulation Motor Car steering knuckles, eliminating all danger of upsetting on curves. We simply can not give you one hundredth part of the real Specifications in this limited space, but send in the coupon and we will TELL IT ALL.

MOTOR CAR PUB. CO..

KANSAS CITY. MO. Dear Sirs: ajt<?

Kindly mail me full details and Specifications of your CYCLEMOBILE offering, and oblige,

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Address

Page 64

Eight Flyers Suspended at Boston

During the Boston "Meet," the following- letter was addressed to each of the "licensed" aviators participating, including; Martin, Beachey, Page, JTreeman, Peck, Terrill, Hamilton and Fish—

New York, July 2, 1912.

Dear Sir: •

1 am directed by the Contest Committee to request that you appear before it, either in person of by writing, at 3 o'clock P. M., July 16, 1912, in Room 401, 39 Whitehall Street, New York City, and show cause why the provisions of Article

G3 of the regulations of the F. A. I. should not be applied to you for having -\iolated Article 5 of said regulations. Very respectfully,

Sajnuel Reber, Chairman, Contest Committee.

There are no copies published of the F. A. I. rules in English, and copies in French are not in general circulation, so that the answering of this letter was an impossibility. The paragraph referred to forbids licensed aviators participating in unsanctioned meets.

I HE Boston affair, which resulted so I disastrously in every way, was just I such a "meet," as the others that I have been run, but worse. It was just as much an exhibition; as any one-day stand. The prizes alleged to be offered were a joke. There were some contests scheduled but aviators did not participate save to amuse the crowd. As a meet, it was a fraud.

The manager and organizer, Willard, made the regular contracts with the aviators. Willard assured all that the meet either was or would be sanctioned. Several read in "Aero" that the meet was a sanctioned one. Some of these contracts, made with the more experienced concerns, were on the usual out-and-out exhibition basis, i. e., those with Stevens for Miss Quimby, Hamilton; the Curtiss Company for Beachey, and Knabenshue for Martin and Scott. These contracted to give an exhibition flight daily for so much money for a certain period of time. There was no element of a contest in their agreements with the management. Both have been flying recognized exhibitions in the past; in their case, at least, the Boston "meet" was no less an "exhibition" than those in which they had previously flown without comment, let or hindrance on the part of the Aero Club. The other men got a guarantee of so much, and "prize money." Knabenshue, Curtiss and Stevens saw that the money for Glenn Martin and Blanche Scott, Beachey and Miss Quimby was in the bank subject to completing the flying part of the contract. The management took care of the "strongest" ones in this way and "jollied" the rest. Some got but two and three hundred dollars for the entire week's Hying.

The only "prize money" to be had was a pro rata share of the gate receipts. After the first three days, the gate receipts were turned over to Earle Ovington as an aviators' committee and were divided according to the value of the men as aviators, on a basis of the guarantee to each.

SANCTION SYSTEM COMMENDABLE

The Aero Club of America has undertaken to sanction "meets" after assuring itself that money equalling the total of the prize list is in the bank for payment as awards are made. This was planned as a protection to the aviator from the irresponsible promoter and is a most commendable scheme. Thus far, the plan has proved more a source of trouble than benefit:

In the case of Boston, the club made no public or general announcement one way or the other. Individual officers of the club notified several flyers "unofflially" the day before the meet opened that it was not sanctioned and the news spread. Leo Stevens received word from the Club the meet was sanctioned.

Many days before that, the last of the contracts between the management and the aviators had been signed; some by men who had perfectly good reason to suppose the meet to be sanctioned. Had the aviators not appeared, or had refused to fly as demanded by the club, each and every one of them might have been sued for breach of contract and their machines would have stayed in the State of Massachusetts for the next year. Admitting that a "meet" where various kinds of contracts are made with aviators, of purely exhibition nature or otherwise, is a real ".meet," on the same plane as a horse race where entrants pay en-

trance fees and all stand alike to win or lose, the Aero Club, if it has an ultimatum to deliver, and is in a position to enforce its mandates, should make such delivery far enough in advance to reach intending competitors before they sign their contracts and ship their machines. In this way only can this "sanction" be of any value whatever.

Besides that, if said sanction is to be an item of value to aviators, and of like value to legitimate meet promoters, aviators should combine in the refusal of signature to contracts until the sanction is obtained. If the promoter cannot meet the requirements of the sanction, he is better off, the aviators are saved expense, the public is protected from fiasco and flying sport gains strength if the planned meet is given up.

If the club cannot make its sanction worth anything save as an object of ridicule and a vehicle for its own entanglement, better is it that the club withdraw its efforts and let the aviators who have always managed to worry along on their own hook in the past, take their own chances in the future.

In the case of Boston, after all the aviators were on the field, the machines set up, and telegrams are alleged to have been sent to at least one manager by the club that the meet would be sanctioned, the day previous to the opening the club announced that the meet was not sanctioned and twenty minutes before the opening gun a representative of the club is said to have appeared on the field and advised the aviators they were liable to have their "licenses" cancelled if they flew. A pretty time to discover that the meet ought not to be "sanctioned!"

Martin had his contract to fulfill and went ahead and flew. The club would not guarantee him against a lawsuit. Beachey followed him into the air and the "meet" wras on. The flyers all saw they were expected by contract to fly and they decided a Massachusetts sheriff was more to be feared than aero club resolutions.

At Oakland, recently, the aviators were notified by the club their licenses would be revoked if they flew. They flew and nothing happened. Their contracts were with an exhibition company.

At Los Angeles meet, each aviator received a telegram the day before, it opened that it was not sanctiond. The following day the-management received a telegram that it was sanctioned; the aviators got no word but took that of the management.

