Aeronautics

Volume 10 - No. 4 - 1912 April

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Vol. X, No. 4

APRIL, 1912

Serial No. 57

Largest Aeroplane IN AMERICA

Paul Studensky flying the National Aeroplane Co.'s biplane fitted with a

ROBERTS 6-X MOTOR

This machine has a spread of 50 feet and weighs 1,000 lbs. The following letter is good news for you.

Galveston, Tex., March 30, 1912 The Roberts sixes in both of our models are working perfectly and giving a world of power and have PROVEN SATISFACTORY IN EVERY POSSIBLE WAY.

NATIONAL AEROPLANE CO.

HOWARD LINN, Pres.

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EGBERTS MOTOR G>

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ublished by AERONAUTICS PRESS, 250 West 54th Street, New York

April 1911

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Safety in Flight

BY THE USE OF SUITABLE NAVIGATING INSTRUMENTS An Abstract from the Paper Read Before the Aeronautical Society, March 21 By CAPTAIN W. IRVING CHAMBERS, U. S. N.

INASMUCH as the sustenta-tiou of an aeroplane inflight and the control of its equilibrium depends mainly upon the control of its speed, the most important factor of safety in flight is good airmanship, by which the control of speed is assured.

Many aviators are flying without the use of speed indicators, or other efficient scientific instruments, to warn them when they are in danger, and it is probable that many skillful airmen who now depend entirely upon the senses, of hearing and touch, to warn them of danger would be able to fly in safety, during weather that they are now too prudent to fly in, if it were common practice to use practical and dependable navigating instruments to guide them.

A prudent pilot will endeavor to eliminate as far as possible all the elements of uncertainty in the behavior of his machine and will avoid overtaxing his physical powers, or depending upon them exclusively, to correct any errors he may make during flight. By the use of suitable instruments and mechanical aids he will dispel, as far as practicable, all uncertainty concerning the speed and the progress. In this way he will carefully avoid overstraining any part and will have confidence in his ability to conduct the machine in safety at all times when flight is possible.

It is apparent from French efforts that their leaders in aviation are seeking to improve safety in flight by a more extensive use of scientific instruments for guidance and of automatic mechanical aids for assistance in the control of equilibrium.

A very notable effort in this direction is that of Captain Eteve. whose speed indicator has been found very efficient in numerous flights during six months of experimentation, in several different machines, during various kinds of weather, through out a distance of more than (1,250 miles, always with a passenger on board to note and record the working of the indicator.

He affirms that more than four-fifths of aeroplane accidents are due either to loss or to excess of speed, that it is often impossible for the best pilots to account for the variations of speed experienced during the flight of an aeroplane, and that the equilibrium of an aeroplane varies in such an uncertain manner that in still air it often swerves from unsuspected causes.

There are two important limits to the speed of an aeroplane, (1) a high speed which it is not prudent to exceed for fear of rupturing the planes, and (2) a low speed, below which the control system will not work to restore equilibrium.

A prudent pilot will always aim to main tain the speed between these two critical limits and will keep away from each extreme sufficiently to avoid being thrown beyond either in times of unexpected danger. When the air is disturbed and wind variable, the aerial billows alternately oppose or follow the machine or strike it at varying angles, under which circumstances the limits of critical speed approach each other. In other words, the range in which the speed may safely vary diminishes as the waves increase either in violence or ex-eentricity.

During a flight, with the motor running in a normal way, to each increment of speed there corresponds a certain angle of inclination which is the most efficient for that speed, but it is certain that no danger is risked when the speed oscillates in a sector of which the extreme sides correspond to the critical speeds. The angle or gap of this sector is usually ample and when the air is calm it is easy to keep the speed of the aeroplane within the sector of safety. But when the air is disturbed, the flight becomes more difficult as the amplitude of the sector diminishes.

Also, when the motive power suddenly varies, the angle of the sector diminishes proportionately. The pilot must then execute a quick maneuver to bring the speed within the more restricted sector of safety, he must be quick to act in case of weakness of the motor and incline the aeroplane to the angle which appears best to maintain equilibrium. Experienced aviators readily feel the position of the machine's equilibrium, but inexperienced aviators are apt to risk their lives in forcing an ascent at starting, or even during a flight, with a motor which works badly. Also, in checking the descent, during a "vol plane,'' they sometimes loose their speed and capsize or drop.

The speed indicator was designed to afford a clear ocular view of the variations in speed raid to enable the pilot, in a systematic manner, to maintain the speed always within the sector of safety and tinder the best control to suit the various conditions that are met in (light.

A closer study of Captain Eteve's speed indicator will show that by a little modifi-

cation and a moderate increase in weight a stabilizing instrument may be designed that will be automatic, semi-automatic or neutral, at will; and, in view of the good results so far attained with it, that better results may be anticipated by making it conform to the principles which govern the Doutre automatic stabilizer.

Lieutenant Saunier, in his report of experiences with the Doutre Stablizer, (See AERONAUTICS for October 1911) in May 1911, was particularly impressed by the intuitive action of the accelerating weights which responded invariably before there was any necessity for movement of the control lever apparent to the sense of an experienced pilot. In his opinion this indicated an intuitive sense, in advance of that of the aviator, of conditions requiring the use of the control lever, in such a way that the instrument anticipates a loss of equilibrium and corrects it in time to avoid excessive use of the ailerons; whereas the operation of the lever by th» hands of a skillful pilot always occurs after the perturbation and often after a dangerous loss of equilibrium.

In the Doutre- device, when pressure is 4 and acceleration —, or when pressure is — and acceleration + , the accelerator opposes or modifies the action of speed pressure.

When the pressure is + and acceleration + , or when pressure is — and acceleration —, the accelerator accentuates the action of the speed pressure.

In the Eteve Speed Indicator, a heavy hob is used to vary the sensitiveness of the pressure action (by previous adjustment), but being placed rigidly below the center of rotation the boh has also an accelerating action which is exactly opposite to that of the Doutre accelerator.

Now there are several ways in which this hob or weight can be placed so as to act in the same manner as the accelerator of M. Doutre and, at the same time, preserve the adjustment features of M. Eteve.

Both instruments depend mainly on the pressure due to speed for the control of equilibrium. Experience with both shows that there can be no mistake in following this principle. But many stabilizers and indicators depend upon pendulum or inclinometer indications which Captain Eteve's experiences clearly show are not safe guides under the atmospheric conditions in which such instruments are most needed.

One of the latter type is the very excellent electric automatic stabilizer of Mr. Ellsworth, illustrated in AERONAUTICS, December, 1911, and although this device employs a pendulum system, which seems wrong to me, and was first adapted to operating the ailerons (which is of minor importance in my estimation), it would be very suitable, with minor modifications, if adapted solely to longitudinal stabilizing

with the modified Eteve Speed Indicator to control it, thereby effecting a gain in efficiency and a saving in weight over all others.

In the Ellsworth apparatus, the control wires are wound on a small drum actuated by an armature which is encircled by two small electric magnets revolving in opposite directions and actuated by a gear wheel from the motor. If one electric-magnet be energized, the armature revolves one way, if the other is energized, the armature revolves the other way, thus rotating the drum either way according to the current supplied by the control agent to either of the electro-magnets.

My purpose is, now, to show how this n^at arrangement may be controlled by the modified speed indicator, so as to make it available, at will, for either automatic or semi-automatic control of stability, and, as the design that I propose is probably susceptible of improvement, I will submit it to the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society, No. 250 West 54th Street, New York, to whom all criticisms or suggestions for improvement should be sent, with a view to creating a wide interest in this subject at the earliest practicable date. I regard the subject as very important and well worthy the attention of all scientific experts who are interested in the progress of aviation.

A Speed Indicator and Flexible Automatic Controller

The instrument is designed for mounting to the right of the pilot. Fig. 1 is a view of the left side. Fig. la is a view of the lear end. Fig. 2 is a vertical longitudinal section through the rod G. Fig. 2a is a vertical cross-section through the rod G and shows the box to be divided into two compartments, A containing the pressure regulators and B containing the control regulators. Fig. 3 shows the left side open (the left covering plate being removed) exposing the control regulators, or critical limit arms, si and /l. Fig. 4 is a view of the top.

The rod G, carrying the adjustable" pressure sphere S, penetrates compartment A to the axis O, to which it is rigidly at tached. The left end of 0 carries the pointer H, the right end of which is shown in Figs. 1 and la just above the reference mark R.

The pressure regulators (Figs. 2 and 2a) comprise the spring M, the tension of which is adjusted by the nut N, and the balancing weights K. These weights are connected with the rod G, above the axis 0, by the Hat springs s. at the crosshead a* which is adjustable on the rod G. Tlidl springs s are also adjustable on the arm a| and the weights K arc adjustable on theirJ stems. The variety of adjustments, (1^1 the sphere, S, (2) the spring M, (3) the!

arm a, (4) the springs s, and (5) the weight K, provides ample flexibility for the power and sensitiveness of the pressure sphere and for the power and sensitiveness of the accel-

The right side of the instrument carries a covering plate r which may be removed 10 make the adjustments, the brace u providing a support for the right end of the

/vs. /zs4-

A Speed Indicator Combined with Automatic Control Designed by Captain Chambers

erating action of K, which operates above axle O and also providing direct electric the axis O and in accord with the principles connection between the pointer II and the of the Doutre Stabilizer. binding post <.\

Page I 1 4

April, 1912

An electric light / is introduced into the sub-compartment L and a rotatable cylinder p occupies the adjoining sub-compartment P, the bulkhead between them being provided with a slot for the escape of light; p is also provided with two slots and the admission of light to the dial sector C may be made as bright or as dim as desired by rotating p.

In Figs. 1 and 3 the critical limit arms si and fl are seen, at different angles of separation, extending across the face of the transparent windows of the dial sector C. These arms are made of non-conducting material, such as ebonite, and the rear portion of compartment B (that containing the dial sector C, see Fig. 3) is also of the same material. The critical limit arms rotate on a sleeve (Fig. 2a.) which is part of the bulkhead separating compartments A and B, and the axle O rotates independently, in inside of this sleeve.

The rear ends of the arms si and fl are provided with metal tips which are grooved and brushed to fit over the metal guide rods tt which form separate electric conductors to the binding posts tit and It. These metal tips are also provided with spring buffers b, either one of which, by contact with the metal pointer H, as it moves up and down, energizes one of the other of two oppositely rotating magnets (as in the Ellsworth stabilizer) thus rotating the armature and the drum, upon which is wound the elevator wires and thus moving the elevator either up or down. Contact of H with the upper buffer b moves the elevator for descent and in the same manner contact with the lower buffer causes ascent. That portion of H which passes beyond the point of contact and around the rear windows of C is also made of non-conducting material.

If the arms si and fl are widely separated, as in Fig. 3, the mechanism provides a wide range for semi-automatic control, as the drum upon which the elevator wires are wound may be freely worked by the control lever when the electro-magnets are not energized by the contact at b. If si and fl be brought near to the reference mark R, full automatic control is provided and it is a simple matter to arrange a separate switch, near the pilot, by which the magnets may be rendered inoperative, if desired.

The pilot may quickly adjust the critical limit arms, to suit any conditions, while in flight. By moving a small lever on a dumb sector, such as shown in miniature, Fig. 5, by means of which the drum c7 (Figs. 3 and la) is revolved and, by suitable belts ii operating corresponding drums attached to the arms s- and fl, these arms may be moved as desired.

A mounting board D (Figs. 4 and la) adaptable for shaping to any specific location of the instrument, is attached to the right side of compartment A.

A 2-inch barometer (or a larger one if desired) with a conspicuous pointer may be neatly mounted above compartment A, as indicated by dotted lines at J, Fig. 2, receiving its light through a slit, as at v. the light being reflected to the barometer dial from a small semi-circular reflector, above its face, secured to the housing box.

Thus we combine a flexible automatic stabilizing device, of light weight and sound principles, with an effective speed indicator which is always adjustable to suit the conditions of flight and is always available for use in event of motor derangement. Reserve tanks and batteries to work the stabilizer in case of motor derangement are, therefore, superfluous with this device.

On Wing Loading

ffiSS^^S^JS^jR. R. E. SABIN has given us would require a wing spread of 15 feet 2

pS^^^6=i the following figures on inches and an area of 21 sq. ft.

-y. ff. (jgg loading of wings of various The vulture has been taken as an exam-

fii^j |\/I birds and insects. The pie of an efficient flyer, for the model on

1V1 CS=^ figures show area (in square which this machine is made.

2St yards, feet and inches) per The albatross, weighing twenty pounds,

S^jS^jS^j^JS^ pound of weight. has a speed of center of effort of wing of

\£X!^^^\£X zy2 feet ner secon(j. The radius of centers

oiioub.oq.il. oq. in. 0f effort of the wings is 33,4 feet. The time

C>nat ................. 5 3 134 of clown stroke is between one and one-half

Dragonfly ............ 2 3 90 seconds. The same for upstroke.

Bee .................. 0 5 3S __

Swallow ............. 0 4 124 l;n2 aviation liistory is certainly going some!

Sparrow ............. 0 2 104 One rage finished already!

Pigeon 0 1 3S Lieut. Ellyson had Lieut. Towers with him as

Vi^tm-P0 fl 11S a l'assciiKer: but was Beekwtth Havens?

VU1UIIP " u If Ten Stevens likes sweet things, does lie

Australian Crane (wt. like Honey well?

21 lbs.) ............. 0 0 Go There are 22 10 pounds in a long ton but 1

wonder who knows how much there is in an

The California Vulture weighs 31 lbs. and fwing-ton.

has a wing spread of 8 feet 10 inches with a if Kopwkh won "parly all the prizes at the

wing area of 7 sq. ft. With these proper- < ^M^HaV^ cam,.,

tions a man and apparatus weighing 155 lbs. v-hat does he Eaton?

EDITOR'S NOTE: The system of control proposed by Mr. Merrill is the same as that'used in one of the German machines, the Taube, 1 believe it is called, in which the wings are bent backward and upward at the tips, and the control of the lateral balance is accomplished by drawing the tips of the wings upward so as to Iseeure a pressure on the upper side. I cannot understand how Mr. Merrill figures that this gives an increased efficiency to the machine. Every pound of weight carried on the top side jf the surface of an aeroplane costs as much in |power as two pounds of ordinary load carried. This is due to the fact that the drift on the surface is practically in proportion to the weight carried. If one pound extra weight were added, the thrust necessary to maintain the speed of the machine would have to be increased the

drift ratio times the added weight. But if this extra pound of load were produced by the exposure of the top side of a surface, there would be the same amount of drift added to the main surfaces and also to the surface which is exposed on its upper side which would produce double the amount of resistance and would require double the amount of increased power to overcome it. Every pound of pressure used for the balancing of the flying machine which is secured by the exposure of the upper side of a surface to the wind, costs just twice as much as if the same pressure were secured by adding a one pound weight on the part that is to be depressed and costs many times more where the pressure is secured on the under side of the surface, and no additional weight is added to tha machine.— Editor's Note.

HERE are at present three systems of lateral control known as the Wright, Far-man and Curtiss systems. They have one thing in common. All three systems, in regaining lateral stability, increase the positive angle of wing or aileron on the low side. In the writer's opinion this efficient for the following •easons.

It is impossible to get a vertical pressure vithout getting some backward horizontal iressure. If the angle of the low wing is ncreased, the drift is increased and the speed decreased. But any decrease of speed decreases the lift. It is true that with a miall increase of angle the reduction jf speed is not enough to reduce the lift m the warped tip, although the total lift )f the machine is reduced. But beyond a ;mall increase (about three degrees) the reaction of speed is so great that in spite )f the increased angle the lift of the tip .vill be less.

A Wright surface flying at 40 m.p.h. gives i lift per sq. ft. at 6 degrees of 2.9376 rounds. If the right wing is warped to L2 and the left wing to 0 degrees, without urning the rudder, the speed of the right •ving will drop to 32.137 m.p.h. and the q>eed of the left wing will rise to 45.44S n.p.h. At these speeds and angles the •ight wing will lift 2.6968 pounds per sq. ft. tnd the left wing will lift 1.6049 pounds )er sq. ft. This means that the wing it s desired to raise will fall, the maclr'ne •vill bank to the left but will turn to the ight, and to prevent an accident the rudder nust be turned so as to retard the left

wing. These figures are taken from Eiffel's coefficients for a single Wright surface.

It can easily be shown that there is a limit to the effective increase of the positive angle of the wing to be raised. This limit is quickly reached and if exceeded the wing will not rise; it will fall. This is why, in many foreign machines, the warp is limited. It is true that in practice stability is regained, but it is done by lowering the high wing with the rudder, not by raising the low wing with the warp. Lift is the product of the angle and the square of the speed, and any reduction of speed greatly reduces the lift.

It is evident then that, to he effective, the warp must be limited and it follows that if, with the warp at its limit, the righting couple is not sufficient to regain stability, the rudder must be turned to retard still more the high wing. As a matter of fact, the vertical rudder on all of these machines, the Curtiss not excepted, is the b'fe preserver which saves the aviator's life when he is caught by a gust with the warp or aileron at its maximum.

The fallacy of all of these systems lies in increasing the positive angle of the wing to be raised. Nothing should be done to reduce the speed of this wing but a downward pressure should be put on the wing to be lowered. If with this downward pressure there is a backward pressure or drift, it can be used because it will retard and so lower the wing. If we reverse the Farman system, have ailerons movable only to a negative angle, only on one wing at a time and then move the aileron "oh the high wing we will be able to use every bit of pressure we introduce. The downward pressure will lower the high wing directly and whatever backward pressure exists will

"The Fallacy" of Existing Systems of Lateral Control

By ALBERT ADAMS MERRILL

Founder Boston Aeronautical Society, 1895. Pupil of the Wright School, Dayton, Ohio Member of the Executive and Contest Committees Harvard-Boston Aero Meets.

retard and hence indirectly lower the wing. In such a system the rudder plays no part. Its only function in other systems is to retard the high wing and an aileron moved to a negative angle on the high wing will perform this function much better. I believe a biplane using such a system is flying in Germany.

If only a slight righting couple is needed the aileron will be moved to a small negative angle and will give a relatively large downward and small backward pressure, while if a large righting couple is needed a large negative angle, besides introducing a large downward pressure, will also introduce a large drift on the wing it is desired to lower, thus doing away with any need of a vertical rudder as a means of regaining lateral stability. When one carefully considers the theory of controls he is forced to the conclusion that to introduce a force (the drift on the low wing, which he has to offset immediately, is wasteful. Yet Wright, Farman and Curtiss do just this. With my system there is no waste and, moreover, there is no danger from overcontrol because, no matter how large a drift is introduced from too large a movement of the aileron that drift comes on the high wing where it helps.

The Boland* system is correct in theory in so far as nothing is done to the low wing, every bit of drift being introduced into the high wing, hut it is not as efficient as my system because, with the axis of rotation of the jib placed as Boland places it (it makes an angle of about 45 degrees with the plane) the ratio of downward to backward pressure is very small, being only 1.00; whereas, I can. with an angle of 6 degrees get a ratio of (1.24 (see Eiffel's coefficients for the plane). Of course Boland can move the jibs around the axis, but since the pressure on a plane is normal, this pressure will always be at right angles to the axis and so, while he can vary the magnitude of this pressure, he can not vary the ratio between the backward and downward components of this pressure, because this ratio is fixed by the angle between the axis and the horizon. The ratio which Boland varies when he moves his jibs is

the ratio between the pressure I mention above and a side pressure which he gets in his system and which presumably he introduces to prevent side slipping. This side pressure is not necessary as proper banking is the most efficient preventive of side slipping. It is evident that while Boland has seen the fundamental error of other con trols, his method of control is not nearly as efficient as it could be made.

The three types of lateral control in common use are operative of course, but they are wrong in theory because each introduces a force (drift on the low wing) which not only can not be used, but which must be offset. To offset this force more drift U introduced, either with the rudder as iD Wright and Farman, or with an aileron aJ in Curtiss; and all of this drift uses ui power and lowers the efficiency of the machine.

The ideal system for regaining lateral sta bility is one with which it is possible tc introduce a very large vertical pres sure without, any drift. The next best sys tern, is one in which the vertical force i large in proportion to the drift and tin drift is placed where it can be used. 1' is not possible to produce the ideal sysfen but my system comes nearer to it than Bo land's system and the other three system; ore very far from being ideal when lookec at from the point of view of aerodynamh efficiency.

