Volume 9 - No. 4 - 1911 October
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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Vol. IX, No. 4.
Skill and Experience Combined Produce in the Emerson the Ideal Aero Motor
OCT %% L
cyl., 60 H. P., 225 lbs.
6cyl.. 100 H. P.. 300 lbs.
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^EW YORK OFFICE! 17.37 BROADWAY
AERONAUTICS October, 1911
The Kirkham Aviation Motor
50 H. P. Wt. 235 lbs.
In an ;ivi;ition motor you must have Power, Reliability, and as light construction as consistent, but it is also \e;-y important that the fuel and oil consumption should be as low as possible.
The Kirkham Aviation Motor (which has been developed after years of experience, building hundreds of lightweight auto motors which, without exception, have been very consistent performers in economy contests) are proving to be very economical, of both fuel and oil.
Kirkham Six-cylinder motors will deliver continuously 50 H. H.I*. at 1 -'50 r.p.m. on lbs. gasoline and \}» lbs. lubricating oil per hour.
The main air supply for carburettor is draw n through gilled copper tubes placed across through oil in reservoir in base, thus warming the air supply and also keeping oil in reservoir cool, which, together with the very efficient system of lubrication makes it possible to run this motor almost indefinitely without fear of bearing troubles.
Better write for literature. This space is too small to even mention the many good features in the Kirkham Aviation Motor.
In anszi'criiifi advertisements please mention this magazine.
A POPULAR SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION OF THE MOTIVES OF THE GYROSCOPE AND ITS APPLICATION IN AVIATION.
THE number of applications of the gyroscope in mechanics has grown enormously during late years, while the comprehension of its real motive of action has not kept step in proportion. This is due to the lack of literature concerning the theory of the gyroscope. The few books pertaining to the subject display such a collection of higher mathematical formulae that even technically educated men are not prone to tackle them. There is, however, a possibility of explaining in a more comprehensive way the peculiar action of the gyroscope. By applying only the fundamental laws of dynamics, omitting mathematical formulae, it is still sufficient to judge the effect of the gyroscope in any case in which it is applied.
The aeronautical bureau of a first-class newspaper exhibits an electrically driven gyroscope to the eager spectator. Instead of explaining, however, the laws of its motion, it hides them under a cover of mystery. It suggests that the gyroscope ignores the laws of gravity by demonstrating it, lifting a weight without any counterbalance. But the comprehension of the motives of the gyro-
to the former one and goes through the axis X. (Fig. 2).
But we find that according to the laws of dynamics there is still another power acting on the gyroscope. If a particle of mass moving in a certain direction is to change its direction even within a small angle, this has to be originated by a force acting vertically to the former. We observe that daily. An element of a fly wheel may have at a certain moment a velocity in direction d (Fig. 3). The next moment it has the direction d. The tendency of this element to keep in its initial direction is called centrifugal force. Its reaction is the force that changes this direction and is equal to the strain on the different parts of the rim of the wheel. If the wheel bursts this reaction ceases. As nothing is preventing the detached pieces from following the course they have at that moment, they fly away tangentially but not radially. It is similar with the gyroscope where the centrifugal forces compensate each other within the fly wheel proper. But if the gyroscope is making said revolutions around axis Y, all elements of the wheel
scope will make it easy to look into these mysteries and find their origin.
In Fig. 1, ABCD shall represent the ring of a gyroscope revolving around a spindle Z. X and Y are two axes at a right angle to each other and lying in the plane of the ring. If we turn the spinning gyroscope slowly but steadily around the axis Y, each of the particles of the ring will receive an additional velocity but vertical to the plane. Near A and C it will be the greatest and zero in B and D. Representing these velocities by arrows, the connecting line of their points will be an ellipse lying in a plane through the axis Y. Hence a revolving particle of the ring will endure on its way from A to B a reduction of speed produced by turning the gyroscope around the axis Y. It will be zero in B and reversed in C; then diminishing and changing its direction in D to have again the original velocity in A. To do this the particles have to receive accelerations downwards on the way from A to C and upwards from C to A, which necessarily produce a reaction in the opposite direction; that is, from A to C upwards and from C to A downwards. It is the strongest in the points B nd D. Representing each element of reaction by an arrow in proportion to its force and of the same direction, we again receive an ellipse by connecting their terminals. This ellipse is, however, turned at 90 degrees
perform this same angular rotation around axis Y. By this an element parting from point B intending to follow the circular course, will suffer a change of direction. It is brought downward by a force vertical to it which produces a reaction upwards but of the same magnitude. There is a similar one in point D in opposite direction. On both sides of B and D the forces decrease and are zero in A and C, these vectors of velocity being only removed parallel. The total reaction produces again a moment of torsion around axis X and is of the same direction and proportion as the one that resulted in the beginning.
These reflections show that the resistance of a gyroscope to any change of the direction of its axis depends only on the weight and the velocity of the rim of the wheel. Further, the moment of torsion acts perpendicularly to the direction in which the gyroscope receives its inclination and therefore it cannot oppose this motion.
Now those having experience with the gyroscope will find this latter result entirely contrary to their observations. They shall, however, not be reproached for this, for even in scientific literature one can read about the stahle axis of the gyroscope which resists to every change of direction. All applications, however, that were based on t lis assumption proved to be a failure.
Det us see how the gyroscope will act according to these stated facts. The inclination around the axis Y creates a moment of torsion about the axis X which makes the gyroscope turn around axis X within the same angle as the original movement around Y. This second motion creates, however, again a perpendicular moment which has Y as axis and this one opposes the original motion.
If we hold a revolving gyroscope in our hands and want to turn it we have indeed the impression that the axis is stable. It is because we do not realize the small perpendicular moment to which we yield and which induces the reaction in the first direction. If, however, we fasten the gyroscope in an apparatus which prevents any moving of the gyroscope sideways, the turning in the first direction will be just as easy as if the gyroscope were not running. These results also show that the gyroscope does not ignore gravity. A gyroscope in horizontal position, the axis of which is only supported on one end, will not drop but it will begin to rotate slowly around its point of support. In the first moment it intends to follow the force of gravity, but this angular movement will induce perpendicular forces to it, producing a similar movement horizontally, which again compensates the influence of gravity. The higher the number or' revolutions of the fly wheel, the greater are the induced forces, and the slower, therefore, the gyroscope can rotate around its support in order to counteract the influence of gravity. This horizontal motion of the gyroscope around its support is called precession. If we increase it the gyroscope will rise and if we prevent it the gyroscope will drop as if it were not spinning.
These are the laws the gyroscope is subjected to and their comprehension enables us to consider where and how gyroscopical forces are acting.
The interest in the qualities of the gyroscope has become more general since the development of the aeroplane. It was hoped that this apparatus, resisting practically to every turning motion, might give the floating aviator a point of support in order to keep his machine in a voluntary direction as a compensation for the one he cannot have from the earth. Up to this present day, however, we are glad to succeed in eliminating or counterbalancing the existing gyroscopic influences on an aeroplane.
To steady an aeroplane by means of a gyroscope we can consider three possible ways:
(1) Entirely stable,
VI) Entirely free, and
Ci) Half free.
(1) The entirely stable suspension has been tried the most. While this method proves very successful with torpedoes, it cannot be applied to aeroplanes. There it would have the same effect as the gyroscopic forces of the propeller and the rotary motor, twisting the aeroplane and producing great strain in the frame work.
VI) The entirely free suspension. This method is applied in the "Whitehead torpedo. The gyroscope is supported by two rings which can swing at a right angle to each other, by this permitting the gyroscope to swing in any direction.
If the torpedo, installed in this way, makes a turn, the gyroscope will keep its original direction. A lever hinged to one of the two rings will act on the valve motion of a pneumatic servo motor which changes the position of the rudder. Hut even this small resistance changes gradually the original direction of the gyroscope, and therefore also influences the torpedo in its course.
Although with the flying machine we do not ask for so exact governing, this system is not applicable to it because we wish to change our course voluntarily.
V.',) The. hnlf free suspension. The gyroscope is built in such a manner into the framework that it is obliged to follow the
motion it is to correct, but can swing in a direction vertical to it. It only should be powerful enough that the secondary motion can easily overcome the resistance in governing a servo motor.
With the flying machine there are three directions, perpendicular to each other, in which we desire to prevent an involuntary turning. To do this we need for each direction a gyroscope for itself. It is the most important to prevent the aeroplane from de scending suddenly; that is, from an involuntary turning around the horizontal axis through the planes, which would produce sudden falls. For this purpose the gyroscope can be placed either with its rotating shaft in the direction of the course of the aeroplane, allowing it to swing horizontally, or it may be suspended vertically, allowing it to swing in a vertical plane, which is, however, perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the aeroplane.
If we wish to ascend or descend we simply change the angle of the plane in which the gyroscope can move in relation to the aeroplane. Thus the gyroscope will influence the servo motor and by this the rudder until we have the desired direction.
Any other turning motion of the aeroplane will be of no influence on this gyroscope, the friction of the governor being sufficient to keep it in the same position relative to the framework. The reason is that the gyroscope is stable in the direction perpendicular to this motion and therefore cannot produce any gyroscopic reaction. This was proved above.
A second gyroscope can be used for keeping the lateral equilibrium. This gyroscope acts similarly to the first one upon a servo motor. It has to follow the lateral swaying of the aeroplane but can swing liberally in the longitudinal direction.
The control of the vertical rudder in the rear may be left to the aviator.
It might still' be desirable to limit the speed of the aeroplane in ascending or descending. Ascending at too steep an incline, the power of the machine will not be sufficient to produce the necessary speed to support the aeroplane and it will drop backwards.
Descending too rapidly, the framework cannot resist the air pressure. If, however, we connect the gyroscope which controls the rudder for steering up and down with a transverse vertical plane pivoted to a horizontal shaft, the increased or decreased air pressure upon this plane will change the inclination of the gyroscope to the axis of the aeroplane and so influence its course.
All these installations do not diminish, however, the demands regarding the faculties and skill of the aviator, for this mechanism is liable to break down and has then to be substituted by individual steering.
At Topeka, Kan., A. H. Longren, a machinist employed in the railroad shops, Hew in a homemade plane from a farm seven miles south-east of Topeka, across the center of the city and landed on the Washburn College campus without damage to self or machine. His flight including detours was more than ten miles. Longren never navigated an aeroplane until he made this trial flight.
During the present season the Curti.ss Exhibition Company has contracted for, and carried out, exhibitions at thirteen state fairs, viz.—South Dakota, Vermont, Montana, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Missouri, Maine, Alabama, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, Georgia and North Carolina. Contracts are coming In to the Company's office every day from secretaries of state fairs throughout the country, particularly fairs in the southern states.
THIS apparatus, which was designed and patented in France by M. Doutre for the automatic maintenance of equilibrium of aeroplanes, is composed essentially of three members: (1) an anemometer, (2) an aeeelerometer, (3) a relay cylinder.
The anemometer is composed of a plate which normally receives the relative wind. This plate is balanced by two springs R1 in such manner that when the relative speed is sufficient for the proper control of the aeroplane it rests upon a stop.
As soon as the relative wind diminishes, the springs Rl press the plate, which, by means of the relay cylinder, places the equilibrator at descent. When the relative speed of the wind is again sufficient for control, the plate is gradually brought back to its original position.
A view inside the Doutre Device.
The aeeelerometer is composed of two movable weights M. each upon a rod placed in the direction of the llight, and capable of shifting as soon as positive or negative acceleration is produced. They are both kept in place by two springs It situated in front and behind. The purpose of these springs is to restore the weights to their original position as soon as the aeroplane regains uniform speed, and they also prevent all movement of the weights, when, without acceleration, the apparatus is inclined, either forward or at the rear.
I>y shifting, the weights set in motion the slide value of the relay cylinder < ontrolling the rudder, and by means of the latter, equalize the effect of inertia upon the aeroplane.
When a shock to which the aeroplane is subjected causes it to lift its nose, the rudder is set for ascent, and, inversely, for descent when the shock tends to cause the aeroplane to fall.
The weights are subject to exactly tlu same effects of inertia as the aeroplane itself, instantaneously registering the direc« tion, the duration and the intensity of thf shock.
The control, therefore, is instantaneous, and accompanies the shock; or in othej words, it is the shock itself, which at thi same time as it produces a disturbance o: the equilibrium, also produces a compensating movement of the rudder.
Since the anemometer and the accelero meter have a common purpose they are com bined in a single device capable of correcS ing all trouble which may arise.
To this end the anemometer and the aeeelerometer act upon a single rod controlling the slide valve of the relay cylinder; theii movements are algebraically combined upon this rod, so that the couple of correction obtained is equal to the sum of the couples necessary to maintain the equilibrium of the apparatus or to aid it to regain a correct position.
This algebraic addition of the movements of the anemometer and the aeeelerometer is effected as follows:
The plate, when shifting, carries with it the rods A, and consequently the weights mounted thereon and retained in position by the springs R. The weights are, in their turn, movable upon these rods on which they shift whenever they are subjected to a shock of such a nature as to overcome the resistance of the springs R. By the rods 10 they are rendered rigid with the slide valve of the relay cylinder.
The single resultant of the indications given is registered by the shifting of a single rod, and hence the movement of the rudder and its intensity and duration are measured with precision. Every variation in the angle of attack necessarily bringing about a corresponding valuation in the speed of displacement of the aeroplane, the stabilizer, by means of its aeeelerometer, corrects the effect of its own rudder's movement at the same time as the apparatus obeys that movement. This control effect is extremely interesting and important, and constitutes one of the essential characteristics of the stabilizer.
No delay is possible since the apparatus registers, not the disturbance, but the disturbing causes themselves.
The purpose of the relay cylinder is to transmit with sufficient force to the horizontal rudder, the indication given by the plate and the weights. In its construction it recalls the device employed for the first torpedo.
As is well known, in this latter apparatus every displacement of the slide valve causes a corresponding displacement of the piston, exactly as if the slide valve and the piston formed part of a rigid whole.
The stabilizer, composed of its three members, anemometer, aeeelerometer and relny cylinder, is clearly illustrated in the figure showing a section of the apparatus.
In this figure will lie seen the plate mounted on the tubes A which slide with little friction in the aluminum case F, the action of the air on this plate is balanced by the springs IV wound upon these tubes between the collars; the weights Al can shift on the tubes A. The springs It render the weights rigid with these tubes when the plate recedes or advances under the varying pressure of the wind, but nevertheless permit them to move along these tubes nder the force of inertia.
DOUTRE LONGITUDINAL STABILIZER
The rods E, rigid with the weights, are rigidlv assembled on the rod T of the slide valve "of the relay cylinder. This slide valve is arranged in the rod itself of the cylinder C; the compressed air is admitted into the chamber D of this cylinder and is distributed into the chambers I or H, according to the direction in which the rod T is shifted, the bars K or L covering or uncovering the entrances of the parages N and O. Depressions provided upon the rod T permit the
40 kilogrammes, which is entirely sufficient in all cases.
A small pump operated by the aeroplane motor furnishes the compressed air to the relay cylinder, and a reservoir is provided which makes it possible to have a sufficient reserve supply in case the motor stops.
This stabilizer was tested by the inventor at the Juvisy aerodrome during the months of February, March and April, 1911, on a biplane of the Henri Farman type. Then in
Plan view of Stabilizer.
compressed air to escape from the chamber H through the orifices S, when the air is admitted into the chamber I and vice versa. All the movements of the slide valve T are thus instantaneously followed by a movement of the piston B in the same direction. The piston B is connected by suitable controlling members to the rudders.
May last it was installed on a Maunee Farman aeroplane of the military type. With this apparatus the pilot made flights from Juvisy to Buc and back; Juvisy to Villacoublay and from there to the plateau de Milly and return.
A demonstration took place on July 21st,
Doutre Stabilizer on an M. Farman Biplane.
A force of 100 grammes at the most is before General. Roques, who made a fifteen
necessary to shift the rod T, and the piston, minute flight over the field. General Koques,
according to the pressure of the compressed upon alighting, declared that the operation
air, can exert a working force of from 10 to of the stabilizer had been perfect.
THE TWO-PLACE DEPERDUSSIN MONOPLANE
MESSRS. G. M. Dyott and Captain 1*. Hamilton, of 50 Church St., New York, have brought to this country the first Deperdussin machines seen here: one 2-place machine with a 6-cylinder, 50-t>0 h. p. Anzani motor, and the other a single flyer with a 3-cylinder, 30-35 h. p. engine of the same make. These engines are the very-latest put out by the manufacturer and are giving perfect satisfaction, even in their untried condition. Doth machines were flown over from Mineola to the Nassau field the first time the engines were run in flight. Apparently over-heating has been gotten away from in the newer engines. The one-man machine is almost exactly a smaller replica of the 2-place 'plane.
The first flights made with these machines over here were from Belmont and Mineola to Nassau and around and in some of the eon-tests of the Nassau meet. About half the time the management failed to provide shed room. The motors had not been tuned up before leaving the factory, owing to need for rush delivery, and one or two little bits of accidents, like short-circuiting a magneto or failing to turn on oil just robbed the new machines of a place in the prize list, which was small anyway.
These 'planes remind one of Antoinette's in flight through their outlines: they fly at u speed of about 60 miles an hour and land and rise beautifully. The running gear is very staunch, as has already been proven.