CLUB CONSIDERS IT EXHIBITION

An officer of the A. C. A. is alleged to have made the statement that although the Boston meet was not sanctioned there was nothing to prevent aviators from filling exhibition contracts if they had such contracts; that the meet would have to be run as a pure exhibition since it was not sanctioned. This statement was made after the A. C. A. refused the sanction, and just before the show opened.

The following letters have been received from some of those concerned. It is a great hardship for these flyers, the best there are in America, to be "cut out" of the Chicago meet, for instance, by the hasty action of the Club. "Naturally we turn to the trade papers as a major source of assistance," writes Phillips Ward Page.

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Page 65

by glenn l. martin

My contract was a pure exhibition matter. Leo Stevens stated that he had received a telegram from the Aero Club to the effect the meet was sanctioned. Some machines were ready for the first "race" when a representative of the A. C. A. notified Beachey and myself we would

be liable to disqualification if we Hew--this

twenty minutes before the opening gun. All the money I got was guaranteed. The aviators saw it was simply a case of where they were expected to fly, the A. C. A. had not notified them in time, and the only thing left to do was to fly. We could not refuse to fly as the machines might have been attached and put out of business for a couple of years.

by paul peck

I saw in "Aero" of June 29th, that it was a sanctioned meet. I received from Mr. Willard a telegram stating that it was a sanctioned meet. 1 did not receive any notice whatever from the Aero Club that it was not a, sanctioned meet, until i had stopped flying Thursday night and then I received a notification to appear before them July 16th.

Mr. Southworth told me that the Aero Club, of which be is secretary, had given Mr. Willard until forty-eight hours before the opening of the meet to raise the necessary money. That being the case then the Aero Club must admit that they allowed us to go to the expense of shipping our machines to Boston, which we had to do more than forty-eight hours before the opening of the meet, on the chance of Willard not making good to them and when Willard did not make good, then the Aero Club stepped aside and left us to hold the bag, with our expenses already heavy and too late to get an engagement for the Fourth of July.

I do not think that we were treated justly or fairly at all and 1 for one am willing to stand my proportion of the expenses to have the case taken up before the F. A. I.

If the Aero Club were doing what they were supposed to do—protect the aviator—then why did not they have an understanding with Mi'. Willard two weeks or even one week before the opening of the meet and either issue the sanction or refuse it and we would not have gone to the expense of shipping our machines there. But I for one had to ship my machine more than forty-eight hours before the opening and had no idea that the meet was not sanctioned until after I arrived in Boston Sunday afternoon.

The least that the Aero Club could have done would have been to telegraph us as soon as the sanction was refused but they failed even to do that.

What are the officials of the Club for if not to attend to situations like this?

I believe of course that there should be a governing body in charge of aviation in America but the Aero Club certainly failed miserably in this case and then tried to throw the blame on the aviators.

1 can do without the Aero Club quite as easily as the Aero Club can do without me for so far as I know they have never done anything for me yet, but I am in this business to stay and am going to stay in it. Aero Club or no Aero Club.

by f. j. terrill

My contract at Boston was signed some two weeks before the so-called meet took place. It was made with the Atlantic Aviation Association, W. A. P. Willard, Mgr. I understand Beachey's contract was with W. A. P. Willard individually. My contract, like Beachey's, was for exhibition Hying only, both of us agreeing to fly an average of so many minutes daily for a certain sum. Precedent has established the custom of non-interference by the Aero Club with exhibition flying and I fail to see any legitimate reason for my suspension.

Considering |the Boston affair, outside of contracts like my own, as a bona fide meet, it is still unjust that the A. C. A. should deprive any flyer of his certificate.

Some time, approximately two weeks before the meet, and before my contract happened

to have been signed, i read in the "AERO" that the meet was or would be a sanctioned one. Mr. Willard told me the meet was sanctioned at the time I signed mv contract. Not till about four o'clock the afternoon of June 2!t, alter flying had been done, did I learn from the general talk on the field that it had not been sanctioned. 1 was shown a letter by JVlr. Willard from the Aero Club to the effect that the presenting of my license card would admit me to the field, which, to mv mind, is a recognition of the meet by the Club.

i had no communication from the A. C. A. at any time until I received a letter asking me to state my reasons why I should not be suspended. It is unfair to competitors in a meet that they were not notified the meet was not sanctioned. I have never seen onr heard of any copy in English of the international rules, which I believe should be published for the information of promoters of meets and aviators.

by lincoln beachey

I arrived at Boston, Mass. on the morning of June 29th for the purpose of fulfilling a contract held by and between the Curtiss Exhibition Co., and W. A. P. Willard.

On the afternoon of June 29, 1912 at about two o'clock. I was surprised to be informed that if I took part in the meet that my pilot's license would be revoked. I had previously been advised that the meet had been sanctioned by the Aero Club of America. At about four o'clock on the same afternoon .Mr. Jerome S. Fanciulli, representing the Curtiss Exhibition Co., was paid in advance by the management of the meet a sum which the contract called for to be paid at the conclusion of the day's flying. This compelled me to fly that afternoon us we could not afford to be sued for failure to fill our part of the contract. As our contract called for a minimum of twenty minutes of exhibition flying and did not compel me to compete for prizes, 1 flew merely to fill our part of the contract and not to accept any money for winning any 'U-izes.

On July 1st and 2d t merely repeated what I did the first day. I did not receive a cent in prize money, but just received the guarantee for what our contract called for.

by phillips ward page

It is hard to believe that the Aero Club of America, in suspending the eight avhttors who flew at the Boston aviation meet, acted witli a full understanding of the situation of these aviators before and during the .meet. With a full appreciation of all the facts, the national body could hardly have worked such a hardship upon the fliers involved, entailing also an injury to aviation as a whole in this country at a time when support by all those interested in the science is so much needed.