The Curtiss system can be changed to mj system very easily by disconnecting till wires which move the ailerons to a positivj angle. Then, in regaining lateral stability the low aileron will rest upon the surround ing air stream, the high aileron will h moved to a negative angle, the drift in troduced will be cut down and this drif will be used. Under these conditions tin l udder need never be used to retard th< high wing (its present function), for tin aileron will do it alone and so this systen does not infringe the seventh claim of tht Wright patent.

*See AERONAUTICS, page 57, Februan 1912.

LKAUX TO BE AN AVIATOR. BIG MONEY IN IT. DEMAND CANNOT BE SUPPLIED. FOR REFERENCE WRITE LADTR EEWKOW-—no charge to promotion companies, correspondence schools of aviation, stock enterprises and high financiers for the above headings.

Mr. Eewkowicss has just been paid—at least, the Circuit Court awarded it fifty-five dollars a minute for his flying during the past few-months, that he has been under contract with the Queen Aeroplane Co.; totalling one hour seventeen minutes, made all at one time, too. The Court allowed damages of $1237.HO for alleged bleach of contract, commissions due on near-sales and on expected profits to be derived from the operation of a school in California, of which Mr. Eewkowicz was manager. l>ew-

kowicz was, however, recalled, the school giver up and tuition fees returned, before the nia-l chines were set up and the school started.

Those who seek to estimate the extent o production and the popularity of the interna combustion motor in its various capacities will no doubt be interested to know that the oik millionth Bosch Magneto has been completed and installed. The earel'ullv kept records of tin Bosch Magneto Company. New York, show tlial on March 15th, the 1,000.000th magneto was completed, while the demand is increasing to an extent that requires continual additions to tltd factory sites.

"Have you seen the illustrated catalogue or, Bleriul type monoplanes issued by the Americar Aeroplane Supply House? If not. send for one.'

Feathers Dropped in Flight

SPRING SHOCK ABSORBER

A neat device for a monoplane shock absorber is used by the National Aero Co. Inside the 2 inch steel tube E, at the bottom, is a sleeve C which contains the two pulleys B. To this sleeve is welded the cap H Rod G goes through .the cap H and is

fastened to the cap I. Between the two caps is a strong 16-inch spring. From the lower end of the rod G two cables FF ran over the pulleys and up to the outside sliding sleeve A. This device is being employed on several finely built Bleriot types now completed by this firm at Woodhaven, N. Y.

PARACHUTES IN AVIATION

The parachute which has been used by the jumper F. R. Law in his "vol planes" from the Statue of Liberty, from the East River bridge, from the cornice of one of Wall Street's high buildings to the roof of a low edifice, and lastly, on April 13, from a Burgess-Wright hydroaeroplane flown in Marblehead Harbor by Philip \V. Page, is one of those which Leo Stevens has produced. The cotton and linen, single layer cloth, with a diameter of 16 feet, is attached by 16 Italian hemp ropes to a steel tube spreader about 15 feet below the top of the parachute. Two short ropes go through the tube and the other sixteen are spliced into these, eight in each. Two additional ropes, 2 feet shorter than the ones which go to the circumference of the 'chute, go direct to the 12 inch hole in the center. In dropping.

the strain comes on these two ropes first and insures the 'chute's opening; then the strain is evenly divided between them all.

From the steel tube is an arrangement of two belts of leather, one of which goes under the jumper's arms and the other around his waist. The man can relieve the pull on the straps by putting his hands on the bar if he wishes. Three ropes are sewn in the fabric, one around the central hole, one midway and one on the outer circumference. The lines from the steel bar run to the circumference and from there all the way to the inner ring of rope. The leather straps are connected by short lengths of rope which are snapped to the guy ropes above.

WIRE CABLE CLAMP

The need for a small light fastening device for guy cables has been supplied by the l ecent invention of Harry S. Neats, which is being marketed by the S. B. R. Specialty Co., of East Orange, N. 1. The device is very simple and to an extent will eliminate

turnbuckles. The cable is introduced through the shell, through the upper hole in the male part of the device, back through the lower hole and pulled taut, with a short turn, the cable is laid in the channel in the male portion and the shell screwed up tight. The pull is in a straight line and there is no chafing the cable, or weakening in any way. They are furnished for cables from inch to \\ inch.

DUAL CONTROL

The dual control used on the training machines at the Thomas School, at Bath, N. Y„ consists of an exact duplicate set of steering wheels, elevator posts, shoulder yokes and throttle levers which are directly con nected to the master controls of the in-

structor's seat. Each set of controls with their individual seats form two complete units, which may be used singly or together.

The student's seat, with its controls, is so arranged that it can be detached at a moment's notice without interfering with the rest of the machine.

By means of the dual control the student i< able to acquire the art of handling the machine correctly both on the ground and in the air.

This method enables the student to learn rapidly and correctly, as the wild movements of the beginner are quickly corrected by this instructor before any damage occurs.

MONOPLANE DUAL CONTROL

It was the aim of the designer, Edward F. yiarshonet, to produce a dual control system that could be successfully used on the passenger carrying Bleriot type monoplanes, manufactured by the American Aeroplane Supply House, of which concern he is a member.

The passenger sits directly in front of the pilot. There is not enough room between the two seats for the use of the hell lever control, which are used in the single seater monoplanes, without spacing the scats further apart. It was the aim of the

designer to design control that would have the same movements which would entirely eliminate the use of pulleys.

This control consists of two vertical levers spaced 28 inches apart, and each lever is constructed of oval steel tubing, inch thick by iy4 wide by 27 inches long. To the top of each lever is attached at an angle of 30 degrees, an eight inch mahogany steering wheel, in which hand holes have been pro vided for the convenience of the pilot.

These two vertical levers pass through ? inch holes in the wood floor; and thence through »i inch by 2 inch slots cut in a two inch steel tube, 3-1 inches long, that is attached below the floor, being supported from both ends by aluminum brackets, into which brackets the two inch steel tube revolves. The two vertical levers project six inches beyond the center of this two inch steel tubing; center of which tubing is two inches below the wood floor. These two levers are each fastened to the two inch steel tube with a \\ inch bolt on which the levers pivot, thus permitting the levers to be moved forward and backward, which movement operates the elevators. Directly behind the first vertical lever, a twelve inch steel lever is brazed to the two inch steel tubing underneath the floor; to which lever wires connect with another 12 inch steel lever of the warping gear of the lower py-| lone; and a movement to either side of either vertical lever forces the two inch steel tube to revolve, and thus warp the main planes. Double wires connect the two vertical levers together, six inches below and above the bolts on which these levers pivot.

The vertical rudder is controlled by the feet same as before, and second foot control] lever is fastened to the floor beneath the forward seat. These are also connected to-l gether with double wires.

The weight is but two pounds more thauj the single bell control.

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50 : Horse " Power

170 Pounds Weight

Revolving cylinders Mechanical intake valves Variable compression Double exhaust system

DESIGN

Large ball bearings throughout Positive lubrication Positive gasoline feed Standard Magneto, tachometer, etc. Easy starting device

Aviator starts motor from his seat if required

MATERIALS

Cylinders, Connecting Rods, Gears, etc.—3| per cent, forged nickel steel Cranks—Chrome nickel steel, treated. Crank-cases—Vanadium steel—Valves 30 per cent, nickel steel

PERFORMANCE

Shop tests three hours without stopping. Motor has been tested in many flights, up to 138 miles without alighting

f Sizes 3, 5 and 7 cylinders representing 22, 35 and 50 horsepower

Send for Catalogue

;j THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

:; 774 GIRARD STREET :: :: :: WASHINGTON, D. C.

Sole Agents for SIMMONS Propellers

h

^++++++++++++++++++^^

The Only SAFE Way To Judge An Aeronautical Motor Is By ITS ACCOMPLISHMENTS.

Their existence denotes sterling worth and superiority — their absence, weakness.

CURTISS MOTORS

Won the Scientific American Trophy, 3 years in succession.

Won the Gordon Bennett Cup.

Won the Albany to New York, $10,000 prize, 150 miles, 150 minutes.

Won the New York to Philadelphia race, 1911.

Broke the World's Altitude Record at Chicago, 1911, 11,642 feet.

Flew the greatest number of miles at International meet at Chicago, 1911.

Won all speed events at International meet at Chicago, 1911.

Won all speed events at Los Angeles meet, 1912.

Have proven that they can stand the grind of exhibition work without fatigue.

CAN YOU SAY AS MUCH FOR THE OTHER KIND? IMMEDIATE DELIVERY COMPLETE POWER PLANTS.

Scientific American Trophy

Two Models

8 Cyl. 75 H. P.

4 Cyl. 40 H. P.

Catalogue Y is illustrated and gives full details. It's free upon request.

THE CURTISS MOTOR COMPANY

HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y.

Inverted Aeroplane Stresses

By ORVILLE WRIGHT

Editor's Note:—On March 13th. Lieut, Henri Paul Seville met with a fatal accident. The cause was ascribed to the breaking of the guys on the top of the wings of his Hleriot, due to excessive downward pressure on the surfaces.

(£«ijT IS true that in flying, especially in gusty weather, pressure sometimes comes on the upper sides of aeroplanes, tending to force them downwards. This is usually caused by the aeroplane running into a current of air, which is revolving about a horizontal axis. When the plane strikes the lide of the whirl which is rising, the aero-fclane is lifted and when it strikes the side Ivhich is descending, if the whirl is violent tnough, the air strikes the planes on top, lind not only is all lifting effect destroyed, lut the machine is actually pushed downward. I have many times, in our early experiments, experienced cases in which the liachine and the seat were pushed from tinier me and I was left sitting on air. Our later machines are not so subject to these

whirls, so that it is now quite uncommon to have the seat forced from under one. But it frequently happens that wind pressures come on the top of the surfaces, causing the machine to drop and destroying the support of the planes, so that the machine sinks rapidly.

Our principle reason for the use of the biplane is that the biplane can be trussed much stronger in both directions. While the monoplanes have but little trussing to resist downward pressures on the wings. It does not seem to me likely that any of the strains encountered on the top side of the surface in flight would be greater than the downward strain on the wings in making a rough landing. While it is possible for wings to collapse downwards, as suggested in the death of Lieut. Seville, I do not think it likely to occur in any of the better constructed machines.

I The Aeronautical Society moves from its fcresent quarters at 250 W. 54th Street, Xew fork City, on May 1st. The new quarters will Ipe in a brownstone front residence at 304 TV. fiSth Street. The new quarters will include lounging-, reading-, writing and billiard rooms land a large assembly room. There will also be h popular-priced restaurant and living quarters for members who require this accommodation.

conveniences will be furnished to members it nominal rates.

I The need for the new quarters grew out of ■lie great social activity in the organization. ■During the past months the Society has held mm the fourth Thursday of each month a Mock ■Trial, a Washington's birthday celebration and a beefsteak supper.

I The latter was held on March 25. Over 105 iiiemhers were present. The dinner was served im champagne boxes. The menu consisted of ■steamed oysters, beefsteak, baked potatoes, ■?elery, olives, radishes, lettuce salad, ice cream, toffee and all the beer, soft stuff, cigars and cigarettes required. Over twenty-five professional vaudeville acts were on the program ■under the direction of L. E. Dare. Aviators told Ifunny experiences. All actual airmen were ■lecorated with winged caps while the other ■puests were given balloon caps to wear and ■paper balloons to blow.

I On the second Thursday of each month a ■technical discussion is held. The principal ■speaker in a 30 minutes' talk states the topic ■and experts discuss all its phases in 15 minute ■observations. On April Ilth, fireproofing of ■aeroplanes was discussed. Ladis Lewkowiez,

the aviator, stated the subject. Guido Blenio, Max Bachert, M. Toby, J. L. Eskridge, V. Raschella, and other chemical engineers and fireproofing experts, suggested remedies.

At this meeting Willis S. McCormick, was deposed from the presidency by unanimous vote for neglect of his duties and Thomas A. Hill, first vice-president, was chosen to fill his unexpired term.

The Aeronautical Society is growing tremendously. Its many practical, utilitarian benefits has attracted over 100 new members since the first of the year.

The Aero Club of America sometime ago in-augerated "aero nights." every Wednesday evening and an attempt has been made to arouse interest by speakers. Those who attended have been entertained by Ladislaus d"Orcy, Carl Diensblach, Melvin Vaniman, Frank T. Coffyn, Beekwith Havens, T. M. Turner, J. A. D. McCurdy and others.

The Aero Club of the University of Wisconsin. (Madison Wise.) has been founded. The Officers are:—Philip B. Ferry, President; James Cummins, Vice-President; George E. Arnemann, Secretary and Treasurer.

The Aero Club of Nebraska. (Omaha, Xebr.l has reelected its officers:—They are: J. J. Peright. President; Could Pietz, Treasurer; W. A. Pixley, Secretary.

A new club has been formed in Cleveland, Ohio, to take the place of the old Cleveland Aero Club. They have elected the following temporary officers: Ray Johnson, Chairman; Earl II. Wiseman. Secretary.

AERO TITLE WANTED

THERE seems to be a need for a word to the trained aeronautical engineer, and for a word to apply to the aeroplane mechanic, designer, draughtsman or experi-mentor generally. Mr. Archibald Black suggests "Aeronautican" or "Aeronician" stating that this would convey a correct impression to the public and the profession generally, and "its use would not place the man with little technical knowledge, although possibly considered practical experience, in the position of appearing to claim a knowledge and experience which he did not possess."

" 'Aerotechnician' might also be suggested for the purely technical man. The only term known to be in use at the present time is 'Aeronautical Engineer', which necessarily implies the possession of a very complete knowledge, technical and practical of engineering in general, or aerodynamics in particular,which in many cases is somewhat at variance with the facts."

We would like to hear from all those inter-ester in the adoption of words and phrases which are distinctive and comprehensive in their meaning and which would be likely to have general use if proposed.

UiiJiiiiifiifi T is again necessary to postpone si* tlie PUDncation of an article reS S viewing the short history of the SSSSS water machine. The record of the Curtiss experiments is found in this issue; we will print next month a short article describing the work of other experimentors.

Space is always far short of the demand. A number of bully articles have long been waiting publicity. It is more and more difficult as time goes on to record even the principal events.

CALENDAR

may 9-1s aero show grand central palace, new york.

may 4 hydroaeroplane race, new york. july — gordon-bennett elimination balloon race.

oct. 27. gordon-bennett balloon race. stuttgart, germany.

sept. 9 gordon-bennett aeroplane race, at chicago.

may 18-june 23 aero show, vienna.

june 29-july 7 meet at boston.

july 27 national championship balloon

race, kansas city. aug. — 1,m 0-mile great american circuit

race.

2,600,000 KILOMS. FLOWN LAST YEAR

in his annual report the secretary of the aero club of france, includes startling statistics.

during 1910, ten fatal accidents ccurred in erance, and as the distance covered in flight was 500,000 kiloms, this worked out to one death for r>0,000 kiloms. flown. in 1911 the distance flown was 2,c>00,000 kiloms., while the fatal accidents were 2g. he reports that last year 1,350 aeroplanes totalling so,000 h.p., were constructed in erance as against s00 in the previous year. the number of passengers carried was 12,000, as against 4.s00 in 1910,' and the time spent in the air increased from s.300 to :'.0,000 hours. 1,100 motors were made against 840 in 1910; and 8,000 propellers, as against

1 900,

Published Monthly by Aeronautic Press, 250 West 54th Street, N. Y. Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres'l — — E. L. JONES, Treas'r-See'1 ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Edilol

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States. $3.00 Foreign, $3.50J

ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVE: E. F. INORAHAM ADV. CO., 116 NASSAU ST.. NEW YORK

NO. 57

APRIL, 1912

Vol. 10, No.'

COPYRIGHT, 1012. AERONAUTICS

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postofflcfl New York, under the Act ot March 3, 1879.

*T AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each monti All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertli lng paees close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: :] ^T Make all checks or money orders free of exchangi ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not eenl currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: t|

AGENTS FOR "AERONAUTICS."

new york—american news co.,15 park pi. I brentano's 5th ave. and 27th st.

st. louis—aeronautic supply co., 3932 ollvj st.; h. f. mardorf, 4068 olive st.

boston—i. n. chappell, 26 court st.; j. f| murphy, south terminal station.

san francisco—foster & orear, ferrjj bldg.; san francisco stationery co., 2c geary st.; cleve t. shaffer, 331 octavla st.

cincinnati—j. r. hawley news co., 11 ar-J cade.

memphis—r. m. mansford, 26 s. main st. chicago—p. o. news co., 17s dearborn st.;

h. s. renton, 164 north wabash ave. boise—rawl's, 917 main st. portland, ore.—s. s. rich, 267 morrison st. salt lake city—sheppard, the magazine^

man.

dallas—s. w. aeronautic supply co., 2141 main st.

los angeles—whalen's news agency, 233^|

so. spring st. washington—brentano's.

berlin—w. h. kuhl, 82 koniggratzerstr., s.w.

paris—brentano's, place de l'opera.

london—aeronautics, 12 newgate st., london, e. c, george h. scragg, mgr.; also at the office of british aeronautics, 3 london wall b'uildings, london wall, london, e. c.

berne—a. francke's sortiment.

fuller argentine package express, I defensa 127, buenos aires.

e. l. ramsey, compania terminal de yera-| cruz, veracruz, mexico.

when simon was with the t'. s. tioops in i texas did he fly over the mexican barrier?

the wrights built aviation put they had to let( langley the foundations.

when st. croix johnston goi Killed at chicago did qnimby the coffyn for him?

if tire burnt out benoist, bow will reyburn? smell the sulphur?

where can j. j. frisbie now ?

if a new aviation camp were started would woldon b'. cooke?

when percy pierce said no held the world's record model ilight, did he or cecil peoli?

what is the matter with aviation? can it1 be that b'ud mars everyth ng?

if atwood land on a church steeple, how would boland: .-

1 Abridge Tlane Figures

We have Long Hoped for Opportunity to Make Offers Like the Following on Complete Aeroplanes of Undisputed Quality.

$875

Unassembled Bi-Plane, 30x5, Everything Complete. It comprises the completely finished parts of a first-class aeroplane, Complete with Improved 1912 Elbridge Featherweight Engine, 40-60 H. P. Radiator, Propeller, etc......................................................

Wittemann Bi-Plane, latest model, similar to those supplied by Wittemann Bros, to Capt. Baldwin, set up complete with Elbridge 1912 $1 JCH Engine, 40-60 H. P., Radiator, Propeller, etc........................ «pi,1«JU

Wittemann Bi-Plane, as above, with Six-Cylinder Engine Passenger-carrying machines and Hydro-aeroplanes at slightly augment- <tO (\f\f\ ed figures...................................................................... *£,UUU

Benoist Bi-Plane, 1912 Model, with Elbridge 4-cyl. 40-60 H. P. Engine, Tank, Propeller and Radiator, completely assembled, set up on the field, <M QEjft and including complete flying course at the Benoist School *P J

Benoist "Aero

Engine,

ying machine with 6-cylinder Elbridge (tJO fi7S and instruction at the Benoist School M,">u 1

WILL THEY FLY?

To those who have followed American Aviation for the past three years* the question is superfluous. For the benefit of those who are less familiar with aviation's history we may say that among those who founded their reputations flying with Elbridge Engines were, Weldon B. Cooke, William Evans, Glenn L. Martin, Charles F. Walsh, Tony Castellane, B. F. Roehrig, John J. Frisbie, Sparling Aviators, Matheson Aviators, Frank Paine, T. W. Benoist and scores of lesser lights.

NEVER A FATAL ACCIDENT WITH AN ELBRIDGE

1912 Elbridge "Aero Special"

Elbridge Engines in 5 models, ranging from 20 H. P. to 60 H. P. at prices you can afford to pay. Ask for any detailed information you may require on engines or aeroplanes.

--DO IT TO-DAY -

ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY,

What You Have Been Waiting for

We flatter ourselves that we are the first manufacturers to realize the enormous field for

Fred G. Eells about to start flight over city of Rochester in Rieflin Biplane, equipped with Welles & Adams Motor. (Note the camera attached to plane for taking views of the city.)