The Deperdussin first made its appearance at the Palis Show in the Winter of 1910. Since that time the factory has pursued vigorous methods and it is now almost impossible to obtain prompt deliveries. Aviation schools have been established and many have learned to fly this machine. The smaller machine, with a 30-h. p. Anzani motor can be bad in America for $4.00(1, while the 2-place machine will run up to $8,000.
A military type, one-place machine, with 50-h. p. Gnome: a two-seater with either 60-h. p. Anzani or 50-h. p. Gnome; a 70-h. p. Gnome two-place and a 3-seater 100-h. p. Gnome military type are other models. The military types are used by every European government save Kngland.
The Deperdussin holds many world records: In fact all speed, duration and distance records for A and 5 men, up to 5o kilometers.
Supporting rin ne. The wings offer very ample lifting surface for the weight. Great strength is imparted to their construction by the two staunch masts erected at the front of the fuselage. These are of large size at their I hi so. and accommodate (he end» of the front lateral wing spars. The guys to the front main spars are large stranded cables. On the Nieuport one notices also the use of heavy cables for guying. The wing construction is of conventional type. The ribs, like those of the Dleriol. are of "1" cross section, merely a web with top and bottom chords tacked and glued. The entering edge is an oval strip of wood against which the rib ends butt. Of course, the cloth Is put on both sides. A preparation called "lOmaillite" renders the fabric moisture proof and nearly oil proof. This same varnish is used to cover all fabric on the machine. The trailing edge of the cloth is laced to each rib-end through eyelets in the fabric. A strip of wood runs along about an inch from the back edge between the upper and lower chords of the ribs.
.Metal plates ale placed under the metal connections on the wings to which the guy and warping cables run. to prevent abrasion of the fabric.
The wing curve flattens out slightly near the tips. There is a small dihedral angle to the wings on the 2-place machine. On the single plane there is practically none
fcenter of gravity is about one-third back ■from front edge. The gliding angle is 5 deg. Ito 7 deg.
Controls. The warping and rudder action .s instinctive. Pushing forward on the inverted U-shaped yoke steers down through crossed cables to the elevator at the rear ind of the fuselage. Turning a hand wheel, nounted in the center of the yoke, to the high side lifts the low, or down, wing, and
sided square steel socket about S inches long. At this point these spars aie close to 1 Inch square. They taper from 1V4 inch square at front end of the fuselage to % Inch squaie at the rear end. Fabric is used on all four sides of the rectangular (cross-section) fuselage; tacked on the bottom and lower edge of sides. Top edges of sides have grommets inserted and lace over the longitudinal spars to the panel on the top side of
rlce-versa. A foot-yoke steers right and left, tie i udder cables running straight. The elector wires are good heavy cab'es lunning >ver pulleys and through copper leads packed vith grease. The cables from the warping vheel lead over pulleys in the angles of the 'U" down to a rocking lever att-iched to he rear cross-member of the chassis. From lere the cables run over pulleys on the skids •o wire-thimbles, from which each branches nto three heavy steel wires with tighteners o different points on the rear spar, as shown n the drawings. The elevator cables are J,s nch diameter and run bick on each side of :he fuselage to the two masts on the slevator.
Puselnge. The Spruce fuselage comes 'part just back of the pilot's seat. The ongitudinal spars butt together in an open-
the fuselage. The diagonal stay-wiring of the fuselage is similar to Bleriot's method. A "belly" of laminated veneering extends from the front of the fuselage to a little aft of the pilot's seat. The passenger sits in fiont of the pilot, just forward of the re ir lateral wing spar. Both are protected from oil and wind by a hiuh aluminum win.lshield, just aft of the gravity gisoline tank. The sides of the front end of the fusel ige are covered with aluminum sheeting, fitted with doors to give access to the magneto, oil pump, piping, etc.
Power riant. A six-cylinder stationary Anz^ni air cooled motor drives diiect anticlockwise a "Rapid" propeller of 2.44 meters diameter by 1.3 meters pitch. Bosch ignition and G. & A. carburetor, with auviiiary air adjustment, are part of the equipment, as Is
a revolution counter. The combined gas and oil tank, gravity, is mounted in front of the passenger's seat ahead of the two masts and supply. Another reserve gas tank, torpedo-gauges are fitted to show at all times the shaped, is attached just under the belly, from which gas may be forced up into the gravity tank by a hand pump at the pilot's right, fastened to the fuselage spar. The front end of the fuselage is covered with a steel cap. or plate, to which is bolted the crankcase of the motor. The mixture is drawn from the carbuietor into the rear compartment of
rigidity being obtained by two diagonal wooden struts in compression. These struts extend in front of the chassis proper and are curved up to give protection to the propeller. Shocks occasioned by rough landings are distributed over as much fuselage area as possible by means of stranded cables which pass under the belly of the fuselage and over grooves at the top of the chassis struts, thus forming a kind of cradle or sling suspension. A simple skid pivoted from a Y-brace of tubing at its center with elastic bands at the front end supports the tail.
the crankcase, from which it is distributed to the different cylinders by short lengths of tubing. This compartment thus acts as a manifold and reservoir for gasoline vapor.
Itmiiiiiiu. (iciir. The landing chassis is a very neat, strong and light wheel and ash skid combination, the axle being carried by conventional radius rods and elastic shock absorbers. The latter consist of many wraps of round elastic bands covered with woven fabric. The cross-members of the chassis are of large steel tubing. The four main oval struts are covered with fabric, laid in with varnish. Very little wire bracing is used.
KIjIKS IIOMIC KOI! lilt l<3 \ KK A ST.
After successfully filling an engagement at Ocean Beach, Frank L. Champion, the aviator, flew from that place to his home in Long Leach, a distance of 62 miles, in 55 minutes, on Sept. <ith. Mr. Champion had intended to send the machine home by rail, but on getting up. the idea of getting home for breakfast struck him, and the morning being ideal, he wheeled his Lleriol out and was off before anyone was aware of his plan. The entire distance was made over the water, although he was close to the land at all times. The trip was made without incident and after landing on the beach, the aviator walked home, arriving there in time to surprise his wife and baby at breakfast.
The Wright Company, French, inaugurated a new big aerodrome to rank with Mourmelon and lssy, when Count do Lambert, Wilbur Wright's lirst pupil discovered Yillacoublay two years ago. It' is nearer Paris than Mourmelon, only 10 kilometers and only a couple of kilometers from the military aero park of Chalais Mention.
Nieuport has established a branch here, as has Broguet. The Wright sheds are lighted by
KIv«mI Snri'ae«'. A fiat surface starts fron just back of the pilot's seat and spreads outward to the spar which forms the pivo* for the elevator. A good deal of wire guying is used on this surface, which is composed of fore and aft and transverse strips covered on both sides with fabric. A small triangular vertical fin runs from the rudder pivot forward to a point on the top of the fuselage.
Weight. With oil and gas, without operator, 780 lbs. Gas and oil for 5 hours flying are carried. Speed is 02 miles an hour. The mileage per gallon runs from 15 to IS miles.
electricity, complete electric plant being one of the features. The French War Office has three tents here, where experiments are conducted and various tests made. Lacnapelle, who was one of the first of the Wright exhibition aviators in America, gave up flying last summer, and is now manager of the Yillacoublay field
NO AERO BILL IN MASSACHUSETTS.
The Aero Bill which caused so many press items has failed to materialize in .Massachusetts. The House passed a resolution calling for an investigation of the subject but this was "held up" by the Senate for some time and finally rejected by I hat blanch.
The New York state bill will come up in September. ]( was still "in committee" when the legislature adjourned for the summer. The bill proposed by the Aero Club of Pennsylvania failed to pass the legislature: nothing ever came of California's bill and fortunately the fool law of Missouri never came to pass. Connecticut is the only state having legislation on the books.
ASUCCESSFUL experiment of great importance to the aeronautical' department of the Navy was carried out at the Curtiss factory and experimental grounds at Hammondsport, N. Y., Sept. 7.
This was the launching of the Navy's new Curtiss hydro-aeroplane from a wire cable stretched from a platform erected 150 feet from the shore of Lake Keuka to the water.
The experiment was organized and directed successfully by Lieut. T. G. Ellyson, of the Navy, who was the first member of that branch of the military service to become a qualified aviator.
The object of this unique method of launching an aeroplane was, as stated by Lieut. Ellyson, to produce further evidence of the practicability of the hydro-aeroplane for use on vessels of navies.
By Lieut. Ellyson's methods a hydro-aeroplane may be launched at sea under any conditions, without the loss of time in putting it overboard to arise from the water and without delay because of rough sea. Under the new method it will only be necessary to stretch a wire cable from the boat deck of a battleship to the bow, down which incline the hydro-aeroplane can slide. It is maintained in balance on the main cable by two auxiliary wires, one stretched on either side, parallel to the central cable. These two auxiliary wires support the right and left wings until the machine gets up sufficient headway to maintain its own balance by means of its balancing planes.
The rigging for launching the hydro-aeroplane does not interfere in any way with the armament of the ship. It will not be necessary even to remove this rigging. It can be left standing for immediate use, or it can be taken down and stowed away in a few minutes.
This system enables the machine to be launched when a high sea would make it impossible to arise directly from the surface of the water after being lowered over the side of the ship. Previous experiments carried out at San Diego, Calif., last winter in connection with the U. S. S. Pennsylvania showed that the hydro-aeroplane could be landed alongside and hoisted aboard ship in a wind of 10 knots and when a 4-knot tide was running with sea conditions too rough for successful launching. Lieut. Ellyson regarded the getting away from the ship as being by far the most important point in the practical use of the aeroplane in the navy, since the loss of the machine after the desired information had been secured would be of minor importance.
With the new method it is also possible for the ship to steam ahead into the wind at any desired speed, and thus readily secure
the necessary condition of wind for quick launching
The machine used by Lieut. Ellvson was the regular type of two-passenger navv hydroaeroplane, built by Curtiss, with 75 h. p. engine, fitted with a double control system, so that the operation of the machine can be shifted from one occupant to the other while in the air. The total weight is 1,200 pounds.
The hydro-aeroplane was launched from a platform and rose from the wire cable in 150 feet, after attaining a speed of 30 miles against a wind of about 10 miles. The launching apparatus is very simple, consisting merely of a wire cable 250 feet long and % of an inch in diameter, which was made fast to a pile 75 feet from shore driven down in the water far enough to allow the hydroaeroplane to pass over it. The wire cable passes over a pair of shears 16 feet high, fitted with a platform upon whch to stand when starting the motor. The bottom of the pontoon under the hydro-aeroplane is fitted with a groove one Inch wide and 1% inches deep, lined at the ends with tin and reinforced at the bow and stern with band iron to protect the bearing surface. Each wing Is fitted with a light iron, forming a bearing surface to engage the balancing wires strung on each side of the main supporting-cable.
The grade was about 10 per cent. The wind blew about 10 miles an hour, slightly quartering against the line of flight. The machine was first floated in the lake and then pulled up on the cable.
The releasing device consists of a short piece of rope fast to the bow of the pontoon and fitted with an eye through which passes a toggle pin connecting this short piece with a rope made fast to the legs of the shears. By a sharp pull on this toggle pin the hydroaeroplane is released and quickly gathers headway under the impulse from the motor and the slight angle at which the cable is placed. Two men held small lines running to each wing to make sure that the machine would keep its balance until full headway-had been gained, but their assistance was not required. Lieut. Ellyson and Lieut. J. H. Towers, who are in charge of the Government work at Hammondsport, N. Y., have been practicing since the first of May with the hydro-aeroplane, flying out over the lake nearly every day, in order to become thoroughly accustomed to the machine and to be able to'handle it under all possible conditions. The Navy's hvdro-aeroplane has been taken to Annapolis, Aid., where the Navy training school has been established, and it is hoped to try the method of launching it from an aerial cable on board a battleship this fall.
300,000 MILES BY AEROPLANE
Some almost startling figures showing the progress of aviation in France have been published by M. Georges Besancon. the secretary of the Aero Club of France. In reply to inquiries made by his club among the French constructors seventeen firms sent in their figures.
These seventeen firms between them have turned out over 1,300 aeroplanes. The horsepower fitted to these machines totals up the enormous figure of 60,000. The passengers actually accounted for as being carried by the machines turned out by these firms number nearly 5,000. M. Besancon has calculated that the cross-country trips exceeding 10 kilometers in length made on these machines number over 3,000, or 30,000 kilometers, equal to about 18,000 miles. Besides these he computes that the flights actually logged in the form of flights around aerodromes total about 500,000 kilo-
meters, or more than 300,000 miles. These represent approximately 8,300 hours spent in the air, which means nearly a year off the ground. .
One year ago cross-country flights in France were a rarity, and any trip lasting over an hour was worthy of special mention, and the figures show the marvelous progress made by France in aeronautics.
"My check for three dollars enclosed. > 1 am getting mv copies regularly; if I didn't you would hear from me right off. I certainly have no criticism to offer. 1 often remark that little AERONAUTICS contains more brainv matter than any of the big weeklies I happen to read. I consider you an excellent editor, and wish you much success in the future."
Fred A\ . Riser.
NAVAL HYDROAEROPLANE EXPERIMENT
1.—The Curtiss hydro-aeroplane before being drawn up the 350-foot cable. A pile Is driven in the lake and sawed off several feet below water line. From this cable is carried inland o\er a jack and hauled taut by block and tackle. 2.—Taking the 'plane up the cable. Note light wires AA, which were used to steady the machine, and tube bridges under wings. The weight rests on cable B. 3.—Lieut. Ellyson, U. S. N., about to start his flight. Light wires removed so as not to foul rudder and machine steadied by guys held by men on either side. The man in the rear of the machine is ready to start the motor. 4.—"Off."
NEW MOISANT BIPLANE
THE Moisant Company has recently built a passenger carrying biplane at their Hempstead shop, of which great things are expected. The general outline and appearance of the machine is similar to that of the Harry Farman Michelin Cup type. The construction work has been carried out in an excellent manner, the machine being up to the high standard set by this Company with its monoplanes.
Main Minutes. The size of the main spars, sizes and method of construction of the ribs, also the rib curvature, are nearly the same as in the Wright machines. The chord of the rib is 6 ft. 9 in., the depth of the curves being 1/20 of the chord.
The coveiing, which is Goodyear fabric, is laid on both sides of the plane and is tacked to the ribs top and bottom. The lower plane of the center section looks a little odd. having a hole cut 3 ft. by l»ft. 4 in., just ahead of the rear spar. This is done to accomodate a Bleriot Gnome, as no biplane Gnome was available.
The trussing of the three sections at the center of the machine is all double wire. Those wires in the vicinity of the engine and propeller are wiapped with string to keep them from flying into the propeller should they become broken.
Running- Gear. The standard Farman type running gear is used, the wheels and rubber shock absorbeis being Goodyear make.
Controls. The standard Farman control is used, one lever operating the elevator and the ailerons. The steering is done bj a foot yoke.
Control wires to ailerons, elevator and rudder are all double.
The machine proved itself a success from the first time out, with aviator Ragorodsky in charge. The machine rose nicely after a run of about a hundred feet and a four-mile cross-country flight was made in fine style. Some trouble has been had with the engine, which has been sent away to be repaired. For this reason the machine has not been seen in action since its first trial.
The maximum carrying capacity of the machine is, according to the constructors, 1,120 pounds, which in addition to the 920 pounds weight of the machine gives a total weight of 2,040 pounds. This is supposed to be carried at 40 miles per hour, using the Gnome 50. As this would be over 40 pounds
per horse-power it is rather doubtful if much more than short flights can be made with this load. The total supporting surface is 510 sq. ft. The machine is very easy to take apart in sections.
The Hempstead Plains Aviation Company is a subsidiary company of the Moisant International Aviators, which has, during the past year, made an exhibition tour of the United States, Mexico and Cuba, as is well known. The exhibition work is considered an advertising or publicity department of the business, which is really the manufacturing of machines and the conduct ot a school. A new factory has been located in Long Island City, while the school has its quarters at the Mineola field under the careful tutelage of Andre' Houpert and Albert C. Triaca. A lai ge number of pupils have graduated and obtained their licenses. Some of the graduates have attached themselves to other builders of monoplanes as aviators; some have attained fame through their flying at meets and exhibitions. Miss Harriet Quimby, one of the editors of Leslie's Weekly, made a great success of her lessons and has been doing great flying. She flew at the Nassau meet and at an exhibition on Staten Island recently. Miss Matilde Moisant, sister of the late John B. Moisant, is another woman flyer who has done exceptionally fine work.
Miss Matilde Moisant is as accomplished a flyer as one could wish for. There are plenty of the male sex who would give their right hand to do as well. Wind Is nothing to her, for she has shown her ability in the Long Island breezes in her cross-country flights to Nassau, Westbury, 'round and about the little villages that scatter themselves on the borders of the Plains. Miss Quimby, too, must come in for praise, for she too, has earned her pilot certificate and the new rules see to it that one is pretty fairly conversant with such things as rudders and warping and ailerons.
Three school machines are kept busy night and morning. The people of Mineola have become accustomed to the flying and do not even bother to look up any more, so frequent are the flights of the Moisant pupils. Near the school sheds is a group of buildings in which the construction and repair work has been conducted and where the theoretical part of the flying course is given.
Some Moisant Details. 123
SOME modifications and improvements have been made upon the Queen monoplanes which have been put in readiness for Earle L. Ovington's coast-to-coast flight, which he announces he will definitely attempt. These changes are only in the size and arrangement of gasoline and oil tanks, the use of a door in the aluminum sheeting at the forward end of the fuselage for ready access to the motor, substitution of bronze for aluminum castings in the running gear, reinforcements in the framing, and spacers on the wheel forks.