The whole affair from the start, in fact, seems to me to be a complication of misunderstandings. For my part, I entered the meet under the misapprehension that the meet had the sanction of the Aero Club, and I believe that this was true also of the others who have been disqualified. To have broken the contract with the meet, made in this belief that it was properly sanctioned, by refusing to lly after three days of the meet had passed with no notification from the Aero Club that I should not tlv, would naturally have subjected me to serious legal difficulties. This aspect of the situation was especially important, since at the time I heard that the trouble brewing between the Aero Club and the meet management was reaching a climax, and it behooved those who were flying to live up to the letter of their contracts.

Had word from the Aero Club that the meet was not sanctioned reached me in time, 1 should not have had the confidence in the meet that led me lo enter. In view of the final outcome of the meet it is extremely unfortunate that this notification was so long delayed.

As the representative of the Federation Aero-nautique International. the Aero Club of America is naturally the parent body in this country, and such should, 1 believe, assume some responsibility for the welfare of those

holding- is licenses to fly. Its failure to warn the eight fliers disqualified in time for them to avoid becoming involved in a situation that has resulted in serious financial loss to these men does not seem to me to show a readiness to look after the best interests of the aviators. Adding to the many unfortunate features of the meet, so far as the aviators themselves are concerned, the severe punishment of disqualification during the remainder of the flying season is not, in my opinion, an indication of the manner in which the Aero Club accepts its responsibility that bears much encouragement to the men who fly.

By A. LEO STEVENS

I have no letters or any communication with the Aero Club of America, except that I 'phoned the secretary of the Club from Boston, on Monday, June 24th, and asked very plainly whether the meet, commencing on June 2i/th and continuing until July 7th, had been sanctioned and received word that "it had". I also inquired if the money had been put up to guarantee the prizes and the word I received was "it had". After receiving this word I asked Mr. South worth of the Aero Club of America to be sure he was right and look into the mat-

tioned, that the prizes had been deposited and then one day, before the meet to notify them that if they took part they would lose their pilot's certificates. The Aero Club of America, or its representative, telephoned to my home two days prior to the meet stating that the Aero Club of America had not sanctioned the meet and that there had been no money deposited. Just imagine what a beautiful time a day or two before a meet to announce to the aviators that if they should take part their pilot certificates would be rejected!

I do not blame a single one of the flyers for taking part in the meet; they had a perfect right to do so and I say it is up to the Aero Club of America to apologize to the aviators for the treatment they have handed them. If the Aero club of America would run their affairs on business lines and have the meets which have been sanctioned by them deposit their money at the time the sanction was given, it would secure the aviators and procure members for the Aero Club of America. This sort of business has been going on long enough: every meet that has taken place in this country seems to have been a grand

THE VIEWS OF THE CONTEST COMMITTEE

By Samuel Reber, Major, U. S. Army, Chairman

You ask me for a statement from myself as chairman, that you can use, representing the Aero Club of America's opinion of the recent suspension of aviators. I beg to call your attention to the, fact that ton action of suspending the aviators was not that of the Aero Club of America but of its Contest Committee, which, after having been appointed by the Aero Club of America, is not controlled by it with respect to any action the Contest Committee may take under the general regulations of the F. A. I. The Contest Committee (Commission Sportif) in each country is the agent of the F. A. 1. to see that its regulations are enforced. Articles 4 and 5 of the regulations read as follows:

Article 4. Every person organizing or taking part in a meet or any trial whatsoever is understood: 1st. To thoroughly understand the

present regulations. 2nd. To engage to submit himself without restriction to the consequences that can result therefrom.

Article 5. All meetings, trials for record, etc., which are not organized in accordance with these regulations shall be forbidden; all participants therein shall be disqualified.

The question of the sanction of a meet is always in the hands of the Contest Committee and unless certain provisions required by the regulations are complied with the committee cannot sanction the meet. The gentlemen organizing the recent Boston Meet failed to comply with these requirements and consequently the meet could not be sanctioned and under Article 5 of the regulations there was no course left to the Contest Committee but to suspend the aviators who participated in an unsanctioned meet.

It is to be observed that but one aviator, Mr. Coffyn, inquired of the Contest Committee if the Boston Meet had been sanctioned. He was informed that it had not and would not be sanctioned until the organizers met the requirements of the International Aeronautic Federation. Had any of the other abiators interested made inquiry they would have been likewise informed. It would appear that common business prudence ought to lead aviators to make inquiries at the proper source as to the character and standing of meets. Participation in an unsanctioned meet, whether by contract or entry, clearly comes within the interdiction of Article 5 and the penalty must perforce follow.

ter and telegraph me at my expense and on the same night of Monday, June 24th I received the following telegram: "Yes."

All I was trying to find out was whether or not a given amount of money had been deposited.

I have noticed in some of the papers an alleged statement by the Aero Club to the effect that if Miss Quirnby had not been killed she would also have been disqualified. I want to mention right here in plain words that the Aero Club of America bad absolutely nothing to do with any of my exhibition flyers and I assure you that if Miss Quirnby were living they would never dare to reject her pilot certificate. My contract was for a fiat sum for certain exhibitions and not prizes, that Miss Quirnby was to give a performance each day, weather permitting.

In my mind the flyers that were disqualified should hold the Aero Club responsible, after making the statement to me, of which I notified Mr. Knabenshue, Chas. K. Hamilton, and Paul Peck, that the .meet had been sanctioned and the money had been deposited.

