Aeronautics

Volume 9 - No. 5 - 1911 November

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Vol. IX, No. 5. NOVEMBER, 1911 Serial No. 52

Skill and Experience Combined Produce in the Emerson the Ideal Aero Motor

\

4 cyl.. 60 H. P., 225 lbs. 6 cy,>f 100 H p # 300 lbs

YOU will make no mistake intrusting your power problem to specialists in light, powerful, high speed motors—motors that have more speed championships to their credit than any other single American competitor. Write to-day for literature.

EMERSON ENGINE co. ALEXANDRIA va

AERONAUTICS November, 1911

The Kirkham Aviation Motor

50 H. P. Wt. 235 lbs.

In an aviation motor you must have Power, Reliability, and as light construction as consistent, but it is also very important that the fuel and oil consumption should be as low as possible.

The Kirkham Aviation Motor (which has been developed after years of experience, building hundreds of light weight auto motors which, without exception, have been very consistent performers in economy contests) are proving to be very economical, of both fuel and oil.

Kirkham Six-eylinder motors will deliver continuously 50 B. H. 1'. at 1250 r.p.m. on 33 lbs. gasoline and tJ2 lbs. lubricating oil per hour.

The main air supply for carburettor is dravt n through gilled copper tubes placed across through oil in reservoir in base, thus warming the air supply and also keeping oil in reservoir cool, which, together will) the very efficient system of lubrication makes it possible to run this motor almost indefinitely without fear of bearing troubles.

Better write for literature. This space is too small to even mention the many good features in the Kirkham Aviation Motor.

In ansivcring advertisements please mention this magazine.

Uy Cleve T. Shaffer.

IT isn't what is the matter with aviation, its rather what is hindering aviation. ]t isn't aviation that has the hook worm, its those from whom aviation should get its natural support, namely the capitalist or investor, and the wealthy young man. I think this should be transposed: the wealthy young man being placed first, because if the sportive young fellow who has the means to gratify his desires in automobiles, polo ponies, motor boats, etc., would show enough interest in this most glorious sport to relieve the suspicion that his coinage is wanting by ordering an aeroplane, the business so derived would embolden the timid investor and the consequent competition in the manufacture of aeroplane and engines would stop the present profit of three or four hundred per cent, being made particularly in motors, and bring the price down to a proper level.

The high price of motors is the greatest factor against the development of aviation.

With motors at a figure where a legitimate profit is made, thousands of people now interested will build or buy machines for the sport that is now denied them. Who can doubt that with thousands r ^>-e minds at work tabulating results from uieir own active experience, improvements and safeguards will ue developed which in turn will lure hundreds of thousands of the more timid to the delights of the sport.

Public apathy and distrust, one of the hin-derances, is due to a number of causes, primarily however, to the featuring by the newspapers of every death as an inherent rault of aviation, rather than a mechanical accident liable to happen in any mechanism, or as a result of attempting foolhardy stunts, which if tried in a corresponding manner any other sport would end likewise.

Fake stock companies, immature inventors with freak ideas of absolute impracticability (note nine-tenths of patents granted); half baked "aviators" attempted exhibitions, and poorly managed "meets" have taken so much money from the public purse that aviation investments, however well presented or legitimate, are looked upon askance.

The lack of proper standards, difference of opinion among so-called experts, and absence of authentic and reliable text books is confusing to the layman as is the puerile and aimless copy in some of the aero magazines.

Lastly if all those in the "game" would stop knocking there would be no need to ask the above question.

THE CUKE rOK AVIATION' By Anthony II. Jiimnis

IN view of the many courteous explanations, apologies and huzzas published under the head of "What's the Matter with Aviation." 1 am prompted to contribute the following as my estimation of the present situation from a manufacturing standpoint.

Nearly every experimental machine produced in this country has been the result of a "gleam of light" entering the builder's brain, and he has set about building a full-sized, very expensive, and usually unsuccessful model, or muddle. Obviously the thing most needed was exact knowledge. This would construe that the present methods are unscientific and that is exactly what I mean. The best evidence of this is that ninety-nine of every hundred builders of "first machines" do not know how to fly their machines after they are completed.

Nevertheless, many of these builders have survived and are now earning money by giving exhibitions or by catering to the ever-increasing crop of fledglings who are impregnated with the same germ which infected us all. Still others are teaching pupils, and for these there is much hope. But let me offi-

ciate as a cost expert and ask a few questions, or rather suggest some questions which the indulgent reader will ask himself.

Let us consider upon what the profits in the exhibition business depend. Alas! upon what one or two definite things does this depend? One should secure good grounds, a good contract price, easy contract requirements and then burn incense to the weather God. This is the province of the booking agent. The manufacturer should have a good flying aeropliane, with a careful aviator and good mechanicians. And here arises the question—what is a good machine? How much does it represent as an investment to be risked in attempting to fill the contract? How much does it cost to take it apart, pack it, transport it to the aviation field, and assemble it? Many exhibitors have been staring at a loss when this point had been reached.

In the exhibition profits to come saving in these bills will determine a profit or a loss and, with competition increasing, this part of the situation must be even moie and more keenly studied. The mere ability to fly is no longer any recommendation. It has been the writer's experience that great numbers of machines, built by ignorant builders would fly when completely manned. Obviously, ready crating and assembly are necessary, and they go hand in hand with ease of repair and replacement.

With the above observation granted it becomes evident that standardization is now imminent. That which facilitates exhibition profits does likewise for profits in teaching, manufacturing, and the sale of parts. An aeroplane manufactured of standardized parts could be catalogued in a four-page booklet with every part photographed and priced. With such a catalogue to refer to, customers would hardly trouble to have the village carpenter help him rebuild a damaged plane; it would be too expensive. Nor does standardization confine itself to one type, size, power-plant, running-gear, carrying-capacity, control or number of planes.

1 have worked out on the drawing-board, first a biplane, which reveals positively the simplicity and facility of standardization. Were 1 to build a single machine, in a hurry, this system would be the best. Nothing is sacrificed; everything gained. 1 venture to say that not one in every hundred of the "types" produced in this country has been completely drafted before the machine has been finished.

Such methods are unpardonable in the face of the growing competition; in fact, suicidal, for he who first produces machines that are simple and built-up of a few standard units will have the trade, once his product is demonstrated satisfactorily. Furthermore, the old saying "an hour on the drawing board saves a week in the shop" is just as applicable to aeroplanes as to any other engineering problem in the world.

The Maximotor Makers, Detroit, report their 1911 engine product sold out. The 1912 engine will be ready after some little time.

American capital is either headlong and misdirected or is absolutely uninterested.

James V. Martin.

Leo Stevens has bought the Wright biplane of Harold H. Brown.

/ raid monthlies concern in <j aeronautics in German and French, but I find yours the most inter-estinfi and up-to-date. Frank Thai-man.

your ni<i(/<ninc is a veritable mine of information to anyone interested in ucrial navigation. \lE(i. Hunt.

WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH AVIATION?

THE EFFECT

OF COLOR ON

IJy Prof. II. LaV. Twining.

AEROPLANES

IN THE September number of AERONAUTICS, Mr. R. F. Patterson had an interesting article upon the effect of color on aeroplanes. His observations and surmises there are scientifically correct. The only question that we need to raise is as to whether the effect observed is of any practical consequence. Mr. Patterson states that he had to remove a whole nandful of sand after fifteen minutes to restore the equilibrium occasioned by the heating effect upon three-foot square or upon nine square feet of surface. This experiment was conducted in still air. A large handful of sarid will weigh about .17 pounds.

In an uidlnar? Ourtlss biplane there would be in the neighborhood of three hundred square feet. This will give a reaction of 55 pounds. If the aeroplane were made of black cloth, and the sun were shining directly upon all of this surface a downward reaction of 55 pounds would be developed upon the upper surfaces of the biplane, provided the machine were standing still in still air. In practice neither of these conditions are realized.

On account of the high speed with which the aeroplane is driven through the air the surfaces would be kept cool. Probably only a little more than half of the surface would be exposed to the sun and the maximum reaction would be. reduced to 30 pounds at least on this account, and this 30 pound reaction due to heating effect of the sun would be reduced to practically zero on account of the motion of the aeroplane through the air.

The vanes of the radiometer are caused to revolve by the reaction of the molecules of rarefied air in the bulb. The vanes are mounted upon frictionless bearings in a glass bulb from which the air has been pumped, leaving a vacuum. The light striking on the blackened sides of the vanes heats them, but white sides of the vanes reflect the light and remain cool. The molecules of air that still remain in the vacuum acquire motion when they strike the black side, but do not acquire any more motion, when they rebound from the white side, than they had before striking. The molecules that rebound from the black side get their additional motion from the heated black material. It must be remembered that

heat is a molecular motion. The molecules in rebounding from the black side thus kick back against the vane harder than the ones that rebound from the white side and hence the vanes are driven away from the black side. The rays do not cause resistance, but they cause a greater reaction on one side than on the other. If the air be all pumped out of the bulb, the vanes will remain stationary when immersed in the light. If no air be pumped out they will not run owing to the great resistance of the air.

In the heat of the day, the air is very much expanded owing to the heat of the sun, but early in the morning or late in the evening, the air is denser and consequently heavier. This has nothing to do with the moisture in the air. On a clear day in a hot sun the air may be saturated with moisture. It will then be heavier than on a damp, cool day, because the moisture is dissolved in the air and it is then a part of the air. On a cool damp day the moisture is not dissolved in the air but on the contrary it is a state of suspension. The air is thus lighter on a dull day so far as its pressure on the barometer is concerned, because the water is in suspension instead of being dissolved. The water when dissolved adds the pressures due to its molecular motions to the pressure of the atmosphere, and the contrary is true when in a state of suspension.

Thus on a cool-cloudy day the air is lighter so far as the effect of moisture is concerned and heavier so far as the absence of heat is concerned. The resultant weight is a combination of these two factors.

The rise and fall of the barometer is thus effected by both of these factors, and the ease with which an aeroplane can obtain its reactions will aso be affected by them.

In conclusion we are safe in assuming that anything that keeps the planes cool will prevent this reaction, and the rapid movement of the machine through the air, constantly bringing fresh air in contact with the plane, will keep it cool. The effect observed on the stationary surface is an accumulated effect, because it takes time for the black surface to heat. In the case of the moving machine the heat will be removed as fast as formed.

FLIGHTS TOO MANY TO KECOItD

Hundreds of flights are being made every day all over the country, from short hops to little cross-country flights of five and ten and even more miles. It is obviously impossible to chronicle these; and it woulu serve no good purpose to do so. We do not get up at daybreak now to see a short straightaway flight as we did in 1909.

The centers of flying, like the Hempstead Plains in the East, St. Louis and Chicago in the Middle West, Los Angeles and San Francisco on the Pacific Coast, are the scenes of flights far too numerous to keep track of. It is a humiliating observation to make that most of the machines that are flying are copies of two or three well-known types of such lines as to make more or loss imperfect duplicates look like the real thing. Few original 'planes of any make are in the hands of private owners or doing exhibitions, save by the makers themselves. There is all the chance in the world to work on original lines.

There are sixty or more licensed pilots in the country now and a modest estimate of flyers entitled by virtue of accomplishments would be not less than a hundred. Outside of machines furnished by manufacturers to their own aviators, one wo iId be safe

in saying there are not a dozen American made aeroplanes in the hands of sportsmen or exhibition flyers.

The Curtiss, Wright, Moisant, McCurdy-Willard, and the smaller concerns that have sprung into being are daily filling the air with the buzz and roar of engines, filling the hundreds of contracts at fairs, festivals, exhibitions and the like. There are no less than thirty or forty fliers filling "dates" this Fall in every country of the United States and still there seems to be a field. The remuneration has dropped very much from last year but there is still profit, unless an aviator smashes up, can not get a machine quickly, and has to cancel a long string of dates. The Curtiss Company, to illustrate the demand, is continually turning down contracts even with half a score of aviators, or turning them over to someone else.

The daily papers now mention nothing but deaths—God knows there are too many— and extraordinary feats. One must not get the impression because he sees little about flying in the papers and aeronautical journals that there is none being done. There's too much to print.

THE death of Professor John J. Montgomery during a series of gliding experiments on October 31, PJI1, was a distinct blow to a large number of people who anticipated some very interesting developments within the near future, It took three hours to get a doctor to him and he breathed his last as the physician came in sight over the hills of Evergreen, Calif., where the flights were being made. At the top of a hill a runway had been constructed of grooved tracks in which the wheels of a monoplane glider ran. The report is that a little whirlwind caught the machine and dashed it head-on to the ground. Professor Montgomery landed on his right hip and head. He did not believe himself seriously hurt and talked with his year-old bride in the tent. He complained of pains in his back and continued to grow worse until he died.

During the past year he had associated with him Victor Eougheed and James E. Plew, of Chicago, and was expecting shortly to bring out a power machine. A wonderful engine has been in course of construction for many months under the eye of the author Bougheed. All work was being kept very secret and no one has even seen anything of the machine in course of construction. Up to his death and for a great many years he had been an instructor at Santa Clara College, Santa Clara, Calif.

In view of Professor Montgomery's claim to the use of warped surfaces between 1SS3 and 1SSG and the building of his present machine to demonstrate his theories, it may be of interest to know what his claims are. as stated by himself at a talk given before The Aeronautical Society last April. His talk was taken in shorthand at the time by this magazine exclusively and afterward corrected by Professor Montgomery himself.

His remarks are published below for the first time.

BY PllOF. JOII.V J. MO.VTGOMEKV.

"My first practical experiments commenced about 1SS3 and were continued until 1SS6. The first machines which I attempted to build were of the flapping order, hoping to rise from the ground by some flapping movement. I built three of these machines without any indication of success with man power.

"Giving this up for the time, I turned my attention to the study of gliding, hoping to solve some of the mysteries of the phenomenon of soaring.

"The first machine that was constructed was modeled after the gull's wing—-following it blindly, going against my reason in the matter but following Nature. The wings of birds, as you know, are curved and if properly placed at a small angle to the wind, or to the direction of movement, the front surface is inclined down. This was a stumbling block to me.*

"The first experiments with this crude device were a success. The apparatus measured 20 feet spread and an average depth, fore and aft, of 4y2 feet. I took this apparatus to the top of a hill, facing a gentle wind. There was a little run and a jump and I found myself launched in the air. I proceeded against the wind, gliding down hiM for a distance of about 600 feet. In this experience I was able to direct my course at will.

SENSATIONS OF SOARING. "A peculiar sensation came over me. The first in placing myself at the mercy of the wind, was that of fear. Immediately after came a feeling of security when I realized the solid support given by the wing surface— and the support was of a very peculiar nature. There wkas a cushiony softness about it, yet it was firm. When I found the

♦See AERONAUTICS, October 190S to January 1909.

machine would follow my movements in the seat for balancing, I felt 1 was self-buovant.

"This experience led to what is now a very important question, one that is agitating the whole country, the question of wing-warping.

THE BIRTH OF WARPING.

"Wing-warping was born at this moment. T say this, because it is important in the study of aeronautics to have the problems thoroughly fixed. I commenced then to study the question of control of the machine. You will notice from what 1 have said that the first machine I made was successful as a glider. That is, it had great power because I blindly followed the surface provided by Nature. It was defective in its equilibrium or control. I went to Nature to study the principle of control. I watched the movements of the vultures and detected in their actions the twisting- of the wing. That gave the solution. Then I resumed" my work. T was not able to build the wing as the bird's is built, so resorted to the first simple device. But, also, while I followed the principle of equilibrium as presented in Nature, I departed from the form of surface because it seemed unreasonable that the wing should be inclined downward at the front.

"Therefore, the second machine was made with flat surfaces. In 1SS5 I built the second machine, somewhat larger than the one previous and to afford side equilibrium each wing was hinged diagonally. This diagonal hinge allowed the 'flaps' thus formed to yield to undue pressure on either side. These flaps were held by springs in a normal position. If the wind pressure became excessive on one side, the flap of that wing would yield up a little.

"But, in addition to the spring, I had a saddle which was so constructed that by leaning to one side or the other the rear portion of the wing would yield on the respective side (the saddle had an upright piece and this was attached by wires running to the rear portions of the wing). If a gust of wind came from the left and I wished to relieve that side my only inclination would be to lean to the left, and vice versa.

"T found that when I took that machine and faced the wind that its equilibrium was perfect, that is, I found no conditions under which I could not control it so it would not upset me, a thing I could not do with the first machine. When I attempted to glide I found its power of gliding was far inferior to that of the first. Immediately 1 concluded I had not found the right surface.

