Aeronautics

Volume 9 - No. 6 - 1911 December

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Vol. IX, No. 6. DECEMBER, 1911 Serial No. 53

They Never Stop Singing the Praises of

THE ROBERTS MOTOR

rhe Tarbox Automatically Controlled Biplane Powered with a Roberts 4X, Shipped April 1, 1911

Washington, D. C, Nov. 21, 1911.

The Roberts Motor Gompany,

Sandusky, Ohio. Gentlemen :

We must not delay longer writing you of the success we have had with the Roberts Motor which drives our Automatically Controlled Biplane. We are able to start when we want, to fly when we want, for as long as we want, and as high as we want and this without trouble. Through its reliability the motor has made an excellent reputation for itself at College Park where we are now flying.

Very truly yours,

TARBOX SAFETY AIR CRAFT CO.,

Per J. P. Tarbox, Pres.

We have many similar letters. Write for copies and for our catalog. It is Free.

The Roberts Motor Company, 1430 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A.

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, 250 West 54th Street, New York

•L/ece/nocr, 1711

The Kirkham Aviation Motor

50 H.P.

Wt. 235 lbs.

In an aviation motor you must have Power, Reliability, iind as light construction as consistent, but it is also very important that the fuel and oil consumption should be as low as possible.

The Kirkham Aviation Motor (which has been developed after years of experience, building hundreds of lightweight auto motors which, without exception, have been very consistent p( "

to be very economical, of both fuel and oil.

performers in economy contests) are proving

Kirkham Six-cylinder motors will deliver continuously 50 B. H. P. at 1250 r.p.m. on 33 lbs. gasoline and i1- lbs lubricating oil per hour.

The main air supply for carburettor is drawn through gilled copper tubes placed across through oil in reservoir in base, thus warming the air supply and also keeping oil in reservoir cool, which, together with the very efficient system of lubrication makes it possible to run this motor almost indefinitely without fear of bearing troubles

Better write for literature. Aviation Motor.

This space is too small to even mention the many good features in the Kirkham

CHARLES B. KIRKHAM, Mir.

Savona, N. Y,

Warren Eaton, signalling Mr. De Hart in after one of his runs

*

HALL-SCOTT

AVIATION POWER PLANTS

For the year 1912

Will be continued in the three well-known Types 40 to 80 H. P.

November 8, 1911

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co.,

San Francisco, California. Gentlemen:

I wish to call your attention to the fact that our Mr. De Hart, has been doing SOME flying with your motor.

He made the following flights last week: Sunday 22 Min.; Monday 37 Min. over the south end of city; Tuesday 16 Min.; Wednesday 15 Min.; Saturday 1 hr. 20 Min.; left field at 9:20, passed over San Pedro at 9:45, circled over the fleet and passed over Long Beach at 10:08, landed at Thompson Ranch for fuel at 10:10, left ranch at 11:30, and returned to field where landed at 12:20 with every barrell hitting, never a miss.

Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, Eastern Distributor for Hall-Scott Equipments Address, P. 0. Box 78 Madison Square P. 0. Show Rooms 164 W. 46th St., N. Y.

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR COMPANY

SAN FRANCISCO,

CALIFORNIA

*

+ + +

%

*

* + + +

AVIATORS

WANTED

(We Want Aviators for Our Exhibition Teams)

We have completed arrangements to give instructions to a limited number of Students at our Southern Training Camp.

Our Special Pullman Car leaves Chicago for our Training Camp on Jan. 1st. This Car will be for the exclusive use of our Students and Instructors only.

Why You Should Enroll With Us

We pay transportation from Chicago and return. We pay Hotel Bills during period of training. We have competent Instructors.

We have Three Passenger-Carrying Machines, thereby teaching Students under actual conditions, the Art of Flying.

The Total Cost of Instruction, Including Railroad Fares, Pullman Berths, Board and Lodging in Training Camps, is $300.00,

CAN YOU BEAT THAT?

You Can Readily See We Want Aviators, Not Your Money

If impossible lo call at our oIKee, wire for reservation, as only a limited number of Students will be taken on this Special Proposition.

Our Training Camp is Eight Miles Long and One Mile Wide, no Better in the World, Average Temperature, Seventy Degrees All Winter

Aero Exhibition Co.

Continental National Bank Bldg. 206 S. La Salle Street CHICAGO

Wood Finishing for Aeroplanes

A Talk Before the Aeronautical Society By Professor A. H. SABIN

S^jS^jS^jS^JS^jT may be laid down as a fundamental principle that a

sXt y good and durable finish can-

I (S^ not be had without a proper -A. S^J foundation. Fortunately,

M^y^y^y^s^x wooc^ used iR aeroplane

^^^u^u^ui^ construction is as a rule,

WM)WW$®§ quite dry; this is an essen" tial condition for proper finishing. The surface of the wood should be exactly finished to the correct shape; for while paint may hide minor defects, varnish displays and magnifies them. You are all familiar with the use of the rasp, file and sandpaper, which should be carefully and faithfully used; it may be added that in most large towns glass-paper may also be had which for fine surfacing has some advantages over sandpaper.

In using any kind of varnish or paint it is necessary to have each coat well dried before a following coat is applied.—It is not always enough to have it appear so, but time must be allowed for hardening throughout. Perhaps the most common way of finishing woodwork of this class is with shellac varnish, which is a solution of shellac resin (gum shellac) in alcohol. The solvent may be ordinary grain alcohol, the only objection to which is that it is expensive; denatured alcohol is also used but much of this contains kerosene, often as much as 20"To and varnish made with such alcohol is slow to dry, and cannot be recommended for rapid work. Wood alcohol makes good shellac but its vapor is somewhat poisonous; however in large well ventilated rooms, such as are necessary for aeroplane building, the danger is slight, and when the amount of varnish used is small, as is commonly the case, it may be negligible. Shellac varnish appears to dry with extreme rapidity; but this is not altogether the fact. The first coat dries quickly, sinking into the wood; and a second coat may be applied two or three hours later; but at least a day should then elapse before another coat is applied, and after that two or three days should be allowed between coats. Otherwise, if several coats be applied in rapid succession, although each may seem dry to the touch, it will be found that the result is a layer of a somewhat waxy consistency, which will not become quite hard for a long time, and is one of the most vexations and troublesome things imaginable.

If you have several coats of this varnish, well dried, you may, if you like, rub down the surface with pumice and cold water. For this you should have a felt pad, three or

four inches square and half an inch or more in thickness. This may be had of dealers in painters' supplies. Wet this thoroughly with water, sprinkle on some finely powdered pumice stone, and rub the surface lightly but continuously until it has become smooth. Use plenty of cold water. Then wash it clean and dry it with a clean dry cloth or chamois leather. It is then, after air-drying for a time, in condition to receive more varnish. The final surface may, after rubbing in this way, be polished by rubbing with a polishing-powder, such as the finest rotten-stone, and may receive a finishing touch by rubbing with fine dry flour.

Shellac is ordinary yellow or orange in color; but white shellac may also be had. This latter is made by bleaching the yellow shellac resin with chlorine. It is not as durable as the other, but is probably the varnish which discolors the wood least of any which you can properly use. Shellac is not very durable when exposed to the weather, but neither are aeroplanes, and within doors it is durable.

Other varnishes are made from linseed oil combined with certain resins, which are obtained from tropical countries.—The most important qualities of such varnishes naturally depend on the proportion of the oil and the resin. The more oil is used, the more elastic and durable will be the varnish; the more resin is used, the harder and more brilliant it will be, and quicker to dry.

Such are called oleoresinous varnishes, and of this sort are probably nine-tenths of all the varnishes used in this country for all purposes.

A suitable oleoresinous varnish may be applied directly to the wood, if desired, as was done with shellac; and in this way a foundation and finally a finish may be obtained. But it is more usual to prepare the wood by the use of a filler, as it is called; something to fill up the pores of the surface of the wood. This may be what is known as a paste filler, the best of which are composed of silica, that is, powdered quartz rock, ground to a fine powder and mixed with a little hand-drying varnish. This paste filler is thinned with turpentine and applied to the wood. When nearly dry it is rubbed hard with a stiff brush, or sometimes with a handful of curled hair, or excelsior, to rub it well into the pores of the wood, and to remove the excess. When this is quite dry, it may be lightly rubbed with fine sandpaper, and then the varnish may be applied.

(Continued on page 225)

AERONAUTICS

Page 190

Decenber, 1911

Competition of Military Aeroplanes

By Lieut. RILEY E. SCOTT, Foreign Representative Held under the Auspices of the French Ministry of War

S^I^S^jS^J^P^ tlle °f November, 1910, ^X^t\!tXi£A^X the French .Minister of War, SH General Brim, issued a pro-I 1 W$ gram for a competition of y*^ military aeroplanes, to beSt* gin on the first day of ^(^^^(^ October, 1911, and to eon-j^j^JKSS^jS^ tinue for at least one month. rv^r^rf^N(r§^ Copies of this program were i^i^i^i^&i!* furnished to constructors at that time, thus giving them nearly a year to prepare for this event.

This great competition in which thirty-one aeroplanes were entered has just been completed and the final classification announced. The severity of the tests and the value of the prizes make this the greatest event in the history of military aviation and demonstrate to the world that France is at the head of military aviation and intends to maintain that position. In fact, this competition proves conclusively, and onpe for all, that the aeroplane has become an important factor in modern warfare, as the French call it, "the fourth arm," and that the nation which neglects the development of this arm does so at its peril.

The general conditions to be fulfilled by all competing machines were the following:

(a) To be constructed entirely in France with the greatest care and of the finest materials.

(b) To be able to fly, without landing, over a closed circuit of 300 kilometers (1S6 miles).

(c) To be able to carry over this course a useful load of 300 kilograms (GG0 pounds), in addition to gasoline, oil, water, etc., necessary for the trip.

(d) To be furnished with three seats, one each for the pilot, a mechanician and an observer.

(e) To be able to maintain a mean speed of at least GO kilometers per hour.

(1) To be able to alight without accident on stubble ground, plowed ground, sowed and clover land, and to be able to arise therefrom.

(g) To he easily transported, whether dismantled or not, by road and by rail, and to be easily and rapidly put together without minute adjustments.

After having satisfied a committee that it was entitled to enter the competition, each machine had to go through a severe series of tests, known as elimination tests. Thofe machines fulfilling all of the elimination tests were entitled to take part in the final test, for classification. The elimination tests were as follows:

(a) The machine was weighed and all parts stamped. Any part could be replaced during the tests by an exact duplicate, but no modification was allowed, except in the case of propellers and wheels. It was necessary, however, to begin the tests over when a part was replaced.

(b) Each constructor was required to declare the amount of gas and oil required for a flight of 300 kilometers. The tanks were then gauged, and this amount of gas and oil put in before each flight.

(c) 1st flight, cross-country, carrying 300 kilograms useful weight and landing on clover ground between two flags about 75 meters apart. Each machine was then required to rise from the same ground, circle and re-alight on the same ground. The machine was then dismantled and taken to •the starting point by road.

(d) Same as above except the ground for landing was stubble.

(e) Same as (c) except the ground was plowed.

(f) Speed trial, a round trip of 60 kilometers, which was also a test as to the amount of gasoline and oil declared for 300 kilometers. In case there was a shortage of less than 10 per cent, it was necessary to recommence the trials. In case there was a shortage of more than 10 per cent., the machine was eliminated from the competition.

(g) Height test, each machine required to attain height of 500 meters in 15 minutes or less, carrying load of 300 kilograms. This test to be duplicated. This concluded the elimination tests.

The elimination tests had to be completed by October 31st, after which the proper committee designated the machines which, having satisfied all of the elimination tests, were to be admitted to the final test for classification. There was no appeal from the decision of this committee. The following machines, out of an entry of over thirty, were designated to take part in the final competition:

1 Nieuport monoplane

2 Deperdussin monoplanes 2 Breguet biplanes

1 H. Farman biplane

2 At. Farman biplanes 1 Savary biplane

The final race over a course of 300 kilometers, known as the classification test, was as follows: "This test comprises a return-trip flight of a length of 300 kilometers, without alighting, carrying a useful load of

300 kilograms, the departures being given by the committee on a day fixed by it and at intervals of five minutes in the order previously determined by lot." Contestants were allowed three trials each. After one of the most interesting races in the history of aviation, in which eight out of the nine designated machines completed the prescribed circuit, the following classification was announced:

1. Weyman (Nieuport monoplane, 100 H.P. Gnome motor, Chauviere propeller, average speed, 116.9 kilometers per hour.)

2. Moineau (Breguet biplane, 140 H.P. Gnome Motor, Chauviere propeller average speed, 95 kilometers per hour.)

3. Prevost (Deperdussin monoplane, 100 H.P. Gnome motor, Chauviere propeller, average speed, ST.5 kilometers per hour.)

4. Bregi (Breguet biplane, 100 H.P. Gnome Motor, Chauviere propeller average speed, S7 kilometers per hour.)

5. Fischer (H. Farman biplane, 100 H.P. Gnome motor, Chauviere propeller, average speed, 84.4 kilometers per hour.)

6. Barra (M. Farman biplane, 70 H.P. Renault motor, Chauviere propeller, average speed, 76 kilometers per hour.)

7. Renaux (M. Farman biplane, 70 H.P. Renault motor, Chauviere propeller, average speed, 72.3 kilometers per hour.)

8. Frantz (Savary biplane, 70 H.P. Labor-Aviation motor, Chauviere propeller, average speed, 67 kilometers per hour.)

According to the original program, the following rewards were to be given to the winners, although it is said that supplementary orders will be given to those constructors who made a good showing but were not classed among the winners:

To the constructor of the first machine, the sum of 100,000 fr. upon the delivery of the machine to the State; an order for ten

machines at 40,000 fr. each, with a bonus on each machine of 500 fr. for each kilometer greater than 60 made by the winning machine.

To the constructors of the machines classed second and third, orders for six and for four machines, respectively, for which the sum of 40,000 fr. each will be paid, with a bonus as mentioned above.

It will thus be seen that the prizes, in the shape of orders, are as follows:

NIEUPORT.

For the winning machine......... $20,000

10 machines, at 40,000 fr........... 80,000

Bonus on 10 machines............. 56,900

BREGUET.

6 machines at 40,000 fr............. $48,000

Bonus on 6 machines.............. 35,000

DEPERDUSSIN.

4 machines at 40,000 fr............ $32,000

Bonus on 4 machines.............. 27,500

({rand total $299,400 Scale drawings and full details of the Deperdussin were published in the October issue. In the current number will be found some interesting data on the Nieuport.

Geo. H. Schmidt has just installed a model 2 Maximotor in the Bleriot he had built by the National Aero Co. of Woodhaven, N. Y.

Reports from Honolulu indicate considerable activity bv P. A. Schaefer of the well-known importing firm of G. E. Schaefer & Co., Ltd. His Maximotored plane is believed to be the sole aeroplane between San Francisco and Yoka-hama.

When we can see these things ahead of us it amazes us to find an aero club boasting because its clubhouse is the finest in the land, and yet find its membership composed of men who ask if parachute attachments wouldn't be good.***** Soon we will have aero clubs as Droud of aeroplanes as they are today of clubhouses, and then great things will come.

Walter Brookins in X. Y. Times.

A view of the Etrich from Underneath.