I say that it is unjust to have a club first notify aviators that a meet had been sanc-

kick for the want of funds or something else.

1 quite well remember the balloon race from St. Louis in which the first man, who was Mr. Alan R. Hawley with Augustus Post, was to receive $4500; with $1000 for the second prize, $1000 for the third prize and $500 for the fourth prize. At that time the people of St. Louis had appropriated $3,500 and it was suggested by the sports who were taking part in that event that it was not sufficient. It was suggested the last minute to cable to Gordon-Bennett, who immediately appropriated $3500 and the St. Louis crowd immediately withdrew their part of the money and used up the Gordon-Bennett prize by dividing it. Had this money been deposited in a bank as it should be, prior to granting the sanction every aeronaut and aviator would have received what was coming to him. In this case, as I stated" before, Mr. Hawley received the small sum of $1000 for his great winnings. This is only one or two cases in comparison to what has been done.

I remember at Indianapolis, an expert, who had never seen a balloon before, measuring balloons, by measuring the shadow and during the St. Louis race, for the Gordon Bennett Cup not a single balloon was measured.

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C. Before buying any aeroplane, be sure the maker is not a novice himself. Get names of purchasers. Visit the plant and school.

C. Every Shneider machine flies—and flies well. All parts standardized. No freak construction.

C Amply powered (Roberts.)

C Get a demonstration flight first. Then ask those who have flown Shneider machines:

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H. Binder J. P. Tarbox

C,The late Tony Castellane learned on Shneider 'planes.

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1020-1022 East 178th Street New York

Established 1908

On the Death of Miss Quimby

By A. LEO STEVENS

HiHiKHiHiHiHE tragic death of Miss Harriet tn rr\ m Quimby and William A. P. Willard, Hi I Hi who fell in midair from Miss Hi Hi Cjuimby's Bleriot monoplane at

JJiHiHiHiHiai Boston, July 1st, has aroused um\ ersal speculation on the cause of that most unfortunate mishap.

All sorts of theories have been advanced, but as in the case of every similar tragedy, theories alone have remained to accounc tor the happening.

Out of all the maze of conflicting opinions two or three seem to have gained preeminence over all others: that something "went wrong" with some factor in the monoplane contiol or machinery: that a sudden wind-puff whipped it out of Miss Quimby's control, or that Miss Quimby became a \ ictim of sudden mental panic, or even fainted.

Knowing as f do the machine's condition before the flight, I discard the first theory. Knowing Miss Quimby as I did, I emphatically reject the third theory. The second theoiy 1 consider so purely speculative that I cannot seriously entertain it.

1 saw the flight. It was one of the most beautiful performances I ever saw Miss Quimby or any other aviator make. At all times, until the accident occurred, she had the Bleriot under splendid control. It was a perfect day. We were awaiting Miss Quimby's return from Boston Light. In a little while a speck appeared in the sky. Miss Quimby must have been at least 7,000 ft. in the air when she circled the light, for on the outward Might she had been steadily rising. As the speck grew larger and larger until the dragonfly outline of the Bleriot again shaped itself against the blue sky, we could see that Miss Quimby was coming down, flying at a speed of about Ho miles an hour.

At about 2,500 ft. altitude, Miss Quimby passed over the field and a quarter of a mile beyond made a turn to come back.

Suddenly that '•-something" happened. The Bleriot made a sudden dip, nose pointed downward, tail thrust upward. The next instant we saw a body (Willard's), hurl itself upward out of the machine, apparently leaping fiftv feet in the air, describe an arc, then come plunging downward well ahead of the monoplane. Instantly Miss Quimby righted the machine. But a moment later the Bleriot again clipped, stood in a perpendicular position with its nose down and the tail up, then turned completely over. Then Miss Quimby, flung from her seat, dropped, her body whirling over and over. She was plunging downward even before Willard's body struck.

The Bleriot was made to carry two persons— an operator and one passenger. Without the passenger the operator must carry an equivalent weight of sand or other ballast placed at the point where the passenger is carried. This is imperative, as otherwise the machine is thrown out of balance and cannot be controlled. An appreciable movement of that weight forward is highly disastrous: its shifting backward has little or no consequence. Tins is because the Bleriot travels with the tail elevated at quite an angle. The weight when added forward of the point of balance, thrusts the monoplane's nose downward while the tail rises at a sharper angle. Then the machine plunges, and unless the weight is immediately replaced, dives downward and eventually upsets.

The hood of Miss Quimby's machine had been removed to permit of easy access to her seat. Between her seat and the passenger's had been laid a deck of matched boards. My last warning to Willard, before he entered the machine and even after he had climbed aboard was not to leave his seat under any circuinstances. This warning I was very particular to sive because I knew him to be a man of sudden impulses. I was fearful lest under sud-

den impulse and effervescing enthusiasm he should suddenly lean from his seat to communicate with Miss Quimby. This 1 knew would be an exceedingly dangerous thing to do. But I received his assurance that he would "sit tight."

Now then, this is what 1 believe leally happened. 1 believe that as the flight drew to its conclusion, Willard, enthusiastic over Miss Quimby's splendid performance, for a moment forgot the danger of moving, and suddenlv stretched forward over the deck to shout a word of congratulation.

Miss Quimby, unable to see what was going on behind her, had no warning of Willard's movement until his shifted weight caused the machine to dip and the tail to Hip upward. That same (lip of the tail, I believe, threw Willard into the air. I noticed that as he came down, feet fiist, body rigid, his position was such as would be assumed by one attempting to crouch over the deck of the machine.

That theoiy is based upon my knowledge of the machine and my close personal acquaintance with Miss Quimby and Willard and their personal characteristics.

