Aeronautics

Volume 10 - No. 3 - 1912 March

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Vol. X, No. 3

MARCH, 1912

Serial No. 56

First Parachute Leap From An Aeroplane

Capt. Albert Berry leaping from a Benoist Biplane powered with a

ROBERTS SIX-X MOTOR

Captain Berry (Antony Jannus, pilot) made the first parachute drop in the history of aviation

March 1st, 1912, from an altitude of 1,500 feet, at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis. He successfully repeated the performance on March 10th, at Kinloch Park Aerodrome. Only confidence in the plane and the motor could have given them courage to essay such a feat.

SEND FOR THE ROBERTS CATALOGUE, IT IS FREE

tblUhed by AERONAUTICS PRESS, 250 West 54th Street, New York

I "KIRKHAM" AVIATION POWER PLANTS j

I FOR SEASON OF 1912 |

f Model B—6 Installed in "KIRKHAM" Tractor Biplane

+

4. The 1' Ki rkha m'' Aviation Motor is offered in four different models,—

* Model B-4, - 35 H.P., 4-cyl., weight 185 lbs.

* Model B-6, - 50 H.P., 6-cyl., weight 235 lbs. f Model B-G-6,- 70 H. P., 6-cyl., weight 255 lbs.

I Model B-12, -120 H. P., 12-cyl., V, weight 400 lbs.

+ All of these models are sold as complete power plants or motor only,

* as desired. Also all models can be furnished with manifolds and mufflers, and J push button self-starters, at small extra cost.

+ The universal success of every 6-cylinder, 50 H. P. " KirkhaiTI "

J motor for the season of 1911 has demonstrated their unquestionable reliability

* and efficiency, therefore, the new models listed above contain not only all the jl, features which have made the " KirkhaiTI " Aviation motor noted for its J reliability, but in addition, all models for 1912 are to be equipped with the new + Bosch 2-spark magneto, larger valves and special cooling tubes through oil tank, .j. whereby the oil is always at a safe temperature, no matter how hard or how J long the motor is run.

4. Now is the time to get in your order if you want reasonably quick delivery

J as a large number of orders have been booked for spring delivery and there is

+ sure to be a rush when the spring opens. Anyway you better get acquainted

4. with the only American motor that actually delivers what is claimed for it. +

+ CATALOGUE FOR THE ASKING

! CHARLES B. KIRKHAM, Manufacturer J SAVONA ............ NEW YORK

Paragon Propellers Excel

MARK

^<ncton.dc..°-

patented march 14, 1911: july 25 1911; october 17. 1911: others pending PARAGON blades are harmoniously designed without excess materials and without weak spots. Our usual construction of quartered white oak with edge grain silver spruce interior is the very climax of propeller construction. There is a story of superiority in every detail from hub to tip.

The blades exactly correspond in pitch at every point. We select the wood so that the grain runs the same and the pitch stays the same. We guarantee it within one per cent. This is only possible by our patented construction. No other propeller will do it. In others the grain of the wood is opposite; one blade warps up or the other warps down. Sometimes there is a foot of difference in the pitch. Ours are made right and they stay right.

Paragon propellers are exclusive in their design, construction and processes of manufacture. They are made under the protection of numerous United States patents whieh recognize and protect their superior features.

There is in every blade a grace and beauty which bespeaks its solid worth. There are none others like them. Paragon strength, Paragon beauty, Paragon efficiency cannot be obtained under any other name.

We have designs in endless variety; we can make anything that has been or can be made.

Remember our Consultation Department is always available, without charge, for competent advice as to speed, power, pitch, thrust and power-plant problems in general. It is a pleasure for us to correspond on technical matters with all who are earnestly striving for the advancement of the flying art.

Our illustrated booklet will interest you. Shall we send it?

American Propeller Company,

Washington, D. C.

THE

BURGESS HYDROAEROPLANE

IS EPOCH MAKING

1^ It has brought flight into the field of yachting. Wherever there is a small body of water, at the summer place by the sea, on inland lakes and rivers, the Burgess Hydro-aeroplane meets the demand of the sportsman for safe flying. Six-cylinder muffled motors. •! In the 19I2 models, we offer no untried experimental devices; simply refinements in construction, additional strength and durability, both the hydro-aeroplane and aeroplane may be started by the operator while in the machine. •JThe following aviators, when free to choose their own aeroplanes, selected a Burgess type :—

C. Grahame-White ; H. N. Atwood ; C. K. Hamilton ; Lieut. T. D. Milling ;

Clifford L. Webster; U. S. Navy (hydroplane); T. O. M. Sopwith ; W. R. Brookins; H. W. Gill; Phillips W. Page; U. S. Army. ^ Training on Burgess Hydro-aeroplane equipped with duplicate control, under the instruction of licensed aviators only may be secured during Feb. and March at Daytona, Fla., Ormond, Fla., or Marblehead, Mais.

Dept. A. BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

All Those New World's Records

were made with

BOSCH

EQUIPMENT

' I HE Bosch ignition systems will be found on all those aeroplane engines which are known for their record-breaking performances or their consistent and unfailing service.

Be Sure Specify Bosch

Send for 1912 Literature

Bosch Magneto Company

223-225 W. 46th STREET, NEW YORK

The Resistance of the Air and Aviation

FROM A REPORT MADE BY M. G. EIFFEL TO THE AERO CLUB OF FRANCE

By M. B. SELLERS

S^S^j^j^jKS shall give some explanation x^^i^c^c^c j-or tjie benefit of the lay 2£i Y reader. Unit pressure is

jllll flU pressure on a unit surface

j^S X. moving at unit speed. Nor-

~3 vy«yy^svy%( ma* means perpendicular ^t^t^u^/^S to a surIace- C'ambre is (^i^K^S^i^ tlie ratio of the chord to the ^^a^a^ height of the arc. Aspect ^S/^H/Sli ratio of an aerofo'l (or spread) is the ratio of the length across the wind, to the width.

The dynamic air pressure on a plate inclined to a current of air is normal to the plate at any point. The friction of the air is parallel to the surface. The point of application of the resultant of these forces is here

A device, carrying the plate experimented on, was arranged to fall freely 115 metres, being guided by a vertical cable, and arranged to record continuously the speed of descent and pressure on the plate. By this means it was found that between speeds of 20 and 40 metres per sec, the pressure was proportional to the square of the velocity. The unit pressure on a normal plate increased with the area from .066 for 1/16 sq. metre to .079 to 1 sq. metre. But it was evident from the rate of increase (see fig. 2) that there would be little increase in unit pressure for areas larger than 1 sq. metre and the value Kn =.0S cm. can safely be used for large areas. (In English units this becomes about .0033 lbs. for 1 ft. 1 mile per hour.

Fig. 1. Longitudinal section of the Champs de admission of air; c, experiment chamber; d, ventilator; g, ventilator; h. passage for return

called the centre of pressure; and the direction of this resultant may or may not be normal to the surface (or to the chord in case of a curved surface). The resultant unit pressure is here called Ki; it may be resolved into a vertical pressure or lift Kr and a horizontal pressure or drift Kx . The dynamic pressure (due to the impact and deflection of the air current) varies as the square of the velocity; while the skin friction varies as the 1.85th power. (See experiments of Dr. Zahm on atmospheric friction). Therefore, when it is assumed that the total resultant pressure varies as V2 an error is introduced which is not always negligible.

In a book published in 1907 II. Eiffel gave the results of experiments made on the Eiffel Tower. The apparatus used was as follows:

Mars laboratory: a, "hangar"; b, attachment for aerodynamic balance: f, admission aperture of air.

If instead of a square plate, an elongated rectangle was used, the pressure increased with the elongation as shown in (fig. 3) and this increase is still fairly rapid at an elongation of 50.

It is seen that this increase is 10% in passing from a square to a rectangle with an elongation of six times the width.

The apparatus employed to determine the pressure on inclined plates (fig. 1) consists of a ventilator G which draws a column of air I1!- metres in diameter through the closed chamber C. The air enters through the funnel b which contains a honeycomb arrangement to straighten the air current. The surfaces tested are supported in the air currents at d by a special balance. From the measurements made with this balance, the

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Fig. 6. Position of centre of pressure on planes of different aspect ratios.

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Fig. 7. Positions of centres of pressure on plates with cambre

and different aspect ratios.

13.5

pressure, its direction, and point of application can be determined. The air velocity was measured by means of a Pitot tube connected with a sensitive manometer. The distribution of pressure on different points of the surface was determined by minute holes pierced in it, and connected with a very sensitive manometer. The total pressures thus found agreed with those found by means of the balance.

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Surface in sq. m

Fig. 2. Variation of the coefficient of square plates with the surface.

The relation between the pressure on plane surface inclined at an angle i to the wind, and the pressure on the same plate normal to the wind is shown in fig. 4, the graphic

giving the ratio

K90

The plates had one side perpendicular to the wind, and the ratio of this side to the other varied from 1/0 to 9. Within the limits of the experiment the variation in size of the plate had no influence on the

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Fig. 3. Variation of the coefficient of rectangular plates with the aspect ratio (or spread).

unit pressure. It is seen that the pressure on the square plate augments almost lineally to 35° where it attains a maximum which is 45% greater than that on a normal plane; then it decreases rapidly and beyond 50° is practically constant to 90°.

M. Eiffel has verified directly, this paradoxical maximum pressure value, both by means of a device having balanced plates, and by the summation of the elementary pressures determined by the manometric measurements. By this method the pressure on the lower face and the depression on the upper face (back) could be determined separately. At about 38° the pressure on the face is half as great as on the plate normal, but the depression on the hack is three times as great; which accounts for the great augmentation of total pressure.

   

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f-ig. lu. Kressure on xne Tace ana aepressiun on the back of an inclined square plate.

The "curves" of the plates with more "spread" have a similar trend; with inflections which go on diminishing in a progressive manner. For the spread or aspect ratio of 9 all inflection seems to have disappeared.

PRESSURE ON CA1UBRED PLATES OF DIFFERENT SPREAD. When the plate is cambred, the effects are similar to those for flat plates, but exaggerated. The diagram (fig. 5) refers to

1". it' 6' R° W. 12' tt? IS'

Angle i of chord with wind.

Fig. 11. Total unit efforts horizontal and vertical for wing No. 10.

plates having the same dimensions as those already described but having a circular cam-bre of 13.5. It is seen that this cambre has the effect of raising considerably the curves

of Ji— and of augmenting the maximum

k'JO

values at least 15%, without sensibly chang-

ing the corresponding inclination; also the anomaly which was observed with the flat plates is found here but in a greater degree. In fact the increase of pressure over that of a normal plate attains 68% (in place of 45%). Similarly, for the aspect ratio of 6 (used in aeroplanes) the coefficient of the curved plate inclined at 15° reaches that of the same plate exposed normal. It is seen that for any given small angle, an increase in aspect ratio increases the pressure.

CENTRE OF PRESSURE. M. Eiffel determined the centres of pressure, i. e., the points of application of the resultant pressure; either by the balance re-

slow, then more rapid; and, after an angle, variable with the aspect ratio is reached, it turns back to move toward the trailing edge. This reversal in the movement of the centre of pressure is a menace to the stability of aeroplanes which M. Eiffel thinks may have been the cause of many accidents.

INFLUENCE OF THE VARIATION OF CURVATURE. M. Eiffel determined the influence of the variation of curvature in plates having an aspect ratio of 6 and a cambre of 7, 13.5, 27 and oo (flat). The results are given in what he calls a polar diagram (fig. 8), very convenient for comparing the resistance of

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_______pLffNE PlHTE------CURVED PlflTEj CrfrtBRE

-CURVED PLflTEtCW&RE~ .

_____CURVED P£.ETE,C>W£>RE '/7

Fig. 8. Polar diagram of plates 90x15 m. of different cambres.

ferred to or by balancing the plate in the wind about a series of axes of rotation. The plate was supported at two points, so as to rotate about a vertical axis. The angle of equilibrium would be noted, and the resultant would then pass through the axis of rotation.

The two diagrams (figs. 6 & 7) show the positions of the centre of pressure for the two series of plates, flat and curved. For the flat plate, the centre of pressure, starting at the middle of the plate (at 90°) advances little by little toward the leading edge, till it reaches %th of the width from it. For the curved plates the progression is at first

surfaces and for solving problems relating to aeroplanes. These diagrams show by a single curve the values corresponding to five dimensions—viz., the unit horizontal component Kx as abscissas, and vertical KT (ordinates); the unit resultant pressure Ki being the radius vector from the origin; the inclination "cc" of that resultant to the vertical, tan a: ^ and finally the inclination 1

Ky

of the chord of the plate to the wind. The diagram shows plainly the increase of lift due to the cambre, especially at angles in the neighborhood of 15° to 20°.

{To be Continued)

Water Flying as a Sport

By GLENN H. CURTISS

$5T is extremely difficult to prophesy what the future developments and uses of the hydro-aeroplane may be. However, a brief sketch of the development of the Cur-tiss hydro-aeroplane in the past, from its first conception to its present state of success and adoption, may enable the reader to judge for himself the broader and more varied uses that it may serve in the near future by sportsmen and by the Army and Navy.

My first idea of an aeroplane was one built to start from and alight on the ice. This appealed to me because such a smooth surface as a frozen lake would naturally be level and free from obstructions and present all conditions of an ideal aviation field. It proved comparatively easy to build a machine to rise from the ice, aud this was done first successfully at Hammondsport, New York, when the "Red Wing" made its flight from the frozen surface of Lake Keuka iu March, 1908.

That summer we tried to rise from the waters of Lake Keuka, but found it, as we expected, much more difficult. Our first experiments were with two pontoons in the form of a catamaran, but we afterwards tried a single boat and decided this would be the ultimate type. Bad weather came on in the fall and we discontinued the experiments.

The following summer, 1909, my time was taken up in building a Gordon-Bennett racer and perfecting the regular land machines.

During the summer of 1910 I was so busy with the exhibition work that I did not get a chance to do anything more with the hydro experiments. Altho I had hoped to have a hydro-aeroplane completed for the Albany to New York flight, I was obliged to use merely a regular machine fitted with inflated rubber tubes for flotation in case of alighting on the water, and also a device for alighting safely on the water and to prevent the machine from turning over.

It was, therefore, in San Diego during the winter of 1910, before 1 found time to continue the hydro experiments and produce a successful machine. The first device was very weak and it was difficult to prevent tne propeller from being broken by striking the spray from the boat. We endeavored to overcome this by using a very wide float in the rear so that all of the spray would pass outside of the propeller. This float was made on a form to present the least resistance to the air and also to be somewhat of a lifting surface. It was fairly satisfactory in smooth water, but gave us much trouble

in a rough sea. It was then evident that a long boat must be used to ride properly! thru the waves and that it must extend welW forward, and be shaped in such a manner that it would always tend to rise on the surface, even though waves washed over its( deck.

After considerable experimenting, we de-i signed our present model, which has undergone very little change since and which nasi met our greatest expectations.

1 made several hundred flights in 1911, andj Lieut. Ellyson, C. C. Witmer, and Hugh Rob-| inson did a great deal oi flying in variousj parts of the country. Mr. Robinson created a sensation by flying to the rescue of anl aviator who had fallen into Lake Michigan,' at the Chicago meet, and, later in the sea-1 son, by flying 375 miles down the Mississippi! from Minneapolis. Lieut. Ellyson and] Towers made flights in Chesapeake Bay during the fall of 1911, doing some very good] work and proving the practicability of theJ machine on several occasions by landing! thru the surf with a high wind. On one oc-| casion in particular, after a long flight from I Annapolis, it became necessary to land near] Point Comfort to replenish fuel. A 25 rail** wind was blowing off the water and theJ surf was running 7 feet high. The velocity of the wind, added to that of the machine,] gave the aeroplane a speed over the groundl of from 80 to 90 miles per hour, and it would! seem risky to land at this speed through a 7 foot surf. However, Lieuts. Ellyson and! Towers accomplished it without any damage, altho the machine ran high up on the beach before it came to a standstill.

For some time it has been customary for Lieut. Ellyson to run the machine at full J speed from the water up on the shore when] finishing a flight. This saves pulling it outj by hand and does not injure the boat. Somel of the earlier boats would have been tool light to stand such rough usage.

There are several ways of starting an aero-l plane from the deck of a ship, and, in view! of the fact that the machine can fly in anyl wind that blows, can alight safely in any seal and start from fairly rough water, c^n bel beached and launched through the surf, it] is evident that the hydro-aeroplane hasl reached a practical stage of development fori actual service in the navy.

It would also seem feasible to use thej hydro-aeroplane for life-saving purposes I along the coast. Three times a Curtissl hydro-aeroplane has been first to the rescuel of aviators who have fallen in the water.l A short time ago at San Diego, naval avia-l tor Herbster, while carrying a passenger! had some misfortune in alighting and turned! over. This was about half a mile from thm shore, and, long before motor boats could!

reach the spot, Mr. Atwater had launched his machine from the beach and, in less than a minute's time, was to the rescue of Mr. Herbster and his passenger. Fortunately, neither was hurt and they preferred to stay with their machine, which was upside down in the water, until a motor boat came to tow it to the shore. However, it demonstrated what the hydro-aeroplane could do in an emergency.