The new Indian rotary motor is employed in each of the three machines which comprise Ovington's "stable." The standard Queen machines have heretofore been fitted with Anzani and Gnome engines.
While the Queen machines have the general dimensions about the same as Bleriot monoplanes, and to the casual observer appear the same, there are many differences which can be considered as improvements. Eighty-five men are being employed by this company in the factory and on the field. Arthur Stone and Ignace Semeniouk are flying the machines as instructors and in exhibitions and meets. The plant at the old amusement park of Fort George, New York City, is fully equipped with machine and woodworking tools and apparatus of modern tyne, bought especially for the w>r'f ii~ hqnd. The buildings which are of extremely large size were peculiarly adapted to trie company's needs.
The main assembling building, for instance, was formerly used as a skating rink. Considerable outside work has been taken in. J. A. D. McCurdy had his six biplanes built there and others have had their repairing done at the place.
The Crane concern, builders of the Dixie engines, are now at work getting out a special engine to be installed in future Queens to take the place of those of foreign manufac are.
A new type biplane has just been put out and has been at the Long Island fields for some days awaiting trial, a long design made by James V. Martin. The main cell is of Far-man type, with a 100 horsepower, 14 cylinder engine mounted in front of the main cell. Instead of outriggers to the tail of the usual type a "fuselage" or body of a monoplane extends back to the tall, which comprises a fixed surface, rudder and a pair of elevators. The aviator sits in this body just under the rear edge of the upper plane of the main cell.
Following is a description of the Queen monoplane, with the slight alterations made for Ovington's contemplated trip. Ovington has already become, familiar with the Queen machine, using it, with the Indian motor, in his mail carrying at the Nassau meet. Here he gave the new American motor the hardest kind of work which his experience has taught him an engine is ever called upon to do, with the most satisfactory results.
THE QUEEN MONOPLANE
Scale Drawing Queen Monoplane.
Supporting Planes. The wings are of extra strong construction, the ribs being spaced closer together than common in Bleriots. There is a truss bracing of wire between the ribs to stiffen the wing. Aluminum sheeting is not used for an entering edge, a half-round wood strip being employed instead. The Goodyear cloth goes on both sides and is held taut by strips of rattan along the ribs. There are two extra stays to the underside of each wing, one extra cable for warping and one extra metal strip. The ends of the front main lateral spars butt against a steel tube and held rigid by two wide straps, brazed to the steel tube, which bolt on each side of the spar. These short tubes then slip In the tube of larger diameter which runs across the end of the fuselage. The angle of incidence can be altered by raising the rear of the wings, by means of an adjustable socket in which the rear main lateral spar fits. The curve is 3% inches deep, 2 feet from the front edge. The wings are 2% inches thick at the greatest thickness. The angle of incidence is f> degrees.
In the rear is a fixed surface, practically the same as that of the Bleriot, 2 inches thick.
Fuselage. This is of ash and elm throughout, of usual Bleriot type, with similar manner of connecting struts to spars.
Running Oear. Considerable changes in details have been made here from its Bleriot prototype. The "sill," or lower horizontal member of the chassis framing, has been made heavier. Rubber band shock absorbers have been replaced by steel coil springs. A brace has been introduced, running from each end of the sill diagonally to the fuselage. A novel skid is used to support the tail.
Controls. The elevator is similar to that of a Bleriot. There are two vertical levers operating the elevator instead of one, mounted on the axis of same. Roebling Wire cables run from each of these to the steering column, so that in addition to having a double chance on the wires there is doubled safety In the two levers. The stability is controlled by warping cables in the usual
manner. Instead of a bell-shaped metal affair from which the control cables go down to the cross-piece, brackets are used for warping and for elevating. The rudder is operated by the usual foot-yoke, this is reinforced by steel plates on both sides. It also Is guided on a track. The warping cables are doubled for safety.
Power Plant. This consists of a 7 cylinder rotary Indian motor, rated at 50 horsepower. As with the well-known French rotary engine of similar appearance the gasoline is taken in through the hollo%v crankshaft. To avoid the chance of setting fire to the gasoline which, as in the Gnome, drips continually from the carburettor when the gas is turned on and the engine is not running, the floor of the fuselage in this part of the machine is made gasoline tight. Directly under the carburettor the floor is bellied down, with a hole in the depression. Under this hole is an apron which shoots any surplus gasoline on the ground. The cause of this dripping of gasoline is the non-use of a float in the carburettor. The aluminum sheeting on the side of the fuselage at the forward end has a door, which can quickly be opened to make any adjustments to the carburettor, piping, etc., from the ground, without climbing into the machine and squeezing in under the hood or windshield. A Bosch magneto furnishes ignition. The Indian motor has F & S ball bearings, the same make as used in the Gnome, but has three additional. There are but three engines made today with ball bearing connecting rods: Indian, Gnome and the Merkel motorcycle engine, all of which use these bearings. The propeller used is a Gibson, 8'-3" diameter.
A Hopkins electric revolution counter shows on a dial at all times the speed of the engine.
Gas and air levers are on steering column, magneto spark is fixed, a cut-out is provided, also.
Weight. The weight including 240 lbs. of gas and oil, is 740 lbs. without aviator. Five gallons of oil and gas combined are used an hour and a speed of 60 miles an hour is obtained.
Thirteen gallons of castor oil is carried, and 27 gallons of gas. which is gravity fed. The aspect ratio is 4.5 approximately.
The Queen monoplanes sell for $2,900 with Anzani 3-cylinder motor, and $5,500 with the Gnome engine. The Ovington-Queen, with Indian, may be had for $4,500.
At the last moment when Ovington expected to start for the Pacific Coast, it was found necessary to lighten the machine and to put on the skid from his own Bleriot in place of the standard Queen skid. The front half of the fuselage is of hickory while the rear half is ash. Some of the struts are maple. The large fuel and oil tanks shown in the scale' drawing have had to be replaced, also. With a Chauviere propeller of 2.5 meters diam. by 1.6 m. pitch, a test was made at the Indian factory at 1150 revolutions and the standing thrust obtained was 352 lbs. In the air the engine turns another hundred revolutions. Forty-five actual horsepower, brake, was shown. The cylinders are a shade larger than those of the Gnome, being 4% bore by 4% inch stroke.
The dashboard carries a barograph, revolution counter and automobile clock while at the right hand side on the fuselage is an inclinometer to show the angle of ascent or descent, near the oil sights. A stout leather strap to go around the aviator is fastened to the seat.
•'The Queen Company's hundred horsepower Martin biplane" is the official title of the newest 'plane to make its appearance at the Nassau field. It has been built by the Queen Aeroplane Co., to designs of James V. Martin, formerly manager of the Harvard Aeronautical Society and instructor in a British flying school.
The first week in October it had its first try-outs, with entire success, piloted by,Mr. Martin. A novelty has been introduced in the stabilizing. The ailerons, which are hinged to the rear beam of the upper plane act in opposite directions according to the system inaugurated by Curtiss, are hooked up with the elevator flaps which operate in conjunction, though not to the same degree. These flaps have but a sixth of the range of the ailerons proper. At the same time, also, they act as true elevators by forward or backward motion of the gate control of Burgess type. The aileron cables which run to the control have a certain amount or slack to permit the ailerons to take a stream-line position when not operated to avoid unequal resistance.
Booking at the picture, the operating cable runs from the top of the gate control to a pullev between the two outer rear struts up
to the rear edge of the aileron. Prom the top of the mast, which is not at the axial line but to the rear thereof for a definite purpose, a cable continues to a pulley on top of the plane at the front edge. From here it goes along the edge to a pulley on the other side of the machine, back to the other aileron and from thence to the control. The ailerons do not normally hang down as in Farman machines but act positively in both directions.
The rudder is operated by the usual foot yoke. The machine is stated by Mr. Martin to fly at no angle of incidence, lifting from the ground on the wing chamber. The tail is non-lifting at full speed.
As will be noted, the 100 h, p. Gnome is installed in the front end of a monoplane type of fuselage. A Gibson propeller of 8 ft. 6 in. diam., by 7 ft. 6 in. pitch is used at the piesent time. Ignition is by Bosch magneto. The fabric is Goodyear.
The two gas tanks hold total 45 gallons and 17 gallons of oil. The auxiliary tank under the seat holds gas which is forced by pressure to the gravity tank when needed.
The speed in flight was estimated between 70 and 75 miles an hour. An official test will shortly be made. Detailed description may be expected in the next issue.
THE ROTARY INDIAN
The new Indian motor is of the rotary, .a. air cooled, 4-cylinder type, having seven cylinders of 4% inches bore and 4% inches stroke, developing 50 horse power at 1,000 revolutions per minute. Nickel steel is largely used in the construction of the motor. F. & S. ball bearings are used throughout. The motor complete weighs 185 pounds, and its outside diameter is 36 inches.
The crank case and cylinders are made from heavy nickle steel forgings which are machined uuwn to a very lignt weignt, and each cylinder is made of exactly the same weight, t" insure a perfect balance and
side elevation of motor. paktly in section
smooth running without vibration. In the same way, all valves, connecting rods and other parts aie made to correspond in weight so that the distribution of material shall be accurately equal and symmetrical.
The inlet valves of the automatic type, placed in the heads of the pistons, and balanced to counteract centrifugal action. The exhaust valves are mechanically operated, and, as in the case of these, centrifugal action assists in their closing, only very light springs are required.
The exhaust valve operating gear is of a new and greater simplified form that insures smooth action and perfect operation, and this is facilitated by a system of counter-
balancing the operating rods and levers tM counteract centrifugal action, a matter oil considerable importance in all rotary motors]
In mounting a rotary motor, the nickel steel crank shaft is rigidly fixed in a suit-l able frame so that it cannot i evolve. Thei crank case, carrying with it the cylinders' and accompanying parts, revolves on the crank shaft, and to the forward part of the crank case is attached the propeller. It will be seen f i om this that when the crank case and cylinders revolve they perform the functions of a fly wheel, and as all of the parts are carefully balanced by weighing, and the material is symmetrically and equally distributed, the rotation of the motor is absolutely smooth and without vibration.
To assist in the mounting of the motor, a large supporting plate is fixed on the crank shaft, at the rear of the motor, and upon this are placed the magneto and lubricating pumps, which are driven by a gear on the rotating motor base.
The ignition is by a Bosch high tension magneto, which feeds its current to a distributing disc carried by the motor base, and properly connected up to the several spark plugs in the cylinders.
For these motors, water white castor oil is recommended. This oil is forced by mechanically operated pumps to sight feed lubricators suitably located so they can be observed at all times. From the lubricators, the oil is conducted by pipes to the mainl bearings, and also to the parts within the motor that require lubrication.
The carbureter is of extremely simple construction, and is attached to the rear end ofi the fixed, hollow crank shaft, through which the mixture is conducted to the interior of| the motor base, and from thence distiibutedi to the various cylinders through the inlet valves placed in the head of each piston. The adjustment of mixture is accomplished by the setting of a small needle valve, and the regu-| lation of the extra air shutter, and when the proper mixture has been secured at sfarting.i very little further attention is required.
A feature of excellence in the construction! of the Indian is its extreme simplicity, andj the ease with which all necessary inspection and adjustments can be made.
To inspect ihe valves of a cylinder, the head can be taken off in one minute, and carries with it the exhaust valve complete. This is accomplished by unscrewing a single castellated ring, which is quickly and easily done with a special spanner. When the head of the cylinder has been removed, the inlet valve, fixed in the head of the piston, is exposed to view for inspection; and if it is desired to remove the inlet valve, this can be done directly without disturbing any other part.
A piston can as readily and as quickly be taken out for the renewal of a compression ring, without disturbing the cylinder; and all can be as quickly replaced ready for starting up the motor.
These motors list at $2,000.
R. O. Rubel, Jr. & Co. have just published a little circular for "all victims of aero-planitis," telling who have purchased Gray. Eagle motors, with pictures of the 'planes they went in and what they did, together with facsimile affidavits of actual flights.
Mr. Harry N. Atwood
on his record bre 'king cro<s-country flights was enabled to su |ia-s his m-liy rivals both in Kurope and America by the rel al>le peif- nuance of his
BURGESS AEROPLANE I
Built only by
BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.
THE REX SMITH BIPLANE
THE second biplane built by the Rex Smith Aeroplane Co., of Washington, is described in the following article. Since Antony Jannus conducted the experimental flights with the previous machine, taking up a number of prominent Washington people and giving a number of exhibition flight series at Potomac Park, several aviators have been employed, none of whom have made any great success, until Paul Peck flew himself into the lists of competent flyers. Peck started in on July 20th and nine days later was a bona fide pilot. On August 6th he flew from College Park to the city of Washington, circled the dome of the Capitol, down Pennsylvania Avenue, around Washington Monument, over into Virginia and back to the speedway in Washington in a half hour flight. The next morning he flew back to College Park. Since then he has been making almost daily flights at the Park and short trips into the surrounding country.
Mr. Smith was an amateur trick bicycle rider in Washington in the old days, and played bicycle polo with Will Robinson about 1885. That seems a million years ago but many remember seeing him. He won national repute by being the first man to ride a bicycle down the steps of the Capitol.
He commenced building a flying machine about a year and a half ago and last November completed his first. It was a single surfaced, headless biplane with ailerons and general Curtiss type of control except that it lacked the front elevator. This machine was flown a number of times by Antony Jannus. He used an Emerson 100 horsepower engine.
This spring he completed a second machine. This was one with a slight dihedral angle on the lower plane and a diminishing curve from the centre to the ends of the main
planes. The feature of this machine was that instead of using straight ailerons between the ends of the planes, he substituted flexible tips at the end of the upper planes. These worked up and down just like ailerons and were controlled by the regular shoulder yoke. Their seeming advantage is that he puts them where he gets the most advantage from the leverage and since they are very flexible, they seem automatically responsive to a side gust. They seem a little more effective in lateral balancing than straight ailerons. Paul Peck, who flies this machine, says that they made the machine very easy to control and that the balance is practically automatic.
A third machine has been finished and is to be tried out soon. This is a duplicate in most respects of the second machine. The differences are that it is double surfaced, the slight dihedral angle is wanting in the lower plane. The depth of the lifting curve varies not at all from the centre to the ends of the plane and the pianos are the same width from entering edge to rear at the outer ends as they are at the engine. They are'using a 60 h.p. Hall-Scott on the third machine while they used an 80 on the second. The second machine is now on the road with Peck in exhibition work.
Maih Planes. The span of the entire machine is 40 feet. The main planes having a span of 32 feet. The chord length of the surfaces varies, as shown on the drawings. The depth of curvature is 4 inches maximum, situated 2 feet back from the front edge. The ribs are all the same, except that those on the narrower portions of the planes are off on front ends, giving a lesser degree of curvature at the outer ends. The planes are covered with heavy Naiad cloth, laid on top of the planes.
REX 3-WIT-H, CR03S-.OOUnTRY MODE*L
Drawings kex 120
£>mmi uii lane
he ribs are laminated spruce, %-in. by %-|nch in section, and are fastened to the spars y steel straps. The spars are oval in shape Y2 in. by 2 in. and aie 4 feet 6 inches apart.
For convenience in shipping, the planes are uilt up in sections, the spars being joined by leeves of steel tubing. The clotp is laced kogether at these joints. The entire plane hay be quickly dissembled, the longest sec-ion being the center one, which is 8 feet.
The upper plane is perfectly straight trans-lersely, the lower one, however, ri^es from kie middle to the tips some six inches. The lepaiation of the planed in the middle is 6 eet and at the ends 5 feet 6 in.
The angle of incidence of the main planes '? stated to be 7 degrees both on the ground nd in flight.
The struts, 16 in number, are of stream line lection llA inches by 2y2 inches. These are f solid spruce and are attached to the main bars by being pinned to a socket which [ermits their easy removal. Roebling wire 3 used in staying. This has a breaking strain f 2,100 pounds. The wires are cut to length nd the stiuts sprung into place. No turn-luckles are used.
Elevator. The biplane tail situated in the lear acts as the elevator, the trailing edges king made flexible for this purpose. The (onstruction of the elevator and the aileions 3 the same, there being a fixed front portion, t/hite hickory ribs extending back as shown n the drawing.
Rudder. Some changes are being made in he position and number of the rudders. They re, however, of the same type of eonstruc-lion as the ailerons" and elevators; that is, here is a fixed front portion, in this case /ithout any curve, and a flexible after por-ion.
Stability. The ailerons, 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 nches, are situated at the ends of only the op planes. The operation is by means of the amiliar shoulder brace. Double Roebling /32 inch cable is used on all the control's, 'ulleys are used wherever it is necessary to hange the direction of wires instead of fair-eads. The coveiing of the ailerons and rud-ers is double, the flexible portions having ■ockets sewed for the ribs.
Running Gear. This-is of the Wright type vith four wheels. 20x^ Pennsylvania tires are >eing used at present. The axle is situated 0 inches back from the front of the plane. ?he skids are of spruce with a hickory shoe f > _
% inch thick on the bottom. The length is 12 feet and the section 2x2 inches.
Power Plant. The power plant comprises a Hall-Scott 80 h.p. engine, and radi .tor. The propeller is one furnished by the Detachable and Adjustable Propeller Co., 8 feet in diameter, by 6 feet pitch turning at 1200 r.p.m. The radiatoi, which is located in front of the engine, is the standard one supplied with this size engine. It holds three gallons of water. Stromberg carburetor and Mea magneto are standard equipm°'->t. The fuel
Cto/iTROL OF R&X -5MITH
tank, which has a capacity of 8 gallons, is situated just under the upper plane.
