Aeronautics

Volume 10 - No. 2 - 1912 February

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



FEBRUARY, 1912 Serial No. 55

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HREE HOURS IN THE AIR

With a 50 H. P.

ROBERTS MOTOR

* Weldon B. Cooke starting three-hour flight at Los Angeles, January 28th, 1911. Cooke ""with his Curtiss type plane equipped with a model 4-x Roberts Motor won the maximum ration at Los Angeles by a large margin. Six days out of nine he was in the air over 2^ irs without descending. Cooke is California's most daring aviator and has made all his mderful flights with a Roberts Motor. The standing-up qualities of the Roberts and its >rough reliability place it at the head of the list.

Send for Catalog

HE ROBERTS MOTOR COMPANY,

SANDUSKY, OHIO, U. S. A.

BBBBflBBBflBBflBflBBBflBBBBBBBBflBflBBBflBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBflBBBBSSaBUBBBBi

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, 250 West 54th Street, New York

t

Z FOR SEASON OF 1912 !

"KIRKHAM" AVIATION POWER PLANTS I

+

+ +

The

Model B—6 Installed in "KIRKHAM" Tractor Biplane

KirkhaiTI'' Aviation Motor is offered in four different models,—

Model B-4, - 35 H.P., 4-cyl., weight 185 lbs.

Model B-6, - 50 H. P., 6-cyl., weight 235 lbs.

Model B-G-6,- 70 H.P., 6-cyl., weight 255 lbs.

Model B-12, -120 H. P., 12-cyl., V, weight 400 lbs.

All of these models are sold as complete power plants or motor only, as desired. Also all models can be furnished with manifolds and mufflers, and push button self-starters, at small extra cost.

The universal success of every 6-cylinder, 50 H. P. " KirkhaiTI ''

motor for the season of 1911 has demonstrated their unquestionable reliability and efficiency, therefore, the new models listed above contain not only all the features which have made the " KirkhaiTI " Aviation motor noted for its reliability, but in addition, all models for 1912 are to be equipped with the new Bosch 2-spark magneto, larger valves and special cooling tubes through oil tank, whereby the oil is always at a safe temperature, no matter how hard or how long the motor is run.

Now is the time to get in your order if you want reasonably quick delivery as a large number of orders have been booked for spring delivery and there is sure to be a rush when the spring opens. Anywaj' you better get acquainted with the only American motor that actually delivers what is claimed for it.

CATALOGUE FOR THE ASKING

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM, Manufacturer SAVONA ............ NEW YORK

In ansivering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Propeller

Perfection

PATENTED MARCH 14, 1911; JULY 25, 1911; OCTOBER 17. 1911: OTHERS PENDING

The Business End of Your Aeroplane is the Propeller

We confine our business to the Business End. That is one reason why we succeed and make uch propellers as we do make. There are also a lot of other reasons.

Anyhow, you have got to have propellers if you fly; good ones if you fly well, and the best one f you want to do your best flying. You want the best and your problem is how to get it. We can olve this for you once and for all. You will never change when once you have tried a Paragon 'ropeller furnished for your machine in accordance with our system of calculation.

Paragon Propellers are patented in every detail. There are none others like them and none fillers that you would want after your first Paragon experience. We admit our opinion of our rork is not impartial, but we refer to the hundreds of Paragon flyers all over the country for their pinions.

It won't hurt to write to us anyhow, and we will give you our expert engineering advice as to power, pitch, thrust, etc., gratis, whether yon become a purchaser or not.

We have earned a reputation for sj)ecial knowledge in oiir line and we will make good that reputation with you, if you let us. Our new booklet will interest you.

\MERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, WASHINGTON, D. C.

COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY SPENCER HEATH

THE

BURGESS HYDROAEROPLANE

IS EPOCH MAKING

<I It has brought flight into the field of yachting. Wherever there is a small body of water, at the summer place by the sea, on inland lakes and rivers, the Burgess Hydro-aeroplane meets the demand of the sportsman for safe flying. Six-cylinder muffled motors. <| In the 1912 models, we offer no untried experimental devices; simply refinements in construction, additional strength and durability, both the hydro-aeroplane and aeroplane may be smarted by the operator while in the machine. <JThe following aviators, when free to choose their own aeroplanes, selected a Burgess type :—

C. Grahame-White ; H. N. Atwood ; C. K. Hamilton ; Lieut. T. D. Milling ;

Clifford L. Webster; U. S. Navy (hydroplane); T. O. M. Sopwith; W. R. Brookins; H. W. Gill; Phillips W. Page; U. S. Army. ^Training on Burgess Hydro-aeroplane equipped with duplicate control, under the instruction of licensed aviators only may be secured during Feb. and March at Daytona, Fla., Ormond, Fla., or Marblehead, Mass.

Dept. a. BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

All Those New

1912 World's Records

were made with

BOSCH

EQUIPMENT

THE RECORDS INCLUDED Vedrines' for Speed

Tabateau's Verrept's Prevot's Ulich's

Time

Altitude-Time

Passenger-Altitude

Duration

Molla's " Passenger-Time

Be Sure Specify Bosch

Send for 1912 Literature

Bosch Magneto Company

223-225 W. 46th STREET, NEW YORK

Comments on Mr. Sellers' Paper

Read belore the Aeronautical Society

By WILBUR R. KIMBALL

S^S^UR member, Mr. M. B. Sellers, has favored the Aeronauti-] eal Society with several j communications of unusual < interest, and the results of _} his experimental work with fc^S^jS^jS^j^j propellers, aerofoils, and re-K^rv^l^rlire^ markably efficient quadru-lu^^^^ plane, published at various • jS^li^l^l^j times in Aeronautics, form Bix^!&\£i>£i valuab'e contributions to

le science of aeronautics. I In these days of exact knowledge of many Iranches of science, it is somewhat exas-lerating to occasionally run up against Ihenomena apparently completely at variance with accepted physical laws and prin-liples. I think it safe to say that no other Irt can compare with aviation for paradoxi-lal propositions and an evolution brought Ibout almost entirely by practice instead of Itieory.

I The action of the wind with which we lave to deal has always been a synonym lor fickleness, instability and exceptions to Ihe rule; and it blows when and where it [/ill.

The first of the glider fliers, Lilienthal l.nd the Wrights, found theory so gravely It fault that they seem to have concluded Ihe only way to learn to fly was to put some-hing together and get it into the air. I Mr. Sellers recent communication to this [Society, published in Aeronautics for January, clearly exposes the fallacy long accepted as truth,—that the standing thrust pf a rotating propeller at a fixed point multiplied by the pitch represents foot pounds [leveloped by the motor, less air friction losses; as it may show more. Another of 'chose paradoxes!

In commenting upon this subject it will be fhelpful to sketch in cross section the end [of a propeller blade in its relation to the various functions of a circle, some appreciation of which is so necessary for a clear con ception, not only of propellers, but of the whole art of aviation.

The theoretical ratio of lift to drift for 'aeroplane surfaces is generally stated to be that of the cos -h sin, or simpler given as the cotangent of the angle of incidence. In practice this is very wide of the mark. Considering propellers blades analagous to aeroplane surfaces, the same phenomenon presents itself, and from Mr. Sellers' tables and those of Mr. Eiffel in his book on air resis tances the ratio of life to drift at 10° is shown to be for curved surfaces nearer S:l instead of 5.7:1, which would be the case if this followed the law of variation of sines and tangents, the use of curved blades making it possible to develop a thrust with absolutely no pitch angle.

Further bearing on this article of Mr. Sellers is the ratio between standing and flying thrust.

From data obtained from propeller tests in wind tunnels and from measurements while flying, Mr. Sellers plotted a curve of these values in the manner employed by engineers, and which we will consider. If we divide ecpially, a rectangular space by vertical and horizontal lines, a means is provided for instantaneously presenting to the eye a comparison of values that would require time and study to obtain from a column of figures.

NOTE: To represent propeller section in normal position, the circular functions are rotated through an arc of 90°

It will be understood that with a propeller rotating at a fixed point that whatever the standing thrust may be, this pressure will decrease to a theoretical zero if the propeller is allowed to advance with Increasing velocity.

This variation was the subject of an article by Mr. Sellers, also published for Aeronautics, January, 1911, which, for the first time, so far as I am aware, presented a formula for this variation.

It would be expected that the reduction In thrust would be exactly proportional to the percentage of slip following the straight dotted line in the chart, but as Mr. Sellers points out, the pressure is always greater because of moving into new or less disturbed

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air. 'The curving of the blade surface immediately raises the per cent of thrust without necessarily increasing the torque (i.e., turning moment), while the natural acceleration of the engine speed boosts the pitch speed, and further increases the percentage available of the initial standing thrust.

If the maximum and minimum flying angles are noted in flight, also corresponding flying speeds for these and intermediate angles and superposed upon such a curve as above, propeller efficiency could be determined and graphically indicated with considerable accuracy.

Weights of Various Woods

Hemlock, Penna.

the request of Aeronautics, Wood the Bureau of Standards,

A(§^ Department of Commerce and Labor, has compiled the ^ following data. In this table !kI is given, so far as values have been obtainable, the range in weight of each MmmmM wood for different degrees of seasoning and drying, these ranges not including, however, the weight of the green wood. The range is, of course, quite large in some cases, depending upon the locality from which the wood comes, as well as the moisture content.

WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT OF VARIOUS

WOODS, WELL-SEASONED OR DRY

Wood rounds

Alder............................ 26 " 42

Ash, black ....................... 36 " 45

" white ...................... 40 " 53

Bamboo ......................... 19 " 25

Beech ........................... 39 " 56

Birch ........................... 32 " 48

Box ............................. 57 " 72

Butternut ....................... 24 " 34

Cedar ........................... 30 " 36

Cherry ......................... 44 " 56

Chestnut ........................ 29 " 42

Cypress ......................... 30 " 42

Ebony .......................... 69 " 83

Elms, rock ...................... 42 " 52

Fir ............................. 19 " 53

Greenheart ...................... 58 " 65

Gum ........................... 33 " 62

Pounds

Linden, lime or basswood

soft

pitch . red ... Scotch

Spruce (Adirondack) (W. Va.) . .. .

37 '

49

30

 

36

 

37 •

60

47

 

64

 

35

 

57

 

42 '

* 62

29 '

' 35

73 '

' 83

20 '

' 37

57

 

35 '

' 4S

53 '

' 6G

41 '

' 51

33 '

' 44

37 '

' 51

44 '

' 54

32 '

' 42

52 '

' 53

30 '

' 44

27 '

' 33

43 '

' 54

23 '

• 37

41 '

' 49

22 '

' 37

36

 

2S

' 32

26

' 32

24

' 37

41

' 55

61

 

37 '

' 51

25

' 37

Some Notes on Propeller Design

By SPENCER HEATH

HE first consideration involved in any propeller design is the matter of pitch, —how far the propeller would advance axially during one complete revolution if it moved as a screw in a nut and without "slip", the pitch being usually calculated from a helix touching both edges of the concave face of the blade. The word pitch, inless qualified, refers to the pitch of a helix touching both edges of the blade. This olade pitch is usually made greater than the working pitch or actual advance made per revolution, and the difference between these two pitches is called the "slip" of the propeller blade (or of that part of the blade .vhich is under consideration) and the amount of slip varies greatly with the amount of head resistance to be overcome and also according to the width or area of the blade and its peculiar cross-sectional form and plan. The blade pitch is ordinarily decided upon in an approximate manner mainly by judgment based upon experience having regard to the available power, the designed speed of revolution and of travel and the probable amount of slip with the intended blade area and estimated head resistance. Having determined the approximate pitch, the obvious and seemingly most natural assumption is that all parts of the blade from the hub to the extremity should have this pitch thus producing a "true screw" or blade of uniform pitch at all diameters, and blades approximating this type are frequently used. This assumption of the desirability of uniform pitch for propellers working in a yielding or fluid medium, as water and particularly air, is taken with utter disregard to the fluid properties of the medium and the resulting phenomenon of slip and the complex lines of flow of the fluid in the region swept by and adjacent to the blade.

A concrete example will show somewhat of the effect of slip upon the correct working of the different parts of a "true screw" blade: Let us assume that the blade pitch is uniformly six feet and the slip two feet, leaving a working 'pitch of four feet. We will examine a six-foot diameter propeller at Intervals of six inches along the blade assuming (for the present) that the fluid flows in parallel lines in the direction of the axis. By the use of a pitch-measuring instrument or by triginometrical calculations or diagrams we can ascertain the angular relation between any part of the blade (or its corresponding helix) and the helical path through which that part of the blade actually moves. This will show

in what manner and >at what angle of incidence the fluid impinges upon the blade at any part, and, of course, the velocity of the blade at that point can readily be ascertained for the purpose of calculating its action as an aeroplane, or more properly as an aerofoil (see Lanchester's Aerodynamics, Vol. 1). We find, in the example chosen, angles of incidence in degrees approximately as follows:

Angle of

Diameter Blade angle Path angle incidence

1 62% 52 10%

2 43% 32% 11%

3 32y2 23% 9%

4 2&y2 17% 73/4

5 21 uy2 6y,

6 17% 12 5% The dotted curve a—a in Fig. 1 shows a

plotting of the above angles of incidence, ordinates indicating degree and abscissa? indicating diameters 1 to 6. These figures show that with a uniform pitch and slip the angle of incidence or gliding angle of the blade is far from constant. Now, it should not be assumed that the gliding angle should be constant unless the other conditions affecting each part of the blade are also constant, which they are not. The velocity of each part, its particular form and breadth and the efficiency with which the normal thrust 0—g (Fig. 2), perpendicular to the blade face, may be resolved into the rectilinear component o—h and the tangential component g—h, the efficiency being greatest when 0—h representing the "dead ahead" thrust is maximum and g—h representing the torque is minimum. Since in all these conditions there is great variation at different points along the blade it follows that the gliding angles should vary in some manner to correspond with these variable conditions, the blade pitch from point to point being that which will produce the desired gliding angles at the particular working pitch or advance per revolution for which the propeller is designed. The curves plotted in Fig. 1 indicate the general type or form of variation in pitch and gliding angle that have been deduced from rational considerations and have been found to yield the greatest efficiency of propulsion in actual practice, the curves being typical, in their general properties, for propellers of any size.

Referring to Figs. 1 and 6, it is seen that the blade width is maximum at about two-thirds' the blade length from the hub. It is also to be observed that the gliding angles of the blade (Fig. 1) are greatest near the region of the greatest blade width. These gliding angles are selected for a blade of three feet to be used at a working pitch of

four feet per revolution and the resulting pitches for the different parts of the blade are shown by the curve p—p in Fig. 1. It is here to be observed that the pitch is maximum near the region of two-thirds' the blade length from the center and that it varies in much the same manner as the blade width and the gliding angles. The reasons for this manner of variation in the width, gliding angles and the pitch of 'the blade will now be pointed out.

d o b be the blade angle, the line c d being tangent to 'the edges of the blade. Let the line e—f represent a portion of the path or helical horizon along which the blade moves at the gliding angle e o c or f o d. Let o g perpendicular to c d represent, to any scale, the normal thrust or pressure on the face of the blade. Then o h is the rectilinear thrust and g h the torque for the given blade section. Taking V as the axial velocity and v as the peripheral velocity then

There are constructional and other reasons why the width of blade is not great near the hub and this is as it should be since the angle with the plane of revolution is here so great that the normal thrust on the blade would resolve almost wholly into torque with but little if any rectilinear thrust for propulsion. For this reason the amount ,of power absorbed by the portion of the blade near -the hub should be kept at a minimum. In Fig. 2 let a—b be the plane of revolution of the blade section perpendicular to the axis x x. Let a o c or

the efficiency of this part of the blade may be expressed,

V(oh)

v (gh)

Since o h is proportional to the cosine of the blade angle, it follows that the proportion of the normal blade 'thrust that is convertible into rectilinear thrust varies as the cosine of the blade angle a o c from zero at 90 degrees to nearly 100 per cent, at small angles. Hence it follows that where the blade angle is small the greater por*

tion of the force opposing the blade is available as thrust. From this it appears that a o c should be kept small, perhaps con-

stant, throughout the blade, but for a given speed of travel a o e is fixed and is greatest near the axis, the cotangent of the angle varying as the distance from 'the axis. This angle of the blade path or horizon a o e is, then, necessarily large near the axis, and the blade angle cannot be made less than this pitch angle without danger of a reversal of pressure from the face to the back of the blade.

From the foregoing it is clear that the blade angle a o c at points near the axis must be too great to admit of any considerable rectilinear thrust. This makes it desirable that this portion of the blade should absorb but a small amount of power, which result is accomplished by making that portion of the blade nearest the hub as narrow as is consistent with strength and giving it but very little, if any, gliding angle. Now, since the rapidly diminishing path angle a o e at the greater diameters makes possible a correspondingly reduced blade angle it becomes possible as we progress away from the hub to employ increasing gliding angles as indicated by the curve g g in Fig. 1, preserving at the same time in these parts a sufficiently small blade angle a o c for the conversion of a large component of the normal pressure into rectilinear thrust. At and beyond the point at which a reasonably large gliding angle does not necessitate a too great blade angle the blade may be given such breadth and pitch as will result in almost any desired distribution of its load or resistance or of the power absorbed by it, taking into account, of course, its increasing periphereal velocity from point to point. From these considerations, verified in practice, it has been found that the width of the blade and its gliding angle should increase as the distance from the center becomes greater. There is, however, a point on the blade length beyond which there should be no further increase in the width and angle. This point in the diagram is a little beyond two feet from the center. (See Fig. 1.) Here there is a gradual reversal of the plotted curves and the blade width and gliding angle diminish rapidly to the end. The reasons for this reversal relate to the large area swept and the high peripheral velocity near the blade end and also to the marked inflow of fluid that here occurs. Both of these considerations point to the desirability of a reduction of blade area and angle near the end. Should there be

no reduction the very great volume of fluid affected near the end would tend to absorb the entire work of the propeller at that point, leaving the more interior portions running practically idle and with, perhaps, insufficient strength to withstand the great bending and other stresses caused by the concentration of the work at the extremity. Thus, the effective blade area would be greatly reduced and the result is much the same as a very small blade surface sweeping a large circle and having a very excessive amount of slip. In some aeroplane propellers in which there was no reduction in width or gliding angle at the blade ends the slip at these portions has been two or three times as great as at the

mid-length, causing much loss of efficiency by the undue turbulence or churning of the air and depriving the principal areas of the blade of any effective work. This condition is further aggravated by the disturbing effects of the decided inflow of air at the periphery of the circle swept by the propeller.