1

The Etrich Monoplane VI-VIII

By FRITZ EDELSTEIN

FOREMOST place amongst K£jh^i£i\£&& the great pioneers of A &x mechanical flight must be /\ given to Igo Etrich, who is

the first Austrian aeroplane x£< builder. Not merely con-

S^j^jS^l^jS^ tent with constructing a r^^r^^rl^ machine that would only MMMMM Ay. he has probed more ^^]^^)^5 deeply into this problem, in v^ix-^x^x^^t 01-(jer to evolve an aeroplane naturally stable in a disturbed medium. From the flight pioneers Dunne and Weiss in England and Etrich in Austria, whose researches have all resulted in the discovery of the improvement of longitudinal stability by the incorporation of the negatively-incident thrown-back wing tips, Etrich from the first has worked on independent lines.

Like our greatest aviators, the famous Wright Bros., Igo Etrich commenced his experiments by the study of gliding and bird flight in the year 189S, when he acquired the well-known Lilien thai-glider. Further he studied the propulsive organs of every kind of flying animal,—birds, insects, bats, flying fish, and even went to the extent of investigating the different species of flying seeds, those of sycamore and pine, for instance, which are so abundant in the vegetable kingdom.

Experiments with a Zanonia-form glider, of his own design, commenced in 1904 at Trautenau and during the year glides of up to three-quarters of a mile in length were made by lng. Wels.

It was not until 1909, that a power-driven monoplane was evolved, which, piloted by Illner, soon captured all Austrian records, Since then it has undergone improvement after improvement, and to-day is universally ranked among the most successful and most scientifically designed of air-craft.

Recently, Etrich has constructed three new types of his bird-winged monoplane, and we will describe first of all the type VI—VIII, called "The Dove".

The most outstanding features are the Zamonia-formed bird wings (Sheet I) which merit a careful study. Reference to the accompanying sketches and diagrams will

facilitate description. The front part of each wing, is rigidly constructed of webbed ribs, built over three longitudinal spars, of which the forward one forms the leading edge. This section is double surfaced (i. e. on both sides) with Continental fabric. Behind the rear beam extend bamboo continuations of the ribs, which, covered with a single surface of fabric, form a flexible trailing edge.

The camber is very slight, even at the point where the wings are attached to the fuselage, together with the angle of incidence, towards the tip, which is flat and presents successive negative angle of incidence to the direction of flight. The flexible wing tips are within turned up at the rear and so gi\ e the ends of both wings an effective negative angle of incidence. It is to this feature that the Etrich monoplane owes its pronounced degree of natural stability. Lateral balance is maintained by raising either wing tip by means of a cable, which, passing over a pulley situated at the top of the king-post, divides up into eight wires connected to the flexible extremities of the wing. A cable passing over the lower end of the king-post lowers the opposite tip a corresponding amount. Enormous strength is imparted to the wing by a bridge-like structure of steel tubing, which embraces the middle wing spar and is attached below the under surface-strength which renders them capable of withstanding strains many times in excess of those that they are likely to be called upon to bear in flight.

A small wheel mounted at the lower extremity of the king-post protects the wing-tip from contact with the ground. The bird-tail pivots in one unit about a horizontal axis. The rear portion is the elevator, controlled by warping the horizontal tail plane. Two small triangular vertical rudders, one above and the other below the horizontal tail plane, are hinged to the rear edges of two triangular stabilizing fins and are operated by means of pedals from driver's seat (Sheet II). Elevation and lateral balance are controlled by a rotatable hand wheel, mounted at the top of a vertical

Scale Drawing of Etrich Monoplane.

Sheet VII.—Middle Section of the Main Plane and Rib Curves.

column (Sheet III). In the matter of under-carriage the Etrich VI-VII monoplane has a Bleriot-type landing chassis with a central-ash skid, which is movable in any direction together with the rudder by pedal operation. It is also possible to steer the machine, when turning on the ground. (Sheet II.)

The body of Etrich VI-VIII monoplane is a fish-shaped structure of four wooden longitudinal spars, cross braced by wire. From the engine seat, which is mounted at its forward end, the body deepens and widens in the vicinity of pilot's seat, from where, still preserving its triangular cross-

section, gradually tapers away to the tail, where it terminates in a vertical line. To avoid internal disturbance in the air discharge, the body is covered in front with metal sheeting and aft with fabric.

Very ingenious is the construction and disposition of the inverted "V" shaped radiator, which is mounted above the passenger's seat.

In case when the water pump of the engine, refuses to work, then is a very effective circulation guaranteed of the hot water by thermosiphon action, which is favored by this disposition of the radiator.

The manufacture of the Etrich monoplane has been standardized into four types: a two seater touring machine (as here described) of 45/60 h.p. Bosch equipped Daimler engine, a single seater racer of similar power, a 120 h.p. three seater, touring machine, and a similarly engined racer to carry two.

A few days ago Igo Etrich has at Trau-tenan completed a new wonderful stable-type "swallow", whose description we will give later.

Three new world's records were established recently by Etrich aeroplanes in Austria.

Lieut. Bier, flying in an Etrich monoplane, powered with a Bosch-Equipped Daimler motor, flew with one passenger 155.25 miles on October 1st. On October 4th he flew with two passengers 69.55 miles, and on September 2Sth he made an altitude record with two passengers, of 3937.2 feet.

/ hope Aeronautics iri7J conlinnc as it bryan in quality, and that its readers will steadily increase.— <i. \V. IIolme.s.

The Hamilton Biplane

By THOS. F. HAMILTON

NEW and original biplane is the product of the Hamilton Aero Mfg. Co., of Seattle, Wash. This company perfected a hydroaeroplane this summer that gave excellent results, propelled by a 6 cyl. 60-90 h. p. Elbridge. In working on the hydro lines it was discovered that the ordinary aero propeller used was too weak to stand the spray in rough weather and after experimenting they developed a strong hydroaeroplane propeller. Different fabric and metal covers were applied in many different methods to protect the blades from the spray with results that developed the Hamilton hydroaero propeller to the extent that the makers believe they have a" most strong and efficient propeller for that use.

The Hamilton factory has also produced a biplane of the general type which has given a good account of itself in the hands of Thos. F. Hamilton by making many successful flights with practically no accidents. This machine was destroyed by fire before any extended flights could be made. It was sold to be used for exhibition purposes in Canada. This was equipped with an Adams-Farwell rotary motor and a Hamilton propeller. Several more on the same lines are under construction being headless and have the same size and type of planes as the new Hamilton X.

The following is a description of the new machine. The main supporting surface is composed of twelve sections: four heavy ones, four feet long; and eight light, six foot ones. The span is thirty-two ft. and the chord is five ft. having more than three hundred sq. ft. of supporting surface. The four foot sections comprise the centre planes and are built extra strong, the ribs being one foot apart. The outer six foot sections are lighter than the inner and the ribs are placed farther apart. The lateral beams are oval selected Oregon Spruce, as

is most of the construction, except in the centre or where the stresses are great. Here ash, hickory, and steel tubing is employed. The ribs are fastened to the top of the front beam by a small steel socket or ferrule and pass under the rpar cnp. there held in place by a screv. The 1 i is held to the ribs by pocket.v and also covers the front beam. There is no lacing. There are ribs at the ends of all sections and each section is separate. They connect at the uprights by steel plates and are very easily demounted. A light and small steel tube is used to hold the ends of the outer ribs from bending in due to the strains of the cloth. Small hooks are used to fasten the end ribs of adjoining sections together. A wire passes over the tips of the ribs to keep the cloth from bagging.

The uprights are four feet, ten inches long and fish-shaped at the middle, tapering to round at the ends on which are fastened a ferrule and a permanent lag-screw. This screw goes several inches into the upright and is very solid and will not work loose from vibration. The upright is held to the plate by this lag-screw which is threaded and has a lock washer to hold the nut from possibly coining loose. Between the end of the upright and the steel plate is placed the terminal to which is fastened the turn-buckles. The cable guys are firmly secured to the clip and soldered solid. The cables are wired and soldered together wherever they cross and each cable has a turn-buckle. The centre cell and other places subject to great strain are double cabled. Roebling's cable is used throughout the machine. The cable connections make packing convenient as they and the uprights are placed together in a rack in the order that they are set in the plane so that the machine may be set up without loose cables to bother with.

A portable extension plane is provided and can be easily attached to the upper plane for passenger carrying or duration flights where great weights are carried. They are attached to steel plates with a

Scaie Drawing of Hamilton "X" Biplane.

chrome-leather hinge. Two small light steel tubes, one to each beam are used to hold the plane and take either compression or tension strain. These tubes may be quickly detached and the extension planes folded against the uprights so that the aeroplane may be placed in a shed of limited size. These extensions are made in four or six foot lengths and add forty or sixty square feet to the supporting plane. They are usually set at a slight dihedral angle.

The ribs, which are three laminations of spruce, are flexible at the rear and have a slight inverse curve on the theory that the angle of incidence automatically adjusts itself according to the weight carried and the speed. This may also help to maintain stability by absorbing the sudden gusts and puffs by their flexibility on the outer sections.

The construction of the fuselage is ash, hickory, spruce and steel. The rear section of the frame is made of spruce, the longitudinal members tapering slightly to the ends and meeting on the entering edge of the elevator and are well trussed by many upright members. The last foot is made solid by a piece of wood placed between the spars as they come together. This is rigidly guyed with piano wire, each wire having a turn-buckle. There are not as many cross bars in the trail-frame as uprights. This section is joined to the forward section a little behind the pilot's cock-pit. Both sections are about the same length so that they may be packed in the same case without waste of space. The rear section is very easily detached to facilitate storage in a small space. The front section is mostly covered by an aluminum hood. The balance is enclosed by fabric. This hood may be detached as easily as an automobile hood, from the frame members to give access to the motor, fuel tanks, and controls. It also forms a protection for the pilot, the cockpit being at the rear of the hood, provided with a pneumatic pad around the edges to protect the pilot in case of an accident or rough landing. The whole cock-pit is designed to preserve the safety and comfort of the pilot and passenger as much as possible. The foot rest is provided at the end of a slatted floor. A passenger or student would sit on one side of the control pillar and the pilot on the other. It may be operated by either person at will. This greatly facilitates teaching in a practical manner. When no passenger is carried the pilot sits with the pillar between his legs. The cockpit is kept warm by the heat of the motor in a novel fashion that also protects the pilot and fuel tanks shpuld the motor take fire. This protection is much neglected in most machines.

A speed-indicator, revolution-counter, gasoline-gauge, oil-gauge, inclinometer, and lamp-carrier are before the pilot.

The stabilizing planes start a little behind the cock-pit and gradually widen to the

elevator. They are made of spruce and surfaced on both sides, being attached to the fuselage by light metal clamps and small steel tubes. No lacing. This surface is non-lifting, and may be slightly adjusted. These planes contain approximately forty square feet.

The elevator is more than sixteen feet to the rear of the center of gravity and is secured to the stabilizer by eye bolt and chrome leather hinges. A mast to which the rudder is hinged supports the guy-wires and the control cable is attached to it. This plane, semi-elliptical in shape, is also double surfaced, as are all control planes, and contains about eighteen square feet. This surface has a slight inverse curve.

To the mast that holds the elevator guy-wires is hinged the vertical rudder which is intersected below the center by the elevator and can be operated without coming in contact with it. The rudder surface is about seven square feet and may be operated regardless of the angle of the elevator as it moves with it.

Lateral stability is maintained by the use of two biplane ailerons which are hinged to the rear uprights. Again chrome leather is used to hinge the small uprights between the ailerons, which are double controlled by two different independent systems. Both sets total about forty-five square feet, each plane being two by six feet. When one set depresses the other lifts.

The controls are instinctive, all being governed by hand from a single pillar. Steering is accomplished by turning the wheel in the same manner as an auto or boat. The elevator is operated by moving the pillar fore and aft while the lateral stability is maintained by moving the pillar from side to side. The magneto cut-out is on the pillar and the advance and throttle are at the seat. A valve for shutting off the gasoline is at the left hand. This should be done on a rotary motor before the switch is thrown in to make certain that the engine will not keep on running from the heat of the cylinders. All control wires are doubled and at the terminals are fastened by a snap hook as well as a turn-buckle.

The chassis is of the shock-absorbing variety and is exceptionally strong. The two wheels are equipped with 24x3 detachable tires and a combination rubber and steel spring device. This is well designed and braced with steel tubing of several times the necessary strength. There is a laminated ash skid in the center and when the machine is on the ground it rests on the rear end of this skid which is metal shod for two feet. It absorbs the sudden shocks of rough landings and distributes them over a great area. The terminals of the wheel forks at the longitudinals are braced to the fuselage by eight steel tubes for the same reason. This also greatly strengthens the fuselage. The skid projects

(Continued on pwje ;?0.f/)

S^S^^JS^S^IE designer of this machine ^fk*A^k£Ag^ the late M. Edouard Nieu-sS( port, has aimed to develop §♦§1 I ^j) a macnme> the features of JL which would be simplicity,

X&t &£i efficiency and speed. That "

ne ^as heen successful can W^^^^%W^i °e seen by an examination of

the machine, which is, per-^u^S^S^^^S haps, the simplest looking

machine that has been produced. Its efficiency, as compared with that of other machines, is vouched for by the fact that, at one time, one of 'these machines equipped with a 30 h.p. motor held the speed record, the speed itself being within two miles of that made by the winning-machine at Belmont Park last year which was equipped with a 100 h.p. engine. The 70 h.p. Nieuport made a speed of 74.S miles per hour in the last Gordon Bennett. Weyman's 100 h.p. Nieuport made 7S miles per hour. The 30 h.p. made 58.9 miles

speed in the same race. The 1910 Gordon Bennett was won with a 100 h.p. Bleriot which made 61 miles per hour.

The machine described herein was a 50 h.p. Gnome engine, 2-place machine.

The Main Planes are built upon two main spars of ash, the center lines of which are shown in the plan view. Between the spars are run three light battens merely to tie the ribs together. The ribs, which are spaced about 13 inches, are built up in the usual manner, being of "I" section, with the webs perforated for the sake of lightness. The box ribs are built up by using two webbs and wider top and bottom flanges. The rib curve varies in each rib, decreasing toward the wing tips, going down to a flat bow. The curve given in the sketch might be taken as the standard curve allowance being made for the different chord at various places, and also for the different thickness of the spar, which, by the way, tapers both ways from a straight central portion. It

The Nieuport Monoplane

will be noticed that there is a slight reverse curve on the under surface at the trailing edge, while it is very pronounced on the upper surface. Each wing is trussed with two heavy stranded cables top and bottom to each spar, and are set at a slight dihedral angle.

The Fuselage longitudinals are of ash, rectangular in section and are channeled out between the struts for the sake of lightness. The struts are also of rectangular section, except those over the skid struts, which are steel tubing. The connections between the struts and longitudinal members are made by aluminum castings to which the wire bracing is anchored. The whole structure is inclosed in fabric.

The control system is a little unusual, in that the warp is accomplished by the feet, while the elevator and the rudder are operated by a hand lever, which is mounted by

a swrivel-joint on a short shaft that lies along the floor inside the body. A forward and backward movement of this lever operates the elevator by wires passing around pulleys mounted at the ends of the rock shaft. A lateral movement of the lever actuates the rudder wires by means of a crank, which is formed by the extension of the rear pulley sheave, and which is, of course, fixed permanently to the rock shaft. The elevators are semi-circular in plan, and are constructed of steel tubing frames covered with fabric on both sides. The construction of the fixed plane is also of steel tubing.

The Running Gear is composed entirely of steel members, the central skid, leaf-spring axle and the oval skid struts being composed of this material. The "V" members are made up as a unit and can be slipped over the skid and put in place in a short time should repairs become necessary.