"Then T built the third machine. In this machine, in a way, I copied Nature in regard to surface and, in a way, I departed from it. The wings were formed more or less like those of the soaring vulture, with this exception. T could not bring myself to the belief that the surface curved down in the front was the proper surface. Therefore, I compromised by turning the front edge up a little and the rest of the wing was more or less like that of the vulture. The two wings were placed at a dihedral angle.

WARPING IN A DIFFERENT WAY.

"Now in this machine 1 carried out the warping principle in a different way. There was a lateral beam along the front of the wings. These two beams were capable of being rotated in a socket in the frame extending backward to the tail. Wires from the rear of each wing ran to levers, one for each wing, placed at the right and left hands of the operator, who sat on a seat as in the other machines. By these levers 1 could bring both wings down together, or independently. That machine was perfect in control. Whether the wind was regular or gusty I had the machine under control by changing the angles of the wings. This had larger surface even than the second but was inferior in lifting power.

DEATH OF PROFESSOR JOHN J. MONTGOMERY

fT

I

Ju£.

A view of the aeroplane just as the hot air

balloon was cut loose. To get the best idea,

hold this illustration over the head and look upward.

the half circle noticed on the machine is movable horizontal surface with fixed vertical fin.

Taken in May, 1905, and reproduced from the January, 1909, issue of "Aeronautics."

"Immediately I found I did not have the proper form of surface as it did not have the same lifting power under the same conditions as the first machine.

"The account I have just given I gave to the Chicago Congress in 1893 and is more briefly stated in Mr. Chanute's book 'Progress in Flying Machines.' He describes the experiments and the machines. From this you will see that warping of surfaces is not a new question.

"Put I was not at all. satisfied with my work because I was floundering in the darkness, didn't know where to turn in order to determine a true surface. It was all mystery to me.

I concluded we knew little or nothing of aerodynamics, for I had searched the books and read magazines and papers for suggestions.

"I took the machine apart and commenced at the bottom to study if possible the laws of aerodynamics and determine the proper form of surface to give such phenomena as the soaring of birds.

"In 1SS5 or 1SSG, I constructed a whirling table. This consisted of a couple of rails fastened together and mounted on a pivot. On the end of this 1 fastened surfaces of different forms and whirled the table so as to study the movements of these surfaces. I no sooner had commenced than 1 detected a peculiar phenomenon which suggested there was something taking place in advance of the surface. In order to test this 1 resorted to a number of experiments, particularly one which T described to the Chicago Congress in IS9I1. I had my brother scatter thistle-down in the wind so as to detect the direction of the wind. Having done this I took a large

barn door and set it on the ground at an angle of about ten degrees. Immediately I noticed a reaction on the wind in front. Instead of the wind coming in a straight line it came in a gradual curve and rose to strike the surface, indicating that the surface had an action on the wind in front of it. Then 1 readily saw the reason for the curving of the surface of a bird's wing. I made this known to the Chicago Congress and also a series of studies relative to the forms of bird's wings, the ratio between weight carried and the curvature of a bird's wing. Mr. Chanute and Dr. Zahm were much interested in my work and gave me such encouragement that I continued and completed the whole series, but owing to various circumstances was not able to publish the results.

"In 1903 I was able to commence my investigations again and having discovered some of the fundamental laws I was able to put them into practice in the machines which 1 built.

"These were built strictly on the lines of science. I simply studied my own figures and made the first model. These were tested in vaiious ways. 1 stretched a cable between two hills -so tiiat it was 150 ft. high above the valley. With cords I would elevate these models and liberate them in all possible ways, upside down, tail' down, and every conceivable manner. They would glide safely to the ground no matter how they were liberated. In these I simply used the warping idea which I had developed in 1SS5 and 1SS6.

"After 1 found these models were perfect in their equilibrium and would follow any direction that 1 chose by giving them the proper warping", 1 built a large machine patterned exactly after them. I did not change one iota from the plans which I had drawn after studying my own papers following out the theory.

"In order to make tbe test practical with the large machines, in 1904 I took them down to the mountains about 100 miles below Santa Clara to San Juan and with the assistance of three cowboy friends I performed a series of experiments. I elevated these between poles

on a cable and dropped them with and without weight. Finding- them perfect I got in and with a running jump glided down the hill. A peculiar thing I found was that it would respond very rapidly to a change of the wind. I discovered this very unexpectedly. The long hill which I was in the habit of using had at its base a sort of canyon or a swale. At the top of the hill the wind came in the direction that I faced. Below it blew up the canyon directly at right angles to the wind above. I was gliding down the hill when quick as a tlash 1 was whirled at right angles to the first wind but was not upset.

"Then 1 attempted to give a series of exhibitions and develop the machine further. For that purpose 1 secured a hot air balloon man and parachute jumper. I was anxious to commence the experiments of raising a man in the air and dropping him short distances for the first nights. But my parachute jumper had his own ideas. He insisted upon being-raised at least 1,000 ft. high the first time. It was an ordeal for me. But there was nothing left for me to do. I either had to give up or let him go up.; So I made the adjustments with my machine in such a way that it was impossible for him to get control of the machine and make a mistake and hurt himself. There was certain clamps that controlled the tail and wings that gave him limited action.

GLIDING FROM 1,000 FEET HEIGHT. "So he went up a thousand feet, cut loose and made the first time a very beautiful glide. Then the second time I gave him a little more liberty and he made probably one of the finest glides I ever saw.

GLIDES FROM 3,000 FEET. "He went up about 3.000 ft. in the mountain regions of Santa Cruz. As he cut loose from the machine, he lost his direction. We told him to come back to the starting point. He started to fly towards a distant city. In five or six minutes he detected his mistake, turned round and started to fly towards us, and in coming towards us he passed through two

/09S

Montgomery glider, showing the stirrups or cross-bar warping, suspended from a cable stretched between poles, for experiments in gliding.

or three clouds. This was a beautiful sight. Finally, he came back near the point of starting. He could not make the exact point for he had lost a great deal of elevation in making his flights and there was an intervening forest of tall trees which h.e did not like to try crossing without good headway, so he made a circle and came to the earth.

"After that f continued my experiments at Santa Clara."

DEATH OP M ALONE Y.

"In 1905, one of my riders (Maloney) was killed. Hot air balloons rise very quickly and it was necessary to provide some means for retarding the upward rush. This was effected by ropes running through rings. In JMaloney's last flight, one of these ropes caught in part of the machine. We called out to Maloney that the aeroplane was broken but evidently he did not hear. When he got up about 3,000 ft. high he cut loose, the machine turned over and he descended with the machine upside down. He did not seem to be going any faster than a man dropping in a parachute. When we got to him the machine was broken and he was senseless. Six physicians examined him; found no mark on him except a scratch on the head from a wire. The physicians concluded he had heart trouble. There was no blood and no bones broken.

"I continued to build other aeroplanes giving other exhibitions until the San Francisco earthquake. This wrought such a disaster that 1 had to turn my attention to other subjects and let the aeroplane rest for a time."

Montgomery's patent, filed in ll»05 and granted 191)6. number S31.173 may be had upon application to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.

The Alpine death roll for 1911 shows 115 persons killed and 37 injured.

Aviation can not claim this in all its history.

Death of Eugene Ely.

Eugene B. Elv, one of the very best American fivers was killed in an exhibition flight at the' Macon (Ga.), fair on October 19th in making one of his sensational dives under power. He had always been known as a very conservative flyer and only lately had taken up sensational "stunts."

Ely started flying one of the very first Curtiss machines ever put out, the one sold

to Henry Wemme, of Portland, Ore. After making a number of exhibition flights with his machine, he joined the Curtiss Exhibition Company and has flown in every part of the United States. In November, 1910, he flew from the deck of the cruiser Birmingham, in Norfolk, Va., to the land. In January last, he flew from the aviation field at San Francisco to the deck of a battleship, landing on an inclined platform. He flew from this platform on his return trip to the field. Ely demonstrated the Army's Curtiss aeroplane during his maneouvres at San Antonio, Tex. Ely was 26 years old. He leaves a young widow, a native of San Francisco.

Ely was using a headless Curtiss, with the rear elevator increased in size over the normal when both front and rear ones are used in combination. Though there is plenty of control without the front elevator for ordinary purposes, the elevator of a headless does not respond so quickly as the two and it is possible that either Ely waited too long before straightening out or that the wind velocity changed close to the ground and he dropped further than he expected. Curtiss flyers are doing nearly all the exhibition flying this fall in this country; the machines are fast and particularly adapted to spectacular work; and aviators will get reckless. By sticking to "straight flying" Ely's death would have been avoided. Cromwell Dixon started his flight' from a place utterly unsuitable for flying in his endeavor to "make good" regardless of conditions. "Avoidable" might be applied in both these instances.

The Aero Club of California paid its tribute to the memory of Eugene Ely in a resolution of its Board of Directors on October 24th.

DEATHS ABROAD. Rheims, Oct. 14. R. Level (Savary Biplane) was killed.

Hamburg, Germany, Oct. 21. H. Tacks (Tacks monoplane) was mortally injured and died a few hours later.

Berne, Switzerland, Oct. 14. Captain Jean Schmidt (Bleiiot), a Swiss army officer, killed in meet.

Rheims, France, Oct. 27. Jean Desharmet was killed flying a military machine.

After looking over your publication, it seems to we, that this magazine should be- of great value to anyone wishing to keep informed on developments along this line.—JxVmes G. Hunt.

AEHO Clilll EXPOSITION.

An international aeronautic exposition will be held by the A. C. A. the week of May 9th in the new Grand Central Palace, New York, An agreement has been reached with the owners of the Palace for a term of five years, during which time the club has the exclusive use of this building for aeroplane shows. An emissary has been to Europe to obtain the exhibits of representative foreign manufacturers and will be in position to offer entry free of duty, the Palace people having arranged for blanket bonding.

It is the idea of the club to foster the industry by means of shows until such time as the trade is organized and capable of conducting its own expositions.

Charles .1. Yunk and Nathan Binder have been conducting a correspondence school known as the National Academy of Aviation at Detroit, Mich. Albert F. Buttcrfield, desirous of learning the art of flying, matriculated in the school, lie is still unable to soar through space and asks the local Justice for the return of $275.50 he claims he has coming.

The entire student body of the "school" was on hand as witnesses.

one of them said he had spent much lime In the school nights when he should have been at home with his wife. According to witnesses, students were to be taught the

construction of the machines, which, when completed, were to be used in the first lessons in flying. Testimony was adduced to show that the first lessons were not given because the students never finished a machine.

1 iutterfield asks in addition to the return of his tuition fees a salary of $20 per week for time spent in the school as an assistant professor of aviation. He claims he was guaranteed a position at the close of his college career.- Detroit News.

AEHO (' \ liEN It A It.

Nov. 14-19—Houston, Tex., Curtiss aviators 16-1S—Atlanta, Ga., Curtiss aviators 21-22—Austin, Tex.. Curtiss aviators 21-22—Salisbury, N. C, 1 aviator " 22-23- New Bern, N. C, Curtiss aviator 24-25 Chattanooga, Tenn., Curtiss aviators

24-25—Savannah, Ga.. Curtiss aviators

25 Home, Ga., Curtiss aviator 29-30 - Spartenburg, S. C. 2 aviators 30—Winston-Salem, N. C, 2 aviators Dec. 7-12 San Juan, P. R., Curtiss Aviator Jan. —Los Angeles, A.CO. meet

Mexico City, Moisant aviators at presidential inauguration; later touring Central America.

1912—International Exposition, Vienna May. 9-1S, 1912—Show at Grand Central Palace, Aero Club of America.

AERONAUTICS

November, 191 1 November, 1911

'jggSESEHMl

CLUB NEWS

COLLIKR HEADS A. C. A.

The Aero Club of Amerieji held its annual -election Nov. 13th, Robert J. Collier was lelected president to succeed Allan A. Ryan, Iwith J. A. Blair, Jr., Maj. Samuel Reber, Harold F. McCormick and H. A. W. Wood [vice-presidents in the order named.

The number of directors has been increased Ifrom 20 to 24, to include sixteen non-resi-Ident governors and eight resident or nonresident. The sixteen governors have been rnade up from presidents of affiliated aero fclubs since the National Council, which was headed by Robert J. Collier, has become lost, •strayed or stolen.

A new section has been added to the By-Laws by 'which the failure four times in succession of any of the eight "Class A" directors to attend directors' meetings without per-rnission is considered as resignation. This is pesigned to limit these eight to live ones and eliminate the drones. The office of Consulting Engineer has been abolished and a fourth vice-presidency takes its place. The kctive work of the directors will now be pone by an Executive Committee of seven members, which has all the powers of the board of directors, when the board is not In session.

The club-year is the most successful and prosperous the Club has ever known. During its course the individual membership has (grown from 390 to 540, say an increase in a Tingle twelvemonth of nearly 40%. The affili-bted clubs now number twenty-four and have shown greater activity and a more earnest support of the Club than in any previous year. The number of aviation pilot's certificates granted by the Club is now 74 as against 26 on October 31st. 1910.

The acquisition of the Club-house, the finest aero-club-house in existence and the only affording its members living rooms and restaurant service has' proved an unqualified success, fully justifying the opinion of those members who urged it for some time past. The attendance is increasing almost daily.

The granting of aviation pilot's certificates has been systemized so that applicants can pass their tests all over the country under the supervision of the A. E. C. A.'s special delegates.

The Club proposes to hold an aeronautic show in the near future, fashioned after the successful Paris salons and has already entered into negotiations in the matter.

Monday nights have been set aside as "club nights" and members are beginning to meet at the club for dinner and informal talks. On November 1st a semi-formal dinner was held, attended by a hundred members and guests, inaugurating a series of monthly dinners.

The Vrrn Club of Connecticut during the past month gave its members and their friends the opportunity of a short flight with aviator A. L. Welsh, of the Wright company, at the Bake Aerodrome in Bridgeport. A Wright model B machine was put at the disposal of the club for the sum of $1500, which was guaranteed by the club. The members were charged $30 a flight and some twenty-seven flights were made with entire success. This is the second club in the country to attempt to have its members become familiar with aviation to the extent of making it possible for them to obtain rides, the other instance being the club in Detroit.

The Salt Lake City \ero Club is in process of organization. Four men, Robert N. Campbell, J. Frank Judge. Lewis B. McCornick and G. Ray Walker are prime movers. The six ascensions made in the big balloon bought

from the French-American Balloon Company have stirred up a lot of interest and it is planned to keep the balloon in use taking up members' parties. Correspondence may be addressed to Mr. Campbell, Walker Bank Building, Salt Lake City, Utah.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania listened to president A. T. Atherholt's description of his trip in the international balloon race at a meeting held October 20.

The Aeronautical Society continues to hold well attended bi-monthly meetings. The October 12th meeting was made very interesting by the short but vivid experiences of Messrs. Dyott and Martin. F. C. Dawson, president of the company handling duralumin, told of the properties of the new light metal and the purposes for which it is adapted, giving each member as a souvenir a paper-cutter made of this material. John J. Cutter, lately returned from Europe, told of the wonderful activity abroad. Basil V. Szabo told of the gliding work of Lilienthal from his store of intimate knowledge of Lilienthal's machines and practices.

At the meeting of October 26th, when the attendance filled the rooms, Jerome S. Fanciul-li, of the Curtiss company, spoke on Ely's death and the development of the hydro-aeroplane for naval purposes, illustrated with lantern slides. George F. Campbell Wood, secretary of the Aero Club, addressed the Society on late developments, with slides. Both talks were highly appreciated and earned great enthusiasm. An exposition of "Cupror," a new metal, was given by Fred W. Barker, of the Non-Corroding Metal Co.

On November 9th, Mr. Frank W. Walton delivered an address upon "The Development of Aeronautics among School Boys, and its effect upon their mental activity." He spoke from a store of interesting observations and experiences from his connection with public school work. Mr. G. Curtis Gillespie spoke upon "Untouched Subjects of Aeronautics," in which he brought out a number of predictions based upon observations of the present development. Percy Pierce of model fame gave an illustrated talk upon "The History of Model Flying in America."

RAVIATIOXS. Hy Antony Jamiiis.

If Tillinghast said he flew for many hours in the night, did Ely?

If aeronautical publications are always short of money, how much does Aero?

If a Wright machine flew over a mining town would it be Or(e)ville?

If the Wrights win their suit against Curtiss how much will Bleriot?