When suitable gliding angles for different points along the blade have beeu determined the blade angle or pitch is found by adding these gliding angles to the pitch angle of the helix traversed by each part of the blade at the calculated speed of ■travel and revolutions of the propeller. In Fig. 2 the gliding angle e o c is added to the path or working pitch angle or the angle of the helix of travel a o e to get the blade angle or angle of the blade pitch helix a o c. This gives the pitch at different points along the blade which when plotted results in the typical curve of variable pitch p—p shown in Fig. 1. The characteristic of this typical curve is that its greatest ordinate lies at or beyond the mid-region of the blade, the pitch being greatest at some point beyond the full length of the blade and diminishing continuously toward the center and also toward the extremity.

The pitch of the blade and its width having been determined for its different portions, the amount of camber or concavity (.Continued opposite page 1h)

The Coffyn Water 'Plane on its Raft.

been increased in size over standard, which are 1.65" by 1".

On the right hand float are strips of wood fastened, on which to step, in getting in and out of the 'plane.

On the'bottom of the floats is a wood strip to protect the floats in dragging the machine on and off of the raft and from the floating ice in the harbor. The flights made in New York have created wide and particular interest in the new water 'plane. Even the pessimistic are beginning to be hopeful of more general flying by sportsmen in 1912.

In the flights Mr. Coffyn has been making around New York, a large raft has been employed on which to keep the machine nights and when not in use. This is moored in a little bay between a stone breakwater and the landing dock of the Police Department at. the Battery.

The engine is started by a crank at the livers seat, the same as an automobile. This is described fully elsewhere in this issue.

This is the third series of floats Mr. Coffyn has tried and were flown for the first time in New York, in February. These were designed by .John A. Hacker, a speed boat designer. The experiments began in August, liiti and the first flight with floats was Sept. Id, at Detroit. The first pair was merely attached to the skids.

The development of the engine starter and the production of the floats has been made possible through Messrs, Russell A. and Pred'k M. Alger, of Detroit, who financed the experiments, purely for the advancement of aviation "in a sensible way" and to make for safety and practicability.

jllE pictures and drawings of Mr. Coffyn's floats, or pontoons, which be has attached to a Wright Model B and flown over the harbor and rivers about New York the first part of February, will be found of absorbing interest; these are the first scale drawings that have been published of any

floats.

These floats are very simple—when you know how.

A framework of spruce timber, with four longitudinal spars at each corner, diagonally braced in panels, with a center longitudinal spar to which are attached the struts to the planes, is covered with very tough, hard, high tensile strength aluminum sheeting of 20 gauge. The bottom and side surfaces are one piece. The top surface of the float is riveted as watertight as a steam boiler. The usual skid has been taken off, the longitudinal spar down the center under the top surface takes the place of the skid. The bottom of each float is continued out in front of the float proper to form a spray shield. The upright from the float to the rear lateral spar of the lower plane has been lengthened 2 inches so that the planes will have the proper angle for getting off; the rear ends of the floats sink deeper into the water than the forward ends.

Each float weighs but 15 pounds. A steel tube is belted by clamps to each skid to keep the fioats rigid with relation to each other. The struts to the lower plane have

Converting a Land to a Water 'Plane

Scale Drawing of Coffyn Floats

TO ASSIST THE MILITIA

At the present time it is almost impossible for the majority of militia organizations to secure aeroplanes on account of the cost. The state does not appropriate sufficient money and the members in most instances cannot gather a subscription of such magnitude tor the purpose.

The Aeronautical Society plans to provide such corps with competent lecturers who will give the soldiers a course in theory and will provide instructors who will teach the soldiers how to build an aeroplane. At the same time it will make arrangements to procure the materials necessary to build a machine at cost prices. The services of the instructors will be practically free. The corps simply will have to pay their expenses.

Again, the Society will arrange that the corps will be instructed by a competent aviator. His services likewise will be provided for the cost of expences. It is believed that in this way a militia organization in every state having a signal corps will be able to get a machine for a sum ranging from $2000 to $2500.

The General Secretary of the Aeronautical Society went to Washington in January and discussed the plan with Major Salzmann of the Signal Corps, and Major Squires, Assistant Chief of the Signal Corps, lie also saw General Evans, Commander of the Department of Militia Affairs. They are willing to lend every aid to develop the plan. Lieut. B'enj. D. Foulois, who is now making a tour inspection through the country, is conferring with the various heads of the militia organizations concerning the plan.

NEW WRIGHT FOR 1912.

A new model Wright is expected for 1912. Considerable change is said to have been made. Both four and six cylinder engines will be obtainable. These will have in the future, water-cooled heads, and mechanical inlet valves. The auxiliary exhausts will he dime away with. Experiments are being made with mulliers and the new machines will be silent, at a loss of not more than 3-5 per cent, of power. For those who desire to use the water, pontoons, or Iloats will be supplied.

A startling innovation will be the patented stability device for lateral balance. This will operate without any action of the aviator, in winds up to 35 miles an hum'. Connected to the warping level-, the pilot will see the lever move back and forth as though guided by an unseen hand. The pilot will not touch the lever until he wants to bank on a turn, and then he merely sets the direction rudder to the right or left as he wishes to go and the stability device banks the machine at its correct angle for this turn. Although the de\ice can also be applied for fore and aft balance, it will not be so litted for the present.

Two six-cylinder engines have been ordered by the Army Signal Corps.

The stability device occupies but very small space and is scarcely noticeable on the machine. A small pendulum actuates a three-way valve which allows compressed air to tlow into a cylinder to operate a piston. This piston, by a connecting rod operates the warping lever directly and can be instantly thrown out of gear when desired.

Page 45

Feathers Dropped in Flight

SOME HINTS FOR WINTER FLYING.

fiOOK out for bad starts with a crust on the snow. George Beatty, who has been flying 18 days out of the 31 in January at Nassau teaching pupils, offers some good advice on starting with snow on the ground. Beatty has been busy teaching pupils despite the snow and the coldest weather for more than a score of years. The early part of February he took up his student, Dr. Belden, and two boys for a flight about Nassau field. Beatty has been flying low over all the surrounding towns. His pupil, Wilbur R. Kimball, has learned to fly and is operating the levers himself. With several inches of snow, which has melted and frozen, the machine will prove very erratic, making sharp circles on the ground due to one wheel sinking deeper into the ice-covered snow. No rudder action will stop this. The one wheel slows up and the other one travels so much faster and the variation increases. The pilot has to shut off power and start over, unless one succeeds in getting clear of the ground. In fresh light snow, it is easier to start than on good ground in the summer time.

Farman-type Socket.

After the new snow has laid a couple of days, starting is still easier. Winter is better for flying than any other time of the year. The cornfields are all bare and the furrows are filled level with snow. The long

grass is dead and flat and the available landing places are increased many times in their number.

The new Boland experimental machine at Mineola has been using skids only for starting.

To keep the radiator from freezing, use a mixture of one part glycerine, two parts alcohol and six parts water. This will withstand a temperature of zero. Use denatured alcohol—it is cheaper than grain alcohol and the night watchman won't drink it.

A GOOD STRUT SOCKET.

'The illustration shows a very simple and neat scheme employed by Henry Farman in the finely built machine Mile. Dutrieu used at the flight meeting on Long Island last fall. The eyebolt which goes through the main beam has another "eye" used as a nut and over this "nut" goes either a skid strut or a plane strut, which is hollowed out to fit and a small bolt put through the eye and the strut. Even with this woman sitting far out ahead of the front edge it was necessary to roll sheet lead around the cross-bar in front of her.

HOW TO AVOID SPLITTING OF SPARS.

R. F. Macfie, a well-known English builder of a year or so back, tells us one of his methods for reinforcing spars at strut points. The spar is left a little full at such places and a square steel tube, as long as may be desired, is driven over this thickened part by force. The edge of the tube shaves off a little of

Macfie Reinforcement Sleeve.

the wood and compresses the major part. It is driven on until the bolt hole (the same size as the bolt that is to be used), previously drilled in the tube registers with the hole already bored in the wood. The hole in the wood should be slightly, say a sixteenth, larger than the hole in the tube, so that the bolt does not touch the wood at all! This, he says, will insure the wood against any cracking or splitting of any sort.

THE MEANS CONTROL.

The control, patented by James Means, of 196 Beacon St., Boston, Mass., is designed to enable an aviator to take the fullest possible advantage of the mental automatism which he has previously acquired in balancing his bicycle.

It will be seen in the diagram that the balancing motions of the aviator are natural; that is to say, in actuating the lateral and longitudinal rudders the movement of the handle-bars is in the direction which the swaying of the aviator's body would take if he sought to correct by his weight the rolling or pitching.

The James Means Control.

In examining the drawing it will be seen that there are three kinds of movement of the handle-bar:

(1) Both hands forward or aft. (2) Both hands right or left, and also, (3) the ordinary bicycle steer which moves the vertical rudder.

These movements may be made either independently or simultaneously.

To illustrate the former: Both hands aft elevates bow; both hands forward depresses bow; both hands to the right elevates port side: both hands to the left elevates starboard side.

, 0, Handle bar, rigidly attached to tube A which has a rotary movement about rod B. E, Fork, rigidly attached to tube A and having connected at its terminals, the cables KK' which actuate the vertical rudder. F, Fork, rigidly attached to rod B and having free rocking movement upon its terminal pivots. H, Bock-shaft actuated by FG and actuating the ailerons by the cables J.T'. L, Rod actuating elevator. D, Grip for single hand.

NEW AIR SPEEDOMETER.

F. K. Roland, of Rah way, N. .]., has installed on the front elevator of his aeroplane, an anemometer of his own design and make. It is very simple, comprising but a pointer, two small gears, a spring, a surface S, dial and case. The pressure plate S in the photo shows a speed of 30 miles at this point. When the apparatus was built, it was put on an automobile which was run on a calm day at varying speeds, as indi-

cated by an accurate automobile speedometer. The dial on the anemometer was then marked for these speeds. In use, the de-

Boland-Air Speedometer.

vice shows the speed of the aeroplane relative to the air. An aviator determines his critical speed. He watches the dial. If the pointer falls back of this speed, he levels out to regain his speed. If the pointer runs beyond the necessary speed, one can slow the engine or increase the angle of the 'plane. The instrument has been found a source of great comfort and relief from anxiety. Frequently, the pilot feels his machine is dropping; he looks at the indicator and finds his speed is constant and he knows, then, that his apprehension was without foundation.

HYDRO-AEROPLANE ENGINE STARTER.

Frank Coffyn starts his Wright engine as any man would that of his automobile. It is practically imperative for water-'plane flyers to have their machines so equipped. As the aviator can not walk around on the water and "crank his propeller," the reason for a starter is obvious. Mr. Coffyn has simply had teeth cut on his 11-inch flywheel, which gear meshes with another 7 inches in diameter, mounted on a small tubular shaft, running fore and aft, between the radiator and the engine. This shaft is supported by braces as shown in the picture. At the front end there is, oT course, a starting handle rigidly attached to tin* shaft. Half way along the shaft is a coiled spring which continually pulls the shaft back so that the gear on the rear end is disengaged with the one on the flywheel. In starting, the shaft is pulled toward the pilot by the crank, which places the two gears in mesh. Turning the handle starts the engine and when the handle is released the shaft jumps back again and the gears arc disengaged.

The Coffyn Engine Starter.

PRESSURE EQUALIZER FOR AILERONS. and the operator's control lever at C, the

The accompanying drawing shows fulcrum point of such lever being at D, while

diagrammatically a simple method of equal- two pairs of pulleys or drums, E and F, are

izing the pressure of ailerons. pivoted on the lever, one pair on each side of

Referring particularly to Fig. 1 the ailer- its fulcrum D. The control wires lead as

ons are indicated at A and B respectively follows:

-/f09 :/iy.O.

One wire, G, leads from the upper end of the rocker a of the aileron A to the lever C passing one of the upper drums E, then downwardly adjacent the lever over one of the lower drums F and thence to the lower end of the rocker b of the aileron B. A second wire, H, leads from the top of the rocker b of the aileron B over the other ones of the drums E, F, to the lower end of the rocker a, this wire crossing the wire G adjacent the fulcrum D of the lever.

It will be seen that when the lever D is swung to either side the ends of one wire will be pulled in and the ailerons moved to present respectively a positive and a negative angle of incidence, the ends of the other wire being correspondingly slackened. If the air pressure on the ailerons should be unequal the ailerons will swing together in a common direction to equalize such pressure because of the free connection between the wires and lever. Fig. 2 is a side view of the lever C with the drums thereon.

In Figs. ::, 4 and 5 modified methods of effecting the connection between the control wires and lever are shown.

In Fig. G a modification is shown in which the equalizing device is so arranged that the ailerons swing on an axis located at their approximate centers of pressure thereby lessening the power required to operate them. In this modification the same idea of connecting the top of each aileron rocker to the bottom of the opposite one by the crossed connection G and H is employed.

In this case, however, the ailerons are pivoted at their forward ends in the front ends of the lateral arms J of the rocker levers K, which latter are pivoted to the aileron frame at the points y, these points y being located at the approximate centres of pressure of the ailerons while the wires G and H pass freely over the pulleys in the ends of the levers K.

The ailerons are operated by the wires L and M, which connect to opposite ends of the levers K and to the operator's lever C in the usual manner.

By swinging the lever C the arms K will be rocked and the ailerons moved in opposite directions, the crossed connection between the ailerons causing them to move with the levers K while allowing the ailerons to move in unison to equalize the pressure. It will l>e noted that when adjusted by the operator the ailerons swing around the points y located at their approximate centres of pressure.

A patent is pending on this device and the inventor would be glad to hear from anyone interested in acquiring the patent rights.

WIRE MESH BALLOON FABRIC.

A fabric has been produced for a new envelope for the transatlantic airship "Akron" by the Goodyear people, in which fine steel piano vures are woven in the cloth to run longitudinally and circumferentially, without cuts or joints, it. is claimed, so that the maximum tensile strength may be obtained, The longitudinal wires arc spaced

1-1G of an inch apart and the circumferential] wires 1-32 of an inch.

In the "Akron," the increased weight dua' to the steel wire will be 2JL. tons. Ones having the fabric of sufficient strength, no guide of equilibrator, or any similar form of balast is expected to be needed.

Illustrating the New Wire Cloth.

A dirigible constructed of this pew fabric would be able to stay in the air, or without re-inflation, for long periods of time. The envelope would be filled to the desired extent.! To come to a lower attitude, air would be pumped in to the boloonets to add weight. This would compress the gas without losing any through valves. To rise, air would be released to increase the volume of the gas and decrease the weight. This scheme is the most practical that has been applied to dirigible balooning. The whole idea depends directly upon the ability of the fabiic to withstand the great pressures which may have to be attained on hot days.

Although the "Akron's" old envelope is said to be able to resist, with an ample factor of security, l1^ inches water pressure, the same envelope increased by 21-J tons of this wire cloth designed to resist 52 inches of water pressure. There is a tendency for hydrogen to pass through rubber fabric. To prevent this a coating is applied to the inside of the wire cloth envelope. The fabric is treated while stretched to the utmost by the internal pressure.

While the additional weight of the wire would reduce the net carrying power of the "Akron" from tons to 5 tons, but the advantages obtained would warrant the sacrifice. In comparison with the weight of the rigid dirigible construction, this net carrying power is quite remarkable. Thei "Schwaben," with 080,000 cubic feet of gas,^ has a net carrying power of about 21/- tons, while the "Akron," with the steel reinforced gas bag holding only 400,000 cubic feet of gas, would have a net carrying power of 5 tons. Engineers of other countries than Germany have never followed the rigid system of dirigible construction, and it has not been adopted by any nation as the type for military work. A German maker has already| produced a fabric having steel wires, which is being experimented with,

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50 Horse Power

170 Pounds Weight

DESIGN

Revolving cylinders Mechanical intake valves Variable compression Double exhaust system

Large ball bearings throughout Positive lubrication Positive gasoline feed Standard Magneto, tachometer, etc. Easy starting device

Aviator starts motor from his seat if required

MATERIALS

Cylinders, Connecting Rods, Gears, etc.—3^ per cent, forged nickel steel Cranks—Chrome nickel steel, treated. Crank-cases—Vanadium steel—Valves 30 per cent, nickel steel

PERFORMANCE

|J Shop tests three hours without stopping. Motor has been tested in many flights, up to 90 miles without alighting

t

J Sizes 3, 5 and 7 cylinders representing 22, 35 and 50 horsepower

~ Send for Catalogue ~

I THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

± 774 GIRARD STREET :: :: WASHINGTON, D. C.

Sole Agents for SIMMONS Propellers

The Columbia Biplane

The Paul Peck "Columbia" 'Plane. Note the Wind Hood.

of the flexible end. of each plane interconnected so as to give a movement of about 4 in. each way which has been found to be sufficient. The tail-plane is flexible and has 27 ft. of surface. The rudder has about 7 ft. of surface and is balanced about one-third to two-thirds. The aviator, passenger and tanks are enclosed in a torpedo body and are fully protected. The skids are flexible and two Pennsylvania 20 x 4 wheels are mounted on them by means of a solid steel axle and rubber springs. The powerplant is a 50 H. P. Gyro motor which turns an

iN account of lack of time, we are not able to give a complete description of Paul Peck's Columbia Biplane, at College Park, Md. The following are the main details:

Width of planes 30 ft., chord 5 ft. 9 in., of which two ft. are flexible. Camber varies on account of flexiblity from 3 in. maximum to about 2 in. minimum. The ailerons are merely 4 ft.

Another View of the "Columbia" Showing Engine Mounting.

8 ft. diameter by 5.2 ft. pitch Simmons Propeller 1200 R.P.M. on the ground and showing a thrust of 440 lbs., and turns 1300 R.P.M. in the air. The speed of the machine is estimated at 65 miles per hour and on account of the engine turning so fast, a higher pitch propeller will be fitted. The tank capacity is 25 gallons gasoline and 7 gallons castor oil, sufficient for a five hour flight. The weight complete with tanks empty is 600 pounds. The control is a wheel mounted

on a stem arranged so that a fore and aft movement governs the elevator. Rotating the wheel moves the ailerons and twisting the wheel like the handle-bars of a bicycle turns the rudder. The control is arranged in such a manner that either aviator or passenger can use it in perfect safety and comfort.

The Columbia Biplane is made by the Washington Aeroplane Co., 918 M. St., N. W., Washington, D. C.

REMOVAL NOTICE.

J. Deltour, Inc., the well-known "bamboo house, has moved from 49 Sixth Ave., New York, to 804-810 Jefferson St., Hoboken, N. J.

The American Aeroplane Supply House is moving from the present location, to the two-story brick building, located at 137-143 Jackson Street, Hempstead, L. I., N. Y., having found present facilities entirely too small for the growth of the business as demonstrated during the past year. The new quarters are specially adapted to the manufacture of Bleriot type monoplanes and the concern will install a full equipment of machinery. The new quarters are located but one block north of the Hempstead R.R. Station, directly in the center of the various aerodromes on L. I. Facilities will be had for setting up and completely finishing six monoplanes at one time.