A 50 h.p. Gnome is fitted, the propeller being S feet by 4 inches in diameter. Weyman's Nieuport (100 h.p.) in the last military competition, made 72.6 miles an hour average over a 1S6 mile course carrying two extra people.

A photo of the Nieuport chassis.

IIZ6.

Scale Drawing of Nieuport with Wing Data.

S^jS^jS^SS^jS^^VEN models of the new jjf* Bleriot Type XXI have been 2$ *~*<\ sm delivered to the French ^ army after very successful >v| trials, with prizes awarded

is* sSt for extra lifting capacity,

^1^^^^^!^! economy in fuel, etc. S^SS^i^iS^i^S Tllis type nad already ^rf^rv^rf^rS^ Deen tried out in France S^&u&u!^!^ ky Lieut. Yence and in England by the late Lieut. Cammell who covered with it about 3000 kilometres in two months just before his terrible fall where experimenting with an English Aeroplane. The aviation officers at Chalais who have driven it obtained with it a speed of 96 kilometres per hour. The driver has a very clear view, the seat being placed forward near the front edge of the planes.

Th leading characteristics of the machine are as follows: Motor, Gnome, 7 cylinders, 70 h.p.; total length, 8 meters 240; span across wings, 11 meters; carrying surface, 25.2 sq. meters; weight when empty, 330 kilograms; contents of gasoline tank under seat, 78 litres; Normal reserve supply 35 litres; contents of oil tank, 35 litres; duration of run, about 3 hours; Speed, 90 kilometres.

This apparatus, specially worked out for military needs, has two seats placed side by side covered by a hood which also covers the motor. The driving members of the apparatus are so arranged as to permit either one of the aviators to guide the machine. For this purpose two pedals are provided in front of the temporary driver and operate the direction rudder control. Ex-

perience has shown that the member controlling the wing twisting as well as the ascent and descent can be easily operated by either of the occupants without exchanging places. A movable bar placed across the frame carries the instruments necessary for navigation, such as the map-holder, anemometer, altimeter, etc., these instruments being capable of sliding on said bar and of changing their relative positions at the will of the occupants of the machine.

The rear part of the frame is completely covered with canvas and the lateral surfaces present a form tapered toward the rear. The purpose of this feature is to diminish the resistance of the tail to lateral gusts and, in a way, to balance it with the forward surfaces subjected to the same gusts. This gives the apparatus as a whole a very graceful form.

The horizontal rudder is arranged at the rear of this surface and a little in front thereof is found the direction rudder arranged alone at the upper part of the frame.

A landing runner, of supple wood and very long, completes the rear of the apparatus. The purpose of this exceedingly deep runner is to force the apparatus when at rest to be greatly inclined toward the rear, which increases the angle of incidence of the planes meeting the resistance to flight, the air acting as a brake upon landing, which is thus accomplished in an entirely normal manner and on a comparatively short run.

Aeronautics is the finest magazine of its kind, and I wish it every success.—Louis K. Miller.

\

Military Bleriot, Type XXI

D. C. De Hart in Eaton Biplane.

The Eaton Brothers Biplane

By CLEVE T. SHAFFER

g^Sgj^^gSj BIPLANE of the Curtiss->$4 Farman type that is doing fkx. » ikx good work is the new III /-\ Hi! school machine of the Eaton Brothers at their WWW^WW^ grounds near Los Angeles. N^N^N^H^^ Tlie macnme> a large and ip/^SW^j^ strongly built biplane, has ^^^^^1 a number of novel features, which will become apparent upon close inspection of the photos. One's attention is first drawn to the long forward extension of the skids, and their large dimensions, 2"x21/4"; a heavy strut runs from the leading edge of the upper plane to a point on the skid, an excellent combination for a school machine, being well calculated to take the shock of a too steep landing.

A noticeable feature which, however, is open to criticism, is the large-sized "blinkers" used. It is doubtful if they perform much service in turning, inasmuch as the elevator has the usual vertical triangles, and so much surface (triangles and blinkers) with such a leverage has a tendency to dampen the rudder effect and might prove somewhat difficult to manage in a side wind. That difficulty has been experienced from this cause can be seen by the large rudder employed; its dimensions are 4'S"x3'3". Again, the blinkers being so far below the center of gravity (unlike the Wright) might prove troublesome.

The new Farman arrangement of pilot and passenger seat is here evident. The two beams carrying the seats are held in place at the front by wir^s which support their share of the weight, at the rear the beams are bolted to the leading edge of the lower plane.

The running gear struts are entirely of steel tubing, the ends of which fit into sockets and are held in place with a cotter pin, a good feature allowing of quick disassemb-

ling. A steel strap is placed diagonally between the skid struts.

Control is by single lever and foot yoke as shown. The Farman flaps extend two sections on the top plane and one section on the bottom, and are worked both up and down, upper and lower flaps being connected by wires, the control wires are attached to the masts.

Spread is 35 feet. Planes are double covered, the top and bottom surfaces of the plane are 2" apart at widest point.

This shape of rib is claimed by the Batons to be very efficient, and is the result of considerable experiment.

A Hall-Scott 60 h.p. A.2 engine turns an Eaton propeller of 7'9" diameter—4'6" pitch, blade lQx/2" wide.

The Eaton Bros, have made a number of successful machines, including one for Chas. F. Walsh, and have now turned their attention to school work. One of their pupils, D. C. De Hart of Los Angeles, has made a number of good flights and will soon try for his license.

On Nov. 4, 1911, D. C. De Hart left the aviation ground of the Eaton Bros. & Co., at Hyde Park, Cal. in an Eaton biplane, and made a cross country flight which raises him into the rank of a skilled aviator.

He left the field about 9:30 a.m. and returned about 1:30 p.m. He had been making short flights into the surrounding coun-trj before this. In these short flights he landed in some favorable place and after inspecting his machine returned to the field.

On the morning in question he planned to fly to San Pedro and out over the harbor where the Pacific fleet lay at anchor.

The program was carried out without a hitch. After leaving the field he headed straight for Dominguez field, at an altitude of about 1000 feet. lie passed this field and continued on to San Pedro passing out over

AERONAUTICS

Page 204

the fleet. The sailors cheered him lustily as he flew over at an altitude of 1500 feet. He then continued on along the beach to Long Beach. He swung over this town and headed again for Dominguez field near which he landed in order to take on gasoline.

On his return to Hyde Park he had to face a heavy head wind which kept him busy, and on his arrival at the point of starting at about 1:30 he had acquired a sharp appetite for the dinner that was awaiting him.

A Detail View of the Eaton Machine.

The Hamilton Biplane

(Continued from page 19S)

five feet ahead of the wheels which prevents the machine from standing on its nose, and also protects the propeller. The wheels are placed well ahead of the center of gravity so as to prevent this tendency in steep descents or rough landings. It will also be noted that when the wheels absorb the shock they move forward thus moving the weight farther back.

The motive power is furnished by a 50 h.p. Gnome equipped with an eight foot Hamilton propeller. Sufficient fuel is carried for a four hour flight. Another tank may be easily placed with a pressure pump for the pilot to the gravity tanks, which are built with many compartments to prevent the fuel from rolling from side to side. It is expected that American motors will be tried in future machines according to the requirements of the customers.

This type of machine will be fitted with a float and tried out early next spring. The price of this model equipped with a 50 h.p.. Gnome is $4,500 and $3,500 for a 50 h.p. Anzani or Indian. Several of these machines will be built for customers this winter and an attempt will be made to have, machines for immediate delivery in the near future.

In France, the number of machines delivered! for military purposes in 1911 is about 75,. states Louis Bleriot to AEROXAUT1CS, and has in addition orders for more than 100 new machines.

In foreign countries, lie has actually delivered the following numoer of machines: Russia: 11 single and 10 2-place. Italy: {J single and 1 two-place. Roumania: 3 single and 1 two-place. England: 2 two-place. Japan: 1 single seat. Austria: 1 single seat.

Others have been sold through agents. The-number sold for civilian purposes is about 130.

AhKUlVAUllLS

December, 1911

QUEEN AEROPLANE CO.

The possibilities of the

HYDROAEROPLANE

have a strong appeal at present, and we are therefore perfecting the design of a new machine,

The QUEEN "AEROBOAT"

a combination aeroplane and boat rendering aero-planing safer and more reliable and boating more exhilarating. This machine is to be ready for the coming season.

We have several Queen Bleriot type monoplanes, one and two passenger, 30 to 100 h. p., ready for quick delivery, at prices ranging from $3,500 up.

QUEEN AEROPLANE CO.

197th St. and Amsterdam Ave. NEW YORK CITY

The Ellsworth Lateral Stabilizer

By CLEVE T. SHAFFER

{HAS. P. Walsh, the well known Southern California aviator, has just concluded a series of successful experiments with the Ellsworth Equilibrator, having made up to the present, thirty-one flights in which the lateral balance of a Curtiss-type aeroplane was left entirely to the automatic device, the usual shoulder forks being disconnected.

This device, the invention of a Portland, Ore., man, now being marketed by the Ellsworth Aviation Company of that city, is probably the first lateral stabilizer that has been actually tried out on an aeroplane with successful results; the Doutre being a longitudinal stabilizer.

human agency. This I found by having the wires from the ailerons connected to my steering post, which was pulled from side to side by the action of the equilibrator in maintaining a balance before I was even aware that the balance had been disturbed." In turning corners the equilibrator banks the aeroplane automatically by having the mechanism connected to and controlled by the steering wheel, thereby banking the aeroplane at just the required angle for the turn.

In the above statement it will be noted that in turning corners the equilibrator will automatically bank the machine at the right angle. A point not made clear, however, is that the amount of bank or angle is always at instant command of the operator should he desire it more or less.

Some of the advantages claimed for the

The Machinery of the Ellsworth Stabilizer.

The equilibrator tried by Walsh is a combination of pendulum and electric action; also rotary motion received from the engine crank shaft the pendulum, of course is used to denote variation from the horizontal: electricity is used in the intermittent transmission of pendulum action to an electromagnetic clutch.

In the illustration the equilibrator can be seen back of Walsh and under the Hall-Scott engine.

In an interview Walsh stated: "In a series of tests with this device on a Curtiss-type biplane under varying conditions in every case the equilibrator responded instantly to the least variation from the horizontal far more quickly than it could be detected by

device are as follows: —

It will hold an aeroplane level under all conditions unless the angle be deliberately changed by the operator.

In banking an aeroplane, the automatic balance is not in any way interfered with. The angle at which it works is changed only.

In circling to the right or left the equil ibrator is automatically adjusted, by the action of the rudder, to bank the aeroplane at exactly the required angle.

Although the driving power of the equilibrator may be taken directly from the engine of an aeroplane yet it does not depend upon such driving power, for should the speed of the engine be reduced, an elec-

Charles F. Walsh In Machine Fitted with Stabilizer. The Apparatus Is Located in the Wooden Frame underneath the Motor. The Wires AA Run to the Ailerons. Ellsworth is seen in his shirt sleeves.

trically driven motor will automatically cut in and drive the equilibrator mechanism long enough for the operator to make a safe landing.

It is obvious that electric motor and storage battery weight (if the latter is used), is not included in given weight of 18 lbs.

Though no information is at hand it is possible ;that instead of a storage battery a small dynamo driven by a fan or fans utilizing the aeroplanes, speed will be used.

The construction and detail of this remarkable device is very interesting. Dimensions are: length 16", width 9", height 8", weight 18 pounds. The mechanism consists of two rotating electro-magnets driven in opposite directions by a gear pinion. An armature between the magnets is keyed to a drum shaft so that a rotation of the armature causes a relative rotation of the drum.

The drum carries the aileron cable. An electric circuit is completed by either arm of a pendulum dipping into a mercury cup, upon the listing of the aeroplane. One of the rotating magnets is then excited and

grasps the armature, thereby revolving the drum. The drum shaft, however, terminates in a gear; the block containing the mercury cup is so attached to the gear wheel, that the rotation of the gear wheel will drop the cup away from the pendulum arm, breaking the circuit and leaving the ailerons set to right the aeroplane. As the aeroplane comes back to normal the operation of the equilibrator is reversed, thereby bringing the ailerons to a normal position.

Means are provided, for rotating at will the block containing the mercury cups, thus causing contact to be made for banking the aeroplane to any required angle. A movement of the block does not cause any movement of the gear wheel, yet a movement of the gear wheel causes a relative movement of the block. This allows the operator to change his angles, laterally of course, at will without interfering in any way with the automatic control.

The device can be applied to fore and aft control as well as lateral control.

Capt. Hugh L. Willoughby, of Newport, R. I., and Sewalls Point, Fla., has recently received delivery of a 6 cylinder "Kirkham" motor to be Installed in his hydroaeroplane, the "Pelican." Motors have also been delivered during the past month to Jas. V. Martin, and the Chicago Aeroplane Mfg. Co.

On October 15, John Sehwister, of Wausau, Wis., in a biplane of his own construction, equipped with a "Kirkham" 6 cylinder power plant made a flight of 45 minutes over the city of Wausau and surrounding country, flying part of the time at a height of 2000 feet.

     
 

MODEL NOTES

 
     

By PERCY PIERCE, Model Editor

abroad.

ST is ray aim, in writing this model page which will appear every month in Aeronautics, to aid and encourage those who are interested in the art of model flying. This page will contain accounts of new model clubs, contests and descriptions of some of the best models here and I would like all those who belong to model clubs or have models which they believe can fly a considerable distance, to send me all information regarding same.

Real model flying in America did not show itself until October of 1909, when the West Side Y. M. C. A., New York, held its first contest in the yard adjoining the Association building. From that time on, model flying grew very rapid and now flights of over a quarter of a mile are being made.

The New York Model Aero Club was organized in Sept. 1910, and has grown considerably, not only in model flying, but in membership. Their new quarters are at the rooms of the Aeronautical Society. 250 West 54th Street. The Stuyvesant Aeronautic Society, another of the early model clubs is still flourishing. This club meets in room 201 of Stuyvesant High School.

KHE model described in this issue was designed by Frederick Watkins, one of New York's enthusiastic model flyers. The unof-fical flight to its credit Is considerable more than 1600 feet; official, 1400 feet. It first made its appearance at Van Cortlandt Park, New York, in the early part of November, 1911, where it has since been making very long flights. The weight of the model ready for flying, is 2% ounces, and has a supporting area oi about 48 square inches.

The Frame. This is of bamboo tapering from % inch at the middle to % inch at the ends. All the joints are held together by Ambroid (a waterproof glue) and thread. The fin at the front, enabling straight flight to be made, is of 34 gauge aluminum. The white pine propellers are 7 inches long, % inch thick and have a pitch of about 13 inches. In most of the long flights this model has made, 1100 turns were used. No. 14 piano wire is used for the propeller shafts and front rubber anchorage. The power consists of 9 strands of flat rubber.

The Planes. The framework of these is constructed of bamboo, the large one being

RUBBER

TOP ELLWIOn

BACK ELEVATIOfl

COPPER WIRE

TIPPED UP ET1D

FASTEninCS

BOO

16 inches by 2y2 inches, with eleven double ribs. The front one has but three. The planes are covered with rice paper, coated with varnish, which makes an air tight, smooth surface. They are held on the frame by rubber, so that in case the planes strike a tree they are easily pushed aside. The ends of the planes are tipped up a little for stability.

The model is wound up by attaching the rubber at the front to a double winder. The rubber is stretched about twice the length of the model as it is wound up, thus enabling more turns to be had and consequently longer flights.