When it comes to water flying, from a sportsman's standpoint, I will cite the sale of one of our machines to Mr. W. B. Atwater, who came to San Diego to take a course at the Curtiss Aviation School. The hydro appealed to Mr. Atwater and his wife as an ideal type of machine, and one was ordered for delivery in the east in May, but, after a few rides in the school machine, both Mr. and Mrs. Atwater were sure they could not wait until spring, and had their machine delivered immediately in San Diego. The following day after the arrival of his machine, Mr. Atwater was out flying in it alone, and the next day he took his wife out as passenger. Since that time they have not missed a day and have taken trips up and down the bay together daily, and, on several occasions, around North Island and out over the ocean.

We have a great many visitors at our

school on North Island, and, without exception, they are enthusiastic over the hydroaeroplane.

The greatest advantages of the hydro are that there is plenty of room to start and alight on the water. Our experience has been that nine out of ten of all accidents to aeroplanes are due to running into something on the ground due to too small landing places. On the water, however, the wind is usually steady and there are no buildings, trees, or uneven surfaces to run into or to cause wind eddies. Even if an aviator does make a bad job of landing, he is only tossed out into the water where he is comparatively safe, especially if he is not too proud to wear a cork life preserver.

The Curtiss hydro-aeroplane will not sink if two of the six air compartments in the pontoon remain unbroken, and I cannot imagine a smash-up bad enough to destroy the boat entirely.

Considering the fact that it has been but a year since we produced the first practical hydro-aeroplane, it has really been remarkable to note the advance and the success of this type of hydro-aeroplane. wre can not tell what further developments in this type the future will bring forth, but we consider our present type standard and reliable.

My Experience Abroad

By HUGH ROBINSON

^l^^^i^HEN I think of what we used ^C^^jt^c^f to calj rough water at

m\ TT 7"pW home, I have to laugh—if \/\/ g§| you could see the sea I have g^j V V gsjtf been flying on you would \My^y^yr™pid be astonished! No trouble at all—start right out in a 4 foot surf and waves 4 to G

wt$tfe$t^ feet lligb' and not a hitchl S^S^^^a^ Ttie hydro goes through it all like a duck, and the funny thing is that the larger the waves are the better, even to the whitecaps,—and the hydro rides the top of them like a cork.

I have been away out to sea on rough water and wind and have tested in every possible way and there has been no trouble at all—perfect success. They are all crazy about it and the interest is tremendous. Publicity is spreading all over Europe.

Paulhan went out in his hydro and flew half a mile out, at 25 to 50 feet for half an hour. His plane is just perfect and he is tickled to death and handles it fine.

Both motors are working fine and they started off first attempt, which opened the people's eyes some! Mine is fine and fast and is a wind and water fighter and I go out in anything. They just can't get over it

here as all the hydros failed so badly, and we just set up and went off at first crack.

I think we will have all the aviation people here in a few days. Paulhan has evidently been pulling a lot of wires as they are allready to see what the hydro can do—and you can bet we will show them, too.

The battleships came to this harbor last night, and this morning I received an invitation from the Admiral of the Fleet to attend the banquet given in our honor here tomorrow noon. I filled a small bag with sand and wrapped a small American flag around it, and had them put my name and the Curtiss Hydro compliments, etc., in it. Then I went out in a small gale and, while passing over the Admiral's ship, dropped the bag to the deck. Luckily, it landed right at his feet,—and then I performed for about 15 minutes. The result is that they have been telegraphing and are going to send a military commission here at once to stay all during our flights and observe them, etc. The funny part was that when I went down on the water the Admiral and others thought it was a land machine gone wrong, and when I went along the water and rose near them, they were amazed. They did not know a dydro was on earth, I guess.

FEDERAL CONTROL OF AVIATION

flHEN the automobile industry was young and there was, therefore, no opportunity to get a proper perspective on either the business or the manifold uses of the motor car, those engaged in the trade and in sport permitted a great chance to slip by them. This was Federal control of automobiles, a thing quite possible under the post-roads clause of the Constitution. Instead we had a perfect plethora of State laws, all of them different and most of them either foolishly drastic or nonsensically loose.

Unless those who have the future of aviation greatly at heart take the proper steps at an early date, the history of automobile legislation will be repeated for the flying machine. Already one State has enacted legislation, drafted by men who had absolutely no real knowledge of the aeroplane's capabilities and limitations. There is pending, now, in the New York Legislature a bill which seeks to establish a quasi-official body, governing under the State, the aeroplanes and aviators within New York's confines. Possibly, unless those whose duty it is to take care of such matters carry out their obligations, we shall be treated to the spectacle of 48 different State codes of aviation.

It is generally conceded that the aeroplane is the greatest adjunct to the military and naval establishments brought to use within the last fifty years. Except, perhaps, for the submarine torpedo boat, no instrument has so changed all ideas and formulas of warfare as the flying machine. There, alone, is one pregnant reason why the National Legislature should take aviation under its wing and provide proper laws to govern the sport and science in every State of the Union.

What the sport and the industry of aviation needs right away is more stringent examination of pilots before these men are licensed. Railroad engineers are compelled to pass very severe physical tests as to heart action, color blindness, etc., before they are "given a run." Automobile chauffeurs, examined to some degree, are not tested enough, when one considers that they are handling high powered machines that are nothing but rail-less locomotives. Certainly there is a latent, if not active menace to the

people of every community in an aeroplane which flies over their heads.

Truly, aeroplanes and their pilots should be licensed and by the proper civic authorities. It behooves those interested in aviation, regardless from what standpoint, to place the matter before their Congressmen and have such Federal laws enacted as will safeguard the interests of both those now engaged in the industry and those who undoubtedly will join with them as the art of flying progresses. Let us take a lesson from automobiling and have a nation-wide and uniform aeroplane law.

TO HYDRO-AEROPLANE BUILDERS

WE are anxious to compile a list, with data, on all water machines being built in this country or in prospect Will everyone who is in this line, or Knows of someone building, be good enough to send us a postal card telling us where such machines are, the makers, power plants, etc? Thank you!

BENNETT INTERNATIONAL RACE.

THERE are already enough "dark horses" building special motors, or fast 'planes for the international aviation race to make an elimination race an absolute necessity if fairness is to be accorded American builders, well known or unknown. A contest of this kind is supposed to develop the breed. There is no incentive to American aspirants, and scant honor in representation, if honor machines are to be imported to fly for America, in America, for a cup given by an American—even if offered first in France. Better defeat with a home-built product than victory through foreign design.

American-built yachts, American rowing crews, American-made athletes, American polo teams represent the United States in other sports other than flying. Why not in aviation?

And don't forget, there must be an elimination race to insure the fastest team and to avoid criticism.

REPORT ON PROPELLER TESTS.

Referring to my report on propeller tests in the January issue, I omitted to state that, owing to the vibration of the pointer, the tachometer error has a possible maximum value of two per cent.

The angle of attack of propeller No. 5, In flight, was (measuring from the axis) about as follows:—at 5 inches, 0°; at 10 inches, 6°; at 15 inches, 5°; at 20 inches, 4°; at 25 I inches, 4°. M. B. Sellers.

Feathers Dropped in Flight

BURGESS HYDROAEROPLANE SHED

The hydroaeroplane shed of the Burgess Co. & Curtis, at Palm Beach, Fla., is ideally located and shows a proper method of handling water machines. Brookins' Burgess water-'plane has just been floated.

The Burgess Water 'Plane's Home.

The pupils of Phillips Ward Page, the Burgess pilot, at Daytona, Fla., Patrick Grant, John F. Cray and H. L. Hattemer are doing well, despite the bad weather that has obtained, and are expected to take their licenses soon. Clifford L. Webster is at Ormond with the water machine for which a tent has been rigged on the Halifax River.

Brookins is at Palm Beach.

FOR LOW POWERED WATER 'PLANES.

A way to get a low powered hydro-aeroplane off the water is not to start it from the water at all, suggests L. J. Lesh. His scheme is to have a long raft tied by a rope at one end to an anchor on the water's bottom, and on this raft have a rail on which the starting is done. The raft at all times is free to head into the wind of its own accord. This may do very well for an altered land machine with small margin of power.

WHAT ARE HOLES IN THE AIR.

"Holes in the Air" are explained by Professor A. Lawrence Rotch in his address before the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He says:— "The up-rush of air under cumulus clouds, which are especially strong when they become cumulonimbus or thunder-clouds, are dangerous to all aircraft that depend on dynamic equilibrium, as are the eddies termed by aviators' holes in the air, 'which are produced by superposed currents having different velocities or directions. It is possible for an aeroplane to fall when traveling with the wind if the gust greatly outstrips the mean velocity of the current that carries the aeroplane, which our experiments show to be a frequent occurrence, because its relative motion through the air, due to its motor, and therefore the upward component which furnishes support, is decreased by the inertia of the

flying-machine preventing it from responding to the sudden impulse. The same thing may happen when going against the wind if a sudden lull occur, and if the aeroplane pass abruptly up or down into another air stratum of different velocity. Such local currents and atmospheric eddies, which have long been known to meteorologists from the behavior of their kites and balloons, will now be studied in situ and with danger by the aviator. Some of these disturbances may be counteracted by automatic control of equilibrium, but generally by increasing the speed and size of the machine and so rendering it less susceptible to the influence of those perturbations of the atmosphere which are of limited extent and duration. To-day the most needed improvements in aeroplanes are stability in wind-eddies and safety in landing."

A GASOLENE PURIFIER.

A gasolene strainer is almost imperative as an insurance against carburetor trouble. In the bottom of any gas tank will be found' particles of grit and impurities, which, if they get in the needle valve or in the seat of any valve in the carburetor, in using up the last drops of gas in the tank will almost certainly stop the motor; probably right

over a house. The Ellis strainer put out by the National Sales Co., of 45 Milk Street, Boston, will keep the sediment and Avater from the carburetor. The gas is strained through two fine screens, two pieces of felt and quartz. This purifier can be cleaned at any time without loss of time.

PEDERSEN OILING SYSTEM

An oiling system that is readily applied to is here described. This device, consists of a small rotary pump, indicator and oil tank. The pump which may be mounted on the end of the timer shaft, draws the oil from a tank placed along side the engine, then forces it up to the indicator on the dash board, which is provided with a regulating screw. From here the oil is lead

down to the crank case, the necessary amount for keeping a constant level in same being regulated by the adjusting screw.

The tank has a capacity sufficient for several hundred miles and once regulated to supply the necessary amount of oil to the crank case as it is used by the engine, no further attention is necessary to the oiling ot the motor, except to see that there is oil in the tank.

This device is one among several special lubricator systems manufactured by the Pedersen Lubricator Co., G-44 First Ave., New York City.

HOW TO BUILD A SHED.

The sketch of an aeroplane shed has been sent us by Mr. R. C. Jennings, whose description of it follows.

There are no imide roof supports, except at the front and rear of the front section. Here are beams 6" by 8" by 36', trussed bridge fashion. The walls are made in 5-foot sections and numbered, or lettered. The roof divides in four parts, likewise, each one being 6' by IS' in size, covered with double ply fireproof roofing paper.

The floor is comprised of fifteen 2" by 4" timbers, covered with %" by S" hemlock boards, smooth on one side.

In the middle of the floor of the large section is a pit, 6' 6" wide, running for 10' back of the doors, 6" lower at the rear, in which the machine is run. This drains off any oil or gas which may be spilled. The front is composed of 12 doors, strongly hinged. In one of these is a smaller door, with Yale lock, through entrance must first be had; after which the other doors may be unfastened. These are held with storm hooks and locks. It is practice elsewhere, to drop a heavy beam in iron hooks across the whole width of the front, save the entrance.

The rear of the shed has long narrow window 10" by 30", protected on the outside by heavy wire screen. Below this window is the work bench, on either ends of which are the gasoline and oil locker and the tool cabinet. In the sides of the shed are put coat hooks and there is room enough for several cots.

The drop doors are in general use everywhere. They must be strong

H

50 Horse Power

170 Pounds Weight

Revolving cylinders Mechanical intake valves Variable compression Double exhaust system

DESIGN

Large ball bearings throughout Positive lubrication Positive gasoline feed Standard Magneto, tachometer, etc. Easy starting device

Aviator starts motor from his seat if required

MATERIALS

Cylinders, Connecting Rods, Gears, etc.—3-r per cent, forged nickel steel Cranks—Chrome nickel steel, treated. Crank-cases—Vanadium steel—Valves 30 per cent, nickel steel

PERFORMANCE

Shop tests three hours without stopping. Motor has been tested in many flights, up to 90 miles without alighting

Sizes 3, 5 and 7 cylinders representing 22, 35 and 50 horsepower

Send for Catalogue

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Page 85

March, 1912

enough to bear the weight of the aeroplane, which is rolled out over them, without getting out of shape which will make trouble in closing up. If preferred, these doors may be cut in two, hinging the upper half at the top of the shed and the lower half on the bottom sill. Pulleys must then be arranged to pull up the upper doors. This scheme is a good one. The upper half only can be opened to admit light and air and the public will not be able to peer in and discover the valuable secrets wrapped up inside.

MOTION PICTURE APPARATUS-

Frank T. Coffyn is responsible for an innovation in the taking of moving pictures alone from an aeroplane. He has nothing to do but operate the 'plane—the camera "works while you sleep." It is accomplished thus: two }i2th-horse power 6-volt electric motors, connected by chain drive, drive by worn gear the shutter and reeling mechanism of the camera. The unexposed film is rolled off before the lense from one of the boxes seen in the picture containing the film and wound up in the other box. One can see the round belt winding up the exposed film. All the aviator does is to open or close the switch to stop or start the tak-

Coffyn's Automatic Motion Camera.

ing of pictures. Power is obtained from two 6-volt storage batteries (Witherbee) fastened to the passenger's seat next the engine. The motor speed is 1,800 rpm, the gear reduction to the camera is 14 to 1, giving a speed of 128 rpm.

FLYING AT HIGH ALTITUDES.

George M. Dyott has told us of his experiences flying at high altitudes in Mexico. Gnome Bleriots and his small lAnzani Deperdussin found it difficult to fly before sun-up and alter sun-down. The appearance of the sun created ascending currents of moist air from the dew-covered fields and flying was easy, though very troublesome. Mr. Dyott believes a high glider, once

launched, could keep in the air for long periods in these strong currents. At times, the machines would jump vertically for forty feet due to passing over a strong upward current. At night the air was chilly and there were no such currents and flying was out of the question in the thin'cold atmosphere. Flights were made with electric side-lights and a searchlight on the axle. It was easy to land on good ground with the aid of this light.

ALEXANDER MOTOR PRIZE

The $5,000 cash prize offered by the well-known British patron of aeronautics, Patrick Y. Alexander, has at last been awarded to the Green engine. The first competition was held in 1910, in which the Green engine ran 24 hours non-stop, but failed to develop the required minimum h. p. A complete report of this test was published in AERONAUTICS.

The second actual test commenced December 19th, 1911, and the engine completed the whole set of trials on December 21st without stoppage or breakdown. The mean break h.p. during the two 12 hour runs was 61.6 at 1150 r. p. m., against the minimum of 5S.5 allowed by the regulations from the declared b.h.p. The gross weight per b.h.p. for 12 hour run including gas, oil, water and their containers totalled 18.3 lbs. The total weight of engine for 12 hour run with radiator piping, water, gasoline and tank, oil and tank was 1126 lbs.

A maximum power test was made, before which the valves were ground and the mean b.h.p. developed during the 7 minute run was 67.S at 1210 r.p.m. The engine was taken dovvrTafter the 24 hour test and the only appreciable sign of wear was in the cam shaft gears, with some slight pitting of exhaust valves.

In figuring weight per h.p. account was taken of 429.6 lbs. of gasoline used in one 12 hours, and 441.1 lbs. in the second 12 hours. The oil consumption for the 12 hour runs totalled 124 and 126 lbs. respectively. The weight of the engine alone was 301.9 lbs.

The engine is a 4 cylinder, vertical cast steel cylinder 140 m. m. bore and 146 m.m. stroke, copper water jackets, Bosch ignition. The declared brake h.p. was 65.

If Henri Farman is out of debt, how much does Bleriot?

What is the best weight carrying machine? Probably one that would lift a Hamilton.

If he raced another aviator, would Oapt. Baldwin?

If Wilbur Wright has a chronic grouch, 2an you tell what Tilliughast?

Tell Tony Jannus to advance his spark. He ain't the only one that can raviate.— John W. Mitchell.

The magazine is beyond criticism.—L. J. Lesh.

       
 

MODEL

NOTES

 
       

By PERCY PIERCE, Model Editor

fiAS it ever occurred to the thoughtful model builder just what the World's record model looks like? The illustration shows this model, which was built by an English schoolboy, R. F. Mann. The remarkable flights it has made certainly show its ability to fly not only in a calm, but in wind of a velocity of 50 miles an hour. This flyer has covered a distance of 4,200 feet with a duration to its credit of 100 seconds,—the distance flight was made in a 35-mile wind. The total weight of the Mann Monoplane when ready for flying is 4 ounces; its normal flying speed is about IS miles per hour, although in a brisk wind, this can be doubled.