The total weight of the machine with gas, oil, and operator ready for flight is 1,000 pounds. The weight per square foot of surface is three pounds, the weight lifted per h. p. being estimated at 15 pounds. The speed at which the machine leaves the ground is 35 miles per hour and in flight the speed is said to be 55 miles per hour. Three hundred pounds of passengers or freight are capable of being carried.
The center of pressure is said to be 1/3 of the chord from the front of the plane, the center of gravity being situated 1/3 of the chord from the rear of the plane.
A renewal of experiments is to be m%de by he Wright»'Brothers at Kitty H-^wk this Vinter along the line of the possibility or oaring. Mr. Chanute frequent^-stated that t was entirely possible to sojar'all day long without using the engine power in certain 'arts of the world where there were ascend-ng currents, notably in the great desei ts.
The Fairehild monoplane has proven steel ubing construction. After miking a num->er of flights of several miles in length, Har->ld Kantner, a graduate of the Moisant chool, landed the machine in the power wires f a local traction company at Mineola, des-roying one wing, the propeller and pulling he spokes out of one wheel without its delating the Goodyear tire fitted. After hitting he wires heid on. the michine dropped traight about thirty feet. Not a stay of he fuselage or any_pf the tubing was so nueh as bent. The reason for encountering he wires was engine trouble, the power h'V; ng fallen rapidly off due to too weik valve prings. The machine flew on even keel ven after power began to drop, until it :ot "o low that the wires cduld not be voided.
The 20th. Century Motor Car Supply Co. of South Bend, Ind., is to put on the mirket a patented five cylinder, two cycle, revolving type of motor but which is not ready as yet to give a detailed desciiption.
Aeronautical editors visiting the great metropolis should take the pie lge of sobriety, at least before accepting New York hospitality. Instances lvve been known where the aforesaid, in consequence of not being fortified with a double riveted and br zed resolution, hive succumbed in a wholly undignified manner to the libations incident to the pioper worship of the Goddess of Flight.
"I wouldn't b& without AERONAUTICS if I could possibly scrape the price together."
. George A. Dunlap. " _ _,i ^ y
Three ygung' men of Junction' City, Km., the Wetzi-g- Bros. -mid James McCnrty, h~ve returned,,., here from St. Louis where they lcined'' to aviate. They h^ve leased the bnr.ebill park and are assembling a new -.biplane.
BUEL HURNDON GREEN
M . El
The Late Buel H. Green
THOSE who would know the meaning of a certain passage to be found in Moedebeck's Handbook will find enlightenment in Lhe passing of Buel Hurndon Green, M. E., on August 27th.
I cannot quote the passage as I am penning these lines by the side of a noisesome torrent high up in the Rockies, far from any book. But poor Moedebeck speaks there of the real tragedies and heroism that is to be found in the lives of the inventors and engineers who failed to materialize the aeronautical projects they had planned. Buel Green died at the age of 29, yet he had completed works which would do credit to a life of three score years. Graduated from the University of Southern California, he gave evidence at an early age of rare inventive genius, and was granted several patents relating to controlling devices for the automobile. He was appointed second designing-engineer at the Tourist automobile factory, a position from which he resigned after one year to become associated with Lanchester in England. Abroad he spent much time in the shops of foreign manufacturers. He was a charter member and was elected secretary of the Aero Club of California. At the international aviation meets at Bos Angeles he acted as interpreter for the French aviators.
These distinctions may soon be forgotten but Mr. Green has to his credit those achievements in aeronautical invention which will live.
There are a trigonometrical manual double control for aeroplanes which will greatly
increase the safety of this art, an engine anrB a turnbuckle.
All these inventions are of a high ordeJ mechanically, but his engine, when it will be possible to publish its details, will be a sensation. It may be stated here that htel second engine of 200 horsepower is now! almost completed, and weighs only 350 lbs.1 with magneto and carburetor. It will be almost free from vibration and totally without gyroscopic action. He had completedl his first engine, and, while it is tol be regretted that he could not live to heatti the plaudits of the multitude, he was not oil a nature to have cared for that. To arl engineer it is fruition to have complete* the plans on paper. We visualize all plana and indeed it often happens that we take little or no interest in the metals in whicil they are executed afterwards. Yet Mr. GreeB had progressed further than this. He had incorporated the "Lamson Aeroplane ComB pany," and had the pleasure of seeing the first machine well under way before he succumbed to the valvular heart troublH against which for many years he had made a heroic fight.
Inspired by his singular Christian lif eJ in this materialistic age, the Aero Club oil California was moved to draft a resolution which may be termed a classic.
Resolution of the Aero Club of Califoriiia. I
At a meeting of the Directors of the Aerc! Club of California, held in the Club Rooms! August 2S, 1911, the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted:
Whereas: Almighty God, in the exercisJ of His divine will, has removed from this world and the busy cares of life, BUEL H. GREEN, of Los Angeles, California,
THEREFORE: We, the Directors of the! Aero Club of California, have assembled herJ tonight to pay our last sad tribute to thl memory of the departed, and to express oul deep appreciation of the many and lastina obligations that we, as fellow workers, owe to him and by words and tokens to expresM our sincere sorrow for the loss Science ham sustained by his death.
The work in this Club of our late fellow-worker commenced on the night of its organi-j zation when he as a charter member gavel many and valuable suggestions for its future! guidance. That ceaseless labor has borrl full and truthful evidence of the warn! affection in which he was held, and as officer! "director and chairman of various importan! committees the club honored itself by honor-l ing him. It is a great thing to say of an! man, that he is crowned with the love anB admiration—after his grave is closed—cm all those who knew him. Such men are no! born to die out of the memory of theil associates. They were born to live in oul affections, and the day will not come in thi history of the Aero Club of California wheJ mention the name of Buel H. Green will nol recall to every member's heart an honesl sense of pride that such a man lived anil labored among us as a poineer in the field ol Aviation.
RESOBVED : That we take this oceasiord to express the hope that the Hand of GeniuB may in the near future cull from the collecl tion of materia] wealth he has left behinol him what he would have most desired to bJ that shall stand as the best monument tJ thus preserved, and the constructor thereof! find in his labor an embarrassment of riches the memory of our lamented scientist and inventor.
RESOLVED: That the Secretary be in-J structed to spread upon the minutes a cop'u of this preamble and resolutions, and that <| copy be sent to those who were nearest and}
dearest to him, his sorrowing family, as a token of our respect for the deceased, one who was, in every way, worthy of our deepest respect and highest regard.
Van M. Griffith, Geo. B. Harrison,
• Secretary. President.
A SCO It 15 OF DEATHS
CHARTRES, France, Sept. 2.—The French aviator Marron was killea.
LIMA, Peru, Sept. 7.—The Peruvian aviator, Carlos Tenaud, died to-day as a result of injuries received making a flight last February.
LONDON, Sept. 17.—While flying at a high altitude at Hendon, Lieutenant R. A. Cam-mell's Valkyrie military aeroplane collapsed.
MULHAUSEN, Germany, Sept. 7.—Lieut. Neumann, with his passenger, M. LeComte, were killed.
KARLSRUHE, Germany, Sept. 7.—Paul Senge fell with his aeioplane.
ESS1NGEN, Germany, Sept. 9.—Raimund Eyring was flying in the dark and collided with a mast marking the limits of the field.
BUC, France, Sept. 2.—Capt. de Camine fell from a great height and instantly killed. Lieut. Jaques de Grailly was burned to death when his machine took fire in midair near Tjoyes. The cause is given as explosion of the fuel tank. The right wing of Capt. Camine's machine became detached. With six other Army flyers they weie on their way to military manoeuvers at Chalons.
PARIS, Sept. 12.—Lieut. Chotard, a pupil of the Military Aviation School, killed while making a flight at Villecoublay.
DEWITT, la., Sept. 20.—Louis Rosenbaum, a young man who has spent his time since 1908 building biplanes and finally flying, was killed giving an exhibition. After flying several miles away and back he was about 275 feet high over the center of the field when the machine plunged sharply down, righted, and then dived again. The coroner's jury rendeied a verdict that the cause of his death was not due to faulty construction. He was filling a date for the International Aeroplane Co., of Chicago, in a biplane made by that concern after the style of a Curtiss. Louis Rosenbaum was a member of the Aeronautical Society and began his building back in 190" ^"^t vi tor =ent out by this company refused to fly In the old machine and Rosenu^uiii o^me ^n ure scene to fly it. He made an unsuccessful effort but after tinkering with it and fixing it up, finally succeeded.
ST. LOUIS, Mo., Sept. 22.—A young Russian mechanic, Ray J. Raymond, was struck by the propeller, which he was cranking, of A. V. Reyburn's monoplane and died the following day in the hospital.
MANSFIELD, Pa., Sept. 22.—Tony Castel-lane fell to his death a short distance from the field where he was giving an exhibition in a biplane copied after the Curtiss.
BERLIN, Germany, Sept. 29.—Capt. Engel-hardt, one of the pioneer aviators of Germany, the first Wright flyer and who was taught by Orville Wright himself, was killed during a meet. He had with him at the time Herr Sedylmayer as passenger. The latter sustained severe injuries but his death has not been reported.
NEW YORK, Sept. 25.—Dr. C. B. Clark, an oldtime trick bicycle rider, was killed in his monoplane during the aviation meet at Nassau Boulevard. He was a pupil of Arthur Stone, the Queen Company's instructor, and had only graduated from the Anzani to the Gnome engine. Directly over the parked automobiles he made a sharp right turn, banked up at a startling angle. He made a complete spiral of a diameter scarcely more than the spread of the machine and landed head-on just a few feet from the motor cars. The direct cause of his death is attributed to
making too sharp a turn to the right banked at an impossible angle With the probability that he either- could not recover or still kept his rudder turned to the right which continued the spiral. Dr. Clark was well-known on the vaudeville stage in his motorcycle act, the "globe of death."
TROY, O., Sept. 23.—In making his last flight closing his exhibition at the local fair, Frank H. Miller, flying another Curtiss-copy built by Charles J. Strobel, of airship fame, was burned to death in the fire resulting from a headlong dive to the ground, or was killed by the fall itself. He was descending from an altitude of about 200 feet when the 'plane suddenly turned its nose directly down and took fire. Miller was from Cleveland. Miller could be seen frantically trying to right the machine. Other witnesses state that the machine was afire before it_ started its headlong flight.
SPOKANE, Wash., Oct. 2.—The't. „..Ji- of Cromwell Dixon while making an exhibition flight is particularly heartrending because of his youth. He was but 19 years of age and had only recently learned to fly a Curtiss aeroplane for the Curtiss company. He had to fly in dangerous grounds and was making a turn, steeply banked over a deep railroad cut when an unlooked for air current struck the machine, which he was unable to right. On Sept. 30 he was flying at Helena, Mont., where he rose 6,000 feet and crossed the Rocky Mountain divide to a town 18 miles away, .landing and returning to Helena. Cromwell Dixon in 1907 built a little dirigible, for which his mother made the envelope. Later he went on the road with a larger one.
Eilonard Nieiiport IJend
The death of the designer of the fastest machine in the world, Edouard Nreuport, in an accident to his own machine at Verdum is one of the greatest losses the aviation world has met. On September 13 he was flying in the presence of the military authorities, giving a course of instructions. He flew to Chalons in a violent wind. He took to the air again and executed some wonderful turns, in the course of one of which, steeply banked and headed down, a down current caught a wing and the machine dove. The following day he passed away in the hospital.
ALDERSHOT, Eng., Aug. 18.—Lieut. Theodore Ridge was killed while attempting a short turn.
Edwin J. Bachman, Jr., of Catasauqua, Pa., suggests the use of two curved plates of thin steel, running longitudinal under the central section of an aeroplane, these sheets joining at their lower edges so as to form a V-shaped keel to deflect from the power plant and the aviator any bullets from rifles in the hands of sharpshooters.
"Claude Grahame-White, the famous English aviator, predicts that in twenty years regular aeroplane service will be in operation across the ocean. 'The machines used,' says White, 'will be 1,000 feet long, with steel-planes, and will carry 1,000 passengers. The motors driving these huge craft will develop 75,000 horsepower, and the speed attained will be close to 200 miles an hour.' "—So says the Club Journal. "Pull the string."
Mr. Thomas Sopwith
after trying other aeroplanes won his many prizes at the Nassau Boulevard Meet on hU
- with Gnome motor, built by-
BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.
New World Record
Three-man Duration, 1:54:42 2/5, Lt. De Milling (Burgess), Sept. 26.
New American Record
Duration for Women, 1:04:57 2/5, Mile. Du-trieu (Farman), Sept. 30.
Kiyers nnd Winnings
Ovington (Queen and Bleriot) ....
Atwood (Burgess) $350
Lt. Arnold (Burgess) 350
Lt. Beck (Curtiss) 1150
Beatty (Wright) 950
Lt. Ellyson (Curtiss) 700
Ely "purtiss) 1400 \V (Nieuport and Burgess Baby) 3950
UV . !ond (Baldwin) 500
Milling (Burgess) 2550
Miss Quimby (Moisant) 600
Sopwith (Bleriot and Burgess) 5200
Disbrow (automobile) 600
McCurdy (McCurdy) ....
Mile. Dutrieu (Farman) 2500
Walden (Walden) 100 Miss Moisant (Moisant) No award.
Geo. M. Dyott (Deperdussin). ....
Present Awnrds Protested
Lt. Ellyson 600
Lt. Arnold 300
THE establishment of the first aerial mail service in the United States as one of the features of the Nassau Boulevard meet Sept. 23-30, caused more interest, perhaps, than the actual contests, such as they were. Everyone who at-
tended could mail postal cards to their friends to their heart's desire.
To Earle Ovington belongs the distinction of having been the first duly appointed aerial mail carrier, covering a set route from a regularly established post office for a period of nine days.
In the evening of the opening a large canvas sack, which contained exactly 640 letters and 1280 postcards, was handed Ovington by A. H. Bartsch, advertising manager for the Bosch Magneto company. It was an unwieldy load as owing to the construction of his Bleriot he had to carry the bag on his knees and, consequently, was hampered considerably in his control. Nevertheless, he had no trouble throughout the entire meet, flying from the canvas tent serving as a post office at Nassau Boulevard over to Mine-ola, where the bags were dropped in the field to be picked up by the postmaster of that place.
Postmaster General Frank Hitchcock arranged a municipal collection system on the grounds. Twenty regulation boxes and two sub-stations were set up in the spaces alloted to spectators. A mail carrier collected the messages at regular intervals and Post Office Inspector M. H. Boyle saw to the canceling in the tent main post office.
On one day Captain Paul W. Beck, U. S. A., took Postmaster Genera] Hitchcock, in his military Curtiss, who carried a sack of mail on his knees, over to Mineola. Mr. Hitchcock dropping the bag at the proper spot. Ovington followed along with another bag. In all, 32,415 postcards, 3,993 letters and 1,062 circulars were carried by aeroplane during the meet. The relay race was very interesting. Each aviator was handed a packet of mail; he had to run to his machine, jump in, fly to Mineola, land, get receipt from the postmaster there and return.
Sopwith in Gnome-engined Burgess. 134
THE NASSAU MEET
The Walden Monoplane just before it was Wrecked by the "Wash."
Lieut. Milling-, who, with the other Army and Navy officers flew in the meet on le;tve of absence, took up George C. Wilson, wireless operator who sent messages to a receiving station on the ground in charge of Oscar Roesen. The Curtiss and Burgess companies supplied ma'chines for the military aviators.
The flights of Miss Quimby, Miss Moisant and Ml'e. Dutrieu in the latest Farman weie especially interesting. They were flights as good as any man could do and the spice of femininity added to the zest of the entertainment. Miss Moisant received the Wanam:iker trophy for altitude and Miss Quimby had no competition in the cross-country race.
A number of new machines were seen; the two Deperdussins of Dyott and Captain Hamilton, the Burgess "Baby" flown by White and the latter's Nieuport, the new military type Curtiss, the Walden monoplane. Mile. Dutrieu's new little Farman and the McCurdy. The alley in front of the shed held swarms of fans who talked knowingly of all the things they didn't know about flying machines.
Considerable interest was taken in Beatty's Wright machine which could trim Sopwith's Gnome-engined Burgess-Wright and the standard Burgess-Wright of Lieut. Milling. Beatty had had a new pair of propellers made by the Gibson Propeller Co., and his claim of five miles more an hour speed was borne out by the record. These gave 238 lbs. thrust on the ground at 447 r. p. m. Beatty broke a crankcase of one engine and blew out a cylinder of another and it may be that the new propellers speeded the engine up to a greater degree than consistent with good policy.
If the minagement had been more kind to the press, the former might have been better pleased with results. To get any information as to what was going on was a catch-as-catch-c^n proposition with the megaphone man. Photographers were not allowed on the field, though lady friends of the officers had no difficulty on that score. The obtaining of pictures was a matter of prime interest to those interested in aviation and a club meet is supposed to be run for the advancement of the sport and scier.ce. No one, however, will accuse the Nassau management of being over keen on the scientific side. A ludicrous sight was the repeated chasing given the photographers by alleged cops on horseback, with the Ex.-Lieut. Governor Woodfuff cheering the gallant horsemen on to the fray. One
smashed aeroplane and numerous narrow escapes were caused by these pink tea policemen getting in the way.