At the present time two machines are on hand ready for immediate delivery, a single seater and a passenger carrying machine; the change of address will not interfere in any way with business.

I would hate to miss a single copy. I have found it the one and only real aeronautical magazine.

ELBRIDGE ENGINES WITH SELF-STARTERS.

One of the chief difficulties of the hydroaeroplane is that of getting the engine started on the water, without killing or drowning the pilot. Following the lead ofthe leading automobile manufacturers of the country, I_. J. Seeiy, head of the Elbridge Engine Company, began several months ago to investigate self-starting engine devices. An equipment was found that added very few pounds to the weight of the engine and permits the aviator to start and stop his engine at will without leaving his seat. The device has been subjected to exhaustive tests and found to be nearly 100% perfect; starting the engines' readily even in' weather far too cold for comfortable flying.

All of the six-cylinder Elbridge Engines are now equipped without extra charge with dual ignition systems, so that they may be started without the special apparatus on spark alone after the engine has been running for a few minutes. ?r

The increased sales of Elbridge engines during 1910 and 1911, are regarded by the Company as phenomenal. About forty engines were sold in 1909, more than 200. during 1910, and 1911 showed an increase of about 50% over the preceding year.

Beatty Carries three passengers for fifteen minutes:

The Jennings Monoplane

NEW monoplane for 1912 is under construction by R. J. Jennings, of Uniontown, Pa., a description and picture of whose 1911 machine was published last issue.

The general work on the new machine is similar to the 1911 one, except that the wings are different and the spread has been increased to 34 feet. A self starting apparatus of his own design will be an additional feature. The rudder is operated by foot pedals, and a foot throttle is provided.

From the information furnished, it appears that he warps but in one direction, i. e., up. And this by rotating a steel tube inside the rear tubular beams of the wing. There is no reason why warping can not be accomplished in both directions, according to usual practice. In his case, however, the steel tube O is rotated by the bar M. At the wing end is the bar or mast L which is attached to the wing tips by wires. For additional security, a wire is provided inside the wing to bring about warping also in case of trouble with the inner rotating tube in

k is tube M, ~»'/>.y

The Warping System

the main rear wing beam. This latter wire K runs from the top of the mast L into the inside of the wing at the forward main wing beam at R and thence inside the wing to the bottom end of the bar M. To the

top end of the rocker M is a wire over a pulley to the grooved sheave of the steering wheel pillar. As the whole steering column moves forward or backward for elevator movement, it seems apparent that wings would warp upward every time the elevator was moved from neutral. It seems apparent that in steering toward the earth, the wing tips would warp up. In steering the machine upward, the wings would again be, warped up. The perspective sketch hasj been made up from Jenning's letter and] drawings. The other drawings have been! furnished by him.

Turning the hand wheel warps the wings. Pushing it away from the pilot steers down; pulling Toward steers upward.

The rear beam of the wings are of l^i'l seamless steel tubing, and inside the same is a similar piece of tubing running from the rocker (M) to the brazed joint, of i%G" dia. In one end there is brazed a %" taper steel rod 4" long with key-way for locking the rocker plate (M) upon same. After placing same, there is a lock nut and cotter to make sure.

Inside the mast support of the brazedi joint is an aluminum bushing pened andi forced into, and when the steel tubing just mentioned above, is slid into the main tubing, the end is locked and riveted into the aluminum bushing.

The mast supports are 6" high of ll/s" dia. 12 ga. steel tubing while the sleeve tubingl is 1%" tubing of 16 ga. and 3" long. Thel fore one, next to end of wing, has a rivet pin in same, and works in a slot in maini tubing or wing. The mast (L) is connected to the tips of the wings by J/s" standard steel Roebling "Aviator" wire, and the wire marked K is fastened to a pulley as shown on edge of wings and run through the insida to the bottom of rocker. The top of rocker, M is attached to the wire from which-l ever side the wing is attached to steering! wheel (groove wheel). Each wing is arfj exact duplicate and weighs exactly thel same."

(Continued on page ft?)

CURTISS SUPERIORITY

Again Demonstrated at Home and Abroad— On Land and Sea!

While Lincoln Beachey and other famous CURTISS AVIATORS were making a clean sweep in competition at the Los Angeles International Meet with the new 1912

CURTISS AEROPLANE

Hugh Robinson was giving the people of Europe their first view of successful Flights from the Sea at Nice, France, in the new 1912 keeping with

CURTISS

Beachey at Los Angeles

Robinson at Nice, France

In

these evidences of CURTISS superiority, the Aero Club of America, the highest authority on aviation in the United States, has officially recognized

CURTISS PROGRESS

by awarding to Mr.

GLENN H. CURTISS

the Collier Aviation Trophy for the greatest advance during the year 1911. These things are facts and they go to prove absolute CURTISS dependability.

ACHIEVEMENTS ARE THE BEST ARGUMENTS; RECORDS ARE

THE ONLY PROOFS

If Beachey and Robinson had not been using Machines of the highest degree of perfection, equipped with the famous CURTISS MOTOR, they would not have been able to convince two Continents of the superior speed, safety, praticability and progress of the CURTISS AEROPLANE and HYDROAEROPLANE. These facts cannot be ignored. They furnish conclusive evidence of the rapid advances of the practical sort. Most of all, they prove beyond dispute that the name

CURTISS LEADS THE WORLD IN AVIATION

Our new 1912 Catalogue is now ready for distribution. It contains facts and illustrations that will interest vou about CURTISS AEROPLANES, HYDRO AEROPLANES, MOTORS, THE CURTISS AVIATION SCHOOLS and EXHIBITIONS by the famous CURTISS AVIATORS.

For particulars regarding any of these subjects, address

THE CURTISS EXHIBITION CO.

1737 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY

JEROME FANCIULLI, General Manager Sales Agents and Foreign Representatives for THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO., Hammondsport, N. Y.

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550�8517

GOODYEAR BALLOONS

BALLOON AND AEROPLANE

Fabrics — Accessories

No longer do you need send to Europe for Balloons. We not only manufacture a full line of balloon fabrics—cotton or silk—but we also build spherical or dirigible balloons complete.

Goodyear Balloon cloth and construction is the result of exhaustive study in England, France and Germany and we guarantee our balloons equal to anything purchasable in any foreign country. Our cotton fabric, which we recommend, is made out of high grade cotton and is rubberized. Hence it is most enduring.

Our big manufacturing facilities enable us to make quick shipments. You don't have to wait on foreign makers nor do you have any duties to pay. Let us send samples and tell you more about Goodyear Balloon Service.

Goodyear Rubberized Aeroplane Fabric

alignment. It is non-shrinkable—unst ret citable, heat-proof, cold-proof, damp-proof, rot proof, and it is always the same. So dependable that every veteran aviator and manufacturer in this country uses it exclusively. Used by Rodgers, Ovington, Atwood, Fowler and Brookins in all their big events. Used by the Wright Co., Burgess Co. and Curtis, The Curtiss Aeroplane Co., Glenn L. Martin, Moisant National Aviators and many other leading manufacturers.

Damp and moisture-proof, our Rubberized Aeroplane Fabric is the most durable made.

In the rubberizing process, the fabric is subjected to heat many times more intense than it will ever undergo in aerial service. So ordinary heat has no effect upon it.

It can't dry out, stretch, flap, and cut down speed because no moisture can get into it. Nor, for the same reason, can it shrink up and twist the planes out of

Goodyear Detachable Aeroplane Tires

Veteran Aviators know the importance of landing on tires that can not tear loose. Such tires are Goodyear Dctachables. These tires are made like No-Rim-Cut Auto Tires—are most durable and bind the rim in a vise-like grip. Extra-thick treads make them practically non-puncturable.

Single Tube Tires, strong, light, durable, built in all standard sizes—the only single tube aeroplane tire with valve protected by metal. This keeps valve from tearing loose.

20x4 Clincher Tires—the most popular tire for rigid machines. Used in all Curtiss

Aeroplanes. Extensible rubber beads. We make tires in sizes to fit any and all machines. Made with or without leather treads.

Bleriot Type Shock Absorbers

Steel Springs snap in cold weather, catch in the tubes, are not satisfactory. The Bleriot Type Rubber Shock Absorbers are the only successful springs for monoplanes. You can now get this type of spring at home. We are the sole manufacturers. Can fill your order promptly and saringlg. Ask us about our springs —We make all kinds.

Whether you contemplate manufacturing aeroplanes or merely intend to purchase a machine, you should find out all we have to offer you before making any final decision. We have with us all the veterans—both aviators and manufacturers. That speaks for itself.

TELL US YOUR WANTS

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

Main Offices and Factory AKRON. OHIO

Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities.

The Jennings Monoplane

       
 

MODEL

NOTE1S

 
       

By PERCY PIERCE, Model Editor

SHE sport for flying models is becoming such a fad for boys and even grown-ups, that some have gone into another branch of it; model gliders.

The illustration shows a glider made by Mr. Wilson S. Howell, Jr., of New York. York. It has been flown numerous times at the Englewood Golf Links, New Jersey, starting it from a hilltop against a wind of about 20 to 30 miles an hour, as in the case with a man-carrying glider.

The greatest weight carried by the glider was a 30 oz. stone, which was laid on the main bar, so when it lands the stone would fall off and not be too much of a load on the skids, although they are built to stand a heavy shock of that sort.

The length over all is approximately 50 inches and the plane spread 48 inches. The main bar is of straight-grained spruce 42 inches long by 1 inch wide and % inch thick. A large built-up keel 9 inches high and tapering from 9 inches at the top to 6 at the bottom is fastened to the main bar with its rear edge '6 inches from the back end of the bar. A skid of bamboo 15 inches long is fastened to the lower end of the keel, as shown

in the detail drawing of rear keel and skid, to protect it when landing.

The novel front skid operates very nicely when landing. The ends of two pieces of flat spruce 12 inches are fastened to the main bar, so as they can move freely and two pieces 14 inches long are fastened in a similar way as shown in the side elevation and detail drawing of front skid. The runner is of spruce covered with tin to keep it from wearing out.

The main or rear plane is fastened just over the keel by wrapping a heavy rubberl band around under the main bar and oveil the plane several times. The frame of thel plane is built-up of spruce and has 30 double| ribs. The covering is of china silk which is coated with a thin varnish, making a very! airtight and smooth surface.

The front plane is usually called the elevating plane as it regulates the upward andl downward movement of the glider in flight. The patented tips are the special feature of the glider, which are at an angle to the linaf of flight, as will be noticed, and certainly dJ add to the stability of the glider. This planel which is of thin spruce, is fastened on tlnl main bar with its leading edge 6 inches fronl the front end of the bar by wrapping with! rubber like the large plane. The glider flies', with the small plane forward.

Rear Vert .cat Rudder

Rubber Fastening

Silk Covered

Top EH&wiom

Built on portion-~7^s— Thin 5pruce-

pruce

5iP5- ErL5-vATion

Rubber Bumptr

HOWELL OWEU

Patented Tip5

Spruce•

Pf^-TAIL OF- F-RnT 5\\\P

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George W. Beatty tests out the FRONTIER MOTOR at Buffalo, December 21st and 22nd, with a grand success, carrying passengers in a number of flights.

Mr. Beatty orders a FRONTIER MOTOR for his Wright machine and says he believes the FRONTIER MOTOR is the best engine in the world.

Write for Full Particulars Regarding this Motor Today

FRONTIER IRON WORKS ^LLS

. Y.

MODEL AEROPLANES

scale knocked down models

wright, bleriot, antoinette—3-foot flyers, 1000-foot white racer.

complete new stock. send for our first edition 1912 catalogue of supplies and fittings.

THE WHITE AEROPLANE COMPANY

office and salesroom 337 adams st., brooklyn, n. y.

"CECIL PEOLl" chR™on

controlled by ideal aeroplane & supply co

plans and directions for building this famous model 25c. plan for building wright biplane, 3 ft.. flying model 25c. bleriot monoplane 3 ft.. flying model-plan 15c.

complete stock of guaranteed material* a)id parts. Our new up-to-the-minute catalog contains everything. Also has official rules for contests. 5c. briogs it. Worth $1.00.

IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO., 82a West 8roadway, N. Y. Cily

PROPELLERS FOR MODELS; 1ffi»r^rSbiea\StS,i,n.£S

shaft accurately and securely attached; 3%in. 15c, 5 in. 20c, 6 in. 25c, 8 in. 35c, 10 in. 50c post-paid. low quantity prices. jersey skeeter aeroplanes 25c,flyingsquirrel aeroplanesi5c

LINCOLN SQUARE NOVELTY WORKS, 1939 Broadway, New York

1

I

BIRD MODEL

The most natural, perfect and scien tific Flying-Machine Model in the world (patented) which shows lhe secrets in birds' flight. will fly from 20 to 200 feet without power. most interesting for enthusiasts in aviation. Everybody experimenting in (lying-machines can not be without

send 2o cents tor complete model agents wanted — idea is worth the money ^ERNST EBBINGHAUS, 316 E. 93rd Street, New York City

en-^^ the S

I

Get the Champion Model Aeroplane PERCY PIERCE RACER, No. 68

flies '4 mile Holder U. S. Records for distance of 1,814* feet and duration of 61? seconds. parts, drawings, or made-up machines from

PERCY PIERCE, 5907 Osage Avenue, Phila., Pa.

GIBSON Propeller Co.

| First Propeller Manufacturer in America

p established 1908 — still "on the job"

^ /TT best flying results in all america

C I II designs to suit your requirements

^ \J| careful construction

Q v. fair treatment

N1 AGENTS WANTED

IN fort george park - new york city, n. y.

R. I.Y.

BALL BEARINGS

For Fast Work

R.I.V. Co., 1771 Broadway new york

IT WILL HELP THE GAME

If You Will Help Us Solve This Problem:

Has Aviation in America Devoloped Enough to Warrant the Manufacture of Engines and Aeroplanes in Economical Quantities ?

% You can buy an automobile today for less that half what a poorer machine 3| would have cost you a few years ago. Simply because instead of making 500 machines a year the large manufacturers of the present are making and selling say 10,000 and more machines a year.

WE CAN MAKE BETTER ENGINES

For half the present price, if, instead of a hundred or two a year, we can sell 500 to 1,000 a year. And price, we sincerely believe, is "what's the matter with aviation." Hundreds of new machines would be tried out if the inventors could get thoroughly reliafre engines at a reasonable figur", The reputation ot

ELBRIDGE ENGINES

is unassailable. Hundreds of them used in thousands of flights, in America and all over the world. Can we sell 500 of them this year if the price is right ? Write us what you think about it. We will try the experiment ^ for a month or two; the price will not be published, and if the returns «j> are not satisfactory the quotations will be cancelled.

« It is Important to Write Now

Elbridge Aero Engines are made in five styles and sizes, from 10 h. p. 5$ to 60 h. p., and more. Free information on 'planes engines and propellers.

J! Drop Us a Line on the Proposition Outlined Above. « _

1 ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY 10ROcS,5r

I wish all those interested in the art and study of model hying and desirous of forming model clubs would write me and I will endeavor to help them out the best that I can.

It is interesting to note the numerous model clubs now forming all over the country, showing that the art of model flying is becoming more and more evident.

A St. Louis Model Aero Club will shortly be formed. Their first meeting will be held at the club rooms of the Aero Club of St. Louis, Columbia Building, 8th and Locust Streets, Thursday, February 29th, at 7.30 P. M.

Mr. Frank C. Alsop, who is employed in the Smithsonian Institution and who has built a number of models, thinks of organizing a Model Aero Club in Washington, D. C.

The Philadelphia Model Aero Club held their second meeting on February 7, at the home of their secretary pro-tem, at which time they discussed the doings of the model flyers and the efficiency of built-up surfaces for models. Their next meeting will be held on February 21, at the secretary's, 2208 Brown St., Philadelphia.

Not later than March 1, there will be a Model Aero Club formed in Rensselaer, N. Y., by Mr. Elbert R. Bailey, and another club in Albany, N. Y. The boys there have already shown much interest in model flying.

Mr. Eugene Stanfield of 1001 14th St., Racine, Wis., announces that he is organizing a club in that city.

The Cypress Hills Model Aero Club of Brooklyn, N. Y., held their annual election on Jan. 16, and the following officers were elected: Harry Eckhardt, president; N. Metz-ger, vice-president; J. F. McMahon, secretary; Lester Ness, treasurer. They meet at their club rooms, 3221 Fulton St., Brooklyn, N. Y.

The Central Y. M. C. A. Aero Club of Philadelphia has 16 members and is steadily increasing in membership. Meetings are held at the association every Saturday, with Percy Pierce, holder of the American record, as technical instructor,

CONTESTS.

The Aero Club of Terre Haute, Ind., held their first contest, February 9; it proved a great success in every respect.

The boys of the Y. M. C. A. at Omaha, Nebraska, held a very interesting contest at the Fort Omaha balloon house on January 6. The prizes were a silver cup and a boy's membership in the Y. M. C. A.

The members of the Scientific Research Club of the High School of Wilmington, Delaware, held a model aeroplane contest on December 30, at the Gentlemen's Driving Park. A crowd of several hundred watched this opening meet. The following were among the contestants: John M. Mertz, Samuel J. Milliken, Linnaeus Hoopes, William Cars-well, Hammond Freeze, Albert Hoopes, Ernest Wilson and John Evans. The rules provided that the contestant should not enter more than three models.

The Central Y. M. C. A. Aero Club of Philadelphia has announced a second contest at Belmont, Fairmount Park, Saturday, February 17, at 1.30. At their first contest there on December 2S, Percy Pierce broke the American long distance record with a flight of 1,614% feet.

The first event is open only to members. A silver trophy is offered. The second event is for outsiders. Any boy of greater Philadelphia under the age of 20 can compete by registering his name at the association. This prize is a bronze medal made especially for the occasion. The club expects this meet to surpass the first in every respect and to have over a thousand spectators.

R. F. Mann, the English boy, just broke his former world's record of 2,685 feet by making a flight of 4,200 feet. This shows how far England is in advance of America In model flying.

The Oakland Y. M. C. A. Amateur Aero Club, of Oakland, Cal., held a contest a month ago in which, Master Wm, R. Davis, Jr., won the distance event with a flight of Z02V2 feet; Raymond Montagne was second with 280 feet. In the second event for a model landing nearest to a stake 100 feet from the starting line, was won by R. Montagne whose model landed S feet away from the stake. There were 13 contestants most of whom had tractor models, that is, with the propeller at the front instead of at the rear.

Address all inquiries to Percy Pierce, 5907 Osage Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.

REPLIES TO INQUIRERS.