That Miss Quimby even for an instant lost her head is disproven by her instantaneous attempt to right the machine. Not only as her manager but as a close personal friend, I knew her to be a woman of great coolness and judgment and an operator of extraordinary ability. With Willard's weight gone—a weight absolutely necessary to the control of the monoplane—she was pitted against a circumstance over which no aviator, no human ingenuity, or knowledge, or skill or practice could have control. Only for an instant could she right the machine. Us next plunge and subsequent overturning were a mechanical consequence that could not be obviated owing to the construction of the machine.

by paul peck

She was coming down with the power wide open and when she threw the tail up to "volplane" in, Willard was not expecting it and was thrown out and she followed about one or two hundred feet later. The machine struck the water at a perfect gliding angle, wheels first and I am positive from the way in which it came down and from my later examination that nothing went wrong with the controls.

Had they been strapped in it would have never happened.

by earle l. ovington

1 found that one of the two left-hand control wires (all of the Bleriot control wires are in duplicate) had caught over the lower end of the warping lever. Of course this is a defect in construction, as the rudder wires should either have been put further away from the warping lever, or else have been run through fieedes at this point so as to prevent them becoming entangled with it.

The reason this has not happened before in a Bleriot monoplane is because the warping lever as used in Miss Quimby's machine was not the conventional Bleriot "cloche" which was a feature of my seventy-horsepower monoplane, and all others 1 have seen. 1 noticed this departure from conventional Bleriot practise when 1 examined Miss Quimby's machine before the flight. I have also called this matter to Monsieur Bleriot's attention in a letter under this date.

It is some satisfaction to know definitely the cause of this accident and I assure you that 1 hardly think there is a chance of my being mistaken.

by lincoln beachey

In regard to the accident to Miss Quimby I would not like to express myself on what 1 thought was the exact cause. There are several things that mav have caused the accident. She may have fainted, and if this happened she

would naturally have gone forward, shoving the control forward and causing the machine to plunge downward and throw Willard and herself out.

The wires or their connections to the rear elevator may have broken or jammed.

She may have attempted to come down at a steeper angle than she -was coming down. This could have caused Willard to be thrown up. Relieved of his weight in the rear of the center of balance the machine would naturally want to come down at a steeper angle.

Before starting on her flight her mechanican gave her instructions in regard to pumping gasoline from the auxiliary tank to the main tank. She had to reach forward to do this as there was a two-or three-way valve she had to turn before starting to pump. She did not seem to be very familiar with the operation or the exact way to turn the valve before and after pumping. Her gasoline may have become low in the main tank and she may have attempted to pump some in from the auxiliary. She may have become confused, on which way to turn the valve to do this and realizing her engine was liable to stop, she may have attempted to come down at a steeper angle and land as she was in a very good position to do this nicely.

What caused this and other accidents similar no one will ever know.

By Glenn L. Martin

I was watching Miss Quimby's flight and saw the entire unfortunate occurrence. Miss Quirnby was returning from the lighthouse at full speed, she had dropped from her previous elevation of 4000 feet with the wind to 1000 feet against the wind in a rather short time. She had crossed over the flying field, had made a half circle into the wind, over the bay. It was best to still make a complete circle before getting into the field and landing against the breeze.

1 was astonished at the speed she was making, with power on, gliding to a landing. On completing the half circle she lowered the elevator quickly, which slanted the machine to a steeper angle and causing a strong pressure on the upper side of the wings. The sudden

change in direction, however slight, was sudden enough to unseat both the pilot and passenger and throw both forward and out of the machine, Miss Quimby succeeding manager Willard by the fraction of a second. Her angle was not too great had the power been turned off. Aviators know that any quick movement of the elevator of a fast aeroplane will pitch one out of his seat unless strapped in. Miss Quimby increased the angle of her dive to avoid the complete circle previously referred to, or else she was taken sick and felt compelled to make a quick landing or had even fainted at the time of the accident.

1 watched the machine itself to see what would happen. Unoccupied, it glided down on a perfectly even keel, at an angle of not more than 30 degrees until the wheels hit the water, when it pitched forward and over on its back, doing not very great damage. If a warping wire had been caught in the control lever, as has been suggested, the machine would have done some fancy spiralling. Paul Peck, and others, examined the machine closely and found nothing wrong with the control wires.

The weather was good. I had been flying all the afternoon and there was no rough air whatever.

Had Miss Quimby and Willard been strapped in, the accident would not have occurred, in my opinion.

ON THE DEATH OF WELSH

Following is the findings of the Government board of inquiry.

"*****ln attempting to change the direction upward, while traveling at this high velocity, either the plane broke, due to the sudden strain when a short distance from the ground, or else the aviator misjudged the short time available while at this high speed, and struck the ground before the direction could be changed upward. The opinions on this point differ, but there is little doubt that the accident was caused by the aviator making the dip at a high speed, and not due in any way to improper construction of the aeroplane or weakness of the materials used. All of the control wires were found unbroken."

WRIGHT COMPANY STARTS CAMPAIGN

A campaign of education has been started by the Wright Company with a view to interesting the motor boat owners in the hydroaeroplane. A water machine station has been arranged at Glen Head, L. I., near the Glen-wood Country Club, where 800 feet of water frontage has been offered by the club. Demonstrations will be made at the various boat and yacht clubs along the Sound, passengers will be taken up, the regattas and cruises will be taken part in with the hydroaeroplane. The country club has appointed an aviation committee, in fact instigated the scheme with a view to encouraging its members to flight. By next Summer a row of sheds is expected to house members' machines. Students of flight, members or not, have the privileges of the Club and the golf grounds. The place may be reached by auto roads from New York, by railroad, water, or by ferry from Rye across the Sound.