The fuselage is triangular shaped, and consists of two pieces of y± inch silver spruce each 24 inches long. The cross-brace at the rear, of % x ys inch spruce, is 7 inches long, its stream-line shape somewhat reducing the air resistance. The second cross-brace is lashed and glued on top of the fuselage 12 inches from the apex. Cross-bracing with piano wire between the two braces gives absolute rigidity. It will also be noticed that the main plane sup-

plies additional bracing strength by reasonl of its cross-bars.

The Main Plane is elliptical in shape, hav-l ing a span of 17 inches and a cord of 4 inches, which gives an aspect ratio of 4.251 The plane frame is of 18-gauge piano wirel which is bent to the correct shape andl soldered. The two ribs are also of the samJ material, these having y2 inch camber. ThJ plane is secured to the fuselage by lashinj the adjacent portions of the plane fram<l and side bars of the fuselage tightly witM thread and glueing. Properly speaking, thJ frame is attached before it is covered. Th<l covering is of an English waterproof silkl which is laced taut with strong silk threadl Considerable skill is shown in the proper adjusting of this covering.

The elevating plane is 7 inches long byl 1% inches in width. In contrast to thM main plane, this plane is made of 1/30 incM spruce, bent at the middle to a dihedral angle of about 30°. The actual elevationl is obtained by bending down the rear tips] to about 5°. The plane is fastened on thel fuselage 2 inches from the front by rubbeil bands.

Motive Power. A curved W-shaped piece of wire 4 inches long is lashed andl glued at its center to the apex. Both of itsl curved sides are covered with rubber tubingl

RUBBER

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We are the sole American manufacturers of the Bleriot-Type Rubber Shock Absorber—the only successful spring for monoplanes. These springs are strong and resilient. Unlike Steel Springs they can neither catch in the tubes nor snap in cold weather. _We make all kinds of springs. Ask us about them.

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MODEL AEROPLANES

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Send 25 cents for complete model Agents wanted — Idea is worth the money ERNST EBBINGHAUS, 316 E. 93rd Street, New York City

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Holder U. S. Records for Unofficial Distance of 2,706 feet and Official duration of 91 seconds. Parts, Drawings or Made-up Machines direct from

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George W. Beatty tests out the FRONTIER MOTOR at Buffalo, December 21st and 22nd, with a grand success, carrying passengers in a number of flights.

Mr. Beatty orders a IFRONTIER MOTOR for his Wright machine and says he believes the FRONTIER MOTOR is the best engine in the world.

Write for Full Particulart Regarding this Motor Today

FRONTIER IRON WORKS "™>."Y-

Page 87

March, 1912

to prevent the rubber strands from rubbing and cutting. Each motor consists of 6 strands of % inch fiat elastic; the lubricant used is of the paste variety. The bearings are nothing more than two L-shaped pieces of brass, one side fastened to each member of the fuselage and the other supporting the propeller shaft. The shaft hooks also are covered with rubber tubing. The bearings themselves consist of two steel collects, one stationary and the other revolving. These are lubricated with vaseline.

The Propellers are made of 1/20 inch birch, S inches in diameter with a pitch of 24 inches. They are not the usual cut-out-from-the-block propellers, but are bent from

a thin strip, by steaming and heating over a flame. Considerable skill is needed, however, to get both screws at the same pitch, otherwise the model would never go straight. The number of turns usually given is 1000, and the normal speed is 750 revs, per minute.

In England a flight is a record whether made in a contest or not; it is an official record if three or more reliable persons witness it. It would be a good thing to employ this principle in this country. The flight of a man-carrying machine must not be made in a meet to be laid down as a record. Why should a model have to fly under more stringent rules?

Model Flying in Japan

By K. NAKAGAWA

In Japan, model flying made its first appearance last summer with a competition, held at the Nakanoshima Park at Osaka. My model, the "Angel II," won the first prize covering the distance of 105 yards in 12 seconds. After that meeting model enthusiasm increased all over the country very quickly and now there are about ten model aero clubs, in which meetings are often held, sometimes trying to cross large rivers ano ponds.

My latest model, the "Angel IX," described herein, has flown over the distance of 1050 ft. in 62 sec, weighing 3.4 oz. in total.

The frame is of "hinoki" (retinispora obtusa), made in I section of 3/16"xi-i". The cross bars A and B are in stream line form and are jointed to the frame by thin aluminum sheets cut to l"x%", wound up by silk thread and glued. At the rear ends of the I frame, two bearings made of 1/32" thick steel plate are also attached by silk thread.

The power consists of 12 strands of 1/16" sq. elastic and 750 turns are used.

The frame work of the planes is con-

structed of piano wire, the large one being 22" x 3" with five ribs of the same wire, and the small one being 10" x 2" with only three ribs. The planes are covered with light silk, coated with alcoholic solution of shellac, which makes an air tight surface. The two planes are held on the frame by elastic bands and can be easily dismounted. The elevator, with a thin metal plate C soldered in front of it, rests on a nut on 1/16" dia. bolt as shown. When necessary, the angle of the

elevator can easily be adjusted by turning the small nut. The bolt is pieced on the wood D and two small metal pieces are soldered to the bolt at top and bottom. Between the extreme ends of the plane, a silk thread is stretched which gives a dihedral angle to the plane for some lateral stability.

The propellers are made of "hinoki" also, dia. 10", pitch 15", and are very efficient. The pitch is reduced to 10" only near the boss, to avoid disturbing effect. Two blades are carefully balanced, scraping excess wood by sandpaper and coated with varnish five times and finally polished. The propeller

(.Continued on i>age IDS)

Subscribers' Forum

THE GYROSCOPE IN AVIATION

To the Editor:—

In the November number of your distinguished journal you published an essay, entitled "A Popular Scientific Explanation of the Motions of the Gyroscope and its Application in Aviation," by Mr. Emil Buergin. As you may see by only a superficial comparison with the indicated passages of the inclosed paper, that essay was but a free translation of the part of our essay "Eine neue Theorie des Kreisels und ihre Anwendung in der Technik," by Ing. A. Fuchs and R. Katzmayr, Vienna, Austria, published a little longer than a year ago in the "Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieuie." The illustrations, too, are copies of our illustrations. Mr. Buergin besides at the same time published the same essay in another paper, without quoting its origin. We are holding this procedure to be very little convenient and we should feel very thankful, if you would be kind enough to bring a short notice in your journal, where there would be declared that the published essay was an extract of the work "Eine neue Theorie des Kreisels und seine Anwendung in der Technik; by Ing. A. Fuchs and Ing. R. Katzmayr, Vienna, Austria," and that those who are wishing to inform themselves more thoroughly may be referred to that work in the German paper "Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure." We are thinking that in this way the truth may be preserved without putting in an unfavourable light neither your journal nor Mr. Buergin.

We are sure, you, as the editor of one of the most known aviation journals of the U. S. of A., will grant our desire.

Expecting a favourable answer to Mr. R. Katzmayr, Vienna, IV. Apfelgasse 3; Austria, we are, dear sirs, yours truly, Vienna, Jan. 3, 1912. Ing. R. Katzmayr.

ANS: The article was given AERONAUTICS as an original by Mr. Buergin and was so accepted. We regret that its publication was under false colors.

The Editor.

IS SIMMONS

PILOT

To the Editor:

I remember seeing in the paper last fall, where O. G. Simmons, a graduate aviator of the Wright School, made a flight of fifty-five miles from Wickatunk, N. J., to Lakewood, N. J., with Robert J. Collier, President of the Aero Club of America, as a passenger.

What I would like to know is, whether Simmons is a licensed pilot of the Aero Club of America or not. It would seem as ff there is no question of his ability, and the long flight that Mr. Collier had with him, should have been sufficient to discover whether or not Simmons could fly.

I read later in the year, where a committee had been appointed by the Aero Club of America to try Mr. Simmons for his pilot's license. I have never heard whether the trial was made or not and am unable to discover his name among the licensed aviators of the Aero Club of America.

What was the matter with the committee? Didn't they know the rules under which licenses are granted, or didn't they ever come to the place where the trials were to be held?

Trusting that you will be able to enlighten me in this matter, 1 am

Yours very truly, Address 1428 N. 17th St. W. G. Smith. Philadelphia, Ta.

ANS: O. G. Simmons has made a great number of flights but is not a certified pilot. We know of no request by him for certificate. The majority of flyers in the U. S. have not bothered to obtain certificates.

Cable: Aeronautic, New York •phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres't — — E. L JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — J. C. BURKHART, Ass'l Editor M, B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

subscription rates

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advertising representatives: e. f. ingraham adv. co.. 116 nassau st.. new york

Clifford w. Bean. s Park so.. Boston. Mass.

copyright. 1S11, aidonauticb PRESS, inc.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice New York, under the Act ot March 3,1879.

#T AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^» All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising paces close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: rfT Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

MARCH, 1912

Vol. 10, No. 3

AGENTS rOB "'AERONAUTICS."

NEW YORK—American News Co., 15 Park PI.; Brentano's, 5th Ave. and 27th St.

ST. LOUIS—Aeronautic Supply Co., 3932 Olive St.; H. F. Mardorf, 4068 Olive St.

BOSTON—I. N. Chappell, 26 Court St.; J. F. Murphy, South Terminal Station.

SAN FRANCISCO—Foster & Orear, Ferry Bldg.; San Francisco Stationery Co., 20 Geary St.; Cleve T. Shaffer, 331 Octavia St.

CINCINNATI—J. R. Hawley News Co., 11 Arcade.

MEMPHIS—R. M. Mansford, 26 S. Main St. CHICAGO—P. O. News Co., 178 Dearborn St.;I

H. S. Renton, 164 Xorth Wabash Ave. BOISE—Rawl's, 917 Main St. PORTLAND, ORE.—S. S. Rich, 267 Morrison

St.

SALT LAKE CITY—Sheppard, the Magazine Man.

DALLAS—S. W. Aeronautic Supply Co., 214 Main St.

LOS ANGELES—Whalen's News Agency, 233 I

So. Spring St. WA SHINGTON—Brentano's.

BERLIN—W. H. Kuhl, 82 Koniggratzerstr., S.W.

PARIS—Brentano's, Place de 1'Opera.

LONDON—Aeronautics, 12 Newgate St., London, E. C, George H. Scragg, Mgr.; also at the office of British Aeronautics, 3 London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.

BERNE—A. Francke's Sortiment.

FULLER ARGENTINE PACKAGE EXPRESS, Defensa 127, Buenos Aires.

BLERIOT WARNS AGAINST USE OF NAME.

Louis Bleriot desires to make it known that, no-one is allowed by him to make use of hisl name or build under his patent in the Unitedl States of America. He reserves all his rights! and warns the public against imitators.

Have you had a ride with Beatty yet? Twenty-five beans and cheap at that.

Yes, you can buy Wright engines, at a fair price.

Did you see Benoist's new aeroplane cata-l logue. Get a copy. 662S Delmar Blvd., St.l Louis.

Yep, C. & A. Wittemann, Ocean Terrace &\ Little Clove ltd., Staten Island, N. Y.

Concerns that need expert aeronautical engineers and mechanics or aviators ; and managers or organizations who wish the services ' of competent aviators, with or without machines, are invited to communicate with the Aeronautical Society.

We have just established a Service Bureau for the purpose of bringing the reputable employer or manager in contact with people who can give competent services.

We do this work without any charge whatever in behalf of our members. We thoroughly investigate the capability of every person or organization we recommend.

Members who wish employment in aeroplane industries or who wish engagements as aviators or who wish to fill flight exhibition dates are requested to communicate with us at once.

All communications will be treated as confidential.

If there is anything any member wishes to sell or trade or if there is anything you wish to secure that you cannot locate, register your requirements with the Service Bureau.

All letters should be addressed to the

General Secretary, The Aeronautical Society, 250 West 54th Street, New York City.

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GIBSON

We have consistently refrained from any attempt to persuade the public by mere argument and advertisement that our propellers are the best. That method never lives.

We have consistently refused to build propellers for the purpose of producing a high thrust when anchored to the ground. We know that such a propeller will tend to keep the would-be flyer on the ground. It fools him by an appearance of value.

We know that a propeller must be built to give maximum thrust in flight. We proved it. We are the only concern in America to make an exhaustive series of tests at the only propeller testing plant in America— that of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Those tests were made under flying conditions.

We found that our propellers, designed for flying, gave under flying conditions 30% more thrust per horsepower than those whose only merit is the great thrust they will show on a scale anchored to the ground.

That is why Beatty conquered every other Wright machine—he had our propellers.

We want to do as well for you—to help you fly—to discuss the subject with you and submit to you Professor Gallup's curves of actual results obtained at flying speeds.

It costs you nothing to confirm this. We feel sure that you really want to have this valuable data in your possession.

Let us have your inquiry. We wilj send you "Proof by Test" by return mail.

GIBSON PROPELLER CO.

Fort George Park, New York City

Phone 6762 Audubon

PROPELLERS

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Successful Flight Demands the Confidence of the Aviator in his power plant. Most people know how successful Elbridge Engines have been in flight, but few know their record for durability. Here it is:

Hundreds of Them in Use. Accepting their own statements of output, we know we have made and sold more aero engines than all other American manufacturers combined.

Thousands of Successful Flights and you will find those flights recorded in Aeronautics and other papers for more than two years back.

Only One Broken in Flight. Sammy Barton, with a borrowed Elbridge Engine known to be out of order, on his second day of practice, developed a crack in the crank-case, after a flight of 50 miles.

There are Elbridge Engines flying to-day that are in their Third Year of Active Service Without Overhauling.

IMPROVEMENTS FOR 1912

are to be noted in many minor details. A better engine for half the money, was the proposition advanced last month; and the fact that orders filed during the first two weeks in March exceeded those of the corresponding period any other year shows us the idea was right. We shall continue these quotations until May 1. Write us for particulars if you are in the market,

COMPLETE AEROPLANES

equipped with 4-cyl. or 6 cyl. Elbridge Engines for about the price of last year's power plant alone. Do you want one ?

| ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY,

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In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Climbing With An Elbridge

The Albatros Biplane

By FRITZ EDELSTEIN

KS^S^jS^jS^T the last French exhibition Ili^k^ the great German aeroplane

Ki A industry was represented

HI ZA W!l by the newest "Albatros" 1™ l \ y$| military biplane, which has IK* " ' x£i been altogether one of the ^|§jj§§|f^j§| finest examples of work-^^>jwo^<>^< manship in the Salon. ll^pWpypy Although the French 1^^^^^ press have treated it in a f very contemptuous man-

pi', the unbiassed investigator easily sees, Ithat the "Albatros" biplane is of its kind a [very fine machine indeed. This interesting biplane, designed only for military uses, is lof the engine-in-front type. Both main hlanes are designed upon what may be palled Etrich lines, i. e. the pigeon-wing-Ishape in combination with the negative pving-tip incidence of the well-known Zan-bnia flying sperm. The planes, spaced 5 ft. fe inches, are staggered, all the bracing between them being accomplished by ferruled kvooden-compression struts, of which there pre rather a large number, no wire bracing

being employed. These struts are about 2y, ins. deep by 1 in. at the midway point, stream line section, and taper at either end to iys in. diam. Here a round IS ga. lVi in. diam. tube is fitted over the end and two 3/16 in. rivets hold rigid the 10-ga. tongue-plate which acts as the joint to the plane.

The lower plane is considerably smaller than the upper, both are, as mentioned, identical in shape and, in common with most of the biplanes at the Salon, double surfaced. The total area is 440 sq. ft. The fuselage is covered throughout the whole of its length with a thin veneer of wood, except the forepart, which is fitted with a thin aluminum sheet, the radiator being disposed under the front, below the engine, where it does not interfere with the graceful outline of the machine, and where it is in a position to receive the maximum amount of cooling draught from the propeller. At the rear end the fuselage carries a non-lifting triangular fixed 1 tail plane, behind which is an unbalanced elevator

Scale Drawing of Albatros Biplane.

+ — *

Benoist Biplanes!

don't wait for spring to fly. Horace Kearney, in a plane built by us last year, flew from the aviation field to Frisco and landed in a public street.

Antony Jannus and Capt. Berry in the new Benoist School Machine, carrying 100 pounds extra equipment flew from K i n loch to Jefferson Barracks, over twenty miles in twenty minutes. Jannus dropped Berry with a parachute into the Barracks and returned to Kinloch without a hitch.

Benoist flyers are always doing: things because they can.

Al.-o operate the u Benoist School of J Aviation.

? Benoist Aircraft Company

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L. F. Trebert Engine Works,

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Welles & Adams Motors

50 H. P. 4 CYCLE

LET US SEND YOU OUR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING FRED EELLS' GREAT FLIGHTS OVER THE CITY OF ROCHESTER IN BIPLANE EQUIPPED WITH THIS MOTOR.

One of the few moderate-priced motors that has actually made good.

Weight 200 lbs.

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BATH, N. Y.

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French—American Balloon They always Win.

We make more good Balloons than all the -world.

Records Prove It

Chicago International Contest, 1908—9 competitors, distance and endurance.

Indianapolis National, 1909—1st & 3rd monejl distance.

St. Louis Centennial, 1909—1 st, 2d & 1th monejl Peoria Contest, 1909—1st & 2nd money I Indianapolis National, 1910—2nd money. I Kansas City National, 1911—1st, 2nd & 3rJ money.

Kansas City International, 1911—"K.C. II.'j non-contestant—whipped the world's best Balloons.