F. K. G.—The best frame for a flying model is triangular shaped, that is, the two main bars should be brought together to a point at the front and spread apart at the rear. The spread is governed by the size of the propellers, which in this design are usually placed at the rear.

S. S.—The best book on model aeroplanes for the average boy, is the Second Boys' Book of Model Aeroplanes, by Francis Arnold Collins, A more technical book is the Practice and Theory of Model Aeroplanes, by V. E. Johnson.

Jack K.—The usual size of rubber for models is the 3-32 inch square, however, for very light models the 3-16 inch flat is very good.

The N Y. Aeronautical Supply Co. says (Mr. Watts speaking): "Ton busy to write an ad. this month. Will double up next."

That flight of Cooke with his Roberts-engined 'plane was a beaut'! Nicht wahr?

Did you know the Bosch company makes a magneto which gives the same fat spark whether retarded or advanced?

Anxious Purchaser—Yes, certainly, the Hall-Scott people are still in business, at the Crocker Building, San Francisco.

SOME manufacturers—two of them the biggest in this country—object to the arrangement between the Grand Central Palace operating company and the club under whose auspices the coming Aero Show is announced. Exhibitors who pay for space, would like to know why a share of the profits from the sale of space and from gate receipts could not be divided pro rate among those who make the show possible, rather than have this share go to the club. A club is not usually expected to be a commercial enterprise, though many aero clubs are "merely that, and nothing more." Others combine business with personal advertising. The club fathering the May show announces that it is taking this step for the "good of the aeronautical industry." The industry has found the burden of past shows has overweighed the results. This particular show, financed by the Palace Company, men of many years' experience in the conduct of shows, will undoubtedly prove a stimulus to the established industry. It will, also, bring into the field new manufacturers. The cost of space and transportation is heavy and the feeling is general that the club's share of profits —if any—should go back to the exhibitors. This is only fair. It is established custom at automobile and other shows. The club should abide by its statement of a desire to aid the industry. Will it?

DO YOU WANT PATENTS CONTINUED.

N the question of patents! So many of the patents issuing from the Office are of very freakish or impossible nature that it seems more or less useless to print even a list of those issued. We started by giving as clear as possible a short description, embodying every feature of the claims. This grew to too great proportions and we cut down. Latterly, we have printed merely the number, name, date and a few words to tell what the patent covers, without giving anything of the claims. Would you rather have the

list as it is now running; or will we print only the patents of real or possible interest and give enough space to those to properly dissect the claims, with perhaps an illustra-| tion of the device. Will you be good enough to let us have your advice?

Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus A. V. JONES, Pres'l - - E. t. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — J. C. BURKHART, Ass't Editor M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor

SUBSCRIPTION RATES

United States, $3.00 Foreign. $3.50

advertising representatives: e. f. ingraham adv. co., 116 nassau st.. new york

Clifford w. Bean. s park so., boston. Mass.

NO. 55

FEBRUARY, 1912

Vol. 10, NO. 2

B11, AERONAUTICS

Entered as second-class mailer Seplember 22, 1908, al ihe Postolficel New York, under Ihe Act ot March 3, 1879.

^T AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each monthl ^> All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertis-| ing pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: ::| ^T Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: :: i

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LONDON—Aeronautics, 12 Newgate St., Lon-j don, E. C, George II. Scragg, Mgr.; also at the office of British Aeronautics, 3 London Wall Buildings, London Wall, London, E. C.

BERNE—A. Franeke's Sortiment.

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A New Boland Biplane

The New Boland Experimental Machine of More Conventional Type.

new biplane built by Frank E. Boland has been flying the past two weeks at Min-^jj eola. This is of more con-H| ventional type than his rudderless machine described in detail in the November number. This has been built to familiarize himself with the operation of the usual methods of control in order that he may satisfy himself with the system he has heretofore employed and to find out any facts which may lead to still more development.

This machine is rather better finished than his own type, which was built more for business than looks. The planes are in three sections, engine and two outer. The lateral main beams taper from the second struts from the end to the extremities, as shown on the sketch.

The beams of the upper plane are lighter than those of the bottom. The method of joining of the beams at the engine section is illustrated in one of the detail drawings. The wings are single covered with muslin, ribs and beams in pockets, cloth treated with his own preparation which has a base of glue, cooked with formalin and water. As will be noted, the ribs extend very far out behind the rear beam and are flexible. The last few ribs on each end are used for warping. Wires run from the tip of each of the lower plane to corresponding ribs on the upper. The wings can be warped down by swinging the steering lever. As

one side is warped down, the other side is free to bend up under the air pressure. The warping wires are normally taut and keep these ribs bent down to their regular curve. The curve is 2y3 inches deep, at 16 inches back. The front and rear beams are exactly the same height from the ground, the ribs going under the rear beam.

The ribs are of solid ash, bent over a form and scorched with a torch on the inside to make them retaiu their shape. The ribs gradually taper from the front to a thin point at the extreme rear. On either side of the struts at the middle of each wing, the adjacent ribs are built up.

No turnbuckles are used anywhere in the wings—only in guying of outriggers and running gear.

The struts vary in size, being smaller at the wing ends than in the mid-wing or engine section.

The front elevator occupies a low position but allows a full view of everything ahead. A speedometer tells at all times the relative speed. There are no guy wires for either the elevator or the rudder. A triangle of "L" steel is used in place of any masts, the only additional bracing coming from small steel tubing. The rear elevator works in conjunction with the one in front. The rudder post is rigid with the real elevator. Any movement of the elevator carries the rudder with it.

The universally mounted control lever is simple in operation but rather complicated to describe. The wood of the lever itself is free to turn part way around (for rudder

Scale Dij

AERONAUTICS

Page 59

oland

action) in a short steel tube. This tube (1) is pivotally mounted in the fork of another tube (2) so that tube (1) and pillar can swing fore and aft for elevator operation. The second tube rotatable upon the end rounded end of a spar extending out under the engine section. For rudder action, a plate surrounds the pillar from the ends of which plate wires go to the rudder.

Spruce is used everywhere except for ribs; even the engine bed is spruce. A push button magneto switch is at the top of the steering pillar and another separately wired, on the seat.

WARPMG ^y^TFTl The bearings of the elevators and rudder are out of the usual in the manner of construction, for they do present a large bearing surface and are greatly strengthened by the method of construction over the method in the average machine.

Swinging the steering column from side to side warps; fore and aft for elevators. Turning it about its vertical axis turns the rudder.

For the Winter flying, no wheels have been used. These are attachable in the very same manner as sketched in the November issue, except that these will now be capable of being pulled up out of the way when a landing is to be made on the skids, as is preferable to the builder.

The weight of the entire machine, with man and 10 gallons of gasoline, is 750 lbs. The machine Hies more than sixty miles an hour, according to his speedometer on a calm day.

With the "freak," the flying has been continuous all Winter long. Boland thinks the Winter time presents the most favorable landings and the air is as good as in Summer, if not more uniform.

The power plant is the same 8 cylinder Boland motor which he has been using for the past several years in his various experimental machines. Considerable of a description was given of the engine in the previous article.

INSURANCE COMPANIES NOTE

From September, 1908, the date of the first death by power aeroplane, to February 1, 1912, three years and five months, 120 people were killed by power machines, either as pilots, passengers, mechanics or spectators. Consider that 5000 machines have been in use in this period.

From Jan. 1, 1897, to Dec. 31, 1901, four years, with fewer than 4000 automobiles in use in the whole world, 416 deaths occurred in all ways connected with the use of automobiles.

The Previous Boland Machine, Rudderless, Alleronless, Tailless In Flight.

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ENDER unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's! Before you buy, you owe it to yourself to investigate our motor.

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Aeronautical missionaries who will wage an educational campaign in the interest of aerial locomotion, have been sent in all directions of the compass around New York City, as a result of action taken recently, by the directors of the Aeronautical Society.

The missionaries are George S. Bradt, treasurer of the Society; Wilbur R. Kimball, former secretary; Thomas A. Hill, acting president, and others. These men will go to any organization, institution or school that calls them and without expense, except where request is from distant points, to the body before which they speak, will deliver an interesting and non-technical lecture illustrated by many lantern slides summarizing the great achievements in aeronautical history.

Their free services are at the disposition of any reputable body in the City of New York, or in any locality within easy travelling distance, upon payment of expenses only.

A dozen requests have already been received and some dates already filled.

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Aeronautical

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Fixed Ignition for Aeroplanes

By R. B. WHITMAN

Of the Bosch Magneto Co.

THE necessity for absolute simplification in the control of aeroplanes is obvious, and it is natural to attempt every expedient in the reduction of the number of parts to which an aviator must give his attention while in flight.

In the present development of the aeroplane, the controls for vertical and horizontal movements and for stabilizing must be manual, and the designer cannot hope to simplify these to any great extent.

It seems possible to simplify the control of the engine however, and it has been proposed to abandon controllable ignition in favor of ignition at a fixed point.

This system is in very successful use for certain classes of automobiles, and leaves the operator only the manipulation of the throttle in the control of the engine speed.

The principle of fixed ignition depends upon causing ignition so late in the compression stroke that a back-fire will not be produced on starting, but at the same time to allow sufficient advance to permit the charge to be completely burned by the time the piston reaches top dead centre.

To secure this result, the combustion space must be compact and the spark plug so located that the distance through which the flame must travel is practically equal In all directions.

With a hemispherical combustion space, for instance, as could be obtained with a valve-in-the-head motor, and with the sparking points located in practically the centre of the charge mass, the flame would have a minimum distance to travel in practically all directions, and consequently the pi opagation of the flame would consume minimum time.

Under such conditions, an advance so small as to avoid the possibility of a backfire would be sufficient to allow the charge to become entirely inflamed by the time the piston reaches top centre.

The speed of flame propagation is practically independent of the piston speed, and it will be realized that less ignition advance will be needed for a low number of revolutions than for maximum engine speed. In other words, an increase in engine speed must be accompanied by an advance of the ignition, in order that the inflammation of the charge may be complete when the piston reaches the upper dead point. Thus the principle of fixed ignition is not universally applicable, and it will be realized that while it will give satisfactory results up to a certain speed, a further increase of speed will require an advance of the ignition, in order that full output may be obtained.

The manufacturers of commercial vehicles and taxicabs make use of the principle of fixed ignition, because for one thing, it prevents the driver from securing from the engine its maximum output and therefore protects the engine parts from undue strains. On such cars, it is desirable to prevent the ensine from attaining its maximum output, which, as has been said, can be done by fixing the ignition, in order to limit the engine speed, but conditions on an aeroplane engine are quite different, for the aviator desires to secure the greatest possible output.

The ig-nition may, of course, be fixed at such a point in the stroke that maximum power will be developed, but the advance will then be sufficient to produce a backfire on starting. To retard the spark to the safety point will limit the speed and will prevent the production of maximum output; a nl it may thus be seen that the fixing of the ignition cannot be considered advisable for aeroplanes.

In the foregoing, consideration has been given only to the usual single-point ignition system; that is, the system that employs but one spark plug to each cylinder and causes the flame to be propagated through the mixture from a single ignition centre. With two-point ignition, the conditions are improved, for in this system ignition is produced at two points" in each cylinder, with the result that the time required for the propagation of the flame through the charge mass is very greatly reduced.

It has been found by experiment and test that the use of two-point ignition permits the advance to be reduced practically fifty per cent., and for all practical purposes, this means fixed ignition.

For the production of extreme output, however, a slight advance of the ignition for the two-spark system will permit the production of greater output than would be possible with any setting of a single-point ignition system, and even with this small advance, there will be danger of a backfire on starting. Thus the aviator must choose—even with this system—between safety on starting and the limiting of the output, or the securing of full output with danger of a back-fire on starting.

It is quite feasible, however, to arrange this control in such a manner that the aviator is relieved from the necessity of operating it by attaching a spring to the timing control arm on the magneto in such a manner that it is held in the full advance position. A suitable connection may then be arranged to draw the timing control arm into the retarded position against the action of the spring and this control may be operated for starting. When the engine is in operation, the control may be released and the spring- will advance the spark to its limit.

It will be observed that for all speeds at which the engine will be operated, the spark may be left in the advance position, for it is only in starting that the retard position is required.

The arrangement suggested nbove has-been fitted to aeroplanes in isolated eases and has given absolutely satisfactory results.

Jennings Monoplane (COTpf£r«H

The elevator controls and wing warp are only shown in the elevator control set for any position, which is immediately released as soon as the wheel is touched in a grip manner. If aviator should be thrown against same, it would not move, but the least bit of a grip moves it to next notch up or down.

The patents on the entire control and an automatic engine control are pending.

"I have a biplane cell that I am going to try out this summer on the same monoplane fuselage and the wing planes will be shaped the same as the monoplane wings. The biplane is built to fit the monoplane fusilage without disturbing the monoplane fixtures. The biplane will be about 32'0" spread by 5' chord. No turnbuckles in any of the cell wiring, but a few in and about landing chassis, which is my| monoplane chassis. The balance is by hinged ailerons or flaps.

A

FEW

HANGARS

of various sizes at proportionate prices are now for rent at

The Aerodrome of the Aero Club of New York

Nassau Boulevard, Long Island, N.Y.

For terms apply to the Superintendent on the Aviation Field

Those engaging and occupying hangars now will have preference over all others when the rush begins for accommodations for the season of 1912, when the daily gate receipts will be shared with the oAviators :: :: ::

i Cleve T. Shaffer

Can be communicated with by addressing

On all matters pertaining to Aviation

* 331 Octavia St., San Francisco

*___

* -

t 250 W. 54th Street, New York

* _

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Ueroplanes

{ DESIGNED AND CONSTRUCTED

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| DESIGNS DEVELOPED { AVIATORS BOOKED

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Los Angeles Meet a Success

By PROFESSOR H. La V. TWINING

For the second time Los Angeles has proved itself to be the only city where a meet has been made to pay expenses. The recent meet held under the auspices of the Aero Club of California, organized and managed by Dick Ferris, W. L. Frew and A. Roy Knabenshue, Jan. 20-2S, | was a howling success from a show standpoint, a fair success financially and disappointing I from the sporting point of view. It was a veritable circus in the air.

Will L. Frew furnished the money and the I field. This preliminary expense came to about ten thousand. The aviators were paid eight thousand expense money and $12,075.55 in prize money, making in all $20,675.00 paid to aviators. The total gate receipts were $41,057.90. This left $20,3S7.65. Minus the preliminary expense money of $10,000 there was left $10,3S7 to be ^divided between Frew, Ferris, Knabenshue, and the papers.

The Aero Club of California furnished the judges, who were as follows: H. LaV. Twining, Chas. E. Rilliet, Van M. Griffith, Harry S. Losh, L. P. Barrett, and J. T. La Du, Jr., H. LaV. iTwining was elected chairman of the judges. IE. J. Ovington was clerk of the course. Lieut. T. G. Ellyson was made referee, and Geo. B. Harrison, starter.

On the evening before the opening of the meet, the aviators chose a finance committee in whose names all money due them should be banked. The All Night and Day Bank was made custodian of the funds. Of the committee of five, chosen by the aviators, any three could check out money to the aviators upon the award of the judges and under the supervision of the bank.

After the preliminary expenses ($10,000), were paid and the expense money, amounting in this lease, to eight thousand dollars as paid, the balance was considered as gross receipts, out of which the aviators received 55%. It took all of the receipts of the first two days to meet the above requirements and also a part of the third day's receipts so that no prizes were awarded the first two days.

As to the meet as a whole, it was a grand success from the standpoint of exhibition flying. No attempt was made to make records but races were pulled off. There were three such events; "The Handicap Race;" "The Free for All" and "The International Race." In the Handicap, each contestant flew over the course and his time was taken. The fastest machines were then time handicapped in order to put all machines on an equal basis. In the race the machines were all lined up and started all together. The resulting racing was certainly fine. This meet demonstrated the feasibility of lining machines up and starting them all at once. The same thing was done in the free for all and in the international race with the exception that no handicaps were made, and in some cases the machines were started one after another. The machines left the ground facing the wind, they then turned in mid air and came back on the course and crossed the starting line.

The racing was done close to the ground. The advance in the handling of the machines this year over last was brought out very forcibly, and the following points were clearly noticeable: Racing was conducted close to the ground. On banking for a turn the machines did not drop or skid. Lincoln Beaehy was the most skillful at this kind of work, followed by Parmelee, and Martin and Turpin.

At the last meet a year ago, Lincoln Beachy was smashing machines for Curtiss as an amateur. This year he blossomed forth as one of the world's most skillful flyers. A year ago it was the Wright machine that took the lead in aerial gymnastics; this year in the hands of L. Beachy it is the Curtiss machine that leads. In fact, in altitude work and in spectacular stunts the Curtiss machine has come strongly forward and it now occupies the front rank, as it r"irl in speed last year.

The flying of Lincoln Beachy was simply marvelous. He executed right handed and left handed spirals that were not dreamed of a year ago. With his 75 H.P. Curtiss motor and his trim little machine, he left the ground and very quickly mounted high in the air. Having gained the altitude desired he came down in small spirals that were certainly not more than three hundred feet in diameter and probably less. During these spirals he at times took his hands off the controlling wheel and even stood up.

The figure eight contests between Lincoln Beachy and Phil Parmelee were fine exhibitions of skill and daring. The posts around which the contestants turned were located 300 feet apart. Five circuits were made and the judging was on time. Parmelee in his Wright certainly won for himself a close second to Beachy in this kind of work. The shorter span and the more powerful engine of the Curtiss machine undoubtedly had a great deal to do with the success of Beachy, but the ease and the grace and the consummate skill which Beachy displayed certainly demonstrated the personal factor. The great sailing and soaring birds have certainly been imitated in their motions at least.

A year ago Glenn Martin could just pull his machine around the course. This year he was one of the crack flyers. His racing and his altitude work together with his banking on the turns puts him in the first class.

The long straight glides from an altitude of three or four thousand feet to the field, made by Beachy were spectacular. A speck in the sky, he swooped down on the field in a steep dive or a long glide, and alighted upon the ground as light as a feather. Fish in his Wright machine furnished a sensation that was not down on the program. He indulged in duration flying largely. As we were watching him his machine was seen to whirl around one wing tip several times in very short circles. It then turned vertically upon one wing tip, and as it began to fall, it turned and pointed its nose almost vertically toward the ground. He must have been some eight hundred feet high. As the machine dashed toward the ground he gained control of it again, and then gradually brought it to an even keel. Fish kept his head or the result would have been a fall. He flew across the field and alighted but was soon in the air again.