Those who attended the Chicago meet missed the hourly duration, and the altitude contests. The absence of the duration prizes cut down the amount of flying to the minimum.
A license fee of $5,000 was paid the Wright Company by the corporation which financed the meet.
While a Gnome engine has been used abroad in a Fiench Wright, the Burgess Company and Curtis, of Marblehead, Mass., have taken the initiative here in using a rotary engine in their Model F machines, the first one of which thus fitted was supplied to Sopwith and used by him in his fights at the meet on Long Island, Sept. 23— Oct. 1. As is well known, the Burgess company is manufacturing under license from the Wright and uses in their standard Model F machines the Wright power plant. The latter machine is the type which Atwood flew in his 1,265-mile flight from St. Louis to New York, and in his flight from Boston to Washington, 461 miles. Atwood's success in making long distance flights is *ne more remarkable when one considers the other attempts made in cross country flying.
The rotary engine has more power than a 4 cylinder engine and runs with greater smoothness. The Farman type of control was substituted for the Wright type as Sopwith is used to the former system. In place of the usual seats, those of the deep bucket pattern were put on so that the aviator might have a firmer hold from which to meet the side thrust of his control lever.
In staiting the motor there is a noticeable absence of vibration which is conspicuous in the vertical engine until it is up to speed.
The rudder is operated by a foot yoke.
It will be noticed that the engine is mounted to the left of the aviator, instead of to his right as in machines using the standard Wright engine. This was done to keep the direction of rotation of th-e propellers the same as in the standard machine; the Gnome revolving in the opposite direction from the Wright engine.
The tank to the left of the picture is used for the castor oil.
The guying has been slightly altered in the section where the aviator sits, thus do-
ing away with the contortions one used to have to go through to get into the machine.
The gearing of the propellers is at present 12 to 34. Sopwith is not satisfied with this and has ordered a 14-tooth gear for the engine shaft, which may increase his speed. The gearing on standard Wright machines is 11-34.
Ovington (Bleriot) ...............$11,782
Bieut. Milling ( Burgess-Wright) . . 6,200
Sopwith (Wright)................ 6,022
White (Nieuport)................ 5,224
Beachey (Curtiss)................ 3,630
Stone (Queen).................... 1,000
Gill (Burgess-Wright)............ 534
Beatty (Wright)................. 482
Atwood (Burgess-Wright)........ 296
Coffyn " " ........ 200
Ely (Curtiss).................... 150
To these amounts must be added expense money allowed.
Ovington Won IGO-Mlle TrI-stnte Knee.
The first cross-country race inaugurated in America in connection with an aviation meeting was held from Boston to Nashua, N. H„ Worcester, Mass., Providence, R. I., and back to Boston, covering corners of three states, on Sep. 4 in connection with the second Harvard Meet, so-called, Aug. 26-Sep. 6. The distance is reckoned as 160 miles. Landings had to be made at each place, where thousands were gathered to view for the first time a monoplane in flight.
Earle L. Ovinfrton. in a 70 Bleriot, covered the course in the flyinff time of 3:6:22-1/5. Lieut. Muling, in ^ ±jargeds-Wright, took 5:22:37. Arthur Stone (Queen monoplane) and Harry Atwood (Burgess-Wright) also started. Both failed to get further than Medford, Mass. Atwood started with his father and he flew back alone from Medford. White, Beachey, Ely and other flyers refused to enter the race, claiming the course too dangerous, no good landing places, et cetera. Besides that, it was a purely snorting offer, the $10,000 prize of the Boston Globe, and one of the flyers thought it not worth while unless something were guaranteed on account. Other troubles were had with the management. It was alleged that White had been promised a guarantee while others had not. "Fly" says : "Those who are aware of Grahame-White's avidity for the clinking of silver and gold, as well as the yellow certificates of large denominations issued by the United States Government, insinuate that the Englishman never came to Squantum without a substantial guarantee."
The attendance was poor save on two days. Weather delayed the meet also. Even the 30-mile flights out over the ocean to Boston Light failed to draw the populace. Beachey set a record in sensational flying that others will have to match or lose out as a drawing attraction. On Sep. 2, Beachey and Ovington flew the Boston Light race in a wind of 26-28 miles an hour and Beachey did the flight to Blue Hill and back, 15 miles, when the other aviators stayed on the ground. On August 28, the flight to Boston Light was cancelled, though Beachey and Ely protested. Beachey and Ely flew anyway just for the sport of it, and were the only ones to fly that day. Ovington's flying in the Tri-state race was most consistent, covering each 40-mile leg without not more than five minutes difference in times. Ely was unfortunate, losing two contests purely on technicalities.
The ovations the Tri-state flyers received were tremndous. A hundred thousand people were at the State Fair in Worcester to witness the spectacle. Two days later Stone made flights in Worcester. After a flight on Sept. 6 the machine made a complete somersault in landing burying him underneath. He had a marvelous escape.
WALDEN MONOPLANE MAKES FINE FLIGHTS.
The original monoplane of Dr. Henry W. Walden has, after three years of experimenting and flying, proven itself as a flier. All during the month he has been flying at Mineola. At the series of exhibition flights made under the auspices of Walter B. Davis by Beatty, Sopwith, White, Ely and Atwood, Dr. Walden made his first real public bow. Although not a pilot or really an expert flier he made circle after circle of the field, flying over the trolley wires and the houses of Coney Island. When he landed he found he had not flown the requisite time demanded b> his contract. Scarcely waiting for people to get out of the way of his wings he started up again and flew more than was necessary. At the Nassau meet he had agreed to fly but the first day he got in the wash of a Burgess-Wright and broke up a wing. As he was about to land, Lieut. Milling started off the ground and rose right in front of Walden, who cleared his tail but a couple of feet. Dr. Walden was compelled to turn sharply so as not to strike the other machine and the stream of air caught him and dashed him about forty feet to the ground. Tin picture shows the ailerons in position to balance up when the "wash" struck him. An instant after the picture was taken the machine was a wreck.
The day before he tried for his pilot license and met with all the requirements, save as to altitude. Though the observers vouch for 1,500 feet, the club's representative failed to furnish a barograph and he has no pilot license as yet.
Two more machines are now being built, all to be equipped, like the present one, with Hall-Scott engines.
Many flights have been made from the Mineola sheds over to Nassau and back. His flight over on the opening day of the meet when no one was expecting him and no shed prepared at Nassau, was a sensation.
Although not a pilot, Dr. Walden flew in a sanctioned meet under contract and was entered on the program. When he was carted to the hospital in an ambulance, he had to pay $2 for the ride; he also got a bill for taking his wrecked aeroplane off the field. It would be hard for an aviator to be broke and have to go without the luxury of an ambulance. But, then, all aviators are supposed to be wealthy, so what's the use of worrying. The earth-worms can still ride free in ambulances.
TO "IIUMIILE INQUIRER."
We have received a letter asking further information on the pressure equalizer described in a recent issue of this publication. The letter was signed "A Humble Inquirer."
We are always glad to answer all inquiries; but it is out of the question to expect reply when no name or address is given. Will he please supply it?
bavin? studied the world's be«t aeroplanes regularly flies one Nieuport monoplane and two specially designed
——designed and Iviilt by--BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.
AST issue we began a series of articles under this heading, treating of the status of aviation in this country at the present time. At least, that is t we requested. In our letters we point-out several items which were not en-ly favorable to rapid progress and to the istiy. Some evidently believe th it avia-is flourishing. We do not wish to confine symposium entirely to aviation. It iId be interesting to bring in the sport ballooning, and the piloting of dirigibles, ny aie ever to be used for sporting pur-;s in this country.
"The Aero Club of......
Is now without gas and there is nothing doing." Signed by club's president, he aero clubs who aie doing anything of practical value can be counted on one d, with perhaps a finger or so to spare— [ way, a thumb.
ontributions from every one who has lething worth while to say are solicited
this series, provided they are brief, and
not "trade puffs."
My Jerome S. Faueiulli,
Manager Curtiss Exh bition Co.
would say that progress in aviation is isfactory as far as this Company is conned. We note a gradual widening interest oughout the U. S., both in exhibition and ctical sides of the business. I believe t the numerous exhibitions which we have en and are still giving throughout the S., will do moie than anything else to nonstrate the increasing practicability 1 relinbility of the aeroplane.
regard the Chicago Meet held in August greatest demonstration of the art of sng that has ever taken place in this or / other country. Its beneficial effects aie jnd to be widespread. Already we have 3 evidence of the aroused interest re-ting from the Chicago Meet, t is true that the U. S. is far behind ne parts of Europe, France in particular,
the matter of offeiing prizes for cross jntry flights. However, there have been ^eral such prizes put up in this country
recently, notably the one of Gimbel Bros, for a race of three Curtis aviators between New York and Philadelphia, which was successfully cariied out on August 5th. I look for a great deal of cross country flying next year, for which there will be adequate prizes offered. I also expect to see aeroplane racing made a feature of all the big meets held in the U. S. next year.
All things taken into consideration, I re-gai d the progress in aviation in this country as slow but steady with good prospects for the immediate future. While few machines have been sold for sporting purposes, thus far, I believe that the hydroaeroplane will do more to stimulate interest in this direction than anything else that has been developed in the brief history of heavier than air machines. With the advent of aeroplane racing I look for many wealthy men to enter the game, possibly not as operators of their own aeroplanes, but for the sport of having the fastest machine with a hired aviator, the same as one would put an automobile 01 a motor boat in races to be run by employed experts.
I have no complaint to make in regard to the exhibition business, as we shall have filled engagements calling for more than 350 flying days by the end of the season. I have absolute faith in the future of aviation, and believe that next year will bring rapid development.
By J. T. Patterson,
Skc'y Maximotou Makers.
We have industriously tried to find something the matter with aviation and failed.
Aviation is very young yet.
In compaiison with it the beginnings of the automobile industry, etc., etc., were insignificant and slow.
You, of course, remember the time a few years ago when it was an achievement for an American built auto to make a non-stop run around a block—when automobiling was the butt of eveiybody's joke.
Certainly aviation is rapidly passing from a circus to an industiial basis.
We are hopeful your diagnosis will indicate the most serious "matter with aviation" is "growing pains."
The Aero Club ltaliann S. U. A. has been rmed with Albert C. Triaca, president; anceseo Gi utter, Secretary, Saverio A. iscia, Treasurer; prominent New York ilians complete the board of directors. The ice is at 403 Park Avenue, New York. The Jb has been started by Mr. Triaca, who :11 be remembered by all who followed iation from its rise in this country through s school. This lost a pot of simoleons iparently because people thought they uld copy well-known types from descrip-)ns and pictures in AERONAUTICS and save e trouble of learning the principles and signing their own. They evidently did. The Trenton Aero Club has been incor->r;.ted at Trenton, N. J., with the following ficers: P. F. De Marco, President; Stephen ack, Vice-President; John Falcey, Secre-ry; Frederick Gebert, Treasuier; James enton, Ass't Treasurer.
strong effort was made to secure the co->eratinn of the business men of Trenton it without success. It was planned to es-blish a real club with grounds for experi-ental flights.
Chas. F. Willard is having a new Curtiss achine built, two passenger type, with nome engine. The passenger will se-'t to le side and to the rear of the pilot. Other-ise, this will be a standard Curtiss. The evating surface is slightly increased, for
his rear elevator will have the same surface as that in Beachey's headless and the front elevator will increase the whole surface by its area.
11. F. Ke:irney. of St. Louis, will undonb'edly fly wi'h Hnl-Scotl Equipment at the Si. L mis m el. Kearn. y is rerovced tr-.m his t.. 11 of a month air . ;it whi h time hf flew 35 miles it sseountrx In Kmlocli 1 iel.l, an l then m kIi- a hard landing . n ace- unt of lu^ n o'nr snipping due lo his gas tank •mini- g do . Th mas McOn ■>, w ho purchased a (iJ Mall Seott power pi in alter se -insr ihe resul so-i'Min d 1'iom II ll-S<ott euuipme"! in Hakhvn planes at the Chicago nice*, has been making more than goud in and ar. and Giand Forks.
Daily flights are being made at Nassau Boulevard with the Shneider Biplane. Three hangars are occupied at present, and the fourth machine will be shipped there within a few days. Great activity is shown in his school, the students are progressing very rapidly and making successful flights. Mr. Shneider himself has been trying out a Gyro motor in one of his machines. The Shneider factory has several machines under construction. Recently one was sold and demonstrated to Mr. N. Lapadat, of Johnstown, Ohio.
You hare so far succeed crl in i/ovr efforts to publish a rem inicrentini; anil learncil journal, ami you shall 'have ^/// subscription as long as you publish. —Ciias. UlLLMAX.
'HAT'S THE MATTER WITH AVIATION
GERMAN BALLOON WINS INTERNATIONAL RACJ
THE international balloon race which started from Kansas City, on October 5th, was won for the second time by Germany. Official reports have not been received at the Aero Club of America as yet and the distances given here are measured on large scale maps.
The record distance in competition for this trophy, 1172 miles, made last year, is far from being beaten.
Three balloons entered for the Lahm Cup but failed to get close enough to the old mark. Following are unofficial results:—
liili-riinf ioiuil Knee
Merlin II, Lt. Hans Gericke and J. O. bunker, at Holcomb, Wis., 450 miles.
Unckeye, Lt. Frank P. Lahm and J. H. Wade, Jr., at Sparta, Wis., 364.6 miles.
Merlin 1. Lt. Leopold Vogt and Lt. M. Schoeller, at Austin, Minn., 301 miles.
America II, John Berry and Paul McCul-lough. at Emmettsburg, la., 275 miles.
Million Pop. Club, Wm. F. Assmann and J. C. Hurlbert, at Mason City, la., 265.5 miles.
Condor, Emile Dubonnet and Pierre Du-pont, at Mingo, la., 172.S miles.
Kansas City II, Capt. H. E. Honeywell and John Watts, at Kennan, Wis., 486 miles.
Topekn II, Frank M. Jacobs and W. W. Webb, at Dunnell, Minn., 302 miles.
Pi-nnsj Iv.-uiln II. A. T. Atherholt and E. P. Hunnewell, at Buffalo Centre, la., 293.6 miles.
Suit I,sike City, Sept. 4 H. E. Honeywell, R. N. Campbell, Lewis B. McCormick and J. Frank Judge were the aeronauts to christen the Salt Lake Aero Club's new Honeywell balloon "Salt Lake City." The strong wind did not deter the passengers and, of course, Honeywell didn't mind it a bit. After sailing around over the salt lake and the hills the balloon was dropped to a low adtitude and it followed the foothills in the direction of Ogden, land ins near Utah. The party packed up and returned to Salt Lake from Ogden.
Two other ascensions were made before Captain Honeywell left the city after a week's instruction in ballooning. The last two were made over the Wasatch Mountains at a high altitude.
Kansas City, Aug. 31.— a he Kansas city Aero Club has purchased a new balloon of 80,000 cubic feet from H. E. Honeywell, of St. Louis, and on August 31 made a trial trip, carrying nine people all told, of which five were ladies. The rest of the party was composed of members of the press and aero club officials, including president George M. Myers. They were not all taken up at once but in relays, five different ascents being made from the one inflation. Friends of the aeronauts followed in automobiles.
l'ittsfit-Iil. Sept. II.—H. Percy Shearman, president of the Williams College Aeronautical Society left alone in the "Springfield" on an attempt to make a new record to Canada. He was discovered the following morning in a field in an exhausted condition near Auburn, Me., by a farmer who started to investigate the presence of a balloon on his property. Shearman could give no more than his name. When he arrived at the hospital he sank into a stupor. He had passed through a severe rain and hail storm, followed by cold weather. lie had climbed in the rigging, ripped the bag, falling back unconscious in the basket. Distance 190 miles.
I'hllii., Aug. 25.—Dr. Thomas E. Eldredge. John Noggle, Frank Middleton and a 9-year old boy, Mears Noggle. ascended in the "Philadelphia II". The landing was at Ar-neytown, N. J., after a trip of two hours.
IMttsfield, Sept. 17.—J. J. Van Valkenburi William Van Sleet, and Jay B. Benton a;j cended in the "Springfield" a few momenl before midnight. Morning found them ovJ Long Island Sound and a landing was mad in Auburndale, L. I. The duration of tH trip was 5:25 and the distance 109 mile This was Valkenburg's 10th trip ar-his second as pilot.
Atchison. Kans., Sept. 4— W. C. Jacob* John Cain and Will Harburger ascended i the "Topeka I" and landed at Wathenj Kansas.
Pittsfield. Oct. 8. Wm. Van Sleet acl Jay B. Benton, in the "Boston" to LakewooJ N. J. The trip was begun 15 minutes aftJ midnight of the 7th with a full moon aril beautiful weather.
A Hudson River Steamer discovered tl| balloon with its searchlight.
The landing was made 8 A. M. Sunda| morning.
IMUsiiiiil.—Sept. 23. Ernest G. Schmolclj Mr. and Mrs. St. J. C. Wood and Malcom <| Ludlam in the "Springfield" to Cheshire.
SPRINGFIELD, ILLS., July 17-18. John Berrl and Roy F. Donaldson in the "Million PopulaJ tion Club" to La Place, Piatt Co., Ills, on a tr| lasting from 7:30 o'clock Monday evening til 10:30 Tuesday a. m. Two other landings wel made earlier in the morning at Kirksville ai^ Bethany.