Both Silverized and Rubberized materials, instruments, etc.

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flap and above which is a large triangular balanced rudder. Below the elevator plane is situated a curved ash skid, fitted with rudder rings to prevent damages of the tail planes.

The machine is a two-seater, with passengers arranged tandem fashion and fitted with a double control. This control mechanism is very simple in its design. As in the case of the Etrich monoplane elevation and lateral balance are controlled by a rotatable hand wheel mounted at the top of a vertical column, the rudder being warped by pedal operation, but it is not possible to steer the machine when turning on the ground. Lateral control is also by warping the turned back tips of the planes.

The landing gear is very sound and strong. One very good point on this machine is the fact that the converging struts which carry the skids—upon which wheels are mounted in farm fashion—are not rigidly connected to the skids, but are taken to a short semi-elliptical leaf spring, which entirely prevents a direct shock to the machine when a landing is made, however harsh it be. In addition to this, each skid is strutted so as to be independent in working of the other. Each skid is fitted with a landing brake operated by a separate column.

The chassis may be called an improved Henry Farman type. The slanting strut from the body tapers from 2y3 ins. by 1 in. down to 1% ins. diameter at the round clip skid fixings. They are bound with ly2 ins. wide linen tape in two layers, the layers being wound on in opposite ways, this binding to prevent the wood splitting. The vertical struts from the body—also similarly bound—finish in 2 ins. by 1 in. steel boxes with a rectangular horizontal y2 in. deep slot, through the base. This takes a 2 in. wide 4-layer leaf spring. The three lower leaves are of 10-gauge and the top of 14-gauge spring. The end of the front lowest leaf clips round a 5/16 in. bolt held on either side of the skid by a 12-gauge steel plate. The other end of the leaf slides

under the clip holding the % in. radius rods of the chassis.

The brake is fitted on each skid just in front of the rear struts. It pivots on the % in. bolt around which is clipped the front edge of the back leaf springs.

Both passenger and pilot have control gear in front of them, the two sets interlocked. The vertical control pillar 1 in. diameter, in front of the pilot, has a steering wheel at the back of which a 7 in. drum

with % in. square groove is fitted. The warping table passes twice around this, and twice round a subsidiary jockey pulley fixed on one side of the vertical pillar, about 6 ins. above the horizontal 1% in. tube on which the vertical pillar is fitted. The jockey pulley is connected through a universal jointed tube to a similar pulley and steering wheel in front of the other seat. The cable passes finally from the jockey pulley over two pulleys on the horizontal bar and away to the ailerons. The horizontal 1% in. tube turns in two eyes bolted to the longitudinal members and has fitted on either end outside of the body two vertical levers to take the elevator control wires. The simplicity of the one universally jointed tube for interlocking the two controls is very good.

The engine is a large four-cylinder Argus, water cooled type which delivers 100 h. p. at 1,200 r. p. m., Bosch ignition. Directly coupled to the engine is a Chauviere propeller of 9 ft. 10 in. in diameter, which gives the machine a speed of 55 m. p. h. The principal dimensions, as seen in the drawings are: Length: 34 ft., Span: 44 ft., Area: 440 sq. ft.

The manufacture of the "Albatros" machines has been standardized and a monoplane type on the same outline of the described biplane, at which is absent the lower plane, is being marketed. Both types are in all other points identical in construction and workmanship.

Flights have been made with the new passenger carrying machine of the Thomas Brothers at Bath, N. Y., model 10 B. This is a duplicate of 10 A. described in the November issue except that the spread is 36% instead of 31% ft. A racing biplane, 10 C, is being built.

The A. A. S. H. Monoplane

A complete review of Hydroaerop'ane Art left out in this issue through lack of space will appear in the April issue of "Aeronautics."

SOME slight changes have been made for 1912 in the monoplanes built by the American Aeroplane Supply House of Hempstead, N. Y., which has for the past two years been making so-called "Bleriot-type" machines. The wings have been strengthened and rubber shock absorbers are now being used instead of springs. All control wires are duplicated, ^he aeroplanes produced by this concern are practically identical with the genuine Bleriot machines of 1911 and are well built and finished. Especial care seems to have been taken at all parts where there is any unusual strain.

The machines sold thus far have been fitted with such engines as the purchaser desired ; Gnomes, Roberts and Emerson having heretofore been specified and the framing built to take these engines.

The main planes have a spread of 2 feet 9 inches; chord, 6 feet 10 inches; camber, 4y2 inches. Each wing is built up on two ash spars %" by 2V2". The forward spar pro-| jects six inches beyond the edge of the wings and fits into a 2 inch steel tube attached to the top of the fuselage. The rear spar pivots on a vertical upright of the fuselage. Ribs are spaced 13y2 inches apart and are of 1 beam section. The planes are covered on two sides, the cloth being sewn into a bag and glued and tacked to the wings on the bias. The ribs are thoroughly rein-l forced at junction with spars by the use of tape, and before cloth is put on the woodwork of the wings is shellaced to prevent moisture from getting into the woodwork. A strip of rattan moulding is tacked top and bottom of each rib, after the covering is onl in one continuous piece. The cutting edge! of the wings is of sheet aluminum; while thel trailing edge is of oak.

Steel cable adjusters are fastened to both] of the spars of each wing to which the steell cables supporting the wings are fastened.1 The top mast is built up of oval tubing ter-l minating in a steel casting, the top of which! is 2 feet 8 inches above the top of thel fuselage. To this mast, or pylone, the steel cables holding up the planes is attached, thJ cables from the forward spars being rigid! while those from the rear spars run oveJ loose pulleys, and are used to warp thel wings. The wings are supported beneath! with steel straps, running from the forwarcl spars to the landing chassis, while steel cables are used to support the wings fronl the rear spars. The outer cables used to warp the planes is run over a pulley attached to the warping arm of the lower p» lone to which pulley cable is bolted, to vrm vent slipping. The inner steel cable, run I over a loose pulley of the pylone.

Attention is directed to the inverted tail, to the use of which the machines owes a great deal of its success. It will be noted that the elevating plane has just the reverse curve to that of the stabilizer. The elevating planes are hinged to the stabilizer, latter being adjustable as to angle of incidence. The vertical rudder swings between the two elevating planes. To remove the stabilizer, vertical rudder and elevators from the fuselage it is only necessary to draw out six bolts. Rattan skids, 1*4" equipped with steel shoes and spring shock absorbers, support the tail when the machine is on the ground.

The landing chassis is a duplicate of the Bleriot, equipped with four rubber shock absorbers 1*4 inch thick by 15 inches long, which have a play of nine inches. Steel rim wheels, 2.8" by 21/4", with clincher tires are used. The axle is of rectangular steel tubing, with a wood covering for strength, and is fitted with universal joints, to allow for movements of the wheel in either direction sideways, or upwards and downwards.

The controls of a Bleriot are perhaps the best known in the world. The entire machine is governed by two levers, the first of which is fastened to the floor in a horizontal position, and is operated by the feet of the operator, and controls the vertical rudder which enables the machine to turn to the left or right. The second lever or "bell" control, is located between the legs of the operator in a vertical position, and when moved forward or backward, controls the rear horizontal rudder, by which the direction of flight upwards or downwards may be governed. A movement of this lever to either side, warps the wings.

The speed of the engine is controlled by two levers which are attached on either side of the bell control itself, and can be operated without removing the hands from the wheel. The power can be shut off instantly by pressing switch button which is attached to the 8 inch mahogany wheel of the bell control. For the convenience of the operator hand holes have been provided in this wheel.

1A1II the eyebolts, turnbuckles, and other bolts and it ts used throughout the entire machine have been made especially to dimensions of chrome nickel steel. All turn-buckles are fitted with lock nuts.

Care has been used in the finishing of the machine, as all woodwork has received a high grade polish, all metal parts have been enamelled black, all aluminum parts buffed, and all wires have been enamelled white.

The fuselage is of the box girder type, with the four longitudinal members of ash. The fuselage is in two sections, joined by square steel tubes eight inches long, which permit taking apart for transportation. These four members are 1%" square at the front tapering down to %" at the back, where they join a vertical post 2" by 214" by 12," to which the vertical rudder is hinged. The fuselage is 28 inches wide and 27 inches deep at the front and tapers down to 11 inches wide and 12 inches deep at the back. Oval shaped ash struts are spaced every 2V2 feet. Steel U bolts and piano wire hold this framework together.

The seat is slightly forward of the trailing edge of the main planes, and is carried by steel tube .supports. The back is of aluminum sheeting. A leather strap fastened to both ends of the seat, and adjustable for the convenience of the operator, serves as a belt to hold the operator in his seat.

The forward part of the fuselage is entirely encased with aluminum sheeting, in addition to which the machine is equipped with an aluminum hood which gives a neat and racey appearance, and protects the operator from the wind and cold. Every precaution has been taken to prevent any oil or gasoline escaping from the tanks or their connections, so as to eliminate any possibility of danger from fire. To prevent this aluminum sheeting separating, the engine from the tanks has been provided.

The gasoline tank has a capacity of 12 gallons, made of heavy gauge copper, and is divided by plates to prevent splash. The filler dome extends through aluminum hood.

The weight of the single seater, with pilot, 50 h.p. Roberts motor and 5 gallons of gasoline, radiator, water, etc., is 810 lbs.

In addition to the single seater described here, the company is prepared to manufacture passenger carrying, racing or military monoplanes. Both the passenger carrying and the military monoplanes will be equipped with double controls, which enables both the operator and passenger to operate the machine.

FRANCE'S AERIAL WAR FLEET

i^TEPS have now been taken by France to equip herself with aircraft actually maintained for the purposes of war and not for experiment. Four million, four hundred thousand dollars have been asked for by the War Minister for 1912. In 1910 the sum of $4,000,000 was voted for dirigibles and sheds in a programme of construction to be completed

by the end of 1913. The French military aeroplane fleet has increased from five machines in 1909 to 254 at the end of last December. This new appropriation, if passed will provide 322 more machines with sheds and full equipment. Some war vessels cost nearly double this $4,000,000. Why not let Uncle Sam pass up one of his new battleships and buy some aeroplanes.

If three hundred aeroplanes were bought by him in this country-?

The more I rend i/our magazine the more I like it.—William Mono ax.

AERONAUTICS

-TYP£ XV-

ifUl ! J 1 J J I-

—SCALE—

lonoplane

The Gage Biplane

By CLEVE T. SHAFFER

K^SK^j^jS^jS^ well built and practical bi-pL*kWS^&u££* piane has been constructed M • g&c by students under the direc-#\ £§jj tion of J. Gage, in Los An-c§3 5§3 geles, at the Gage Aviation

S&f School.

^i^^^l^ The niachine> a headless, g^^^j^jKgj favors no particular type, ^^*£«v§*(v§*( but is rather a composite of ^^^^^ several with the addition of a number of original features, both in general design and mechanical parts.

One may observe the Curtiss in the use of ailerons for lateral balance, the triangular rear stabilizers, engine mounting and double covered planes in panel sections. The Far-man is evident in the single post or lever control, though this feature is modified very greatly, and the running gear. One might say the resemblance ends at the wheels; the planes set low and the skids method of attachment being suggestive of the Wright; a hint of the latter type is also to be seen in the fuselage, regarding the latter, the critical observer might suggest that the vertical members comprising should be of stream line instead of square section, inasmuch as a considerable area is exposed directly in the

propeller draft, due to the fuselage converging to a point whereon the rudder is attached.

Aileron and elevator control is centered in one lever. Undue pull in the sidewise movement is prevented by two circular plates pivoted in the center bearing against each other, one being integral with the lever the other integral with a rotatable tube, which extends backward to a point midway between the entering and leaving edges, this end having a double vertical lever to which the aileron wires are attached. Those pulling the aileron down, after passing under a pulley on the lower plane, are fastened to the top of the lever and vice versa; the movable tube is suitably held and pivoted by two inverted V's (note photograph). Movement is as usual, the lever being pulled to the high side. The elevator is connected in the ordinary way and is attached to the rear of two triangular stability fins, being Divoted at the center of the two vertical struts of the fuselage next to and in front of rudder.

Wires on elevator control are double. Rudder control is by the familiar foot yoke. The fuselage is very rigid.

A novel feature in the aileron control is

Upper left—The Bradley Biplane. Other pictures are those of the Gage Biplane.

the insertion of a length of flexible cable, with snap hooks to each end, wherever a control passes around a pulley, this allows of quick replacement of a frayed cable, and saves tim in knocking down and setting up.

All posts on elevator and rudder are of good size and properly brazed. A tendency to slight this important point is noticable in a number of machines.

Planes are double surfaced throughout. The outer sections are attached to the center section in a unique manner which has the merit of quick detachability. A length of y8" steel flat against the front or rear edge of the beam or wing-bar is bolted to each section. The chord of the plane is 5' 6". The shape is claimed to be, by Mr. Gage, a development of his own. An innovation is the placing of the rear beam of the center section forward about 6" of the beam in the outer sections to bring the motor forward, this being necessary to balance machine. By referring to the illustration the deep cut-in for propeller may be seen, planes extend beyond read beam ten inches in outside section, Strut sockets are steel. Solid wire is used for guying, with ordinary spoke turnbuckles. The center section is well braced by a tubing truss the bottom legs of which attach to the skid struts at a point considerably above the skid, this would seem to have nothing to recommend it but a higher ground clearance, as it gives to side-wise shocks considerable leverage on the skid struts, but Mr. Gage claims to have had no trouble on this score; the old machine being constructed in the same manner. As this latter machine was run three or four hours a day for months by different pupils any weakness at this point would have been found out. No doubt the Farman system of attaching the wheels accounts for the absence of reakage. The machine is nccely finished, all metal parts being nickeled.

THE 1912 BURGESS-WRIGHT

The Burgess-Wright standard 1912 model F is finished so that the metal is absolutely rust proof throughout and the weight has been cut down. An independent s.tarting device is rigged to one of the large sprockets so that the operator simply steps back and cranks his motor in much the same way that the automobile is cranked and then resumes his seat, advances the spark and begins his flight. The device weighs about two pounds and is fool proof. Any type of motor desired will be installed in this model and the company .is making tests of a number of different makes.

The American Aeroplane Supply House is now all to rights in the new factory at 137-143 Jackson Street, Hempstead, N. Y. and there is completely assembled in the factory one of their passenger-carrying Bleriot type monoplanes, in order to demonstrate the machine to prospective purchasers, to whom a cordial invitation is extended to visit their factory and examine the machine in every detail. A single-seater machine (cross-country type) is also under construction and when completed will also be set up for inspection.

I am very much pleased with your magazine, for which I am now a subscriber.—Chaplain Ruter W. Springer.

The spread is 38 x 5y2, fore and aft 2iy2; weight claimed to be about 800 lbs.

A Hall Scott 8 cylinder, 60 H. P. motor is installed, driving a Gage propeller 8' diam, by 5' pitch. This has taken the place of a 71/,' diam. 6' pitch propeller with an increase of efficiency. A tubular radiator of Gage's design, consisting of a nest of vertical tubes is used, placed at one side a distance sufficient to balance the weight of operator who sits the other side of center and not directly in front of engine. While speaking of the engine thinL it advisable to mention that from the service given daily for months by a 4 cylinder Hall Scott, 30 H. P. in the old school machine, have no doubt that it constitutes a record for reliability that is hard to beat.

The machine judging from its construction, the general design, and its predecessor the old school machine, should be very relible and steady, if somewhat slow.

J. Francis, of San Francisco, a pupil has purchased one of these machines and has done considerable flying in the vicinity of San Francisco.

Charles Bradley, of San Francisco, one of the old guard of early experimenters, has recently completed and tried out a Curtiss - Farman Type biplane, but thru lack of power, was compelled to relinguish experiments until a more powerful engine is secured.

Spread 30'x 5'; for and aft 30'. Running gear has a ten foot tread; skid struts are entirely of tubing.

A new feature is the mounting of the power plant and seat which, as can be seen from the photograph, is a compact unit and easily demounted.

Weight about 700 lbs. A small Ford automobile engine driving a Bradley propeller of 6' D. 4%' Pt. was used, also a 6' D. 3y2' Pt. but power was insufficient.

LEGAGNEUX FLIES B AC K WA R D—NOT ?

"Legagneux is declared by various French army officers and other credible witnesses," says an American paper, "to have shut off his motor and let his machine "stall" glide down backward, tail first, for some distance, then tilted forward and the motor turned on for a level course; the operation being repeated until the ground was reached from an altitude of over 3500 feet. This feat might be possible with certain machines, but no one, not even a Frenchman, would be crazy enough to attempt it. Do the French people expect the gullible public to believe this story, let alone those conversant with aviation?

DURING CONVALESCENCE

The following contribution lias been received since the publication of the Ante iMortem Statement. Needless to say, thecontributor is not a subscriber, but only a booster. As we said before, we are a philanthropic institution.

EDITOR NEEDS BREAD "The editor of an abscure Dakota paper says: 'A certain fastidious woman in this town kneads bread with her gloves on.' That's nothing. The editor of this paper needs bread with his shoes on1. He needs it with his pants on. He needs it with his shirt on. And if subscribers of this paper don't pony up mighty soon he'll need it without a damn thing on—and North Dakota is no Garden of Eden in the Winter."—From R. Fanciulli.