If Bleriot, Santos-Dumont, Paulham and the other constructors should decide to take an outing, would it be Wright for them to Somer at Nieuport?

Tf Paul Peck bumped into the Washington monument would it Rex Smith?

If a buzzard can fly without power, do you think Capt. Willoughby's Pelican?

If Ovington flew across the continent do you think Atwood?

When Atwood left Grand Park, did Chicago?

Tf rve bread is nearly black is Grahame-White?

If Beachey had not been at Chicago who would we have had to defeat Sopwith?

If the Chicago cops were handcuffing reckless aviators would there be a Lincoln Beachey?

If Miss Moisant bought a blue aviation suit, what would Miss Quimby?

—Quick, boys, the life net; he's falling!

The Roland Tail-less P.iplane. The "jibs"' on the right of the photograph is pulled in to steer aviators left, or to depress that side.

AFTER experimenting with power machines since l'.tOS, flying, smashing, altering, with the one object in view of proving that rudders as generally used are unneccessary, that ailerons and warping wings are only two methods of keeping right side up, Frank E, Boland, of Rahway, N. J., has demonstrated during the past Summer that he can fly as well as anyone. Some exhibition flights were made on October 21st for the benefit of a number of interested persons who had assembled for the purpose of seeing the machine in flight.

Boland's flights all along have attracted a lot of attention among the flying colony on Long Island but little information has spread abroad. Nothing now startles aviation "fans." There is no grandstand play about Boland's flying. He just gets in the machine und off he goes turning as he leaves the ground, if he likes, which no other aviator thinks of doing. He just imagines himself in an automobile and drives accordingly. He says he never bothers about lateral balance or other minor things like that. His seat, with stirrups for his feet, is so secure that nothing can throw him out. He just turns his steering wheel to go to the right or left and pushes or pulls it to go up or down. If one side of the machine does get too low he just turns his wheel to the opposite side and he is level again. He put a tail on one day, found it did not fly as well, and took it off, all without re-balancing.

Boland uses his own engine which never fails him. No attempt has been made to re-line the machine, to have nicely finished woodwork, or neat sockets and turnbuekles. Tile cloth is rusty from the weather and has been on for about a year, part of the time no shed being provided for the machine at all—lie just leaves it out like a lazy farmer would his plow. Some ribs have one curve, some another; sometimes they are flat, due to weather conditions, Out under the eleva-

tor hang four sash weights which some time in the past aided the housewife to raise] her kitchen window. All Boland wants to do is fly and he doesn't care a hang for looks.

He was one of the original members of1 The Aeronautical Society at Morris Park. He bought Dr. William Greene's first machine and took off its tail. This he flew, smashed and flew, in a little two-by-four field in Jersey until he built the present machine, about a year ago. Soon Boland Flyers' will be on the market.

Mnin Pianos. The span is 29 ft. 6 in., the chord and separation of the planes being, 5 ft. 6 in. The central section is built up as a unit, the uprights running from the skids to the top plane. The wing spars of the outer sections butt against these struts! and are secured thereto by clips of sheet steel. The covering of the planes is single, the ribs running in pockets sewed on the upper side. The main spars are also run in pockets, the ribs being attached to the top of the front spar and to the bottom of the rear, as in the Farman machine. The curvature of the ribs is very slight, only y> in-deep about half way between the spars. The trailing edges of the ribs are straight as originally bent, but they are very flexible. '■2 by 1 inch solid ash, tapering to a point at the rear. Here they probably take some reserve curve due to the pressure of the air. I The plane flies as it stands on the ground I with scarcely any angle of incidence, thel ends of both front and rear spars being thel same height from the ground.

Klcvntor. The elevator, pivoted 14 feet inj front of the main plane, has a span of 131 feet 2 in. and a chord of 3 feet. It is single! covered and has a very pronounced curve—I 2'/2 inches. When in horizontal flight thisl is held at a very flat angle. The surface isl strongly stayed by wires running from thel two steel tube masts to which the wiresi from the steering frame are run. The frontl

THE BOLAND TAIL-LESS BIPLANE

spar is formed of a piece of % inch tubing, the rear being of spruce.

Controls. The main point of this machine, and the one which gives it its claim to attention, is the absence of both rudder and ailerons. To take the place of them a pair of "jibs" is used and these are situated at each lateral end of the machine. Bach works in one direction only and both are

ing resistance on that side. A throttle lever is operated by hand.

The seating of the aviator is novel. The feet are not used for any purpose whatever and are inserted in "stirrups," or loops made of wire in the guying of the outrigger framing so that the man sits in much the same position, with the knees high, as the driver of a racing automobile. In case of a rough

f/MF B

r"AIOR^HL

/O90

controlled from the hand wheel on the steering column. According to Mr. Boland, the operation of the machine is the same as that of an automobile, with the exception of the elevator which works in the accepted manner. In order to turn to the left the wheel is turned to the left, the machine swinging around easily and banking itself properly. When the turn is complete the wheel is brought back to center and "that's all there

landing, it is almost impossible for the aviator to be thrown forward on his face, nor can he fall forward on his steering column preventing him from pulling back on his elevator. A picture taken of the late Bouis Rosenbaum shows him leaned so far forward on his steering column that the elevator is depressed and he has nothing to push against to regain an upright position in his seat.

It uniting Gear. A combination of four wheels and skids is used. The wheels are mounted, one on each end of a long axle. The rear set is placed near the rear end of the skids and are 2 by 2G inch wheels, these are supported by rubber shock absorbers.

/09I

•Al' . , 0 Jlhs aro triangular in shape with a balancing portion, and are pivoted at the points A and B as shown in the sketch the wire C from the wheel goimv to the lower corner. When the wheel is turned, the lower corner of the jib is pulled in, thus presenting an obliquely inclined surface, offer-

The other set is situated about 4 feet in front of the planes and aro flexiblv mounted by means of cable running over pulleys and back to coil springs attached to the'skids. The wheels of the forward set are 2 by 20 in.

I'uwit IM1111I. An S cylinder "V" motor of Mr. Boland's own make is used. This has stood the test and runs right along with verv little tinkering. The cylinders are 4" bv 4", brass water jacketed on the sides, the heads not being jacketed. The valves are conccn-

trie and are located in the cylinder head, only the exhaust valve is mechanically operated. The oiling system is a combination of force feed and splash, with oil well in the base.

Unique construction is noticed in the nickel steel crankshaft. This is "built up" of five members. One connecting rod is forked at its bearing, the other one working between the forks of the other, and are thus concentric. The cylinders and connecting rods are

1

not staggered in this method. The special system of connecting rod bearings allow both rods of a pair to get full advantage of a wide bearing, 23A inches. The cranks are steel discs, bored for lightness. The weight of engine complete, with carburetor, magneto and oiler is 230 lbs. The crankshaft alone is 34 lbs.

Ignition is by a Bosch motorcycle magneto, delivering current to a separate eight cylinder distributor, placed at the rear of the motor and run by the oil pump shaft. The magneto runs at twice engine speed. The engine runs normally at 1200, giving 60 b.h.p.

The oil enters the hollow crankshaft, is

forced into the connecting rods and line bearings, then splashing the cylinders. The one-piece connecting rods are hollow chrome nickel steel, cut from solid forging. There are oil pits tinder each connecting rod so that/-any change in the level of the machine wiLF not drain oil away from the high end of the engine. The cam shaft is mounted on R.I.V. ball bearings and a big bearing of the same make is used for the center bearing of the crankshaft. The other crankshaft bear-

ings are solid bronze, slipped over the ends. There is no provision for take-up on these, as very little wear has thus far been discovered. They are larger than usual and a better pit is secured by being solid. A ball thrust bearing is used on the propeller shaft. This is tapered and a special hub is keyed to it. The propeller is bolted to a flange on this hub. Cooling by a Livingston radiator.

The pistons have three cast iron rings, with a large oil groove in line with the piston pin. The cylinders do not carbonize.

Weight. The weight is given as S00 lbs., without operator, and the speed is estimated at fifty or more miles an hour.

TllK llOLAND EXCINK.

the kansas city international contest

Ily Lieut. H. K. Honeywell

Lieut. Honeywell piloted his balloon the "Kansas City II," with two other balloons entered for the Lahm Cup. As his balloon was not one of rubberized fabric, it was not permitted in the international contest. However, it beat by 30 miles the winner of the international, the "Berlin II," of Germany.

OUR experience in the contest held in Kansas City, Mo., Oct. 5 th, proved a strenuous one. All the balloons encountered similar stormy conditions which were very unusual at this time of year. The weather map looked uninviting from the start, and right here I wish to state that in all future contests an elastic date should be enforced, suitable to atmospheric conditions.

The race was pulled off without a hitch, all contestants having an even break, that is, given no advantage in time of start, with cloudy weather and an even temperature. In the presence of 40,000 people a perfect getaway of all balloons was made.

All experienced fine weather until near midnight, when a very cold drenching rain and snow storm began. Those not prepared were wet to the skin and suffered.

We in the "Kansas City II," John Watts and myself, tried to get above the tempest for our basket rocked from time to time due to cyclonic conditions. After fighting our way up to 10,700 feet at 2 a.m., the temperature dropped to 5 degrees above zero and still snowing very hard. Five and six sacks of ballast were cut away at one time to force the balloon through the storm, only to find ourselves descending the next minute, due to lower temperature and contracted gas. We were nearly frozen, our feet and clothes were stiff—icicles galore. AVe could not stand it longer, and let her drop gradually to about five thousand feet where she checked and

struck an equilibrium the rest of the night without throwing ballast. Our statoscope was out of commission and the aneroid nearly so, due to water in them.

At daybreak we noticed through a break in clouds below a long streak of coast line which afterward proved to be Lake Superior. We thought we were in Canada as the lake vanished to our rear. Feeling satisfied that we were going N. E. at a great rate, decided to investigate no further, as clouds had blanketed the earth once more. At 9 a.m. we decided to drop below the blanket and get bearings. AVe hailed a man to learn what part of Canada we were in. Imagine our surprise when he answered "Wisconsin." AVe immediately consulted our compass, we thought it had gone wrong, a second compass said the same thing—course Southwest, speed 30 to 40 miles per hour. The upper strata of clouds were becalmed as previous observations proved.

In order to lose no more distance we valved a hasty descent, landing in a garden patch at 9.20 a.m. to avoid possible damage to balloon in a dense forest. In doing so one end of the basket struck a stone fence, my hands being high above my head pulling the rip cord, knees bent to avoid jolt, the upper edge of basket caught me in short ribs, fracturing one—the first injury in 164 ascensions. AVe could have prolonged our trip possibly through a second night had our course been true. Much discouraged, the balloon was packed and shipped back to Kansas City, not knowing that we had whipped the entire field of international rubber flyers. By doing so the varnished balloons proved again superior over all other makes.

In the last national race they came in 1, 2, 3, for distance and endurance, they have always made good in prior contests.

M c C U R D Y

HEADLESS BIPLANE

THE machine illustrated is one of six that were built to Mr. McCurdy's design by the Queen Aeroplane Co. They were used by him at the Chicago and Nassau meets and in exhibitions in various parts of the country. The machine is a fine flier, has a good turn of speed, and seems to handle well.

One has gotten rather used to finding most machines constructed principally of spruce, so it is rather a novelty to find in this machine that the only spruce used is in the two struts running from the upper plane to the front of the skids; all other woodwork being ash.

.1. A. D. McCurdy was one of the members of the Aerial Experiment Association. At its disbandonment in 1909, Mr. McCurdy and F. W. Baldwin, another member of the Association, formed the Canadian Aerodrome Company at Dr. Alexander Graham Bell's place at Baddock, Nova Scotia, building there several machines. When, in 1910, Baldwin left with Dr. Bell for a trip around the world, McCurdy joined with Glen Curtiss in exhibitions. In the Summer of 1911 he associated with Charles F. Willard in forming the McCurdy-Willard Company to give exhibitions and market machines, with headquarters at 1780 Broadway. In October, Messrs McCurdy and Willard both again joined with the Curtiss Company.

Main Planes. These are built in three sections, joining at the points where the skids are attached. The Goodyear fabric is laid and tacked on top and bottom of the ribs and to the front beam. Instead of the customary wire along the trailing edge of the ribs a light batten is used as in the Curtiss machines. The curvature of the ribs is 3" maximum situated about 1 3 of the chord from the forward edge. The angle in flight is approximately 4 degrees.

The ribs as well as the main beams and all struts are of ash. The struts are fish shaped and are attached to the main beams by the combination of an aluminum socket and the "U" bolt familiar in the Bleriot. This "U" bolt is used only as an anchor for the guys and the struts, turnbuckles being used to tighten the wires.

Elevator. The elevator is hinged, as shown in the drawings, at the rear of a fixed surface. Neither the elevator nor the fixed surface are given camber, the fixed surface being set at a very slight angle which may be changed as desired by clamps on the strut at the forward edge. The elevator is con-

trolled by tilting the steering column. The controlling wires are doubled for safety.

Rudder. A single rudder, with a notch cut for the fixed surface, is used. It is operated by turning the wheel on the steering column, from which the flexible wire runs through Bowden wire down the center of the column to the pivot and to skid struts where copper tubing is used for fair leads.

>tal»ility. This is secured by the use of ailerons hinged to the rear main beams of both planes. The operation is by means of the well known shoulder brace. The ailerons are really a continuation of the main surfaces, and when not in use are not at all noticeable.

Running Oear. Usual wheel and skid combination. The skids are of ash as are the struts. The connections of skids and struts and of the struts and the main spars is by means of special aluminum castings. There are also oblique struts of 1" steel tube running from the skids to the main spars under the engine foundation.

Power I'lant. A 50 h.p Gnome is used, the propeller being mounted behind the engine. The gas and air control levers are mounted on the steering column, liberal use being made of Bowden wire. The globe valve for closing off the gasolene supply and the magneto cut-out are conveniently located at the pilot's right on the curved piece which extends to form the foot rest.

Weight. The weight of the apparatus is 505 pounds, without gas or oil. The speed is 51 miles per hour over a circular course.

The McCurdy Headless Biplane. 160

YV.u.TEit Johnson, Flying Thomas Headless

THB Thomas Brothers, of Bath, N. Y., have neen building and Hying biplanes fcr the past two years in a quiet sort of way. Bittle publicity has come their way for they are not located near centers of flying.

Walter E. Johnson, of Rochester, has been doing some exhibition work with the machine the past season, eighteen successful engagements having been down. In a recent number we told of his flying to Hammondsport and back. The Kirkham motor factory at Savona is about eight miles and when he gets a short circuit in his gasoline tank or a leak in his propeller he just flies over and gets the motor maker himself to set him right. On October 20 he visited several towns in that part of the state, changing a magneto to Bosch at the Kirkham factory. The day before he Hew about the villages for a circuit of 20 miles.

His Kirkham six cylinder is doing excellent work, he says, and the experience with these several machines has led the Thomas brothers to start work on a speed machine. A monoplane with hydroplane attachment will be another machine. The designer is "William T. Thomas.

Main I'lanex. These, spread 31% ft, 5% ft. chord and spaced 4' 5" apart. The depth of the tairve is 5" at 2' back. The planes are double covered with treated sailcloth, tacked on. The front beam is 2" by l'A", the rear the same dimensions, 15" forward from the rear edge. The rectangular in cross section ribs, spaced 14" apart, size 1V4" by ", are fastened to the beams by iron strips. The 1%" by l1^" struts fit in sockets or tubing. Wire is used for guying. 1/16 and 3/32" diameter, tightened by locking turnbuckles.

lUcviilnr. The design and bracing of the elevator plane is novel, in combination with the four rudders. The elevator is hinged to the rear beam of a fixed surface, IS ft. back from the front beam of the main planes. The elevator measures 10' by 3' 2" and the area is 27:V, sq. ft.

liiidilriN. Of these there are four, pivoted IS' back from the front of the main planes. Bach measure 1V2' by 2'. These are operated by the turning of the steering wheel through 1 16" Roebling cable over pulleys where turns are made.

Stability. Ailerons at the rear of both planes are used for keeping lateral equilibrium. Each

of these four measure 66" by 15". These are operated in the manner first adopted by Curtiss, by means of a shoulder brace. Cable 1/16" diameter is used.

Power Plant. A 50 h.p. 6 cyclinder Kirkham motor, weighing 230 lbs., is now used, driving a 7' by e1/?' pitch propeller at 1,100 rpm. The cylinders in this engine are 4%" by 4%", valves in the head. The radiator is an A-Z and Bosch magneto. The propeller is made by the Thomas Brothers. The engine is mounted centrally between the planes. A trust of 350 lbs. is obtained.