A HIGH-GRADE RELIABLE MOTOR AT THE PRICE OF A CHEAP ONE

Of course, in order to give you this, we must sell more motors to nuik^upfortlioreduction in profit, and we are doing it, for at tlie low price we ask for this motor, we have absolutely no competition.

If this motor was not all and more than we claim for it we could not do this, for should we be able to .-ell only ONE in each locality, we would soon have to go out of business, but as it is. each sale means a dozen more orders, for, a Satisfied Customer is the Best Advertisement.

Why risk failure (and life) with a "lemon" motor, when for the same price you can get one that has been proved a success?

We do not guarantee an enormous (ground) thrust with a propeller(of unknown pitch) that we make ourselves and furnish with the motor, and which loses all its efficiency as soon as it is in the air. We are essentially Motor Builders and give you a thrust with a true-screw pitch propeller of any standard make.

The WELLES <* ADA MS MOTOR was used exclusively by the Rieflin Headless Aeroplane Company of' Rochester last year and the fact that not once did they fail to fly and fulfil their engagements, even with their smallest surface machine, coupled with the fact that they have ordered two of the 1912 models for use in large passenger-carrying machines they have built for the coming season, is testimony in itself of the reliability and power of the motor.

Our 1911 model made an enviable reputation, and, while we have held to the underlying principles that made for its great success, we have improved it in detail until the 1912 model far surpasses it.

That this motor is a high grade motor in every respect will be readily seen by a careful stud) of the cut and our specifications, which we will gladly send upon request.

Let us send you our illustrated catalogue showing Fred Eells' great flights over the city of Rochester in biplane equipped with this motor.

50 H. P. 4-cycle

Weight 200 lbs.

Valves in Head

Cylinders Cast Separate

Every Moving Part Oiled Automatically

If you wish to do some thing hetler than "Grass-Cutting" consult

WELLES & ADAMS, Bath, New YorU

\AERONAUTlCS

Page 121

April 1912

The Resistance of the Air and Aviation

FROM A REPORT MADE BY M. G. EIFFEL TO THE AERO CLUB OF FRANCE

By M. B. SELLERS

ON THE CENTRES OF PRESSURE.

The position of the centres of pressure on plates of varying cambre are shown (fig. 9). INTERFERENCE.

When one disc is placed behind another and normal to the. current, the rear plate is "drawn" toward the other; the maximum attraction being for a distance of 3 times the radius, and then diminishing to 0 for a dis-

For equal and parallel rectangles, either plane or curved, inclined at a small angle, as is the case with a biplane, the two surfaces interfered. In case of plates earn bred to 13.5 and spaced 2/3, 3/3 and 4/3 of their depth apart, the pressure was reduced to 74, 77 and s2''0 of what each would have received alone. In the usual case the pressure on the upper wing (of a biplane) exceeds that on the lower one by 1 /5th.

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30" -80" -20° -60" -50°-W)° -30" -20° -10° 0° 10" 20? 30° w 50° 60? 20? 80? 90* -------p/_ffnb

........curved plfjte, c/7mbee 'I2.7

- " " 1/13.5------ >• i/7

Fig. 9. Position of centres of pressure on plates 90 x 15 cm. of different cambre.

tance of 5 radii and becoming a pressure beyond this distance. Up to 4 radii the sum of the pressures on both discs was less than on one alone, and the same was found true for rectangles.

ROUND AND CYLINDRICAL BODIES.

For cylinders of different lengths, having their axis parallel to the wind, the resistance passes through a minimum when the length is from 4 to 5 radii; the coefficient being then

* continued from (lie march issue.

% of that for a disc the size of the base (z=projected disc). For cylinders with axis perpendicular to the win'd the coefficient augments with the length; for length of 4 and 33 diameters it is respectively 56 and 60% of the projected rectangle. However, the coefficient of a wire of 3 mm. diam. is about equal to a "rectangle of the same size." This applies to aeroplane wires. For a 60° cone, closed at the base and point to the wind, the resistance is 50% of the projected disc; and 30% for a 30° cone. The resistance of a sphere is 17% and that of a hemisphere convex 32%, and concave 126% of projected disc. For a 20° cone having a hemisphere on its base and point to wind, the resistance is about equal to a sphere, but with the hemisphere end to wind it is \U as much, or l/12th of that projected disc. For a long cylinder (14 X radius), closed by two hemispheres, the resistance is about 1/6 of the projected disc.

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0 30

•0 28 ^ 0 26 g 0 2V o 0 22 B 0 20 S .0 18* 0 16 & 0 1^ "o 0 12 *3 0 10 § 0 08

0 06 'I

0 02 m o

are described in M. Eiffel's recent work. Tbi data for the wing No. 10 ("Wright wingl are here given, those of the others beinl similarly treated. In the diagram (fig. Ill are given, the total unit pressure Ki and til vertical and horizontal, Ky and Kx fl angles i of the chord to the wind, up to 16| These values multiplied by SV2 give the prel sure for any speed and surface (metric). A -3r the lift becomes zero, and between 2° anl 8° the pressure Ki and Ky are sensibly prJ portional to the variations in incidence. I is to be noticed that the tangent D' In thj region (2° to 8°) is quite different from tail D at the origin and therefore it is not rigbl to assume in formula?, the proportionalitl starting from the angle where the lift i zero; that which is often done. Diagram

(fig. 12) gives the ratio x the ratio c

Ky

drift to lift. Calling the angle between tbi

resultant and the vertical a, we ha\|

K K

tan. a: S —^ ; these two values, - x and o ai

K y Ky

given by means of a double scale.

Fig. 12. Value of the ratio - and of the

angle u for wing No. 10.

DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE.

M. Eiffel finds that the pressure on the face of a flat square plate, inclined, is always most at the entering edge and near the axis, and very little or even negative at the trailing and lateral edges. The depression on the back has two maxima, on each side of the axis, and a minimum near or around the rear of the axis; this phenomenon increases to 35° inclination. The diagram (fig. 10) shows the mean pressure (lower area) and the mean depression (upper area) on a square plate, for various inclinations. For a curved plate 90 x 15 cm., inclined from 10° to 20°, the pressure on the face is about liu and the depression on the back % the total pressure.

AEROPLANE AVINGS.

The same methods were employed in the study of 19 models of aeroplane wings; all except four of which were 90 x 15. cm.; these

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/

     
 

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0.0 9

0.0 8

W

■0.07A

4->

0 0 6 <u

o oss

o o

0.0

0.0 3£

0 0 2§ 0 0 L 0.0 0

003 0,01. 0.01 000 "t/nit horizontal components Kx

Fig. 13. Polar of wing No. 10 (smooth curve)

and the circular wing with cambre - (dotJ

13.5

ted curve).

It is seen that the ratio of drift to lift is ai minimum at 2° but augments little to S on 9°. 'The angles from 2 to 9° are, therefore!

IERONAUTICS April, 1912

FLY I

Flying taught in 10 lessons. Wright machines used—the safest and best

License guaranteed—no chance of failure to fulfill conditions

V7ou have no "breakage" fee or third * party risks

Average time for tuition, 4 weeks

LICENSED SINCE LAST ISSUE

WM. PICELLER, New York, 116 MARSHALL E. REID, Philadelphia, 114 LIONEL H. DE REMER, Bay City, Mich., 115 CLARKE THOMPSON, Philadelphia, 112 WILBER D. ANDREWS, NEW YORK, 117

Absolutely No Connection With Any Firm or Other Individual

- PASSENGER FLIGHTS $25 -

GEORGE W. BEATTY

Nassau Boulevard, L. I., N. Y. HOLDER OF AMERICAN RECORDS

2-Man Altitude, 3112 ft. 2-Man Duration, 3:42:22.2 4-Man Distance and Duration 5-Man " 6-Man "

Weight Carrying, 848 lbs.

$250

THE

First Annual International Aeronautical Exhibition

TO BE HELD AT THE

NEW GRAND CENTRAL PALACE

NEW YORK CITY

May 9th to 18th, 1912

under the auspices and control of

THE AERO CLUB OF AMERICA

For information regarding" space for the exhibit of completed machines for aerial locomotion, accessories, models, drawings, etc., apply to

The Show Committee,

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA,

297 Madison Avenue, New York.

AERONAUTICS

Page 123

April 1912

the best for flying because they correspond to a minimum drift for a given lift. The polar diagram (fig. 13) combines these data; the curve being compared with that of the wing with circular cambre of 13.5 (dotted line) which wing seems the most advantageous. Up to Ky=.05, the Wright wing is about equal to the circular wing; beyond that the circular offers lens resistance for the same lift. The centre of pressure is shown in diagram (14), the law of its variation being the same as that of the plates of regular curvature already considered. Finally, (fig. 15) shows the distribution of pressure along the miiddle section of the wing for an inclination of 6°. These pressures are given for a velocity of 10 metres per sec, and in kilograms per sq. metre.

Distance of centre duress-vre Irom entering eJge 121% of the width

Bord d'attaque

0 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 ¥ 0 S 0 6 0 7 0 8

09H

1 0

tt

Certt

Ma

ft

W-30"-?in0* 0* IC° 20° 30' w.

Angle i of the chord to trie wind

Fig. 14. Position of centre of pressure on wing No. 10.

Near the entering edge the pressure beneath the wing is 2.5 kilog. while the depression on the back is 11 kilog. (21 lbs.) For a speed of 30 m. per sec. (often attained) the pressure on this edge would reach 121 kilog. per m., much more than might be expected. The pressure is, on the contrary, very slight near the trailing edge.

Regarding the mean pressure, one can say that the rarifaction on the back, is twice as great as the pressure on the face of the wing; consequently the material on the back should be securely fastened to the framework. The other wings give analogous

results, which can be found in AI. Eiffel's work, which shows the polars of 14 wings. The table (fig. 16) gives the elements of each of the wings for the inclination of minimum ratio of drift to lift. The angle is that corresponding to minimum drift ratio; Kx is the unit drift, Kv the unit lift, K

Kj total unit pressure, - 35 drift ratio, a—i= Kv

angle of the resultant with the normal to the chord.

When ir—/ is positive the resultant is behind the normal, d is the distance of the centre of pressure from the entering edge of

ScaLe of wing %

Pressure on concave side convex »

the

Fig. 15. Distribution of pressure on median line of wing No. 10 inclined at 6 .

the plate. At the incidence considered in this table the ratio between the resistance to advance, and the weight lifted is the smallest possible, and in that sense the wing is in its best position. But it should he noted that the lift may then be relatively

 

. JJ>&

30O '

300

: 30.0 :

It______........_________!SQP

Fig. 17.

Profile

of Wing

No. 8

(width 900

mm.)

small, necessitating an abnormally large wing to carry the desired weight. Therefore it is necessary to consider not only the drift

FORM OF WING

deg.

VALUES CORRESPONDING TO

Ky

ANGLES OF THE RESULTANTS

TEW irimi

with the vertical a

c&orcf

a:-i

Plane rectangle 90 x 15 cm. Circular curve, cambre l/27 Same, with cambre 1/13.5 Same, with canbre l/7 Curved in front; plane at

* rear

Plane in front; curved at .

rear

Plane below; circular on top Crescent shaped Bird's wing shape Analogous to Wright wing Analagous to Voisin wing Analagous to U- Farnan wing Analogous to Bleriot XI wing Analogous to " Xl-bis wing Analogous to Breguet wing Proposed by Ernoult Proposed by Drzewiecki Proposed by Drzewiecki Proposed by Drzewiecki

5.5 2. 3. 6.

5.

1.5

1.5

2.

5.5

2.

2.

2.

4.

4.

4.

6.

4.

4.

0.

0.0039 0.0017 0.0038 0.0096

0.0040

0.0035

O.0012'

0.0031

0:0073

0.0028

0.0015

0.0010

0.0039

0.0023

0.0028

0.0015

0.0020

0.0021

0.0020

0.025 0.021 0.042 0.070

0.044

0.037

0.017 0.035 0.057 0.029 0.021 0.016 0.035 0.031 0.040 0.013 0.024 0.026 0.011

0.026 0.021 0.042 0.072

0.044

0.037

0.017 0.035 0.058 0.029 0.021 0.016 0.035 0.031 0.040 0.013 0.024 0.026 0.011

0.15 0.08 0.09 0.14

0.09

0.09

0.07 0.09 0.13 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.11 0.07 0.07 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.18

4.7 5.4 7.9

5.3

5.4

v> 4.1

m 5.2

» 7.3

»5 5.6

S 3.7 ° 6.3 4.3 ■ 4.4 6.8 4.7 4.5 10.2

3.4 2.7 2.4 1.9

0.3

3.9

2.6 3.2 1.8 3.6 2.1 1.7 2.3 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.5 10.2

0.26 0.41 0.47 0.46

0.45

0.55

0.51 0.51 0.41 0.48 0.J64 0.36 0.29 0.25

Fig. 16. Inclination and unit coefficients of wings for minimum ratio of

Profile of the wing

0 0!

O.Ofc

0 03

to

qO.02 <b

3

0 01

£0.00 0 01

-0.02

-0.03

Horizontal Kx and" vertical Ky pressures "for different Speeds

5 7 9 11 13anJ 1& m.ps.

                   
           

#/

     
       

s

*,

/

/ /

         
       

//<*

         
       

;'V

         
       

—%—

 

o:

v.

./

V//

v.

te i of

w

the c

12:

horcJvy

n'

rithth

16'

,e wi

18'

 

4

               

/f

W

-

               

Fig. 18. Plate with double curvature; profile and coefficients of resistance.

April, 1912

AEROPLANE MOTORS and EQUIPMENT

1780 Broadway C»OWlPANY Tel. Col. 1335 -- NEW YORK -

Prepare for Chicago International Aviation Meet

Gordon Bennett Cup Race

MOTORS

Gnome Renault

50h.p., 70 h.p., 100 h.p., 140 h.p. 50 h.p.,70 h.p.

Clement Bayard

25-30 h.p.

In stock for immediate delivery

Spare parts on hand for all motors Customers motors overhauled and repaired Imported aeroplane cloth

AERONAUTICS

April 1912

BALDWIN

Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any Strength or Color.

"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Frank Schumacher's, 164 W. 46th Street, New York. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

| Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P. O. New York

AEROPLANES

00 0.1

0.2 0.3 OA 0.5 0.6 0.7

0.8 0.9 1.0

     

E

n1

 

•i

   

Ed

!

3

         
                                 
                   

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\

       
                                 
                                 
                                 
         

n

L

 

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Vi

         
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
     

1

 

n

t

t

t

   

tl

C

       

-40°-30°-20'-10° 0° W 20° 30° W.

Angle of the chori ^riththe win

Fig. 19. Double curved plate; distance of center of pressure from entering edge in % of width.

ratio, but also both the lift and drift, when selecting" a wing shape. The wing, No. 3, as before stated, combines a good lift with a moderate drift, but if a thick wing is desired (for structural reasons) the wing no. 8 is recommended, which is shown in (fig. 17). Its cambre and also its polar differ little from wing no. 3.

M. Eiffel also studied several aeroplane models and determined the resistance of

EDWIN LEVICK

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

Photographers

Telephone 106 FULION STREET Cable

100 John NEW YORK Pholonews, N.Y.

Photographs of Practically even Aeroplane and Airship in the World

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everything (including engine and passenger) except the wings (harmful resistance). For the Esnault Pelterie it was equal to % sq. metre and for the Nieuport 2/3 sq. m.( i.e., a plane that size normal to the wind). Because the coefficient of normal pressure is greater for large surfaces than for those used in these experiments, M. Eiffel multiplies the values so obtained by 1.1 in making calculations for full-sized planes, etc., and finds that his results agree with the data obtained with full sized machines in use. M. Eiffel gives a method of choosing the proper form of wing, which, however, we shall not include here.

While the resistance of the air was found proportional to V2 for plates of simple curvature, it was found that for plates of double curvature, the coefficient Kv diminished regularly with increasing air Velocity. The diagram (fig. IS) shows, that at 9°, for instance, the coefficient changes from .016 to .0075, i.e., diminishes by one-half, when the speed increases from 5 to IS m. per sec. The coefficient Kc does not seem to undergo any very sensible change; but also, in a general

wav the ratio ^x increases with the velocity.

The resistance Kj varies in the same sense as Ky » yiz-- diminishes as the speed augments.

As to the centre of pressure, it is seen (fig. 19) that its displacement is the inverse of that on plates of simple curvature. M. Eiffel concludes this interesting report with an account of some propeller experiments, which however, we shall not give here.

Must Sell:—FINE MONOPLANE

1911, cross-country type, two seater, Bleriot, 100 h. p. engine, full equipment

A. V. REYBURN, Jr.

5305 Delmar Boul. :: St. Louis, Mo.

PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS

have positive action, are small and light, easily applied to any motor

—^————^— Write for circular

PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO.

636-644 First Avenue, New York, U. S. A.

R.I.V.

BALL BEARINGS

For Fast Work

R.I.V. Co., 1771 Broadway

New York

AERONAUTICS

Page 126

April, T9lfl

The Curtiss Hydroaeroplane

The Latest Curtiss Water Flyer

THE Curtiss hydroaeroplane may be dated back to Nov. 28, 190S, when the famous Aerial Experiment Association's "June Bug" was equipped with two pontoons, or floats and tried out on Lake Keuka, at Hammondsport by J. A. D. Mc-Curdy. The floats in January, 1909, had hydro-surfaces attached, as shown in the sketch (fig. 1). These created a tremendous commotion in the water and the speed was but about 10 miles an hour. These surfaces were then sawed off and the speed jumped to 27 miles an hour, 4 miles more speed than the machine had before its conversion, but it could not rise. The floats had a framework of wood, covered with black oilcloth.

No more experiments were conducted, beyond attaching cylindrical metal floats under the wings of the machine when the flight from Albany to New York was made on May 29, 1910.

On January 26, 1911, after a series of experiments at his California camp at San Diego, Mr. Curtiss made his first successful flight, one of 2 miles, with a water flying machine. This had two floats (fig 4) and a small hydrosurface way out in front. The floats were made of metal over a wood frame. The measurements of the floats need not be given as they were al'-eady antiquated in a month's time.

Instead of the two floats, Mr. Curtiss next employed one single boat. (fig. 5) flat bottomed, 12 ft. by 2 ft. by 12 inches. The float was fixed so that the weight of the engine and planes, witli the aviator aboard, was carried slightly in the rear of the middle of the boat to assist in getting off the water.

By the end of February, 1911, wheels which could be drawn up out of the water or put down as desired, were added; the machine was dubbed a "triad." Later wheels were discarded and are not now used on the water machines.

The experiment was next made of flying to a battleship in the harbor, "landing" alongside, being hoisted on deck, returning to the water and returning. This was on February 17th. For this event the front elevator was discarded altogether, tiie engine and propeller placed in front of the operator, making a tractor machine, and the aviator's seat located under the rear edges of the planes. Another experiment was made, that of adding a third superposed plane, evoHing a triplane. This also flew successfully and enabled the carrying of 200 pounds extra weight.

The machine shown in figures 2 and 3 was adopted as standard and many notable flights

were made by Curtiss, Robinson, YVitmer anil others during 1911.

However, in September the front outrigger;! were taken off and the forward elevator placed low down on braces from the boat and this tyvm has since been standard (figs. 2 and 3). Ar| experiment was made on January 10, 1912, witlj a twin propeller tractor machine, the propeller! turning in the same direction. The boat measl ured 20 ft. long and had bulkheads fore ancl aft. The motor was set in a cockpit and !m bilge pump was employed. Although the pro-l pellers were efficient, the "flying boat," as if was called, was not entirely satisfactory orl account of troubles with the chain drive. Thil experimental machine was also equipped witll a hand cranking device and the engine had i\ clutch.

THE STANDARD 1912 HYDROAEROPLANE!

Two sizes of the water machine are listedl models D and E. These are identical with thJ land machines of the same model, with thJ exception, of course, of the boat and local turn < f the forward elevator. The D machind] has a spread of 26 ft. 3 ins. and a total over-all length of 25 ft. 6 ins. This is furnished witll either a 60 h.p. Curtiss motor, or a 75 h.p. motor, as desired. The standard power for tha passenger carrying model E is the 75 horse enJ gine. Instruction in living is included in thl cost of the machines, $5,500 and $6,000 respeci tively.