The Benoist Biplane

By ANTONY JANNUS

PE new 1912 Benoist biplane is a complete redesign comprising numerous new features that facilitate shipping, add speed, increase the safety and the carrying capacity. The design is the result of the combined experience of Tom Benoist and Antony Jannus, and is in no wise an experiment, having been duly evolved from a series of very careful experiments during a period of more than three years' practical manufacturing.

The new biplane can carry two men and fuel for about three hours without changing seats, tanks, or carrying surface, and can carry much more by adding surface to the wings. This is easily done but slightly reduces the speed of the machine.

The new plane is claimed to have a maximum speed of 68 miles per hour, with only one operator, and a speed of 62 miles per hour with two operators with Roberts' 50 h.p. motor. The minimum flying speed is 31 miles per hour, which gives the machine an enormous range of flying speed, and makes the machine a rapid climber.

The machine is a headless with main planes 30 feet wide. (See sketch for dimensions). The tail is a flexing or bending one. The rudder and ailerons are all constructed in this fashion and it is due to this system that economy is realized in controlling the machine. This type of flexing control increases every faculty of the machine without using as much power. The ribs of the control planes are made of the finest spring steel and there is no chance for the bending to threaten the structural strength.

The wings are built up of interchangeable sections so that shipping in crates may be easily effected. Where a machine is to be shipped over the road it is only necessary to detach the tail, mount same on one end of the plane, remove the axle and turn same half around. The machine may then be towed by an automobile or wagon and is flexibly mounted on its own running gear with rubber tires and steel springs to absorb the shocks of the road. Another one of the features is the large master guy wire running from one wing to the other. The function of this wire is to hold a machine together should part of a wing break off in the air. It is to an aeroplane what the safety catches are to modern elevators and is not called into use unless something important breaks. It is the "ounce of prevention." There are but few parts to the running gear and the engine bed is the keystone of the structure. It is never necessary to remove the engine from this bed as it forms the bottom of the crate. It is only necessary, in assembly, to bolt the diagonal braces to this bed and the center section is erected without any question of adjustment; as there are no wires or turn-buckles to it.

The running gear is of special interest as it is very strong, simple and flexible. It is very strong, and enables flight from, and landing upon, very rough ground without damage to the plane.

There are but two wheels, directly mounted on steel springs. This method has been found lighter, stronger, and more serviceable than any of the more elaborate forms of flexible landing gear involving rubbers and a greater number of wheels. The location of these wheels well in front of the center of gravity is a preventive of

The Benoist Biplane

THE

First Annual International Aeronautical Exhibition

TO BE HELD AT THE

NEW GRAND CENTRAL PALACE

NEW YORK CITY

May 9th to 18th, 1912

under the auspices and control of

THE AERO CLUB OF AMERICA

For information regarding space for the exhibit of completed machines for aerial locomotion, accessories, models, drawings, etc., apply to

The Show Committee,

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA,

297 Madison Avenue, New York.

Farman Running Gears Complete, as above - $47.50

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Everything to build any type flying machine.

New Catalogue with working drawings of Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot-type machines in course of construction and will be mailed free upon request to all parties as soon as received from the printer. Write for quotations.

A FEW IMMEDIATE DELIVERY PRICES

Curtiss Steering Wheels - $9.00 FREE with Curtiss Seats - - - 5.50 ev"£ $5f000 5-Gallon Tanks - - 6.15 Aviator Caps - 1.25

Outrigger Fittings - - .29 Oval Post Sockets - - .17 Aluminum pulleys with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 2^" 30c, 3" 40c. Wheels and Tires complete, Eclipse Hub:

20x2£n $6.75 20x3" $9.50 E. J. WILLIS COMPANY, New York City

85 Chambers Street (Telephone 3624 Worth) 67 Reade Street

Aeronautical

Supplies FLEECED-LINED AVI -ATOR CAP.

& %

FLY

YOU can fly in 10 lessons on a Wright Model B.

YOU can get your Pilot Certificate at my School.—No other school promises this.

YOU have no breakage or other extras.

YOU have the best field in this country. You are at the center of "doings."

GEORGE W. BEATTY

Nassau Boulevard - L. I., N.Y.

$ 2 5 0

WITTEMANN BIPLANE

The Wittemann Biplane with a Reputation, not onljl sets the pace for Quality but for Service.

Write for information of 1912 Biplane with our nevJ Stabilizer.

Own a Wittemann Biplane Glider: the best, the safest, easiest to operate, and enjoy flying in a moderate! form.

Do you want to build a machine of your own desigil or parts thereof? WE can help you to make it successful!

Some parts of your 'plane can be made of steel, we rid you of the annoyance of constant repairs and insure absolute safety.

Send us your specifications and requirements andl secure our quotations.

Large stock of steel fittings, laminated ribs and struts of all sizes carried in stock.

YOUR OPPORTUNITY

Two single covered biplanes for immediate delivery, slightly used, perfect condition, with S Cyl. CO H. P. Hall-Scott power plant. Write for particulars

C. .„d A. WITTEMANN

Aeronautical Enginmw*

Works: OCEAN TERRACE and LITTLE CLOVE RD. Staten Island, N. Y. City

Write for Catalogue

Established 1006

Scale Drawings of Benoist Biplane

standing the machine on its nose. The skids supplementing the wheels are a further protection where very rough ground is encountered. The back ends of these skids are flexibly shod with spring steel adding more cushion for landing and preventing wearing of the light spruce skids.

The ailerons have been mentioned but they are but a part of the control system and in this connection it is well to describe the controlling mechanism. The tail is actuated by the fore and aft movement of either of the two upright hand bars that are seen inter-connected and convenient to the right hand of either operator. The ailerons, or lateral controls, are operated by a right and left movement of the same bars. This is nothing more than the Farman system but the construction used is different, and better, insomuch as the right hand operator has the stronger lever and the control wires lead from this lever so that an unruly pupil could do no more than break his lever. The other advantage of this arrangement is that no matter which seat one learns from, the controls set the same and there is nothing to learn over again when flying without the instructor.

The rudder is operated by the wheel that sets as the arm of a chair and forms a comfortable and secure grip for the left hand. The movement of this rudder wheel is the

Wright Suit

We are in receipt of information from Germany, regarding- the recent action of the German Patent Office, nullifying the main claim of the Wright German patent.

After the discussion of all of various points, the Division took one hour and a half to deliberate, and then pronounced as their judgment that claim 1 should be an-, nulled on the disclosure contained in "L' Aeronaut," page 103, passage 5, in connection with "Automotor," of February 15, 1002, page 197, column 1, lines 2 to 4. The full grounds were not verbally pronounced. It was said, that they would be given in writing. The citation from "L'Aeronaut" is from a report of an address by Mr. Chanute before the Aero Club of Prance, in April, 1903, describing the experiments of the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk, N. C. in 1902. The citation from the "Automotor" is a synopsis of the address of Mr. Wilbur Wright before the Western Society of Engineers in 1901, describing the experiments at Kitty Hawk in 1901. The statement of Mr. Chanute which is cited as a disclosure of the Wright invention was as follows:—

"To assure transverse equilibrium, the operator works two cords, which warp the right and left wings and at the same time adjust the vertical rear rudder." Under the laws of Germany and France, a disclosure of an invention by the inventors, or by any one else, who has knowledge of it, before the application for a patent is filed, is sufficient to render the patent void. The disclosure must be sufficient to enable any one to understand how to build and use the invention.

The German Tatent Office has taken the extreme position that these few words were sufficient to teach any one how to build and oper-

same as when previously placed, as in the Curtiss type control, merely being translated into another plane of movement; back toward the left side of the body steers to the left, and over and away from the left side of the body steers to the right. These steering wheels are likewise the same from either seat. For security against unruly pupils or ignorant passengers the wheel on the left seat is easily disconnected by changing a large cotter-pin from one hole to another, thus leaving the wheel free to turn without moving the rudder and still affording a comfortable hand grip for the passenger.

The engine bed is designed as the strongest part of the machine. The appearance of great weight is deceptive as the side boards of the bed are very thin. This leaves a very convenient space beneath the motor for placing a 35-gallon tank. This tank further acts as a drip pan to keep the lower plane free from oil. The 35-gallon tank feeds to the upper 15-gallon tank by air pressure. This pressure is provided by the operator who actuates a small hand pump.

The Benoist Biplane is manufactured by the Benoist Aircraft Company, 6628 Delmar Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. The weight has not been stated.

in Germany

ate a flying machine in 1903, and that they canceled the right of the inventors to any property in their invention in Germany. The Wright Brothers do not believe that this action of the Patent Office is based on a proper interpretation of the law, and will take an appeal to a higher tribunal.

The address of Mr. Chanute, on which thei German decision turned, was delivered about two weeks after the date of the French application, and, therefore, could not be used against the Wrights in the French trial, which they practically won, as related before. The German application was not filed until after the date of this address by Mr. Chanute.

The E. J. Willis Co. of So Chambers St. and 67 Reade St., New York City have apparently succeeded in making their store an Aeronauti-I cal emporium well worth the visit. They havel placed on exhibition an elaborate collectionl of aeroplane models, built to scale. No minor! detail necessary to a full-size machine equipped] ready to fly has been neglected in these small models.

They include the Wright cross-country type.l Bleriot type machine, equipped with two fifty] h.p. Gnome motors coupled together; Santos! Dumont, Demoiselle, Farman type machine! with seating accommodation for 7 passengersi Antoinette machine, motor driven kites, andl one of unique design equipped with pontoons! also a twelve foot model of a Zeppelin dirigj ible balloon equipped with electric lighting outfit, small motors, and wireless equipment. |

Their new aeronautical catalogue is nearljl ready and they are of an opinion that 1912 is going to prove a real aeronautical year "w<i have been in front in the aeronautical fiel« since its inception," they say "and intend tm be right there when the death knell sounds.'■

BLERIOT

Monoplanes

(Genuine)

WINNERS OF ALL EUROPEAN CONTESTS IN 1911

In 1909:

The First Aerial Crossing of the

Channel

In 1910:

The First Circuit de I'Est

In 1911:

The Paris—Rome Race (lst and 2nd) The European Circuit (lst and 2nd) The English Circuit (Daily Mail Race) The Belgian Circuit The St. Petersburg—Moscow Race The Valencia—Alicante Race The London to Paris (Non-Stop) Race etc., etc.

WORKS AND OFFICES: 39, Route de la Revolte a Levallois-Paris

and

Belfast Chambers, 156, Regent St,, London

AVIATION SCHOOLS:

Etampes, near Paris, during summer ; Pau - - during winter Hendon, near London

SHNEIDER 'PLANES

Biplanes that Fly—Come and See

Price Low—Get Quotations

Instruction $250 Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome

C Before buying any aeroplane, be sure the maker is not a novice himself. Get names of purchasers. Visit the plant and school.

C. Every Shneider machine flies—and flies well. All parts standardized. No freak construction.

C. Amply powered (Roberts.)

C. Get a demonstration flight first. Then ask those who have flown Shneider machines:

Jos. Richter Wm. Kline Rollin H. Jennings

H. Binder J. P. Tarbox

C.The late Tony Castellane learned on Shneider 'planes.

Write Your Own Contract and Guarantee

Fred. P. Shneider

1020-1022 East 178th Street New York

Established 1908

Nearly all the World's Aeroplane Records

TABULATED IN THIS ISSUE OF

AERONAUTICS

WERE MADE ON

The Dependable Kind —

Made in Germany

Annular Ball Bearings

THE prize winning list of world's record holders in Aeroplaning, nearly all made on machines equipped with Gnome motors reads like the directory list in "AVho's Who in Aviation. '*

The Gnome seven cylinder air-cooled revolving motors use fourteen F. & S. Ball Bearings—Every revolving part is F. & S. equipped including even the crank shafts and connecting rods, and which is

really unique in gas motor practice, the only other gas motor using ball bearing connecting rods] being the Merkel Motorcycle—also] F. & S. equipped.

Nearly every world's aero plane i record for Speed, Time, Distance, Duration, Height, Climbing Speed| and Speed in Kilometers per hourl was made on F. & S. Ball Bearings, J the Dependable Kind made inj Germany.

$vT^RE^rZ< (uMPANY

JL Ball Bearings

250 West Fifty-fourth . A'<!*> YorU,

World Aviation Records

HE following records have been brought up to March 1st, 1912, and have been compiled from reports in all the foreign journals, checked against each other and with such records as are said to have been passed by the international body.

No attention has been paid by the international ederation to cable and letter requests for ifficial records to date, save to say that the lubs of the countries in which records vere made, failed to report their records

for 1911. As most of these records (made in 1911 at any rate) were established in France, one would think the federation would recognize a record when it sees it. Clubs in other countries have likewise found it impossible to get by March, 1912, a list of records officially observed up to the end of 1911.

It is interesting to note that American-made world records are always printed abroad with the observations "it is reported from America," and "we await confirmation." No credit was given Beachey when he made his world altitude record, later beaten by Garros.

1-Mau 2-Man 3-Man 4-Man 5-Man

Duration

11:01:29.2

4:34:00

2:02:45 1:35:00

21:45

Distance

740.29 Kil.

250 Kil.

112 Kil. 50 Kil.

25.74 Kil.

Altitude

4252 m.

3000 m.

2200 m.

 

Greatest Speed

169 kph.

103.21 kph 102.85 kph 96.30 kph

87.25 kph

Climbing Speed, 500 m.

3:35

     

Speed for Certain Distances

       

5 Kil.

2:03.2

2:58

 

3:34

10 Kil.

4:08.2

5:58.2

6:00 6:16.6

7:0S

20 Kil.

8:13.2

11:54.6

11:59.4 12:34.2

14:00.6

30 Kil.

12:25.2

17:53.2

17:52.6 18:48

 

40 Kil.

16:33.2

23:57.6

22:44.4 25:05.6

 

50 Kil.

19:03.8

29:38.6

29:37.4 31:23.2

 

100 Kil.

37:58.4

59:16

59:08

 

150 Kil.

56:41.4

1:28:37.8

   

200 Kil.

1:15:20.8

2:05:49

   

250 Kil.

2:22:57.6

2:39:37

   

300 Kil.

2:51:43.S

     

350 Kil.

4:17:26.2

     

400 Kil.

4:54: 6.8

     

450 Kil.

5:30:35.6

     

500 Kil.

6:07:07.8

     

600 Kil.

9:16:27

     

700 Kil.

10:43:46

     

Distance for Certain Periods.

% Hour

39.3

Kil.

24.80 Kil.

   

1/2 Hour

79.3

Kil.

49.11 Kil.

   

1 Hour

159.3

Kil. 101.20 Kil.

   

2 Hours

234.43

Kil. 190.85 Kil.

   

3 Hours

310.28

Kil. 224.85 Kil.

   

4 Hours

5 Hours

325.90 407.67

Kil. Kil.

     
     

6 Hours

490

Kil.

Duration.

   

7 Hours

522.93

Kil.

 

6 Man

46:27.4

8 Hours

451

Kil.

Duration.

   

9 Hours.

580

Kil.

 

7 Man

1:06.00

10 Hours

650

Kil.

     

11 Hours

710

Kil.

 

Free Balloon Record—Distance, 1954 Kil., Emile Dubonnet and Pierre Dupont in "Condor HI," La Motte-Breuil, France, to Sokolowska, Russia, Jan. 7-S, 1912.

The Oakland Meet

By CLEVE T. SHAFFER

repetition of the Los Angeles meet in all respects, except that of management, was that held at Oakland February 17, IS, 22, 23, 24 and 25th, the assured and diplomatic hand of Dick Ferris being noticeably absent.

The aviators were cautioned against participating by representatives of the Aero Club of America, but showed little regard for the notice, claiming the meet to be an exhibition only. Judging from the programs and advertisements, it was a meet; from the performances it was not. However, it would have been but mere courtesy to the governing body and its affiliation, "The Pacific Aero Club," to have given tnem some consideration. The action, if any, taken by the A. C. A., in the matter is awaited with interest; if licenses should be suspended it would, so the writer believes, establish a precedent in this country, though a number have been so held up on the Continent.

So much has been said elsewhere about the

Parmalee's Wright with 60 Horse Power Engine. Note the Mufflers.

aviators and their aviating that this can be omitted and attention given to the machines.

The Hall-Scott 00 h. p. installation in Pai-maloo's Wright was easily the most interesting feature, difference in speed and climbing was obviously Kreat, the usual procedure of "stepping," climbing a few feet and then leveling, in ascending was naturally obviated, the machine showing remarkable climbing ability, rising almost at once. Propellers are unchanged, be-

Weldon B. Cooke Flying over the Streets of 1 San Francisco.

ing the same as those used with the Wright! engine, the acceleration of speed, about 100 rl p. m., apparently causing no stress. Gearing! is 11 to 34, with the propellers turning 510, ai stated, the engine is doing about 1530 r. p. ml There is no doudt that either propeller pitch oil gearing could be a bit higher with a furtheJ increase in speed. It is probable that the latJ ter would be the most advisable as Parmalee'J speed with the new power plant almost approxiJ mates his pitch speed, the slip being smalll about 10%, either the propellers arc more effil eient at this higher speed or the engine is doing more than 1530.