Charles Wald will be the demonstrator and pilot. The machine, Model C, used will have stepless metal floats, with keels.

LACROIX TAKES A. M. & E. CO.

The Aeroplane Motors & Equipment Company, of 17S0 Broadway, have been, since July 8th, connected with the Paul Lacroix Automobile Company, Inc., which concern thus Jarmsan aviation dept. Messrs. McCurdy have severed their connections with the Equipment Company, which are importing Gnome. Renault and Anzani motors, which motors they will carry in stock. They are also sole American agents for the Salmson (Canton-Unne type), and Chenu motors, and for the Morane-Saulnier machine, which machine, in the latest circuit abroad, the Circuit Anjou, made the

fastest time. They are also the sole American agents for the Train monoplane, which obtained such large publicity in the European Circuit. They are importing all the standard aeronautical supplies, as Astrol Varnish, for which product they are the sole American agents, aviation helmets, etc.

10-HOUR TEST OF STURTEVANT MOTOR

A ten hour, non-stop test of a Sturtevant 6 cylinder 60 h.p. aeronautical motor was recently made for the buyers of the engine, a western aeroplane company. The engine was equipped with a Sturtevant propeller, SV2 ft. in diameter and was tested without the muffler and on a stand constructed for measuring the thrust of the propeller, described in the June number. The speed and thrust were observed at frequent intervals and the total oil and gasolene consumption measured. The mechanics in charge of the test were not allowed to touch the motor and during the entire run of ten hours, no adjusments were made. The motor ran perfectly without missing a single explosion. Oil was supplied every two hours by means of a hand pump.

A summary of the results of the test is given below:—

Motor started 9.20A.M. RPM 1237 Thrust 475 lbs.

At 7.10P.M. " 1203 " 440 -" stopped 7.20P.M. Total oil used = 4.75 gallons,

gasolene used = 65 gallons

How do you suppose I can get along in two months without it? AERONAUTICS always was the best and biggest aero magazine in America, and now that Mr. Sellers is writing articles of real technical value, it is the best in the world. C. B'., Chicago.

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Aviator starts motor from his seat if required

AMERICAN ENDURANCE RECORD

fPg- 4 Hours, 23 Minutes at 60 Miles an Hour

Stopped on account of Severe Thunder Storm Bui t of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel throughout

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1912 CLASSES

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ENTRIES FOR GORDON BENNETT CUP DEFENSE

Edson F. Gallaudet has offered his "Bullet" as a Gordon Bennett aviation Cup defender, under the conditions of the recent offer of the A. C. A., previously printed in "Aeronautics." Scale drawings of the machine and details were published in the June issue.

Jules Vedrines, the French aviator, was first on July 13, in the elimination trials.

He beat all records from 10 to 200 kilometers, making an average speed of 169 kilometers (about 105 miles) an hour. He covered the 200 kilometers (124 miles) in 1:10:50.

The Nieuport machine, which a while ago the A. C. A. announced had been given to the club for the use of members, is now under the control of the Chicago Aero Club, which body offers it to aviators for practice in preparation for the G-B race, September 9. The Chicago club has ordered a small surface 160 h.p. monoplane from the Burgess Co. & Curtis and is soliciting aviators to offer their free services in piloting it in the big event. The Nieuport is offered aspirants for this honor for practice work.

Incorporation papers have been issued for the "Defender Syndicate" of Chicago.

THE BOSTON MEET

Those who participated at Boston were: Glenn L. Martin (Martin biplane-Curtiss engine); Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss): Harriet Quimby (Bleriot-Gnome); Phillips W. Page (Burgess-Sturtevant engine); Arch Freeman (Burgess-Wright; Paul Peck (Columbia-Gyro); Chas. S. Niles (Thomas biplane-Kirkham engine); Frank Terrill (Curtiss); Farnura Fish (Wright); Chas. K. Hamilton (Curtiss); Blanche Scott (Martin-Hall Scott): George F. Gray (Burgess-Wright); 1). C. Patmore (Thomas-Kirkham).

Martin made the greatest total duration, although no records of any kind were kept, tlying every day. Charles K. Hamilton took second place in total duration.

The Thomas biplane on its first public appearance at an affair of this kind, attracted much favorable attention. A Kirkham 70 h.p. 6 cxl. engine drove a geared down S' d. by 9' p. propeller and the machine developed great speed. An accident to the gear case necessitated a change of engine and direct drive, with smaller propeller.

The Martin biplane attracted a lot of attention both by reason of fine workmanship and speed, practically equalling Beachey in speed, with a larger spread. He uses a similar Curtiss 75 h.p. motor. A fixed vertical surface has been attached over the front wheel which helps in turning and banking and keeps from skidding in gusty weather. This has half the area of the rudder.

Hamilton used a front elevator Curtiss, while the other Curtiss machines were headless.

The Sturtevant motor a 4 cyl.. made its first public appearance at a meet in the Burgess 'plane of Page. This was used all during the meet and gave him greater speed. In his first flight, he made 5000 feet and expressed himself as pleased with the perfect working of the engine.

The Martin and Miss Scott contracts amounted to $4000, Hamilton $1100, Beachey $1200, Miss Quimby $2000. Some of the other flyers did not meet expenses.

ARMY AERO APPROPRIATION.

The Army Appropriation Bill was vetoed by the President and it has not yet been passed again by Congress, so no one knows positivelv how much will be appropriated for aeronautics this year.

Plans have been gotten up for a hangar and float at Governors Island for an Army hydroaeroplane Station but nothing can be done in the matter until after the passage of the Appropriation Bill, as until the Bill passes there is no money available for this purpose.