Punning Gear. The four-wheel running gear has been a feature with each of the Thomas machines. Each wheel is spring mounted. These wheels, 20" by 2'/4 Diamond, are used in combination with 10' skids, 2" by 2" cross section, braced with tubing. The track of the wheels is S'.

The Aerial Construction Co. of New York report having taken a lease on additional premises to take care of the continued demand for their product. The "Sanford Special" propellers are in great demand, especially in the middle west and on the Pacific coast, where they have been having success during the past summer.

To keep its force of experienced workmen employed during the quiet winter months this concern is quoting low rates for its usual high standard construction work.

A. C. Menges, of Memphis. Tenn., has received delivery of another monoplane from the American Aeroplane Supply House, of Hempstead, L. T. This was tried out Oct. 6 by Andre Houpert, instructor of the Moisant school, who made a ten-minute flight. This is a single-seater 1911 Bleriot-copy, with a 70 h.p. Gnome engine.

The Republica Dominicana, through its state engineer, Z. H. Garcia, has placed an order and work has been commenced. This will be equipped with a Roberts.

The fifth monoplane tinned out' by the American Aeroplane Supply House at Hempstead, B. 1., has been sold to E. J. Marley, of Sumner. Miss., after successful trials were made by Andre Houpert, instructor of the Moisant school at Nassau Boulevard. The flight covered about fifteen miles. A 70 Gnome is used. These two-seaters are finely built and all have flown at once.

THOMAS HEADLESS BIPLANE

More R.oe Details

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1 I

CONSTRUCTION AIDS, XX

[AERONAUTICS

(the rating of

November, 1911

gasoline motors

THE problem of deriving a satisfactory formula for the determination of the brake horsepower of a gasoline motor is one that has caused a great deal of discussion, and many formulae have been fevolved. Some have been too complicated, lind others, on account of their simplicity, were rendered unsuitable.

The formula known as the A. L. A. M. Iformula, (diam. squared x no. cylinders-=-2%) lias been widely used, but is at the best rather unsatisfactory.

Marshall formula. In order to illustrate the method of using it, we have taken the case of the Wright engine—4%" bore by 4" stroke. Enter at the bottom of the measurement for stroke, and run up until the correct revolution line is reached—in this case 1,300—then to the right and take the curved line which starts at the part of arrival, between two lines in this case, and follow it until just under the diameter 4%"; then run across to the right where you arrive at 32 h. p.

It might be worth while to point out that

Cylinder diameter in Inches and Millimeters 70 80 HO 1C0 110 120 130 140

2.5 | . 3 | . 14 . | 4.5 J 5 |

150

10 1 9 | 81 17 I 6 I 5 | M

210 220 180 160 140 120 100

Stroke in Inches and Millimeters

HORSE POWER No. of Cyliudeis 1_2 4Q

GG

54

42

30

18

132

108

84

60

36

12

198

162

126

90

54

18

180

/063.

Comprehensive chart showing the horsepower for various motors which can be read off at a glance, taking bore, stroke and engine speed into consideration.

Mr. C. P. D. Marshall in The Automobile has advanced the formula

d"nsv d2nsv -----or--- ---12,000 -200,000,000 according to whether the dimensions are expressed in inches or millimeters. In this formula d is the diameter, n the number of cylinders, s the stroke and v the revolutions per minute. It is derived from the "PLAN" of steam practice, and assumes the mean effective pressure corresponding to the brake horsepower to be 84 pounds per square inch. Results given by this formula have been compared with the brake tests on a goodly number of engines, and have been found to be a very good approximation when the engine was not being overdriven. As the power curve of an engine sags off when the engine is overdriven, the results given by the formula are then too high. This is, however, a fault common to all other formulae as well. The chart gives the horsepower by the

the exact equivalent for the constant 12,000 when millimeters are used is 196,634,000. The effect of taking the round number 200,000, 000 gives a result 1% per cent, lower, which is near enough for all practical purposes, considering that an approximation is all we can aim at when using a formula.

This is only One of 3Iany.

"I believe I wrote you that I had received 'How to Build an Aeroplane.' So completely does your magazine cover the subject, that I have thus far found very little in the book that has not been dealt with somewhere in the nineteen copies of AERONAUTICS that I have read. The book is a sort of condensation of all the essential points that you have already published.

With delightful anticipation of the feast I shall have when the September number of AERONAUTICS arrives,

Verv truly yours,

(Signed) H. B. Newton."

AERONAUTICS November, 19111

Progress in^hydro-aeroplanes

WHEN \V. Starling- Burgess first became interested in aviation and began to forsake the yachting field in which he had met with such eminent success, following in the footsteps of his father, his many friends wondered how long it would be before his experience and skill as a designer of yachts would solve the problem of the hydro-aeroplane, it is said that it was with great difficulty that Mr. Burgess refrained from interesting himself in this development while designing and perfecting the Burgess Biplane, which has been so successful wherever it has been used this year, taking 0J% of the biplane prizes at the ln^t important meet, at Nassau Boulevard when competing with aeroplanes of five other makes.

This success, with the very excellent cross country work which has been accomplished by a number of aviators on the Burgess during the season has proved the machine to be second to none as an aeroplane and Mr. Burgess at once devoted his attention to the even more attractive opportunity of developing the hydro-aeroplane.

The hydroplanes, which are made with a large factor of safety, are so designed as to meet the water at an angle without the possibility of strain, are two boats about 14 feet long, 2 feet wide and a main draft of about ten inches of the single step hydroplane type, heavily trussed and reinforced.

On the morning of October 25 Mr. Burgess launched the new hydro-aeroplane from the sheerlegs just as for years he has been launching the yachts that have made a name for him all over the world. The first demonstration consisted of a fifteen minute run among the yachts that were moored in the harbor. His expectations were entirely fulfilled in finding the hydro-aeroplane a sea-

worthy craft, as easily steered as a fast motor boat. While he had assured his friends that he would not leave the water, the temptation after a few minutes became too great and one or two short jumps showed that the aeroplane had ample power to lift the boats without difficulty on the first pulling of the elevator.

From that flight on for one week all of the aviators in the Burgess Company flew the hydro-aeroplane, on one day carrying Mrs. F. G. Macomber, Jr., the first woman to ride in a hydro-aeroplane over the Atlantic Ocean. A number of other passengers were given flights. The machine was flown in varying weather conditions from a calm to a 25 mile wind and it was gratifying to note that the winds which would bother a skilled aviator in his machine over the uneven ground gave the novice no difficulty in the new hydro-aeroplane over the water. No adjustments have been necessary and not it repair has been required since launching.

Both H. N. At wood and C. W. Webster expressed themselves as highly delighted with the new machine and were enthusiastic in their comparison of the joys of flying over the water as compared with flying over the land.

This new development has a deeper significance for aviation than is at first appreciated. One of the greatest difficulties that hoth the manufacturer and the teacher has had is to impress upon the untrained, and very often upon those skilled in the art, the necessity of flying only in favorable weather. Most of the unfortunate accidents that have occurred during the last year can be traced to an over anxiety on the part of the operator to fly when conditions were not satisfactory.

The hydro-aeroplane automatically solves this problem, as while it can be operated in higher winds on account of their being more regular over the water, still a limit is reached when the sea prevents the satisfactory planing of the boats, so that the unwise or too reckless aviator is prevented from flying when the conditions are unfavorable.

It is reported that the company has taken steps for the immediate construction of a number of hydro-aeroplanes to attach to its machines that are now in use, and the Government is already interested in the development for its own equipment.

they shut off the motor and alighted on the water. When a suitable place was found to get ashore, the motor was started up again and the 'plane run aground.

The double control system was employed and each of the others relieved the other from time to time, the jointed control lover being shifted from one to the other without any ditticulty whatever. The details of this were published in the August number, page 56. A self-starting device has been added. A lever at the side of the aviator works a ratchet gear on the propeller shaft, just forward of the propeller.

lUiring the following week the return trip

The Curtiss Hydro-aeroplane.

MANY II YDIIO-AKROPIi A,\RS lll'l 1,1>ING.

The hydro-aeroplane has "caught on" all over the world since Curtiss first made real flights a year ago in California. Numerous experiments are being conducted abroad but none of the machines there has reached the present stage of those in this country. One or two are busy giving exhibitions, the Navy's machine has just flown up and down the Atlantic Coast and Robinson down the Mississippi River.

The Queen Aeroplane Co. is trying out a monoplane equipped with a boat.

The early part of October Frank Coffyn attached tloats to a. Wright machine and made a large number of flights at Detroit.

Hugh L. Willoughby promises to have an aquatic aeroplane on the market this coming spring. Some tlights have been made in Baltimore with E. It. Brown's biplane and there are other private experimenters widely scattered who are getting active in this direction.

Curtiss is experimenting with another variation of the water machine line, with the engine high up in the top plane and the flyer low down on the boat.

NAVY OI'M^ICKHS .11 \ K10 Mi\V ItE('Olll)

The U. S. naval otlicers Bieut. Theodore G. Bllyson and Bieut. .1. G. Towers on October 25th established a non-stop hydroaeroplane record by Hying from Annapolis, Mil., to iUiekroe Beach, near Fortress Monroe, Ya., a distance of 13S.2 miles in the Curtiss hydro aeroplane recently purchased by the Captain W. Irving Chambers, head of aeronautical work in the Navy, which machine is the only successful water 'plane of any government to date. The distance was made in 2 hours 27 minutes, which averages 56.-1 miles an hour.

When the aviators sighted the point of land at the entrance to Hampton Beads

was made, with two stops, due to motor trouble.

RETURN TRIP.

On October 30, the Navy aviators started for the return flight and got as far as Gloucester Point, on the York River, Ya.. when a landing was made on account of a broken pump shaft. The following day they reached Smith Point. S-l miles on the way back when the water pump broke. Here a landing was made and the Navy Department wired of the situation from Beedville. Ya. In "response to offer of a tug, Lieut Bllyson telegraphed "Tug not needed. Machine in line shape. Waiting in weather."

The following days were very cold and the aviators endured ma Ay hardships, as their resources were poor for subsistence and comfort in their determination to make a practical test out of the llight and to get along as well as possible without outside assistance.

Bllyson anil Towers completed the return (light to Annapolis on November 3 in a biting, strong, northwest wind. They were nearly frozen stiff but cheerful and happy in having "stuck to it." The machine was in tine condition.

Lieutenant Ellyson. in writing to Glenn H. Curtiss, gave the following interesting incidents about the tlights:—

"I steered for the first half hour and then Towers, for the same length of time. At the end of an hour the water connections on top of the radiator began to leak and water went on tho magneto, causing the engine to miss. Towers climbed and repaired the leak the best he could and had to hold the water-pipe in place, which he did for over an hour while I drove.

After two hours Hying, the oilguage seemed to be getting low anil we decided to land. This we accomplished in a six foot surf with a twenty mile wind behind us. 1 ran the ran-

Mr. Reader!

5 WHY ARE YOU

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I AVIATION?

t Tell Us Your Reasons ! And We Will I Mail to You I FREE OF CHARGE

+

| An Artistic

£ Autographed Photo of

{ GLENN H. CURTISS

Like above cut

Sales Agents and Foreign Representatives for

The Curtiss Aeroplane Co. Hammondsport, N. Y.

This photograph is 5 x 7 inches, suitable for framing. It is an excellent likeness of Mr. Curtiss and is a work of art. This offer is made because

I We Want to Know

The extent of the interest in aviation and the opinions of those interested in the future development of the Aeroplane Industry. If you are pessimistic regarding the progress of aviation, state your views on the accompanying coupon or in a letter. If you are optimistic, say so!

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QUEEN

LEARN to FLY

AT THE

QUEEN AEROPLANE COMPANY'S SCHOOL OF AVIATION

which will open its Winter Quarters at

LOS ANGELES, CAL., November 15th, 1911

with Six Queen Aeroplanes, fitted with Gnome and Anzani Motors, under the personal management of Ladis Lewkoyvicz, licensed pilot of The Aero Club of France, the only aviator who ever flew over New York City with a monoplane. CSchool to be conducted strictly on French principles, and contract being the same.

Special Inducements: For the first twelve pupils enrolled a Complete Course will be given until license is granted, for only $250.00.

The Queen Monoplane has flown at Nassau Boulevard, Belmont Park, Atlantic City,Chicagoand Boston International Meets. For full particulars,

Address: The QUEEN AEROPLANE COMPANY

Attention of MR. LADIS LEWKOWICZ. c/o Aero Club of California. Los Angeles, Cal.

Queen Aeroplane Company

Manufactures a

QUEEN MONOPLANE, fitted with 30 H. P. Anzani Engine

QUEEN MONOPLANE, Racing Type fitted with 50 H. P. Gnome Engine

QUEEN MONOPLANE, Passenger Carrying, fitted with 50 H. P. Gnome Engine

Each machine is delivered ajler a trial flight, and the purchaser is allowed half of the tuition fee on the price of the machine.

For full particulars apply

QUEEN AEROPLANE CO., 197th St. and Amsterdam Ave., N. Y. C.

chine high on the beach, coming- in at full speed, just touching the crests of the waves. Much to our surprise the boat was not injured in the least."

PREVIOUS ATTEMPT GOOD

On October 11, Lieut. T. G. Ellyson with Lieut. Towers as passenger in the Navy's Curtiss, started from Annapolis, lid., to visit the fleet in Hampton Roads, Va., but trouble developed and a landing had to be made on the beach at Smith's Point, Va., at the mouth of the Potomac River, where they found a burnt bearing and had to telegraph for a boat to bring them back. During the trip they flew about 500 feet high and kept close to the shore line. The distance covered was 75 miles, in 1 hr. 20 m.

IIYORO-'PL AXE'S LONGEST FLIGHT

In his flight from Minneapolis, Minn, to Rock Island, Oct. 17-21, Robinson set some new records in the aviation world, and, as his manager says, made "some history." He covered 314 miles in three flying days, always flying directly over the river, in a machine in which it would be impossible to alight on land. He carried mail a greater distance than ever before in an aeroplane, Robinson carried 25 pounds of mail and he delivered numerous letters to Rock Island people from friends and relatives at Minneapolis and St. Paul.

The record of his flight was as follows:

Left Lake Calhoun, Minneapolis, Tuesday morning at 9:11.

Landed at Whitman, Minn, at 10:39, having covered 104 miles at rate of 76 miles an hour. In alighting in the river he struck a wing dam which tore a hole in one of his pontoons. He was towed into Winona at 3 :45 Tuesday afternoon, the 17th.

Flight was resumed at S:19 Thursday morning.

Reached La Crosse at 8:45 making 24 miles in 26 minutes.

Left La Crosse at 9:30 and passed Lansing at 10.30, 32 miles.

Reached Prairie du Chien after short exhibition, at 1:02 p. m., 22 miles.

Reached Guttenberg at 1:30 where he gave brief exhibition without alighting, 17 miles.

Reached Dubuque 2 p. m. Thursday, 30 miles.

Left Dubuque at 9:18 a. m. Friday.

Arrived at Bellevue at 9:40 a. m., 22 miles.

Left Lellevue at 12:15 p. m.

Arrived at Clinton at 1:50 p. m., 33 miles.

Left Clinton at 3:07 p. m.

Appeared over tri-cities at 3:48 p. m. Landed at Rock Island at 3:52 p. m., Friday, 30 miles.

When Robinson was finally sighted up the river at 3 .40, the Rock Island levee was thronged, and there was a goodly crowd on the Da-tenport shore. The machine came on at a high rate of speed. When he approached Moline, Kobinson became somewhat confused as to the bridges, and he was not certain as to his place for landing. He circled over the river, and in a pretty descent, alighted on the water about 200 feet from the shore. He was greeted with a salute from the whistles of the ferry and other boats, and the cheers of the big crowd of spectators.

At Rock Island Robinson decided to call off all of his plans and to abandon his flight at this point. The reason for the decision was that cities which originally promised financial assistance in the undertaking took advantage of the fact that, because of weather conditions, Robinson was unable to start his flight at Minneapolis on the date scheduled. A heavy storm prevented his starting on the day set, but the people of Minneapolis were satisfied with the arrangements that were made, though they were the heaviest contributors toward the fund for

the flight. Thev gave Robinson a check for $3,000 before he started.