This weekly contest held at Van Cort-landt Park, Nov. 7th, proved to be a great success. Eighteen contestants entered their models. Frederick Watkins, with a Watkins monoplane, came first with a flight of 1400 feet, winning the "Second Boy's Book of Model Aeroplanes" offered by Mr. Edward

Durant. Stuart Easter with his "Easter-plane," came second with 1387 feet. The record of-1691 feet, made by Cecil Peoli, has not yet been surpassed.

English Duration Records.

The English model records for duration show that America is far behind in the art of model flying. At one of -the contests held at the sports ground, Crystal Palace, on June 7th last, the duration attained was 146 2/5 seconds, over two minutes. This is quite a good deal more than that of 48 3/5 seconds (American record), which was made by Cecil Peoli. The result of the contest held at the sports ground is as follows:—

First. C. B. Ridley, (Ridleyplane) 146 2/5 sees.

Second. R. F. Mann, (Mann monoplane) 112 sees.

Third. C. K. Srarf, (Srarf monoplane) 77

sees.

Addre.s all inquiriw to PERCY W. PIERCE, 5907 Osage, Phila., Pa

The Aero Club of Long Island held its annual meeting December 7th. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Charles Wald, President; Charles D. Spence, 1st Vice-President; William T. Newel!, 2nd Vice-President.

Joseph K. Post, Secretary, and Henry I. Newell, Treasurer, were re-elected to their respective offices.

There will be a change in the Board of Directors owing to the expiration of the term of Howard C. Brown. Thomas Kramer was elected to fill the vacancy. The Directorate for the ensuing year is as follows: Charles Wald, Chairman, Francis C. Wiuson, John H. Lisle, Henry I. Newell, Jr., Thomas Kramer.

The meetings of the Club are held on the first Thursday of each month. The secretarv's address is 418 Oak St., Richmond Hill, N. Y.

The Aero Club of California, at a meeting held November 7th, elected Charles E. Rilliet to the office of president in the place of George B. Harrison, whose office was declared vacant by the directors on account of his connection with the Aeronautical Society of California.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania is having regular meetings now at the Bellevue Stratford, Philadelphia. On Dec. 15, E. R. Brown lectured on "The Development of the Hydro-aeroplane."

At a well attended meeting of The Aero-nautial Society on November 23, Prof. A. H. Sabin gave an interesting talk upon wood finishing, with particular reference to the aeroplane. Mr. R. P. McFie, a builder from England discussed his views on the automatic stability of machines of the Dunne type, giving as well, a review of the best English practice. The Ambroid Company sent their New York representative, Mr. G. H. Rohwedder to the meeting. He gave a description of Ambroid and its physical characteristics. Edward Durant gave a talk upon local model flying. Dr. E. P. Beadle gave an intensely interesting demonstration of a two cylinder, four cycle gasoline motor that weighed, including ignition system, less than fourteen ounces. Mr. W. S. Howell, Jr., talked upon the automatic stability of his model.

On December 14th, the well known author, Grover C. Loening, talked upon little understood problems in aerodynamics. Mr. George P. Van Wye described a new method for safely storing gasoline, Mr. Robert A. Alberts of the C. B. Hewitt & Bros, described the proper use of glue in aeroplane construction.

The Aero Club of America has made a special division in membership, the Fifth Class, for commissioned officers of the regular army of the United States, with initiation fee and dues but $10 each.

The annual dinner is scheduled for January 27, at which President William H. Taft has promised to be present.

The Aero Club of New England held its annual banquet, Nov. 2S. The discussion embraced ballooning, aviation and hydro-aeroplane and soaring without power, an interesting illustrated lecture upon the latter subject being delivered by A. A. Merrill.

One of the surprises of the meeting was the introduction to the. members of James Lewis, of Boston, who this year slipped away from his friends and took up the study of aviation in France, qualifying as a pilot on Oct. 6 last from the Voisin School.

Mr. Lewis delivered an address upon his experiences in learning the art of aviation.

Eugene P. Merlet of Paris, now a resident of Boston, gave a talk on "Aviation in France."

Greeley S. Curtis of Marblehead spoke on "Hydro-Aeroplaning," H. H. Cummings described a new instrument to determine the speed of an aerostat, Jay B. Benton described a recent night trip from Pittsfield over New York City, William Van Sleet, the pilot, made a short address, and Mr. Merrill concluded the meeting with a lecture, illustrated, on "Flight Without Power."

Prior to the dinner these officers were elected: Jay B. Benton, president; Henry Howard, first vice-president; John J. Van Valkenburgh, second vice-president: A. R. Shrigley, secretary; William C. Hill, treasurer; Nathan L. Amster, T. E. Bvrnes, Jay B. Benton, H. Helm Clayton, J. Walter Flagg, Charles J. Glidden, Henry Howard, Harry C. Pollard, Griswold S. Hay-ward, A. R. Shrigley and John J. Van Valkenburgh, directors; Griswold S. Hayward and Charles J. Glidden. committee on foreign relations; Charles J. Glidden, Jay B. B'enton and J. Walter Flagg, committee on contests and balloons, and W. Starling Burgess, Harold W. Brown and Albert A. Merrill, committee on aeroplanes.

It meets our lest expectations.—G. H. Cortiss.

O all my good friends who read "Aeronautics," who have sent me so many kind and complimentary letters, whose co-operation has made it possible to conduct this journal for a longer time than any other aeronautical publication free from club subsidies— Greeting!

Since the inception of this paper, time has not been a cheap commodity with me. All the days and most of the nights have been crowded with work. Never has it seemed possible for me to sit down and talk direct to you as I have wished.

Each month since the beginning I have tried to give you all I possibly could in the way of interesting and valuable reading matter. From the letters continually received from some of you, I know that my purpose has been accomplished to an appreciable extent. For this I am grateful and feel amply repaid for my efforts.

But, surely I am not satisfied. From the beginning my one aim has been improvement. Improvement must continue. The magazine must grow in size, in amount of articles and data, in appearance and in value.

To promise and to do are very different things. To keep in the advance, your co-operation is as essential now as before. I am not content with slow progress. I want each issue to show a more decided improvement.

I want five thousand new subscribers during the next six months.

This is not an extraordinary demand. If each one of you would send in but one new subscriber my expectations would be more than realized.

This seems very simple. The point is here—Are you willing to try to get one new subscriber each? Some friend who is interested in aeronautics would be pleased with a subscriptions as a Xmas gift.

On another page in this issue you will find a plan outlined by which you can be remunerated for your efforts.

This request is not for my personal benefit—it is for the benefit of the magazine—for your benefit.

From now on I am going to make a strong effort to devote more time to the producing of a still better magazine and I mean to take time to say a few things.

Curtiss Notifies Alleged Infringers

Patent on Pressure Equalizer

LENN H. CURTISS has notified manufacturers iof so-called Curtiss-type aeroplanes, parts makers and other alleged users of his devices, warning them against using his shoulder control and other devices of which he is inventor and which are being widely used in this country.

Mr. Curtiss lias applications pending, also, on a device for equalizing the pressure on ailerons in order to avoid any possible turning movement of the machine about a vertical axis due to the use of ailerons, as well as applications covering shoulder control and hydro-aeroplane. Mr. Curtiss wishes to inform the public that he is not acquiescent in the general use of his inventions upon patents will eventually issue.

One Patent Just Issued

A United States' patent, 1,11,106, was issued on December 5, 1911, to Alexander Graham Bell, F. W. Baldwin, J. A. D. McCurdy, Glenln H. Curtiss and Edward A. Selfridge, administrator of Lieut. Thos. E. Selfridge, deceased; all assignors to Charles J. Bell, trustee, of Washington, D. C. The application was filed April S, 1909.

The patent aims at the maintaining or restoration of lateral balance of machine having rigid supporting surfaces by means distinct from the supporting surfaces themselves. The patent claims that heretofore supporting sur-

faces have been made flexible for the purpose of warping the extremities to preserve balance, which warping imparts a turning movement which must be corrected by a vertical rudder.

The main claims of this patent cover the combination of supporting surfaces having a positive angle of incidence with a pair of lateral balancing rudders, or ailerons, which are adjusted to equal and opposite positive and negative angles of incidence, normally at zero angle, connections to a controlling device which embraces the body and is operated by the movements of the aviator. There are twenty-eight claims covering the placing of the ailerons outside the lateral margins of the supporting surfaces, in combination with multiple surfaces and other modification of the principal features.

The patentees are those who, in 1908-1909, comprised the Aerial Experiment Association, which was formed to build aeroplanes for experimental purposes. After building four machines, Red Wing, White Wing, June Bug and Silver Dart, all of which flew, the Association was dissolved, after a year's time. It was financed by Mrs. Bell and was formed at her suggestion at a time when all these men happened to be together on some experimental work of Dr. Bell's at his Nova Scotia home.

It is of interest to note that the Wright patent describes a cradle which was used to warp the wings of the Wright gliders. This embraced the body of the aviator and the body movements warped the wings.

J think there are hut two magazines combining the essentials of their class—presenting news, at once, timely and authoritative, and always "readable." The which justifies their being called represrntatire of their subject, in their respective continents ad the world at large. Of course, I mean "l'Aerophile'' and Aeronautics.-—Jos. A. Blondix.

The Wlttemann Stabilizing Experiment.

THE WITTEMANN AILERON SCHEME

The brothers Adolph and Charles Wittemann, Staten Island, N. Y., builders of the Baldwin "Bed Devils" and other machines, have applied for a patent on vertical vanes, which are curved upward and outward. Experiments have been made with these fastened to the lateral extremities of the main planes and made both either rigid or movable as desired by the usual shoulder control but in the same direction.

If one side "of the machine drops one of the outwardly curved surfaces offers more lift than the other and tends to lift the low side. It is claimed by the inventors that no turning movement of the aeroplane is caused.

An aeroplane fitted with these was balanced on a pair of horses, as seen in the photograph. One side was pulled down so that the machine was overbalanced on one side. The gusts of wind against which the machine was headed invariably righted that side. The machine, without motor, was also run fast downhill, even getting off the ground for a few feet. It was found that the rocking felt in running over the ground was avoided. Trials were also made with cables attached between the shoulder control ,and these auxiliary surfaces which were then manually operated. It was found that the operator could keep the machine balanced on the horses. These auxiliary planes are pivotally mounted on the axis AB, shown in the photograph.

PROSPECTS IN THE NAVY.

The $25,000 aeronautical appropriation in the U. S. Navy granted last summer has been largely reduced by the purchase of the Wright biplane and the Curtiss water 'plane and incidental expenses so that no new complete machines will be bought until after June 30, 1912. The present Wright machine has been made into a hydro-aeroplane by the addition of pontoons from the Burgess company.

Captain W. Irving Chambers, head of aeronautical work in the Navy, was asked recently by Aeronautics a number of questions which are here answered briefly.

"In the range of subjects you wish me to touch I fear you are almost as impatient as I am to get on. The very things you want me to write about are of least importance in my estimation and can only be shown up clearly by time. Aviation is barely out of the crawling stage of infancy; although many would like us to assume that we must judge of the future by present performances. Some enthusiasts are over-sanguine, the knockers are too pessimisstic and everybody is too fond of sensation.

"As to the likelihood of aeroplanes being shot down. Of course that will happen. Everybody and every machine engaging in war must contemplate the risk of being shot. Aeroplanes will fight aeroplanes and those that are not overburdened with missies intended for dropping will have the advantage. They will be useful auxiliaries in the war game everywhere, but don't for a moment entertain the idea that they are going to supplant armies on land or ships on the sea. That is an old, old story with which we have to contend when anything new appears. It is fascinating for the overburdened taxpayer to think that some new cheap and sneak device is going to revolutionize warfare and cheapen its cost and many misguided enthusiasts prey upon his credulity in order to force the development in the wrong way. It has always been so and always will be so, but the net result in the end, is always to increase the cost of war, because it adds still another factor or complication to consider. As regards ships it simply requires increase of offensive and defensive powers even to the addition of the new devices as auxiliaries. Why, way back during the Revolutionary War, our doughty Admiral John Rodgers proclaimed that torpedo warfare was inhuman and ought to be suppressed by international agreement. You will doubtless hear something of this sort concerning aviation ere long. Only a short time ago the French Navy almost dropped out of the running through the campaign of an energetic newspaper fanatic who induced the administration to devote its energies almost exclusively to the development of torpedo warfare.

"And now you ask me to compare aeroplanes with Scout Cruisers on a cost basis. My answer is that the Scout Cruisers will remain and the aeroplanes will be needed in addition." REMOVAL OF ARMY SCHOOL.

The Signal Corps Aviation School departed from College Park, Md., the afternoon of. November 28th, and arrived at Augusta, Ga., about midnight the 29th. Capt. C. DeF. Chandler, Lieut's. R. C. Kirtland, H. H. Arnold, T. DeW. Milling, Lieut. J. P. Kelley of the Medical Reserve Corps., and nineteen enlisted men of the Signal Corps made the trip in a special train of nine cars.

Capt. Paul W. Beck was detained in Washington on account of the death of his father, General Beck. Lieut. Kennedy remained in Washington for treatment at the Walter Reed General Hospital, but these officers are expected to join the school shortly.

The Wright, B'urgess-Wright and two Curtiss aeroplanes, and all other equipment pertaining to the school was taken along, including horses, wagons and mules.

The. new site for the Aviation School during the winter is on the Barnes farm near the east boundary of Augusta. There are several hundred acres of level land used only for raising hay; these fields afford ideal conditions for the instruction of beginners. The average wind velocity of Augusta during the winter months is very low, and it is expected that many aeroplane flights will be made practically every day.

During the first week of December, the Aviation School got well started for the winter season. The Wright, Burgess-Wright and 8-cylinder Curtiss aeroplanes were assembled and flown.

The flights of special interest were: one around the city the 7th inst. at an altitude of 2500 feet by Lieut. Kirtland and on the 9th both Lieuts. Kirtland and Arnold went around the city at an average altitude of 2500 feet.

On the 8th. inst. Lieut. Arnold ascended to an altitude of 4100 feet. In addition to being an expert aviator with a Wright control, Lieut. Milling has been learning to fly the Curtiss type. His instruction began at College Park under direction of Captain Beck and now he is flying very successfully alone.

PROHIBITION OF FLYING OVER GAMES.

On November 13th the following resolution was passed by the Board of Governors of the Aero Club of America:—

WHEREAS it has come to the notice of the Board of Governors of the Aero Club of America that the practice of flying over spectators and contestants in athletic sports and games is becoming prevalent among aviators, and

WHEREAS such flying unnecessarily endangers human life.

BE IT THEREFORE RESOLVED that all aviators licensed by the Aero Club of America be and are hereby forbidden to fly over in the close vicinity of spectators or contestants in games or sports other than licensed aviation meets or exhibitions in which the flying is governed by the rules for the meet or exhibition and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Contest Committee be and is hereby instructed to take cognizance of any violation of the above inhibition and supply such one of the penalties set forth in Article 63 of the Regulations of the International Aeronautical Federation as it may deom expedient.

PRESIDENT MADERO'S FLIGHT.

President Madero, the present president of Mexico, has attained the distinction of being the only head of a nation to go up in an aeroplane. George M. Dyott took him up in his 2-plaee Deperdussin, (described recently in AERONAUTICS) at Mexico City on November 30. Mr. Dyott writes there is some difference between flying at S.000 feet altitude and around New York. Some of the machines at the exhibition, in that city could not fly at all. In the mornings Hying can be indulged in only by the most eNpert pilots. The air is very thin and treacherous; even though there may be no wind. In this respect it is like Issy-les-Moulineaux. Mr. Dyott has been offered a post with the Mexican government as chief pilot.