A second serious accident of the meet was experienced by Howard Gill. This occurred on Jan. 26 as darkness was falling. Gill had carried a passenger some distance from the field and had trouble with his motor. He made a landing in a plowed field and when the trouble was overcome he tried to return to the field. When up several hundred feet something happened and according to Gill, the machine turned over with him twice, throwing him out of the seat twice and returning him to it again. After falling part of the distance the machine righted, but the rudder again refused to work and it crashed to the ground, demolishing the machine completely and catching Gill under the debris. A mechanician rushed up and lifted the wreck from the fallen man. He was unconscious. Clifford Turpin hurried to the scene with an automobile and Gill was taken to a hospital in Los Angeles after receiving the attentions of a physician from Compton. Here it was found that three ribs were broken and the spine slightly injured with possible internal injuries. The next day, however, he seemed to be all right except for the broken ribs, and he will recover, probably being none the worse phvsically. He certainly had a lucky escape.

This meet has demonstrated one thing most emphatically and that is that fancy flying is no more dangerous than straight away flying. The accidents of the meet occurred to the straight away flyers and not to the ones who were doing fancy exhibition flying.

In fact the aviator who can handle his machine in exhibition flying is prepared the better to meet the emergencies that arise in straight

away flying. After a man becomes a skilled aviator the only tiling that can precipitate him to the ground will be the breakage of jambing of his controls, and the more skillful he is in the air the safer he is. Exhibition flying develops the skill necessary for this factor of safety.

This year the aviators took the wind as a matter of course, and flew on days that would have kept them on the ground a year ago, and they flew with as much safety as in still air. This is the second point of advance that marks a decided advance. Last year the Wright flyers and Latham in his Antoinette did not seem to mind the high wind but the Curtiss flyers stayed on the ground. This year the Curtiss machines raced the Wright machines in a thirty-five mile wind, and although they all skidded heavily on the corners when flying with the wind they did not seem to be effected by the wind otherwise. Beachy did some fancy flying in a high wind and he seemed to handle himself as easily as though the wind were not blowing.

Cooke, of San Francisco, was the duration flyer. He went up regularly nearly every day of the meet when the hour for flying came and stayed up until the closing gun of the day warned him down. Cooke's machine is of the Curtiss order containing a Roberts', two-cycle, four-cylinder engine, which ran as regularly as a clock. He flew at an altitude of two or three thousand feet in the neighborhood of the field making excursions out over the surrounding country. On one occasion he appeared over Los Angeles.

The amateurs flew in a class by themselves each day before the meet proper opened. There were as many as five in the air at a time.

They shied at the wind however, and came out only on quiet days. Harvey Crawford came out on nearly every day of the meet and he carried away the largest amateur prize. The amateurs were flying Curtiss machines with the exception of Stevens who flew a Gage machine.

This machine has a Curtiss body, a monoplane tail, and two propellers a la Wright except that they were placed in front of the planes instead of behind them. Stevens flew close to the ground.

The locals were represented among the licensed men by Glenn Martin. Stites, and Carl-strom. In the absence of Beachy and Parmelee Martin would have been considered a star, but their performances overshadowed him to such an extent as to cause his work to pass partly unnoticed. He shows talent and signs of developing into a spectacular flyer. Stites had a Curtiss type with a MaGomber engine. He was' up several hundred feet one day and a cylinder' blew up and the debris struck him in the back] and winded him. He managed to get his breath and made a glide to the ground safely. The] next day he ascended with a Hall Scott engine! and went for an altitude flight. From an alti-j tude of nearly two thousand feet he made a| glide landing near Compton, without injury, returning to the field late in the afternoon.

Death of Rutherford Page

The death of Rutherford Page on January 22, at the Los Angeles meet raises the American death roll to a score.

No one saw the accident actually happen, as the fall occurred back of some sheds. So far as can be ascertained, Page, a new graduate, who had received a temporary certificate but two days before in quick time, attempted too short a right turn, close to the ground in a strong wind.

The group of parlor aviators which has assigned to itself the "control" of aeronautics in this country has never been known to indulge in the obtaining of reliable information on the causes of accidents; it is unlikely that time-honored custom will be departed from in the case of Page's death.

Professor H. La V. Twining, ex-president of the Aero Club of California, gives Aeronautics the only reliable report that has been made on his death.

"Page had recently gained his license and handled his machine like a veteran. He was dying a Curtiss 75 h.p. He had won a handicap from Beachy and was starting in the free for all against Beachy and Martin. The machines started against the wind and Page rose about one hundred feet and attempted a short right handed turn out beyond the hangars in order to come back on the course for the race. As he did so his left wing was presented to the wind. At an angle of forty-five degrees he began to slide to the right, losing headway, and dashed toward the ground with great speed. He disappeared behind the hangars before striking the ground and no one seems to know just what happened. Some claimed that he jumped from the machine after he disappeared behind the hangars.

"1 was the second person to reach him. At the time of the accident 1 was in front of the hangars and did not see him fall. 1 saw him pass overhead and start the turn, when a crash followed. Rushing around the hangar 1 made for the wreck. Twenty feet away from the machine, with the radiator on the body, Page was lying on his left side. Page manifested no signs of life and he was soon placed in an automobile arid taken to the hospital. He was undoubtedly,

instantly killed by the impact with the ground The machine was completely demolished. It is difficult to see why he was so far from the machine with the radiator. Those who examined the ground carefully claimed that the machine struck the ground where Page was found, and then it skidded some twenty feet further, leaving Page and the radiator behind.

There is no particular blame attaching to any one for the accident. It was an accident and a combination of circumstances at the moment contributed to its taking place."

DEATHS ABROAD

Versailles, Feb. 4. Capt. Le Magnet, military aviator, died in the hospital, from his injuries of Feb. 3.

Berlin, Feb. 10. Herr Schmidt, well known German aviator, died from injuries received the day before. Accident ascribed to breaking of elevator. Another report is, he landed "pancaked" with motor going.

Richmond, England, Feb. 17. Graham Gill innur, a very experienced, and one of the very best, if not the best, English aviator, standing ahead of White in skill, was killed in Hying a monoplane. It is cabled that his 'plane collapsed in the air. He was one of the Bristol company's pilots.

Senlis, France, Jan. m. Lieut. Boerner died from injuries received in a fall with his monoplane. On touching the ground the gas tank burst and the aviator was rescued from the llames by peasants but he succumbed to burns and bruises in the hospital.

The trials of an editor—Got up at 4.30 a. m. yesterday and went to bed at 2:30 a.m. Thomas Edison was stewed when he said a man could get along on four hours' sleep. —Van.

The Werlhof Aero. Sup. House of Stockton,! Cal., has completed an aeroplane of the Demoiselle type (improved) which will be tried out very soon, equipped with a Boulevard 35 h.p. motor by V, II. Werlhof.

Farman Running Gears Complete, as above - $47.50

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Everything to build any type flying machine.

New Catalogue with working drawings of Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot-type machines in course of construction and will be mailed free upon request to all parties as soon as received from the printer. Write for quotations.

A FEW IMMEDIATE DELIVERY PRICES

Curtiss Steering Wheels - $9.00 FREE with

every $50.00

order for Aeronautical

Supplies FLEECED-LINED AVIATOR CAP.

Curtiss Seats - 5.50

5-Gallon Tanks - - 6.15 Aviator Caps - - - 1.25 Outrigger Fittings - - .29 Oval Post Sockets - - .17 Aluminum pulleys with brass bushings:

2" 25c, 2i" 30c, 3" 40c. Wheels and Tires complete, Eclipse Hub:

20x2i" 86.75 20x3" $9.50 E. J. WILLIS COMPANY, New York City 85 Chamber! Street (Telephone 3624 Worth) 67 Reade Street

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Planes Balanced Working Drawings Tests of Power Plants Supplies Purchased

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NOTICE

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THE

First Annual International Aeronautical Exhibition

TO BE HELD AT THE

NEW GRAND CENTRAL PALACE

NEW YORK CITY

May 9th to 18th, 1912

under the auspices and control of

THE AERO CLUB OF AMERICA

For information regarding space for the exhibit of completed machines for aerial locomotion, accessories, models, drawings, etc., apply to

The Show Committee,

AERO CLUB OF AMERICA,

297 Madison Avenue, New York.

AMERICAN OFFICER AMAZES FRENCH AVIATORS.

Delayed by the two months siege of bad weather such as Paris has not seen for a century, the Scott bomb-dropper was not actually tried out properly until Jan. 11, at Villacoublay with one of the Astra company's Wrights. Other trials were made on the 13th, 20th and 23rd, all with wonderful success and to the surprise of attaches from the Turkish and Russian embassies, foreign officials, and the envy of the French aviators who do so like to bask in the light from the public's eyes.

As a complete and detailed description of the device and its operation has been given in previous issues, we will not enlarge upon that at this time. It may be remembered that two shots are dropped simultaneously; therefore, both must land close together.

Some earlier trials were made and it was found the pilot assigned had difficulty in flying in a straight line, as is necessary to obtain accuracy. The circular target was 10 metres diameter with a bull's eye of one square metre. The altitude at which the flights were made was 200 metres, the minimum altitude condition of the Michelin bomb dropping prize.

On January 11 the projectiles landed on the periphery of the target, i.e., 27 feet from the bull's eye in the center of the target, from a

height of 656 feet. On the next test, the shots hit 12 feet from the center. The same day {lieutenant Scott succeeded in getting as close as 6 feet from center. The fourth and fifth shots resulted 9 feet and 42 feet respectively. The last one fell 15 feet outside of the target but in line. Michelin himself was present when this last shot was fired. These trials show that as long as the pilot can be made to do his part of the work properly, the device will get the projectiles at the right spot with almost the accuracy of gun fire; certainly with a thousand times more certainty than merely hand-dropped bombs will fall.

Arrangements have now been made with the Societie Astra to furnish machine, pilot and operator, and a new device in order to compete in the Michelin contest which takes place this month. In this, the apparatus must be made in France, 'plane, pilot and gunner. If the results are reasonably successful in future, it is expected the Astra company may buy the business for France. The French committee is now objecting to the style of projectiles employed, insisting, at first, on those of the cannon ball variety. The Scott bombs have vanes at the rear of the usual-shaped projectile.

There is almost as much red tape and officialism in aero matters in France as there is at American meets, for the newspaper man who wants to get where things are doing.

AERONAUTICS

FLYING OVER NEW YORK.

Frank C. Coffyn lias been flyin' all over the place and George Beatty has landed in Central Park but failed to find the "isles of safety" suggested to the Park Board by local aviators.

The first of February, Coffyn arrived in New York with his Wright aeroplane fitted with floats, and during the first two weeks made a number of flights up the Hudson River, around the Statue of Liberty and about the lower end of Manhattan Island for the benefit of the photographer passenger with him. Aeroplane's eye view moving pictures and the plain kind were taken for the first time of New York. From the Pennsylvania railroad station the machine was put on a raft and towed into the Hudson. A flight was then made and eventually the 'plane was moored for the night on the raft inside the breakwater 'ised by the Harbor Police. In the pictures shown elsewhere, one may note the ice covered raft, the cakes of ice in the water and the stone breakwater in the background. On the 13th of February, he flew up the Hudson, back and up the East River over the Brooklyn and Manhattan bridges, and then back under the bridges.

George W. Beatty flew his Wright school machine over from Nassau, a distance of about fifteen miles, landing in Central Park near 95th St., after a stop at Flushing on the way to make an adjustment. The following morning he flew back. Beatty now has Lewkowicz beaten, for Beatty got back by the air route and Lewk' came on the cars.

Coffyn made his flight on the 13th intending to take motion pictures himself, operating the camera and the 'plane at the same time. Part of the supporting bracket broke so that no pictures were taken. The taking of pictures will continue for some days when an attempt will be made to land a belated passenger on board an outgoing steamship.

New York, Febraan' 14.

fowler COMPLETES TRANSCONTINENTAL FLIGHT.

Robert G. Fowler, the second aerial transcontinental tourist, finally arrived at the Atlantic Ocean, at San Pablo beach, Fla., on Feb. 17, after having been 122 days on the way. A great deal of this time was consumed by reason of bad weather. The course followed was southerly all the way, close to the Gulf of Mexico through the extreme southern states to the coast.

JJp to Jan. 11, at Biloxi, Miss., his mileage was 2,'OSI, in straight lines between towns. Rodgers' flight was 3,391 miles. From then to February 17, he flew 436 miles in eleven stages. His itinerary follows:

Jan. 16, Evergreen, Ala., 84; Jan. 17, Georgi-ana, 17; Andalusia, 25; Jan. 20, Brantley, 22; Jan. 25, Troy, 23; Feb. 6, Bainbridge, Ga., 106; Feb. 7, Thomasville, 38; Feb. 7, Quitman, 27; Feb. 8, Jacksonville, Fla., S2; on Feb. 17, he flew to Pablo Beach, 15 miles.

Fowler was dispatched all along the Seaboard Airline Railroad the same as a passenger train; and his manager Charles L. Young was posted every few moments in this way. As soon as Fowler was announced to he within 17 miles of the City of Jacksonville everyone seemed to loose their every thought of business, and spent the few moments watching for him to put in an appearance. When he was finally sighted at 4.30 the crowd at the Moncrief Race track seemed to go wild, and Aviator Max Lillie in his Wright biplane, dashed into bis machine and flew away like mad to meet him be was immediately followed by Harold Kantner in his Moisant monoplane. The two aviators flew toward Fowler to greet him as best they could in the air, then circled Fowler, and escorted him toward the field. Lillie landed first to show Fowler the way. Fowler then circled the field 3 times and gave several dips and spiral dives that made the crowd stand up and yell with all their might. He then landed and was followed by Kantner. Fowler had been in the air but 90 minutes but

it was a very cold day and he was almost frozen. After being given a right royal reception he was escorted to an automobile and rushed to the Seminole hotel where he was made the guest of honor. The evening was spent in trying to make Fowler feel at home, and he was given the key to the city and told to go af far as he liked.

THE NEW YORK AERO SHOW.

The demand for space at the May aero show in Grand Central Palace seems to indicate that this exposition will be the biggest of its kind that has been held in this country. It would be but natural, of course; still, past shows have not been of a very encouraging nature to exhibitors. Among the firms already contracted are: Curtiss, Gallaudet Engineering Co.. F. O. H. Schwartz, Goodyear, Frontier Iron Works, Goodrich, Max Ams, B'aby engine company, Gyro, Sloane, Boland, Roberts and B. F. Sturtevant.

Many concerns are holding off until they see how the show is going to look.

Among the historical exhibits will be the Curtiss Rheims winner and the famous June Bug, the Burgess "Flying Fish," possibly one of the original Wright gliders, a replica of the Langley steam model, Chanute glider possibly, and other objects which have escaped the public interest of late.

It is quite certain that the Parseval airship will be over here, carrying passengers regul larly on scheduled trips. This will be houseci near Mineola.

Plans are under way for a big meet to follow the show, at either Nassau or Belmont Park. |

For obvious reason, connected with thl Wright litigation, foreign makers will not be bona-fide exhibitors. Foreign machines however, will be shown in good variety by private owners in this country.

ROBINSON FLYING ABROAD.

With Louis Paulhan as a passenger, the American aviator Hugh Robinson, made a flight at Antibes the Mediterranean, on Feb. 9 of forty minutes' duration, in demonstration of the Navy type of Curtiss hydro-aeroplane. Several French Navy officers witnessed the flight and expressed themselves as surprised at the ease with which the machine arose from ana alighted upon the water.

Subsequent to the flight of Robinson with Paulhan as a passenger, the latter made a fif-l teen minute flight operating the machine alone. He handled it with ease, and astonished the spectators with his maneuvers in the air and on the water after so brief an acquaintance with the Curtiss system of control.

On Feb. 10 Robinson, who has been giving a series of flights on the Mediterranean with the Curtiss hydro-aeroplane, had an accident.

After flying for some time Robinson attempted to alight where the water was the smoothest, as there was a heavy sea running, with a very strong wind. Just as he was about to alight on the water there was a rush of boats to the spot he had selected and to avoid striking some of them he brought his machine down at a very steep angle, which drove the nose of his boat straight into the water and was thrown into the sea. The planes of the hydro-aeroplane were smashed.

AT THE CURTISS SCHOOL.

So great has been the increase in the number of pupils reporting at the Curtiss aviation school at North Island, San Diego, Cal., that a second camp has been established on the north end of the Island, opposite the headquarters' camp on the south end.

Many having taken up the hydro-aeroplane, R. C. St. Henry, one of the Curtiss aviators, has been made special instructor for this particular branch. St. Henry will accompany each pupil in Hying in the hydro-aeroplane until such time as he or she is capable of operating the machine alone.

WAIT

Examine this 4-cyI-inder crank shaft (ab-ilutely unique among American eromotors); but merely one example f the sound, construction in the ew MAXIMOTOR.

The new catalog will soon be off the press

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FOR THE 1912

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than ever. Built for exhibition and cross-country work requiring RELIABILITY and ENDURANCE

Shaft made of our own imported chrome ticket steel.

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I Nassau Boulevard - L.I., N.Y. >{

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FLY

YOU can fly in 10 lessons on a Wright Model B.

YOU can get your Pilot Certificate at my

School.—No other school promises this.

YOU have no breakage or other extras.

YOU have the best field in this country. You are at the center of "doings."

SHELBY COLD DRAWN SEAMLESS STEEL TUBES

- FOR -

AEROPLANE CONSTRUCTION

mechanicaT PURPOSES

We carry regularly in stock over 2.000.000 feet in our own warehouses, of assorted sizes from 1-16" OU to 8" OD many thicknesses of walls from 1-32" to 34n according to size. The material we stock is regular carbon in Rounds, Squares, Oval and Keciangular, and can also furnish to order other shapes. When greater elastic limit and tensile strength is desired we can supply on order High Carbon stock and also 3^fc Nickel Tubes. Tool Steels Steel Folding Horses

Steel Tubes Tool Steel Tubes

PETER A. FRASSE & co. New York Philadelphia Bullalu

$100 REWARD

Will be paid to the person who first brings to our notice the town and site on which we finally locate

FACTORY SITE WANTED

The AERIAL CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

of New York having outgrown its present quarters at 42-48 and 58 West 43d Street, and anticipating the increased volume of business it will have to look after in the future, has decided to erect an up-to-date factory, with aviation school and flying field at some spot in the] United States, suitable for the purpose.

WHAT WE WANT

First—A good live town that is looking for a reliable manufacturing concern to locate in the vicinity and where the business men are willing to aid in the establishment of a permanent industry in their territory.

Second—A good level stretch of land over which the students of our school may learn to fly. Preferably with water frontage for Hydroaeroplaning.

Write submitting plans and full details of what you have to offer.

Latest style Monoplanes and Propellers in stock ready for immediate delivery

Aerial Construction Company

OF NEW YORK 42-48 and 58 West 43rd Street New York, N. Y.