SCHOOLS MOVE WEST FOR WINTER

As soon as cold weather arrives in earnest at the Hempstead Plains the Moisant school removes to California, opening in December. Another will be started up in Florida with two monoplanes and a biplane, while the California school will have five monoplanes and two biplanes. Pupils may select either type. "Captain Patrick," (Capt. P. Hamilton) and George M. Dyott have associated themselves with the Moisant interests, flying the two Deperdussin machines recently brought over by them. Capt. Hamilton is a British army officer attached to a company in India, now on leave of absence.

The Curtiss training school is again located at San Diego and is now in operation under Lieut. J. \V. McClaskey, late of the U. S. Marine Corps. A number of pupils went along from Hammondsport with the machines. Mr. Curtiss himself will follow in November and takes up some further experiments which he has in mind. Lieut. McClaskey became acquainted with Mr. Curtiss on the Coast last year and this summer resigned from naval services to permanently connect himself with the Curtiss company. Having learned to fly and exhibited splendid ability in many ways, Mr. Curtiss has made him official instructor of the school. The course costs $500 and one is not limited to any definite time.

The Queen company opens its Los Angeles schools next month under the management of Ladis Lewkowicz, the man who flew over New York city and glided some four miles when his French air cooled engine got hot to landing in the state of New Jersey, crossing the Hudson River on his soaring way.

The Queen school will be conducted on entirely French lines, and the terms of tuition are very reasonable.

The course costs but $250, tuition continuing until a license is obtained. The deposit for breakages is $300.

Ward Fisher, of Rochester, N. Y., is the business manager of the Curtiss school this season. The pupils this season are to be trained in flying the hydroaeroplane, as well as the standard Curtiss cross-country and military biplane.

BLAZE BURNS OUT BENOIST.

The Benoist school in St. Louis will continue right along as though nothing like a Are had happened. On October 19 the aeroplane factory of the Benoist Aircraft Co., at 6664 Delmar Blvd., St. Louis, burnt up, including three perfectly good aeroplanes, tools, supplies and uncompleted material. Despite a total loss the company is on the job and going ahead with the well known school, as we said before, "as though nothing had happened." So much for spirit! Aeroplanes make fairly good combustibles and the fire was just as progressive as Mr. Benoist himself, which is quite complimentary to the fire.

R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., of Louisville, Ky„ are preparing to open an outdoor school and has leased for five years a tract of land outside of that city. Frederick Morlan will be instructor. Three biplanes, three monoplanes, a wind wagon and a hydroplane constitute present equipment. The biplanes have Hall-Scott, Maximotor and Gray Eagle motors. The monoplanes include a Bleriot, an imported Demoiselle and a copy. The water machine is nearly completed and will be used on the Ohio River. Board may be secured on the grounds. The date of opening has been set for December 1st. A two-propeller biplane is being built by the Rubel company for Messrs. Huff and Maris, of Columbus.

77ie construction of Aeronautics, ami its contents slioic to tuc that you arc purveying only the best material. -T. Chalmers Fultox.

Map of Rodgers* Flight.

Miles

Total Distance measured in

straight lines between towns.. 3390 Air line, New York-Pasadena.. 2540

Stops

Number of stops including start

and end........................ 68

Miles

Longest single flight, Stovall to

Imperial Jet................. 133

Longest day's journey. Kansas

City to Vinita................ 174

Days

Days consumed (Sept. 17—Nov. 5) 59 Hest I'reviouw Records.

Miles

H. N. Atwood, St. Louis-New

York ........................ 1155

German Flight Circuit........ 1096

British Circuit ................ 1010

European Circuit .............. 1073

kod :;eks makes transcontinental

FLIGHT.

IT is extremely unlikely that the flight of Calbraith P. Rodgers in his Model B Wright aeroplane will be beaten before the end of this year, nor perhaps for another year. He has tripled the longest continuous flight, or series of flights, yet made in the history of aviation in the world. He started from New York on September 17 and finished at Pasadena, California, on the Pacific Coast, on November 5th, a distance measured as the crow flies, from town to town, of 3390 miles. This has been measured by AERONAUTICS on state maps and checked on a very large national map. The airline distance from New York to Pasadena is 2540 miles.

As will be noted by the map, the most direct course was not taken. There were no doubt, particular reasons why certain towns were "made". The trip was conducted throughout as an advertising campaign of a new soft drink, at the same time having in mind the Hearst $50,000 prize for a flight across the country in thirty days. He figured he had until October 17 in which to complete the distance to be eligible for the prize but on that day he was at McAlester, Tex. A special car accompanied him, with a store of spare parts. The Men Magneto was used throughout.

At the present -time, the flight must be considered as a wonderful feat in many respects. Compared with an automobile trip, the latter has the better of it, for the coast-to-coast trip has been made in 15 days, with two crews. A record of some years back for a one-man trip was something like 41 days, as we remember it. Two weeks total of Rodgers' time was spent waiting for bad weather to pass over or in making repairs.

From Texas Rodgers followed the line of the Southern Pacific railroad and climbed steadily from Del Rio on the Mexican border through Alpine, Marfa, Sierra Blanca to El Paso, which towns run from 2000 to 4600 feet above sea level. From here the altitudes gradually dropped until he got to Pasadena.

Fowler On Way East.

At Tucson Rodgers met Robert G. Fowler on his way east. Fowler started his second attempt to cross the country from Los Angeles on October 18; also in a Wright Model B, fitted with a windshield. His previous attempt started from San Francisco on Sept. 11. when he reached Colfax, Calif. By Nov. 5 Fowler had gotten as far as Mastodon, N. M., about 760 miles.

NEW CROSS COUNTRY RECORD.

Fowler came within an ace of beating Gill's new duration record when, on October 29, he was up for 4 hours 26 minutes, unofficially, flying cross country miles from Yuma,

Ariz, to Maricopa.

The Queen Martin Biplane.

THE Queen Aeroplane Company's new hundred horse biplane-monoplane, built to designs of James V. Martin, has had its successful trials at the hands of Mr. Martin at the Nassau Boulevard aerodrome during the month of October, and its entrance as a new machine into the world's catalogue of aeroplanes is accomplished. It is the second machine in this country to attempt the combination of standard monoplane and biplane construction. This new machine is larger and, perhaps represents a more ambitious effort. It is capable of carrying passengers and has double the power. It is a most substantial machine and finely built.

Aliiln Planes. The spread is 30 feet, with a chord of 5 ft. 1 in., single surfaced, with the ribs slipped in sewed pockets in the fabric. The planes are spaced 5 ft. apart, struts held in brazed steel sockets, double guyed with Roebling nickel plated wire. The front beam is l%"x-l1A" except on the main section, under fuselage, which is 1% sq. section ash, the rear beam being 1 %" x 1 V4 "■ the edges merely rounded off not to cut the cloth. The libs screw on top the front beam and to the under side of the rear one. There are three sections to each plane. The ribs at the joining points are square box construction intervening ribs solid rectangular in cross section. Near the center of the sections is a "T" rib of usual Farman type, while the very outermost ones at the extrem ties of the planes are of "B" design. Spruce is used for struts (except center section) and small ribs; the box ribs are elm. The cloth is tacked on, with strips of '/2 round rattan. Section are laced.

Over the top of the rear beam is a strip of cloth sewed to the fabric of the planes to house the rear beam. The sections are joined by lengths of square steel tubing lifting over the ends of the beams and bolted. The box ribs to rear of rear beam consists of but the lower member, tapered. The whole remaining surface back of the beam is more or less flexible. A wire runs along the rear edge in a pocket of the cloth.

Fuselage. This is in two sections, joined by square steel sleeves. The longitudinal members in the front half are ash; in the rear half elm; the struts are spruce. The front end curves upward to get the propeller axis nearer the center between the planes. The joining of the longitudinal members and vertical and horizontal struts is by steel angle plates bolted with eye-bolts, into which the diagonal guys hook in the usual manner, tightened by Bleriot-type turnbuckles. The operator sits in the fuselage just over the trailing edge of the plane. Under his seat is a big supplementary gasolene tank from which fuel is pumped to the gravity tank just in front of him. The operator has to look over the tank to see straight forward, as he would in a monoplane.

Control. Positive acting ailerons hinged to the rear upper beam are employed for preserving lateral stability through the gate control introduced by the Burgess company. Either hand may be used to rest the other. A sideways movement pulls one aileron down and lifts the other by means of a compensating wire (connecting ailerons over top of upper plane through 2 aluminum pulleys and along the leading edge). The elevator is in two parts and each half operates in conjunction with the ailerons on the same side, though in the proportion of but one to six. The ailerons cables have a cert- in amount of slack to avoid any turning movement of the aeroplane or to avoid unequal pressures on the ailerons. The vertical members of this gate control are universally pivoted to allow for use also as a means of working the elevator as an elevator pure and simple.

Blovntor. Hinged to the rear edge of a perfectly flat fixed surface, semi-circular in shape, are the 2 elevators. These -'re ooernted simultaneously by a fore and aft motion of the gate control through crossed cables. The elevators themselves consist of semi-circular flat surfaces, double surfaced, separated by the fuselage.

It<i<l<ler. The rudder, of course, double surfaced, is operated by a foot yoke. The rudder cable run outside the fuselage in guides on the struts.

THE Q U E E N - M A R T I N BIPLANE

This machine has inherent stability and in ordinary weather he does not use the ailerons for lateral stability. And by switching off engine the machine assumes its gliding angle of about 5 degrees. It is only necessary to apply full power and machine climbs very rapid. This of course controls the longitudinal stability.

for auxiliary air and throttle. Here Bowden wire is used.

Running Gear. Bong and stout ash skids are used in combination with the usual rubbered suspended twin wheels with stay tubes. The axles, however, are reinforced by tubes of larger diameter sweated over. The tail is supported by an hickory skid pivotally

Power Plant. Fourteen cylinder, 100 h.p. Gnome, driving a Gibson propeller 8 ft. 3 in. diameter, 7 ft. 6 in. pitch. A large combination oil and gas tank divided fore and aft is just in front of the aviator. On one side is the gas and on the other the castor oil. In a vertical recess at the rear are two glass gauges to show the level of the oil and gas. At the right hand is a pump which draws the gas from the auxiliary tank under the seat and forces it into the gravity tank. To the left are two short circuit switches to shut off either set of seven cylinders. At the right hand are two levers on sectors

mounted at the middle, with rubber shock absorbers at the top.

Number 10 Am. gauge Roebling wire is used in the main section and where the heavy strains are.

.Miscellaneous. The main cell is double wired throughout each wire with turnbuckles. All control wires are Roebling stranded cable. The weight is 950 lbs. with oil and gas. Fuel is carried sufficient for five hours' flying. The machine is stated to fly at no angle of incidence, depending for its lift entirely on camber of the surfaces, which is very slight— about 2V2 inches.

HOOKS KECEIVEU.

THE SECOND BOYS' BOOK OF MODEL AEROPLANES, by Francis A. Collins. 12mo., 267 pp., cloth, handsomely illustrated, $1.20 net, The Century Co. That model flying is more indulged in than actual aeroplane flying will be the opinion of the laity after reading this book. There are photographs and scale drawings of successful .long distance models built by American men and boys. There is particular interest in reading about the accomplishments of one's own acquaintances seen through the e>res of another. The. builders of many of the models described are known personally to hundreds of model enthusiasts.

LE VOL DES OISEAUX, by Maurice Gaudil-lot, published by Gauthier Villars Imprimeur Librairie, Paris. Svo., paper, 30pp., illustra-

ted by charts and diagrams. The author advances a new theory of dynamic air pressure, especially with reference to inclined plan.es and beating wings, assuming that the impact of the air sets up a series of waves of compression and rarefaction sim-iliar to sound waves and like them having a velocity of 340 m. p. s. Using this quantity in a formula he obtains a pressure many times greater than that in accepted formulae. He also uses a coefficient to represent the efficiency under any given conditions as compared with the ideal value obtained in the above mentioned formula; this coefficient being greater where the air next to the surface is continuously renewed, as in the case of a plane inclined at a small angle. While it is difficult to prove experimentally such a theory, the author's exposition of it is worthy attention.

172

Scale Drawi

1/ 'QQQ.

NEWS IN GENERAL

MAXl'P.VCTI RERS ASSOCIATION.

Mr. Seiberling, liead of the Goodyear company, has consented to be second vice president of the Aeronautical Manufacturers' Association, which has formed recently. Membership in this body will be a very valuable asset before long and it is urged upon reputable concerns that they apply and assist in the work contemplated. Communications should be addressed to the association at the office of the Secretary, F. D. Wood, 1737 Broadway, New York.

An endeavor is being made to conduct tests of wood, fabric and other materials marketed by members for the purpose of aiding the development of more suitable parts, standardization, etc. It is hoped that it will be possible to issue a more or less regular bulletin with the results of experiments and tests.

stead. For one hour and seventeen minutes he kept on flying steadily, at times reaching an altitude of 7,000 feet. He gave his new monoplane a complete trial test in every manner, dipping, volplaning, etc.

When at last he landed it was pitch dark. He said that never before had he flown an aeroplane for long duration on its trial flight, and that usually when trying a new machine, he was obliged to come down after a few minutes flying to adjust one thing or another, but that everything worked so perfectly that he could not prevail upon himself to come down sooner than he was actually forced to do so by the complete darkness, lie used Gnome engine and Gibson propeller.

1>E K OR FLIES HOUR.

Fred De Kor, of Los Angeles, who recently purchased a biplane from Glen H. Martin of Santa Ana, Cal., has been making long crosscountry trips, a thing of almost daily occurrence in the vicinity of Los Angeles and Santa Ana, flying over the towns and out to the ocean over the beaches and leturning, one flight being of one hour and five minutes duration. He recently flew from the Martin school grounds at Santa Ana to the Domin-guez Aviation Field, a distance of about 35 miles in 55 minutes, against a strong wind, which accounts for the slow time.

Having a date at Anacheim, a town about the same distance away De Kor wings his

Ladis Lewkowicz in1

LEU KOW II"/, I'M.IES OVER 11(11 It.

On October 25th, Ladis Lewkowicz started from the Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome to try his Queen Monoplane and made a flight which was one of the best ever seen on Long Island. Taking his machine out of the hangar at 1 o'clock in the afternoon, he first tried his engine to see how it worked, and finding that everything was satisfactory he began his flight. Following his customary procedure, he climbed upward immediately, ami the first circle he made of the aerodrome saw him at an altitude of 3,500 feet. Then he headed for Belmont Park. Coming back he passed over the Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome and continued on over to Mineola. On his return from Mineola he flew all over thai section of Long Island, going to .Jamaica and back, and thence to Hicksville and Hemp-

is Queen at Nassau.

way over to fill it, making a high flight, th< sensation of looking down on the cloud being a novel and beautiful sight, he claim.'

The machine used, a modified Curtiss type is almost a duplicate of the one Martin i now using in the middle west, tho' somewha heavier; extensions on the upper plane ar supported by tubing diagonals, and tubin stays are used between all the struts. Th outriggers of quite large sized bamboo ar very rigid, and the writer recommends tht?i adoption in lieu of the smaller size generall used, the latter being so flimsy that unles a large number of wires and struts are at tached, proper strength is not obtained an "trueing-up" is a difficult matter. An > cylinder Hall-Scott is giving excellent r< suits.

WlilfiHT AM) OGIL.VIE GLIDING.

During October Messrs. Orville Wright and Alec. Ogilvie, the English Wright flyer, have been at the old Wright gliding camp near Kitty Hawk, N. C, experimenting with a glider made up of planes very much the size of the "Baby" Wright, with a rear rudder from this machine.

The Wright Glider in North Carolina.

A single seat is provided, very low skids, usual control. Various experiments were made. The rudder surface was altered, a vertical keel placed in front of the machine and a bag of sand attached way out in front on the end of a pole, one flight is reported of 9 minutes in a gale of wind.

FME.S WITH SEAlt<'ISI,l<;!IT

The two-place Deperdussin monoplane of Messrs. Dyott and Hamilton has flown in the pitch dark, by the aid of a searchlight fastened to the front distance rod which separates the two skids. A Vesta lamp was used in connection with a storage battery of the usuaL automobile type, weighing about 34 pounds. The light was set at a proper angle to show the ground when the machine is slanted down in landing and a switch was placed in front of the passenger, who was Captain Hamilton. The battery was stored under the passenger's seat. The sight of an enormous light up in the air, the aeroplane unseen and its motor unheard, was weird. Two fights were made about the aerodrome near Garden City, successful landing being made each time.