WHITE CAN NOT FLY IN U. S. A. Wright Company Gets Decision.

Claude Grahame-White can not fly in the United States until the Wright Company says so, from now on. And if they do let him, he will fly either a Wright machine or pay a royalty. Not only that, hut the Wright Company may be able to collect some part of his earnings for the past year, and, possibly, even before that.

Judge Hand, of the United States Circuit Court, Southern Dist., handed down an opinion of prime importance to said White on December 12—just one day short of being the 13th, but it was bad luck anyhow. His opinion settles the validity of the Wright patent so far as Claude G. W. is concerned, though for the public the validity of the patent is not necessarily sustained. The question of amount of damages due the Wright Company from last November, 1910, when the present suit was started, until the present will be determined later. A new suit has been started for damages sustained by the plaintiff company from the time White began flying in this country up to November, 1910.

The action ended by Judge Hand's opinion was a suit for infringement and accounting against the defendant by reason of his use of Farman and B'leriot aeroplanes, claims 3, 7, 9, 14 and 15 of the Wright patent being in suit. The defendant did not present any proofs and the validity of the Wright patent was not seriously disputed.

Judge Hand, among other things, states: "In the form in which the case arises there can not be any substantial doubt of the right of the complainant to an injunction. The defendant has put in no proofs upon any of the issues raised in the answer and the patent is sustained by its own prima facie validity. 1 shall adopt the same interpretation which 1 put upon it in The Wright Company vs. Paulhan, and hold that the fixed connection between the rudder and the warping mechanism is not an essential feature of the claims, but that the only connection between the two may be made by the intermediation of a human body and a human will. The defendant, while not conceding the validity of the patent, does not seriously challenge it, or argue that his biplanes have not infringed it. I have, therefore, no alternative but to grant an injunction."

WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT.

The Wright-Curtiss suit will probably not come to trial at Buffalo until February or March, as additional time has been granted in which to take testimony.

DEATH OF SHRIVER

San Juan, Porto Rico, Dec. 2. "Tod" Shriver, pilot number nine of the Aero Club of America was killed flying an exhibition at Ponce. He "lost control in making a turn." With George Schmitt, of Rutland, Vt., he was flying a Curtiss type with a Hall-Scott engine, the outfit furnished them by Captain Baldwin. "Pete" McLaughlin, a hotel keeper of Mineola, was financing the tour. Shriver was 32 years old and was born in Manchester, O. Within the past year he broke one leg twice in aeroplane smashes. He was an old showman and went with Captain Baldwin many years ago, during the St. Louis world's fair. In 1907 he worked for Glenn H. Curtiss. In 1910 he interested a brother of the lamp manufacturer, Dietz, in the building of a machine and with that gave a number of exhibitions in the course of which he broke his leg. Shriver was known the United States over as "Slim," many knowing him by no other name than that.

Munich, Germany, Dec. 3. An aviator by the name of Reeb was killed making a flight from Munich to Nuremberg.

Berlin, Germany, Nov. 25. Lieut. Baron von Freytag Loringhoven, military aviator, was killed at the military field at Doeberitz.

Berlin, Nov. 15. Herr Pletshcker (Albatross) was killed at Johannisthal field.

London, Dec. 6. Hubert Oxley and his passenger Robert Weiss met death flying for the Blackburn aeroplane concern, makers of an Antoinette-type monoplane.

Vienna, Dec. 1. An author, Mosca, was killed while flying as a passenger with Lieut. Nittnej at Wiener-Neustadt.

Ftampes, France, Dec. 13. Lieut. Chas. Lan-theaurue fell 1500 feet and was instantly killed.

Turin, Italy, Nov. 26. Humbert de Croce was killed practicing the dropping of bombs. -

RODGERS REACHES PACIFIC OCEAN.

On Dec. 10 C. P. Rodgers finally reached the Pacific. In the last issue we gave full details of his flight to Pasadena from New York, arriving at Pasadena Nov. 5. Many towns wanted the honor of seeing him actually toucn the ocean. The Long Beach's offer was finally accepted and he started for that point on Nov. 12.

5*

Becoming confused he landed at Covina, but immediately reascended. On this next leg of his journey he was apparently taken ill while in the air and met with a serious accident, when he fell at Compton, where he was forced to remain in the hospital for some time.

The flight from Pasadena to Long Beach added 27 miles to his straight line distance, making the total, measured in straight lines between stops, 3,417 miles.

In speaking of his fall afterwards Mr. Rodgers said:

"AERO-ASPHYXIA MADE ME FALL."

"I lay this same thing blameworthy for the death of Arch Hoxsey, Ralph Johnstone, Eugene Ely and dozens of other aviators, who have come hurling to earth from great altitudes, after seemingly having lost control of their craft.

"It was not, in my ease, the rarified air that overcame me.

"There was no stifling sensation but I did notice a peculiar odor, a sleep-producing property, not entirely unlike chloroform. 1 knew I was falling, but did not lose consciousness until within a few feet of the ground.

"Ethereal asphyxia, somnipathy, that is, something that lurks in pockets in the upper air strata, and creeps irresistibly upon the senses of an aviator, lulling him into dreamy unconsciousness, is what did this job.

"The sense of drowsiness was first apparent shortly after I had passed over a small town south of Pasadena. I was up about 1500 feet. I tried to shake it off, but it increased. The desire to sleep was irresistible. Then I thought the machine could take care of itself. There was no pain, no noise in my ears. It was just a sweet, soothing feeling that I wanted to go to sleep.

"Somehow I got a grip on myself and started on a long glide toward the earth. The nearer the ground I got, the sleepier I became. I remember that I had righted my machine, and was looking for a place to land when 1 suddenly lost all consciousness. It was then that I fell. I don't know how far up I was right then, probably 200 feet."

WHAT FOWLER SAYS. "I have no doubt about Rodgers going to sleep." said Fowler, "It is mighty easy to go to sleep while flying. The air is in effect a perfect cushion. Your machine usually goes along without the least jar: the hum of your engine is like a lullaby, and sometimes a fellow has to fight to keep his head clear and his eyes open."

OTHER THEORIES.

J. Kauffman, a physician of Hazleton, Pa., claims auto-hypnotism. He says:—

"The cause is, in my judgment, wholly psychological, absolutely independent of atmospheric conditions as to density and chemical composition. Any one familiar with hypnotism will readily see in the case of a man traveling through the air the most favorable conditions of the individual and his environment for the induction of the hypnotic state. I will not enumerate the various factors essential to the induction of hypnotism, but will simply submit as a very plausible theory for the irresistible sleepiness auto-hypnotism. If my theory is correct, a man who has once encountered that condition will meet with it again, and it would be suicidal for any aviator having once experienced the condition to continue the perilous sport."

Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, of Philadelphia, denies the hypnotic theory but states that he himself went to sleep in a balloon for an hour but that this "sense of drowsiness has not been more so than had T been overworked at my desk or had I slept for a shorter time the night before."

PREVIOUS INSTANCES. Not long ago some French scientists read a paper before the Academic dos Sciences on this subject. They made numerous experiments, taking blood pressure of aviators after making various kinds of flights.

After a long, swift glide the aviator's "face flushes," these investigators reported:—

"His face flushes; his eyes smart; his heart beats violently. As he nears the ground a strange drowsiness seizes him. It is only with an effort that he keeps his eyes open. When at last he touches the grass he is more like a torpid, hibernating snake than a human being, so far as sensation is concerned. He steps out of the machine with the slow, awkward movements of a drunken man, who cares not whither he stumbles if he can only sleep."

In the paper referred to, Drs. Cruchet and Moulinier cite the case of a young aviator who failed to return to his hangar. He was found seated in his machine in the open country, sound asleep. When he was awakened he could not explain how he came to light in the place where he was discovered.

During one of his early experiments on Lake Bras d'Or, at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, J. A. D. McCurdy had a similar experience. After making a short flight over the ice he was seen to land and when picked up by his mechanics was found sound asleep some feet from the machine. In his flight from Key West to Havana he had a somewhat similar experience. He afterwards said that it was only hy exercise of great will power that he was able to keep awake.

ATWOOD STARTS SCHOOL.

Harry N. Atwood, who flew from Boston to Washington and from St. Louis to New York, has associated himself with the Clayton & Craig aviation school, Boston, Mass., and is now prepared to give flying lessons. His address is 161 Summer St. Instruction will be given in either land or water planes.

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION RACE.

The distance to be flown in this race, which will be held in America in 1912, has been increased from 150 to 200 kilometers (124 miles). It will be necessary to have a very large course so that turns will not cut down speed. Chicago has hopes for the holding of the contest in the vicinity of that town.

MASSON FLYING OVER 'FRISCO.

On Dec. 2, Didier Masson, once of Mineola. flew over Market street in San Francisco and over Oakland with his Hall-Scott 'plane, crossing the bay on the route.

PECK FLIES 1 HOUR, 42 MINUTES.

The Gyro motor is still doing fine in flights of College Park and on tests. Two more large automatic machines have been put in and the company is getting out parts in quantities. Peck is making flights every few days at College Park. His longest flight was on Nov. 26th, one hour and 42 minutes. He says it is too cold to fly long now.

Richter won his license the other day with the Tarbox-Schneider machine with Roberts engine and Paragon propeller.

Rex Smith has bought a Roberts 4x and another Paragon to go on it.

FRENCH TRIAL OF SCOTT BOMB DROPPER.

Arrangements have been made by Lieut. R. E. Seott for the trial of his bomb-dropper in one of the Astra Company's- Wright machines in France. The Astra Company, which is building a magnificent machine which will lift 300- kg. easily, Lieut. Scott states, has offered him all their facilities and it is expected to have someone compete for the Michelin bomb prize.

Personally. I consider Aeronautics of flic utmost value 1o any experimenter to l;eep him up-to-date nni} for the valuable information it contains. It has been a great help to me. I recommend Akuonautics to anir one lool;iny for the best in aerial locomotion.—J. Benson Khyah.

Your paper is certainly the best published in the interests of acronunties in this country.—G. 15.

FOWLER CROSSING CONTINENT TO EAST.

Robert G. Fowler, in a Wright model B, is still on his way across the American continent and has traveled 1679 miles, as measured in straight lines between stops on maps. He has been on his way 51 days, starting from Los Angeles, October IS. At Mastodon, N. M., a town which is not located on maps, he was stuck in the sand for a week. He finally got off the ground by placing his machine on a handcar on the railroad and was able to get up speed enough to leave the handcar and fly.

Following is the route he covered:—

Miles

Oct.

IS

Left

   

"

lis

Arr.

   
 

19

"

 

7

 

21

   

.....45

 

23

 

Banning .......

............ 36

 

25

"

 

............149

"

::o

   

............10S

1 *

30

   

............ S4

Nov.

2

"

Benson, Ariz. .

............ 4S

 

2

"

Bisbee ........

............ 42

 

3

"

Douglass ......

............ 36

*4

5

 

Mastodon, N. M.

not on map

Nov

13

Arr

El Paso, Tex..

............ICS

 

IS

 

Van Horn ....

............110

"

IS

"

Pecos ..........

............ 85

"

IS

"

Pyote ..........

............ TS

 

21

 

Sweetwater ____

............190

"

to

 

Abilene ........

............ 40

"

24

 

Eastland .......

............ 55

 

24

"

Ranger ........

............ 5

 

21

"

Strawn ........

............ 12

 

26

 

Thurker .......

............ 5

 

26

 

Weatherford ..

............ 40

 

27

"

Ft. Worth .....

............ 25

"

30

Arr.

Josuha ........

............ 20

 

30

 

Waxahachie ...

............ 30

 

30

"

Ennis .........

............ 15

 

3(»

 

Corsicana .....

............ IS

Dec.

1

"

Mexia .........

............ 30

"

1

"

Groesbeck .....

............ 13

 

1

"

College Sta. ...

............ 65

 

1

 

Cypress .......

............ 60

 

2

 

Houston .......

............ 20

 

7

 

Sheldon .......

............ 15

 

, 7

 

Liberty ........

.............25

"

7

 

Beaumont .....

............ 40

 

7

 

Orange ........

............ 20

     

Total

1679

JANNUS FLYING IN ST. LOUIS.

Antony Jannus has associated himself with the B'enoist factory and school in St. Louis and has been doing big stuff with the Benoist-Roberts S planes, getting his pilot certificate and taking up passenger for thirty minutes.

NAVAL OFFICER FLIES HYDRO.

Lieut. John Rodgers of the LTnited States navy gave one of the new Burgess-Curtiss hydroaeroplanes a test at Newport, R. I., last month, flying above and around the battleships with perfect ease. The machine was towed over the road from the factory of Burgess Co. & Curtiss, Marblehead, Mass., by automobile, and launched from the torpedo station. Later, it encircled the Missouri and came to rest alongside the Ohio, from which point it was hoisted on board that ship and taken outside the harbor for other trials. The experiments are said to have been a decided success.

NEW COMPANIES.

Midwest Aeroplane Co., Sioux Falls, Iowa.

Western Aeroplane Mfg. Co.. 2219 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago, 111. $3,000, to manufacture aeroplanes and parts. Arlolph Katz, Arthur J. Irion, Chas. F. Bushong and Jay J. Douglas. Fred. R. Golder, assistant manager.

Am. Aeroplane Mfg. Co., Chicago, 111.

The Sea Gull Aeroplane Co., New York. ($100,000; V. E. D'Frso, G. Tomasulo, A. Scaturro.

Sloane Aeroplane Co., 1777 Broadway, New York: capital, $30,000. J. E. Sloane, South Orange; A. A. A'antine, II. Vantine, New York city.

Milwaukee School and College, capital stock, $50,000; incorporators, Eleanor Silverston, Henry

Feldhus, Louis Jensen, Lester A. Loewenbach and A. Rudolph Silverston.

National Aeroplane company, Chicago; capital, $10,000; manufacturing and selling aeroplanes, giving exhibitions and instructions, etc.; incorporators, Howard Linn, W. S. Linn, E. M. Spates.

The State Department of Delaware issued certificates of incorporation to the Furtaw-Mc-Kay Monoplane Company to engage in the manufacture of flying machines and their accessories of all sizes and descriptions. The incorporators are F. R. Hansel, of Philadelphia: George H. B. Martin and S. C. Seymour, of Camden, N. J. The capital stock is $100,000.

The Eagle Aerial Manufacturing Company, St. Louis, to make a new type of aeroplane invented by Thomas H. Keppel of Indianapolis. The company has a capital stock of $100,000, half of which is subscribed, held as follows: Thomas H. Keppel, 1,579 shares; Robert F., Jesse and Jesse E. Keppel, 979 each; Joseph Van Raalte, 720; H. G. Lind, 259; Lionel Davis, 424.

AERIAL EQUIPMENT CO.—Schedules in bankruptcy of the Aerial Equipment Co., of No. 1743 Broadway, New York, show liabilities $13467 and assets $141, in accounts. The company had office furniture $450 and pictures $6 which were sold by the sheriff.

NEW PILOTS

Four more aeroplane pilots qualified in November and December, as follows:—

75. Albeit Elton (Wright), St. Louis, Oct. 8.

76. John H. Worden (Moisant), Mineola, Nov. 14.

Francisco Alvarez, 22 years old, a rich Mexican, born in Mexico City, whose father was a wealthy contractor and real estate operator of that place: and Clarance de Giers, 22 years old living at the St. James Hotel, New York, whose father is also a real estate operator; both flew for their licenses on Dec. 3.

Jesse Seligman, son of the banker, of the firm of Seligman & Meyers, has left for Kingston, Jamaica, where he will exhibit, thence going to Colon to fly across the Tsthmus of Panama; visiting subsequently other Spanish-American countries. Seligman received his license last month.