BIG CIRCUIT RACE OFF.

"Owing to the general lack of interest in aviation in the cities of the Middle West, designated as controls of the American Air Circuit cf 1912, resulting in their failure to assure financial support sufficient to cover prizes large enough to attract aviators," states the Aero Club of America, "the Board of Governors have decided to call off the race."

Chicago, early in the movement, assured its portion of the money desired. Detroit, Da\ ton and Akron also responded well, but it was impossible to secure from the other controls the amount of money required.

ARMY MAKES GOOD TOTAL.

The flights at the l.\ S. Signal Corps Aviation School for the year ending June 30, resulted as follows:

Total flights, 1500,

Total duration, 259 hours, 16 mins. Flights made by aeroplanes before final acceptance by the Government are not included in this number, nor does it include practice "hops" across the field by beginners.

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION RACE

The following countries have entered machines in the Gordon Bennett aviation race to take place at Chicago on September 9th: —

France, 3 machines; Belgium, 3 machines: England, 2 machines; Holland, 1 machine: Switzerland, 1 machine.

The individual entrants have not as yet been announced by the various countries.

G-B BALLOON RACE.

The countries that have entered the Gordon-Bennett Ballon Pace to take place in German>. are as follows:

America. 3 balloons; Belgium, 3 balkx ns; <"er-many, 3 balloons; France. 3 balloons; Austria, 3 balloons; Switzerland. 3 balloons; Italy. 2 balloons, Denmark. 1 balloon; England, 1 balloon: Russia, 1 balloon.

The pilots of the ballons have not as yet been announced.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Two foieign aeroplanes were imported during May at a value of $7,671. None in April. For the eleven months ending May 31, the total reaches 17, value $59,71:'..

Domestic exports in May were 6 at $22,:«10 and for eleven months totaled 27, value $1(12,705. In April 2 were exported at $9,000.

The total extorts of foreign built machines for these eleven months amounted to 11 at $35,S31, none of these were exported in May or April.

Foreign machines in warehouses May 31. :. at $11,423.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Pittsfield, June 23. Win. Van Sleet and Jay B. Benton in the "Boston" to Springfield, Mass.

Pittsfield, July 4. 11. ii. Clayton and .lay B. Benton in the "Boston" to Shuteshury.

Kansas City, July 12. Ca.pt. II. 1-1. Honeywell. John Watts and a guest in the "Kansas City ILL" landing two miles S. \i. of llolliday. Kans.

Indianapolis, May 31. Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh. Chas Stone, Col. A. B. Munn and Andrew Farrell in the "Dusst-ldorf I" 10 miles \-1. of Bridgeport.

Indianapolis, May 31. Dr. P. M. Crume and Dr. W. I. Jones in the "Dusseldorf II" to Green-castle. Alt. 17,000 ft.

Indianapolis, May 31. ——--in

the Luzerne; no detail available.

WRIGHT MEMORIAL

Over $2,000 has been raised by the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain., to establish an annual "Wilbur Wright Lecture" as a memorial to the late Mr. Wright. What has become of the "Chair" idea proposed in America?

DEATH LIST

Hamburg, June 4. Aviator Rost.

Dockeritz, Gev., June 22. Lieut, von Falken-hayn in landing, army aviator; Aviatik monoplane.

Vesailks, June 25. Lieut. Etienne died from injuries received June 10.

Mulhausen, Germany, June 29. Schadt in a military Aviatik aeroplane, "made too sharp a curve."

Madrid, Spain, June 30. Capt. Don C. Bayo died of injuries received three days before. He was a military student tlyer.

Altona, Prussia, July 1. Benno Koenig died of injuries received previous day; machine said to have struck unseen obstacle; monoplane of own construction.

Bucharest, Roumania, July 4. Lieut. Cavanda of Roumanian army.

Salisbury Plain, Eng., July 5. Captain E. B. Loraine and Sergeant Major Wilson of the British Army Flying Corps, were killed flying over military encampment.

Mourmelon, July 2. A student named Pecker, killed on landing.

St. Cys, Fr., July 9. Rene Bedel, struck telegraph wires; hazy weather. Morane monoplane.

Palo Alto, Italy, July 13. Victor M. Smith, Jr., a student of Stanford University; struck by a gust of wind close to the ground.

Sebastopool, July 15. Lieut. Zekytski killed in military 'plane.

Paris, July 15. Gaston Olivers fell 150 metres with his biplane.

Leipsig, Ger., July IS. Lieut Prusser, flying for license in a monoplane.

The list now totals 1S6.

SCRIPPS BUYS AQUAPLANE

W. E. Scripps of Detroit, Mich., the well known fast motor boat man, has placed an order for prompt delivery of a Burgess hydroaeroplane equipped with a Sturtevant 4-cylinder motor. Scripps, who said he wouldn't fly for any amount of money, was converted by Brookins who finally got him up as a passenger this .month. The official testing of the War machine will probably be held at Marblehead and at Saugus, Lieutenants Kirtland and Arnold being there for the purpose.

NOTABLE WATER FLIGHT

William F. Cline, flying in a Welles hydroaeroplane of the type used by Fred Eells, on July S, broke Eells record at Cayuga Lake Park, near Rochester. His flight may be considered remarkable owing to the fact that the engine which he was using is considered small, being but a four-cylinder machine of 50 horse-power made by the Arm of Welles & Adams.