The last week of October, in which this flight occurred, was employed in packing up preparatory for the trip to Mexico. The pas-

senger machine was flown back and forth from Nassau Boulevard to Hempstead and to Mineola gathering up spare parts and luggage which were all carried on the machine to the assembling point at Mineola.

At some date in the probable near future president Madero, of Mexico, will have his inauguration. Miss Moisant, Miss Quimby, Houpert, Dyott and Captain "Patrick" will participate in a meeting- to be held at that time for prizes totalling $100,0(10. Prom here other cities will be visited, such as Guadalajara, which already has posted $_25,000. Bast year flights were made by Moisant aviators at very high altitudes, Garros' flight reaching the highest altitude (above sea level) ever flown by an aeroplane up to that time, 12.7S9 feet.

The Mexican government has purchased six Moisant monoplanes for its military aviation schools which is to be started. After Mexico, a tour of Central American countries will be made by the Moisant aviators.

XEW AM EH IC AX FAI»I ItAM'E KlX'OltU.

Howard W. Gill, in a Wright biplane, made the new American duration record of 4 hrs. 1G min. 35 sec, just beating the American record recently made by the late St. Croix Johnstone of 4 hrs. 1 min., during- the joint meet of the Wright Company and the Pioneer Aviation Co. at St. Louis, Oct. 19.

Mail carrying was the feature of the meet. Walter Brookins flying almost daily in very windy weather with the sacks from Kinloch to Fairgrounds Tark.

P. (). Parmalee with a Wright EX model did the altitude work, going up to 4,500 feet.

George W. Beatty. who is remaining at St. Louis doing school and passenger work, took up many people. The other fliers including, Albert Elton, Andrew Drew, Clifford Turpin. A. B. Eambert, all Wright flyers: W. H. Robinson, H. F. Kearney, Hill, Beachey. John D. Cooper, two Benoist flyers and Dr. H. \V. Walden with his original monoplane.

KV.VSAS STARTS AERIAL S1GXS.

G. S. Bennett of the Kansas City Aviation School has submitted a recommendation to the Kansas City Aero. Club, which has merit.

Mr. Bennett's plan is to have the United States divided into sections or zones and marked so as to enable an aviator to locate himself. For illustration, the Eastern coast as far west as Buffalo should be known as Section "A"; from Buffalo to Chicago and from Canada to the Gulf to be the Section "B"; the territory west of the river as far as Denver and the mountains should be Section "C"; and the Pacific coast would be Section "D". Let it be the work of the many aero clubs and the publicity clubs of all the larger cities to get out a series of signs on the large buildings, on the side of a mountain, on a hill, so that an aviator in the air could see where he was and how far from the city. For illustration, Kansas City would be "CI" as this city is on the main thoroughfare between the East and the West, and when an aviator would reach a zone within 50 miles of this city he would see on the top of a barn, on the side of a bluff or on the top of some flat building a large white arrow pointing to a local field.

A piece of white oil cloth C foot wide and 60 foot long can be seen and read from 1000 feet in the air.

This cloth should be cut to represent an arrow and marked with black letters at least five foot in height, the district, station number, direction and the registered number of miles. For example a sign like this 50 miles East of Kansas City should read "CI West 50" and the aviator would know by consulting his chart that Kansas City was 50 miles west and he was in the state of Missouri, where they show you.

All towns, all states look alike to the aviator who is 1000 feet in the air, and this system will save a lot of time and cuss words to the aviator if he is instructed wheiv he can find a safe landing ground and gasolene.

To start this light house or sign board plan the Kansas Aero Club of Overland Park and the Training School will this winter install these signs on barns and sheds within 50 miles of this city, so that next season all aviators will be guided to a public hangar and landing ground.

sistance in their same relation. This brings the radiator tops below the water jackets and necessitates the use of the peculiar shaped spouts or fillers shown in the photo, which bring the water" to the same level as in water jackets.

The Hamilton Monoplane.

THE J. AV. HAMILTON IILEItlOT TVl'E.

J. \VT. Hamilton's Bleriot No. 11 type monoplane, rem irkable not only for its fidelity to the original, but for its workmanlike construction, and attention paid to detail, has made a number of successful flights at Palo Alto.

General dimensions are practically identical with the Bleriot No. 11. Mr. Hamilton's aim has been to construct a machine as nearly like the original as possible and the result is a machine he can well be proud of, both in construction and necessary Hying qualities; as we have seen a number of machines very neatly put together, which will not fly.

The attention of the critical observer is first drawn to the twin radiators which are placed In front of the landing frame on either side and Hush with the front cylinder of the engine. A line drawn through their centers bisects the crank shaft, thus keeping the centers of effort and head re-

The radiators are swung by steel straps from the upper longitudinal members, which project about an inch beyond the upper main cross piece they are also fastened at their centers, to engine base and main knee uprights. The El Arco radiators being directly in the propeller draft effectually cool the engine. A single radiator of the same size has now been put on and cools all right. This would naturally cut down head resistance, which is quite appreciable, considering that much of the area in the propeller draft is now obstructed by the radiators. Of course, propeller thrust near the hub is comparatively small, but it must have its effect upon the speed.

The center of thrust, Is somewhat lower than in the Gnome or Anzani Bleriot, owing to the vertical engine used, but as this is tail lifting type it is not entirely a bad feature, outside of the fact that it gives less ground clearance for the propeller. The four longitudinal members of the fuselage are

of spruce of a little larger section than the original, with taper towards the rear, having the same relation: considering the weakness due to the number of holes necessary for the "U" bolts and the unusually severe strains encountered during noviate trials, this is a good feature. A very good addition is a truss under the lower cross member of the landing frame.

The slight additional weight and labor being insignificant compared to the security obtained. A str p of 1 16x1 inch flat steel similar to the diagonals, passes under two blocks, on the under side of the lower cross numbers whkh aie set directly beneath the main wooden upright or knee pieces. It is riveted at each end to oval steel plates

which encircle the main tubing uprights underneath the lower cross member; to the other end of the oval plate are bolted the two steel ribbons or front wing guys.

Instead of tubing usual in the links connecting the wheels to the lower swivel collar H" x 1" steel is used, bent to the proper curves. This seems a bit heavy and unnecessary as tubing similar to the links connecting the wheels and upper sliding collars should do. Apropos of collars, Mr. Hamilton has made both stationary and sliding collars of steel instead of aluminum or McAdamite, which is not only more dependable but almost as light. The cost however is somewhat greater, owing to the machine work. Bronze is now used for sliding collars.

1. Showing main surfaces of standard Curtiss aeroplane loaded with 900 lbs. of gravel. Surfaces are upside down and supported from the engine bed on two horses. this load is somewhat in excess of the normal load in flight.

2. Shows an instrument for measuring the tension of the wires.

3. Shows regular panel of surface supported

at each corner. same P01Nt1T at which it is attached to the posts and guy wires when assembled in the aeroflane.

4. Shows this panel loaded with 300 lbs. of gravel without any noticeable change in its form. The normal load on the surface is 75 lbs. in

flight.

The strain on the diagonal wire in the end panel registered !>0 lbs. This wire, or cable, has a tensile strength of 600 lbs.

The second panel showed a strain on the

cable of 176 lbs. tllere are two of these cables, each capable of holding 600 lbs.

the engine section showed 192 lbs. on the diagonal wiring, of which there are two, and the same on the wire. which if the machine were completely assembled. would be from the skid to the bottom of the first post out.

When the machine is assembled, the steel tube bracing in the engine section is sufficiently strong to support several thousand pounds.

The Loose Biplane

Control- is identical with the original, the

bell or "cloche," is of McAdamite with a tubing post, steel universal joint and 8 wooden wheel. The warping devices is well made, the lever of one eight inch stock. Warping pulleys are turned out of steel also, as is the free pulley for the inside guys, steel disks at either end of warping ensemble are riveted to the four tubes comprising the under mast. A wooden foot lever operates the rudder. A cast aluminum lever is fastened to the tubing of the rear elevator.

Steel springs 1VI inch give the proper resiliency and limit of sidewise play of the wheels, while four vertical rubbers on each side carry the weight and take vertical shocks. They are of pure rubber one inch round, about 12 inches long normally lengthening out under load to about eighteen inches. The sliding collars are about one inch wide but should be twice this, as unless made a very tight fit on main post, the play comes on the two clamps holding the upright links rigid. These latter clamps are not cast, being steel as per sketch. The distance rod between wheels is of steel tubing instead of wood, with a neat ball and socket joint at each end. The front beams or wing bars are inserted in a tube <>n the fuselage as usual, but rear beams are bolted directly to ash uprights strut dispensing with the elaborate box or casting of aluminum. This is a simple and efficient method, when all parts are of proper size and reinforced with steel plates as on this machine. The tires are Ooodyears.

The rear skid is of 1" rattan fastened to fuselage with wire wrapping and then taped.

The Planes have f>' X" chord, camper 4 si " very neatly made. Ribs of spruce are of I beam cross section. Beams are of ash. Good-

year covering. 3/32" Cable is used for top guys and warping; solid wire for fuselage.

A 40-60 Elbridge Aero Special is set in the fuselage ingeniously, taking into account the small compass of fuselage the height of the engine and the danger of a too low centre of thrust and propeller clearance from the ground. A length of angle iron is bolted at sides to center uprights. To angles on this are bolted the wooden engine bearers; 2x3 pine, by the way, instead of heavy ash, oak or lamination.

At the rear engine is suspended directly from tubing socket that holds the wing for ends. The thrust is taken by two diagonal tubes running from rear of engine bed to front uprights, and, of course, by the front angle iron.

The carburetor is a G. & A., Bosch Magneto. Weight about 550 lbs. with fuel and water. Mr. Hamilton has made some very pretty flights straight away, with under 200 lbs. thrust, which is decidedly complimentary to both his constructive and riving abilitv.

CEEVE T. SHAFFER.

FLI1CS AVITir SMALL I'OWEII

The pictures show George Boose, a San Franciscan aviator, Hying his biplane with a 25 horsepower two cylinder motor of local make. That so large a machine of this character should fly with an engine of so little power is very creditable. Steel tubing has been used for the skid struts and one notices a novel system of bracing. During the San Francisco meet Loose tried out a new machine and rather than run into the crowd which had encroached upon the course, deliberately wrecked the aeroplane, with great peril to himself.

Lieut. Scott Preparing for a Bomb-Propping

SCOTT II03II1 UKOIM'KIt TRIALS.

A few unofficial trials made by Lieut. R. E. Scott at Washington of his bomb dropping device during the month of October proved fairly successful. It was impossible to get up to an altitude of more than 300 feet on account of the weight of Scott, pi incipally, and

his bombs. According to his tables with which projectiles may be dropped with almost theoretically perfect accuracy—as perfect as gun fire—the element of possible inaccuracy is greater at such low altitudes. The short space of time given the operator to consult his table and set his telescope at the correct

The Scott Bomb Dropper. 179

angle at such an altitude is not sufficient to obtain from the device the results of which it should be capable. A thousand feet elevation is the lowest at which it should be worked. Even at the 300-foot height, a square of canvas some four or five feet square used as a target, the bombs came within ten feet of it.

The trials were very much hurried and no great preparations were made. The operator had to lie down on the Army's Wright machine between the aviator and the engine. In this crowded space he was hampered in the necessary movements for the working of the device. A very full description of the apparatus was given in the August issue.

SKW PILOTS.

The following are new aeroplane pilots whose certificates were granted by the Aero Club of America on October 18:

04 Jesse Seligman (Moisant), Mineola, Sept. 24.

65 Harold Kantucr (Moisant), Mineola, Sept. 6.

66 Mortimer F. Bates (Moisant), Mineola, Oct. 15.

67 Capt. George W. McKay (Moisant),

Mineola, Oct. 15.

68 Phillips Ward Page (Wright), Oct. 10,

Nassau Boulevard 60 Clifford L. Webster (Wright), Oct. 10,

Nassau Boulevard 70 Claude Couturier (Wright), Nassau

Boulevard

Spherical balloon certificate 43 has been granted to Major Samuel Reber.

71 Beryl J. Williams (Curtiss Type), Aug. 26,

Los Angeles., Calif.

72 Fred. De Kor (Curtiss Tyfe), Oct. 14,

Santa Ana, Calif.

73 Max T. Lillie (Wright Type), Oct. 28,

St. Louis.

74 Dr. II. YV. Waldbn (Walden Monoplane),

Sep. 22, Mineola. X. Y.

New Headquarters for the I. O. C. System.

The International Oxygen Company has removed its New York headquarters from 68 Nassau Street to 115 Broadway, where increased facilities have been secured for transacting its steadily growing business.

The new location is especially well fitted for the company's needs and easy of access for parties coming into New York City who may want to investigate the methods of the I. O. C. system of oxygen and hydrogen manufacture for commercial purposes.

The success of the I. O. C. system, since its introduction into this country a few months ago would indicate a continued increase in the company's business with still greater accommodations in the near future.

From the Hnll-Scott Factory.

The Hall-Scott Company find business brisk, and are extremely busy at their factory. Their pay roll shows that they are now employing nearly forty men, and they have been running overtime for the past few months, and it looks as if they would continue to do so for the next few months to come.

This Company is now putting on the market a laminated propeller of selected mahogany, and is finding a ready sale for it. It is hand polished and brought to a higher finish than even the French blades. To protect propellers in shipment they are nicely fitted to a shipping box provided with hinged cover, lock and keys, and felt stockings are pulled over the ends of blades before boxing. These blades, of not over S' diameter, boxed ready for shipment, sell for $75.00 f.o.b. San Francisco. The Company is also continuing with their spruce blades, made up from the same templates, but not brought to such a high finish. These blades, crated for shipment are now selling for $50.00, f.o.b. San Francisco.

A French Wright with Renault Motor. 180

Japanese Avi

NEW t'OMI'A.MES.

Hudson Aviation Co., Cleveland. O., $5,000; Mark A. Copeland. Jos. A. Schlitz. W. S. Mitchell, G. B. Kennerdell, W. A. Greenland.

Airfric n Nieupost Aei oplane Co., 32 Eib-erty St., New York. Exclusive selling rights for United States. Capital $50,000. Allan A. Ryan, I. V. McGlone, Kenneth R. Howard, M. F. Greggs, John Nordhouse.

Hamilton Aeroplane Co., Redlands, Oalif., $25,000; W. G. T. Hamilton. George E. Henrv and J. W. Nehlett.

Froberg Aeroplane Co., Richmond, Calif. $75,000. J. R. Froberg, J. H. Edelen, J. R. Jones, B. E. Farrell, Frank \Y. Smith.

Temple (Tex.), Aero Club. $5,000. Will buy an aeroplane to give flights to advertise that city.

Western Aeroplane Co., Chicago. $1,200; J. J. Douglas, Chas. T. Bushong and Adolph Katz.

Sather-Phillips Aeroplane Co., Chattanooga, Tenn., $10,000; G. J. Sather, Paul Andress, J. E. Gross and others.

Wilson Aero Co., Buffalo. N. Y., $100,000; John A. Wilson, Geo. J. Rohmer and John P. Abbott.

The Eagle Aerial Navigation Company, San Diego, Cal. Capital, $50,000. Incorporators, Charles R. Mitchell. Carl Johnson, Bertie Mitchell.

Mid-West Aviation Company, Sioux Falls, la., to manufacture aeroplanes, ice-boats and tools. Capital, $25,000.

Securitv Aircraft Company, Shreveport. La., to manufacture aircraft. Capital. $250,000. Incorporators, Dr. C. W. Lawrence, B. Cannon, J. J. Hudson, T. D. Coupland, Otis Williams' and E. M. Bramlette Company was oi-erajiized in Bongview, Tex., but will On,. ~ : Shreveport.

The Dean Manufacturing Company secured permission from the secretary of the State of Ohio, on October 5, to increase its capitalization from $100,000 to $150,000, in order to develop aeronautical motors.

ion "Fans."

Timothy B. Woodruff, Allan Ryan, Chicago Aero Club and all other meet promoters would find a better field in Japan than in America. The picture shows part of the crowd which paid 400,000 admissions to see Captain Thomas S. Baldwin. "Bud" Mars and Tod Shriver fly at Osaka. Japan. The thought of this is enough to drive a fair manager to distraction, or destruction, whichever is correct. If only a fortieth this number had paid to see the "scientific experiments" on Sundays ; nd the common, or garden, variety of flying on weekdays at the Nassau Meet what an encouragement it would have been to the Honorable Mr. Woodruff.