The machine described following is the E-751 machine, which is identical in all respects witB the smaller model, save in size. The spread o| the main planes in this is 2S ft. S inches.

The main planes are double covered witi Goodyear cloth, glued and tacked. Cross wir* ing between the fabric lias been discarded-Laminated wood bracing is employed, runnina from corners to center of each section. Therl are five sections to each plane. These arJ quickly demountable, the main beams (1 incll by D/i inch) butting together between ste^ clamps, bolted. Every section is double guyeol laterally with Roehling steel cable. The cross-guying between front and rear spars is single, except in the engine section where it is doublM All woodwork, save the bamboo outriggers, the ash skid, the ash reaches to the front of till float, and the laminated asli front and reafl beams in the engine section is laminated spruce! The overhang of the planes beyond the rea^j beam is very little in the present machines.

ER0NAUT1CS April 1912

NSURANCE

he last 12 months were I of costly aviation Widen ts. Th ese ni a 1/ be I to blacken delation's filiation; or used to t> aviation's progress. J then must be frank-Eieed.

f the seven prominent lerican aviation en-ms, only one has never 1 a fatal aceident-tlie \Xl3IOTUR - in spite the h u tat reds of fl iyli ts lie irith it the world

I lake udranlaye of mtremendous develop-fts of last year ueie f models are ahsolute-msential. The 1!)12 \XI3IOTOR is udditi-Mllil protected agaiusl i weaknesses shoicu in f'r enyines last year.

IN AMERICA

"W.tha40-50h.p. M AX 1 MOTOR,

1 get off the ground with a 180 lb. passenger in about 100 feet. I'm sure that the man who can't fly with a MAXIMOTOR hasn't a flying machine." — Os-born, Ohio Aviation Company, Manager.

I Two aviators suffered fatal injuries because of de-|>ctive crank hearings on American engines. Official livestigation proved it: though the facts did not get into lie magazines. Other engines have been "stalled" from le same difficulty with babbitt and bronze bearings.

Irank bearing trouble has never been known on the ball-Iring MAXIMOTOR, which is (he only American aero-Itor so equipped except one s:5.000 engine. The shafts of I world's chami>ion aeroruotor and automo))ile motor each

I on ball bearings.

Another fatal accident resulted from cylinder 1 blowing off a crankcase.

Ihe MAXIMOTOR compression is figured to a safe limit. [' cylinder bolts, as also the connecting rod bolts, are of lome nickel >teel imported specially from Sheffield for ■ MAXIMOTOR.

I he records show that numerous engines have stopped in Bl-air and caused deaths and serious injuries as a con-

uence of every one of the following:

lien years hecominy entanyled with loose wires.

6l MAXI3IOTOR years are housed.

mhriciition failing on account of oil becoming heated

anil thin.

il circulation stopping unnoticed by the aviator. M-buretor freezi ny.

II three are prevented by the MAXIMOTOR oil-jacketed ►s intake. The cold gas and heated oil bring each other

to the best working temperature. By a single glance the aviator can IN EUROPE t^M E inspect the carburetor and the oil sight just above il.

Valves dropping on pistons which then burst cylinder heads. Impossible on the MAXIMOTOR. The valves are at the sides of the cylinders.

Rotary intake valve, breaking — from weakness of design. No rotary on the MAXIMOTOR. Crankshaft breaking as a result of striving lor extreme lightness. The MAXIMOTOR shaft is of a safe size in the highest grade imported chrome nickel steel, strength 150.000 to 170.000 lbs. per inch.

19 12 MAXIMOTOR

I'.p. WEIGHT about 200 lbs., THRUST over 420 lbs.

• so a 6 cyl. Ih. p. model.

Of the 29 famous machines in the French military contest (severest test to date) just two makes of engines won. One was the MAXIMOTOR type-4 cycle, 4-cylinder vertical water cooled. So were the champions _of lhe"Around Germany" race and the great International endurance contest in England.

Ask DETROIT

Dept. 4

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

PIONEER BALLOON MAKERS of America

An opportunity for you lo now enter the big profitable field of ballooning for racing, exhibition, or advertising purposes with the American-made balloon—a Goodyear. We build them complete for all purposes—start with raw material, end with finished product even to fitting: up with engines and parts. We guarantee our construction and quality equal to anything in the world. Prompt deliveries—reliable quality and money saved, is the value of Goodyear Balloon service.

RUBBERIZED AEROPLANE FABRIC

The only weather-proof fabric. Hence most durable— safest. 11 neither rots, mildews nor weakens. It won't shrink nor stretch, pull the planes out of line nor flap and cut down sliced. The process which impregnates the cloth with rubber makes the fabric impervious lo varying degrees of heat. cold, or moisture. Used by all leading air-men and manufacturers.

AEROPLANE TIRES—SPRINGS

Our Detachable Aeroplane Tire is most popular. This tire is built like the Goodyear No-Rim-Cut Auto Tire. It binds the rim in a grip that holds in spite of landing wrenches—prevents loss and injury. Made of special fabric of unequalled resiliency and strength.

We make tires of all kinds for all American and foreign machines. With or without leather treads. We also make a full line of springs, including the Bleriot Type Rubber Shock Absorber of which we are the sole Manufacturers in America.

Write us before doing anything definite.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., A^an'

Branches and Agencies in 103Principal Cities.

Farman Running Gears Complete, as above - $47.50

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Everything to build any type flying machine.

New Catalogue with working drawings of Curtiss. Farman and Bleriot-type machines in course of construction and will be mailed free upon request to all parties as soon as received from the printer. Write for quotations.

A FEW IMMEDIATE DELIVERY PRICES

Curtiss Steering Wheels - $9.00 FREE with

Curtiss Seats - - - 5.50

5-Gallon Tanks - - 6.15

Aviator Caps - - - 1.25

Outrigger Fittings - - .29

Oval Post Sockets - - .17

every S30.00

order for Aeronautical

Supplies FLKECED-LINED AVI -ATOR CAP. Aluminum pullevs with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 2i" 30c, 3" 40c. Wheels and Tires complete, Eclipse Hub:

20x2i" SG.75 20x3" §9 50 E. J. WILLIS COMPANY, New York City

85 Chambers Street (Telephone 3624 Worth) 67 Reade Street

THIRTEEN American aeroplane records are held by Americai Aviators. Nine records were made in biplanes and monoplane; ecpiipped with CHARAVAY PROPELLERS. No record was made by ami other concern which specializes on propellers.

With a Charavay propeller on his monoplane, Sll Croix Johnstone captured the record for distaiicM throe records for the greatest speed over given dll tances, and three records for distance flight witljl a fixed period of time.

With a Charavay propeller on his monoplane KenJ Simon captured the climbing speed record by reacll ing the altitude of 1.600 feet in 3 minutes. 35 sccondf

With a Charavay propeller on his hipl me Charlel K. Hamilton broke th^ world's record for biplanl speed over a circular course by flying at the rate cl 79.8 miles an hour.

Over one-fifth of all the aviators in America secured their pilot's license with a Charavay propeller.

There is no more convincing array of hard, cold, practical, unassailable facts that demonstrates the unparalleled flying etliciency. reliability and durability of the Charavay propeller.

The Charavay propeller must have all llieso qualities because it is built according to a scientific formula that has been adopted as a part of Hie curriculum of the Stevens Institute of Technology.

Most important of all, you can buy it for less money than any oilier propeller in the world.

Can yon afford to use any other propeller V

agents: Karnes Tricycle Co.. San Francisco and Los Angeles.

MANTTEACTUKKO AND SOLD BY

SLOAXE AEROPLANE

Aeroplanes, Chummy Propellers, Parts and Repairs 1733 liKOADWAY, NEW VOKK CITY

CO

National Aeroplane Co.. Chiea.'d

BBBBBgBB

a

m

a

/fT Considering the future of aviation ^BJ_anc/ the builder, we cheerfully submit our latest catalogue—calling special attention to unassembled new features. Our aim is to place supplies within the reach of all interested and trust we have met the requirements, generally modern machinery, up-to-date methods, skilled labor, the best of materials and experience do the rest.

In the vicinity of all aero centres and wherever you see aviation—you find us.

Send 4 cents in postage and secure one as we invite your criticism.

New York Aeronautical Supply Co.

(Suite 62) Department "B"

50 BROADWAY - NEW YORK

BBBBBBBBBHB

BBflflBBBBBBBBBBBBBHBBBBBBBBBEBESSSBEl

«

The planes have a 4 inch drop between front and reai- beams. The curve is 3V2 finches deep, one-third back.

The main ribs butt against the beams and are fastened in place by metal straps. The leaving edge is a separate section: the ribs in this also butt against the beam and fastened by straps. The metal straps are cut as shown in the drawing, folded down over the ribs and talked.

The spruce fish shaped struts have 4 laminations, and the ribs three. The lateral beams are 1 inch by iy2 inch spruce, 2 laminations. The engine bed is spruce and ash, laminated.

The outriggers are covered by tin tubes for a distance of 30 inches back from where they join the rear beams. Between the bamboo joints are small metal bands. The struts are 2*4 inch by 1 inch at central portions and taper to ?i inch round at the sockets.

The forward elevator on the water machine is larger than on the standard .and machine. This is double covered, as are all the surfaces on the machine. The laminated ribs in the elevators and ailerons butt against beams, fastened with tin strips around the beams, tacked. This system is also employed in the main planes. Of course, there is no bamboo push rod to the top of the elevator, but there is a rod from Jtlie lower end of the steering column to the bracket on the under side of the elevator.

The two rear elevators work inversely in conjunction with the forward one by wire cables. < me runs from a point on the steering column above the pivot, under the lower plane to the forward end of the rear outrigger, through a Bowden tube, along the outrigger to the first upright, back and from there another short piece (with a snap hook) joins i n and continues to the lower end of the mast i f one of the rear elevators. Another cable from the upper end of the mast, wkn a snap honk at the end, joins another and continues re%eisely the same way, except that it attaches In steering column below the pivot point. Another set of wires duplicate the operation to the other rear elevator.

It is of course, well known that pushing forward on the steering column turn the forward and rear elevators simultaneously ; the action is the reverse in pulling: the column towards the operator. These rear elevators are cut away to allow for rudder movement. Triangular fixed surfaces are used ahead of the rear elevators, at an angle to the horizontal. The angle of incidence of these may be altered.

Fig. 2-3

' AERONAUTICS Page 128 April, 1912

AERONAUTICS

April 1912

The Twin Propeller Machins

The vertical rudder is pivoted back of its leading edge. A hoiizontal spar projects forward. From this the cables run to the steering wheel:—first to a point back of the rearmost strut in the outriggers, through Bowden tubes where bends come, along the outriggers through Bowden tubes, under the lower main plane, cross, up through the hollow steering column and around the grooves in the wheel. Turning the wheel left steers left, and vice versa.

The ailerons are built in the same manner as the elevators and rudder. These are hinged to the two outermost rear struts of the main planes. Cables run from the upper and lower ends of the steel tube "A" on each, through tube gu'des to the shoulder braces, the ailerons acting positively up or down by a movement of

the body sideways. At the junction of the cables at the seat an arrangement is provided, designed to allow neutralized ailerons. In this, the passenger machine, the shoulder controls may be interconnected so that either person may operate the machine.

The system of wiring the whole machine for the controls will be seen in the sketch.

The steering column is hinged, so that the control may be passed to either of the occupants of the machine. The upper half of the column is locked in position for either pilot by a spring catching in a notch on the sector (see sketch). If desired, the machine is fitted with two duplicate control pillars, interconnected, for teaching pupils.

(Continued on page llt<>)

By PERCY PIERCE, Model Editor

HE fad of 1910 and the early part of 1911 for models to rise from the ground under their own power is slowly coming back into use. The model described here has made numerous nights of over 700 feet after rising off the ground. The materials used are as follows:—2—34 inches long 14x5/16 inch spruce sticks; 2—6 inch propeller blanks; 26 feet 3/32 inch square rubber; 4 feet of split bamboo; 1 foot of 1/16 inch steel wire; 2% feet of thin spruce; 2 propeller bearings; 1 can Ambroid and varnish.

The fuselage consists of two spruce sticks 34 inches long, which are tapered off on the inside at one end, so that when fastened together by lashing with thread rnd glueing they will form an acute angle. The other rear ends are braced apart by a 6 inch bamboo brace, which is lashed and glued to the top of each stick y2 inch from the ends. A brace of bamboo is also lashed and glued on top of the sticks midway between the ends. Two small blocks are cut to form two steps and are glued to the top of the fuselage, 3 inches from the front end.

t the apex or front, y2 inch from the end, a hole 1/16 of an inch is bored to insert a

3 inch piece of steel wire for the front rubber anchorage. Each end of this wire is bent into a hook to hold the rubber. The bearings, which can be purchased from a model supply dealer, are lashed and glued on the outside at the rear ends of each stick, so that the hooked ends point towards the front of the fuselage.

Propellers are 6 inches and can be had carved or buv the blanks and cut them out yourself. They should be cut to revolve in opposite directions and when slipped on the shafts they should turn out when pushing the model.

Split bamboo skids are the proper thing. A r>y2 inch piece of bamboo is heated over a spirit lamp or flame and bent to shape as shown fcr the rear skids. It is then split in half thus forming the two skids. The braces of these are 4% inches long and are bent in the same manner. Now lash them to the fuselage so that the front of the skids are 7 inches from the rear and the brace 4 inches from the skid. A thin strip of bamboo is lashed and glued to each skid where the brace joins the skid to keep them steady. The skids are now covered with Bamboo Fibre and varnished to act as keels to give the flyer greater stability. The front skid is ~y2 inches long whereas the braces are Qy» inches.

Page 132

Thin spruce is used for the planes and should not exceed 1/16 inch in thickness. The main plane is IS inches from tip to tip and 3 inches wide, that is, with an aspect ratio of 6. The front or elevating plane is &V2 inches by 3 inches. Both planes should have a camber of about 1 in 15. Four small pieces of the rubber for the motors are used to lash the planes to the fuselage. The rear plane should be located above the rear skids and the front edge of the elevating plane resting on the small blocks at the front.

Each motor should consist of 6 strands of rubber and each end of each portion of rubber should have an S hook attached so that the motors can be easily slipped off to

wind up. One of the best ways to wind up the rubber motors is with a winder made from an egg beater.

The rubber is wound up by first stretching it out. Someone will have to hold the rear of the model while you wind. After winding and hooking the rubber back on the front rubber anchorage the model is allowed to rest on the grouud until you see fit to let the propellers go, when it will start over the ground and gradually rise up. If it doesn't get off the ground either the front plane should have more elevation or the rear plane should be moved forward. The limit of turns of the winder is 250; if more are put on the rubber is liable to break.

MODEL CLUB NEWS

The Cypress Hills Model Aero Club of Long Island, New York, have recently changed their name to The Long Island Model Aero Club.

The New York Model Aero Club is coming along in fine shape. Nearly every meeting they bring out between thirty and forty members.

The Philadelphia Model Aero Club is advancing rapidly. Already the Club has twenty on the membership list. Everyone is interested and distance and duration flights are gradually increasing. The Club meets every Saturday evening now at the home of its secretary, 220S B'rown Street.

CONTESTS

Omaha, Xebr., Feb. 17.—At the fifth meet that the Omaha boys have held, Edwin Greevy scored first place with a flight of 45 feet 11 inches. The next best were, Fridolf Engstrom, Wilbur Bradley, and Glen Grosjean whose "planes" made respectively 44 feet, 40 feet 9 inches and 40 feet.

Long Island, X. Y., March 10th.—The Long Island Model Aero Club, formerly known as the Cypress Hills Model Aero Club, held a contest for a bronze medal offered by Mr. Edward Durant of the Xew York Model Aero Club, with the following results:— Won by J. F. McMahon, of Cypress Hills, L. I., distance 1,585 feet. 2nd, Geo. A. Page, Jr., New York Model Aero Club, 1,438 feet. 3rd, Harry Eckhardt, "Woodhaven, L. I., 1,175 feet. 4th, Cecil Peoli, Xew York Model Aero Club, 1,085 feet. The Club will hold another contest on April 14th. There will be one event for Club members, one for models rising from the ground, and an open event for distance.

Newark, X. .1., March 16th.—At the Speedway the Model Aero Club of Xew Jersey held a contest with the following results:— 1st, Francis Walton with 931 feet distance and 40 seconds duration winning a bronze medal donated by Mr. 15(1 ward Durant. R. Perry Foster came second with 856 feet and 36 seconds duration. 3rd, P. Lott with 62!) feet and 22-1/5 seconds duration. Nine contestants entered the competition.

Philadelphia, Pa., March 17.—The Philadelphia Model Aero Club held their first contest at Fair-mount Park with the results that a record was broken. Percy Pierce won first place with a flight of 1,554 feet, made with the Pacer Xo. 68, with unollicial flights of 2,628 and 2,706 feet. Oliver M. Prentice came second with 960 feet.

In the duration event Percy Pierce broke the American duration record with a flight of 91 seconds, the model attained a great altitude, at times completely out of sight. Pierce made numerous flights of 72 and 71 seconds duration. Prentice came second in this event as well as distance with 59-1/5 seconds. The day was ideal for model Hying, with a gentle breeze of about 5 miles per hour.

Xew York, N. Y., March 17th.—At the contest of the Xew York Model Aero Club at Van ('ort-landt Park, Cecil Peoli came first with I,7ul

feet; 2nd, Chas. Lateiner, 1,468 feet; Harold Connelly, 1,442 feet; 4th, J. McPlerson, 1,078 feet; 5th, Harry Hader, 574 feet; and 6th, Heyler with 332 feet. In the duration event Harry Herzog made 65 seconds and Selly second with 62 seconds.

San Francisco, Calif., March 18th.—R. G. Robinson of the Polytechnic Aero Club made a new Pacific Coast record with a flight of 1,144 feet. This was witnessed by H. Carniglio, president and W. Ruppel of the Polytechnic Aero Club.

Chicago, 111., March 23rd.—The Illinois Model Aero Club is certainly "going some". At one contest, there were three events, with some thirty contestants, one of whom was a girl. Girls, you want to get into the game. In the i small glider event, Clarence Fisher came first* with 34 feet 10 inches; large glider event, P. L. Jones, first with 59 feet. In the power driven model event, Louis Phyllis first with 41S feet.

Philadelphia, Pa., April 6th.—The Y.M.C.A. Boys' Aero Club meet was making fine progress when they were obliged to vacate on account of not having a permit for the day. However, the boys succeeded in making a number of flights. Percy Pierce made some 7 or 8 flights averaging from 1,000 to 1,500 feet. H. G. Oakley of Gloucester, X. J. made one of over 1,000 feet. Others present with models were, Philip Mc-Cutchen, David Metheny, John McDonald and Sydney Gross. The Y.M.C.A. have offered a cup the contestant to win three times.

Gloucester, N. J., April 8th.—Flying is almost out of the question at Fairmount Park, as thel base ball season has arrived, so several mem-l bers of the Philadelphia Model Aero Club took! a trip to Gloucester, where they found an ideaB field for flying, with a clear space of aboutl V2 mile wide by a mile long. The land is flat,! and bordered by a creek. H. G. oakley and] Percy Pierce tried out models on the nev« grounds. Cnfortunately Oakley's ' 'plane" camel down in a hurry in some plowed ground, at one end of the field and was disable'. Pierce, however, had hetter luck, and his model covered in a straight line 2.S90 feet, going out of sight. In ten flights his model covered a nistance of over ?,y2 miles. In the afternoon Pierce triedk out his Xo. 5 Hydro and after several trials itl rose off the water in a very graceful flight. Itl is probable that the contests will be at this field.I

Address all inquiries to Percy Pierce, 59071 Osage Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.

Ray "Wilcox, of the Wolverine Aeronautic Col is now in Canton, China, where an aviation coop is being organized. Three Curtiss typl machines were made for tne Voung ChinJ Association and they were expected to take part in the proposed siege of Pek!n. but arrived too late. It is interesting to see pictures of American machines with ih=> American engines! Roberts and Cray Eagles, as part of Chines^ scenery.