All three are graduates of the Moisant School. Spherical balloon certificate number 44 has been given to John J. Van Valkenbnrgh.

Tn addition to their present staff, the Maxi-motor makers, Detroit, have engaged the services of a celebrated Detroit automobile designer whose ears are being turned out at the rate of over S00 weekly. This engineer has worked a number of years in Europe at the plants where the foremost light engines of the world are built. He is co-operating with the Maximotor designer, Mr. Dingfelder.

Among the recent purchasers of Maximotor engines is Mr. Lewis Matthews, official and part owner of the Malleable Stove Works of South Bend. Ind., who has now resigned to invest in an aviation enterprise.

Bombs dropped from an aeroplane created great havoc in an attack on Tripoli on December 2 bv Loe Hammond in a Baldwin "red devil." ' Hammond was a star feature of a moving picture sketch, uniformed as an Italian aviator and the plav was aeronautically staged at Mineola. About thirty passengers were carried by Hammond, whose machine has been fitted with a passenger's seat.

THOMAS BROTHERS MARKET BIPLANE

It is with a sense of satisfaction that the prospective buyer can cast about and occasionally find a manufacturer who has had the courage to follow out his ideas and stick to them.

At the present time there are in this country but very few American machines which boar the stamp of individuality. It is safe to say that !>5f; of the machine's actually flying in this country tn-day are copies of some well known make of aeroplane, foreisn or American. Among one of the few exceptions may be the machines

built by Thomas Bros., Bath, N. Y. The original machine built by them was conceived and built in 1909, and was equipped with a 4 cyl. standard type of automobile engine of bore and stroke, 25 h.p., A.L.A.M. rating. Extensive experiments were carried on with this machine in the spring of 1909, which to some extent were discouraging. This will be realized when it is known that the machine failed to get off the ground at all for the first three months. In September circular flights were possible.

The experimental work continued through the following winter, and by this time this same machine was perfected to such an extent that short passenger flights were made on several occasions. The heaviest passenger weighed 160 pounds.

Up to this time every kind of lateral and longitudinal control had been tried which was in use in this country and abroad.

The old machine was sent out on exhibition work with a view of ascertaining the true conditions under which a machine had to operate.

The spring of 1911 saw a machine which was distinctive in design from any American or foreign machine, and which was up-to-date in every sense of the word. A number of features of the original machine were retained, the retention of which were determined by actual experience. The 1912 models are among the most up-to-date and scientifically built biplanes on the market to-day. The manufacturers have put out three models to meet the demand for special machines. These models take the form of a racer, a touring machine and a passenger machine. All machines are equipped with 50 h.p. "Kirkham" motors, other makes optional. Complete details were given in the November n umber.

The touring machine is an exceptionally fast climber and will average 55 m.p.h. in ordinary weather. Speeds of 72 miles per hour have been made over a measured distance in light winds, the makers state.

The manufacturers made the statement some time ago, that they did not intend to market their machine until they were sure of what they were giving the public, and have always been conservative in their statements regarding the performances of their machines. The machines in operation can be seen at Bath, N. Y.

LOS ANGELES MEET

Los Angeles enthusiasts are earnestly looking forward to a meet there in January. The Aero Club of California, the official body, has made a contract with the lessees of the Donginuez field, the American Aeroplane Co., by which the Club receives 2% of the gross gate receipts for the use of its name and good will with the understanding that the meet in January will be held there under the auspices and sanction of the Aero Club of California. A meet on a gate receipt basis for the flyers as well as for the Club is assured. There are many local flyers, Dekor, DeHart, Champion, and C. P. Rogers is there. The Curtiss and Oueen schools are both nearby so that a meet can be run by local talent alone.

MARTIN BIPLANE ANTEDATED

P. Robinson, of 191 Caledonia Av., Rochester, N. Y., claims the distinction of being the first in this country to build a biplane with the engine and propeller in front. The machine was produced last September. Charles P. Willard, however, built rnd flew one along this line last summer, drawings of which were published in AERONAUTICS. No fights were made with the Robinson machine on account of engine trouble, he states, but hopes to fly in the spring when the engine will have been put in shape.

EARLE OVINGTON TO MANUFACTURE

Earle L. Ovington will be in the manufacturing field next year with a machine both unique and different, not following any standard design. Exhibition flying has been given up for good but aviation has not lost his aid. He has located at Newton Highlands, Mass.

liberty race goes to white

The donor of the $10,000 Statue of Liberty prize has not the money now. Neither has any

of the three "winners;" although the international body has declared. White the successful one in the altercation, it is reported by cable,— as yet unconfirmed by letter to the Aero Club of America.

John B. Moisant, in a machine new to him, fifty horsepower, flew in a direct line to the Statue and back at the Belmont meet last year and made the fastest time. White with a hundred horsepower engine was second, and De Lesseps third. Moisant was awarded the prize. White protested on the ground that the original rules for the contest provided that no one could compete unless he had flown for an hour previously during the meet. The race had been postponed and in the meantime the meet officials rescinded this clause and made it possible for Moisant to fly for the money, although he had not flown an official hour at any time during the meet. He did fly an hour, as a matter of fact, but the system of time keeping was so arranged that no record was made of unofficial flying. The hour clause was designed to keep inexperienced men from attempting the flight. Moisant had flown from Paris to London and was rainy well qualified, one would say, to compete with White and quite in the latter's class.

White protested to the A. C. A. the award to Moisant on the basis of the hour condition; +hat the meet had no right to change published rules. The club sustained his protest and awarded the money to De Lesseps, the last man, on the ground that White had fouled a pylon in starting on the contest and, of course, was not eligible. White protested this, was backed by his club and the matter taken to the Rome meeting of the federation which gives the money to White, as the American club did not prove the fouling and the federation evidently did not admit that the officials of the meet could change the rules thereof.

The heirs of John B. Moisant have not yet decided what course to pursue.

COLLIER TROPHY

The address of president Robert J. Collier, of the Aero Club of America, on his election contains the statement that the trophy which he proposed to award to the winner of the elimination race for the selection of the Gordon Bennett team will be offered for the most substantial achievement in the cause of aviation during 1912. The awarding of this would be left in the hands of a committee.

Late in the afternoon of Nov. 5, W. P. Cline, in the A. N. Ridgely plane equipped with a 6-cylinder "Kirkham" motor, flew for 6% minutes at Nassau Blvd. Ascending in the fast approaching darkness he flew on schedule anu descended only on being signalled down, and It was then so dark that it was necessary to burn a considerable quantity of gasoline on the field in order that he might safely alight.

There has recently been a considerable increase in the demand for these motors and a large number of orders have been booked for future delivery. Indications point to a considerable activity in the sale of motors during the winter and spring months.

The E. J. Willis Company stock of aeronautical catalogues is entirely exhausted at the present time. A new edition will be ready very shortly and as soon as possible they will again be pleased to mail same Free to All Interested Parties. In the meantime they want to hear from those' jontemplating entering the aeronautical field or at present engaged in building their own machines. If they can tender any assistance by advising in the constructional details of various type machines they are glad to do so and incidentally to quote prices on the very many parts and fittings that they carry in stock in large quantities at all times.

They have recently placed upon the market an extra largo turnbuckle with locking device, preventing loosening of the turnbuckle and slacking of the cable around the engine sections of the biplanes which is expected to be a very popular seller.

CURT1SS HYDRO-AEROPLANE GOES TO RUSSIA.

An order reached this city yesterday from the Russian Aerial League for a two seated Curtis hydro-aeroplane of the dual control type used by Lieutenants Ellyson and Towers in their recent successful flight from Annapolis to Fort Monroe. The order was placed by the Russian Importing Company of IS'ew York City.

The Aerial League is said to have been organized to further a movement to develop Russia's military power in the air as a more practicable enterprise than the upbuilding of the ileet shattered in the war with Japan.

The Curtiss Company has agreed to send an aviator to Russia to demonstrate the machine for the purchasers. Hugh Robinson, who made a notable flight in a hydro-aeroplane from St. Paul to Rock Island, is on his way here from the West and probably will go to Russia with Eugene Godet.

The Curtis Company also has sold one of its machines to Dr. Charles S. Decker, of B'ing-liamton, President of the Aero Club of that city and also head of the Binghamton Automobile Club.

Mrs. Lillian Janeway Atwater, formerly widow of the late Senator Thomas C. Piatt, now wife of William B. Atwater, has decided to study aviation at the Curtiss winter training grounds on North Island, San Diego, Cal.

A large amount of equipment, in the shape of aeroplanes, parts, machinery and staff of employees has been sent from the Curtiss aeroplane factory at Hammondsport, N. Y., to the Curtiss training ground and experimental station on North Island, near San Diego, California, within a few days. The Curtiss training school is already open at San Diego with about a dozen pupils in attendance, including one officer of the Greek army, and Mr. Curtiss will follow the equipment which he is sending to that point about the 1st of December.

Mr. Curtiss is now building a hydro-aeroplane rescue boat of thirty horse power and equipped to carry twelve men. Should this latest device of the Hammondsport inventor prove success-

ful, it will prove conclusively the great value of the hydro-aeroplane in war as a means of rescue.

A VISIT TO THE HALL-SCOTT FACTORY.

In the perfection of the beautifully finished Hall-^cott engine, that is being installed in an ever increasing number of American aeroplanes may be seen the result of many years' experiment and study. A pioneer in the aeronautic industry and a successful builder of railway motor cars, and automobile engines, before the aeroplane's advent, this company, under the management of C. B. & L. C. Scott, and the clever designing of Al. Hall, has forged to the front, its engines are now to be seen in daily action at almost every aviation field in the country, and at every meet of any consequence their engines were prominent in the hands of professional aviators.

As a result of nersonal observations during a recent trip around the country in which a good opportunity was had to witness different makes of engines perform under varying conditions and in various machines, the writer determined to visit the Hall-Scott plant and see the actual manufacture and surrounding conditions which go to make such a uniformly successful engine.

A short trip across the bay from San Francisco lands one at West Berkeley where the factory is situated. A large new building is occupied, but the increasing business has already reached its limitations and plans for a large addition are now under way.

One passes through a maze of busy planers, drills, turret lathes, grinders, etc., their squeaks and shrill protests seem strangely silent however, in the popping roar of a large railway motor being tested over in one cornel". Mr. Scott, my guide, tells me that this engine is one of two which are to be installed in railway motor cars of exceptionally high speed. He gives a lot more interesting information but his words are lost in the noise.

We visit the extensive stock room wherein a large number of parts are neatly arranged in

Assembly Room of the Hall-Scott Motor Works.

bins. At least twenty-five complete power plants could be assembled from parts in this room alone, an insurance against delay in replacement should breakages occur.

Touring the main floor we stop and oversee development of various parts, such as the crankshaft, etc., from the rough to the finished and perfectly balanced article.

Here a cylinder is being bored; a large pile of the grey iron castings on one side, Mr. Scott informs me, are discards, owing to small defects which might ordinarily pass, but are not up to their standard; an average of two out of three being thrown away.

Everywhere one is impressed with the swiftness and economy of jig and template. The expenditure here for this most necessary equipment must amount to a large sum.

Attention is called to a pile of aluminum alloy crank-cases neatly finished, polished and smooth inside and out, then to some connecting rods that are a joy to handle.

In the busy pattern shop propellers and patterns in various stages of completion are spread about, seemingly in confusion, but really in well ordered array. The Hall-Scott propellers are made here, walnut now being used entirely for this purpose. Their latest model is a blade of neat design and high efiieiencv. A m> ft. d., 4y2 ft. pt, turning 1200 ll.P.M. with the 00 h.p. A2, giving 400 lbs. thrust in the factory, tlio :i(!0 lbs. is all they claim.

Adjoining the main building, in a well lighted addition, is the assembling room where are usually to lie found five or six engines in various degrees of construction. A door at one end opens out to the testing stand. A car of suitable design carrying the engine to be tested on tracks that run through the assembling room to the stand out doors where an elevated support carries gas and water pipes, the whole being conveniently arranged and quite ingenious.

It was the writer's intention to give some details about the engine itself but the Hall-Scott pamphlets Al, A2, A3 give this in a more thorough manner than space here would allow. A final impression gained was that the engine is worthy of the plant or vice versa.

CLKVK T. SHAFFER.

The Call Monoplane.

CALL COMPANY BUILDS 'PLANE

A monoplane has been built and flown by the Aerial Navigation Co., of Girard, Kans., makers of the unique Call two-cylinder motors. The flight was short and sweet but it was of value.

In the shop, the engine turned an S'6" by 5' propeller at 1300 r.p.m. It was then t-ought that the engine had power enough to turn a bigger blade so one of 6' pitch was put on which ran a 400-pound scale to the limit. Then the machine was run throttled around the field. After several trials like this, the machine was given its head up a hill with advance spark and wide open throttle. The novice in it had no idea it would jump in the air but it did, with the result as shown in the picture. The machine weighs S00 lbs. without fuel or pilot and has 210 sq. ft. of surface. The 'plane rose right away and as it cleared the top for the hill the pilot made a disastrous landing after he shut off the power.

The Call engine is the only 2 cylinder opposed motor of the equal of 50 h.p. that we know of. Its first appearance at the Belmont meet caused considerable interest on account of its uniqueness and beautiful finish.

CALENDAR OF EVENTS

Jan. 1928—Los Angeles, A.C.C. meet.

li) 12—International Exposition, Vienna May. 1I-1S. 1912—Show at Grand Central Palace^ Aero Club of America.

Akrox.\itticr is a rcrit instructive and interest-^ iii(7 muyuzinc.— Euw. E. llnnwx.

The Mormon Tabernacle, Temple and Utah Hotel at Salt Lake City taken by H E.

Honeywell from his balloon.

ASCENSIONS.

Phila., Nov. 11. Dr. H. F. Pyfer and Dr. L. T. Ash, of the Norristown Asylum for the lnj sane, (no joke intended) in the "Penn. 1." to Bound Brook, N. J., after a four and a half hour

DIRIGIBLE ASCENT. Atlantic City, N. J., Nov. 4. The first trial was made of the transatlantic airship "Akron." A landing was necessary in the water, which resulted in minor damages.

DOUBLE ASCENSION.

Dayton, Nov. 4. Dr. L. E. Custer in the "Luzerne" (22,000) and Dr. P. M. Crume in the "Hoosier" (SO,000). The Hoosier carried as passengers R. T. Louis, Joseph Light and Bert Klopfer. The. Hoosier landed at North Lewis-burg after 1 nr., 27 min. Dr. Custer won the race by landing 12 miles farther on. The race was for a silver cup of the Dayton Aero Club.

Redlands, Calif., Oct. 30. George B. Harrison, piloted Earl Remington, Miss Myrtle Dennison, Frank Champion and N. L. Stevens in the "All America II." Landings were made at Highlands and East Highlands where the trip to Los Angeles was abandoned as the balloon could not be gotten out of the valley.

Pittsfield, Mass., Nov. 13. H. P. Shearman, pilot, H. R. Corner and J. A. Jones in the "Stevens 1" to Unity, N. H., landing in the-tree-tops. They were rescued by farmers who cut away some smaller trees so the aernauts could slide down the anchor rope.

Indianapolis, lnd., Nov. 19. G. L. Bumbaugh, pilot, and Walter Mofflt, tried for the Lahm Cup record but got only 110 miles from here, landing at Monroeville, lnd., the following day.