The Wolverine Aeronautic Co., of Albion, Mich., has completed a biplane for the Chinese revolutionary party. It is 30 ft. double surface, designed to be taken from crate and set up for two passengers in two hours. At present the outfit includes both a Gray Eagle and a Roberts motor. A representative of the revolutionary party visited the East recently and was given a demonstration at the Hempstead fields by another concern and apparently the idea of using aeroplanes was given up at the time.

The Curtiss aviator Charles F. Walsh who has been flying in the Territory of New Mexico for the past two weeks, has established a record by flying at Raton, New Mexico, which is situated at an altitude of 7,000 feet above sea level. Heretofore aviators have had difficulty in flying at places where the altitude was more than 6,000 feet because of the very rare atmosphere Slid the peculiarly dry climate. He ascended to a height of 1,500 feet above the earth.

Nils Nelson, Bar Harbor, Me., has made a Curtiss-copy 'plane and equipped it with a Maximotor engine and is now flying it around his home town.

College Park from the Army Aeroplane.

ll\M.OO% \SCE\SIO\S.

Pittsfleld—A. Leo Stevens, W. D. Munn and Miss Mary Van Rensimer to Hawley, Mass.

l'ittsfleld, Oct. 14. Jay B. Benton, H. H. Clayton and Prank Bowker in the "Boston" to Hartford, Ct. Dur. 2 hr.

SaU Lake City, Sep. 20. R. Vvr. Campbell and J. Frank Judge in the Salt Lake Aero Clubs new balloon "Salt Lake City" to Heber Citv, being up for 4 hrs. 15 min.

Pittsfleld, Oct. 17. \Vm. Van Sleet and Walter Richardson in the "Pittsfleld" to Glens Falls, N. Y. Dur. 3 V2 hrs.; dist. 64 miles.

Fort Omaha, Nebr., Oct. 20 Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler, U.S.A.. took Major Samuel Reber and Major Russell of the Signal Corps up for four trips in the Signal Corps' balloon. After that, Major Reber made one ascent alone and has now completed requirements for pilot certificate.

One other ascent was made this year in the "Signal Corps No. 11" C35,000 ft.), on May 15th, Captain Chandler and four other officers, landing near Woodbine, Towa, a distance of 34 miles. Up 50 minutes. Hydrogen gas is used in the Signal Corps balloons.

ARMV DIRIGIBLE IT'.

Three ascents were also made by Captain • 'handler in the Government Dirigible No. 1 who returned to the College Park aviation school on October 20.

Salt Lake, Oct. 13. R. N. Campbell, W. IT. Young and Lieut. N. 15. Green in the "Salt Lake City" to near Echo, Utah. lTP 4 hrs. 15 min. greatest attitude 11,160 feet "above sea level."

Los Angeles, Oct. 10th. Balloon "Peoria" from Luna Park, Los Angeles, with Chas. I'.. Saunders and Albert Carter. Highest elevation 7.S00 feet. Landed at 4.2<i l>. M. in buckthorn brush in mountains back of Soldiers Home where Saunders got out and

putting in ballast to make, up for his weight, Carter rode the balloon across the mountains landing in San Fernando valley near Van Nuys an hour later.

Holmesburg. Pa., Nov. 4. A. T. Atherholt, P. T. Sharpless and H. L. Hess in the balloon of the Pennsylvania Aero Club to New Brunswick, N. J. Duration 4 hrs. They passed over the Princeton-Harvard football game. James H. Hare, piloted by Oscar Brindley in Collier's Wright flew over the game and photographed it from aloft.

Pittsfleld, Mass., Oct. 23. Ernest G. Schmolck, Emile Dubonnet, Mme. Dubonnet and Mile. Vrasdi to Springfield in a two-hour trip.

u. s. patents issued

(Continuedfrom page 1SS)

Carl E. Ritter. Petaluma, Calif., 1,006,2S2, Oct. 17, 1911. HELICOPTER.

Samuel S. Yarrington, Wilmington, Del., 1,006,335, Oct. 17, 1911. Combination AEROPLANE and HELICOPTER with GYROSCOPE attachment.

Peter Peterson, San Francisco, Calif., 1,006,592. Oct. 24, 1911. Aeroplane with TTLTABLE PLANES.

H. M. Benson. Crescent, Nev.. 1.006.624, Oct. 24, 1911. Combination AEROPLANE and BALLOON.

Thomas F. Dunn. New York N. Y., 1,006,734,

Oct. 24, 1911. DIRIGIBLE. James Havton, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1.006.S46.

Oct. 24, 1911. AEROPLANE with FLANES

capable of ROTATION. Samuel B. McTlenrv, Chicago. Ills., 1006.967,

Oct. 24, 1911. PROPELLING MECHANISM. Robert 10. Miller, Pittsburgh. Pa., 1.006.969,

Oct. 24, 1911. Filed Mar. 3, 1911. CONTROL

SYSTEM for AEROPLANES. Thomas E. Dunn. New York. N. Y., 1,000.99*,

Oct. 24, 1911. D1R1GTRLE.

Words Cannot Express What 1 Wot le> Like to Say to Those Who Failed to Reid My Letter Opposite Page 18-i of the October Numrer.

—E. L. JONES, Editor.

10

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NO. 52 NOVEMBER, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 5

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CALL AVIATION ENGINE

(Continued from Page 1S5)

Lubrication is by a combination of splash and force feed, the oil being forced from a small gear pump to sight feeds in the cylinders over each piston and also to the crank case over every important bearing.

Ignition is by Bosch or Mea magneto as preferred supplemented by coil and batteries, two spark plugs being supplied to each cylinder so that both systems may be used together or independently.

The weight of the 50 h.p. is 1S5 lbs. and of the 100 h.p. 325 lbs. It will be seen that although the construction has not been slighted by cutting down parts, the weight is as small as that obtained in other engines of the same power.

THE NEW FRONTIER AERO MOTOR.

The illustration herewith submitted represents a remarkable development in aeroplane motors. It is shown mounted on testing block where it is run for a number of hours preparatory to a ten days' test with propeller and final inspection. When the picture was taken the motor was running with an S1^ foot propeller by five foot pitch at a speed of 1100 r. p. m., mounted on testing

frame which is clearly shown of light construction. One feature is the absence of vibration which is indicated by the sharp lines of the engine.

This engine model A-l, is the product of the Frontier Iron Works, Buffalo, N. Y., who have spent the past two years developing and testing this motor for aerial purposes. It is of the V type, eight cylinder, four cycle. The makers claim it is faultless in design, workmanship and efficiency.

The cylinders, pistons and rings are of a mixture and grade of iron that has made the company's reputation famous as a good wearing and non-overheating metal, being used by thousands yearly. The crank case is aluminum, box type and is ribbed and braced in such a manner as to give stability and to resist undue strain.

The cam chamber is cast integral with the case and machined out to insure perfect alignment with no danger of parts loosening or becoming false timed.

The crank shaft is made from Krupps %V9 chrome nickel steel, hollow, as is also the connecting rod and piston wrist pins, through which the lubricating system pumps a continuous How of oil from the reservoir, which is returned strained and continually used. All revolving shafts are run in imported annular ball bearings supported in specially designed housings with connections to the lubricating system.

The valves are of special alloy and construction which has been thoroughly tested to withstand long runs without adjustment or cleaning. The valve stems are operated through push rods adjustable for wear, they are hardened and run on steel balls, this feature eliminates the improper timing of valves. The intake and water manifolds are of copper, well designed for strength and capacity. All bolts and nuts are provided with ample protection against looseness through lock washers, castle nuts and copper pins.

This motor is equipped with carburetor, megneto, oil and gasolene tanks and radiator, this being the standard equipment. Propellers are extra but can be furnished if desired at a reasonable price.

In the design and manufacture of this motor the company had first in mind, regardless of expense to produce a power plant for aerial locomotion that could be relied upon for long runs and continual service and before offering it to the public have put it through severe long run tests. With ten gallons gasolene supply at 1200 It. P. M. carrying an 8^ x 5 foot pitch propeller the motor has run without a miss for four hours and part of the time in a heavy downpour of rain, without protection, the magneto only being covered.

The company is now building these motors in dozens lots in their newly equipped factory.

THE 1912 ^-CYLINDER DETROIT.

Very recently the Detroit Aeroplane Company announced their 1912 model. For three seasons it has been their practice to incorporate the results of their improvements and research work in a new yearly model. While the chief difference between the 1910 and 1911 models was noticeable from their outside appearance, the new 1912 model power plant distinguishes itself from its predecessor through constructional and internal changes. The new model has many advantages. The omission of cap screws by replacing same with machined bolts locked with castle nuts and split key is decidedly an advance. In the present type there is not a single nut that remains unsecured. Another constructional detail is the introduction of chrome nickel steel as crank shafts and steel alloy as connecting rod material. This change was made necessary through the additional power and speed gained by the use of higher compression. The additional heat developed by the more instantaneous combustion was compensated through arrangement of auxiliary holes in the cylinder walls and the necessary change of the valve timing which is now slightly over-lapping. It is a well known fact that auxiliary holes have a certain unwelcome reaction on the lubrication and therefore one will find on the new model the necessary arrangement in form of an oil pump driven from the cam shaft and feeding the cylinder from a lubricating supply in the tank.

The power plant itself develops, according to the manufacturers, 28 brake horse power and when equipped with a seven ft., 3]4 ft. propeller delivers a stationary thrust of 250 to 2G0 lbs. at 1100 R.P.M. These propellers are copies of the Chauvier type and made by an automatic machine at the rate of four every 3 V£ hours. The way in which they are made is most ingenious and deserves attention. The original propeller is cut in two and one half is cast in aluminum. This aluminum half acts as a master propeller and from it are made, first the right halves; then by turning it around ISO degrees the left halves of four propellers at one time. This method insures absolute correctness of both halves and when the propeller leaves the table it is mathematically balanced, provided the material is homogenous.

The company is giving, during the winter months, exhibitions throughout the states and Canada. A demonstration during November will be given in New York City, Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C.

cJMONG MAKERS OF MOTORS

XEW ROBERTS MOTOR.

The Roberts Motor Co., of Sandusky, Ohio, have added a six cylinder aeronautical motor to their output. It follows very closely after their four cylinder model; in fact, the same cylinders are used on a longer crank case. All the features that have given such good satisfaction on the four have been retained on the six.

The power has been found to be in direct

The cylinders are cast of a special allov known as Aerolite, having a tensile strength of 38,000 lbs. and a specific gravity of 2.7. The metal is very dense and the bore shows less wear than cast iron and there is no tendency to cut. The cooling is well taken care of, circulation by gear pump.

The lubrication is by the use of grease cups on the main bearings and bv mixing oil with the gas.

Roberts Six-Cylinder Motor.

proportion to the number of cylinders, and according to the makers' tests the four gives 50 h.p. at 1100 r.p.m. and the six 75 h.p. at the same speed. Speeds greater than 1200 may be used with safety, the motors giving greater power at the higher speeds.

The timing device on this motor is worthy of special mention on account of its originality and successful operation. The Bosch magneto used is of the fixed spark type, variation in the timing being secured by the use of a helical gear to drive the armature shaft. This gear is slidably mounted on tne shaft and is operated by a couple of fingers and a warm gear which in turn are operated by a cable controlled by the operator.

The feature that the makers claim the most for. is the entire absence of back firing. This is due in part to the use of a rotary distributor and in part to the use of a Cellular bipass which is a feature of all Roberts motors.

Mr. J. T. Seely has recently been appointed Special Representative for The Roberts Motor Company of Sandusky Ohio. He may be reached at 7S1 Golden Gate Ave., San Francisco, and will cover the three Pacific Coast States, California, Oregon and Washington.

Mr. Seely is admirably fitted for his new work, having been connected with the El-bridge Engine Company of Rochester, X. Y. for the past three years as Secretary and Sales Manager. In this capacity he has had a great deal of valuable experience in aviation and marine work.

He is representing the complete line of Roberts aviation, marine, automobile and stationary motors. He will be more than willing at all times to give anyone interested in the above lines, the benefit of his wide experience, in recommending a Roberts Motor most suitable for the particular installation at hand.

Any inquiries addressed to Mr. Seely will receive his prompt attention.

CAM, AVIATION KXfUNE.

The Aerial Navigation Company of Girard, Kansas, the builders of the Call Aviation Engine, have, in the design and construction of their 1912 engine, departed from the usual practice of cutting down the sizes of parts to the limit for the sake of lightness, and have made it their aim to produce an engine that would run all day at high speed and be free from breakage.

The engines are built in two sizes, a two cylinder opposed 50 h.p. and a four cylinder 100 h.p. The cylinders have a bore of G in. and a stroke of b\i ins. They are intended to be run at speeds of from 1,200 to 1,700 r.p.m.

The crank shaft is cut from a solid bar of chrome nickel vanadium steel and is solid throughout. The crank pin is cast of an aluminum alloy and is of ample section.

The cylinders and cylinders heads are cast separately of vanadium grey iron, and are re-

inforced at points where special stress is encountered. The cylinders are secured to the crank-case and the cylinder heads to the cylinders by one dozen steel cap screws respectively.

The water jackets are of aluminum *i inch in thickness, and are set in asbestos packing in grooves turned in the cylinders. Inside of these jackets are spiral guides which conduct the cooling water four times around the cylinder walls. The water jacket in the cylinder head is cored in, the valve seats being machined in the head, without valve cases, permitting the cooling water to come in direct contact with the valve seats. The water circulation is secured by the use of a large gear pump.

The valves are two inches in diameter and have a lift of 7 lfi inch, both being mechanically operated. There are auxiliary exhaust ports uncovered by the piston on its clown stroke to relieve the pressure on the exhaust valve. (Continued on page 1S3)

communications

G1IISOX I'HOl'KIiLEKS ON WIIKIHT.

Ulease take pity on a poor editor! "in relating some of the doings at the Nassau Meet in the October number, mentioning in particular the extra speed made by Beatty after a change of propellers, the statement was made as follows:

•'Beatty broke a crankcase of one engine and blew out the cylinder of another and it may be that the new propellers speeded the engine up to a greater degree than consistent with good policy."

The fact is that the aeroplane made more speed for which the Gibson propeller company claims credit. Mr. Gibson states that no change whatever was made in either pitch or diameter when making the new propellers. We have received from him the following letter:

Kinloch, Mo., November G, 1911. Dear Mr. Gibson:

Referring to the notice on page 135 of "Aeronautics" for October in regard to your propellers on my Wright machine, 1 think it only proper that you should let that magazine know the true facts in the case, which are as follows :

The Gibson propellers in question were intended to be stronger than the Wright and proved to be so. Being accurately made did not "fight" each other and the speed of the machine naturally increased though the engine ran at the same speed as formerly.

After making several flights and breaking records for Wright machines, the engine broke the crank ease, but not in any way as a result of the use of your'propellers. It was a pure accident, and to prove very emphatically that the propellers were not at fault, on November 4th, while making a cross country flight, my engine broke in exactly the same place, only in this instance the machine was equipped with Wright propellers which positively substantiates the above, and will be borne out by Mr. Albert Bond Lambert, president of the Aero Club of St. Douis.

Now T wish to enlighten all those concerned as to the blowing out of the cylinder referred to in the same article. The engine in question was the one with which Sopwith fell in the ocean at Brighton Beach and after being in the salt water naturally deteriorated, which explains the weakness and accounts for its blowing out.

As you are aware, this same thing happened to Mr. Wilbur Wright at Governors Island and to Dodgers on his transcontinental flight.

Further, the Gibson propellers have stood the racket of all this engine trouble in a remarkable way. The back fires and bumps experienced during that period would have wrecked three or four of the propellers usually supplied with the machine, and finally, the Gibson propellers are flying the machine right along and are doing just as well as they did at the start and 1 stand ready to demonstrate the above.

Wishing you every success in the new field I remain,

Very truly yours,

(Signed) George W. Beatty.

N<i vice Trials and Tri halations.

To the Kditor;

The boys have asked me to write vou a letter about the 5 mile (light I made a few days ago over east Detroit and tell vou something about our aviation cam]).

Five of us came to a school here last spring

to study aviation and learn to fly_Bill

McRobbie, formerly of Alabama; Arch Smith engineer and ex-United States soldier who came from California; Tom Ross, athletic instructor and wrestler of British Columbia-

Fred June, a Detroit engineer; and myself from Freemont, Ohio. We gave up a couple of hundred each for tuition and spent a lot of time. But we soon saw the "Professor" could not teach us to fly. Even if he knew how, he had neither plane nor engine. Of course we kicked ourselves for soft suckers. But we did not like to jump on the professor for he was in worse than we were.