MODEL AEROPLANES

STANDARD FITTINGS AND SUPPLIES

Ann°"n.ci."S °ur Second Edition 1912 Catalog free on request. Listings Knoek-Down 3 foot b lying Models, designed to scale. Including: Curtiss Hydro, Nieuport Racer, Langley Tandem Monoplane Chain Drive. New Stock, new fittings and Correct Prices

337 ADAMS STREET BROOKLYN, :: N. Y

THE WHITE AEROPLANE COMPANY,

"CECIL PEOLI" cfer

Official Record 1,691 feel, 6 inches

Plans and directions for building this famous model 25c. Plan for building Wright Biplane, 3 ft.. Flying Model 25c. Bleriot Monoplane 3 ft., Flying Model-plan I5c. Complete stock-of guaranteed materials and parts. Our new up-to-the-minute catalog contains everything. Also has official rules for contests 5c. brings it. Worth $1.00. None Free. IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82a West Broadway, N. Y. City

PROPELLERS FOR MOOELsT w&:™ariabieam^l"SS

shaft accurately and securely attached; 3%in.l5e.,5 in. 20c 6 m. 25c, 8 iu. 35c, 10 in. 50c. Post-paid. Low quantity prices. Jersey Skeeter Aeroplanes 25e,FlyingSquirrelAeroplancsl5c. LINCOLN SQUARE NOVELTY WORKS, 1939 Broadway, New York

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GET THE WORLD'S BEST FLYER

PERCY PIERCE RACER, No. 68

Official records:—1,814^2 feet distance 91 seconds duration. Unofficial (newest) distance 2,890 feet. In ten flights it covered over 31-miles. The only model to win every competition in which it has been entered. Most complete drawings published 25 cents. Parts and Made-up machines from

PERCY PIERCE, 5907D Osage Avenue, Phila., Pa.

Write for particulars

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SINGLE SEATERS RACING MONOPLANES j PASSENGER-CARRYING MONOPLANES

Visit our factory and examine in detail the excellent construction of our monoplanes.

A few of the most prominent owners of our Bleriol Type Monoplanes are: A. C. Menges, Memphis, Tcnn. E. J. Marley, Sumner, Miss. Willie llaupt, Philadelphia, Pa. A. V. Heybnrn, Jr., St. Louis. Mo. G. B. McNamara, Norton, Mas*. J. Albert Brackett, Boston. Mas=. Chas. W. Spencer, Phila., Pa All passenger-carrying monoplanes are equipped with twin steering wheels which enables the pilot to instruct the passenger and still retain control of the machine at all times.

Send for Illustrated Catalogue, It is Free

One of our Single Seater Monoplanes. Equipped with 50 11. P. Roberts Engine. Price as llluslrated $2,700

AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE

137-141 JACKSON STREET Phone 427 Hempstead HEMPSTEAD, L. I.. N. Y.

The Moisant International Aviators

Moisant Monoplanes secured more records than all other American makes duringl911

Executive Offices - U. S. Rubber Building, Broadway and 58th St., N. Y. C. Factory .... Winfield, L. I. Aviation School - Hempstead Plains, L. I.

Moisant 50 h-p. Monoplanes

Moisant Racing Biplanes

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Instruction in Aviation after April 1st

BLERIOT and MORANE MONOPLANES FARMAN BIPLANE VOISIN HYDRO-AEROPLANES

Best terms given first ten applicants

Inspection invited. Write for terms and information

137 West 37th St., :: New York

AVIATORS

It Is An Insult to Your Intelligence

to be asked more money for a high-powered aeronautical motor than you are compelled to pay for a complete motor car of Vanadium steel construction. We therefore, offer you

the Self-Starting 50 H.P. Six Cylinder Albatross

including magneto,

carburetor, propeller and self-starter complete for $650.00 f.o.b. Detroit. If you want to get into the International Races this year, get an Albatross and have a sure chance. Our large illustrated catalogue tells you why Detroit people can do what George can't. It is free for the asking.

Agents Wanted Everywhere

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Detroit, Michigan :: :: U. S. A.

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REVOLVING MOTORS

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET.

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A

AERONAUTICS

Page 133

April 1912

The Sparling Headless

iHE latest Sparling headless, the evolution of Sparling's first headless machine, which is claimed to have flown as far back as November, 1909, and to have been the first to abolish the front elevator, is a medium sized machine adaptable for general use but is designed especially for exhibition work. Owing to the simplicity of construction, it is easily assembled and repaired, all parts being-standard.

DETRlL OP CONTROLS:

The general description is as follows: Spread of upper planes 36', lower planes 2S' 0", separation 5' 3", chord 5' 6", spars spaced 4' apart. Engine section 8' 10" wide, other sections 5' except extensions of upper planes which are 4' 0". Ribs spaced 12" apart, of Farman construction, surfaced on both sides. Length of outriggers 15' with struts 6' and 10' from rear spar. Length of main skid 10' with 20" by 4" wheel in front. Rear wheels, of which there are two pairs (Farman type 20' by 21//) are mounted at rear end of laminated skids which run •from spar to bottom of tube bracing under rear spar and extends to the rear 14". Main skid is placed further from lower plane than is the usual practice, being 2' 9" below rear spar, alio ■■ins engine to bo placed 10" above spars.

t-rfl

DCTFML 0p REPiR r/HCELS.

Seat arrangement for operating ailerons (pat. app. for) comprises seat with rigid back and sides mounted on framework between front wheel braces, on double leaf

springs 6" wide, which allow the seat to be tilted either to the right or left but throws the pivot off center toward the side to which the seat is tilted. A tripod of tubing fastened to the bottom of the seat operates the aileron wires in reverse. A hand wheel mounted on an inverted U shaped support of steel tubing, bending to the rear at the upper end operates the rudder, pushing and pulling the whole operates the elevator. Hand or foot throttles as desired.

Dimensions of controls are: tail 12' wide, 2' stationary, 2' flexible, rudder 4' high, 1' forward of pivot, 2' to the rear. Ailerons IS" by 9', operating both ways.

Designed for 50 h.p. Kirkham motcr, approximate speed' 60 m.p.h. Weight 650 lbs., area 300 sq. ft.; loading with gas and oil for five hour run 3.4 lbs. per square foot.

J. N. Sparling has reorganized under the name United Aviation Company and conducts the Sparling-Craig aviation school, at East St. Louis, Illinois, with a fleet of six "ships," exclusively Kirkham motored. The school has opened with five pupils: W. S. Holley, Collinsville, Illinois; Francisco G:tlan, Mexico, D. F.; Antonio Perez, Porto

rvfWVMIDE HINGES ON AILERONS MRST CLRrlPED TO SPRR or AILERON.

Lico; Edw. Xeimiller, East St. Louis; and Charles Karobaugh, Kirksville, Mo. The school owns its own sheds on a leased private field.

SHORT FLIGHTS

LVy k. m. lii;.\\So.\

If Wilbur can read, can bis baby Wright?

V'nnlniaii can not cross the Atlantic ocean in a balloon because he is not a Well-man.

.mst because Antony .lannus can write "Uaviations," it is no ' indication that he is .\. Wittemann.

No, Cassius. aviation "buys" are not Aeronaut ieks.

The man who said "1 had rather be (W (right than President," must have had a high opinion nf aviation.

If the Wright Brothers list their suit in court would they have to bi-plane clothes.'

Question: Why is an aviator like a hog"?

lOnd man: Well, Roger, why is an aviatior like a hog?

Roger: He always carries a spare rib around with him.

If Uoosevelt's "Big Stick" is inefficient, why doesn't he get an aero club?

AERONAUTICS

Page 134

April 1912

The Sparling Headless Biplane

George W. Beatty with a Frontier Model-A Motor makes some very fine flights and says he will shortly make some interesting records with the Frontier. If you are looking for a powerful, high-class motor get particulars today. This motor will be on exhibition at the Aero Show in New York and exhibited by E. J. Willis Co., 85 Chambers Street.

FRONTIER IRON WORKS, 'Buffalo, N. Y.

How would you like to win a Race?

BUY A

French—American Balloon They always Win.

Records Prove It

Chicago International Contest, 1908—9 competitors, 1st for distance and endurance. Indianapolis National, 1909 1st & 3rd money St. Louis Centennial, 1909—1st, 2d & 1th money Peoria Contest, 1909—1st & 2nd money. Indianapolis National, 1910—2nd money. Kansas City National, 1911—1st, 2nd & 3rd money.

Kansas City International, 1911—"K.C. II." non-contestant — whipped the entire field, World's best Balloons.

Insist on Record.s before buying anywhere.

We arrange Contests. Qualify Pilots, ete.

French-American Balloon Co.

4460 Chouteau Ave. St. Louis, Mo.

H. E. Holywell, Mgr.

AERONAUTICS

Anil, 1912

THE ONLY COMMERCIAL AEROPLANE

In the World will be exhibited IN SECTION E

First Annual International Aeronautical Exhibition

NEW GRAND CENTRAL PALACE

New York City

MA Y 9th to 18th

The Christmas Aeroplane

CAutomatically balanced; heavy weight carrier: Hy in heavy weather; absolutely dependable; not a plaything, but a commercial success. C,Can be built to any desirable commercial size; in a field by itself; no competition ; nothing like it. CL We court the closest investigation. Meet us at the show, see it and let us tell you the rest.

CHRISTMAS AEROPLANE COMPANY

capital $1,000,000.00

Office, Factory and Flying Grounds : Washington, D.C.

Office : 1512-14 H Street, N. W.

FAIR MANAGERS and Others Interested in AEROPLANE FLIGHTS

EXHIBITION and CROSS COUNTRY FLYING

MODKL "A" HIPLANK. Single Seater

THE PROWSE BIPLANE AND MONOPLANE

" Reliability Means DOLLARS lo the Management" Flights Guaranteed You can Program the Flights—They will be on Time Prices Right

COMPETENT AVIATORS MACHINES THAT FLY CONTRACTS RIGHT

DATES FOR EXHIBITIONS ARE BEING BOOKED-DONT DELAY

Yon are cordially invited to Ihe Flying Field, where demonstrations of Exhibition and Cross Country Klyinsj will be had any day you mav come. My Aviators and Machines HAVE PLEASED OTHERS. THEY WILLI PLEASE YOU.

Aeroplane Flights will do more in one day to advertise your Town, Fair or Carnival than anything else. MANUFACTURER OF

AS WELL AS ALL STANDARD MAKES WORKMANSHIP GUARANTEED AGENT OF THE KIRKHAM AERONAUTICAL MOTORS

DO YOU WANT TO FLY?

I use a Passenger Type Biplane in teaching you to fly. A competent A via tor is wit h you at all times. Two sets of Control Levers. THE ONLY SANE AND SAFE WAV TO LEARN My Terms are Reasonable. NO DEPOSIT FOR BREAKAGE It EOF I RED. Let me tell you all about it.

Should You be Interested in any l>ep<irtment, Write, ll'ire or 'I'hone

C. O. PROWSE

HOPKINSVILLE

Kentucky

.MODKL '•]'>•• HIPLANK, Single or Double Seater

fig. i, caudron; 2, the sanchez-besa ; 3, a maurice farman: 4. a henry farman

That the first iuieims meet did for aviation in the recent hydroaero-

plane contests at monaco have apparently done for water hying.

as in the opening drama nearly three years ago. the public turned out in great numbers, assuiing moral and financial support to the utmost, while delegates from all countries also made the event truly international in character. the marine aeroplane has established itself as a "genius avis" which requires special classification.

points were awarded to each competitor but in such a ratio that the passenger carrying capacity considerably overbalanced any other figures of merit.

the score of each contestant was increased co, 5u, 75 and 100 per cent, for respectively one, two, three and four passengers, bringing the curtiss third.

eliminating this feature of weight-carrying would give curtiss second and third place.

the one important lesson seemed to be the necessity of treating the lloats or pontoons as necessarily boat hulls, and marine craft pure and simple.

the french press are highly elated over the meet's success, claiming the french constructors have done in two weeks what it has taken curtiss two years to do.

the different hydroaeroplanes were equipped with from one to four lloats. the large yoisin had four floats, the small yoisin had three lloats. both the maurice and henry farman hydroaeroplanes had three floats. the lloats on the henry farman machines were exact duplicates, even to the smallest detail, of those used

on the curtiss hydroaeroplane. one of these machines sprung a leak the day after the meet was finished and it is only due to the fact that the aviator hurriedly took to flight from the water and did not descend until he had reached the finishing plank upon which the hydroaeroplane was hurriedly drawn that the machine was kept from turning over sideways into the water. this same accident occurred to the sanchez-besa hydroaeroplane with the result that it turned over in the water directly in front of the harbor.

robinson had but a one-man speed model and paulhan had the standard passenger-carrying curtiss. the perfect weather and smooth water were of immense advantage to the french machines. these latter were very large biplanes to which floats had been attached. the largest, a maurice farman had previously carried six passengers as a land machine. this was measured ft. spread. the others were all but slightly smaller. there was but one day of rough water and the curtiss was the only machine to make the test under the bad conditions with the exception of the voisin which was smashed in landing in rough water.

bate in the afternoon of the same day the wind died down and the water became perfectly calm, enabling the other machines to go out and accomplish the required tests. xo counts were allowed for speed.

after first trials, the two-lloat machine had its two floats brought much closer together, their position fore and aft being also altered. by bringing the floats nearer to one another, the machine acted like a single-float machine, under wav. two of the three-float machines, the two farmans, run on two floats only when

The Monaco Water Meet

they have attained a certain speed, and so become more akin to two-lloat machines. A number of alterations have been made in certain of the machines. Kenaux's Farman biplane had its rear float removed, and the two main floats placed closer together.

The conditions of the meet were as follows:— A.—Arise from calm water and fly out around

some buoys placed in open sea. Counts one

point.

B—Alight in calm water after circling the

buoys. Counts one point. C.—Arise from rough water. Counts two points. i>.—Alight on rough water. Counts three points.

The two following tests could be attempted as often as might be desired during the meeting, hut only counted once:—

E.- The aeroplane must be driven ashore after alighting on the water, so that the pilot may land with dry feet. Counts four points.

F.—The aeroplane must be driven on to the sea surface from the shore, after which it must rise. Counts four points. Four extra points accrued to those machines

which fulfilled these tests.

The contestants in the Monaco Meet, March 24th to 31st, were as follows, with the points gained:—

1. Fischer—( Henry Farman, 3 floats) 112.1 points

2. Renaux—(M. Farman, 2 floats)____100.S points

3. Paulhan—(Curtiss, 1 float)....... S6.3 points

4. Robinson—(Curtiss, 1 float)...... 71.9 points

'. Caudron—< Caudron-Fabre, 3 floats) 63 points fi. Kenoit— (Sanchez Besa, 2 floats).. 50.3 points 7. Kugere—(Yoisin, 3 floats)........ 41.7 points

Taddeoli—(Monette Perrot, 3 floats) Colliex—(Yoisin, 1 floats) Baillod— ( Baillod, — floats)

BOOKS RECEIVED

HOW TO PLAY THE NAVAL, WAR GAME, by Fred T. Lane, author of "All the World's Aircraft," etc., published at $1.S0 by Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 100 Southwark St., E. C, London. Complete set of latest rules, full instructions and some examples of "wars" that have actually been played. This is a great book for the naval student, particularly those interested in aerial defense and offense.

The Aero Show

GREAT hopes are being entertained for the first annual hydroaeroplane race to be flown the first week in May over New York waters for a handsome trophy offered by Charles E. Spratt, head of the International Exposition Co., for annual competition. A rules' committee is working on conditions which will give every machine the same chance as any other. Two Curtiss water machines have already been entered.

Following is a list of exhibitors up to closing time of the forms for this issue. A number of other exhibitors have asked for space and contracts are awaiting signature. Visitors to New York will have ample opportunity of seeing samples of about every machine made in this country, as well as some of the principal foreign types. Makers not exhibiting, some of them, will have 'planes or motors to he seen at the Long Island fields, as the Gyro Motor Company is doing during show week. Lectures by aviators and prominent men in aeronautics, illustrated with moving pictures taken by Coffyn and Fowler from aeroplanes, and by slides, will be given twice daily, free to the public.

AEROSTAT I OX A Leo Stevens—small complete hydrogen balloon: Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 4 model balloons and large scale model dirigible.

A ER( (PLANES Max Ams Machine Co.—hydroaeroplane; American Aeroplane Co.—monoplane; American Aeroplane Supply House—Bleriot-type monoplane, single seater; and chassis of 2-plaee machine; Curtiss Aeroplane Co.—hydroaeroplane and two models of biplanes; Christmas Aeroplane Co.—biplane; Gallaudet P^ngineering Co.— 100 Gnome steel monoplane; Gressier Aviators. —the Gressier "Canard"; It. W. Jacobs—metal multiplane with 2 motors; National Aero Co.— Bleriot-type monoplane; Queen Aeroplane Co.— "aeroboat" with Crane engine, and Bleriot type monoplane; Rex Monoplane Co.—Bleriot type monoplane; Irving \V. Twombly—monoplane; The Wright Co. G cyl. hydroaeroplane.

M()T<HIS

Max Ams Machine Co. M. A. S. motor, S cylinder V shape, 70 to SO h.p.; Baby Engine Co'.— engines for models; Crane Co.—aero motor; Curtiss Motor Co.—various Curtiss motors, propellers, sectional parts, etc.; Elbrldge Engine Co. — I and 6 cyl. "Aero Specials" in the Willis space; Frontier Iron Works- s cyl. Frontier: C. B. Kirkham Kirkham six; Mead Engine Co.—

50 h.p. rotary valve Mead: Roberts Motor Co.— 50 and 75 h.p., 4 and 6 cyl.; also one 125 h.p.; Nomie Engine Co.—Nomie rotary engines tor models, propellers, speedometer and models; B. F. Sturtevant Co.—4 and 6 cyl. motors and propellers; H. L. F. Trebert Engine Works—S cyl. V motor and A "Trebert" Justrite; Irving W. Twombly—7 cyl. rotary. Gnome type; Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.—H-S S cyl. motors.

FABRICS

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.—Tires, tapes, springs, fabrics, pneumatic hydros, etc.: Penn. Rubber Co.—Pennacloth, aeroplane tires: B. F. Goodrich Co.—Lumina fabric: Diamond Rubber Co.—aeroplane tires.

MISCELLANEOUS E. J. Willis Co.—Supplies and models; Marburg Bros.—Mea magnetos; Electric Speedometer Co.—tachometers; \Y. F. Mangels Co.—teaching device; Aeronautics; B. F. Goodrich Co.— Palmer tires; Fly; Aircraft; G. A. Crayen & Co. —magnallium; Aero; Scientific American; F. A. O. Schwartz—models; White Aeroplane Co.— models; W. A. Crawford-Frost—model flying machine.

LOAN AND HISTORICAL EXHIBITS Curtiss 1909 Gordon-Bennett winner; Burgess "Flying Fish"; Antoinette by Harry S. Hark-nes's; Nieuport by A.C.A.; Davis Aeroplane Gun; Queen Company—wind tunnel in active operation; New Army aeroplane with 70 Renault built by Burgess Co. & Curtis; Wright hydroaeroplane of Frank Coffyn; Henry Farman biplane of Clifford B. Harmon; Morane monoplane by Romaine Gressier: Paris-Madrid Bleriot winner, by Paul Lacroix; Deperdussin single scater, by George M. Dyott; Chanute gliders from Aero Club of Illinois; Zodiac dirigible car, by A. Leo Stevens; Parseval airship, by Horace B. Wild: Exhibit from the LT. S. Weather Bureau; Law's parachute, used in the jumps from the Statue of Liberty, Brooklyn Bridge, etc., recently, by by A. Leo Stevens; Assortment of balloon basket's, by A. Leo Stevens; Balloon basket and equipment lent by Al. R. Hawley.

The Wright Company will show their propellers used in the early years of experimentation. The Army aeroplane wireless will be another feature.

I am inclosing money order for subscription. You have the best magazine that comes to my desk. I have magazines from Europe but yours is the best, better paper, type and larger.—C. F. S., Ivans.