KANSAS CITY, MO., July 14. H. E. Honeji well, pilot, and four newspaper men in til "Kansas City" at 4 p. m. At 8:32 p. m. lanJ ing was made about 8 miles from the star! having drifted back and forth about the cityl aerial section.
SAN DIEGO, CAL., Aug. 13. In an attemii to reach San Bernardino, Gene Savage, C. II Hunt, T. Henning and Stanley Schultz, enJ ployees of the gas company, were caught in a unexpected cross cur-rent of air, swept soutll west over San Diego Bay and finally alightel on Table Mountain below Tia Juana in Low( California. Their experience was terrible, a| the wind was sweeping them rapidly out tl sea, which meant sure death unless a curreii caught the bag and drove it back over the lan« Sam McGovney, owner of the ballon, named thl "Globe," followed it in an automobile.
The daring young men had expected to reacl San "Bernardino in about three hours. TlJ wind was just right, until they reached a heigl of 600 feet. When they were caught in a ga| and swept towards the sea. Besides the foil occupants, the balloon today carried 1110 pound] ballast, thirty pounds of drag rope, 500 feet cl inch cord, water, food and an anchor.
PITTSFIELD, MASS, July 22. Alan R. Haul ley, Harrington Emerson and Richard F. Dal in the "Springfield."
PITTSFIELD, MASS., Aug. 13. Wm. Van Sleei and J. J. Van Valkenburgh in the "Pittsfield] to Coltsville, a short distance from the star! The start was at midnight and the landing al 1 a. m. „ J
ST. LOUIS, MO., Aug. 12. St. Jno. P. Harj and Sergt. Joseph O'Reilly, of the Mo. N. G., a 7:45 p. m., to Black Jack, Mo., at 8:30. Distanel 15 miles.
PARIS, July, 19. Ernest O. Schmolk, quali fying for French license, sailed over Paris i)| tiie balloon Ariane.
Lieut.T.D. Milling, U.S.A
having won Ihe principal biplane prizes at the Hosier Meet on a
has established »■ new World's Record, carryingTwl Passengersat Nassau lloulevard on llies.-inieneroplniu' --built by----BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass
KIjV WITH TWO MOTORS.
Reports from Eastchurch aviation field, in England, state that the Short biplane with two engines flew an hour on September 23, changing from one motor to the other while in the air.
Aviation is "on the blink" in England. There is very little doing. Our sympathies! Same here, old man.
VANIMAN TO START SOON.
From a standpoint of novelty the airship Akron, in which the Sieberling-Vaniman expedition will attempt to cross the Atlantic ocean the latler part of October, is perhaps the most remarkable ever constructed.
The gas bag itself is 258 feet long and 47 feet in diameter. Most of the other dirigibles constructed in Europe have had greater diameter and less length, but Mr. Melvin Vaniman, who has a number of new ideas embodied in the latest of airships, believes more in length of a gas bag than in breadth. Thus the "Akron" bag is built along the lines of a slim racer and the dirigible will have a speed of from thirty to thirty-five miles an hour.
The bag was. manufactured in the factory of Frank A. Seiberling of Akron, O., who is financing the present expedition. It consists of Goodyear material embodying seven thicknesses, four of rubber and three of cloth or fabric, rendering the bag practically impervious to weather conditions. The bag weighs 4,400 pounds and when it leaves on the voyage to Europe it will contain approximately 400,000 cubic feet of hydrogen gas.
The upper two-thirds of the Akron's envelope is made of fabric built up by sandwiching three layers of the finest cotton cloth between four layers of rubber. This makes a fabric that will stand a tensile strain of 160 pounds per inch. The cloth was all specially made for this balloon and more than 2,200 pieces were sewed together with a double seam and then bound with tape on both sides. Laboratory tests have showed that this seam will stand a strain of 100 per cent, both as to strength and leakage. In other words the seams are as strong and tight as the rest of the envelope. As the under side of the bag will have a minimum strain it is of lighter material than the upper part.
The entire weight of the engines, car and whatever cargo the ship carries will be borne by the upper half of the envelope as the car is swung from long loops of fabric running almost the full length of the bag. These loops are of heavy fabric and are sewed and cemented to the bag itself. The outer coat of the balloon is a bright yellow to protect the inner coats of rubber from the ultraviolet sun rays. These rays, so scientists claim, cause rubber to become brittle and crack but passing through a yellow medium they are robbed of this power. The "Akron" contains two ballonets, one in the forward end of the bag and the other toward the rear, both connected with air pumps and by
inflating them with air to a greater or less degree. Mr. Vaniman declares he will be able to maintain an even pressure in the envelope at all times.
The hydrogen gas is being made right at the hangar in Atlantic City. No one but the initiated would know that this gas is being made with such stuff as old rusty barrel hoops, lathe turnings and other scraps of the machine shop, acted upon by sulphuric acid. Nearly 80 tons of scrap iron and 100 tons of sulphuric acid is necessary to manufacture the gas with which to inflate the "Akron" bag. An equal quantity of coal gas would supply an ordinary five-foot burner for more than 10 years.
The car of the Akron is 185 feet long and consists of a framework of steel tubing, constructed in the lightest possible manner, attached to the long, torpedo-shaped gasoline tank on wrhich the four engines of the dirigible will rest. The top of the gasoline tank will form the floor of the car. This tank is made in compartments of reinforced galvanized steel and will carry over 8,000 pounds of gasoline. The car will weigh 6,000 pounds. The car will be enclosed with waterproof fabric.
The four engines of the dirigible are the best that Mr. Vaniman could secure in this cbftntry and Europe. Two of them are of 110 horse power each, one of SO horse power, and the other of 17 horse power. The two powerful engines are of American make while the others are French and English.
The six propellers, three on each side of the dirigible, were especially constructed in France. The two forward propellers will be of the ordinary type, while those in the rear will be movably mounted so as to either slant the ship upward, downward, or steer it in a horizontal plane. This device is the invention of Mr. Vaniman, upon which a patent was recently obtained, illustrated and described in AERONAUTICS.
Beneath the" car will be suspended the lifeboat, which is 27 feet Ions'. It has air-tight compartments, and is non-capsizable.
In this boat will be carried the wireless apparatus and provisions for a fifteen day voyage. Five days' provisions will be carried in the car. Members of the crew when not on duty will sleep in the lifeboat. Vaniman intends that his crew shall have plenty of good things to eat on the voyage and he has fitted up two of the engines' exhaust pipes with frying pans and all sorts of ham and eggs and tempting dishes are to be part of the menu.
The substitute which Vaniman lias invented for the old equilibrator that last year encumbered the America is being kept secret for the present. But upon this invention the airship will depend a great deal for success, lt is not revealing any secrets, however, to say that the method of maintaining equilibrium has something to do with the taking water from the sea. Mr. Vaniman is confident it will be successful, as is also his backer, Mr. Seiberling.
MICHELIX PRIZE FOK DHOPIMXG PROJECTILES.
In order to encourage the development of the aeroplane as an offensive implement of war. M. Michelin has offered a prize of $30,000 for the competition of French pilots, either civil or military. This sum is to be divided into tour piizes.
The first one, of $10,000, is to be given to the pilot who by Aug. 15, 1912, from an altitude of greater than 200 meters, places tho greatest number of projectiles in a circle of 10 meters diameter. Five projectiles must be carried, each weighing not less than 44 lbs., and be dropped one at a time. Another prize of $5,000 is to be given for dropping projectiles from the height of 1,000 meters, into a rectangle 100 meters long by 10 meters wide.
These two orizes are for competition up to and including Aug. 15. 1912; the award of the balance of the money is to be arranged later, and is to remain open till Aug. 15, 1913.
The prizes are known as the "Michelin Aero T„.D^. K._e„.
SCOTT IIOM1I DROPPER SUCCESS
A first trial was made October 10, under adverse conditions, with Lieut. Riley E. Scott's apparatus for dropping projectiles with scientific accuracy in, the Army's Wright biplane at College Park, Md. The two projectiles were dropped within 6 feet of a target and 6 inches apart, from an elevation of one thousand feet.
Lieut. Scott's invention is the only method thus far suggested anywhere in the world for the determination of speed relative to the earth and for the launching of projectiles with the same mathematical accuracy with which any gun is sighted.
WIL.LOUC.IIBY WATER 'PLANE,
Capt. Hugh L. Willoughby has had so much encouiagement from his experiment in Newport HarDor during the last Summer that he is to start a factory at Sewall's Point, Fla., to build duplicates of his machine "Pelican." The hydro-aeroplane has caught the general fancy and the concensus of opinion is that it will be the machine of the future, tor so many obvious reasons. Safety is an important reason; faster than a motoiboat, cheaper on a speed basis.
Captain Willoughby's machine spreads 30 ft., with a weight of 575 lbs. without wheels for land use, or the brass-sheathed floats, which weigh 103 lbs. A Curtiss 30 horsepower motor drives a propeller in the front of the machine. The f r>r>t nd rear elevat^rc 1
in conjunction, in the same manner as in use in Farman, Curtiess and other machines, under Capt. Willoughby's patent. He has also patented an engine control which, in case of hard landing, will shut off the power with certainty through the natural movement of the body.
FLIES RUDDERLESS MACHINE
Frank E. Boland has been making good flights with his ruddeiless machine, wnich is, perhaps, still in the experimental stage. Though even tailless at first, one had now been added but the rudders are still absent, K. Ler. 1 steering oeing utuumpiibheu by triangular oblique fins at the outer evtremi-ties of the biplane cell. These likewise se've to aceompMsh l-to--1] st- hiMty.
Kennerly has been making flights at Mineola with a Curtiss copy equipped with a M-ixiniutor engine. Bui.inu b.e-> his own design S cylinder 60 horsepower engine. Antony Jannus has been flying the old Weeks Curtiss-type machine, after taking off the front elevator. This is equipped with a 4 cylinder Emeison. Both Jannus, and Dr. Walden have exhibition dates in the South. Kennerly is taking his machine home in Kentucky for the Winter.
C. O. Hadley now h^s Joe Seymour's old original Curtiss, with the elevator way out front ^nd h^>s made seme real good flights with his Roberts engine, for which he is agent.
Fred H. Medrick has a heavy, old Curtiss-type, with Roberts engine, flew clear to Westbury and back the second time he tried to fly, a distance of about 10 miles altogether. Joe Stevenson has bought a 60 Hall-Scott engine and put it in his Curtiss-type but he smashed up several times after flights. Francois Raische has a new Curtiss-type out with a Smalley engine. Clyde, with a bipl no of his own m:.ke, has been trying to fly with Hall-Scott, but h-^s not done much in the way of flying. Wilbur R. Kim-b"1' h"s been m"king h~ns -with his 9-nro-peller tailless biplane with an auto engine. All tbese tlx ers re located in the Aeronautical Society's sheds, at Mineola.
AVIATOR ELTON FLIES £44 MILES
Albert Elton, who h^d just learned to fiy a Wright biplane at Dayton, flew from there to Youngstown, O., in the three days. Sept. distance of about 70 miles. The next day he flew to Pickerington, Newark, Wakato-mica to Trinway, 64 miles, making stops at these places. The third day's trip took him "f» tnwn Y "ivstoivn. 113 miles on
The Willoughby . ydro-aeroHlane.
the way. A. L. Welsh, the Wright instructor, was his passenger throughout the flight. This was the first long distance tow-man flight in America.
ARMY'S AERO GUN. Not to be outdone by the Navy, the Ordnance Department of the U. S. Army has built and is to test out a high-angle aeroplane gun. The department will not release any photographs of it, nor will it give any details beyond the fact that it is a 6-pounder high velocity gun mounted upon a specially designed mount for use in the attack of aeroplanes and dirigibles.
A JAPANESE DIR1G1MLE.
The Japanese dirigible of Isaburo Yamada some time ago completed a series of successful trials and the populace is enthusiastic over the thoughts of a Japanese airship. Yamada began in 1909 and is reported to be building in behalf of the Government. Japan is not suitable for aeroplanes, such open spaces as there are being controlled by the Govei nment. Port Arthur is apparently the best place. The airship is of the non-rigid type, fitted with a new Maximotor engine, of 60-75 h.p., replacing a smaller engine of the same make.
NEW AIR PILOTS
There are now sixty-three registered aviation pilots. The latest who have met the requirements are as follows, the place and date of the tests being given:
5S Harold H. Brown (Wright), Nassau, Sept. 7.
59 Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler, U. S. A.,
(Wright), Washington, D. C. Sept. 20.
60 John D. Cooper (Curtiss-type), St.
Louis, Aug. 30.
61 A. B. Lambert (Wright), St. Louis,
62 Lieut. .1. H. Towers, IT. S. N., (Cur-
tiss), Hiunmondsport, Sept. 14.
63 L. K. Holt. Los Angeles. Aim. 31.
Spherical balloon certificate number 32 has been given to George L. Harrison, dated Los Angeles, Aug. 31.
NAVAL OFFICER INVENTS AEIHAL TORPEDO.
The aeroplane itself has now become an engine of destruction to foes. First, we had the areoplane as a scouting vehicle, then through the invention of Lieut. R. E. Scott, as a carrier of missiles. Paul E. Chamber-lin, an officer in the U. S. Marine Corps, has patented in the U. S. means for employing the aeroplane as a missile. (1,004,367, Sept. 26, 1911.)
A specially designed one-man monoplane is used, with a light and powerful engine. In the extreme front of the machine is a projectile or explosive bomb. The seat for the aviator is mounted on a platform which can be tripped at any time to allow the aviator, who must be a nervy man. to drop himself through the bottom of the aeroplane, opening a parachute as he goes. An inexpensive engine can be employed, as no long flights are demanded. The cooling system can be done away with altogether, possibly and the fuel and oil carried will be but little. The torpedo is made of armor steel and heavy enough to pierce the sides and decks of vessels. It is intended to carry about ISO pounds of wet gun cotton and to be supplied with an explosive means—for instance a combination time and percussion fuse.
When the aviator is ready to direct his attack and take leave of his machine, he pulls a lever, which simultaneously diops him through the floor and ignites the fuse. The wings are so arranged that at this instant they will fold up vertically because of the pressure of the wind. The length of the fuse is to be determined before launching the machine on its death-dealing mission in order that the torpedo may explode at the proper moment.
Provided the aviator does not strike the object aimed at at the same time the aeroplane does, the scheme would be all right.
It may be assumed that the engine keeps on running until the fuel is exhausted, for no mention is made, of what the motor is to do. Leaving this out of it, the forward speed of the machine at the moment the attack is started, combined with the pull of gravity, will force the apparatus to follow a parabolic path. The aviator is moving with the aeroplane when he lets go and will follow closely the same path, nicht wahr?
Another little drawback might be mentioned. No provision is made for the timing of the drop the proper distance before reaching the object aimed at. Perhaps he will use Scott's patented method of determining his height, his speed, his path and the instant for action.
Will the aeroplane keep on an even keel or will it turn over and over, this way pnd that, with the sudden change in weight distribution, center of pressure, center of gravity, and a few other little items which keep aeroplanes in the pir? Perhaps the extinguished editor of Fly can answer this. If this last sentence is not clear address H. B. H., c/o "Fly," Philadelphia.
The Aeronautical Society of California, Los
Angeles, Capital $200,000, of which $1,600 is subscribed. The incorporators are Earle Remington, Roy L. Blakeslee, J. M. Bloom, L. S. Emerson, Sidney Clifton, Thomas K. Kase and Walter Home.
Trenton Aeroplane Club, Trenton, N. J.
The Lindsay Hopkins Aviation Company, of Greensboro, N. C, to manufacture and sell flying machines, etc.: authorized capital. $30,000; paid in. $300, by Lindsey Hopkins, Thorn-well H. Andrews and Thomas S. Beall.
Continental Aero Club, Richmond, Ky.
Smith Aero Engine Co., Traverse City, Mich., capital $100,000.
Reimers-Mair Biplane Co., Chicago; name changed to Standard Aviation Company.
Rochester Aerial Company, Rochester, N. Y. capital $10,000. The directors are George Mutch, R. Edward Smith and William feearle Hutchings, of this city, and Stuart M. Wol-verton, of Canandaigua.
The Snyder Aeroplane Company, Osborn, O., capital $5,000. Charles B. Snyder, Al. Stim-mel, Frank Semler, Prank Esterline, Horace Pence and William Semler, incorporators.
American Nieuport Aeroplane Company., New York. Capital $50,000. Incorporators: Allan A. Ryan, Ignatius V. McGlone, K. R. Howard, all of 32 Liberty Street, New York.
The Gray Eagle Aviation Company, Louisville, Ky., capital $5,000. The incorporators, with their holdings are: Ernest Orndorff, Mat-toon, III., E. L. Grey, Ora Gratz, and R. O. Rubel, Jr.
Bleriot Monoplane Co., New York City. cap. $150,000. Incorporators: R. A. Burkhard, G. B. Marcus, S. M. Marcus, New York City.
Pioneer Aeroplane and Exhibition Company, July II, St. Lous, Mo., to deal in aeroplanes and give exhibitions. Capital $12,000, half paid. Incorporators: M. Lellie, C. J. Shea, F. P. Meyer, E. W. O'Brien and Andrew Drew.
The Aero Exhibition Company, Canton, O., to book evhibitions. Capital, $15,000. Incorporators, William H. Clark, J. J. Piper, J. M. Blake, Elwood Salisbury and J. P. Fawcett.