We took a field on Marshland boulevard, near the Chalmers Hudson and Bozier factories and put up a tent. The tent was dining room, sleeping room, work shop and hangar. Ross gave us the kind of cooking he learned while mining in Alaska. We stuck it through—camping out in the city for nearly five months.

After a good deal of preliminary work we built two Bleriot monoplanes, two Curtiss biplanes, and a Demoiselle monoplane. The engine that we got for the Demoiselle ran one minute and in that time travelled a block, turned the plane over and wrecked it without even getting off the ground. Smith risked his neck there.

Another engine was bought for a Bleriot. We had to do some figuring and running around to get the plane properly balanced. By that time the engine got out of order and we had to send it back to the factory.

Then we got a 50-horsepower Maximotor for one of the Curtiss planes. I was elected the "goat". After a day or two mowing down weeds and rooting up the field generally I started up twice, shut my teeth and shook hands with myself; "It's good luck or good-by to Johnny". Both times it was pretty nearly "good-by". First the plane took a head dive and the landing gear sloughed off. Next time she flopped on her side and a wing crumpled, besides what happened to me.

In a few days, as soon as I could stand up and sit down smoothly, T climbed in again. The roar of the engine brought around the usual swarm of our old friends, the automobile testers.

The propeller was a G-footer running nearly 1 400. It brought the plane into the air inside 100 feet. Before T realized it I was away over the trees and out of the field. T must admit things felt a little wobbly at first.

When 1 got up about 500 feet high over Jefferson the big pay-enter street ears looked like stubby caterpillars. 1 could hear the cheering from the cloud of specks below— crowds of people gathered from the cars and autos stopped to watch. I was told afterwards that they mistook me for Coffyn.

After getting a good bird's eye view of the town T circled back toward camp. Easy? 1 was just rijruring whether T would start from New York or Boston on that little $50,000 cross-country trip.

The plane was coming down on the last glide over 70 foot poplar trees when it started to slide down and forward on the left. I threw out the ailerons, shoved up the elevator with my last ounce and steered to the right, but—down, down she came in a half circle like a lame duck. Toppled over on her back.

"lie's gone sure". 1 heard the auto men say as they drove up to carry me away.

1 picked myself up—in pretty good shape considering everything. The plane looked like a wreck all right, hut the motor upside down was tearing away with the stub of the propeller as if nothing had happened.

Anyhow we were satisfied our planes would fly. The accident. 1 believe, was caused by the eddy and up-current in the wind as it went over the trees.

The season was nearly over and we had spent most <>f our money (some of ns far over $1,000) so we decided to break up for the winter. Doss has gone back to British Columbia. A friend of his there already has

a plane that has made short flights. He has arranged for a Maximotor from Detroit and will- attempt the first fight across Puget Sound from Victoria to Seattle. The rest of us are going into the automobile business for the winter and are storing the planes, etc.

By spring we will have two hydroplanes ready for flights on the water. We are now arranging for a large aviation field fronting on the Detroit river bank. Everything will be prepared for building planes to sell and for testing them.

Respectfully yours,

JOHN C. KUCK.

ON THE GYROSCOPE.

New York, November S, 1911. To the Editor of "Aeronautics," 250 West 54th Street, New York City.

Dear Sir:—■

In reference to the article of the October issue on "A Popular Scientific Explanation of the Motives of the Gyroscope and Its Application in Aviation" by Mr. Emile Buer-gin, kindly allow me to express my opinion as to the correction of Mr. Beurgin's statements.

It seems to me that the question of the gyroscope, also gyrostat, may be summed up in a few words. The Gyrostat is not a Gyroscope.

A gyrostat when in operation was supposed to point its axis forever toward any star or position in the universe not including the planets in our solar system. Lately, it has been shown by the Sperry Gyrostat compass now used in the United States Navy, that it does seek the true North Pole, because it has been brought lately to a practically perfect balance before spinning.

The only true gyroscope is that which has a variable radius vector. It then is immediately transformed into another satellite or

moon to the earth. That is, it precesses, nutates, perturbates, and performs all the functions of a moon or planet.

When the true gyroscope (brought out by Mr. Edward Durant of New York City) spins, it continues forever in an elliptical orbit plane tangential to or paralled with the earth's surface.

What we conceive of as weight, mass and gravity are all controlled from the center of the orbit of this gyroscope. That is to sav, while it is spinning weight, mass and gravity are all cancelled from any universal proposition we may entertain. In other words, we may entertain gravity, weight and mass only when the gyroscope is not spinning. Then it is a local affair.

It is also an electron model in accord with the electron theory advanced by Prof. J. J. Thomson, who received the Alfred B. Nobel $40,000.00 prize in 1906.

The electrically operated gyroscope now on exhibition at the New York World Building, is a new mechanical motion, and the fundamental law governing it has not been accepted by any scientific institution in authority.

Now the fact is, scientists told us we could not fly, £ind since we have flown, they are perfectly at sea as to the fundamental laws governing the correct gyroscope.

Today it is utterly impossible to obtain in writing under their own signature, what any professor or scientist believes to be the basic or fundamental law governing the true gyroscope, and yet they pretend to know all about the gyroscope.

My advice is for those interested in the subject, to see the electrically operated gyroscopic moon in operation at the World before attempting to solve the problem of aero-gyroscopics.

Yours truly,

Samuel Wein,

51 East 9S St., City.

AERO MART

"WORK FOR NOTHING. High School Graduate would be glad to work for instruction in aviation. Want to study care, construction, engines, with a chance to fly. Percy Williamson, 40 Holmes st., Providence, R. I.

Nov.

TRI PLANE—32 ft. by 25 ft.-rear control (headless) without power, $200. Laminated propellers, anv reasonable pitch tip to 8% ft., $20. 20 ft. biplane gliders $30. 30 ft. Curtiss-type biplanes without power $475. Address John Frier, 5833 Julian St., St. Louis, Mo. Nov.

1ILERIOT XI monoplane for sale at $2200; complete with 30-35 Viall engine. Demonstration and instruction free. Same machine that M. Lewkowicz flew over New York. Perfect condition. Newly covered with Goodyear fabric. Address Bleriot, care AERONAUTICS.

HOOKINGS WANTED. Amedee V. Rey-bnrn, Jr., with 100 h.p. Bleriot monoplane is now booking engagements for exhibition flights. Apply to 5305 Delraar Avenue. St. Louis, Mo. Aug. 12.

IILEHIOT PARTS:—Will fit genuine Bleriot 'Planes; ribs, rudders, castings, alighting-gears. Low prices, quick delivery. The Western Aeroplane Supply House, Sedalia, Mo.

Nov.

Rl ItliEHIZER FA Hit IC:—Get a sample of our rubberized fabric before covering your planes. The Western Aeroplane Supply House, Sedalia, Mo. Nov.

WANTED—Partner with some capital to take interest in and management of aviation exhibition company. Apply to R. V. A., care AERONAUTICS._Nov.

FRENCH motor, new, 4-cylinder, for sale. Good for biplane. Make offer. Queen Aeroplane Co., 197 St. & Amsterdam Av., New York._T. F.

FOR SALIO Detroit 2-cylinder opposed 30 h.p. motor, propeller, carburetor and magneto, 250 lbs. thrust. First draft $285 takes it. Address Herbert Doyle, 321 Lake St.. Rochester, N. Y._ Nov.

J. ED. SHERIFF, Mechanical Engineer and Inventor. Original Designs a specialty. 125 Watts St.. New York._Dec.

FOR SALE: -Very slightly used l^-inch Schebler carburetor. Aluminum aviation model all complete. Address A. V. Reyburn, Jr., 5305 Delmar Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. Nov.

SOPWITH'S. 70 n.p., two-seater Bleriot, 64 m. p. h. speed. Racing wings and two sets touring wings. Duplicate parts of everything. Around $6,500. Address Sopwith, care Aeronautics. 250 West 54 Street. New York.

x<OR SALE—A bargain. One De Chenne 50 H. P. Power Plant complete with propeller, etc., with or without aeroplane for same. Has made only about 100 flights and good as new. Reason for selling, closing for season. Correspondence solicited.

DeCHENNE MOTOR & AEROPLANE CO.,

AVIATOR—Do you want to back or employ an aviator? State your proposition with full particulars. Address; Arjr, care AERONAUTICS.

u

patents

issued

1,003,714, Sept. 19, J. W. Dolson. PARACHUTE for aeroplanes.

1,003,721, Sept. 19, J. W. Dunne. London, England, assignor to Blair Athall Aeroplane Syndicate. Filed April 1, 1910. The object of the present invention is to obtain a form of aeroplane which by virtue solely of the arrangement and form of its SUPPORTING SURFACES possesses automatic stability in still air, and also, without requiring any alteration of its center of gravity or of its surfaces, in very high winds.

The invention consists in constructing each of the main supporting surfaces as a rear-wardly projecting rigid wing, the angle of incidence of which decreases from the center toward the tips and in some cases changes sign and compensating for the decreased lifting power of the tips by shaping the wing so as to compress air between a positively inclined portion of the wing near the center and a negatively inclined portion in the region of the tip.

The invention also consists in so constructing each wing that the upper face may be defined as traced by a straight line traveling on two guide curves one of which may be infinitely small, so arranged that the resulting sui-face swept out is convex toward its upper side in all sections taken fore and aft and laterally, the angle of incidence gradually decreasing from the center to the ends of the wings and in some cases changing sign, and the lower faces of the wings being preferably concave. See AERONAUTICS of March, 1911.

1,003,530, Sept. 19, W. R. Smith. LATERAL STABILITY.

1,003,411, Sept. 19, H. H. Bales. Auxiliary device to fly an aeroplane, consisting of a number of SKYROCKETS.

1,003,670, Sept. 19, R. M. Thompson. Device to dampen oscillating of pendulum-operated STABILITY means.

1,003,605, Sept. 19, L. B. Holland. RUNNING GEAR in which wheels spring up above ^kids when aeroplane leaves the ground.

1,003,687, Sept. 19, E. H. Andrae. Novel FLYING MACHINE.

1,003,756, Sept. 19, L. C. Kincannon. Improvement to previous patent.

1,003,782, Sept. 19, C. Ostermai. HELICOPTER-PARACHUTE.

1,003,851, Sept. 19, P. & L. Zampol. Novel AEROPLANE.

1.003.858, Sept. 19, M. G. Adams. LONGITUDINAL STABILITY device comprising an elevator operated automatically through a controlling surface actuated by the wind.

1.003.859, Sept. 19, M. G. Adams. Modification of the above.

1,003.885, Sept. 19, J. J. Day. HELICOPTER AEROPLANE.

1,004,058, Sept. 26, W. H. McKeen. OSCILLATING WINGS.

1,004,117, Sept. 26, De Witt C. Vought. AEROPLANE with car containing motor, etc, free to swing.

1,004,367, Sept. 26, P. E. Chamberlin. AERIAL TORPEDO, the whole aeroplane containing explosive shell is directed toward tne desired object, the aviator dropping first in a parachute.

1,004.378, Sept. 26, W. A. Crawford-Frost. Novel AEROPLANE.

Chas. H. Duncan, New York, N. Y, 1,004,558, Oct. 3, 1911. Novel AEROPLANE.

Jhas. H. Duncan, New York, N. Y., 1,00 4,559, Oct. 3, 1911. AILERONS operated by the tilting of planes; also variable center of gravity.

Charles A. Kuenzel, Buena Vista, Colo., 1,004,662, October 3, 1911. DIRIGIBLE.

Francisco Filiasi, Naples, Italy, 1,004,761, Oct. 3, 1911. DEVICE TO KEEP AEROPLANES AFLOAT UN WATER.

Mihaly Mihalyfi, New York, N. Y., 1,004, 805, Oct. 3, 1911. PROPELLER.

Thomas Malcolm Walling, Tinton Falls, N. J., 1,004,944, Oct. 3, 1911. Automatic transverse STABILITY.

Robert P. Hall, Searchlight, Nev., 1,005,026, Oct. 3, 1911. Novel AEROPLANE.

Michael H. Whalen, New York, N. Y., 1,005,089, Oct. 3, 1911. SUPPORTING SURFACES.

Romeo Wankmuller, Berlin, Germany, 1,005,097, Oct. 3, 1911. BALLOONS.

Ernest Peter Vincent, New York, N. Y.,1,005,-120, Oct. 3, 1911. RUDDER for Aeroplanes.

Carl Hartmanii, Woodside, N. Y., 1,005,205, Oct. 10, 1911. STEPPED AEROPLANE.

Christian F. Kohlruss, Augusta, Ga., 1,005,232, Oct. 10, 1911. Flying-machine with central and side planes arched from side to side and a combination of rudders.

Henry \V. Mattoni, New York, N. Y., 1,005,258, Oct. 10, 1911. Foldable supplementary SURFACES.

Chas. R. Mitchell, San Diego, Cal., 1,005,272, Oct. 10, 1911. HYDRO-AEROPLANE.

john C. Schleicher, Mount Vernon, N. Y., 1,005,327, Oct. 10, 1911. Novel AEROPLANE.

Samuel Weber, Ossining, N. Y., 1,005,3S1, Oct. 10, 1911. Combination BALLOON and AEROPLANE.

Auld Weinberg de Meir, Providence, R. 1., 1,005,569, Oct. 10, 1911. SAFETY SUIT.

William A. Crawford-Frost, Baltimore, Jld., 1,005,609, Oct. 10, 1911. Combination SUPPORTING PLANE and PARACHUTE.

Carl V. Johnson, Goldfield, Nev.. 1,005,646, Oct. 10, 1911. Flying machine with BALANCING TIPS pivoted to ends of planes.

Willis 1. Wood, Glenhaven, Wise, 1,005,759, Oct. 10, 1911. WINDSHIELD.

Osmond T. Belcher, Los Angeles, Cal., 1,005,127, Oct. 10, 1911. Supporting surface having end portions separate and movable about a pivot so as to preserve EQUILIBRIUM.

Silas J. Conyne, Chicago, 111., 1,005,810, Oct. 17, 1911. KITE.

David Crockett, Birmingham, Ala., 1,005,812, Oct. 17, 1911. FEATHERING PROPELLER.

Walter I. Pennock, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,005,871, Oct. 17, 1911. CAPTIVE BALLOON.

Charles Michael Wanzer, Urbana, Ohio, 1.005, 908, Oct. 17, 1911. Means for LAUNCHING AEROPLANES.

Joseph C. Morris, Columbus, Ohio, 1,005,988, Oct. 17, 1911. Combination Aeroplane, Helicopter, Balloon and Parachute.

Edgar John Crawford, Seattle, Wash.. 1,005,941, Oct. 17, 1911. SAFETY DEVICES for Balloons.

Thomas H. E. Folger, Corral, Idaho, 1,00(5.074,

Oct. 17, 1911. PROPELLING MECHANISM. Leon Marie Joseph Clement Lavavasseur, Pn-

teaux, France, 1,006,106, Oct. 17, 1911. HEL1-

COIDAL DEFORMATION. Amos A. Wvckoff, Santa Cruz, Calif., 1,000,171,

Oct. 17, 1911. Combination BALLOON and

AEROPLANE.

(Continued on page 182)

+

t

HALL-SCOTT

AVIATION POWER PLANTS

USED AND ENDORSED BY PROFESSIONAL AVIATORS

A Positive Guarantee of Their

EXCELLENCE, RELIABILITY AND EFFICIENCY

+

Fred DeKor arriving at Dominguez Field, Los Angeles, after thirty-five mile cross-country flight from Santa Ana

Delvor recently qualified for his pilot certificate at Santa Ana, being the fourth aviator to qualify for this within the last few weeks in Southern California.

HALL-SCOTT EQUIPMENT USED IN EVERY INSTANCE

Over a dozen professional licensed pilots arc flying with HALL-SCOTT POWER PLANTS within United States territory, and a large number of as yet unlicensed professional flyers in addition. Enthusiastic owners are their best endorsement.

% Write to-day for information j

I Hall-Scott Motor Car Company j

I San Francisco - California \

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

We Challenge the World

TO PRODUCE A BETTER MOTOR THAN

THE ROBERTS

END VIEW SIX-CYLINDER 75 H. P. 245-LB.

Not excelled in performance by any other motor made, either here or in Europe Recognized everywhere as the Leading American Motor

THE ROBERTS MOTOR COMPANY

1430 COLUMBUS AVENUE, SANDUSKY, O., U S. A.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.


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