Mufflers were put on the motor, and it was certainly wonderful to see Parmalee flyinj around at a speed of 60 miles an hour with* out any noise from the exhausts and only littlJ noise from the whir of the propellers and chains* lie was able to make the mile circular tracB in 62 seconds, which was equal to LincoM Reachy's time with his Curtiss racing machinB and 75 h. p. Curtiss motor, and this simplB tickled Parmalee to death. There was no mil on the field who could compete with him on altitude work,

Lincoln's Keachy's new Curtiss headless atJ traded attention not only because of his pre! eminent skill, but for the reason that one wonlj dered if provision was made for the unusuallH severe stresses to which the machine is subB jected. The, examination was not comforting rear outriggers being lisht and guy wires rail ried out for some distance on the bamboo, inlj stead of fastening direct to the main cell. Of course, propeller clearance will be immediateli mentioned, but this is a makeshift, and not a

AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE

MANUFACTURERS OF

BLERIOT MONOPLANES

Immediate Deliveries 3 Models From $1,500 to $10,000

SINGLE SEATERS PASSENGER-CARRYING MONOPLANES RACING MONOPLANES

A few of the most prominent owners of our Bleriot-Type Monoplanes are: J. Albert Brackett, Boston, Mass. A. V. Reyburn, Jr., St. Louis. Mo. E. J. Marley. Sumner, Miss. A. C. Menkes, Memphis, Tenn. G. B. McNamara. Norton, Mass. Willie Haupt, Philadelphia, Pa.

Visit our factory and examine in detail the excellent construction of our monoplanes. SEND TODAY FOR 1912 CATALOG

AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE

137-141 JACKSON STREET Phone 427 Hempstead HEMPSTEAD, L. I., N. Y.

B O L A N D

1

EADY to deliver, 8 cyl. 4 cycle water cooled motors that give 60 H. P.

VER since 1908 the original engine has been flying our experimental 'plane.

SLWAYS in order—this engine has never been taken down or repaired in 3 years.

HIKELY you have seen the Boland machine flying at Mineola last season. It has been flying almost daily; has flown all during the Winter—with Boland power plant.

EOPLE are hard to convince. If your 'plane is standard we will fly it or refund the money. It must fly. NLY give us the chance to prove what we can say about our engine" is fact.

ON'T you make appointment and see us fly for you. You want an engine that will fly your plane, an engine that won't we^r out, that always fires, which always delivers its full power.

EUREKA! We have it. We are entitled to the opportunity of showing you what we have and telling you what we are prepared to do. We believe we can prove our claims to your satisfaction.

ENDER unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's! Before you buy. you owe it to yourself to investigate our motor.

Ready to Deliver Aeroplanes, Either with Above Motor, or Oar 4 Cyl. 2 Cycle 40 H. P. Motor

BOLAND AEROPLANE AND MOTOR CO., Rahway, N. J.

New York Office, 2 Rector Street, Room 328

MOTORS

k VALUABLE SOUVENIR

hich you will be proud to wear, will be distrib-ted absolutely free of cost by the Sloane Aero-ane Company. The souvenir will be expensive, is to be handed only to those who are actively filiated with any branch or phase of the aero-mtical industry. In order that we may be able i estimate the number of souvenirs we need, ease write us immediately your name and Idress and in what way you are connected with ie aeronautical industry ; also, send us the imes of any of your friends and associates hom you think should receive one of the •uvenirs.

SLOANE AEROPLANE COMPANY

Chararay Propeller* Sloioe 'Plaaci Part*

'33 Broadway New York City

EDWIN LEVICK

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

Photographers

Telephone 108 FULTON STREET c.bl.

100 John NEW YORK Pholonew.. N.Y.

Pk»toiT»ph» of Practically erery Aeroplane and Air.hip in the WerM

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BALDWIN

Vulcanized Proof Material

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"Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Frank Schumacher's, 164 W. 46th Street, New York. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York

AEROPLANES

mechanical idea. Attention is attracted to the long crank shaft carried by a long extension of the crank case, on the Curtiss 80 h. p. Allowing motor to be placed forward enough to balance machine without structural changes in the machine.

Hillery Beachy's novel biplane with its Hall-Scott 40 equipment is worthy of a separate article which will appear in a later issue. Glenn Martin's Curtiss-type biplane was easily the best built machine on the grounds, mechanical details, both as to strength and finish, being very fine. Beyond the fact that it has a Wright type plane section, machine does not differ from conventional design. An SO h. p. engine of the same make gives the machine extraordinary climbing power.

Horace Kearney's Curtiss-type was noticeable only for the vertical side partitions in the center section, the distance out in front of the aviator's seat to balance machine, and slanting engine base. The object of the angle is rather hazy, inasmuch as the machine flies almost at its ground incidence and does not increase this incidence in the air, therefore it can be assumed that the machine is working against itself. An extra "V" reenforces the ordinary front skid "V," extending to the front first panel struts. The flight of Keaney from the Oakland field to San Francisco, and his landing and rising from Van Ness Ave., was good publicity for the meet.

Weldon Cooke with an unfamiliar machine, the Wiseman #2 (described some time ago in "Aeronautics"), did some very excellent work, his power plant being another Hall-Scott 80 h. p. It was unfortunate that Cooke's own machine was not completed in time for the meet. He flew it for the first time from his home, reaching the field a few moments after

the closing bomb had been fired. A six cylinder Roberts is used on his new machine.

Miss Blanche Scott, in an older model of the Martin Curtiss type with a 60 h. p. Hall Scott, made a number of flights. This machine while very strongly constructed lacks the finish of the new Martin.

Tom Gunn, the Chinese, in an Eaton Brothers' machine, (described in a late issue) with a Hall-Scott 60 h. p., did some good flying for a novice, but, unfortunately, met with disaster in a heavy wind.

High wind also caused the serious injury of William Hoff, in a Curtiss old style front elevator machine, with a Curtiss 60 h. p.

Farnum Fish, in a passenger Wright, was palpably under-powered in the strong wind during the latter part of the meet, but managed to avoid disaster.

A word might be said in relation to engines. A remarkable fact was that no less than 70% of the engines were HaTI-Scotts, an obvious testimonial. Two Curtiss and a Wright engine were the other power plants.

There was an entire absence of monoplanes.

Weldon B. Cooke, of Oakland, Cal., a member of the Pacific Aero Club, who recently passed his license test before the same club, and shortly afterward won a duration record at the Los Angeles meet is a figure of fast growing prominence in the aviation world.

The winning of his license and the subsequent duration record, not to speak of the dangerous Mt. Tamalpais flight was accomplished with a crudely constructed machine judging by its battered appearance, of ancient vintage. The line-up of the 'planes give shudders to the fastidious one.

Cleve T. Shaffer.

The Coming Aero Show

I Affairs are reported as coming along finely with the Aero Show to be held in the new .Grand Central Palace, New York, May 9-18, 'next. Although it is more than two months before the opening, a large number of the biggest people in the industry have secured first choice "spaces. A mong these are Curtiss, Gallaudet, Boland, White Aeroplane Co., Twombly motors, Baby model engines, Goodrich, Frontier, Good-,year, Sturtevant, Electric Speedometer Co., Roberts, Diamond, American Aeroplane Co., Mea magnetos, Kirkham, Max Ams motors. Others are Aerial Construction Co., Aeronautics, A. F. Mangels, Aero, F. A. O. Schwartz, W. A. C. Frost, H. W. Jacobs.

Loan exhibits will be made of various foreign machines, including the Paris-Madrid winner, Nieuport, Farman, Antoinette, Morane, Deper-dussin, and Bleriot, while home exhibits are promised of the Curtiss Gordon-Bennett winner of 190t», possibly the first Curtiss water machine "The Loon," the Burgess "Flying Fish," Cha-nute gliders, wind tunnel and other laboratory [apparatus in working order from the Queen [Company and it is hopefully expected to have [the original power machine of the Wright Brothers and one of the Kitty Hawk gliders. \ The management is counting on live exhibits from the Weather Bureau, the Navy and the [Signal Corps of the Army and it is expected to have one of the machines now being built for the army under the last order.

Leo Stevens is building a special balloon, of hydrogen gas size, for the center of the building and a ticket office is to be established where visitors can buy rides in aeroplanes or balloons as one would purchase theatre tickets. A full line of various sized balloon baskets have been offered by Mr. Stevens.

Another item of rather unique interest will be an aviator's parachute, weighing about a pound, which is inclosed in a fabric bag and attached to the flyer's shoulders. A string instantly opens the bag and the parachute will open

shortly after the man gets clear of the aeroplane and let him safely to the ground, as has been demonstrated by Jannus at St. Louis.

Negotiations are still pending for a big Par-seval sight-seeing airship to make inter-city trips at Show time and to circle the city nights with illuminated signs on the sides of the big bag. Horace Wild has promised the smaller Parseval he recently bought for the Illinois Aero Club by April 15th. The Zodiac dirigible will be represented by its car, which is now in this country.

It is quite possible, also, that the famous Austrian monoplane, the Etrich "Swallow," will be one of the loan exhibits. Moving pictures and lantern slide lectures will be free to the public days and evenings during the show.

HYDROAEROPLANE RACE

A special committee is considering handicap conditions and rules for a hydro-aeroplane race on the Hudson River immediately preceding the show for a special annual trophy. A number of water machines are already available for competition, several yet unheard of by the public. The rules will be such that all machines are on an even footing to bring out skill in operation and reliability of the individual 'planes.

The operating company of the Palace, which has undertaken by an arrangement with the club under whose auspices the show has been announced, is fully cognizant of the state of the industry and intends to do everything in its power to help. It is fully realized that the coming show will be conducted at a considerable loss and the future conduct of shows a few years hence, it is anticipated now, will be in the hands of the industry itself.

Th difference between the half dozen poorly supported shows of a year ago, a burden on exhibitors, and the present single exhibition, has made it possible for the present show to have such good support.

New Exhibition Stunt

PARACHUTING FROM AEROPLANE

[N March lst, Bert Berry, parachute leaper, and Antony Jannus, aviator, performed a feat that has heretofore been pronounced impossible or too foolhardy to attempt. Berry dropped in a parachute from the aeroplane while going at full speed.

Jannus, in this 1912 Benoist biplane with Roberts motor, ilew from Kinloch with Berry, eighteen miles to the Army Post, Jefferson Barracks, the other side of St. L,ouis, Berry made his drop to the parade ground and after a stop Jannus flew back to Kinloch.

Jannus was very much surprised that after the thorough freezing they had that Berry was able to properly handle the rigging.

The parachute is carried in a metal cone. This cone is fastened, small end up, to the foot rest of the machine. It is held up clear of the ground with the mouth pointing toward the back of the machine until just prior to the jump. From the mouth of the cone come the ropes that attach to the trapeze bar. This trapeze bar has two leg loops attached to its ends. The bar itself is attached to the axle of the aeroplane by a cut-away block. The first thing Berry does is to let the metal container hang down so that it swings with its mouth toward the ground. Then he lets down the leg loops. Next he climbs down onto the axle of the machine and puts his legs in the loops. In this position his body is all below the axle of the machine and he can just reach the cutaway above his head. Berry then ties a belt around himself, looks to see that the ropes are clear to the cone and then cuts himself away. The jerk of his fall, until the ropes tighten, tears loose the fastenings that hold the parachute in the container.

The 'chute fell about 300 feet before opening in spite of the fact that it had a hoop in its mouth. The aeroplane suffered most before the 'chute was released owing to the head resistance of the cone and Berry's body. Once relieved of the man from below, all Jannus has to do is to pull the cone back into its original position, by means of a rope with a ring on the end, and hook the ring in a properly positioned hook.

The distance from Kinlock to Jefferson Barracks was flown in seventeen and one-half minutes, entire time in air being twenty-two minutes. Jannus made three circles to get into the campus. The barracks is not an easy or very safe place to land in on account of the surrounding country, but Jannus got in and out without any difficulty.

It is a great disappointment to the Benoist Company that Jannus did not carry an official barograph as they feel certain that he would have secured two American records, for altitude with a passenger and for rapid climbing without passenger as some of the officers, several of whom have recently seen the army machines, expressed themselves as completely astounded at the rate at which the machine climbed.

A first trial was made with Berry's 'chute, using an anvil as dead weight. The load on the machine was: Berry 1C5 lbs., anvil 54 lbs., 'chute 28 lbs., and about 20 lbs. of rigging, as

Jannus and Berry Ready to Start

well as Jannus' 169 lbs. This trial was a pronounced success in spite of the fact that the apparatus did not at first work as planned. The anvil was dropped but it did not pull the parachute from the container and Berry climbed down on the axle of the machine and jr.mped on the anvil with both feet until the 'chute tore away. It opened easily and without any noticeable grief to the machine. In this experiment a sack was used as a container for the 'chute.

Immediately after the success of this experiment the real event was advertised for the following Sunday at Kinloch Park, and a crowd of 6000 gathered. The machine was unable to get high enough with Berry to make the drop safe, which required at least 1000 ft.

The next week was spent in installing a new radiator, and trying a new Simmons propeller. Then it was found that the machine could climb a thousand feet with Berry and the apparatus in 6 minutes. The event was again announced but a small blizzard prevented.

On March 10, another public demonstration of the stunt was made. Jannus says that the value of it appeals to him more as a weapon in war than as an amusement in time of peace. In war the demoralizing effect of a parachute, carrying the same sort of deadly acid bomb as used so disasterously by the Japanese, would be immense. The very fact that the enemy could see this twenty gallons of venom floating down upon them would rout thousands of otherwise staunch soldiers. It would only be necessary to be sure that the bomb was to windward of the troops attacked as the fumes are heavier than air and would not be mater-

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ially dissipated when blown onto the troops. The inhalation of the mildest zephyr of this bomb's fumes is death. There are many other possibilities in rapidly discharging troops without alighting, such as would only be possible over rough country, or into a besieged fort, etc.

TURNS TURTLE AND GOES ON.

Paul Peck is now on his way to the Army Aviation Camp, at Augusta, Georgia, where tie will demonstrate the Gyro motor to the officers there. On March Ss, while flying at Montgomery, Alabama, Peck shut off his '■notor in the air at 1,500 feet and landed in i plowed field. He turned turtle on account )f the skids being too short on soft ground. With the assitance of his mechanic, he ;urned the machine right side up again, found that nothing was broken, started the notor up and got away on plowed ground vithout any difficulty.

DOMESTIC EXPORTS TOTAL $48,633 FOR 6 MONTHS

During the period July 1-Dec. 31, 1911, imports were made of 13 aeroplanes, total value ;4S,644 averaging $3,741. Exports of domestic nanufacture amounted to 16, of a value of 154,004, averaging $3,375 each. Two foreign nade machines were exported at a valuation of 9,755, or $4,878 each. There were still in the varehouse (in bond) 10 foreign machines of a otal value of $30,S73.

CURTISS CATALOGUE.

To say the new catalogue of Curtiss aero-ilanes and motors just issued by the Curtiss aeroplane Co. is the most complete yet pub-ished in America by any 'plane maker is carcely doing the catalogue justice. Hand-omely illustrated, two chapters are devoted to , history of the development of the Curtiss aaehine, to the records established or beaten iy Curtiss flyers, to the teaching of pupils, the port of flying, the Curtiss engine exhibitions, ontests and the hydroaeroplane. Illustrated >y views of the factory, the reader is told how he factory operates.

The standard machine, 4 cyl. 40 h.p., lists at 4500; the 8 cyl. 60 h.p., at $5000 and the 75 h.p., t $5500. Weight-carrying" machines with wo feet bigger spread, are listed at the same >rices. The hydroaeroplanes, list at $5500 and 6000, according to whether the 60 h.p. or the 5 h.p. engine is specified.

GORDON BENNET BALLOON RACE.

A total of $7,700 is offered to competitors in he international event in Stuttgart, Germany, )ct. 27, in addition to part of the admission ees. Gas, and insurance and freight from the lerman Frontier is free. Nothing is settled as o selecting American team. Entries to date are as follows: France 3 America 3

"HIRTEEN IN BENNETT AVIATION RACE

No decision has yet been made as to the site r date of this race. It is practically settled hat Chicago will have the race as apparently 10 other city desires to raise such a large sum s Chicago has offered.

Switzerland 1 (Audemars)

England 2 (White and Hamel)

Holand 1 (Wynmalen)

America 3 (............)

France, 3 (............)

Belgium 3 (............)

The Wright Company has given assurance hat no legal action will be taken against any oreign competitor in this one contest.

NEW CORPORATIONS

Richardson Paranaplane Company, of Dayton, O.; $50,000. William J. Richardson, V. E. Wampler, C. P. Watson, W. L. Blocher and Dawes T. Bennert.

Ilydroaerocraft Corporation, Chicago, 111., $500,000. Horace P. Keane, Robert Middlekauff and Hugo S. Grosser.

Rieflin Headless Aeroplane Co., 203 State St., Rochester, N. Y.

Hoover-Conrow Aeroplane Co., Atlanta, Ga., incorporated by H. H. Hoover and J. A. Conrow with $10,000 capital stock.

Society of Aeronautic Engineers, Phila., Pa.

General Aviation Co., formerly Clayton & Craig aviation school, $250,000, 15 State St., Boston, Mass. A. A. Langvill, J. W. Flenniken, O. G. Loeser and J. W. Hawes.