AERONAUTICS

April 1912

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Fourteen Years of Experience — Three Years of Designing Combines the Advantages of Two and Four Cycle Motors See our exhibit of motors at the International Aeronautical Exhibit, New York, in Space "H"

4. The engine with the Smallest Head Resistance.

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6. The engine Unaffected by Inclination. Its oiling or gas

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Watch for the Other Reasons

' Buy an H. L. F. Trebert and Forget Your Engine Troubles

499 ST. PAUL STREET ROCHESTER, N. Y.

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I Benoist Biplanes | f NAIAD

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don't wait for spring to fly. Horace Kearney, in a plane built by us last year, flew from the aviation Held to Frisco and landed in a public street.

Anton y Jan mis and Capt. Berry in the new Benoist School Machine, carrying 100 pounds extra equipment flew from K i n loch to Jefferson Barracks, over twenty miles in twenty minutes. Jannus dropped Berry with a parachute into the Barracks and returned to Kinloch without a hitch.

Benoist flyers are always doing things because they can.

Also operate the Benoist School of Aviation.

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Benoist Aircraft Company

6628 DELMAR BLVD. :: ST. LOUIS

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Wright Flyer

1912 Models

In addition to those features whieii in the past have made Wright Flyers famous for efficiency and reliability, the new models can be furnished with Automatic Control, Silent Motors, and Hydroplanes. These special features make the 1912 machine unusually attractive to sportsmen.

Exhibition Machines

For exhibition work wc have other models especially adapted to high winds and small fields. It was with a stock "KX" Model that Rodgers made his wonderful flight from Coast to Coast. Reliability means dollars to the exhibitor.

Wright School of Aviation

Training consists of actual flying, is accompanied by a competent tea( no expense whatever from breakage, flyers in America are graduates < include such names as—

, in which the pupil ■her. No risk and The most famous if our school and

Lieut. Rodgers Parmalee Page Reynolds Simmons Turpin Welsh W-bster And a score of others

Our School at Dayton is now open and pupils may begin training at once if they wish. Hy eiirollinf now yon can reserve date most convenient to you for training.

Lieut. Arnold

Atwood

Brookins

Brindley

Bonney

Beatty

Burgess

Coffyn

Capt. Chandler

Drew Elton

Lieut. Foulois

Fowler

Gill

Lieut. Lahm Lieut. Milling Mitchell C P. Rodgers

Write for Particulars

LARGEST IN THE WORLD

THE WRIGHT COMPANY

DEPT. A DAYTON, OHIO

USE OF MONOPLANES SUSPENDED French Army Issues Order

FOLLOWING tlie death of Lieut. Seville by the breaking of the four up-ment and the Minister of War issued per guys of the wings. Bleriot reported on the subject to the <h>\ email order to suspend the use ot arinj monoplanes.

The report of Bleriot explains the deaths of Chavez, Blanchard, Lantheaume, I >u Courneau and Seveille. The French Army monoplanes aie now being ietrussed.

In has report Bleriot says:

"All these accidents having resulted in the same conditions led to the idea that the wings must be forced frjm above, and had to resist pressure acting vei tically in a downward di-ret tion.

•'Then it was that 1 realized how the momen-tiim of an aeroplane Hying in a straight line, and made suddenly to descend by a vol pique, would reverse the loading on the wing ::; " * * *

"A machine moving horizontally will, when the motive power is diminishea, descend by a parabolic path, which will le longer in proportion to the initial speed. If, by a strong mm enient of the elevator, the pilot suddenly transforms the trajectory into a straight line slanting at a steelier angle towards the earth than the parabola, the machine is immediately subjected to a force from above. In order that the machine should make this descent to earth, which takes place more rapidly than that resulting from the gravitational influence of its own weight, a downward force must act upon the wings.

..])■■_ ****** ,,ne suddenly uses his elevator in order to descend (at a steeper angle than the parabola) of which the slope is greater than its small angle of incidence it is evident that, in order to overcome the momentum of his machine, he must apply a force on the top of the wings, and at the same time of course this will stress the upper guys.

"It is then the change from the (one) direction to the (second) direction that causes the danger to the pilot and not the vol pique its-self, which if performed slowly and progressively presents no objections.

"It is therefore necessary to test monoplanes with a top loading on the wings, so as to obtain a system of upper bracing that will be of corresponding strength to the lower bracing now in use."

WRIGHT PATENT SUITS

An appeal is being taken by the German Wright company from the recent decision of the German Patent OIHee to the Imperial Court at Leipzig. The grounds for the Patent < >ftice oral decision were stated in the last issue.

The law throughout Europe is that if any invention is described, even by the inventor himself, prior to the time of the application for a patent, the invention is considered as given to the world and can not be patented. At the time of filing of the American patent in 1!»0::. England France, Italy and several other European countries were in what has been called the "International Convention." In countries belonging to the "Convention," the disclosure of an invention subsequent to the filing of an application in any one of those countries does not prevent the securing of a good patent in any of the other

countries, provided application ,s made in the other countries within a period of one year of the filing of the original application.

At the time of the fil x\k of the American Wright application. Germany had agreed wit'.i the other countries to join the "Convention." but the German Patent O.hce has made a ruling that the benefits of the "Convention" can be claimed in favor only of patents which were filed in foreign countries after May, DO:-!. The Wright American patent was filed six weeks before that date. It is. therefore, patent that the recent German decision rests not upon the validity of the claims of the patent in suit bin upon a technicality in the red tape of officialdom. The decision proves nothing whatever. ()ne is still left in darkness as to whether or not the Patent (>ffice of Germany considers it necessary to use the vertical rudder to correct turning tendency caused by warping or ailerons.

THE SITUATION IN FRANCE

The defendants in the French suit decided not to appear before the Commission of Experts appointed to try to discover something in the art previous to the Wright patent which would annul the main claim. Henry and Maurice Far-man and Esnault I'elterie are the appellants from the decision of the first court. Bleriot to date has not filed an appeal but there is still time. If the decision of the lower court is confirmed by the French Court of Appeal the Wright Company in France will, of course, be entitled to damages for all machines built prior to the date of the decision as well as for those built after.

An appeal is being taken by the Germanoinn.

Our German correspondent writes: "It is not likely that the court of review, the Imperial court, will hand down a different decision."

In announcing the "Great American Circuit" race, the Aero Club of America makes it obligatory that contestants be "free from injunction under the Wright Patents." No Court in this country has yet determined the status of the Wright Patent. All machines, save Wright's infringe the Wright Uatent. claims the Wright Company. The A. C. A. is thus either compelled to constitute itself a court, or refuse all entires save Wright and licensed machines.

THE "GREAT AMERICAN CIRCUIT."

The Aero Clubs of New York. Illinois, Michigan, Milwaukee. Kansas City, St. Louis, Indiana, Cincinnati and ()hio are organizing an aeroplane circuit of INK) miles, which will be held in the month of August and will be known as the "Great American Circuit."

Chicago will be the starting and finishing point of the circuit. The route proposed is Chicago, Milwaukee (SO m.). Cedar Rapids (200 m.), lies Moines (120 m.). Omaha (ISO m.>, St. .Joseph (120 m.). Kansas City (40 in.), .lefferson City (12"> ni.), St. Louis (100 m.h Charleston (125 m.), Indianapolis (100 m.), Cincinnati (100 m.), Columbus (90 m.). Cleveland (FiO in.), Toledo (100 m.). Detroit (fiO in.). Chicago (220 m.)

Stops will be made at each of these cities, possibly at other cities situated along the route.

The Circuit is to be open to certified pilots of all nationalities who will be "free from injunction under the Wright I'aten'ts." The prizes are expected to amount to $I00.0n0 and will include a Grand Prize of .^.".onii. second prize $.".000, third prize of $2."an.

Page 138

April 1912

Among the other prize* to he given are : prize for first and second machines to reach each control; a special prize for American built and flown machine first to arrive; special prizes for: (a i Least horse-power to complete course; (h) Passenger carrying; <c) First to Hash a wireless message to a control; <c-l) Greatest number of wireless messages delivered; (d) Best map made on route and decription of conditions, etc.; (e> First aeroplane lifted with stabilizer to arrive; (f) Most completely equipped machine.

NASSAU BOULEVARD GONE

Another month will see the Nassau Boulevard aviation field pass into history. Great objection was raised last year by nearby residents and of late a change in affairs of the real estate companies in control resulted in the moving of the sheds to the Hempstead Plains east of Mineola.

The Moisant International Aviators have acquired from the Hempstead Plains Aviation Company the good will and property of the Moisant aviation school and this school will be conducted at the Hempstead Plains throughout the present season.

LEGAL NOTICE

As T am manufacturing aeroplanes, T desire to give notice to all persons that are using my "Patent Rudders" with inverse and simultaneous action, and also my "Patent Semi-automatic engine control" that it is my intention in the future to ask a small "Royalty" from them.

Hugh L. Willoughby.

WILL FLY TO NEW YORK

Paul Peck is expecting the first week in May to fly his Columbia biplane from Washington to Xew York without a stop. < >n March 27th, at the military camp at Augusta, Peck flew for 2 hours IS minutes, using the first Gyro motor turned out of the factory, which was seen at Nassau Boulevard last year. Climbing' was accomplished at the rate 400 feet a minute. This and other flights were made for the benefit of the Army officers. The endurance condition under which the Army is buying the new machines is one of two hours, and the machine must climb 2000 feet in 10 minutes. During the Aero Show. I'eck will be flying at Minneola to demonstrate his machine and the Gyro motor. Dr. William Christmas, who is exhibiting an aeroplane of his own design at the Show will have a Gyro engine and Simmons propeller. Oscar Mote, of the Rex Smith Company has finished a Curtiss type with Gyro engine.

BENEFIT FUND FOR AVIATORS

Isaac Guggenheim, head of the smelling trust, will he trustee and treasurer of a fund that is being raised for the relief of aviators and their friends.

Mr. Guggenheim, has notified the Aeronautical Society that he will take charge of the fund and pay all expenses of the Treasurer's office.

For the past IS months professional aviators in America have been eager to form a relief fund.

Last January a start was made by establishing a committee to take up the work of organization. The activity was then, at the request of the aviators, taken over bv the Aeronautical Society. The fund will be known as the "Aviators' Fund," and will be a part of the Aeronautical Society hut will be conducted under a separate trusteeship.

The Aeronautical Society will appeal to all people in the United States interested in aeronautical activities to contribute to th«» nucleus of the insurance fund. No contribution to the fund will l.e too small. The aviators will hold hencfit meets and the theatrical organizations and others will be as ted to help.

The aviators will be assessed a fixed sum each day they fly that *hev n>ay participate in the benefits of the fund. The details are being worked out by the Law Committee of the Aeronautical Society.

MILITARY AVIATION

The last day of flying at Augusta for the Aviation School was March 2Mb, after which the aeroplanes were packed for shipment and the loading of the cars proceeded for the next three days.

The afternoon of April 1st, the School departed in a special train of ten cars on the "Atlantic Coast Line, arriving at College Park the afternoon of the 2nd instant. By the night of the 3rd all of the cars were unloaded, and since then the entire detachment has been engaged in preparing the hangars and equipment for a busy season. The flying at College Park, has been delayed in order that the entire personnel may devote their attention to improvements which are now under way. This work will be sufficiently advanced so that flying will begin the latter part of the present week.

March 2sth, Lieutenant Harry Graham reported at Augusta, as a student officer and will be instructed in flying the Wright aeroplane. Lieut. Col. Winder, of the Ohio National Guard, has begun instruction on a Wright under Lieut. Kir t land.

While at -Augusta the School made a total of 43G flights having a total duration of SI hours and is minutes. Out of the 124 days at Augusta, not including Sundays nor the lime engaged in packing or unpacking aeroplanes, the officers were flying 58 days, but some of these rain or high winds permitted a few flights only early in the mornings or late in the e\ enings.

The Signal Corps now owns 3 standard Wright. 1 Burgess-Wright and 2 Curtiss aeroplanes, and there have been ordered I dual control Curtiss (lately delivered), I Burgess and 4 Wright machines.

During the week of March 17-24, the attention of the Army Aviation School was taken up principally with the tests of the new dual control Curtiss aeroplane designed especially as a military weight-carrying machine. Aviator Charles F. Walsh of the Curtiss Company did the flying and represented the manufacturer. All tests prescribed by the specifications (see February issue) have been completed except the ascending with 450 pounds (The French Army requirements call for 6f>0 pounds) at the rate of 200 feet per minute; the contractor desires to try this again at College Park where the conditions are believed to be more favorable than at Augusta, especially as to safe landing places for a long straight course.

During the trials Mr. Walsh made a total of 17 flights and in addition to these the officers made IS flights during the three flying days: these had a total duration of three hours and twenty-five minutes.

In the matter of speed the machine made 53.1 miles per hour, an excess of S.l miles, the specifications calling for only 45 miles per hour.

The endurance test, calling for two hours continuous flight was met without the least difficulty, the machine maintaining a flight two hours and eleven minutes at a 300 foot altitude. Flights were also made from and landings made upon a ploughed field with perfect success.

The aeroplane was prepared for transportation from flying shape, in thirty-three minutes. It was re-assembled for flying in fifty-five minutes. It landed on and started from soft, mushy, ploughed ground, according to requirements. The engine throttled to run at reduced speed as required. Tt is equipped with a dual control, enabling either occupant to operate the machine. As to the climbing test, the machine ascended 1,000 feet in 7 minutes, carrying 450 pounds and fuel for four hours flight, mak ing the total weight over f>00 pounds.

This machine has 2SC 2'3 square feet of lift-B ing surface. The fore and aft over-all dimen-i sion is 27 feet. Tip to tip, laterally it is 37 feet. Planes have a 5 foot chord. The motorl is an eight cylinder 75 H.P. Curtiss, 4" borel by 5" stroke.

' Manufacturers of '

Aeroplane Parts

in Brass, Steel and Aluminum. Engine Mountings for any motor. Also Copper and Brass Tanks of any description. Steel Tube Frames to Order. :: :: :: ::

RELIANCE AUTO PARTS MANUFACTURING COMPANY.

244-250 West 49th Street New York City

Telephone 5135 Bryant

jiade of ash and mahogany

When it comes to a show down as to WHO is WHO in the PROPELLER line, with two of the leading Propellers on the American Market, and when ground tests and real flying tests are made under the same conditions and these PROPELLERS come out in the lead—do such things mean anything to you ?

This has been done last season and will undoubtedly continue along these same lines this

season- My 7'x 4f pitch is a real propeller. A "SPECIAL"

Write to-day and see what others are doing and what you could do. The Price is right.

THEODORE I. CAMP, 177 Milburn Street, Rochester, N. Y.

Model 10-ax. Special Exhibition MacMn and Cross Country Flyer. 70 h. p., Speed 60-65m.p.h.

passenger machine 70 h.p., speed 50-55 m.p.h. model 10-bx.

school or passenger machine 50 h.p., 50-55 m.p.h. model 10-h.

Facts are Truer Than Fiction

FLY A THOMAS

If these models do not meet your requirements write for further particulars. :: :: ::

chool of Aviatlion

Addi

THOMAS BROTHERS

Shannon Building Bath, N. Y.

AERONAUTICS

April 1912

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GIBSON

We lmve consistently refrained from any attempt to persuade the public by mere argument and advertisement that our propellers are the best. That method never lives.

We have consistently refused to build propellers for the purpose of producing a high thrust when anchored to the ground. We know that such a propeller will tend to keep the would-be flyer on the ground. It fools him by an appearance of value.

We know that a propeller must be built to give maximum thrust in flight. We proved it. We are the only concern in America to make an exhaustive series of tests at the only propeller testing plant in America— that of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Those tests were made under flying conditions.

We found that our propellers, designed for flying, gave under flying conditions 30% more thrust per horsepower than those whose only merit is the great thrust they will show on a scale anchored to the ground.

That is why Beatty conquered every other Wright machine—he had our propellers.

We want to do as well for you—to help you fly—to discuss the subject with you and submit to you Professor Gallup's curves of actual results obtained at flying speeds.

It costs you nothing to confirm this. We feel sure that you really want to have this valuable data in your possession.

Let us have your inquiry. We will send you "Proof by Test" by return mail.

GIBSON PROPELLER CO.

Fort George Park, New York City Phone 6762 Audubon

PROPELLERS

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WITTEMANN BIPLANE

The Wittemann Biplane with a Reputation, not only sets the pace for Quality but for Service.

Write for information of 1912 Biplane with our new Stabilizer.

Own a Wittemann Biplane Glider: the best, the safest, easiest to operate, and enjoy flying in a moderate form.

Do you want to build a machine of your own design or parts thereof? WE can help you to make it successful.

Some parts of your 'plane can be made of steel, we rid you of the annoyance of constant repairs and insure absolute safety.

Send us >our specifications and requirements and secure our quotations.

Large stock of steel fittings, laminated ribs and struts of all sizes carried in stock.

YOUR OPPORTUNITY

Two single covered biplanes for immediate delivery, slightly used, perfect condition, ivith S Cyl. GO H. P. Hall-Scott }ioicer plant. Write for particulars

C. .„<. A. WITTEMANN

Aeronautical Fnginttrt

Works: OCEAN TERRACE and LITTLE CLOVE RD. Statei Island, N. Y. City

Established 1906 Write for Catalogue

MILITARY AVIATION IN MANILA

The aeroplane shed of the L\ S. Signal Corps at Manila has been erected on the plains on the shore of Lake Laguna, near Fort MeKinley, about 5 miles from Manila. Great Hat lands which are covered with rice fields afford splendid landing spots. Lieut. Lahm has charge of the aviation work. The climate is most favorable, the monsoons which are not strong, being invariable in their season.

If there should be another Jloro outbreak, an aeroplane over their country would be to them like the flying dragon bringing dread and to us like the dove of peace. It is expected this fourth military arm will be as great in its influence over these savages as in its military utility as a means of communication and for observation.

The recent exhibition by Captain Baldwin and Lee Hammond during the annual festivities in Manila was the most impressive sight ever beheld by the natives. It brought people from all over the archipelago—from the Moros of Mindanao to the head-hunters of the wild mountain tribes of Northern Luzon—who were filled with wonder at the performances of the "pale-faces," as they call the Americans. The work of Baldwin and Hammond greatly impressed these people with our military power.

FREE SERVICE BUREAU

The Aeronautical Society has established a new department, which it calls a Service Bureau. It is the function of this Bureau to bring together those who have what the other man needs. For instance there are many good mechanics expeit in aeronautical work who wish employment with reputable manufacturers. The manufacturers want reliable help. Heretofore it has been practically impossible for these elements to come in contact with each other except by accident. The Bureau will provide means of contact for the employer and the employee. It also will bring the aviator with or without a machine in contact with managers who want their services. It will tell the show promoters where they can obtain reliable flyers and will help the exhibition aviator to find reliable exhibition dates. The purpose is to act as a sort of clearing house for all those who are interested in the industry. Every effort will be made to provide accurate information concerning those who seek to be placed. The Society will make no charge whatever for the services of this Bureau. This is the first practical assistance that has ever been provided by the aeronautical organization in this country to the people in the business. The Society has already acted as intermediary for half a dozen people.

In addition to its work in helping the Army Militia to secure aeroplanes and aeronautical instruction the Aeronautical Society has now taken up the question of providing the same services for the Naval Militia. This work is being done in co-operation with Captain AY. Irving Chambers, who is in charge of the United States Navy Bureau. Captain Chambers, who is one of the deepest students of aeronautics in America, is one of the vice-presidents of the Aeronautical Society.

MARTIN FLIES OVER LOS ANGELES

Glenn L. Martin made a great flight from Griffith Park to the business center of Los Angeles, around over the principal streets and hack to his shed, on March 30, in a trip lasting 23 minutes.

MISS QUIMBY CROSSES CHANNEL

On April 16 Miss Harriet Quimby, the well known American "aviatrice." made greater fame for herself by being the first woman pilot to cross the channel, living from Dover to Hardelot, near Boulogne-sur-Mer. The trip took two hours. She is to be particularly complimented in beating the men folks by taking a longer course than usual.

She used a new Bleriot 2-seater, which she has recently purchased and is bringing to this country. Visitors at the show will have oppoi tunity to see it.