Mr. Curtiss, whose time has been largely taken up with the supervising of the instruction of the numerous pupils, has now been able i to turn over the details of the schools to others, I and has actively resumed his experimental work I with the hydro-aeroplane. To assist him in these experiments he has ordered from his fac-I tory at Hammondsport, N. Y., Mr. Henry Kleckler, motor expert, and one of the most ex-I perienced men in his employ, to report at San Diego at once.

ARMY BUYS FIVE MACHINES.

The War Department has ordered the following:

3 standard Wright aeroplanes, weight carriers, with minimum speed of 45 miles per hour.

1 high-speed Wright aeroplane, with a minimum speed of 65 miles per hour.

1 B'urgess-Wright aeroplane, weights carrier, with Renault motor, minimum speed 45 miles per hour.

Four of these have been ordered subject to the following conditions:

REQUIREMENTS FOR WEIGHT CARRYING MILITARY AEROPLANE.

1. It must carry two persons, with the seats so arranged as to permit of the largest possible field of observation for both.

2. The control must be capable of use by ■either operator from either seat.

3. The machine must be able to ascend at a minimum rate of 2,000 feet in 10 minutes while carrying a weight of 450 pounds, and the amount of fuel stated in paragraph 4.

4. The fuel supply must be sufficient for at least four hours of continuous flight.

5. It must be easily transportable by road, rail, etc., and easily and rapidly assembled and adjusted.

6. The starting and landing devices must be part of the machine itself, and it must be able to start without outside assistance.

7. The engine must be capable of throttling to run at reduced speed.

8. The engine will be subject to an endurance test in the air of two (2) hours continuous flight.

9. The aeroplane must develop a speed in the air of at least forty-five miles an hour.

I 10. The machine must be capable of landing on and arising from plowed fields. I 11. The supporting surfaces must be of Sufficient area to insure a safe gliding angle tin case the engine stops. This will be determined by a test during calm atmospheric conditions; at an altitude of 1,000 feet the engine ■vill be entirely cut-off and a glide made, to ■he ground. The horizontal distance between ■position of cut-off and landing must be at least B.000 feet, or at other altitude of the same ratio. I NOTE:—In case the weight carrying capacity is increased to 600 pounds, the minimum speed ■nay be reduced to thirty-eight miles per hour ■nd the climbing power diminished to 1,600 feet Pin ten minutes.

1 The new type Army Burgess will have a 70 Ih.p. Renault engine. This machine has just Ibeen ordered from the Burgess Co. & Curtis, of [Marblehead. In the future machines bought Ifrom this company will be fitted with any practical motor desired by the purchaser.

FLYING SCHOOL IN FLORIDA.

The Florida work of the Burgess Co. & Cur-itis is progressing finely. Phillips W. Page Is flying a land machine at Daytona, and has as pupils Patrick Grant of Boston, John F. Gray of lOrmond, and H. L. Hattemer of Montgomery, lAla. Clifford L. Webster has opened a school lat Ormond with a B"urgess hydro-aeroplane. [There is considerable passenger carrying being done at each of the three places. The Marblehead harbor is frozen over, so there is no likelihood that there will be any flying there until March. Walter Brookins is operating an independent school at Palm Beach with a Burgess -machine.

MARS NOT IN THE PROMOTING BUSINESS.

J. C. (Bud) Mars, whose name has been widely used as an officer of the American Aeroplane Mfg. Co. & School of Aviation, of Chicago, states that he is' not connected with this company in any capacity, that he was made vice-president without his consent, and that he is not in sympathy with the business methods of the concern. A contract was made with the Chicago Aeroplane Co., a former concern organized by the same men who organized the second company but, Mr. Mars states, the new company had no right to the use of his name in any way.

"ISLES OF SAFETY" IN CITY PARKS.

At a meeting of the Board of Park Commissioners held Thursday, January ISth, pursuant to the suggestion made by John E. Sloane, of the Sloane Aeroplane Company, a large number of enthusiasts were present, including representatives from clubs, practical aviators and just "bugs," to urge the designation of open spaces in city parks, on which cross-city aviators may find a proper place in case of forced landing, the idea being to induce aviators to make their over-city flights over parts where landing places are impossible, save on flagpoles and water-towers, church steeples and clocks.

The park commissioners signified their approval of the plan and upon submission of suggestions on the proper stops, will take definite action.

A meeting was held on Feb. 16, at the Aeronautical Society, to form a committee and appi'oach the matter more systematically. This committee will decide on good locations and put the matter before the Board, as soon as possible.

ARMY AVIATION NEWS.

From Jan. 14 to Feb. 11, the officers at the Army School at Augusta, Ga.( made 75 flights, totalling 24 hours, 33 minutes flying. The heavy fall of snow and bad weather prohibited a bigger aggregate.

Wilbur Wright was a visitor the last of January and he cheerfully answered a steady fire of questions from the officers concerning prospective improvements in military aeroplanes and aviation in general.

On the 9th of Feb. 2nd, Lieut. P. M. Kennedy, 10th Infantry, qualified for an aviation pilot license. The tests were made with a Curtiss biplane.

On the 9th of Feb., 2nd, Lieut. P. M. Kennedy, and Lieut. Arnold in the Wright 'plane flew over and around the city of Augusta at altitudes of about 1500 feet. Later in the afternoon while starting in the fast Curtiss aeroplane, Captain Beck met with an accident which completely wrecked the machine. The aeroplane had ascended about thirty feet; when opposite a large hay barn the disturbed air currents caused by this building forced the machine downward suddenly until one wing struck a small tree. Fortunately, Captain Beck escaped without injury.

ARNOLD FLIES HOUR.

Lieut. H. II. Arnold was up for 59 minutes on Jan. 25, attaining an altitude of 4,764 feet. The Army aviators have agreed not to try altitudes above a mile as that is sufficiently high for practical purposes.

Another Curtiss 2-man machine has been ordered by the Signal Corps for the school at Augusta, Ga.

NEWS OF THE NAVY.

The Navy will soon have four pilots. Ensign Victor Herbster is being taught at San Diego by Lieut. Rodgers to fly the Navy Wright. The Navy, as usual, is short handed and it is difficult to get the right kind of officers for aviation work. The object of sending the Navy flyers and machines to San Diego was to have them in touch with the Pacific Fleet and it was thought other officers might be enthusiastic enough to take time to learn. Some missionary

work has been done with officers of the Torpedo Boat Flotilla, a number of whom have been up as passengers to enjoy the exhilaration. It is hoped to develop the work to the extent that the warship may be used as a base, under which circumstances all the young officers of the fleet would soon qualify and the pick ot the mechanics would be used for looking after the machines.

HONORS FOR GLENN CURTISS.

A bronze trophy has been awarded by the American Aero Club, to Glenn H. Curtiss, in recognition of the "greatest advance in aviation in the year lull." This honor, was conferred on Mr. Curtiss because of his work in developing the hydroaeroplane, which, in the opinion of the Committee puts water-llying on a practical basis.

An important and interesting experiment of night flying was given at Los Angeles during the recent aviation meet at that place. The aviators were Lincoln Heachey, Glenn Martin and Phil Parmalee, and the Hying was witnessed by a large crowd, among which were a number of Navy officers from the torpedo boats in San Pedro harbor. Beachey carried red burning fuses on his machine, while Martin carried a small acetylene search light. They rose to a height of several hundred feet, and dropped imitation bombs on a miniature city laid out on the field. From San Pedro harbor could be seen the search lights of the three torpedo boats, which had been instructed by the Navy Department to co-operate in the experiments. At times the aviators could be seen plainly in the beams of the search lights as they darted and turned in their manoeuvres. It was proved that competent aviators may fly and alight at night with perfect safety, provided they have sufficient landing space.

New pupils are arriving at the Curtiss aviation school almost daily. Among those who have begun their training within the past few days are G. E. Underwood, of Lang, Cal.; William Engle, of Cleveland, O.; Frederick Hoover, Colorado Spring's, Col.; Oscar A. Sol-berg, Davenport, la.; E. C. Malick, of Philadelphia, and J. L. Callan, Albany, N. Y., a friend of Beckwith Havens, the young society aviator of the Curtiss staff. Mr. Engle has already purchased a Curtiss aeroplane and expects to use it extensively in fights during the coming Summer.

SECOND INTERCOLLEGIATE GLIDING MEET.

The Intercollegiate Gliding Meet will be held this year at Ithaca, N. Y., under the auspices of the Aero Club of Cornell University. Invitations to participate have been sent out to all the college clubs. Correspondence re the gliding meet should be addressed to Mr. Kerr Atkinson, Corresponding Secretary, Cornell Aero Club, Cascadilla Building, Ithaca, N. Y.

SECOND ANNUAL INTERCOLLEGIATE BALLOON RACE.

The second annual intercollegiate balloon race will be held under the auspices of the Intercollegiate Aeronautical Association through the courtesy of the University of Pennsylvania Aero Club which has relinquished its rights to the same. This race, which was held last year under the auspices of the Williams Aeronautical Society, was won by Penn.

The starting place of the race will be Kansas City. Arrangements have been made by which the Kansas City Aero (Tut) will furnish each balloon with free gas and in addition will allow each balloon making a start $100 in cash to help defray the expenses of coming to Kansas City. In addition all of the contestants are promised a royal good time while they are in that city.

Owing to the fact that so few of the college men have had ballooning experience, the rules allow of any pilot being used whether or not

he is or has been connected with the college which he represents. Balloons can be rented at a very reasonable figure and full information in regard to this will be furnished on application.

Kansas City is an ideal place to start from. Excellent gas, claimed to be the best in the country, is to be had and there is a good opportunity to break the world's record for distance. Those who took part in the International Race this last summer speak most highly, not only of the gas and facilities, but of the splendid treatment which they received at the hands of the Kansas City people.

Last year but three colleges competed in the race; Williams, Dartmouth, and the University of Pennsylvania. This year definite entries have been received for Princeton, L'niversity of Virginia, University of Pennsylvania, Dartmouth, and Percy Shearman, who piloted the Williams balloon last year, has signified his willingness to go to Kansas City though a formal decision has not yet been received from the Williams Club. There is no reason why there should not be at least ten balloons ready to start when the race is called.

The college aero clubs are requested to send in their entries as soon as possible so that all the necessary arrangements can be made in plenty of time. As mentioned before, all those clubs which desire to rent balloons will be referred to the proper places and those which look after this first, will, of course, get the best choice of available balloons.

The date of the race has not yet been decided definitely but it will fall the latter part of June or the first few days in July. This will be after Commencement at all the colleges which will enable all the men who so desire to take part in the race and in addition, the weather conditions at this time will be most favorable.

NEW PILOTS

The following new pilots have been granted certificates on the dates given.

S9. Hillery Beachey(Beachey bi.), St. Louis, Jan. 17, 1912.

90. Lieut. J. W. McClaskey (Curtiss), San Diego, Jan. 17, 1912.

91. Not given—foreign.

92. S. C. Lewis (Curtiss), San Diego, Jan 17, 1912.

93. Chas. W. Shoemaker (Curtiss), San Diego, Jan. 17, 1912.

94. J. B. McCalley (Curtiss), San Diego, Jan. 17, 1912.

95. Weldon B. Cooke (Curtiss-type), San Diego, Jan. 17, 1912.

At the Curtiss school at San Diego, Albert Mayo, W. B. Atwater, J. L. Callon and Fred V. Hoover qualified for certificates, but the granting body doesn't seem to know it yet.

NEW COMPANIES.

Patton Aeroplane Co., $60,000, organized in the state of Alabama, by Moses F. Patton, John Taylor and Hugo F. Biedermann.

Rocky Mountain Aviation Co., $50,000, Gas ft Electric Building, Denver, Colorado. Edw. A.. Smith, W. G. White, M. M. Koser.

Thaden's Safety Aeroplane Co., $25,000, H." Thaden, .). R. Houchen, and J. Stone.

The Universal Aerial Navigation Co., St. Louis. $5,000,000. J. W. Oman, Manager.

Wyckoff Safety Aerial Machine Co., Santa Cruz, Calif., W. R. Boyden, Secretary.

WORLD SOUNDING BALLOON RECORD.

Altitude—30.4S6 meters (99.7S3.5 ft.)' above sea level, by the U. S. Weather Bureau at Huron, S. D., Sept. 1, 1910. The former record was printed erroneously in the January number as the existing record.

LERIOT

Monoplanes

(Genuine)

WINNERS OF ALL EUROPEAN CONTESTS IN 1911

In 1909:

The First Aerial Crossing of the

Channel

In 1910:

The First Circuit de l'Est

In 1911:

The Paris—Rome Race (istand 2nd) The European Circuit (lst and 2nd) The English Circuit (Daily Mail Race) The Belgian Circuit The St. Petersburg—Moscow Race The Valencia—Alicante Race The London to Paris (Non-Stop) Race etc., etc.

WORKS AND OFFICES: 39, Route de la Revolte a Levallois-Pans

and

Belfast Chambers, 156, Regent St., London

AVIATION SCHOOLS:

Etampes, near Paris, during summer Pau - - during winter Hendon, near London

SHNEIDER 'PLANES

Biplanes that Fly—Come and See

Price Low—Get Quotations

Instruction $250 Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome

C Before buying any aeroplane, be sure the maker is not a novice himself. Get names of purchasers. Visit the plant and school.

CL Every Shneider machine flies—and flies well. All parts standardized. No freak construction.

C Amply powered (Roberts.)

C. Get a demonstration flight first. Then ask those who have flown Shneider machines:

Jos. Richter Wm. Kline Rollin H. Jennings

H. Binder J. P. Tarbox

CThe late Tony Castellane learned on Shneider 'planes.

Write Your Own Contract and Guarantee

Fred. P. Shneider

1020-1022 East 178th Street New York

Established 1908

BALDWIN

f Vulcanized Proof Material

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubberized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no effect. Any Strength or Color.

| "Red Devil" Aeroplanes

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations.

Hall-Scott Motors

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 8-cyl., on exhibition at Frank Schumacher's, 164 W. 46th Street, New York. All motors guaranteed. Immediate delivery.

Experting

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert advice. 'Planes balanced.

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

Box 78, Madison Sq. P. O. New York

AEROPLANES

New Aeronautical Motors

The Sturtevant

Readers will be interested to note the announcement that the B. F. Sturtevant Co. of Boston are bringing out a line of aeronautical motors. The B. F. Sturtevant Co. is a very large and long-established concern which has for fifty years been the leading builder of the world of air handling machinery and special engines for its operation. It is more than ever significant that there is such a demand for high grade motors that their manufacture is considered commercially practical by large manufacturing concerns.

and ground. This type of cylinder enables the easy removal of the valves for inspection and grinding and their operation directly from one camshaft without the use of push rods or rocker arms.

The pistons are semi-steel castings, well ribbed, fitted with three rings and accurately ground. The piston pin is of large diameter of hardened steel bored hollow. The connecting rods are of I section, made of drop-forged nickel steel. The big ends of the rods are fitted with interchangeable die cast bushings of Parsons' white brass and the small ends are bushed with phospor bronze. Pistons and connecting rods are very carefully balanced to ensure the

The Sturtevant Four-Intake Side.

The makers have adopted the vertical stationary water-cooled motor after two years of experiments and tests with the various types in present day use, having been "convinced that the reliability of the automobile engine cannot be improved upon."

It has been the object to perfect an engine that would be simple in design and construction —that would operate for long periods without attention for adjustment, and that would be perfectly reliable in continuous service. It is the belief of the makers that lightness in weight is not as important a feature of the aeronautical motor of to-day as strength and durability of construction, and this motor has only been lightened by superior design and careful choice of materials and not at the expense of strength and reliability.

These are built in two sizes, four- and six-cylinder, rated at 40 and 60 H.P.. and weighing complete. 200 and 2S5 pounds respectively. The bore and stroke of both sizes are 41;. inches.

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS.

The cylinders are of the "L" type, cast separately of a special semi-steel mixture which has a. tensile strength of 40.000 pounds per square inch. Water jackets are cast integral with the cylinders to ensure against ' leaky joints so prevalent among the fragile applied type. The cylinders are tested with 600 pounds hydraulic pressure, and are then heat treated

operation of the motor with the least possible vibration.

The crankshaft is machined from a solid billet of high-grade nickel steel. This steel has an ultimate tensile strength of 125.000 pounds per square inch after it has undergone various heat treatments. It is of large diameter and bored hollow throughout, ensuring maximum strength with minimum weight. A bearing is provided between each throw and all pins and journals are accurately ground to size. The propeller tlange is applied on a taper to the forward end of the shaft.

The camshaft is machined entirely from solid steel, leaving the cams integral. The shaft is of large diameter and is supported throughout its length on phosphor-bronze bearings placed between each set of cams. The bronze driving sear is fitted to one end of the camshaft on a ta per.

The base is a special aluminum casting designed with a view for strength and rigidity rather than extreme lightness. The crankshaft is supported on five and seven bearings in the four and six cylinder motors respectively. In the forward end of the base is a ball-thrust bearing which may be adjusted to take either the thrust or the pull of the propeller.. Timing gears are enclosed in an integral oil-tight casing, which enables the gears to be run in an oil bath. A light aluminum sump is fastened to the lower part of the motor, catching the oil as it falls from the base and is so designed that

AERONAUTICS

Page 70

February, 19 J 2

The Seven Bearing Crank Shaft.

neither forward nor rear cylinder's can be flooded with oil when the motor operates at an extreme angle.

The lubricating system has been designed to meet the severe requirements of a motor for this kind of service. No hand oiling is necessary and no grease cups are used. A large quantity of cool oil is applied to all the bearings under a pressure of twenty pounds per square inch. Pressure is maintained by a gear pump attached directly to the end of the camshaft and communicating with the bearings through a series of passages cast in the base, no piping being used. Oil enters the hollow crankshaft at the main bearings and is conducted through the arms of the crankshaft to the connecting-rod bearings. The oil flying from the crankshaft fills the crankcase with a fine spray, covering all moving parts and eventually falling into the pump. A second gear pump in tandem with the pressure pump, takes the oil from the sump and forces it through a filter into the oil tank, where it is cooled before being used again. This system enables the use of a more efficient filter than with the suction type and eliminates any danger of its becoming clogged and stopping the oil supply, since, in the event of such an occurrence, the pump would furnish sufficient pressure to burst the filter. However, the filter is

particularly accessible and may be instantly removed for cleaning without disturbing the oil. The tank regularly fitted to the motor holds sufficint oil for three hours' use. If the engine is required to operate for a longer time without opportunity for replenishing the oil supply, a larger tank can lie used. As no oil is allowed to accumulate in the base with this system of lubrication, the motor can be operated continuously at an angle.

Water circulation is maintained by a centrifugal pump of large capacity, the impeller of which is mounted directly on an extension of the crankshaft, eliminating the usual bearings and its grease cup.

The ignition is provided by a high-tension Mea magneto, its special construction permitting the motor to be started under a retarded spark, avoiding the danger of back kick from the propeller.