Ovington Aviation School of Correspondence, Newton, $5,000; Earle L. Ovington, Joseph W. Cromwell, Adelaide Ovington.

Aero Exhibition Company, $25,000; manufacturing and exhibition of aeroplanes; Arthur Eastman, Samuel B. Weinger, O. W. Best.

FLEW OVER LAKE ERIE

Earl Sandt, an Erie, (Pa.) Curtiss-type flyer, on Feb. 20 flew without stop across the frozen surface of Lake Erie from Erie to Long Point, Ont., a distance of thirty miles. On the return trip he met with misfortune about five miles from the American shore and was forced to limp to the land where he telephoned his safe return.

NEW YORK MAY HAVE MUNICIPAL AVIATION FIELD

The campaign inaugurated by John E. Sloane in New York for "isles of safety" in city parks, has developed into the possibility of a municipal aviation field, free to aviators and experi-mentors, on the old Creedmoor rifle range on Long Island, if a bill being presented by Senator Duhamel at Albany is passed, which asks the state to grant Creedmoor to New York City's Park Department.

COFFYN STILL FLYING ROUND NEW YORK

Frank C. Coffyn, up to March 15, has still been flying about the harbor of New York, like "Johnny with his eamer-ah," and, soft pedal, one day he even ventured over the inhabited portion of ivxanhattan, that part known as Wall Street and he hasn't even lost his certificate. Mrs. Coffyn and Coffyn II, aged seven, have been passengers, as well as the deputy dock commisioner and others.

A detailed report of the receipts and expenditures for the second Harvard-B'oston meet at Squantum, Mass., in August, would seem to indicate grave doubts as to the possibility for a third event of this character. The gate receipts for the entire meet amounted to $39,220.S5, to which must be added $I1,42S received from Nashua, Worcester and Providence for Labor Day, and $4716.25 for concessions, making a total of $55,365.10. The gross expenses were $66,-5S7.68 leaving a deficit of $11,222.5S.

The total receipts for 1910 were S12S.267.17 and expenses, $151,414.43. The attendance in 1911 was 26,808, as compared with 67,241 in 1910. Of course, the weather had something to do with these figures, but the result clearly indicates that the public is not anxious to pay for the privilege of witnessing that which can be seen for nothing, albeit the free exhibit is not quite as satisfying as that within the flying field enclosure.

That scheme of the Rex monoplane people to furnish parts at cost ought to take on quite well.

Peter A. Frasse & Co., New York, Philadelphia and Buffalo, is the place to get all kinds of tubing.

CALENDAR

May 9-18 Aero Show, Grand Central Palace, New York.

May — Hydroaeroplane Race, New York. July _ Gordon-Bennett Elimination Balloon Race.

Oct. 27 Gordon-B'ennett Balloon Race, Stuttgart, Germany. — — Gordon-Benett Aeroplane Race. May lS-June 23 Aero Show, Vienna. June 29-July 7 Meet at Boston—in the air? Mar.24-31 Hydroaeroplane Race at Monaco. Apr. 3-14 Show at Berlin.

ARMY AVIATORS LEARN DIFFERENT CONTROLS

The Army Wright flyers are teaching the Army Curtiss flyers the use of the Wright flyer control; and the Army Curtiss aviators are teaching the Army Wright aviators the Curtiss control. Capt. Beck (Curtiss) is taking lessons from Lieut. Arnold (Wright). Lieut. Hazel-hurst is a new student aviator.

The leather helmets which Army aviators are compelled to wear have proven their value. Lieut. Kennedy was thus undoubtedly saved from a fractured skull when he was thrown to the ground on his head, the impact making a hole about six inches deep. He was practising landings for accuracy in stopping the Curtiss aeroplane at a certain point. The wind was behind him, and in descending at an angle somewhat too steep, the front wheel crushed on first contact. About 100 feet farther the machine came down again and the front wheel and fork ploughed into the ground, stopping so suddenly that Lieut. Kennedy was thrown forward about fifteen feet, striking the ground on his head and right shoulder.

From February 11th to March 10th, rain prevented much flying, although 9S flights were made with a total of 23 hours, 14 minutes.

A new type of tent hangar has been received, and is now in use. It was designed to fit the Wright type aeroplanes and is made as small as possible with the object of saving weight so that it may be transported with facility during military operations.

Aviator Adolph Richter of the Rex Smith Company is at the Augusta camp and has obtained permission to erect a tent hangar on the government flying field and fly while instructing several students.

NEW PILOTS

t SI Josef Richter (Shneider) College Park,

Met, Dec. 27, 1911. t 91 William Hoff (Curtiss) San Diego, Cal.,

Jan. 17.

* 96 Rutherford Page (Curtiss) Los Angeles,

Cal., Feb. 28. 97 Frank M. Kennedy (Curtiss) Augusta, Ga.,

Feb. 21, 1911. 9S W. B. Atwater (Curtiss) Domingrey, III.,

Feb. 21.

99 Albert Mayo (Curtiss) San Diego, Cal., Feb. 2S.

100 Frederick A. Hoover (Curtiss) San Diego, Cal Feb 28

101 R. St. Henry (Curtiss) Los Angeles, Cal., Feb. 2S.

102 J. L. Callan (Curtiss) San Diego, Cal., Feb. 2S.

t Subject to approval of foreign clubs. * Deceased.

AT BEATTY'S SCHOOL

George W. Beatty has been busy right along with twelve pupils at his Wright school at Nassau Boulevard—all winter, despite cold and snow.

/ find Aeronautics a very interesting and instructive magazine, and. will evidently recommend it to every person interested therewith.—Frank Tiialman.

IN MEMORIAM

Pau, France, March 13.—Lieut. Henri Paul Seveille was killed.

Etampes, France, Nov. 10.—Suzanne Bernard was killed in flying for her pilot certificate, " in a sharp turn to right."

Pau, France, Feb. 23.—Lt. Dueourneau was killed due "to breaking of propeller" of his monoplane.

Juvisy, Jan. 20.—Alfred Wagner, a youth of 21, student at a school, slid sideways to the ground in making a figure eight for his pilot certificate and was instantly killed.

THE THOMAS SCHOOL OF AVIATION

During the months of January, February and March, great activity has been shown at the Thomas School at Bath, N. Y., where flying has been carried on all winter, with Walter E. Johnson as instructor, on the ice of Lake Salu-bria. This lake is an ideal place to carry on school work, as has been proved during the winters of 1910-11 and 1911-12.

The ice is now twenty-seven inches thick, and the greatest fall of snow at Bath since training commenced has not exceeded six inches. The lake freezes up earlier than any lake of its size in the State, and so gives pupils an excellenl opportunity to learn to fly during those months when little flying is done elsewhere.

The pupils have made rapid and substantia progress since training commenced, and som< of them show signs of becoming star fliers this summer. Earl Beers, in particular, has mad< exceptionally rapid strides and has taken to flying like a duck to water.

The machine used for training purposes is ( Model 10 B, fitted with dual control and equip ped with a 50 horse-power Kirkham motor Frequently two passengers are carried, and al pupils are taught up in the air with the pilot.

Over a thousand flights have been made b; pupils since the school opened in January. Th only adjustment to the machine required dur ing this time was the tightening of a few wire which had stretched under normal working con ditions. No further adjustments to the plane o the motor were necessary, which is sufficien proof of the efficiency and thorough method o training and the high standard of excellenc of the aeroplane. Thomas Bros, write: "Thl motor has set a pace which it will take manu facturers a long time to equal. In point of oi and fuel economy, these motors have not a:< equal in this country; and the motor can be de pended upon to give its rated horse-powe seven days out of the week."

Classes are now being formed which will ex tend through the summer months, and flyin, lessons will be conducted in the same efficien manner as in the past.

PROSPECTS BRIGHT FOR SUMMER

Harry B. Wise has returned from a transcon tinental trip in the interests of the Sloane Aerol plane Co. and reports business looking upwar all over the country, after taking the variou aviation centres such as Los Angeles, Sal Francisco, Chicago and even St. Louis. Charavay propeller agency was established wit the Fames Tricycle Co. in Frisco and anotlie in Chicago.

NO AEROPLANE MAIL ROUTE

The estimate for $50,000 for aeronautic ex periments in the Post Office has been knocke out by the Committee when the bill was re ported on March 6. There seems to be nobod interested and the item will probably not b put back.

The Standard Aviation School of Chicagij lately acquired, for its Superintenden Francois Raiche, formerly of Mineola, L. Ij to instruct the pupils of the school, at tn field at Clearing.

IRON AV TICS

Aeroplane Motors & Equipment Co.

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As requested we gave you the address of our Paris representative the ojetent of his purchases will bo controlled by his own judgement, and we would appreciate the cooperation of your Paris offioe.

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Bibliography of the World's Journals

;ITH this issue we inaugurate a department of bibliography, wherein each month will be listed leading articles of interest in all the aero magazines in the world. In this department, also, will be printed notices of new books, as has been our custom.

'To those seeking the greatest amount of data on any particular subject, this innovation will be well nigh priceless, as the whole art is spread beore them, month by month. Following is an incomplete list of publications devoted in whole or in part to aeronautics, with the short titles oposite which will be used to simplify search. This list will be added to as articles appear, but it WILL NOT be printed every issue.

FRENCH

l'Aero—LAO l'Aerophile — LAE L'Aero-Mechanique — LAM L'Aerostation — LAS La Revue Aerienne — LRA La Technique Aeronautique — TECH Revue Juridique Int. de la Locomotion-Aerienne — JUR

GERMAN Flugtechnik

und Motorluft-

IZeitschrift fur i schiffahrt — ZF [Facbzeitung fur Flugtechnik — FLUGT KFlugsport — FLUGS

lOesterreichische Flug-Zeitschrift — F-ZEIT truftschiffer-Zeitung— LZ

[Deutsche Luftfahrer Zeitschrift — ZEITLUFT Die Luftflotte — FLOT Wotorwagen—WAGEN

BRITISH

iFlight — FLT kero — BAO

[The Aeroplane — PLANE [Aeronautical Journal — AERJ ^Aeronautics — BAERON

MEXICAN fBoletin de Ingenieros—ING

UNITED STATES (Aircraft — AIR Fly — FLY kero — AER

1.

AERODYNAMICS, experiments of Eiffel—

Lae, Feb. IB; Tech, Feb. 1; Flugs, Feb. 14; AERODYNAMICS, resistance of surfaces—

Zeitluft, Feb. 21. ALTITUDE, influence of—Lae, Feb. 1. ALBATROSS, military biplane—Flugs, Jan.

17: Flugt, Feb. 11. ANTOINETTE—Lae, Jan. 15. ASTRA tri plane—Lae, Feb. 15. BALLOONS, varnished—Fly, Mar. BLACKBURN mono, steel—Baeron, Jan. BOMB-DROPPING, Scott device—Lae, Feb.

15.

Similar to previous description in "Aeronautics." BOMB-DROPPING, design and sighting-Fit. Jan. 27. CONSTRUCTION—Lae, Feb. 1.

of Spars—F-Zeit, Jan. 25. DEPERDUSIN m., racer—Fit, Feb. 10. EFFICIENCY of aeroplanes, skin friction resistance, etc.—Fit, Jan. 6.

13. 14. 15.

16.

17.

IS.

19.

20

21.

22.

23. 24. 25.

26.

27.

28. 29. 30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35. 36.

37.

3S.

39.

ENGINES, for models—Fit, Jan. 13. HANRIOT-PAGNY mono—Lae, Feb. 1. LANDING, methods of at high speed—Lae, Jan. 15.

LAW, French Decree—Air, Mar.; Jur,

published monthly on laws of the air. MILITARY, The Fourth Arm—Lae Feb. 15.

Value of New Zeppelin—F-Zeit, Feb. 10.

Requirements and Formation— Plane, Feb. 8.

" British Army Competition—

Baeron, Jan.

" The Military Aeroplane—Bae-

ron, Jan. French Programme—Baeron, Feb.; Flugs, Jan. 4.

" Military Aviation—Ing., Vol. II,

No. 5.

French Army Competition—Zf,

Jan. 13. Organization—Lae, Feb. 15. MORANE-SAULNIER m., racer—Fit, Feb. 3.

MOTORS, in Paris Show—Flugs, Jan. 4. NAVAL, Aeroplanes for Men-of-war— Baeron, Jan. Marine Aviation—Plane, Feb. 15. NAVIGATION, Instruments, maps, etc., for aeroplanes—Flugs. Jan. 31.

Maps,—Zeitluft, Feb. 21. Use of Compass, etc.—Fit, Feb. 24.

OMNIBUS AEROPLANES — Plane. Feb. 15.

OTTO mono—Zeitluft, Jan. 24.

ORNITHOPTERS—Fly, Mar.

POWER, Distribution of consumption and

losses in flight—Fit, Jan. 13. PARIS SHOW—Baeron, Feb.; Flot, Feb.;

Fit, Jan. 6; Bao. Jan.; Lae, Jan. 15; Flugs, Jan. 4; Fit. Jan. 13. PROPELLERS, Operation of in side wind— F-Zeit, Jan. 10. Theories and Methods of Design and Testing— Wagen, Feb. 15; Jan. 15; Zf. Jan. 13 and 27. Method of Construction— Flugs, Feb. 14. RENAULT motor—Aer, Mar. 2. SOMMER steel bi.— Fit. Jan. 27. STABILITY", Propellers as Disturbers of— Baeron, Jan. and Feb. Longitudinal in Gusts—Baeron, Feb. Automatic. Doutre system—

Lae, Feb. 1. Longitudinal—Tech., Jan. 1

and 15; Fit, Feb. 10. Bionislawski device — Lae, Jan. 15.

SPEED, Eteve indicator and considerations

of—Tech, Jan. 1. SOARING or gliding flight—Fit, Feb. 3, 10,

and 17; Lae, Jan. 15: Flot, Jan; Boa, Jan. STRESSES on aeroplanes In gliding flight,

with notes on death of Oxley—Baeron Jan. TATIN-PAULIIAN mono—Lae, Feb. 1;

Flugt, Feb. 25; Fit, Feb. 17. TESTING aeroplane structures Bao, Jan. TURNING, Theory of—Lae, Feb. 1.

Forces in Tech, Jan. 15. VIKING bi.—Fit. Jan. 20. WOOD as aeroplane timber—Baeron, Jan.

and Feb.

WINGS, form of from stability point of view—Tech, Feb. 1.

/ cannot describe how your magazine trill enable any amateur of aeronautics to improve himself. My appreciation is indescribable.—Anastas Bassis.

MODEL CLUB NEWS.

fiHK Central Y. M. C. A. Boys' Aero Club of Philadelphia is certainly progressing rapidly Already the club has held five open air meets and on Friday, March 8th, they had the pleasure of hearing a lecture on large and small aeroplanes by Francis J. C. Ferris and Percy Pierce.

Hartford, Conn., Y. M. C. A. boys have organized a Model Aero Club under the supervision of W. W. Leonard.

The Philadelphia Model Aero Club has been formed for the purpose of stimulating interest in aviation through model making and flying. The officers are as follows:—Percy Pierce, President; Oliver M. Prentice, Vice-President; D. Earle Dunlap, Secretary; D. H. Simmerman, Treasurer. Already the club has twelve members.

CONTESTS.

Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 17.—At the model contest held at Fairmount Park under the auspices of the Central Y\ M. C. A. Boys' Aero Club, W. P. Lanagon, of Oreland, Pa., won first place in the club event, with 21 feet 11 inches; Herbert Smith came second and Richard Gordon third. In the second event for outsiders, Percy Pierce came first, winning a medal offered by the club with a flight of 537 feet 11 inches against a strong wind.

North Hudson, N. J., Feb. 18.— Three members of the North Hudson Junior Aero Club tried out their models at the Gutten-berg Race Track and Clifford Keely's model was there "with the goods," so as to speak, by flying 520 feet, Oliver Habermann's, 416 feet and Edward Krug's, 493 feet.

San Francisco, Cal., Feb. 18.—Dudley Brown and G. R. Robinson of the Polytechnic Aero Club made a Pacific Coast record by flying their model 699 feet. The former record of 530 feet was held by R. Montagne of the Oakland Amateur Aero Club.

Newark, N. J., Feb. 19.—At the contest held at Weequahic Park under the auspices of the New Jersey Model Aero Club, Egbert P. Lott took the honors for distance by flying his model 682 feet 4 inches. Francis Walton, Jr., probably one of the youngest flyers of to-day, won the duration event. The system of points employed was 100 for first, 50 for second and 25 for third. In this meet Lott and Walton were tied, one winning first in distance and third in duration, and the other, first in duration and third in distance.

Chicago, 111., March 6.—At the contest held at the Auditorium under the auspices of The Aero Club of Illinois, the following boys were victorious:—Arthur Nealy of the Hyde Park High School made 90 feet, hitting the further wall, and would have probably gone 150 feet or more but for the wall interference. Harry Wells of the Lake High School Aero Club came second with 73 feet, and Lawrence Harper of the Calumet High School was third with 71 feet. The meet proved a success in every way, and In all probability another will be held very soon. The entries numbered over 50.