Sather-Philllps Aeroplane Co., Chattanooga, Tenn., capital $10,000. Paul Andress, J. E. Gross, T. W. Hagan, T. F. House and Lawrence H. Smith.
Harvard Aviation Association, Boston, capital $40,000; Leonard D. Ahl, Adams D. Clafiin, Raymond L. Whitman.
The Wilson Aero Co., formed for the purpose of exhibition flying. First flights have been made by Charles Mink in their own make of biplane with a Maximotor engine. Capital, $100,000. Incorporators: John Wilson, Jr., 715 Prospect Avenue, John I'. Abbott, 705 D. S. M. Bldg., Geo. J. Rohmer, 835 Niagara Street, all of Buffalo, N. Y.
International Aeroplane Co., 104 Second Ave. South, Minneapolis, Minn. Capital, $50,000. Incorporators: William V. Bloom-field, Gustav H. Sachs and Sigvard Quam, all of Minneapolis.
Gibson Propeller Co., Fort George, New York. Capital, $20,000. Incorporators: Robt. L. Moffet, 52 William St., Nathan A. Egbert, 52 William St., Theo. S. Williamson, 71 Broadway, all of New York City.
Sather-Phillips Aeroplane Company, Chattanooga, Tenn., capital of $10,000. Incorporators are Paul Andress, J. E. Gross, T. W. Hogan, T. F. House and Lawrence T. Smith.
New England Aviation Co., organized at Kittery, $1,000,000 capital stock, of which nothing is paid in. Officers: President, Leon G. Chase of Boston, Mass.; treasurer, A. Ingham Bicknell of Boston, Mass.
American Paraplane Company, Chicago, 111., the business of which is to manufacture, sell and deal in paraplanes, aeroplanes and dirigible balloons. The incorporators are: C. A. Pease, Chicago, 111.; T. C. Corwin and M. A. Noble, of New York City. The capital stock is $1,000,000.
Kimball Aeroplane Co., Lynn, Mass., $30,000, by A. G. Kimball.
The Mercurial Aeroplane and Entertainment Company, New York, to manufacture and deal in aeroplanes, to employ aviators and birdmen to give exhibitions and lecture upon the subject of aviation and to act as theatrical proprietors and managers.
Capitalized at $10,000. Directors: Oscar Gabrial, William Gabrial and Charlotte Gabrial of New York City.
American Aviation Company of New York City was incorporated today for the purpose of promoting and conducting aviation meets, race contests and speed trials, also to manufacture and deal generally in airships of all kinds.
Capital, $2,000. Directors : Walter B. Davis, Julius Gottlieb and Edward Dolan of New York.
Nassau Aviation Corporation, 334 Fifth Ave., New York, to finance meet.
Aeroplane Mfg. Co. (G. W. Strommer). South Tacoma, Wash., for the building of aeroplanes.
Oct. II—Wilmington, Ind., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 9-15—Birmingham, Ala., Curtiss aviators.
Oct. 11-14—Albuquerque, N. M., Curtiss aviators.
Oct. 12-13—Sturgis, Mich., C. F. Willard. Oct. 12-13—Atlantic City, N. J., Curtiss aviators.
Oct. 12—Salem, N. H., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 12-14—Seneca, Kan., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 12-14—Peoria, 111., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 12-18—Macon, Ga., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 14-21—St. Louis, Mo., Wright aviators. Oct. 16—Broken Bow, Neb., Curtiss aviators.
Oct. 17-19—Raleigh, N. O, Curtiss aviators. Oct. IS—Belvidere, 111., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 19—Natchez, Miss., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 20-21—Raton, N. M., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 25-27—Garden City, Kans., Curtiss aviators.
Oct. 26-2S—Norfolk, Va., Curtiss aviators.
Oct. 25-30—Turin, Italy, 5th Congress Permanent International Aeronautical Committee.
Nov. 14-19—Houston, Tex., Curtiss aviators. Nov. 22-23—Newburn, N. C, Curtiss aviators.
Dec. 7-12—San Juan, Porto Rico, Curtiss aviators.
.Ian. 10-12, 1912—Los Angeles, Cal., open meet; arrangements not certain.
—Dallas, Tex., J. A. D. McCurdy. -Shreveport. La., ,1. A. D. MeOurdy.
AERIAL, NAVIGATION by Albert F. Zahm, A. M., M. E., Ph. D. 8 vo., cloth, 500 pp., published at $3 net by D. Appleton & Co. Copies may be had direct from AERONAUTICS. Fully illustrated with 74 half-tone pictures and 58 other illustrations. "While the book is a popular treatise on all branches of aeronautics, it is a distinct pleasure to read it, with the consciousness that one may l ely upon what is read. It deals mainly with leading facts and principles, in a clear and simple style.
Contents are as follows: Model Flying Machine; Nineteenth Century Man-Flyers; Aeroplanes of Adequate Stability and Power; Advent of Public Flying; Strenuous Competitive Flying; Forcing the Art; Early History of Passive Balloons; Practical Development of Passive Balloons; Early Histoiy of Power Balloons; Introduction of Gasoline-Driven Dirigibles; Practical Development of Non-Rigid Dirigibles; Development of Rigid Dirigibles; General Properties of Free Air; General Distribution of Heat and Piessure; Permanent and Periodic Winds; Cyclones, Tornadoes, Waterspouts, Thunderstorms, Wind Gusts.
THE AVIATION WOULD, or Who's Who and Industrial Directory, small Svo., 319 pp. cloth, illustrated, published at 2/6 net by Aviation Woild Publishing Co., 12 Newgate St., London, E. C. In addition to containing a business directory of manufacturers of aeroplanes, motors and accessories, list of aviators in all countries, records, prizes, club lists, conversion tables, certified pilots' names, terminology, etc., there aie given the records and past performances of the principal aeroplanes, description of the well-known engines, and articles on aviation, patenting of inventions, etc.
IIIRD CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE'S REPORT, of Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, compiled by Colonel J. D. Fullerton. Published by the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, 53 Victoria St., S. W., London, at 10s. 6d. net. To the student of bird-flight, here is a work of remarkable value. The weights of muscles, speed of wings, and other data is given on no less than 459 different species of bird life in addition to the text.
THE LAW OP MOTOR VEHICLES, by
Berkeley Davis, of the District of Columbia Bar. 775 pp., Svo., cloth, published by Edward Thompson Company, Northport, Long Island, N. Y., at $5.00.
The chapter dealing with the Law of Aviation is, so far as we are awaie, the only extensive and complete review of this topic of the law.
The various headings in this chapter are as follows; Status of Aerial Law; Value of Early Rules and Observations; Status of Space Superjacent to Land or Water; National Ownership and Control of Space; Private Ownership of Space; Rights of Aviators to Pass over Pi ivate Property; Nature, Extent, and Incidents of Right of Passage; Regulation of Use of Aerovehicles; Power of Congress to Regulate; Civil Liability of Aviators; Liability Arising from Negligence; Vis Major and Inevitable Accidents; Liability Arising from Nuisance; Alighting on Private Land; Guille v. Swan; Articles Falling from Aerovehicles; Jurisdiction of Ciimes and Torts Committed on Aerovehicles; Jurisdiction of Federal and State Courts; Aerial Warfare.
It will be seen from the above that the subject has been covered in a very complete manner and that there is a great deal of information that an aviator might find useful on occasion.
Copies-of the Aerovehicle Bills introduced in the Legislatures of California and Connecticut are given in the Appendix.
L ANCLE Y MEMOIR ON MECHANICAL PLIGHT, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Edited by Charles M. Manly. Price $2.50 in cloth and $2.25 in paper. Large
quarto volume, 320 pp., fully illustrated with beautiful halftones and line drawings.
The present woik, as planned by the late Prof. S. P. Langley, follows his publication on ••Experiments in Aerodynamics" and "Internal Work of the World" printed in 1«9I and 1893 respectively.
This Memoir was in preparation at the time of Mr. Langley's death in 1906, and Part I., recording expeiiments from 1SS7 to ls96, was written by him, detailing the work up to the close of the experimental period when the first steam-driven model was flown. Part II., on experiments from 1897 to 1903, was written by Mr. Manly.
A thiid part of the present memoir is yet to be published, to consist largely of the extensive technical data of tests of the working of various types of curved surfaces, propellers, and other apparatus.
The work is rather technical and is of great interest to the student of aerial development, containing as it does so much valuable data lelative to a great number of models and engines, both small and large. Probably no other present-day work will be found to compare with this in value to the experimenter. The book can be had direct from AERONAUTICS, 250 West 5 4th St., New York.
PROGRESS IN CALIFORNIA.
California is an earnest rival of New York state in the number of aviators and flying fields. No less than three aviation schools are located near Los Angeles. The old Dom-inguez field, the scene of two big meets, is under the management of Will L. Frew and is controlled by the Aeronautical Society of California, with Earl Remington, who flies the Bleriot brought over by James Radley, as president. The Society is formed for the conduct of a school and for financing aeronautical enterpiises.
The Gage aviation field is located to the east of the city, and the Hyde Park field and and school to the west. At Dominguez are Holt, Champion and Remington. The Gage school is at its own field. At the Hyde Park field are Beryl J. Williams, Warren Eaton and the Aero Club of California. Under the observation of Professor H. La V. Twining, several aviators have now become pilots: Glenn L. Mai tin, who flew for his certificate at Santa Ana on Aug. 9; E. L. Holt at Dominguez on Aug. 23, and Beryl J. Williams at Hyde Park on August 26. These three are members of the A. C. of Calif., and others will be flying soon.
Eaton Bros. & Co., at Hyde Park, have four machines, of Curtis and Farm in types, with a couple of their design. They also have three pupils.
Professor Twining, ex-president of the A. C. of Calif., and his son Sidney have built a shed at Hyde Park and have installed their machine. An amateur meet will be held in October and an international affair in January.
At Santa Ana is another aviation field and •school, conducted by Glenn L. Martin. Martin has made a name for himself in aviation as one of the early novices to get into the air and do real flying And there are others on the Coast who have done the like.
The flying season is starting in again in earnest on the coast, and training schools are getting in shape to take care of the large number of pupils already ejirolled. Glenn L. Martin, Beryl Williams, E. L. Holt, and Fred De Kor have been making excellent flights, ninny times of over an hour's duration. De Kor recently flew from Santa Ana to Dominguez field, a distance of 35 miles. This is quite remarkable as he has only had a month's practice in flying. He will shortly go out for his pilot's license, and when he obtains it will be the fourth flyer in the vicinitv of Los Angeles obtaininsr a license with Hall-Scott equipment. E. L. Holt is flying with Hall-Scott 40 motor, installed in the
old Walsh 'plane, rebuilt. It shows some speed however, as he has been able to win out a number of times against the interurban electric cars that run near Dominguez Field. The Jay Gage School of Aviation, with a beautiful flying field located within four miles of Los Angeles, has turned out a number of successful airmen. They have been using Hall-Scott 40 power plants in the Gage headless bl-plane, a machine that has excellent efficiency, and that has carried two passengers at a timp. They now have a 60 Dower plant in addition to the 40, and are already trying it out with the throttle so arranged that it will be impossible to get more than half the power of the engine. The Aeronautical Society of California will have their training school at Dominguez, and have already established their shops, hangars, and other quarters. They have licensed French pilots for instructors, and operate with both monoplanes and biplanes. They have already enrolled a number of students for winter flying, and the five Hall-Scott power plants they have ordered will undoubtedly be kept busy.
"Ideal" .Model Catalogue.
The new catalogue of the Ideal Aeroplane & Supply Co., 82 West Broadway, New York, provides an interesting few moments even to aviation bugs themselves. Without intimate knowledge of the enormous demand for models and model supplies one is very prone to underestimate this branch of aviation. To the boy who had to work out his own propellers, power plant, and other parts from pictures but a short while ago, it must mean a world of pleasure to be able to buy propellers all beautifully made, thrust bearings, silken fabric, multiple gearing, shafts, miniature rubber-tired wheels, corer brackets, sockets, minute turnbuckles, etc. For the advanced or the model expert there come propellers in the block to be cut out to suit individual tastes and knowledge. Think of the fun of running a "Baby" engine in a model flyer of half horsepower. Even the old boys can learn something from this. This is a 2-cycle air cooled motor which turns an 18 inch propeller at 2,300 revolutions, stays cool and weighs but four pounds.
POSITION W WTED by an all around flying machine man as assistant constructor or Aviator. R. C. care Aeronautics. Oct.
J. ED. SHERIFF, MECHANICAL ENGINEER AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DESIGNS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW YORK. Dec.
A KHO PHOTO COMjECTORS, Send 25c. for set No. I-A, six photographs of the leading aviators and machines.
Inter-National Thoto Specialty Co. _Revere, Mass.
WARNING. All Aviators and Owners of Aeroplanes! Beware of Cadillac, Michigan! Owing to poor condition of Fair Grounds which the Committee refused to remedy, and failure of engine at last moment, making it impossible to make a flight, the Fair Association seized and are now holding a Curtiss biplane keeping the aviator from making a living. Should you be approached for a date at this city at any future time, take warning from the experience of a brother aviator. Mart Gairens McCormack, Aviator and Owner.
VEROUYNE OF THE FUTURE. Partner wanted, to invest in manufacturing of aeroplanes with plurality of gradiently arranged supporting surfaces, the fundamental idea patented in U. S. p. 876,125. Further patents pending. Will also sell my patent. Good chance for aeroplane manufacturer. Address F. Wondra, Box 834, Schenectady, N. Y.
Power Plants For Sale.
\.\ZA\i MOTOR, 12 h. p. 2 cylinder, air cooled, weight 65 lbs., complete with carburetor and coil, $150. Mack, 571 Forty-fifth St., Brooklyn. N. Y._Oct.
MOTOR, exceptionally fine, almost new, 8 cylinders, V type, 60-80 h. p., light but strong. Built this summer by well known concern. Will make price right and give terms if sold at once. W. W. Simmons, Dayton. O. Oct.
l'ROI'EUUER FOR SALE: Best grade Chelsea Aero Co. Walnut propeller. S ft. 6 in. Diam., 6 ft. 6 in. pitch. Practically new, having been used only six hours testing engine thrust. Write for particulars. AVill accept any reasonable offer. A. V. Reyburn, Jr., 5305 Delmar Boul., St. Louis. Mo._Oct.
Fnrmnii Type llliilime. Rebuilt.
Fine condition and without motor. Nassau, r'o "Aeronautics."
ANZANI 6 cylinder, 50-60 for sale. Lists here $2,800. Will sell at $1,600 cash. Never flown. Only run few moments. Perfect condition. Absolutely new. Good reasons for selling. Address, AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th Street, New York.
BLERIOT XI monoplane for sale at $3,000, complete with 30-35 Vi&U engine. Demonstration and instruction free. Same machine that M. Lewkowicz flew over New Cork. Perfect condition. Newly covered with Goodyear fabric. Address Bleriot, care AERONAUTICS.
Engagements Wiiuteil— Sep.
BOOKINGS WANTED. Amedee V. Reyburn, Jr., with 100 h.p. Bleriot monoplane is now booking engagements for exhibition flights. Apply to 5305 Delmar Avenue, St. Louis, Mo._
THE EAGLE AEROPLANE COMPANY, Incorporated, Capital Stock $100,000. Teach Aviation and Aero-Wireless Telegraphy. Pilots, Mechanics and Motor Experts Wanted. Factory and Training Ground. P. O. Box 1174, Atlanta, Ga. Branches in Florida and California.
FRENCH motor, new, 4-cylinder, for sale. Good for biplane. Make offer. Queen Aeroplane Co., 197 St. & Amsterdam Av., New York._T.F.
KLVEItS WANTED. Manufacturer booked for winter wants few men to train for aviators, $100 to $350 required. Gates, 227 Englewood Ave., Chicago, 111.
Veroplmie For Sale.
WRIGHT 111 PLANE for sale, Model H. In A-l condition. Best of reasons for selling. Demonstration to genuinely interested party. Neither machine nor owner is broke. Apply to W. V. D., Box 175, Patchogue. L. I., N. Y.
Cable: Aeronautic. New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus
a. v. JONES, Pres't — — E. L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y ERNEST L. JO.MES. Editor — J. C. BURKHART, Ass't Editor
United States, S3.00 Foreign, $3.50
advertising representatives: e. f. ingraham adv. co.. 116 nassau st.. new york
Clifford w bean. s park so.. bos'On. Mass.
OCTOBER, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 4
COPYRIGHT, loll. AERONAUTICS PRESS. INC
Entered as second iIjss matter September 22, 1S08, at the Postolfice New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.
CAERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertis-ng pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: ::
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AGENTS rOR "AERONAUTICS."
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BOSTON—I. N. Chappell, 26 Court St.; J. F. Murphy, South Terminal Station.
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MEMPHIS—R. M. Mansford, 26 S. Main St. CHICAGO—P. O. News Co.. 178 Dearborn St.;
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S. Spring St.. WASHINGTON—-Brentano's.
BERLIN—W. H. Kuhl, 82 Konlggratzerstr., S.W.
PARIS—Brentano's, Place de l'Opera.
LONDON—Aeronautics, 12 Newgate St., London, E. C. (Jeorsrc 11. Scrnsg. Mgr.; also at the office of British Aeronautics, S9 Chancery Lane. London.
BERNE—A. Krancke's Sortiment.
PLE \SE READ.