DEATH OF RODGERS

Calbraith P. Rogers, the 140th death in power machines, the man who new from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans, making a world record for continuous aerial travel, was killed in an exhibition flight at Long Beach, Cal., on April 3. Rodgers, a cousin of Lieut. John Rodgers. U. S. Navy aviator, was a great-grandson of Commodore Perry who "met the enemy and they are ours" at the battle of Lake Erie. At the Chicago meet in 1911 Rodgers made the greatest total duration, winning $11,285 by flights totalling 27 hours. At the time of his death he was (lying the same machine with which he crossed the continent, a small sized Wright known as the "3x" model.

Rodgers once had an illness which left him quite deaf and with an impediment in his speech. A well known aviator who trained with him at Dayton expresses the opinion that Rogers, in making a steep power glide down, failed to pull his machine quickly enough, and it landed head on in two feet of water. It is said that many of the minor accidents which befell him on his transcontinental flight were due to his inability to hear whether his engine was running properly or not, and that his sense of equilibrium was not thoroughly developed. Observers say that during most of his flying he flew with one side of the machine lower than the other.

OTHER DEATHS

13!i Dusseldorf. Germany. Mar. 26.—Kleine.

137-s Sebastopol. Russia, Mar. 13.—Lieut. Albokriteott and assistant in a military Farman biplane.

136 Berlin, Mar. 15.—11 err Witte. a well-known German flyer was killed at Teltow in a Wright. "Gust of wind overturned machine," acording to an "official" report.

141 Bar-le-Duc, France, Apr. 13.- Lieut. B'oncourt.

135 Yarese. Ttaly, Mar. 15.—Lieut. Beito'ietti, student aviator.

DEATH OF PROFESSOR ROTCH

Professor Abbott Lawrence llotch, who for manv vears has conducted at his own expense the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory and made a life work of research in the air, internationally known, died at Boston on April 7th.

JAMES MEANS $3,000 PRIZE

James Means, of 1H6 Beacon Street, Boston, well known as an enthusiast, editor of the famous "Aeronautical Annual," offers prizes totalling $3,000 for four bonis flying.

"1 offer a cash prize of one thousand dollars to be competed for by aviators using the James Means Control described in Aeronautics, N. Y., Feb., 11112. p. 46.

"Public living of not less than four hours total will be required. This time will be divided: there are to he three flights of not less than half an hour each, one of not less than one hour, and one of not less than ninety minutes. The prize will he awarded to the entrant who makes the longest duration in the last flight, viz., that one having a minimum limit of ninety minutes.

" If the manufacturer of the winning machine chooses to employ, on his own account, teachers using the James Means Control, I will set apart another sum of one thousand dollars to be awarded as follows:

"If within three months of the time the prize is won ten pupils have been taught. 1 will pay to the manufacturer the sum of one thousand dollars to constitute a prize to be awarded to the aviator who shall be designated by the manufacturer as the best flyer of the ten.

"A pupil will be considered taught when he shall have duplicated the five flights made by the winner of the original prize.

"If the original prize of one thousand dollars is not won by July 1st of the present year, the offer is void."

Page 140

April, 1912

DR. BELL'S TETRAHEDRAL FLIES

1 >r. A. Graham Bell has now the satisfaction of proving his statements in regard to his tetra-hedral kite "Cygnet" III and of "showing" the skeptics. J. A. D. McCurdy made a number of straightaway flights with it over the ice of Lake Bias d'Or, in Nova Scotia, on March 1st to 17th.

The kite consists of 360 cells and weighs 540 lbs., with 70 h.p. Gnome engine, without operator. It flew at about 43 miles an hour with an 8 by 8 foot propeller turning 1200, giving a thrust on the ground of 500 lbs. Another trial was made of adding 262 cells, which, however, did not make it fly so well. The kite spreads S m. at the top and 6 m. at the bottom. The kite is triangular in fore and aft cross-section by 2 m. fore and aft. Mr. McCurdy's weight is 160 lbs.

AT BEATTY'S SCHOOL

George W. Beatty has had unusual success at instruction work. His 'plane has been kept busy the entire winter, despite snow and extreme cold. Sixteen pupils have been trained or are still at the school. Marshall E. Reid, a pupil, has purchased a Wright of his own after completing his course. An 8 cyl. Frontier engine has arrived the middle of April and will be installed in B'eatty's Wright at the earliest opportunity. This engine has been arranged for fuel injection, similar to the Wright system. When Lee Hammond took the train early in the morning of the 15th of April on the beginning of his wedding journey, Beatty accompanied the train in his aeroplane, with his wife as passenger, part way to New York. Reid also was up at the starting of the train .ait returned to the field on account of the inclement weather. Many passengers have been taken tip, as many as four at one time, loaded one behind the other.

NEW AEROPLANE GUN.

Commander Cleland Davis. 1T. S. N., of Washington, has invented a new gun with which to arm military aeroplanes, which is designed to destroy foes of the air or to attack an enemy on earth from a height where gun, gunner ami aeroplane will be an almost invisible target.

The new gun fires a 33 pound projectile and has no perceptible recoil. The latter fact is on* of the most commanding features of the gun as a powerful recoil would in nearly every instance capsize the (lying gun-carriage. The gun has another feature which adds materially to its practical value. It is made of vanadium steel, and although twelve feet long weighs only 150 pounds. This is an inconsiderable weight for the aeroplanes of this day can carry four, five and even six passengers. One of the English or German military airships could easily carry a battery of these guns. The gun discharges a projectile at an initial velocity of more than 1,000 feet a second.

In a test held on a barge off Fisher's Island, N. Y., several Fnited States Military and Naval

officers were present. The gun was mounted on steel springs. It was fired twice and although! the springs were of delicate mould there wasj no recoil after either discharge. The test wad in every way satisfactory and arrangements have been made by the Aero Show to make the gun one of the features of the historic exhibit of the show.

FLIGHTS OF KIRKHAM TRACTOR

The test flights of the Kirkham tractor biplane, which were temporarily abandoned in December on account of the cold weather, were taken up again the early part of March on al small lake near the Kirkham factory, since! which time as many as one hundred differenl flights have been made, of varying lengths up] to one of thirty minutes duration on April 4. andl a cross country, flight of 20 miles on April 6.

During several of these flights the motor was cut off entirely at varying heights, to test the gliding ability of the machine, in several of the flights the machine was flown continuously with the engine throttled until the machine was traveling at less than 40 m.p.h., while the top speed over a measured course was just under 60 m.p.h. The object of these flights was to test the amount of reserve speed available and the showing made is considered very encouraging.

During these flights the machine was fitted with a model B-6 Kirkham motor 7 ft. 2 Inch by 5 ft. pitch propeller, turning at 1,425 r.p.m.

Curtiss Hydroaeroplane

(Continued from page 130)

The uprights and braces to the engine bed are of steel tubing. The engine shaft line drops at the forward end very slightly so that the propeller is driving downward in a small degree. The engine is a 75 h.p. Curtiss, Bosch magneto and Schebler carburetor, driving a 7 ft. S in. diam. by 7 ft. pitch propeller. The right hand foot pedals are combined spark advance and throttle levers. The pedals at the left short circuit the magneto, and on a land machine, puts the brake on the front wheel. Both pedals push forward against the pull of a spring.

The float, which weighs 125 lbs., is made ofl veneer over a framework of spruce, and Isl divided into four water tight compartments! A flat keel is provided along the bottom to proJ tect the float when the machine is run up on a beach. The ribs are J4 inch by 1 inch deep! The planking is ]4 inch thick on the bottom andl 3 '6 inch on the sides. Part of the top surface! of the float overhangs, as shown in the drawing!

The whole machine weighs, without operator, S50 IDs.

SHNEIDER 'PLANES

BLERIOT

Monoplanes

{Genuine)

WINNERS OF ALL EUROPEAN CONTESTS IN 1911

In 1909:

The First Aerial Crossing of the

Channel

In 1910:

The First Circuit de l'Est

In 1911:

The Paris—Rome Race (lst and 2nd) The European Circuit (lst and 2nd) The English Circuit (Daily Mail Race) The Belgian Circuit The St. Petersburg—Moscow Race The Valencia—Alicante Race The London to Paris (Non-Stop) Race etc., etc.

WORKS AND OFFICES:

39, Route de la Revolte a Levallois-Paris

and

Belfast Chambers, 156, Regent St., London

AVIATION SCHOOLS:

Etampes, near Paris, during summer Pau - - during winter Hendon, near London

Biplanes that Fly—Come and See

Price Low—Get Quotations

Instruction $250 Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome

C Before buying any aeroplane, be sure the maker is not a novice himself. Get names of purchasers. Visit the plant and school.

C Every Shneider machine flies—and flies well. All parts standardized. No freak construction.

C, Amply powered (Roberts.)

C. Get a demonstration flight first. Then ask those who have flown Shneider machines:

Jos. Richter Wm. Kline Rollin H. Jennings

H. Binder J. P. Tarbox

C,The late Tony Castellane learned on Shneider 'planes.

Write Your Own Contract and Guarantee

Fred. P. Shneider

1020-1022 East 178th Street New York

Established 1908

Felix Bischoff Steel Works

DUISBURG, GERMANY.

The VITAL part of a Motor is the

MM

fHb=

Our HIGH GRADE CRANKSHAFTS are made from our Special CHROME-NICKEL AUTO-STEEL ZH. This steel has an elastic limit of 135-150,000 lbs. per sq. in., and enables you therefore to economize in weight and space. Put this in your motor and you need never fear a broken crankshaft.

We are the MAKERS of the Steel, and our aim is to produce the BEST.

We furnish crankshafts drop-forged or finished complete to the most prominent manufacturers in Europe.

Our Die Cost is Very Low.

We can quote f.o.b. your city, free of duty.

Send blue prints and all enquiries to our representative

H. A. ELLIOTT,(majestic bldoDETROIT,

AERONAUTICS

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

(founded 1907)

Yearly Subscription One Dollar, Post Free

„ . _ A specimen copy will be mailed

11uic- free on rece;pt ©f 10 centc.

-HEAD OFFICE:-

3 London Wall Buildings, London, England American Office : 250 West 54th Street. New York J

MONOPLANE WHEELS

Light, strong and rigid. Ball bearing or bronze bushing hubs. 20x 2 and 20 x 2 J" - Each, $4.75 Immediate delivery guaranteed.

We can alio f uroiih, on ihort notice, wheelt of any dimemioni.

782 Eighth Are., N. Y. Phone, Bryant, 1268

Detroit™ power plant

complete $300 ready to run

incl.pr0peller-carburet0r-b0sh magneto. oil pump-cable -switch -mounting 80lt5

GUARANTEED to

210 lbs min.stationary thrust 158 lbs maxweight(complete) 36 hours delivery

LIFT AND FLY CURTIS BY PLANES CLE RIOT U MONOPLANES DEMOISELLE MONOPLANES OR CRAFTS OF SIMILAR MAKE

DETROIT/^ROPLANE CO.

WIRE

We make an extra high grade plated finish wire for aviators' use.

for further information address

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

TRENTON, N. J.

MAGNALIUM

12 1-2% LIGHTER, 15% STRONGER

and over ten times as tough as the best aluminum castings. : : : :

tjsed for CYLINDERS'

weighs one-third as much as iron-also used in manifolds. crank cases, etc.

G. A. CRAYEN & CO. Metal Dept.

81 New Street MORRIS R. MACHOL N. Y. C.

Tiger Cycles & Aeroplane Co.

special grades of bamboo for aeronautic work. reed. rattan and split bamboo for models. All Gradei In stock.

804-810 Jefferson St., Hoboken, N. J.

J. DELT0UR, Inc.

AEROPLANE RADIATORS!

•IN STOCK OR TO ORDER-

EL ARCO RADIATOR CO.

6 EAST 31«t STREET NEW YORK

AERONAUTICS

Page 141

April. 1912

Among the Makers

AERONAUTICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

THE Aeronautical Manufacturers Association, formed in 1911, comprising more than a score of aeroplane, motor and accessories makers and dealers, and publishers, will have its largest meeting during the coming Aero Show in May. It is planned to have a dinner on May 16, at which representative firms in the industry will attend. The place will be fixed during the Show.

A vast amount of work is to be accomplished. Conformity and certainty in the customs and usages of the trade, the adoption of a federal law to govern the registering of machines and the granting of certificates, the securing of proper transportation rates, exposition of frauds, etc.. are al! the stated objects of the association.

THE 1912 MAXIMOTOR

In its main principles, the new Maximotor Model K, .10 horsepower, follows the latest engineering practice.

While the engine is light, its lightness has not been attained by cutting down the cross-sections of pails to extremes. The method of joining together of parts where possible and the elimination of others not absolutely necessary, gives approximately 170 parts, or 100 without counting bolts and nuts.

The hollow-bored 2" crankshaft with a strength of 150,000—17(1.000 lbs. per inch, is specially heat-treated and ground to accuracy within a thousandth of an inch. It runs on

three imported ball bearings, one at either end to take the thrust and one in the center.

The connect ng rods are of 1-hen in section in manganese bronze. This has a tensile strength equal to steel and is claimed to be superior to steel for this purpose in that it will not crystal, lize and break under the continuous pounding and vibration to which it is subject.

The piston is made of a special semi-steel of a very line grain. It is accurately machined inside and out so that there is no possibility of unequal expansion and loss of power. Though the piston is made very thin, it is practically as strong as a much thicker piston of the ordinary type, on account of its Mange placed at the

AERONAUTICS

Page 142

April 1912

The New Maximotor

bottom. The wristpin is of hollow, hardened and ground steel. It is held in place by a large cotter pin. The three eccentric rings on each piston are ground, double-turned and pinned to insure good compression. At the bottom of the piston is a groove which catches the oil sprayed upon it by the force-feed jet and carries this oil up and clown to lubricate the cylinder wall.

The twin cylinders, 4v2 by 5, are the T-head type, with inlet and- exhaust valves on opposite sides, as placed on the champion Lozier, Mar-mon. Packard. Peerless, etc., etc., engines.

The cylinders are cast in one piece with cylinder and valve water jackets, valve chambers and inlet and exhaust valve guides.

The crankcase is cast in one piece (with valve lift guides) of an easily welded aluminum composition. Yet it lias the accessibility advantage of the two-piece case by use of hand-holes. The center bearing housing divides the case into two parts, nibbed reinforcements are added at all points subject to strain. The supporting brackets are of a new type on the bridge principle and are so rigid that but four are required on the engine.

The end plate or crankcase discs act as housings for the crankshaft end ball bearings. The front disc also serves as a housing for the crankshaft time gear. While the rear disc has three additional functions (five in all)—as housing for the magneto drive gear, support for the magneto, and support for the water pump.

The camshaft is made light with special steel tubing. Tin; hardened and ground cams are fastened by taper pins, ("'ams are or a rounded section that is easy on the valve lifts and valves. The camshaft gear is of bronze.

The valve lifts or tappets, hardened and ground, have a mushroom shaped bottom. The ordinary rollers have been found unnecessary.

The valves are extra large, 2" in diameter, and permit the largest intake and outlet of gas in the shortest possible time.

The intake is automatic, as successfully used on the 1011 Maximotors as well as the numerous Onome, Wright and other aerial engines. a light steel spring enables the valve to respond to the varying needs of the cylinder up to the

highest altitudes of flight. The mechanically operated exhaust valve, on the other hand, has a heavy spring. The valves and valve seats are covered by aluminum cylinder caps through which the spark plugs are inserted.

The oiling system is of the force feed circulation type. The crankcase "with its tapering bottom serves as an oil reservoir and keeps the oil in the middle no matter how the engine may be tipped in flight. At the middle of the crankcase floor, in a little recess, lies the oil pump (gear typel continually working in oil and hence requiring no priming to start. The pump is driven by a steel rod reaching up to camshaft with which it is geared.

All oil is pumped through pipe to an oil-jacket around the gas intake manifold and there cooled. The oil then continues under pressure to points between each pair of cylinders where in the form of a strong jet it strikes the moving connecting rods, pistons and crankshaft. These parts at the high speed of 20 revolutions a second catch the oil and se,nd it about in a fine spray that bathes all moving parts.

This oil-jacket is of glass and serves as a sight. The aviator by a glance at the carburetor also takes in the oil sight just above it and assures himself that the lubrication is all right.

The centrifugal water pump made of aluminum is fastened to the rear disc by five steel bolts. It is driven directly from the crankshaft by a special steel dog.

Tests by the Bosch magneto manufacturers have shown up to 20'/, added power from the Bosch 2-spark magneto. Two simultaneous sparks are delivered to the cylinder at every explosion. The gas is therefore ignited on two sides and burns with greatly increased rapidity.

In block tests with a 7 ft. diameter by ::l4 ft. pitch propeller, the model E, Maximotor has given 420 Vbs. thrust. The weight is 195 lbs., without magneto, radiator or propeller. The price is $1,200 f.o.h. Detroit.

Before accepting an engine, the purchaser or his representative, is entitled to witness it tested 8 hours each day for a week, or for a consecutive period of 4S hours.

AERONAUTKS

April, 1912

ii q

PAT E NTS SECURED OR FEE RETURNED

Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books X

special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN

PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS

+ + + + +

+ +

to get every your invention worth. :: :: ::

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

VICTOR J. EVANS &, COMPANY

Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.

PATENT

RICHARD R. OWEN,

ABLE IDEAS WANTED

Manufacturers are writing me for patents obtained through me. Send for three books with list of 200 inventions. A postal will bring them free. My clients' patents sold free. Personal services. Aeronautical expert. DEPT. 5 OWEN BLDG.

PATENTS

How dollar

Washington, D. C.

Send 8 cents for our new 12S-jmge book.

R. S. and A. B. LACEY, Dept. C, Washington, D. C.

PATENTS

"Protective Patents

c.

experience. Write todav. BEELER & ROBB,

J J and ourother book "Letters of Patent Success," sent on request to inventors. Wide Personal service. Trade-marks registered.

235 McGill Building, Washington, D. C.

DETAILS NIEUPORT WING

Blue Print $2.00

N—Care Aeronautics

l. PARKER

Ex-mtmber Ex.mining Corps, U. S. Patent Office Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 McGill Bldg. WASHINGTON, D. C.

I The Call Aviation Engine

I FOUR CYCLE, WATER COOLED, OPPOSED CYLINDERS

f The Greatest Known Thrust per Rated Horsepower

WRITE FOR CATALOG

I The Aerial Navigation Company of America

t--GIRARD, KANSAS- J

* i

Complete Set of Materials for Building Standard Double Surface Biplane

This machine is the latest model Headless Biplane. The set of materials include N'aiad Xo. 6 Cloth, Weaver 20" by 3" wheels, running gear, rudder and elevalors assembled, material for ailerons and fan tail. ribs, struts, engine holster, bedraib, clamps, sockets, lock tnrnbuckles. terminals, Uoebling cable, tacks, llerdo Tape. Book of Instructions, etc. This is the most complete and best equipment ever ojjercd. Supplies of every description at attractive prices. Write for quotations.

HERBERT C. DOYLE - 321 Lake Avenue - Rochester, N. Y.

$250

J. C. (Bud) MARS, now booking season 1912.

Have never been connected with the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. and School of Aviation.

17 North La Salle Street, Chicago, Ills.

cAero cTViart

ASTRA CASTRA. This exceeding rare book, in great demand by all libraries and collectors, at $10. (>nly one copy.

Aeronautics. 250 W. 54th St., New York.

AloTOR:--For .Sale, Hall Scott s cylinder, GO H. r. motor, with propeller practically new, perfect condition guaranteed, price $1,200.00.

R. Tremper. 1(17 Penn St.. Brooklyn. X. Y.

WANTKD:—l>ayton Public Library, Dayton, O.. will pay for a copy of AERONAUTICS for .June, 1909 and .January 1910 to complete files. TP

CALL Aviation motor. 100 horsepower: Maxi-motor. 50 horsepower; perfect condition guaranteed, sell cheap. Address. Newell Aerial Navigation Co.. 115 Martin St., Seattle, Wash.

FoR SALE—First class passenger carrying Biplane, (new). With or without motor. Best offer takes, either or both. Buchanan, c-o Aeronautics. 250 AY. 51th St.. New York.

FoR TRADE—Bleriot type, 30 h-p. monoplane complete, best of construction. Will trade for 50 to 100 h.p. aero motor. Give full particulars in first letter. Ernest Hall, Warren, O.