The new record is 1 hour 5S 3-4 minutes, made over a fifteen-mile course at the park and the distance traveled was 101 miles at an altitude of 2,100 feet. The flight was brought to a sudden close when the aviator noticed that

a bolt holding one of the rods had worked loose, and he shut off the power to prevent the ehancc of breaking his Charavay propeller. The distance and duration record is 13S miles in 2h. 27 min., by Lieuts. Ellyson and Towers, in a Curtiss.

FOREIGN ORDERS PLACED HERE

Representatives of the Russia and Roumanian governments have been negotiating with Maximotor makers for the equipment of army plane Maximotors. A 6-cylinder military type of 105 h. p. ordered by the Roumanians is well under way. The new military engine with their equipment of clutch, combination auxiliary exhaust and muffler, double ignition and self-starter are arousing a great deal of attention among army officials.

Aviation engines are not manufactured in Russia, or the Balkan States-Bulgaria, Servia and Roumania, though most of them have more army aeroplanes than the United States. Representatives of the Balkan powers state that they have for a long time been looking for reasonable priced four cycle, water cooled engines.

The Moisant Company has already delivered two aeroplanes to Mexico, one of them a two-man machine, 100 h. p. Gnome. Warden and Alvars accompanied the machines.

The Curtiss people have done a good business abroad, as told elsewhere in this issue, also see note on exports of domestic aeroplanes. WISCONSIN'S AERO COURSE

Professor Charles S. Slichter is giving a course three hours weekly in aerodynamics to advanced students of mathematics, physics and engineering, during the summer term of the University of Wisconsin at Madison. The course includes lectures on general aerodynamical theory, the application to the problem of mechanical flight and the classical problems of stability and efficiency.

DYOTT'S SCHOOL DOING WELL

During the first month of its existence the Sloane School of aviation at Hempstead Plains, enrolled seven pupils. One of these, J. S. Herbert, graduated in three weeks after he began to take his lessons on the Deperdussin monoplane. The other pupils are W. Leonard Bonney, a farmer Wright flyers, J. G. Gilpatric, a very clever sixteen year old boy, T. E. Step-toe, Guy Morton, W. E. Roberts and W. I. Twombly. The price of $300.00 for the course proved exceedingly attractive. Unlike any other school, no charge whatever is made for the use of the machine when the pupil flies for his license. Nor is it required that the pupil put up the breakage guarantee in cash.

Two Anzani motors recently were sold' by the Sloane Company in Philadelphia and one was sold in New York. Several have been ordered for delivery in various other parts of the country. The motor that carried the Caud-ion 'plane from Paris to London crossing the Channel at a great altitude, is extraordinarily popular.

BOOKS RECEIVED

BRAUNBECK'S SPORT LEXICON, 1912-1913, published by Gustav Braunbeck's Sport-Lexicon, G. M. B. H., Berlin, W. 35, at 15M. A monster book of 1,300 pages, in German, listing the aero and other sport clubs of the world, publications, prominent men identified with sports, aeroplanes and motor boats of the world, etc., a sporting "Who's Who."

G-B BALLOON RACE The Following List Comprises the Entries in the National Balloon Race Held at Kansas City, Mo., July 27th, 1912.

BALLOON

ENTERED BY Wm. F. Assmann

PILOT Wm. F. Assmann John Berry Paul McCullough G. L. Bumbaugh Albert Holz

AIDE

Albert von Hoffman John Hart

Chas. Trautman

Mil. Pop. Club No. 1 Mil. Pop. Club Mil. Pop. Club No. 2

--Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

Drifter Albert Holz

Cole G. L. Bumbaugh

Kansas City Second Kansas City Aero Club -

Uncle Sam " " " ,, -

The best men in the race are by precedent expected to represent America in the Gordon Bennett in Germany.

Coming Events!

Cast your shadow towards the

King of Attractions

HARRY BINGHAM BROWN, English Pilot

Elevating

FREDERICK RODMAN LAW

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In his WRIGHT AEROPLANE to a height of 4,500 feet, disposing of his human freight at a dizzy height, who $ descends by the aid of a PARACHUTE.

Every click of the watch a "THRILLER," something worth going miles to see.

No other act like it in the WORLD.

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MANAGERS, Booking, will do well to address

A. LEO STEVENS

Box 181, Madison Square, New York

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"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

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Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P. O. New York

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677-L Tompkinsville

$1200£Ho*4800^

Rex Monoplane Co.

SOUTH BEACH, S. I., N. Y.

Phillips W. Page Flying in Burge»s-Wright Machine Equipped with 40-H. P. Sturtevant Motor

The Latest and Best principles of gasoline motor construction, carefully tested and proved by the foremost builders of engines in this country and abroad, are found in the

Si urlav a nV Aeronaulical Molor

A four cylinder 40 horsepower STURTEVANT motor was used by Mr. Page in a Burgess biplane flown by him during the Boston Aviation meet. Although used in every event during the entire meet, absolutely no adjustments or repairs were made on the motor, which operated perfectly, carrying the plane to altitudes of over 5,000 feet. Such absolute reliability is due to sound engineering principles in design and superior workmanship in construction.

Ask for Catalog No. 200 N

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

HYDE PARK, BOSTON MASS. And Principal Cities of the World.

ty Total Entries 0 Los Angeles

50

International

75/0 Oakland Meet HALL-SCOTT EQUIPPED

Hall-Scotts purchased, used, and endorsed by the greater number of professional aviators

Send for new catalogue (now ready)

Address: Capt. THOS. S. BALDWIN

P. O. Box 78, Madison Square, New York

or write direct to

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.

818 CROCKER BUILDING SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

HALL-SCO

Complete Aviation Power Plants

Backed by the Hall-Scott guarantee of excellence, reliability, flexibility and power, to a greater degree than can be found in any other motors (with equal number of cylinders and size in bore and stroke).


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