St. Louis, Nov. 26. John Berry, Joseph O'Reilly, Joseph A. Gerspracher, Hans J. Schuster and Edward Strassman in the "St. Louis IV" to Barnet, Ills. Up 3 hours.

Dayton, Nov. 29. Warren Rasor and son Jefferson, ascended in the "Dayton," landing at Upper Sandusky 5 hours later.

Fifteen balloon ascents have been made this year by one man alone, Captain H.. E. Honeywell, of St. Louis, with himself as pilot. Among the passengers were many ladies, and as many as eight people have been taken up in one balloon. They were made in San Antonio, St. Louis, Kansas City and Salt Lake City.

The "X Company," of Detroit, which recently offered a $25 prize for a word to replace "propeller," has awarded this sum to Raymond W. Garner, of Davenport, la., adopting the modification "spiron" of his suggestion. A propeller with the trade name "Spiron" will be put on the market by this concern in the spring.

The New York Aeronautical Supply Co., of 50 B'way; New York, report that in spite of the winter season, orders are coming in fast. A large percentage of the orders are for supplies for the machines which are to be built during the inclement weather and used in the Spring. A new addition to their line is the "Roberts" motor. They have these motors in stock for immediate delivery. This enterprising concern] will demonstrate their motors, next season, in a Curtiss-type hydro-aeroplane. The hydro-areoplane is now under construction in their factory. A new and elaborate catalogue is how being compiled and will be ready for distribution about Jan. 1st. Mr. W. E. Watts, the president of the company, has just returned from a trip through New England and Canada and reports the outlook for next season "very bright."

/ find the magazine all that could he desired. It is filled with instructive and enlightening literature. It is a compendium of useful knowledge pertaining to the science of aviation.—A. E.

hostellet.

Questions and Answers

Edited by M. B. SELLERS .

\E are glade at all times to answer any questions that He within our power. Heretofore, we have been answering these by letter. In future we will, in addition, print the questions and their answers for the benefit of other readers.

Not infrequently, the questions asked are such that they entail a great deal of time, more than we feel in a position to devote. In future, we will advise inquirers to the best of our ability, as before; but, where the demands made are more than can be reasonably expected of us we will, with the permission of the author thereof, refer these to a competent engineer, whose services are available. Mr. John C. Burkhart has arranged to devote whatever time and attention may be necessary to furnishing expert advice on design, balancing, purchasing of motors or other supplies, etc. He may be addressed at 250 West 54th St., New York.

To the Editor:

To date I have my power plant mounted and find that with the 4 cycle 4V4 by 4% engine, and 7' diam. Sy2' pitch propeller I have made, 1 am getting 200 lbs. standing thrust at 1100 rpm. Now, what I am after is to reduce head resistance to a minimum, as the sketch, which you were so kind to help me out on, shows a blunt leading edge. I also proposed to cover the under side only but I have now decided to cover the top and bottom and, in particular, do away with the blunt edge by keeping the spar from S" to 12" to rear of front edge and depending on tight wires for the front and rear edges.

The point is now, will that change your idea of curvature (1) as originally shown in attached sketch. The machine is a headless biplane, 34 by 6 ft., spaced 5 ft. apart, with a thrust of 180 lbs. stationary thrust and weight of machine with operator being 700 lbs., what is most advantageous cambre for planes to have at points indicated at A, B, C, etc., the question of speed not considered? (2) Where is the centre of lift of plane? (3) What should be the angle in flight of the points AG? (4) How much gross weight would 200 lbs. thrust sustain with this combination and 408 sq. ft. surface?

L. G., Ft. Bliss, Tex.

(1) Sharp or blunt leading edge:—If you cover both sides of wing, you will reduce resistance; but making the leading edge sharp has doubtful advantages. Experiments to date seem to show that, on a double surfaced wing, a rounded front edge is at least equal in efficiency to a sharp one; and a wire in leading edge instead of a spar is not as satisfactory in practice. The shape of rib shown is suitable for double surface and there is no reason for changing curvature when using sharp front edge.

(2) The centre of pressure at \y2 deg. will be about 28 inches from front edge.

(3) 4V2 degrees. The trailing edge would be 5V2 inches lower than the leading one.

(4) The gross weight lifted with 200 lbs. thrust, above curve and 408 sq. ft. surface,

would run from 750 to 800 lbs., depending on how well you eliminate resistance and also on the propeller; and how well the thrust holds up under headway.

To the Editor:

Being a subscriber of your magazine I would like to ask a few questions regarding rotary gas engines.

H. W. D., Denver.

(1) Why Is it that 2 cycle and 4 cycle engines are in even and odd numbers of cylinders respectively? Answer. So that the interval between firing times may be equal. Taking a four cylinder four cycle engine, with the cylinders arranged radially, the load on the bearings of a single crank shaft and crank pin may be kept very uniform, but, this arrangement makes It impossible to have the cylinders fire and exert their effort on the crank at uniform intervals in the cycle. With an odd number of cylinders, say five, they will explode in the order 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, 1, etc., or at equal intervals of 144 degrees. There is, therefore, a great advantage in smoothness of operation and uniformity of torque of the engine through having the odd number of cylinders. The greater the number of cylinders, provided their number is odd, the more uniform the torque will be. With seven cylinders the uniform intervals between explosions would be only 103 degrees.

(2) Would this hold good if a 2 cycle engine did not rely on crank case compression for fuel injection if the above is true? Answer. The crank case is used merely to compress the charge in 2 cycle engines; it is a pump. This has nothing to do with firing sequence.

(3) Explain how the gas gains entrance through the crank shaft to the cylinders of the Gnome engine? Answer. The gas is taken direct from the carburetor at the end of the hollow crank shaft, through the shaft into the crank chamber, which acts as a manifold. Each piston draws its mixture from thence into the cylinder through an automatic inlet valve in the middle of the piston head.

(4) Are the main bearings on rotary engines all of the roller type, and is there any take-up In these? Answer. The Gnome uses F&S ball Bearings throughout. The same is true of all rotary engines we know of. There is no take-up oh these.

(5) How does the Gnome connect all its connecting rods to the single throw crank shaft? Answer. One rod is made In one piece with a large double disc end forming the outer race of a ball bearing running on the crank-pin. At intervals of 51^° around these discs, six attachment pins are held between webs or discs, thus dividing the points of attachment Into seven equal angular intervals. The remaining six connecting rods are attached to pins at these points. It is necessary to locate the big end disc to one of the rods to prevent It rocking on the crankpin.

(6) Which are the most efficient fins for cooling: those running with or around the cylinders? We do not know that any one has ever experimented on this, except the Adams-Farwell people, who say the longitudinal fins are most efficient.

To the Editor:

Having- read your paper for three years and finding it indispensable, 1 have not found any data or formulae to compute the center of pressure on a curved surface—that is, no accepted practical method. Now 1 am building a biplane with a spread of 32 ft. by 5 ft. 4 in. chord. The camber is 3.2 ins., falling 2.6> ins. from front edge. Have designed machine to fly at 3°30'. Where do you think the center of pressure would fall? The curve is identical with the Wright, if you know their center of pressure.

Hoping to hear from you and complimenting you on your success as an aeronautical editor, 1 am,

Yours truly,

E. A. R., Terre Haute. Answer—There is no general formula for finding the centre of pressure on an arched surface. The centre of pressure varies with the camber and section of the surface. According to M. Eiffel, the c. of p. on a Wright wing at SV20 is at 42% from front edge. For 5 ft. 4 in. chord, tbat is 27 ins. from front edge.

To the Editor:—

Will you please answer my questions referring to a Demoiselle. How much thrust will it take to raise 350 lbs. and on the machine how much slanting must the wings have, or how high would the front edge have to be? C. R. Palestine.

Answer. Your questions can not be answered without more ,data. Besides depen-ding on weight, the thrust and inclination of wing depends on the speed required, form and area of wing. The thrust depends also on propeller efficiency and head resistance of the machine. From what you state we should say that about 100 lbs. standing thrust and an inclination of 1 in 12 would be right for 350 lbs. total weight.

books received

THE LAW OF THE AIR, by Harold D. Hazeltine, LL..D. Svo., cloth, 150 pp., $1.62 postpaid, from George H. Doran Co., 35 West 32nd St., New York. The contents of the book comprises three lectures delivered at the University of London in 1910, put in book form. The first part takes up "The Fundamental Problem; the Rights of States in the Air-space;" the second "The Principles and Problems of National Law;" and the last, "The Principles and Problems of International Law." One is startled by the amount of thought and consideration clearly given1 the subject of the aerial laws by various nations. Few know that this question was considered and rulings made as early as the Franco-Prussian war and by the first Hague Conference in 1899.

RECENT PROGRESS IN AVIATION, by O. Chanute, from the Smithsonian Report for 1910, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. This illustrated pamphlet, which may be had free from Smithsonian, gives a most interesting and concise history of power flight up to 1910, written by the late Mr. Chanute, who certainly was the best qualified to review progress of any authority in the world.

Chinese revolutionists, assembling a fleet of 13 aeroplanes for an attack on Peking, have purchased one of the first three in Cleveland.

Engines for the three have been shipped from the Roberts Motor Co. at Sandusky.

Material for ten more nas neen orcfered in part from the Goodyear Rubber Co. at Akron.

Two machines, assembled, have been shipped from Albion, Mich. They were built by the ■Wolverine Co.

"I take five aviation papers and I think AERONAUTICS is leading them all."

CSigned) George Kane.

BLERIOT type monoplane ready for power $125. Stickney, 2407 6th Ave., Moline, 111. Dec.

J. ED. SHERIFF, Mechanical Engineer and Inventor. Original Designs a specialty. 125 Watts St., New York. Dec.

FRENCH motor, new, 4-cylinder, for sale. Good for biplane. Make Oxfer. Queen Aeroplane Co., 197 St. & Amsterdam Av., New York.

T. F."

AVIATOR—Do you want to back or employ an aviator? State vour proposition with full particulars. Address; Arg, care AERONAUTICS.

Dec.

More attention to stability, factor of safety, and practicability, and less to speed freaks will no doubt answer the question "What's the Matter witli Aviation?"

HARVEY R. KIDNEY.

One Requa—Gibson propeller, 7 ft. diameter, 6 ft. pitcli $35.00

One French propeller, tvpe 8.097 ft.

diameter, 3.9S7 ft. pitch 50.00

One French propeller, tvpe S.097 ft.

diameter, 3.45 ft. pitch " 50.00

One Dean Mfg. Co. propeller type 6Y2 ft.

diameter, 4% ft. pitch 50.00

The above French propellers were made in France, are of the very best of material and workmanship. The price F. O. B. Paris is $100.00 each.

1-50 H.P. Harriman engine 4 cylinder, 4 cycle. This engine sells for $1650.00, our price $700.00. This includes a complete power plant.

1-6 Cylinder, 2 cycle. 4S h.p. engine $775.00. This includes rediator propeller and high tension magneto. This engine sells for $150.00.

We are closing out our business and must sell.

LeBron-Adams Aeroplane Co., Omaha, Neb.

"factory wanted or small shop with facilities for light working in good manufacturing location. Middle West or near New York. Full particulars. Box 2476, Station G, Washington, D. C.

manager wanted to finance and manage a heavier-than-air flying machine that can fly with 20 horsepower motor in calm day. Can fly in 20 mile wind without motor. Can fly from 20-90 miles an hour. Can fly at night. All controls patented in 1904 and others on record. Apply to A. V. Wilson, Bar Harbor, Me.

FOR SALE—FINE BLERIOT MONOPLANE, 100 H.P., TWO-SEATER. APPLY RUBER, % AERONAUTICS, 250 AV, 54 ST„ NEW YORK.

mfg. co. wants men for aviators, $100 required. B. L. Gates, 227 Engelwood Ave., Chicago.

FOR SALE

NEW HLF.RIOT MONOPLANE, almost completed. $600 First-class materials and workmanship used throughout. Can he scon any time. Call or write M. R. L., 26 N. Franklin Street, Hempstead, N. V.

FOR SALE

FINE BLERIOT MONOPLANE-Cheap

Apply A. V. Reyburn, Jr., 5305 Delmar Boul., St. Louis, Mo.

LOST—A young Aviator, height 5 ft. IV3 in., weight 111 lbs. Was last seen purchasing two pairs of $3 silk socks at Broadway and 26th Street. Prior to this made a purchase of an $1S grip, carried a sad expression on his face after being stuck. The socks are of green and gold. He wears a number 5 shoe in tan. light for cold weather: light rain coat, soft hat when feeling had, a black derby at late hours: usually found in a cafe after 11:30; will answer, if coaxed, to the name of BVown. This suit ease is marked B, Boston. Latest report, purchased tickets in Penn. Station for some point south, kindly address. A. L. S. c/o AERONAUTICS.

U. S. Patents Abstracted

Copies of any patent may be obtained for 5 cents (cash) each, from Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

Spencer Heath, Washington, D. C, 1,006,209, Oct. 17. PROPELLER. The claims cover a blade with variable pitch at different blade lengths, pitch maximum beyond the half blade length from the axis and diminishing toward either extremity of the blade; pitch maximum at greater blade width; method of construction consisting of shaping the laminations to the plan form, putting holes in the same so that they will register when assembled, securing same together by screws in the holes until gl"p has set, reaming and inserting dowel pin<=; tapering of lamination sand scarifying together to form hub; selection of laminations from adjacent portions of the same timber; variable pitch and blade width increasing at a diminishing rate from peripheral ends toward mid-blade length.

This is the third propeller patent of Mr. Heath. One, 998,897, July 25, covers interior and exterior laminations of hard and soft, or light and heavy, woods in combination; the second, 41,244, Mar. 14, covers the design which is a feature of Paragon propellers. Paul Meissner, West Hoboken, N. J., 1,007,225, Oct. 31. 1911. Filed Nov. 10, 1911. Novel FLYING MACHINE. Rudolph Wagner, of Stettin, and Carl von Radinger, of Wellingdorf, near Karl, Germany, 1,007,405, Oct. 31, 1911. A FRAME WORK for Aii-ships, Balloons and Aeroplanes.

William A. Hutson, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,007,445, Oct. 31,1911. AERODROME fitted with overhead track FOR TRAINING AVIATORS without danger.

W. F. Mangels, New York, N. Y., 1,007,467, Oct. 31, 1911. MEANS FOR TEACHING AVIATION and Testing Aeroplanes. D. L. Mobley. Los Angeles, 1,007,7S9, Nov.

7. SUPPORTING SURFACES of triangular plan

view.

T. A. Snyder. St. Louis, No. 1,007,810, Nov. 7. Combination AEROPLANE HELICOPTER.

R. R. Waterman, Upland, Cal., 1.007.S27, Nov. 7. Vertical STABILIZING SURFACE above and below main planes.

Clarence E. Darrow, Fairbury, Neb., 1,007,926, Nov. 7. AILERONS actuated by pendulum.

Hugh L. Willoughbv, Newport, R. I., 1.00S.096, Nov. 7. Filed June 24, 1909. ELEVATING RUDDERS front and rear operated in conjunction inversely with relation one to another, as in the Curtiss machine.

A. O. Gardiner, Oakland, Cal., 1,008,131, Nov. 7. Aeroplane with gas filled bags attached to planes.

Iskander Hourwich, Washington, D. C, LOOS,152, Nov. 7. FIXED AILERONS at wing tips, curved and projecting upward and downward laterally in series.

A. S. Greenamver and Alfred Hallett, Los Angeles, 1.008,258, Nov. 7. SUPPORTING SURFACES. Top plane of biplane bent down in a "V" to level of lower plane at middle position; lower plane bent likewise, containing power plant in the space thus made.