FOR SALE—Detroit motor, brand new, complete with 2-spark Bosch magneto, coil, 7-foot Paraxon propeller, Scbebler carburetor, etc., at 2-3 cost. Better condition than as sent from factory. .Address AIuus, Fort Warden, Wash.

FOR SALE Home study course, of the Chicago School of Aviation. $15.00 cost $35.00. Write E. P. Alartin, 39G Du Page St., Elgin, Ills.

Foil SALE—30-10 H. P. Gray Eagle motor and propeller complete, line condition $375.00. Frank Heitz, Ashland, Ohio.

FOR SALE—Complete sets of castings for building the Bleriot monoplane. Lynch Brothers. Aeronautic Engineers, 61 Wick Place, Youngstown, Ohio.

HELICOPTERS— Anyone experimenting in helicopters can obtain apparatus and paraphernalia at a fraction of the cost. Experiments discontinued for lack of motive power. If you have a good motor, success can be reached for little nionev bv addressing X. Y. Z. c o AERONAUTICS, 250 West 51th Street, New York.

FOR SALE—One Requa-Gibson propeller, 7 ft. diameter, G ft. pitch. $35.00.

()ne French propeller type n.097 ft. diameter, 3.987 ft. pitch. $50.00

One French propeller type S.097 ft. diameter, 3.15 pitch. $50.00

line Dean Alfg. Co. propeller type gv2 ft. diameter, 1% ft. pitch. $50.00

The above French propellers were made in France, are made of the very best of material and workmanship. The price F.O.B. Paris is $100.00 each.

1 50 h.p. Harriman engine, 1 cvl.. 1 cycle. This engine sells for $1,650.00, our price $700.00. This includes a complete power plant.

One cyl. 2 cycle, IS h.p. engine $775.00. This includes radiator propeller and high tension magneto. This engine sells for $1,500.00.

One 4 cyl. 40 h.p. Detroit Aeroplane engine radiator, Bosch magneto, $400.00 good as new.

We are closing out our business and must sell.

LeBron-Adams Aeroplane Co.

313 S. 12th St., Omaha, Neb.

I SPARLING-CRAIG AVIATION SCHOOL

j WASHINGTON PARK,

NOW OPEN

EAST ST. LOUIS, ILL.

We want ten aviators fr>r the season's'work. If [you can fly write us, if not, let us teach you.

We agree to instruct you until you are able to get your license. After that we will contract with a number or sell you a machine on the monthly payment plan.

We have the largest equipment in Central United States. We have our own field and hangars. Complete course, two hundred dollars.

References: Illinois State Trust Co. Bank, East. St. Louis, 111.

Citizens National Bank, Kirksville, Mo.

Address

SPARLING-CRAIG AVIATION SCHOOL

EAST ST. LOUIS, ILL. ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★■»*•★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★*★★★*

Page 143

April, 1912

MEAD ROTARY VALVE ENGINE

A new aeronautical engine will make its first public appearance at the Aero Show. The Mead Engine Company will exhibit one or more motors fitted with the twin rotary valves.

i me of the motors that will be exhibited has been most completely tested and found satisfactory. The laboratory or shop tests consisted of long endurance runs at full speeds fitted with wooden blades to hold the engine down to normal speeds of 1100 R. P. M. with the throttle wide open. Under this test the motor has been run for many periods of one-half hour or more, once for a period of two hours and immediately

following, after an overnight stop without any work being done on it whatever, has been run continuously seven and one-half hours. After

this test no work upon it whatever was necessary and it will be exhibited just as it came from this test.

The motor has been designed and built with just this sort of work in mind, that is the ability t<> stand long time runs without any distress The crankshaft and important moving parts are generous of design and of the very best of materials. The weight of the motor is not extremely light, but is light enough to do the work in any aeroplane. The weight of the motor complete, with fly-wheel, magneto, carburetor and all fittings, (without oil and water) is 275 pounds.

The motor is of the 4-cyIinder type, with cylinders cast in pairs, the dimensions being 4%" bore by AVz" stroke. The cylinders are of east iron with aluminum water jackets. The crankbase is of aluminum, very strongly ribbed, but light. The crankshaft is IV' in diameter and hollow.

The twin rotary valves are of the standard construction. The valves are chain driven by a silent chain leading from a sprocket on the crankshaft to a sprocket with twice the number of teeth halfway up the cylinders and thence by a chain from this latter sprocket around the two valves, which gives the 4 to 1 reduction.

The horse power developed at 1000 feet piston speed is 50. Gasoline consumption under full load at about 1100 R. P. M. is 4.S gallons per hour.

The whole idea of the design of this engine has been with a view of durability. Experience seems to indicate that most aeroplane motors have been much too light to successfully stand continued use under aeroplane conditions.

It is believed hy the company that the extreme lightness has not been a necessity and consequently the vital parts of this engine are capable of enduring just as those of a marine or automobile engine endure. Greater lightness can be obtained if desired, as the design lends to extreme lightness. Henry Souther, formerly of the A. L. A. M. laboratory, is Consulting Engineer.

NEW COMPANIES

Akron Aviation Co., 00!i Flatiron Blilg., Akron, «)., $15,000, by John R. Gammeter, Lester Weeks and E. Y. Stewart. Mr, Gammeter is in the Goodrich factory, as is Percy Leavitt, another stockholder. Mr. Seiherling, the president oi the Goodyear company, is also a stockholder. Lester Weeks, who is well known as a llyer at Mineola, will fly the machine designed by Mr. Gammeter. A field is being secured near Akron and a plant will be built.

TOWN WANTS FACTORY

The Norwich Business Men's Association, of Norwich, Conn., are desirous of getting in touch with a reliable aviation school; one desiring a factory site, flying course, etc., preferred.

NEW ALBATROSS ENGINE

To satisfy the demand of a high powered, low priced aeronautic motor, a syndicate in Detroit has recently formed under the name of the Albatross Company. A location has been secured on West .lefferson and Polawski Aves., with 125 foot frontage on the main sti-ret, running down to the river. An ideal location for experiments with hydro-aeroplanes whicb is included in the program of the company. The engine manufactured by the company is a six cylinder air cooled, of the star type and weighs but 235 pounds. The engine is put on the market completely equipped with magneto, carburetor and propeller and a self starter for a price far1 below that of now known types. It is claimed to deliver fully 50 brake H. P. and an original novelty is the attachment of a starting handle and clutch which makes the old and dangerous method of starting by means

of the propeller unnecessary even if the self starter should fail at times to start the engine. The temporary quarters of the company is at corner Moran and Caniields Aver,., until the new plant is elected, which is expected to be complete by July first.

DIANA AERO COMPANY

The Diana Aero Company, of Detroit, Mich., is installed in an exceptionally fine location beside the second business street in the city. Yet it has a large frontage on the Detriot River, within a mile of Lake St. Clair. The bridge to famous Relle Isle, thronged daily through the summer by thousands of Detroiters and visitors, is only a few hundred feet away and in full view of the company's aeroplane testing grounds.

The Diana Company is devoting its nearly 7,000 square feet of floor space to propeller, aerohydroplane and high grade aeroplane manufacturing.

On the staff is a designing, mechanical anil civil engineer, a propeller maker of years' experience and an aviator to test out its planes.

IMPORTED MOTORS STOCKED

The Aeroplane Motors & Equipment Co., of 17S0 Broadway, New York, has practically secured a monopoly on the aeronautical supply trade, by its careful and proper attention to orders. They announce that they will always keep in stock a fair supply of Gnome, Renault, and Clement-Bayard Motors, for which motors they are the agents. They can also furnish on immediate notice, different quantities of imported aeroplane cloths, the same as that used by Bleriot, Farman, Nieuport, and others.

AERONAUTICS

Page 144

April. 1912

AN EXCELLENT HORSE POWER SHOWING.

The following horse power curves plotter! from tests made upon both the lour am! six cylinder Sturtevant Aeronautical Motors direct connected to an absorption dynamometer shows the exceptionally high efficiency which these motors develop in operation.

                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
               

"3

     

re

         

A comparison of the A. L. A. M. rating for motors of the same bore and stroke with- the actual performance of these motors is very interesting.

4 OYLINliKR 4y2" BORIC x 41/2" STROKE. A.UA.M. Rating 1332 R.P.M. equals 32 H.P. Actual Performance 1332 R.P.M. " 50 H.P.

6 CYLINDER 4y2"BoRE X 4M> STROKE. A.UA.M. Rating 1332 R.P.M. equals 4S H.B. Actual Performance 1332 R.P.M. " 70 H.P.

It will be seen from the above chart that both motors reach the peak of their curves at about 1700 R. P. M. at which speed they develop 55 H. P. and sfi H. P. respectively. The catologue ratings are 40 and 60 h.p. respectively.

NEW YORK AERONAUTICAL SUPPLY CO.

The N. V. Aeronautical Supply Co. has issued another catalogue, just as if catalogues cost nothing at all. To look at the catalogue one is lather surprised at the number of parts which are already standardized—by the supply bouses themselves. No less than f-i-v-e hundred and seventy-seven items are listed. One can buy anvthing from a babv thimble to a snreader fork. 1 >on't fail to see the "knee braces," catalogue number 3T1—only ones in captivity. What anyone wants of a speed counter, the Lord only knows: everyone else knows that aviators sire about the speediest things thsit ever occurred. "Bed rail bushings" are listed, guaranteed to "eliminate erushings of ribs." To those who want music wire, it can be had in all sizes. We have heard of sx typewriter being worked in an aeroplane but we haven't the music bug yet. You csin also buy "side forks" but they sire not intended for peas. Push rods may lie had "in any length" as well as tape for "closing seams." All joking aside, it i« apparent from the catalogue that some of those 750 machines must have come from Xew York in parts. The views of the factory show seme of the material in course of construction.

This company reports a good steady winter business and heavy early spring building; that they are more thsin pleased with the prospects for the coming season.

A visit to the factory bears on I their elsiim of sm extensive plant, modernly equipped, with signs on every hand of proper management in e\ ery detail and department.

Who savs there is no money in aviation? Not U L.

1 would hate to miss a single copy. I have found it the one sind only resil aeronautical magazine.—W. A. L., Canada.

Your December number was a "corker" but January has it "slain a mile." Here's lo your success voii have begun the New Year well. -11. W. S., Maine.

KIRKHAM CATALOGUE

The booklet "Advance Specifications" issued by Charles P». Kirkham. of Savona, N. Y, will be found of live interest to prospective engine purchasers. In modest language, every detail of the engine is described and illustrated by mechanical drawings. Of no less interest is a power chart showing- the horespower delivered by his three types of engines at varying speeds up to 2100 r.p.m., ;it which the larger engine delivers 82 brake horsepower. The powers of the three engines at mean normal speeds are 77, 57 and 40 respectively, for which the catalogue ratings are 70, 50 and 35 respectively. Every Kirkham motor is guaranteed to develop its rated power at its given normal speed smd guaranteed free from imperfections for five years. In the specifications of each engine the weight of all component parts of the power plant is given. Self starters are added at an additional cost. A niinviTer of "these engines have been ordered for use in new Burgess-Wright machines and users report most satisfactory results.

AEROPLANE AND ENGINE FOR $875

Mr. E. L. .Tones,

Ed. AERONAUTICS, Xew York City.

1 >ear Sir:—

"We enclose copy for 1-psrge..- advertisement in your next issue. You wilPnotiee that'we have extended our-campaign..by. including net quotations on complete aeroplanes made, by manufacturers of established reputation and sincere. ly .believe...that this combination of reliable I aeroplanes and' Elbridge Engines at reasonable - prices*Will decidedly help American Aviation.

For nearly two years we have believed it possible to produce and market ;i really good aeroplane and a first-class motor at a reasonable figure, providing a good volume of business could be assured. Of course, we have had dozens of alleged aeroplanes offered to us at very low prices, but investigation of the concerns offering, either complete or "knock-down" machines invariably developed the fact that they had neither the machines offered, the eap-itsil necessary to put them out, nor the experience needed for strictly guaranteed results.

The unassembled 'planes we now offer are guaranteed by a thoroughly responsible concern. And the equipment is first-class and absolutely complete. All woodwork well finished in shel-hic, metal parts fitted, brazed and enamelled. Controls assembled. Three inch Continental tires and Xaiad Xo. 6 fabric are included in the equipment, sis well as Elbridge Featherweight engine, with copper gasoline tank, radiator and propeller. Complete at *N75 is getting- prettv close to rock bottom we think.

Xo need to sav anvthms: nhout the nroduet of Wittemann Bros, or T. W. Benoist. They are too well known as aeroplsine builders of established reputation.

Very truly yours. Elbridge Engine Company.

1 'res.

IDEAL MODEL CATALOGUE

Model Hying has increased to such an enormous extent that model catalogues compare favorably with the big catalogues of automobile supply houses. The catalogue of the Ideal Aeroplsine & Supply Co. is si surprise. Wood timbers from 1H inch square up. in various shapes, may be had by the foot. Miniature propellers, ot various tvpes, finished or in the block; 1 If! inch steel shsifts with bearings, 1VS inch rubber tired wheels and minute eyebolts and turnbnekles are listed. Even geared mechanical winders for tinning up the rubber power plants may be had. to save the long winds by band. Multiple gears are supplied for turning twin propeller--, along with sprockets and chains. Models, knock-down, of the standard machines are furnished with . instructions for putting together. Racing tvpes of models are listed and illustrated.

-:- Do You Want To Go -:-

• m-*t\j m. v/u ww m 111 a v-» \j •

AEROPLANING?

and "LICENSED AVIATORS" of

the highest standing and ability.

Mr. GEORGE W. BEATTY, the Society Passenger Carrier is in charge and is making daily flights between the hours of 10 A. M. and 5 P. M.

For all information, 'phone CHELSEA 3129.

Tickets can be had at

$25»TWENTY-FIVE DOLLARS»$25

per trip during January and February. Parties wishing to become "AVIATORS" will do well by communicating now. We guarantee to make you a flyer in less time than any other first class £Z f\

establishment in the world. Course *P ^

Finest flying grounds in America, thirty minutes from New York.

A. LEO STEVENS

By special arrangements I have installed "WRIGHT

AEROPLANES

Address

BOX 181, MADISON SQUARE

NEW YORK

April 1912

SHIP YOUR AEROPLANE TO LOUISVILLE

Wo will install either model GRAY EAGLK MOTOR and show you what they will do.

It's hard to eonvinee some people that they can save money when buying a motor, and that's a reason we offer live use of our Private Aviation Park and use of a Gray Ragle Motor, just to prove every statement we make.

4 cylinder 30-40 H. P. $485.00 6 cylinder 50 H. P. $675.00

Prices include Bosch Magneto ignition, Schebler carburetor, oiler pings and wires. No discounts or agent propositions. One price to everybody. GRAY KAGLK MOTORS are flying amateur built monoplanes and biplanes in twenty states. The Chinese Revolutionary Government uses a GRAY EAGLK MOTOR on their American Biplane.

We guarantee your plane to fly when equipped with a GRAY KAGLK.

Visit our factories and Aviation Park and see lor yi m reel I what they are doing.

Write for special motor circular and Aero Supply Catalogue.

Prompt deliveries on orders received this month

R, 0. RUBEL, Jr. & CO., inc., A and Floyd Sts., LOUISVILLE, KY.

BLERIOT Type Monoplanes

SEE

US

AT

Mechanically made better than others you see.

Equipped with self starting air cooled motors. Improvements added are—

Concealed shock absorber springs.

Steel sleeve on wing: beam post.

Steel frame supporting aluminum bell control.

Automatic adjustment on tail.

Stamped steel plates brazed on shock absorber post.

Wing supporting wires, one above and one below the lower head frame.

All bolts are made from best carbon steel turned from solid stock.

Konr of these planes for immediate delivery.

Plying course with pilot's license for §500 and no breakage.

Nassau Held, hangar No. 30,

THE AERO SHOW

NATIONAL AERO COMPANY 40 East 8th Street, New York

Factory, Woodhaven. L. I. Phone. Spring 5364; or Richmond Hill 397

!•++++<

SPIRON

The neir name for screw or spiral propeller chosen at a prize competition among the aviation public September, 1911.

Biplane propellers are' 'push-Spirons** Monoplane tractors are"pull-Spiroiis*' i# & There is a 2-blader or du-Spiron and a 3-blader or tri-Spiron » S*

Thorough tests on identical engines with a number of the leading makes in the country have shown the du-Spiron to give Write greater thrust in every case.

Aerial Screws cannot

be fully efficient without even

turning. The disconnectedness of cylinder explosions at even 1200 r.p.m, sets up a fine tremble in the screw. This makes it impossible for the entering edge to cut the air with a clean, efficient stroke.

Even turning can be obtained in only three ways:

1. By adding a flywheel of 40 to 80 lbs.

2. By using a rotary engine (which loses 20% of its power in rotating besides its greatly increased head assistance.) By use of the 3-blader or tri-Spiron which is a natural Huirheel.

The 3-blader type has made a remarkable showing in Kuropean aviation. It is adopteil on the latest Breguet, Rumpler Taube, and other planes.

1—99 Baldwin Ave., Detroit,

U.S.A.

►++++++++++?

{

1200Stos4800

1 We GUARANTEE each J

J macliine to fly at least 7,000 />. J

J in height.-111(1 at least 10Miles of J

4 cross-country flying before delivery. *

J We GUARANTEE our {

* workmanship, material, and fin- +

* ished macliine to be superior to £ J all competitors. J

* *

j To owners of REX MONOPLANES I

* we will replace wings, wheels, *

4 chassis or any other parts broken J J during the entire life of the machine {

5 at COST PRICE I

J This means a saving of from J

J 50V to 75V J

J {

J NOW AT |

} NASSAU BOULEVARD {

J FOR INSPECTION *

* *

Jf - AND - *

} DEMONSTRATION J

* * J See Our Machine at the Show J

J TELEPHONE APPOINTMENT *

J 6 7 7 - L To m p k i n s v i 11 e $

$1200£Ho*4800t£ j

— +

- *

I Rex Monoplane Co. I

J SOUTH BEACH, S. I., N. Y. {

+ *

Continuous Operation

at Extreme Angles with everybearing Positively Lubricated

No Hand Oiling

51 u r I e v a n I

Aeronautical Motor

FOUR AND SIX CYLINDER

Four Cycle—Water Cooled Automobile Type

An Aeronautical Motor built for seivice under all conditions and at extreme angles

—Heavy enough to be durable—light enough for flying. Lightness secured by refinement in design and in those parts best suited to give lightness. No vital parts weakened to give light weight.

—Entire design tends to eliminate trouble producing parts. There are no push rods—no rocker arms.

—The valves located in the side are instantly removable for re-grinding. No danger from broken valves. The exhaust valves are equipped with lifters to permit coasting in air.

-All the gears are enclosed and run in oil. The high-tension Mea Magneto permits easy starting with retarded spark.

—A muffler may be furnished if desired, which makes the motor practically noiseless.

—The normal speed of 1200 R. P. M. may be reduced by throttle to 300 R. P. M.

A Dependable, Durable Motor backed by the Sturtevant Guarantee.

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

HYDE PARK. BOSTON MASSACHUSETTS

\ Offices in all Principal Cities

^J Tandem Gear Pump JhetieartoflheOiling System

B Lee Hammond, in BALDWIN RED DEVIL, at Manila Carnival JB

At the Manila Carnival, January, 1912, ten days of merrymaking in the Philippine Islands, Lee Hammond, flying a Baldwin Red Devil Biplane, under the management of Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, made spectacular exhibition flights on every one of the ten days; on many flights carried a passenger.

HALL-SCOTT EQUIPMENT USED EXCLUSIVELY

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR COMPANY,

San Francisco, California. Gentlemen:-

Having just returned with Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin from our trip to the Orient, I wish to report on the excellent success we had with your eighty horse power motor.

All of my flights at the carnival, in Manila, were most successful, and were made under very severe oonditions, as the weather was exceedingly hot. The motor ran perfectly and at no time overheated.

The propeller you furnished us for this motor gave splendid results. Yours very truly,

LEE HAMMOND.

In regard to HALL-SCOTT equipment see Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, Factory Representative tor Eastern Territory, or write direct to

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR COMPANY

San Francisco, California

I AVIATION POWER PLANTS [

Operate Successfully in All Climates J


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