Philadelphia, Pa., March 9.—At the contest of the Central Y. M. C. A. Boys' Aero Club. Richard Gordon carried off first honors by flying his model 72 feet. Herbert Smith came second with 56 feet. Considerable improvement was made over the last contest. In the open event Percy Pierce won the medal for first place by flying 1063 feet, 6 Inches, describing three large circles during the flight. H. G. Oakley of Gloucester City, N. J., came second with 299 feet.

New York, March 10.—At the contest of the New Y"ork Model Aero Club held at Van Cort-landt Park the following splendid results were

shown:—Stuart Easter, first, witn 1743 feet, winning the gold medal offered by Mr. Francis A. Collins. Second, Cecil Peoli, with 1609 feet. The flight made by Easter puts him in second. The three U. S. winners now rank officially as follows:—Percy Pierce, 1,814% feet, Stuart Easter, 1,743 feet, and Cecil Peoli, 1,691% feet.

Brooklyn, N. Y., March 10.—The Cypress Hills Model Aero Club held another meet and John McMahon came in first with a flight of 1,585 feet, winning a bronze medal offered by the' Aeronautical Bureau. George A. Page, Jr., was i second with 1,436 feet.

Model Flying in Japan

(Continued from page 87)

shaft is made of No. 15 steel wire, and a small hole is drilled in it. Another small! wire is put through the boss and this holel to keep the propeller tight on the shaft asl shown. A keel surface runs the half length! of the body to retain the directional sta-| bility? The rear portion of the keel makesi rudder.

By my experience, I have abandoned thel feet or chassis which are only the source on propeller breakage; so the keel surface is kept in its position by two elastic bands tol avoid its damage on landing.

The angles of the large plane and small one are 4° and 7° respectively.

The February number just reached me to-daM and I found it so interesting I could not let go of it till I had read it through.—H. H. Fisher. I

* *

THOMAS AEROPLANES

The kind that Have been TRIED, Always FLY,

And give the LEAST TROUBLE.

Our winter flying classes will be completed on March 15th, 1912. Classes for Summer Tuition NOW forming.

Write for full particulars'

THOMAS BROTHERS

I BATH, N. Y. ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★inn

1 77(1 R y n a rl w a u

1770 Broadway NEW YORK

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177 MILBURN STREET, :: :: ROCHESTER, NEW YORK

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YOU SHOULD HAVE READ WHAT FOUR PROMINENT MOTOR BUILDERS WROTE US

Each nno said that we should double (he selling prices of GRAY KAGLE MOTORS. They stilted that we could easily get the price and make more than the times the profit. We don't look at it that way. We're not in the 'MotorTrnsf'to uphold prices and roll you 33-40 H.P. 4 cylinder $485 net. New model 50 H.P. 6 cylinder $675 net.

We'll lend you either of these models and free use of our Private Aviation Park to try your plane.

THERE'S A RKASON why these four motor builders are up In the air.

Cray Eagle Motors are guaranteed and you take no chances when you buy one. f ilve us an opportunity to put one In your plane and demonstrate what it will do. ISN'T THAT FAIR ? Whal's the use paying for something you don't get. Others are flying their home-made machines and so can you Write fur tin' new Motor Circular.*

R. 0. RUBEL, Jr. & CO., A and Floyd Sts., LOUISVILLE, KY.

Questions and Answers

Edited by M. B. SELLERS and HUGO C. GIBSON

LIFT PER SQUARE FOOT AT 50 MILES

To the Editor:

What is the lift per square foot at 40 mi. p. h. against a 10 ml. wind? What is the breaking strain of ribs and spars?

H. C. C, Gainesville.

ANS: Pressure on a plane normal to wind is .0033SV=; and for 50 mi. p. h., relative speed, pressure would be S\i lbs. The maximum pressure on inclined square* planes is at 3S , and equals about 12 lbs. per sq. ft'., according to Kiffel. We have no data on breaking strain of ribs and spars. Tt would all depend on the construction. You could test these yourself. *The pressure on a square plane inclined at 38° is, as stated above, greater than that on the same plane placed normal to the wind, but this value is only true for a square plane. The question does not state shape of plane nor angle of attack—merely wants maximum pressure.—Editor.

LIFT AND DRIFT OF NIEUPORT

To the Editor:—

1 take the liberty of writing you as I think you have the best aero magazine in the U. S. and thought you could help me. I have a Bleriot which has flown but the wings do not seem to have the lift they should have and I am trying to get information on different types of wings before buying blueprints. I would like to know the amount of lift to drift and center of pressure of the Nieuport at an angle of incident of 5 or 6 degrees, 50 h. p. type. W. Norwalk.

ANS: Approximately at 45 mi. per nr. and 6°, lift would equal 530 lbs.; drift,

02 lbs., and varies as V2. We can not give c. of p. for the Nieuport wing but on Wright wing at about 6° = 36% from front edge.

WHAT IS IDEAL RIB

To the Editor:

I hope it will not trouble you too much to answer the following:— (O What do you consider an ideal rib for a racing biplane? (2) For a passenger biplane? (".) For an all around biplane? (4) What kind of a rib are inventors striving after? Is it, for instance, a rib with a vacuum on top and a heavy pressure underneath or what? (5) For experimental work are towed gliders better than flying models?

D. H. M., Chicago, 111.

ANS.—Answering your questions in part: We have formed no opinion as to an ideal rib for a biplane. The shape would depend on a variety of conditions besides the speed. The Wright rib seems from actual performance to be very good, especially for an all around machine. The object of designing a wing shape is, to obtain a fair amount of lift with as little drift (or propeller thrust) as possible. This seems to be obtained by producing a pressure beneath the wing and a depression above it, with as little disturbance of the air as possible. Any device for producing a vacuum by greatly disturbing the air, or any attempt to produce a considerable vacuum, is likely to be productive of excessive drift, and hence insufficient. Both flying models and towed gliders serve a useful purpose in experimental work.

New Books

MODEL, FLY'ING MACHINES. Their Design and Construction, by W. G. Aston. Paper, 154 pp., abundantlv illustrated. Published at 30c. by liiffe Sons, Ltd., 20, Tudor St., London, E. C, England. Mr. Aston's book will be found of very practical value to the model builder. It is complete with every possible detail of construction of models, their power, equipment and design. The subjects are as follows: General Principles and Their Application, Power, Supporting Surfaces, Screws, Tails and Elevators, Design, Self-Launching Models, Model Dirigibles, Model Helicopters, Ornithopters, Winding Apparatus for Elastic Motors, A Compressed Air Motor. .

AERONAUTISCHE METEOROLOGIE, I. by Dr. Franz Linke, small Svo., cloth, 133 pp. with tables and illustrations. Published by Franz Benjamin Auffarth, at Frankfurt, a. Germany, at M. 3.

AERONAUTISCHE METEROLOGIE, II. by Dr. Franz Linke, small Svo., cloth pp. with many photographs and diagrams. Published by Franz B. Auffarth at Frankfurt, a. Germany, at M. 350.

CHEMIE DER GASE, by Dr. Fr. Brahmer, small 8vo., cloth, 145 pp. fully illustrated with photographs and diagrams. Published by Franz B. Auffarth, Frankfurt, a., Germany, at M. 4.

DER MASCHINENFLUG, by Josef Hoffman, small Svo., cloth, 232 pages, fully illustrated. Published by Franz B. Auffarth, Frankfurt, a. Germany. Price M. 6.

A COMPENDIUM OF AVIATION AND AEROSTATION, by L-ieut., Col. H. Hoernes, with a preface by J. H. Ledeboer, B. A. 54 illustrations, 16mo, cloth, $1.00 net, J. B. Lippincott Co., Phila., Pa.

This compact little volume treating of balloons, dirigibles and flying machines, is intended for the use of the general reader as well as the professional aviator. It is written in a popular style and treats in an exhaustive manner the scientific development of aviation, explaining the whys and wherefores of different kinds of flying machines. It is also a complete history of the art of flying from the earliest days of ballooning to the present day of aeroplanes.

From a perusal of this book the beginner can quickly arrive at a practical working knowledge of present day flying machines and the principles on which they are based. It also contains definitions of all the different terms used.

The expert will find this a handy book for quick reference.

WASSER FL/UGM ASCHINEN, by Oskar Ursinus. O. I., published at 1 Mk. 50, by Flug-sport, Bahnhofplarz S. Frankfurt a/M, Germany. This is a most interesting pamphlet of 32 pages devoted solely to the hydroaeroplane. All the machines that have been successful thus far are described and illustrated. Several are described of which little is known. To those who can read German, this will be found well worth reading.

A. Brache is editing a new aer nautic review, "L'aviation industrielle et Commerciale," which is to cover the sporting as well as the technical side of aeronautics. The subscription price will be fixed at the low price of 2 fr. 25 centimes per year. The journal is illustrated, and also gives general articles, the news of the month, extracts of reviews, certificates won, books. A sample copy will be sent abroad for 25 centimes. Address A. Brache, care "Revue Nephologique," Chemin de Saint-Denis, II, Casteau, France.

Copies of any of these patents may be secured by sending five cents in coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened clays, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even Questionable devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a full and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many eases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what' sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane," or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Editor.

Ernst C. F. W. Bliesath, Seattle. Wash., 1,017,733, Feb. 20, 1912. AEROPLANE.

Albin F. Kraftsik, Mount Pleasant. Pa., 1,017,767, Feb. 20, 1912. Releasing mechanism for PARACHUTE.

Richard G. V. Mytton, Deceased, By Donald Barker, Executor, Los Angeles. Cal., 1,017.HS9, Feb. 20, 1912. SURFACES designed for inherent stability.

orson L. Pickard, Columbus, Ohio, 1,017,998, Feb. 20, 1912. PARACHUTE ATTACHMENT for aeroplanes.

olof Helsing, Sandhem, Sweden, 1,018.190, Feb. 20, luij.. EQUILIBRIUM device by tilting wings.

Felix Michau, Paris, France, 1,018,205, Feb. 20, 1912. FLYING MACHINE with beating and rotating wings.

Thomas Lough White, New York, N. Y., 1.018.400, Feb. 20, 1912. STABILIZING means for aeroplanes actuated by the suction in Venture tubes disposed axially in the line of (light, or transversely.

Orravill L. Dunton, North Adams, Mass., 1.018,413, Feb. 27, 1912. AEROPLANE in which wings may swing horizontally to front or rear, tail planes deflected vertically in unison, with controlling means.

William John Hastings Beach, Wellington, New Zealand, 1,018,474, Feb. 27, 1912. AEROPLANE, tandem type, propeller for each plane, ailerons at wing-ends and rear edges.

William Howell Walters, Broad Haven, England, 1,018,645, Feb. 27, 1912. Apparatus for TEACHING the art of flying, applicable also for amusement purposes. Means for rocking a seat to destroy equilibrium, means for restoring same, producing artifical air currents, illusion of passing scenery.

Clarence A. B'arber, Des Moines, Iowa, 1, 019.014, Mar. 5, 1912. Parachute attachment for flying-machines.

Charles Morgan, olmstead, Pasadena, Cal., 1,019,078. Mar. 5, 1912. Propeller.

Charles I. Matson, Chicago, 111., 1,019,16S. Mar. 5, 1912. Flying machine with flapping vanes in surfaces.

Louis M. Nelson, Pennington, N. J., 1,019,271. Mar. 5, 1912. Parachute, to be attached collapsed to aviator or machine, with means for distending the parachute.

*Edouard Surcouf, Billancourt, France, 1,019,-2S3. Mar. 5, 1912. Propulsion of aircraft, consisting of two distinct propelling groups, two distinct engines, with mechanicism to use either set, or parts of either set in combination.

Robert Cooke Sayer, Redland, Bristol, England, 1,019,368. Mar. 5, 1912. Airship body, with central vacuum and walls composed of chambers containing gas under pressure to resist the pressure of the air on the outside.

*Jean Jacques B'ourcart. Kolmar, Germany, 1,019,418. Mar. 5, 1912. Framing system; four triangular members with apices together.

PATENT IN GERMANY TO WRIGHTS

A German patent 240,782 has been granted Orville and Wilbur Wright on the warping elevator, similar to the well known previous patents.

cylero cTHart

AVIATOR—Well known aviator, licensed by the Aero Club of France; experienced instructor and mechanic, seeks engagements. Can handle Bleriot, rarman and Curtiss machines. Made numerous flignts in America. Address 1. Semeniouk, 121 W. 97th St., New York City.

PROPELLERS, made to order, increase your thrust. When we know the make of motor, bore, stroke and R. P. M., we can make you a propeller Which will give you more thrust, and guarantee it.

Hoover-f'onrow Aeroplane Co. Atlanta, Georgia.

BLUE PRINTS, 40 sq. ft. giving every working detail of machine, together with instructions in building and (lying. By mail $5.00. Aviators Exchange, 58 W. Washington St.,

Chicago. 111.

LEARN TO FLY.—Why pay more to learn flying. $35 per week or $125 per month. No other charge. Complete equipment. Students now flying at our field which is one-half mile square. Construction course FREE. Aerocraft Company, 117 N. Dearborn St.,

Chicago, 111.

CAPITAL WANTED—Desire communication with some one who will invest in most bird-like, practical and self balancing flying-ma-r.lyne. Will require less power than any other type.

Address: Ernst Ebbinghaus, 316 East 93rd St., New York. _

WANTED—A second hand aviation motor, 30-40 or 40-50 li. p. Must be in good condition.

Address U. C, Box 652, Tibtiron, Calif

SUPPLIES WHILE THEY LAST

All woodwork of spruce and varnished

10,000 5 ft. Curtiss-type ribs—per set of 70........................................$18.00

2,000 5 ft. Curtiss-type struts—per set of 20........................................$8.00

2,000 — 6 inch bed-rail clamps—per set of 20............................................4.00

Everything else in proportion.

HERBERT C. DOYLE, 321 Lake Ave., Rochester, N. Y.

U. S. Patents Granted

-:- Do You Want To Go -:-

AEROPLANING?

By special arrangements I have installed "WRIGHT AEROPLANES and "LICENSED AVIATORS" of the highest standing and ability.

Mr. GEORGE W. BEATTY, the Society Passenger Carrier is in charge and is making daily flights between the hours of 10 A. M. and 5 P. M.

For all information, 'phone CHELSEA 3129.

Tickets can be had at

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A. LEO STEVENS

BOX 181, MADISON SQUARE :: :: :: NEW YORK

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

AERONAUTICS

Points of Actual MAXIMOTOR Superiority

Every one of them vitally important to the aviator's security. Get the lift. Check them overt

You'll find every advantageous feature to be found on any American aeromotor — and many more on the MAXIMOTOR alone.

This is broad.

Won't you investigate it?

In the

MAKING

No engine is better than its bearings. At aeromotors' continuous high speeds, long bearings cannot stand up. The flights stopped in mid-air by "burnt™ bearings prove it. ALL bear-• g trouble is eliminated !n the MAXIMOTOR'S ynk-shaft ball bearings a which last as long as the engine.

If you'll give the details of your plane we'll be glad to advise you on the poicer plant question

fiAXiW3Sfc. VMERS* Dept 3 DETROIT

"SAFETY FIRST"

has been the governing aim in building the 1912 MAXIMOTOR.

No fatal accident ever oc curred with the MAXIMOTOR in over a year's flying of scores of planes under all sorts of conditions the world over.

We intend to keep the record clear.

In the ^FLYING^

"Your Maximotor stands up; is dependable ; continues to run until stopped by the aviator. In short, it is an ideal aviation motor." —Prominent Lawrence, Massachusetts, Civil and Electrical Engineer who flies the 40-50 Maximotor.

I SPARLING-CRAIG AVIATION SCHOOL j

WASHINGTON PARK, EAST ST. LOUIS, ILL.

NOW OPEN

We want ten aviators for the season's work. If you can fly write us, if not, let us teach you.

We agree to instruct you until you are able to get your license. After that we will contract with a number or sell you a machine on the monthly payment plan.

We have the largest equipment in Central United States. We have our own field and hangars. Complete course, two hundred dollars.

References: Illinois State Trust Co. Bank, East. St. Louis, 111.

Citizens National Bank, Kirksville, Mo. Address

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Aeronautical Motors and Propellers

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Exhaust valve lifters allowing motor to coast

in the air. Muffler furnished if desired. Can be throttled to 300 R. 1\ M.

Long Life and Reliable Service

SEND FOR CATALOG 200-B

B. F. STURTEVANT CO.

HYDE PARK, BOSTON, MASS.

Offices in all chief Cities

HALL-SCOTT

AVIATION POWER PLANTS

Predominate in International Aviation Meets

II. F. Kearny effecting landing. Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco, between a network of cross street wires, the day previous to opening of Oakland's aviation meet.

Over 50 per cent, of the aviators competing in International Meet, Los Angeles, used HALL-SCOTT Equipment.

70 per cent, of the Aviators competing in Oakland's Aviation Meet used HALL-SCOTT Equipment.

The predominance of HALL-SCOTT equipment at both of these meets, and their general use throughout the country by professional aviators, is a most emphatic proof of their EXCELLENCE, RELIABILITY and EFFICIENCY, beyond comparison with all others.

Send for a copy of the new HALL-SCOTT catalogue, which tells of the actual work done with HALL-SCOTT equipment, general use by professional aviators, and a description of HALL-SCOTT power plants in detail.

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR COMPANY

Sail Francisco, California


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