Edward William Young, Tytherlev. Wimborne, England, 1.00S.402, Nov, 14. PROPELLER having shaft, hub rigid thereon, hub with free longitudinal and circumferential movement with respect to shaft, etc., to allow blade to vary inclination with respect to shaft axis.

William C. Lawson, Roanoke, Va., 1.00S.417, Nov. 14. IIELICOI'TER.

Edmund Soelie. Berlin, Germany, 1,00S,437, Nov. 14. AERONAT.

Christopher J. Lake, Bridgeport, Conn., 1,008,479, Nov. 14. AEROPLANE with stepped, triangular surfaces.

Harry Wilbur Du Puy, Pittsburgh, Penn., l,O0S,63O, Nov. 14, assignor to Pennsylvania Rubber Co. SUPPORTING SURFACE. A double covered wing of usual type with the fabric of the concave side of the wing containing perforations to release the pressure and allow the air to enter the inside of the wing to prevent distortion of the cloth.

Rufus Clayton White, Los Angeles, Cal., 1,008,761, Nov. 14, HELICOPTER and gas bag.

Francis Erwin Borkcnhagen, Caldwell, Idaho, 1,008,887, Nov. 14, FLYING-MACHINE; impossible to classify.

Francis E. Borkenhagen, Caldwell, Idaho, 1,00S,8SS, Nov. 14. "BALANCING DEVICE for Lifting Biplanes."

Aladar de Bajza, London, Eng., 1,009,010, Nov. 14. AIRSHIP.

Louis Bleriot, Neuilly-Sur-Seind, France, 1,009, 017, Nov. 14. BALANCING an dSTEERING APPARATUS. Universally mounted control lever.

Peter F. Carmichael, Dahlonega, Ga., 1,009,048, Nov. 21. HELICOPTER.

Konstantin Ziolkowski, Kalouga, Russia, 1,009, 126, Nov. 21. METALLIC ENVELOPE for Dirigible Aerostats and other purposes.

George Lehberger, Newark, N. J., 1,009,157, Nov. 21. FLYING-MACHINE.

Wallace E. Tillinghast, Worcester, Mass., 1,009,200, Nov. 21, STABILITY DEVICE. Auxiliary planes pivotally mounted back from advancing edge, above each lateral end of main plane, and means for changing simultaneously the angle of incidence of both in opposite directions.

John C. Ayling, Springfield, 111., 1,009,274, Nov. 21. KITE.

Francis A. Craig, Carmichaels, Penn., 1,009,384, Nov. 21. AUTOMATIC LATERAL-STABILIZING MECHANISM. Ailerons hinged on a fore and aft axis at lateral ends of main planes,, connected by chain and cable. Aileron on high side automatically hinges up, decreasing area on that side, and pulling one on low side down to increase area there.

Rene Louis Riout, Paris, France, 1,009,692, Nov. 21. FLAPPING WINGS.

Louis Beauclerc Goldman, Downsleigh, Hay-wards Heath, England, 1,009,736, Nov. 28. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device: Planes rotat-able about longitudinal axis of machine by air pressure, restricted by weights.

Aceph E\ Mayes, Houston, Texas, 1,009,766, Nov. 2S. PARACHUTE.

Colin B. McKenzie, Chicago. 111., 1,009,770, Nov. 2S. SUPPORTING SURFACES which increase angle of incidence when moved forward from a pivot point.

Pehr A. Nilson, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,009,7S0, Nov. 2S. FLYING-MACHINE.

Attilio Pusterla, Fort Wadsworth, N. Y., 1.009.S55, Nov. 2S. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device: ailerons at lateral extremities of wings,' movable on axis parallel with the longitudinal axis of the machine, operated by swinging seat.

Arthur McLean. New York, N. Y., 1,009,915, Nov. 28. HELICOPTER using turbines to produce "a column of air pressure and climb up on it."

George Rifflard. New York, N. Y., 1,009,996. Nov. 2S. FRAMEWORK .system to avoid holes In spars, using yoke-bolts and plates, etc.

Joseph Rosenberg and Rudolph Glabanznya, Chicago, 111., 1.010,076, Nov. 28. AIRSHIP.

A. F. W. Macmanus.. San Antonio. Tev.. 1.010.2S6, Nov. 2S. EQUILIBRIUM DEVICE: panels or valves in lateral extremities of winprs. pivoted on fore and aft axis, swinging weight attached to each. High side of aeroplane causes valve that side to or>en.

Josiah Sparks, University Place, Nebraska., 1,010.324. Nov. 28. FLYING MACHINE, with pivotally mounted wings, front, rear and top propellers, parachute, etc.

Hugo Kardos. New York, N. Y., Assignor of one-half to A. J. Moisant, of New York. N. Y.. 1.010.374 Nov. 28. HALF AEROPLANE. HALF OSCILLATING WING MACHINE with flap valves in the wings.

THE USE OF MAGNALIUM CYLINDERS

The question of weight in aeroplanes lias ever been one of importance. In order to reduce the weight it has been necessary to use the very best grade of material and to carefully design everything in such a way that only sufficient material is used to give the requisite strength. The heaviest part of a flying machine is perhaps the power plant, and, therefore the efforts made toward reducing weight, have been mainly centered upon reducing the weight of the motor. Aluminum or aluminum alloys have been used wherever it was possible to substitute these alloys for heavier metals, such as iron. Several concerns have been successful in the use of an aluminum alloy for cylinders. The attempt to use aluminum or alloys thereof for gasolene engine cylinders is not new, but for years it has been unsuccessful.

Within the last year Magnalium, an alloy of Aluminum, which is manufactured in Germany, and which is composed principally of aluminum alloyed with a small proportion of magnesium, has been successfully used for aeroplane engine cylinders. The metal is not only lighter than aluminum castings, but lighter even than pure Aluminum, because of its containing the metal magnesium, which is considerably lighter that aluminum, weighing about 1/3 what iron weighs, and its use has demonstrated the fact that a magnalium cylinder seems to give better wear than an iron cylinder under the same conditions. After a few hours, running the bore of a magnalium cylinder seems to take on a very high mirror polish.

Wood Finishing for Aeroplanes

Continued from page ISO

You will perhaps hear of liquid fillers; have nothing to do with them; they are a source of trouble. The only liquid that may be used as a filler is shellac varnish, which is not without merit for work which is not to be exposed much to the weather.

For your uses, there are two classes of oleoresinous varnish; rubbing varnish which can be used in the manner already described for shellac, rubbing it down to a fine surface with pumice and water, after the application of a sufficient number of coats; this is to make a foundation for the finishing coat. Rubbing varnish contains little oil and much resin; finishing varnish, much oil and less resin. For your work, suitable finishing varnish is sold under two names; spar varnish, such as is used by yacht builders, and what is called wearing body varnish, used by carriage painters. Rubbing varnishes are worth $3 to $4 per gallon; spar $4 to $4.50, and wearing body varnish about $6.00. Avoid

A very interesting fact in connection with the use of this metal for cylinders is that there are instances on record of where a cylinder was not bored carefully enough, the engine was assembled and run, and instead of the cylinder being scored, it was the piston and the piston rings, which were scored so badly that they had to be replaced after the inside of the cylinder had been burnished. The burnishing of the inside of the cylinder seems to be a very desirable feature in connection with the use of this metal.

The castings of magnalium are denser than those of any aluminum alloy and the result is that there is no question about their holding the pressure produced in the cylinder.

The metal is about 12^% lighter than castings of #12 aluminum, assuming that this grade is true to analysis 93% aluminum and 1% copper, in which case it will have a specific gravity of 2.82. The metal is also considerably stronger than castings of this alloy.

Another very interesting fact in connection with the use of this metal in cylinders is that the thermal conductivity of magnalium is from 7 to 8 times that of iron. This helps the cooling problem, especially in the case of air cooled engines.

On account of the toughness and strength of the metal, it is being used not only for cylinders but also for crank cases, water pumps, in-take manifolds, and the various other things connected with the manufacture of an engine, which could admit of the use of castings of any kind.

using any cheaper varnishes than these; they are not cheap in the end.

The finishing coat of varnish should not be rubbed, but left with a natural gloss, which is far more durable than an artificially polished surface.

Fine, transparent varnishes display good workmanship; but if the latter is not up to the mark, it may be to some extent concealed by paint. Aluminum paint may be regarded as in a way intermediate between varnish and common paint. It is made of metallic aluminun powder, mixed with pyroxylin varnish. This latter is a solution of pyroxylin, a sort of gun-cotton, in amyl acetate, a liquid having an odor suggesting bananas, and often called banana oil. This makes the best quality; inferior sorts have some cheap varnish as the liquid part and are much lass durable.

/ am a constant reader of your magazine, and I think it tiie- leading journal of its l;ind in America. You arc lo be eongraiulated on the painstaking care with wliieli ynu give any information published.—Edward II. Young.

Index for Volume IX

Note.—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907. Volume II started with the issue of January, 1908. Volume III started with the July, 1908, issue. Volume IV started with the January, 1909, number. Volume V started with the July, 1909, number. Volume VI started with the January, 1910, issue, and Volume Yll started with the July, 1910, issue. Volume VIII started with the January, 1911, number. Volume IX with the July, 1911, issue.

Only principal articles are indexed. News notes in general, and smaller mentions are not indexed.

JULY, 1911.

Page

Propeller Testing Device, By Prof. David

L. Gallup, M. E.......................... 1

Tests of Wooden Struts, By Prof. I >. A. Low. 4 Testing of Aeroplane Engines (Leigh ton

Motor) ..................................... G

Army and Navy Aviation..................... 7

Table of American Aeronautic Motors (Compiled by E. L. Jones & S. Y. Beach)....... 7

Valkyrie Monoplane, Scale Drawings......... 9

Intercollegiate Balloon Race and Ascensions. 11

French Court Favors Wrights................ 12

Construction Aids, XVIII..................... 14

Curtiss "Triad" .............................. 15

Synopsis of U. S. Aerodromes and Flyers.... 18 What's the Matter with America? By R. E.

Scott ...................................... 25

Detroit Club Members' Tournament.......... 26

How to Build a Curtiss-type Biplane. By G.

H. Godley ................................ 27

European Cross-Country Circuits............ 29

Fatalities .................................... 29

Club News .................................. 31

National Balloon Race ....................... 32

New Pedersen Lubricator. Brooke "Non-Gyro" Motor, G. & A. Carburettor........33":^4

Patents ...................................... 36

AUGUST, 1911.

Scott Device for B'omb-Dropping from Aeroplanes ...................................... 39

Making of a Propeller......................... 41

Formula for Horsepower of an Engine....... 42

eliding as a Sport and as an Aid to Flight.

Bv T. W. K. Clarke, with Scale Drawings. 43 Wil'lard Headless Biplane, with Scale Drawings ........................................ 4S

Pressure Equalizer for Ailerons ............ 4S

Kirkbride Biplane, with Scale Drawings....... 50

Construction Aids, XIX....................... 52

Atwood's Flight from B'oston to Washington. 5::

Johnstone Breaks Duration Record .......... 54

Beachey's Flight Over Niagara............... 54

Navy Curtiss Hydro-aeroplane............... 55

Automobile Club Motor Prize ............... 57

New Pilots ................................... 59

Aviation Insurance............................ 59

Reports nn European Circuits............... 62

List of Broken Records ...................... 63

Fatalities .................................... 64

Cordon Bennet Race. By George H. Scragg. 65

National Balloon Race and Ascensions........ 67

Hall Scott and Curtiss Motors................ 69

Patents ...................................... 70

Club News ................................... 71

Subscribers' Forum and Exchange............ 72

SEPTEMBER, 1911.

What's Hie Matter with Aviation, Symposium ....................................... 75

Does Color Affect Aeroplanes? By U. F. Patterson ...................................... 77

Stresses due to Diving or Swooping.......... 7S

Burgess-Curtiss "Baby" with Scale Drawings 79 Aviation "Schools," by Grover F. Sexton.... S3

Military Aviation and V. S. Aero Guns...... SI

New Pilots ................................... 86

Aeronautical Manufacturers Association.... 87

The Chicago Meet............................. 89

New York-Philadelphia Pace................. 91

Death of Badger and Johnstone and other

Fatalities ................................... 92

Wright Biplane, Model "B," with Complete Drawings ................................... 03

Atwood Flight, St. Louis-New York.........lul

Garros Makes New Altitude and other Records ........................................104

Club News ...................................105

Adams-Farwell Motor .......................108

Hele-Shaw Clutch............................110

Patents .....................................112

OCTOBER, 191 I.

A Popular Scientific Explanation of the Motives of the Gyroscope and its Application

in Aviation. By Emit Buergin..............113

Doutre Longitudina IStabilizer................115

Two-Place Deperdussin Monoplane, with

Scale Drawings ............................117

Naval Curtiss Hydroaeroplane Experiment.. 121

New Moisant Biplane, Scale Drawings........123

Queen Monoplane, with Scale Dra wings. .. .125

Rotary Indian Motor..........................128

Rex Smith Biplane with Scale Drawings... .129 Death of Buel Hurndon Green, M.E., and

Others .....................................132

The Nassau Meet.............................134

Gnome -Engined Burgess-Wright.............135

Boston Meet and Cross Country Race........136

What's the Matter with Aviation? Symposium .....................................137

Club News ...................................137

International Race and Ascensions............138

Vaniman Dirigible "Akron"..................139

New Pilots ...................................141

Patents ......................................146

NOVEMBER, 1911.

What's the Matter with Aviation? Symposium .....................................149

The Effect of Color on Aeroplanes. By Prof.

H. LaV. Twining .........................150

Death of Prof. John J. Montgomery with

Article by Him..............................151

Death of Eugene Ely and Other Fatalities.. 154

Club News...................................155

Boland Tail-less Biplane, with Scale Drawings ........................................156

Kansas City International Contest. By Lieut.

H. E. Honeywell............................159

McCurdy Headless Biplane, Scale Drawings. .160 Thomas' Headless Biplane with Scale Drawings ....................................162-163

Construction Aids, XX.......................Rj4

Rating of Gasoline Motors....................165

Progress in Hydroaeroplanes, Burgess. Curtiss, etc.....................................166

Longest Flight of Hydroaeroplanes...........l*'s

Rogers' Transcontinental Flight ..............169

Queen-Martin Biplane with Scale Drawings ....................................170-172

Aeronautical Manufacturers Association.....171

Scott Bomb-Dropper Trials..................179

New Pilots....................................ISO

Balloon Ascensions...........................182

Frontier, Detroit, Roberts and Call Motors...181 Patents.......................................1*S

DECEMBER, 1911.

Wood Finishing for Aeroplanes. By Trot'. A

H. Sabin ................................. 1S9

Competition Military Aeroplanes in Franco, by

It. E. Scott.......................................................... 100

Ftrieh Monoplane. Bv Fritz Edelstcin..... 192

Hamilton Biplane........................... 196

The Nieuport Monoplane.................... 199

Bleiiot, XXI.............................................................. 202,

Eaton Biplane. By Cleve T. Shaffer......... 203

Fllsworth Stabilizer. Bv Cleve T. Shaffer... 2«5

Model Notes. By Percy W. Pierce........... 208

Patents ..................................... 209

The Fourth Military Arm, By General James Allen 212

Wittemann Stabilizer....................... 213

Curtiss Notifies Infringers .................. 211)1

Deaths ...................................... 21J|

Fowler's Trans-Continental Flight......... 211

New Pilots ................................ 2171

Ascensions .................................. 2211

Questions and Answers. By M. B. Sellers... 22a

Club News................................... 22j|


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