The cylinders and all exposed parts are rendered absolutely weather-proof by means of a] heavy coat of nickel plating.

These motors are conservatively rated. In] actual test in connection with a dynamometeil the four cylinder motor has shown fifty-two] horsepower and in a test with a four and one-1 half foot pitch Sturtevant propeller, has shown! a standing thrust of 375 pounds.

Welles & Adams Motor

Welies & Adams, of Bath, N. Y, are putting out a moderate priced motor this year that has many good points.

This motor has four cylinders, is of the four cycle type, weighs 200 pounds, and delivers 50 H.P. It proved its durability thoroughly last year in the flights made by Fred Eells over the city of Rochester.

It has straight cylinders with valves in the heads directly over the pistons, no valve cages being used, which allows of simplicity of design, without the leaks due to unequal expansion.

Ignition is supplied through two sets of sparkplugs, placed in opposite sides of the cylinders, and lired simultaneously, resulting in an increase of power.

Another striking feature of this motor is the completeness of the oiling system. The oil is contained in the oil reservoir, which is integral with the lower half of the crank case, and is forced from there by a gear-driven pump, into the hollow cam-shaft, which is perforated and sprays all the bearings. 'Phis results in perfect internal lubrication, but the great feature of the oiling system is the oiling of the overhead valve mechanism.

Kvery expert concedes the gain in power of the over-head valve const ruction. Welles & Adams, have in their 1H12 model, entirely overcome this difficulty. The oil is forced by the pump up through a small brass tube into the main rocker pin, which is hollow. It then

flows, under pressure, through small brass tubes, from this pin to both ends of the rocker, oiling all the bearings perfectly, ami from the back end of the rocker, down througrl the Tiollow push-rods, oiling the guide hear-1 ings at their bases and flowing back againl to the oil reservoir.

All gears are encased, and run in a bath om oil.

The cylinder water-jackets are of spun-l brass, with a very liberal allowance in wateil space between jacket and cylinder; in fact J the cooling system is most complete, the ino-i tors never having been known to run hot un-l der the most trying conditions.

The crank-shaft is hand-forged from chrome-I nickel steel, machined and ground to size! and accurately balanced. It is supported on five bearings of larger diameter than is genJ erally found in automobile motors of grcateiM power. It is extended at the propeller end so as to eliminate the necessity of cutting^ out the back of the wings of bi-planes for the* propeller.

lOach motor is thoroughly tested out beforel leaving the factory and there is a stronC guarantee back of them.

All the many up-to-date features of this motor make it one of the most durable, al well as lighl and powerful, motors on t lie market to-day.

cAero c7Vl art

FOR SALE—50 h.p. Curtiss Military Type Biplane with duplicate surfaces and parts. First-class outfit. Price, $2500. Address Box 9S, Mineola, N. Y.

FOR SALE—Complete sets of castings for building the Bleriot monoplane. Lynch Brothers, Aeronautic Engineers, 61 Wick Place, Youngstown, O.

WANTED—A second hand aviation motor, 3,-40 or 4 -50 h.p. Must be in good condition. Address B. C, Box 652, Tiburon, Calif.

BLERIOT type monoplanes, ready for power, $150. Stickney, 2407 Sixth Ave., Moline, 111.

February, 1912

Third Annual Magneto Bargain Sale

Imported High Tension Magnetos at Less than Cost of Importation

Our third annual genuine inventory sale of U. cc H. Master Magnetos, made in Germany, is now in progress. All H. P. sizes and types for 1, 2, 4 and 6 cylinder motors, suitable for motor cars, motor wagons, motor boats, motorcycles, stationary engines, etc. Write now, before they are all gone, for circular and price list. The sale is a real Magneto money saver.

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY 250 West 54th Street, New York

FOR SALE—Complete sets of castings for budding the Bleriot monoplane. Lvnch Brothers, Aeronautic Engineers, 61 Wick Place, Youngstown, Ohio.

MOTOR FOR SALE—Harriman, 50 h.p., 4 cyl., 4 cycle, aviation motor. Complete with B'osch magneto and Schebler carburetor. New, just as received from factory—never run. Weight 243 lbs. Price $395 cash.

M. F. H. Gouvemeur, Wilmington, N. C—Fe 3.

BALDWIN 'PLANE—Baldwin Red Devil, perfect condition, 60 h.p. Hall-Scott motor, $2500. Can be seen. Also two new Hall-Scotts.

Address Baldwin, Care Aeronautics.

—Feb.

MFG. CO. wants men for aviators. $100 required. B. L-. Gates, 227 Englewood Ave., Chicago. —Feb.

TO DEVELOP INVENTION—The inventor of the pressure equalizer described in this issue, and who has many applications pending on various improvements in aeroplanes, would like to hear from financially responsible people who would undertake the practical develoment of his inventions; or would dispose of his rights in this equalizer very cheaply. Address, Equalizer, c/o "Aeronautics."

FOR SALE.—1911 Detroit Aeroplane Motor complete, ready to run. Never been used. $200 Cash. J. R. Hendrickson, Edmonton, Atta., Canada.

LAD1S LEWKOW1CZ—The well known aviator, lately Manager and Chief Instructor of the Queen Aeroplane Company, is open to any proposition from responsible firms or individuals, to organize and manage Aeroplane Factory and Aviation School. Write stating full particulars to

Ladis Lekowicz, 102 West 64th St., New York City.

LADIS LEWKOWICZ, the experienced International aviator who is the only man to fly over the City of New York, late manager and chief instructor to the Queen Aeroplane Company, has a chance to become affiliated with one of the best aeroplane manufacturing concerns in France and wishes to establish an agency in New York with some responsible man with a few thousand dollars to invest in the enterprise.

Address: Ladis Lewkowicz,

102 West 64th St., New York City.

+ + + +

% *

The Call Aviation Engine

FOUR CYCLE, WATER COOLED, OPPOSED CYLINDERS

The Greatest Known Thrust per Rated Horsepower ---WRITE FOR CATALOG-----

I The Aerial Navigation Company of America +

--GIRARD, KANSAS- +

% %

Do NOT Experiment!

THOMAS BIPLANES

ARE UP TO-DATE

And EXCELL because they are a sound combination of THEORY AND PRACTICE

-For Particulars write to ——^—

i

THOMAS BROS.

Pupils Trained

RafK 1M V Exhibition Flights Dam, PL I . Guaranteed

Felix Bischoff Steel Works

DUISBURG, GERMANY.

The VITAL part of a Motor is the

l=0=i='

Our HIGH GRADE CRANKSHAFTS are made from our Special CHROME-NICKEL AUTO-STEEL ZH. This steel has an elastic limit of 135-150,000 lbs. per sq. in., and enables you therefore to economize in weight and space. Put this in your motor and you need never fear a broken crankshaft.

We are the MAKERS of the Steel, and our aim is to produce the BEST.

We furnish crankshafts drop-forged or finished complete to the most prominent manufacturers in Europe.

Our Die Cost is Very Low.

We can quote f.o.b. your city, free of duty.

Send blue prints and all enquiries to our representative

H. A. ELLIOTT, majestic bldoDETROIT, MICH,

A VALUABLE SOUVENIR

which you will be proud to wear, will be distributed absolutely free of cost by the Sloane Aeroplane Company. The souvenir will be expensive. It is to be handed only to those who are actively affiliated with any branch or phase of the aeronautical industry. In order that we may be able to estimate the number of souvenirs we need, please write us immediately your name and address and in what way you are connected with the aeronautical industry ; also, send us the names of any of your friends and associates whom you think should receive one of the souvenirs.

SLOANE AEROPLANE COMPANY

Charavay Propellers Sloane 'Planes Parts

1733 Broadway New York City

Detroit™ power plant

COMPLETE $300 READY TO RUN

INCL.pr0peller-carburet0r-b0sh magneto. oil pump-cable-switch -mounting bolts.

■■s GUARANTEED to

210 lbs min.stationary thrust 158 lbs max.weight(complete) 36 hours delivery

LIFT AND FLY CURTIS BY PLAN ELS BLERIOT 21 MONOPLANES DEMOISELLE MONOPLANES OR CRAFTS OF SIMILAR MAKE

DETROIT /tROPLANE CO.

AVIATOR WIRE

Extra strong and easy to solder.

PLATED FINISH

AVIATOR WIRE CORD

John A. Roebling's Sons Company

TRENTON, N. J.

YOU'VE SEEN IT, FRIEND ?—

BEFORE, AS YOU TURNED THESE PAGES O'ER, AND AGAIN —THE SAME THING MAY BE FOUND, IN SOME OTHER PAPERS 'ROUND, THRU THE TOWN. HOW THE GYRO (SAFE AND SANE) IS THE ONLY FORM OF PLANE, WORTH A DARN.

THAT THE "MOVEMENT'S" HERE TO STAY, ALTHO THE "STIFF WING" MUST GIVE WAY BEFORE LONG. SO-HERE'S THE BOYS COME 'ROUND TO ADMIT THE HELO —SOUND AS A GONG. THEN WATCH UP IN THE SKIES!—WATCH THE OLD WORLD RUB ITS EYES! — "ACHT! SO LONG'"

JOS. E. BISSELL, -:- (Box 795) -:- PITTSBURG, PA.

The Trebert Rotary Motor

The principle on which the new Trehert fourcycle rotary motor works is novel and extremely simple. There is a stationary main or axial shaft around which all the six cylinders revolve; but contrary to the usual practice each cylinder is parallel with this axis. The Oylin-aders, which are cast separately, are fastened in a circle to the front end of a two piece cylindrical, alluminum crank case, being- held in place by this and the cylindrical port chamber. Eighteen nickle steel studs pass through the crank case and the cylinder lugs giving the whole greater strength than though it were a single eating. The front end of each of the cylinders is securely fastened to the circular port chamber, which besides holding them in place contains in its center the front bearing on the axial shaft. In the base are six-crank shafts—one for each cylinder. These radiate from the axial shaft like the spokes of a wheel each sixty degrees from the other. At each end is a ball bearing and a ball bearing is inserted in the connecting rod bearing. The outer ends of these shafts run free and the inner end drives through a gear against a large stationary bevel gear fastened on the rear end of the axial shaft. The scheme is something like reversing the process used in transmitting the power to rear axle of an automobile, only in the engine the large gear, which corresponds to the driving shaft of the car, is stationary, and the revolving of the individual gears turn the motor over around it. The six air-cooled cylinders, crank case, and port chamber, when revolving on their bearings, form a cylindrical mass, whose axis is the axial shaft of the engine. All the motor revolves except the axial shaft, and the gas and exhaust chamber with their connections, so that the engine is its own fly-wheel. The driving shaft projects from the rear end of the base— to the right behind the magneto in the cut.

The sleeve-port system by which the gas is taken in and exhausted is most simple. There is a stationary drum-shaped gas and exhaust chamber fastened to the axial shaft and divided into two totally separate compartments with air spaces between them though the outer cylindrical face is continuous. To the intake part is attached the carburetor and fittings, and to the exhaust a pipe and. where desired, a muffler. Around this gas and exhaust chamber revolves the circular port chamber of all the cylinders with a packing ring between them. From the individual ports of each cylinder project packing sleeves pointing toward the gas and exhaust chamber like the cut-off spokes of a wheel, each on a radius of the circle sixty degrees from each other. They bear lightly against the cylindrical face of the stationary chamber and are held in position by the springs that counteract any centrifugal force and make them form a tight yet expandable joint. In the cylindrical face of the gas and exhaust chamber are two eliptical ports, one from the intake chamber and one to the exhaust pipe. They are spaced the requisite number of degrees apart and are so situated that a cylinder is always ready to intake or exhaust as its sleeve slides over the proper port. Only one sleeve per cylinder is used; but the fresh mixture and burnt gas cannot mingle as they pass through it at different times.

In running, the packing sleeve of a cylinder slides over the intake port of the gas and exhaust chamber. This admits a charge of gas to that cylinder. As the motor continues to revolve, the sleeve slides over the port cutting off the intake and closing the opening. Following the revolving of the gear, crank-shaft and connecting rod, the piston rises compressing the gas. At the proper time the charge is exploded. The power impulse imparted drives through the gear against the stationary bevel gear and the force generated shows itself by rotating the engine around its axis. As the piston rises again, the burnt gas is expelled through the sleeve as it slides over exhaust port of the gas and exhaust chamber. The revolving continues closing this port, the piston begins to fall, the sleeve slides over the intake port, and the process repeated. This happens to

each cylinder in the course of one complete revolution, so that there are six impulses to the revolution—the same number a six-cvlin-der two-cycle motor would give; but the trebert claims advantage that the fresh mixture has never once come in contact with the burnt gas, and so weakened its explosive force.

Lubrication is very simple. Two pipes with adjustable sight feeds oil the whole engine. The cylinders and pistons are lubricated tin "ough the gas intake. The gas is allowed to carry the drops in as oil spray. The cranks, shafts and driving gears are oiled by a line running through the center of the axial shaft and coming out just in front of the large main gear. From this point the oil is distributed by centrifugal force. Small openings through the axial shaft oil the bearings around it. Gravity or a pump with return may be used to force the oil to the sight feeds. The simplicity and advantages of this system are self-evident. At any time the amount of oil can immediately be adjusted to the needs of the engine. An occasional glance at the sight feeds is all the attention the system requires.

Ignition current is generated by a single spark magneto revolving three-times engine speed. The timing and distribution are novel; but thoroughly practical. Around the front circular edge of the port chamber is fastened a piece of insulation. In it are set six-brush plates, which in the course of each revolution pass a brush contact. From the plates the spark is carried to the plugs by short pieces of wire. The brush plates are inserted between the cylinders and so wired to the plugs that the cylinder following the plate receives the spark from it. This allows for proper lead and makes the engine its own timer and distributor. The wiring consists of a single wire from the magneto to the brush contact and six short pieces from the plates to the plugs. Tn case batteries are used for starting, a second wire to a movable contact may be used allowing the charged cylinder to be almost always caught with the spark. The spark plugs are screwed in the front face of each cylinder port chamber, project through its wall, and shoot the spark through a hole in the packing sleeve into the center of the top of the cylinder causing a sharp, complete explosion. On account of the unique feature of making the engine its own timer and distributer, after once started it is impossible to get a spark at the wrong time.

As in a two-cycle engine, there are no valves, valve springs, cams, camshafts, and gears to drive them and it gives twice as many impulses per cylinder per revolution, as the usual four-cycle engine.

All the moving parts revolve in a sixteen-inch circle, making the motor practical for use in a narrow space. In aeroplane work it does away with danger and difficulty of gyroscopic action which is held accountable for numerous accidents, because all the gyroscopic force caused by revolving parts falls within a sixteen-ineh circle and may be said to be neglible.

MOVING TIME

K. O. llubel, Jr. & Co., Louisville. Ky., have moved into a big factory building covering two acres of ground which cost .$:'.">.000 two years ago. Under lease to the company are 107 acres of field near the city and an eight-room house has been furnished for accommodating students with lodging and board. A pool table and a piano are also available for amusement when the wind blows too high. Six machines are on the grounds ami that many students already enrolled for Five aeroplanes are under

construction at the plant for purchasers. The unique offer is made of a free trial of Gray Eagle engines in a prosp«ct's "plane at the school grounds.

Beatty will have his Frontier eight cylinder engine before the end of February.

The Aero Club of Terre Haute (Ind.) has been formed with the following officers:—Wm. Mc-Elhany, Pres.; H. C. Pueschal, Treas'r.; Victor Tyler, Sec'y.

According to present plans, the annual meeting of the Intercollegiate Aeronautical Association willl be held in New York City, at a place which will be designated later, on Friday and Saturday, April 12th and 13th. Officers will be elected for the ensuing year, and other business relating to the college aeronautical movement will be taken up.

This meeting will be open to every college club in existence at the time it is held, and it is hoped that every club will put forth its best efforts to send at least one delegate. An important consideration is that all of the officers to be elected should be good active workers and now is the time to thoroughly canvas the situation for the right kind of men.

In order to facilitate the. business of the meeting the Association will be glad to receive, at any time, suggestions as to questions which should be taken up for discussion. Two years of experience have indicated that slight changes in the method of governing the Association might work an advantage. Practical plans for increasing the interest of college men in the aeronautical movement are also desired.

The Cornell Aero Club has suggested that, inasmuch as this spring will see the Association handling several meets, it might be well to hold the annual meeting a month or two earlier with a view to doing all that is possible to arouse the interest of those clubs which are falling by the wayside and thus to make the entries in the meets bigger. Letters of inquiry in regard to this will be sent out by the Cornell Aero Club but the Association itself, will be glad to hear whether or not this change would be favorably received.

Address all communications in regard to announcements to George Atwell Richardson, President, 1. A. A. A., 34 Rodney, U. of P. Dorm's, Philadelphia, Pa. Replies are requested as soon as possible as we want to make a big success of all the events and this means immediate action.

At the time of the Aero Club of Connecticut's second annual banquet, held .January 11, Robert Collier, president of the A. C. A. had his aeroplane carted by a motor truck from New Jersey clear to New Haven for the purpose of making flights, which were prevented by the weather. The speakers included president Collier, H. A. Wise Wood, W. Irving Twombly, Col. N. G. Osborne, Hiram Percy Maxim and A. L. Welch, with A. Holland Forbes president of the Connecticut club, toastmaster. At the annual election held previous to the banquet, Mr. Forbes was re-elected president.

The Aeronautical Society held a Smoker at its rooms at 250 W. 54 st., New York, on Jan. 25 instead of the regular semi-monthly lectures. A mock trial was conducted, in which one of the members prosecutes a farm hand for shooting a hole in his gasolene tank while aloft, making a landing imperative. H. Percy Shearman, of Williams College, told of humorous incidents in his ballooning experiences, illustrated with slides from the collection of Leo Stevens.

The regular meeting on Thursday, February 8th, 1912, was favored with an address upon the "Balance of Aeroplanes" by the well known propeller builder Frederick Oharavay. Mr. Oharavay talked interestingly on the proper balancing of the propeller torque and more particularly the lateral balance. Wilbur R. Kimball commented on the Illuminating report

that Mr. M. B. Sellers presented to the Technical Board of the Aeronautical Society. Robert G. Ecob, an aeroplane builder and experimenter, gave a number of illustrated examples of the use that soaring birds make of air currents of varying speed. Stanley Y. Beach, of the Scientific American, reviewed the Paris Salon and accompanied his talk with some exceptionally fine lantern slides. The advances in European monoplane construction were interestingly emphasized.

The Louisville (ICy.) Aero Club has been formally launched. One woman and thirty-four men compose the charter membership. Officers of that organization expect a rush of Louisville women to join and learn the "gentle art of flying". The woman member is Mrs. F. H. Morlan, wife of the Club's official instructor, who comes from Chicago.

The club intends to erect a clubhouse on a 110-acre tract and headquarters will be established in the city. Officers were elected as follows: President, C. A. Wickliffe; Vice-President, Frank C. Carpenter; secretary, Roscoe Conkling; treasurer, R. O. Rubel, Jr.; Directors, Leland Taylor, chairman of the Membership Committee; G. H. Mourning, Jr., chairman of the Rules Committee; Neil Funk, chairman of the Finance Committee.

The Mechanics' Aeronautical Association, of Rochester, N. Y. has elected the following officers for the ensuing year: Ed. Lancashire, President; Fred Dengler, Vice-President; A. G. Johnson, Financial Sec'y; H. H. Simras, Corresponding Sec'y;

H. B. Nurse, Treasurer.

This organization has over forty members, most of whom are skilled mechanics who have associated together for the purpose of exchanging ideas in aeronautics. Individual members of the association are building flying machines and the association is also constructing, at 191 Front St., a biplane of the Curtiss type embodying a number of new features of construction tending toward lightness of the machine while adding to the strength thereof.

The club is in good financial condition and is constantly taking in new members, its meetings taking place monthly at room 305 Cutler Bldg., Rochester, N. Y. It will be glad to hear from those persons in Rochester and its vicinity interested in aeronautics. The annual dues are but $G.OO a year, payable semiannually.

TO STANDARDIZE PROPELLER FITTINGS.

A strong endeavor is being made by E. V. Lalliers, chairman of The Aeronautical Society's committee, to obtain the standardization of propellers. The aid of all the propeller makers is being enlisted. If the plans are carried out, a propeller of any make can be immediately attached to an aeroplane, without requiring special flanges and fittings for each make; all bolt holes will be the same size and distance apart for certain sizes of propellers, for example.

Model Aeroplanes and Accessories

We manufacture the highest grade of aeroplane models on the market. Every part is well made from the best of materials and in exact accordance with the designs submitted to us. We have on band at all times slock models of all well-known machines. We carry a complete sloek of accessories of all descriptions—nilniiillire pneumatic wheels, ball-bearing shafts, turnbuckles, eyebolls, light model wood, Para rubber, wire, etc. Our simple and compound elastic motors are the most durable sold. Our prices are very reasonable. Send at once for our catalogue D, which fully describes and illustrates all models and parts.

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We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

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AERONAUTICS

The Leading British Monthly Journal Devoted to the Technique and Industry of Aeronautics.

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Questions and Answers

Edited by M. B. SELLERS and HUGO C. GIBSON

ITH the December number we inaugurated a Question and Answer Department, for the printing of questions and their answers where they are of general interest.

Mr. Matthew E'. Sellers has kindly undertaken to handle all subjects involving the principles and experimental data of aerodynamics; questions on motors will be answered by Mr. Hugo C. Gibson.

Questions requiring references can not be answered, as matters relating to history and bibliography involve too great time. Answers to queries will be promptly answered by letter and the questions and answers subsequently printed for the benefit of other readers.

E. L. JONES.

To the Editor:

(1) Which will require the least amount of power to support it in space on a straight or horizontal plane, a monoplane or biplane? (2) What is the record for slowest speed?

J. D. K.

Answers: (1) Without regard to speed and for the same total weight, the monoplane and the biplane are about equal. For the same passenger weight the biplane requires less power. (2) The official slow speed record is about 21 miles per hour, held by the Wright machine. Mr. Sellers' quadroplane flies regularly at 20 miles an hour.

To the Editor:

(1) Would a heavy grade of picture wire be suitable for wiring a glider? (2) Is there any danger of impairing the strength of wire by the use of muriatic acid as a flux in soldering?

(3) Do you know of any aeroplane which uses a propeller mounted on a universal joint for steering as well as propulsion? (4) Would it be possible to control the vertical movement of an aeroplane by means of ailerons of the Far-man type hinged to the rear of the plane; all ailerons being operated at the same time and in the same direction?

L. J. E., Le Crosse.

Answers: (1) No; you might use Roeb-ling steel cable, as employed by a great many builders. (2) Yes; you can wash with ammonia to neutralize the effect of the acid, however. (3) We know of none; it would be bad practice—a rudder serves the purpose very well without the complications. (4) Tt would be possible, with very large ailerons; these are, however, too near the centre of pressure and do not give leverage enough to be practicable.

To the Editor:

I am building an aeroplane with a wing surface like this:

the plane. From having held similar surfaces in a wind and in towed flight with an automobile there appears to be considerable lifting power with the plane at a very small angle. Can you give me a mathematical equation for the lift? How am I to estimate the lifting power at zero angle and from there up to 4° and 5°?

C. H. B., S. Berwick, Me.

Answer: We can not give you a mathematical equation for the lift on the surface you describe. The greatest rarifac-tion would be behind the prism P (just where it is not wanted). There would be at zero angle some rarifaction above the plane S near the front, but probably little over the rest of the plane. The prism would probably increase the lift but would greatly diminish the efficiency of the plane.

To the Editor:

As I am a reader of your magazine I would like to ask where is the center of gravity on a rib with \y2 ft. chord and with 4% inch angle of attack. a~nd deepest camber of rib ZV± inches at IS i/2 inches back from entering edge. K., Topeka, Kan.

Answer: You evidently mean "center of pressure"; this will be about 22 inches from leading edge (angle of attack 5°, centre 16.6).

As an aviator sat dreamingly looking at his 'plane and thinking of the money he wouldn't make, he said to his mechanic: "Jake, if the intake pipe were bent, would the gasolene?" Don't let him go up, Manager, he graduated from a correspondence school.

The Wolverine Aeronautic Co. has shipped three machines for China for the revolutionary party. Mr. Wilcox, a member of the firm, has gone there to teach the flying of his machines in military service. A New York concern is also building a number of machines for China.

I consider your magazine the best and most reliable in the aeronautic field. O. Hapner.

Don't be surprised if you get a bill for a year's subscription. Get the habit.

Out of those 700 aeroplanes the Roebling Company must have received some business.

John E. Bissell is getting a worldwide reputation. Even in England they know him most as well as they do White.

Why not get a Pedersen lubricator for your engine and be sure of an oil supply?

You can get tanks, brazing work, all repair jobs, at Reliance people.

As you see, I rely on the solid head making a vacuum behind it, and on top of the single supporting surface, while the pressure below is normal. How much is the pressure on the top surface less than normal, owing to the solid head causing a vacuum or rarifaction above

Have you sent for the Gyro catalogue yet? "Do it now."

Thomas Brothers are still at Bath, flying everv dav: aeroplanes are too common nowadays" for the daily papers to bother about.

AERONAUTICS Page 74 ^February, 1912

U. S. Patents Granted

Copies of any of these patents may be secured by sending five cents in coin to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of patents on absolutely worthless, or even questionable, devices increases rather than decreases.

It would take an entire issue of the magazine to abstract in a fnil and clear manner the claims of the majority of the patents issued. In a great many cases it is even impossible to give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus the patent relates to. In most instances we have used merely the word "aeroplane" or "helicopter" if such it is. Where it is impossible to indicate the class, even, in which the patent belongs, without printing the whole patent, we have used the word "flying machine."

The patents starred (*) are those which may be found of particular interest; but it must be understood we do not pretend to pass judgment upon merits or demerits.

Editor.

•loseph H. Price. Fort Worth, Texas., 1,013,952,

Jan. 9, 1912. AEROPLANE, foot-power. Henry H. Ashlock, Kansas City, Wo., 1,014,031,

Jan. 9, 1912. AEROPLANE, capable of acting

as a parachute. A. R. Monro and Harold Beatty, Berkeley, Cat,

1,014,082, Jan. 9, 1912. EQUILIBRIUM ATTACHMENT. Sylvester M. Williams, San Francisco, Cal.,

1,014,194, Jan. 9, 1912. AEROPLANE. John W. Wolfe, Shenendoah, la., 1.014,276, Jan.

9, 1912. FLYING MACHINE. Herman Ludtke, Ottawa, III., 1,014,239, Jan. 9,

1912. FLYING MACHINE. John P. Buengers, Racine, Wis., 1,014,369, Jan.

9, 1912. KITE. Karoly Zuggo, South Lorain, Ohio., 1,011.430,

Jan. 9, 1912. FLYING MACHINE, .las. H. Craun and Scott Baldwin, Marion, Ind.,

1,014,571, Jan. 9, 1912. TOY amusement device. John J. Donnellev, Denver, Colo., 1,014,643, Jan.

16, 1912. HELICOPTER. *.John W. Way, Edgeworth, Pa.. 1.014,731, Jan.

6, 1912. Special form of SURFACES. Charles Albert Long, Spokane, Wash., 1,014,763,

Jan. 16, 1912. FLYING MACHINE. Otto W. Boche, Meriden, Conn., 1,014,802, Jan.

16, 1912. FLYING MACHINE. George Seifert, Northampton, Pa., 1,014,857, Jan.

16, 1912. FLYING MACHINE with oscillating

valved wings. *George H. Loose, San Francisco, California,

1,015,045, Jan. 16, 1912. STABILITY device;

rolling curtains take the place of ailerons

used in Curtiss machines. *H. L.. A. E. & H. O. Short. London, England,

1,015,090, Jan. 16, 1912. STABILITY device,

using shutters in surfaces to reduce the lift when balancing is required.

Louis Dobbertin, Lake Charles, La., 1,015,150, Jan. 16, 1912. FLYING MACHINE.

Walter Hulbert Lawrence, Harwich Port, Mass., 1,015,197, Jan. 16, 1912. PROPELLER.

Albert E. Lycan, Tahoe, Idaho, 1,015,200. Jan. 16, 1912. HELICOPTER.

Albert Valentine, Thurman, Iowa, 1,015,656, Jan. 23, 1912. HELICOPTER.

Karl L. W. Geest, Munich, Germany, 1,015,674, Jan. 23, 1912. AEROPLANE.

C. A. Judah, Will Valley, and H. R. Sander, Oakland, Cal., 1,015,684, Jan. 23, 1912. PARACHUTE attachment for aeroplanes.

Patrick 1 >. Rlordan, Arnot, Pa., 1,015,711, Jan. 23, 1912. Aeroplane, with vertical mast holding small pivoted surface.

*Paul Louis Antoine Regnard, Paris, France, 1,015,837, .Ian. 30, 1912. LATERAL STABILIZER, electrically operated; electric system actuated by gyroscope.

Jean M. Alleas, Boston, Massachusetts, 1,015,924, Jan. 30, 1912. AEROPLANE, tandem biplane, with planes pivoted on axis transverse line of flight.

♦August R. Lassel, Washington, D. C, 1,016,029, Jan. 30, 1912. STEERING and BALANCING system.

Floyd F. Taylor, Gadsden. Alabama, 1,016,113,

Jan. 30, 1912. TOY Aeroplane. Otto Seydel, New York, N. Y., 1,016,ISO, Jan. 3\

1912. KITE. James Robertson Porter, London, England,

1,016,359, Feb. 6, 1912. AEROPLANE. John L. Roche, Chicago, 111., 1,016,363, Feb. 6,

1912. EQUILIBRIUM], by raising or lowering

a weight.

K. C. &■ F. S. Carpenter, Louisville, Kv., 1,016,609, Feb. 6, 1912. AEROPLANE. David Black, Edwardsville, 111., 1,016,929, Feb. 13, 1912. EQUILIBRIUM by tilting planes on fore and aft axis at engine section. Frederick Brackett, Washington, D. C, 1,017,200, Feb. 13, 1912. DIRIGIBLE as Lookout fcr use on board ships. Joseph J. V. Kaulynskas, Philadelphia, Pa.,

1,017,218, Feb. 13, 1912. RUDDER SYSTEM. Christopher J. Lake, Bridgeport, Conn., 1,017,564, Feb. 13, 1912. PROPELLING APPARATUS employing confined fluid pressure to drive turbine and for jet propulsion.

AUTOMOBILE CLUB MOTOR PRIZE. Fifteen entrants are entered for the $1000 motor prize of the Automobile Club of America. Several makers have withdrawn from the three-hour contest and others have taken their places. Herewith is a complete list of those expected, at the present time, to compete But two of the engines have been tested, the Wright and the Kirkham. Roberts Motor Co. (Roberts) 2C Aeromotion Co. of America (Gnome) Requa Motor Co. (Requa) Albatros Motor Corporation (Albatros) Frank H. Harriman (Harriman) Aerial Equipment Co.* (Anzani*) Maximotor Makers (Maximotor) American Motors & Aviation Co. (A-M) 2CR Chas. B. Fitzpatrick (Fitzpatrick) Detroit Aeroplane Co. (Detroit) H.L.F. Trebert Engine Works (Comet) R Frontier Iron Works (Frontier) Max Aids Machine Co. (M.A.S.) Wright Co. (Wright) Chas. B. Kirkham (Kirkham)

Note:—"2C" denotes 2-cycIe; "R" for rotary. ♦Subsequent to the entry of this motor it developed that this company had not fulfilled all the requirements of the rules governing the test. The company has since gone out of business. There is, therefore, some doubt whether this motor will continue in the competition.

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Some Notes on Propeller Design

(Continwri from page LI) of blade face must be considered. Taking into account the width and v loeity and the gliding angles of the blade at its ditt'eren poiits th -re ar • seve a! reas ns why < lie percentage of camber (eoinpu ed from t e 1 -ngtli of the elm d) s'io Id not be udt'orm. I he e mber sh"u d be greates w'ie e the .< idth isgreatest and should not only be ab-iolut ly greater ait great r in pn>por ion to the vvid h In his; 1 the line e—c is typi al of the corect percentages or coefflciehls of cambe , the camber being rated a* a percentage of the b ade width. It will be seen that this has a maximum of about four per cent, of the blade width somewhat beyond the half blade length and in ihe region of th.- greatest blade width and gliding angle. Frnm here the percentage of camber should diminish toward the extremity to about one and one-half per cent, and toward the hub until it finally becomes zero and usually negative near the center.

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MANUFACTURERS OF

Aeroplane Parts

in Brass, Steel and Aluminum.

Engine mountings for any motor. Also Copper and Brass Tanks of any description.

STEEL TUBE FRAMES TO ORDER

Reliance Auto Parts Manufacturing Company

244-250 West 49th Street, New York City

Telephone 5135 Bryant

* **************************** *

J IT DID FINE *

YES

^BUSINESS

W II EELS

Stock Sizes

Prompt Deliveries

16 x l'i in. Monoplane Tail Wheel. Weight 3 lbs. 20 x 2 in. Curtiss Type. Weight 7 lbs. Rims, either

wood or steel 20 X 2V2 in. Wheels for Single Tube Tire. 20 x 3 in. 20 x 4 in. " Clincher Tire.

24 x 3 in. "

HUBS Furnished 4 x 5 x 5la or 6 inches wide. Fitted with Plain or Knock Out Axle or Bronze Bushed to fit 1 in. Axle. Other Sizes to Order.

FARMAN TYPE RUNNING GEAR 14-INCH STEERING WHEEL

Don't Fail to Get Our Prices 50th Street Atm.,N.Y.

J.A. Weaver, Jr.,Mfr.£^'

AD AMS-FAR WELL

REVOLVING MOTORS

HAVE BEEN IN

But it got smashed and I wanted another

PROPELLER

Just the same as that one but the next one was nothing like it

Isn't this often the case? J

Is it not yours ? -£

If so, are you willing J

to stop and think I

what this ad. means ?

to you ? J

I guarantee uniform £

Propellers. *

Drop me a line. Let £

me help solve your £ propeller troubles.

I THEODORE I. CAMP t

* 177 Milburn Street Rochester, N, Y. *

There's a Reason Why Gray Eagle Motors Made Good Last Year

25 amateurs flew their home-made 'planes with them. Do you want their names and addresses?

The 1912 models are still belter and are fully guaranteed.

We will install either model 30-40 or 6cylinder 50 II. P. in your aeroplane and ailow you free use of our private Aviation Park to try lliem out.

Don't buy a motor until you have tried 11 new model Gray Ivigle at our expense.

ISN'T THAT FAIR? All we warn is a chance to show you. We'll get y our older then.

A visit to our factory would give us an opportunity to demonstrate why we cm sell them at such a low price. They are built in quantities of the best material and sold on a small profit direct from factory to you.

4 Cylinder 30-40 H. P. 6 Cylinder 50 H. P. Complete $485 net Complete $675 net

No Discounts Write for circular describing the new ((.cylinder au<l the improved 4-cyIinder. Vours.l'or the Axkint/.

R. 0. RUBEL, JR. & CO., Inc. :: A™d Floyd Streets, :L JLOUISVILLE, KY.

THE ADAMS

21 ATHOL STREET,

This is our new 72 H.P. AVIATION MOTOR 450 lbs. thrust with 9-ft, propeller of 6-ft. pitch. Ask for our Q/rcular No.16

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A.

r

^ANNOUNCING THE

Mm rtewani'

Aeronautical Motors

and

Propellers

4 Cylinders—40 Horse Power 6 Cylinders—60 Horse Power

-IMMEDIATE DELIVERY-

AH manufacturing concerns, designing and consulting engineers know the B. F. Sturtevant Company as leaders in design and building of Air-Moving Apparatus, special engines and power units for air propulsion and pressure.

The Sturtevant Aeronautical Motors are placed on the market and backed by the Sturtevant reputation and guarantee.

-SEND FOR C ATA LOG E 200-B, STURTEVANT ENGINEERING SERIES-

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY

Main office and Works HYDE PARK, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS Offices in Large Cities

Plant of the B. F. Sturtevant Company. For Fifty Years the Largest Builders of Air Moving Apparatus in the World

I HALL-SCOTT I

! AVIATION POWER PLANTS

* Have proved, in their consistent work during the past two years, t ^^and on account of their general purchase by professional aviators, $ that they excell in EXCELLENCE, RELIABILITY and EFFICIENCY.

•fr Glenn L. Martin, the first flyer to obtain his PILOT'S CERTIFICATE in Southern California,

* with HALL-SCOTT equipment.

* Fred DeKor, E. L. Holt, Beryl Williams, Earle Doherty, and Harry 4. Holmes, are five other flyers who recently obtained their Certificates in % Southern California with use of HALL-SCOTT.

J A dozen other flyers, scattered throughout the Union, have done

* likewise. HALL-SCOTT equipment used, gave them absolute assur-+ ance of success.

% HALL-SCOTT power plants can be depended upon to deliver the

% goods. They are not an experiment, and are now entering upon their

% third year of success.

* Immediate delivery now on 40 and 60 II. P., A-l and A-2 Types.

+ Write today for catalogue

J HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR COMPANY

f San Francisco, California

4^*++A+.l..l..l.+.l.4.+4.+.fr4.*.fr.$.++

In ansrvering advertisements please mention this magazine.


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