If anyone who reads this knows the present whereabouts of one A. C. Grant, he will confer a favor if he will forward us this man's address, or information as to where same may be secured, or where Grant may be found.
AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54 St., New York.
A BOARD OP INQUIRY.
The lack of foiesight and the inability to learn by hindsight is still a prominent attribute of aero clubs in this country. The fatal accident to the student Clark in a monoplane should have been made the subject of diligent inquiry by a board consisting of men qualified to act in such a capacity. Of course, it would be necessary to obtain the services of non-members but a fair-minded body ought to have no objection to getting at facts wheiever they may be found. The cause of accidents is an important matter. A rigid investigation might save many lives.
The wreck of Clark's m ichlne was carted away at the same time the ambulmce took the body. No one was allowed to even photograph the aeroplane in its smashed condition. Once moved, the possibility for anything like an investigation with the expectation of results is gone.
I GENUINE |
Restrictions * +
+ + + +
CONDITION I DEMONSTRATION |
First money wired, order,
% bank draft or certified check % + h"]ds mnchine for demon- *
J strati on.
J Also Genuine Bleriot, 6 cylinder % % Anzani Engine, 20 H. P. Con- % * tinental .*. .". .'. .'. *
| USED 'PLANE DEPT. |
I AERONAUTICS j
| 250 W. 54th St., New York |
■til I I I IMI 1 I I I 'I'M' II H It I 1 li ♦»'♦
Copies of all patents miiy be obtained for five eeuts e:u'h, by addressing the ••Commissioner of Patents, Washington, I). C."
Manuel B. Saavedra, Habana, Cuba., 998,402, July 18, 1911. Filed Sept. 24, 1910, AUTOMATIC STABILITY by means of a pendulum mounted in the center of gravity of the machine, operating through gear and pinion arms on containing frame, which arms are connected to the elevators and ailerons, with arrangement for manually operating the rudders and ailerons, if desired.
"William N. Searcy, Silverton, Colo., 998,-40S, July IS, 1911. Filed March 30, 1910. SUPPORTING STRUCTURE of hollow triangular prisms, open at ends in line of flight, means for closing ends to convert device into parachute, vertical mast supporting car and power plant, gas bag in central prism.
Paul Lehmann. Schoneberg, near Berlin, Germany, 998,53S. July 18. 1911. Filed February 7. 1910. BALLOON OR DIRIGIBLE ENVELOPE of rigid exterior and non-rigid inner chamber, one of said chambers to contain the gas and means for forcing air into or exhausting it from the other chamber, whereby interior dimensions of the rigid chamber may be changed without varying external dimensions.
John C. Schleicher, Mt. Vernon, N. Y., 998,553. July IS, 1911. Filed February 28, 1910. Flying-machine, comprising balloon and means whereby same, propellers and aeroplane maybe tilted up or down, etc.
Tohn C. Schleicher, Mt. Vernon, N. Y., 998.554, July IS, 1911. Filed March 12, 1910. Flying-machine, combination of gas bag and superposed planes.
J. W. Fawkes. Burbank. Calif., 998,6S3. July 25, 1911. Filed Sept. 2S. 19'>9. Flying machine consisting of hollow spherical body, with propellers top and bottom in horizontal plane, and front and rear in vertical plane.
Allen L. McKeeth, Los Angeles. Cal.. assignor of one-half to Willet B. McKeeth, of same place. 998,791, July 25, 1911. Filed March 22, 1910. A flying machine embodying a supporting aeroplane, a basket depending from the supporting aeroplane and mounted to swing from side to side, a bracket extending upwardly above the pivot of the swinging basket, a tail plane mounted with its main rib extending through a bearing in the bracket, and a mast extending upwardly from the forward end of the swinging basket, above the pivot and connected to the. forward end of said tail plane rib, so that when the basket swings one way the tail plane will swing the other way.
John W. Boughton, Phila., assignors to the Boughton Flying-machine Co., 99S,834, July 25. Filed Nov. 13, 1909.
.lohan R. Froberg, Goldfield, Nevada, 998.-S44, July 25. Filed Oct. 4, 1909. DIRIGIBLE BALLOON, with retainer for compressed gas, to be let into envelope as desired, means for heating the gas.
Ernest A. Norris, Albanv, N. Y.. 998,978, July 25. Filed Oct. 12, 190S. TANDEM AEROPLANE, with wings callable of being tilted relatively to each other for the purpose of restoring equilibrium. The 32 claims in this ptaent preclude a short synopsis.
Joseph Danziger. Chicago, 999,ol 2, July 25. Filed Mar. IS, 1910. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device, comprising movable surfaces, operated by electric current, contacts with magnetic coils being made through a movable electric conductor.
Hans von dor Oolsnitz, Pittsburg, Pa.. 999.06S. July 25, 1911. Filed May 5. 1910.
"GAS-AEROPLANE MOTOR-AIRSHIP." Dirigible balloon with planes for guidance and equilibrium, longitudinally extending ball-loonets.
Henry Flanagan, Ft. Worth, Tex., 999,105, July 25. Filed Apr. 19, 1911.
An aerial navigating apparatus comprising a frame, a longitudinally disposed open-ended shell mounted thereon, an upright shell projecting from said longitudinally disposed shell at a point between the ends thereof, said upright shell being open at its upper end and communicating with said longitudinally disposed shell at its lower end, a parachute aeroplane arranged before the upper end of said upright shell, a wind gate arranged within the longitudinally disposed shell at a point in rear of the point in communication of the upright shell therewith for controlling the amount of air flowing to said upright shell, and means for adjusting said gate.
Geo. P. N. Sadler, Attica, Ind.. 999,125. Julv 25, 1911. Filed Aug. 29, 1910. SWINGING WEIGHT for biplanes.
JUSTIN P. C. Bouscal, San Francisco, Cal., 999,149, July 25. Filed Aug. 16, 1909. HYDROAEROPLANE.
Kalman. Leon, Washington, 1). C, 999,170, July 25. Filed May 4, 1911. PARACHUTE attachment for flying machines.
H. L., A. E. & H. (i. Short, of Battersea Park. London. 999.266, Aug. 1. Filed June
21, 1910. Applied to main, subsidiary or balancing SURFACES, means for their automatically assuming variable curvatures. Claims cover fixed front edge, pockets in fabric for ribs, pockets for front spar and stiffening strip at rear edge and means for elastically connecting the rear edge to a rear main spar.
C. W. Waller, Chicago, Ills.. 999.27S. Aug. 1. Filed Oct. 6. 191n. FLYING MACHINE with an upper and lower plane longitu lin-ally troughed. with subjacent planes of like formation, balancing planes at side and pontoons.
Wassilv Bebikoff. St. Petersburg. Russia. 999,337, Aug. 1. Filed March 9. 1907. VERTICAL LIFT machine, with substantially horizontal vibrating members and propellei in a vertical plane.
William W. Green. Nilcs. Mich.. 999.448 Aug. 1. Filed Jan. 16. 1911. BIPLANE-PARACHUTE combination. Upper plane has an open bottomed tapering dome with normally folded extension, or parachute, at th« top.
U. S. PATENTS ABSTRACTED
Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, near Danzig Germany, 999,469, Aug. 1. Filed July 2 1909 DIRIGIBLE ENVELOPE. Claims cover the form thereof.
George H. Sherwood, Denver, Colo., 999 -471, Aug. 1. Filed Nov. 12, l!)10. So-called AIRSHIP which consists of a cigar-shaped rigid hull supported by hollow rubber ribs containing air under pressure, with oscillating wings at the sides.
Armin Heifer, New York, 999,560, Aug. 1 Filed May 6, 1910. FLYING MACHINE comprising a plurality of rotating frames, with series of rotating planes within each frame having planetary motion about the axis of the frames, revolving at slower speed than the frames.
Hans Gundersen, Fredrikshald, Norway, 999,715, Aug. 1. Filed May 31, 1911. A flying machine having attached by hinges to a body portion, oscillating wings, the apices of which describe an "S" during the upstroke and a reversed "S" on the down stroke, making a complete figure "8" during a complete upward and downward movement of one wing.
Julius C. Christiansen, New York, 999,959, Aug. 8, 1911. Filed June 22, 1910. DOUBLE-ACTING RUDDERS. Front and rear elevators are mounted in a yoke which can turn on its longitudinal axis through an arc of 180 degrees. Wires from the operating lever are crossed to one elevator. Movement of lever forward or backward steers up or down, while if turned left or right at the same time tilts the elevating planes laterally at any desired angle from an imaginary horizontal line drawn at right angle to the line of flight.
Oscar P. Ostergren, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1,000,035, Aug. 8. Filed Mar. 7, 1911. HEADLESS BIPLANE in which lower plane is depressed at the central portion and hollow, constituting a hydroplane. The two elevations of the lower plane are connected by inclined portions. Elevators and vertical rudder at rear of longitudinal framework, with balancing plane above the framework at the rear end, capable of adjustment to various angles of incidence.
Wm. H. Stebbins and Louis Geynet, Norwich, Ct., 1,000,127, Aug. 8. Filed Oct. 20, 1910. STEERING DEVICE for aeroplanes, consisting of a shaft, and gears, which can be rotated by turning the hand-wheel, which can be rocked fore and aft, or can be rocked sideways and can do any or all of these movements at the same time, as well as steering the front wheel of the aeroplane while the latter is on the ground. It is designed for use in a machine in which the elevator (in front) is in two sections, laterally, which sections can be tilted at opposite angles for correcting lateral instability, or operated simultaneously up and down, and in connection with the usual vertical rudder.
Robert F. Gardner, Vallejo, Calif., 1.000,252, Aug. S. Filed Oct. 19, 1910. AEROPLANE in which the supporting surface is described as disposed in the direction of the line of flight, tapering from the front to the rear of the machine, said supporting surface curving transversely which curvature constantly increased from the front to the rear. Claim covered elevators, front and rear, and vertical rudder.
Henry C. Lobnitz, Cowes, Eng., 1,000,273, Aug. 8. Filed Oct. 8, 1909. PENDULUM device, swinging fore and aft and laterally, liquid filled cylinders for preventing too quick movement. Provision for substitution of platform for weight.
Dorus W. Moore, Fultonville, N. Y., 1,000,283, Aug. S. Filed July 23, 1910. STEERING DEVICE. Front horizontal rudder composed of vertical and horizontal planes, jointed at forward end to frame, vertically arranged steering wheel to which rear end of said rudder if universally jointed eccentric to the axis of said wheel. Rear rudder composed of vertical and horizontal surfaces, capable of yielding to air pressure against a coiled spring, for the purpose of limiting deflection of machine from its course.
spring mounting for motor and arm from motor acting on a buffer.
Adolphe Clement, Levallois-Perret, France, 1,000,495, Aug. 15. Filed Feb. 6, 1909. DIRIGIBLE of the semi-flexible type, with claims covering attachment of special framework and balloonet compartments.
Albert J. Loekwood, Chicago, 111., 1,000528, Aug. 15. Filed July 28, 1910. PROPELLER with series of blades bolted to a circular flange on the propeller shaft, each blade being stayed with brace rods to a collar around the shaft.
Edwin H. Skinner, Arrochar. N. Y., I,-000,560, Aug 15. Filed Apr. 4, 1910. STABILITY DEVICE for aeroplanes, consisting of series of planes pivoted about axes parallel to the line of flight; these series being located in outer sections of the lower plane of a biplane, which outer sections are upwardly and outwardly inclined. These small planes are held in their normal position by springs and may be operated to close and present an increased surface on the side of the aeroplane, which has been tiled downward, and to open further and decrease the area of the high side, by a lever, or automatically by a pendulum.
Ernest Ebbinghaus, New York, 1,000.592, Aug. 15. Filed Feb. 28, 1911. AEROPLANE comprising plurality of wings at forward end of a frame, plurality of inclined planes carried on the underside of the frame, means for moving said auxiliary planes on their pivots, tail pivotally mounted at rear of the frame adapted to automatically operate the same when machine changes from horizontal course by means of pivoted weight.
Taul Schmitt, Paris, France, 1.000,697, Aug. 15. Filed Sept. 22. 1909. LONGITUDINAL STABILITY DEVICE, in which the motors, propellers, controlling apparatus, running gear, aviator and passengers, etc., all but the planes themselves practically, are carried on a frame pivoted within the aeroplane, which system is intended to always keep the centre of gravity coincident vertically with the centre of pressure, without recourse to a tail or elevator.
William D. Burr, Willow Grove, Pa., 1,000,711, Aug. 15. Filed May 13, 1911. The object of this invention is to so mount the power plant that the propeller or propellers may be inclined at various angles to supposedly assist in rising.
Walter H. Campkin, Fort Gaines, Ga., 1,000,714, Aug. 15. Filed May 20, 1911. DIRIGIBLE with longitudinally disposed tunnel in the gas chamber, auxiliary gas chambers parallel to the main chamber, series of air actuated ballasting devices, strata producing planes in tunnel, propelling-means in tunnel, steering means in tunnel, etc.
Adolphe Clement, Levallois-Perret, France, 1,000,494, Aug. 15. Filed Feb. 6, 1909. SHOCK ABSORBING DEVICE FOR MOTORS to save frames from vibration, comprising
ENGINE MOUNTING FOR AIRSHIPS.
Leon A. Hewitt, Livermore, la., assignor of one-half to Franklin E. Collins, 1,000,808, Aug. 15, 1911. Filed May 25, 1910.
A flying machine comprising a frame formed of vertical and horizontal triangular portions, said triangular portions having a common base piece, front wheels jour-naled on said base piece, braces connecting the vertex of the horizontal triangular portion with the arms of the vertical triangular portion below the vertex thereof, a trail wheel, a horizontal balancing and steering plane universally joined with the wheel to the vertex of the horizontal triangular portion, means for vertically swinging and laterally tilting said plane, a supporting plane mounted upon the braces, a motor-also mounted upon said braces, and a propeller driven by said motor.
Romeo Wankmuller, Charlottenburg, Germany, assignor to Luf tverkehrs-Gesell-schaft m. b. H., 1,000,865, Aug. 15. Filed Feb. 9, 1911. DIRIGIBLE, comprising combination of main car and auxiliary cars suspended from body of balloon, means for varying height of auxiliary cars as regards that of the main car, rigid link connecting the auxiliary cars to the main car.
Thomas M. Crepar, Dilworth, Minn., 1,000,897, Aug. 15. Filed June 21, 1910. AEROPLANE whose planes have a plan view in the shape of a fish, with central openings in the planes, and series of vanes disposed in the openings.
998,295, July 18, Christopher John Lake. Superposed wedge shaped SURFACES.
1,000,999. Aug. 22, O. A. Danielson & L. R Jones. PROPELLER .attachment to shaft.
1,001,143, Aug. 22, O. Kattenhorn, Flexible OSCILLATING, WINGS.
1,001,120, Aug. 22, J. A. Bloedin. Vertical STABILIZING PLANES.
1,001,123, Aug. 22, A. M. Collins, SWINGING SEAT to operate ailerons.
1,001,160, Aug. 22. P. A. Otto. Combination MONOPLANE-HELICOPTER.
1,001,185, Aug. 22, A. M. Zimmer. SUPPORTING SURFACE which absorbs shocks from gusts of wind.
1,001,223, Aug. 22. P. Schneider. VIBRATORY SUPPORTING SURFACES.
1,001,291, Aug. 22, A. McKenzie. Flexible-bladed PROPELLER.
1.001,309, Aug. 22, Y. Rolland. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device consisting of sliding shutters to vary the areas of surfaces automatically through valves and pistons actuated by a sliding weight.
1,001.332, Aug. 22, V. C. De Ybarrondo. PROPELLER mounting on universal joint.
1,001,721, Aug. 29, S. D. Wheeler. AIRSHIP propelling device.
1,001,849, Aug. 29, P. C. Hopkins. HELICOPTER, with propellers movable in various planes.
1.001,918, Aug. 29, F. L. Bartelt. PROPULSION device of parallel rotating surfaces winded with collapsible air pockets.
1,001,941, Aug. 29, V. T. Fleiss. Front and rear ELEVATORS working in combination.
1,001,956, Aug. 29, A. B. Holson. Combination of two PROPELLERS to avoid affect of torque.
•1,001,995, Aug. 29. J. Schutte. Inflatable elements of an Al RSHTP.
1.002,002, Aug. 29, H. L., A. K. & H. O. Short. Resisting surfaces on front edge of supporting planes, capable of movement about a pivot to alter the liftinu effect of either side to obtain LATERAL BALANCE. Various forms of the device are claimed.
1.0112,067, Aug-. 29. A. F. W. Macmanus. AUTOMATIC STABIMTY device, comprising propellers in a horizontal plane under wing tips, and elsewhere, set in motion or stopped automatically by making and breaking of electric circuits through the action of a pendulum.
1,002.093, Aug. 29, IT. Thadcn. Flying machine with FLAPPING SHUTTERS
1,002,1 1 1, Aug. 29, P.. R. Alexander. Four superposed supporting surfaces hinged at entering edge and capable of CHANGE in ANGLE of incidence during flight at will.
H. L., A. E. k H. 0. SH0ET
1,002,138, Aug. W. C. Culbertson.
AUTOMATIC STABILITY device in which engine, operator, etc., are below the supporting planes in a pivotallv hung car. 1,002,171, Aug. 29, J. D. Mills, TOY. 1,002,203, Aug. 29, B. T. B. Hyde & A. Gaul, Jr. Vertical keels for STABILITY.
1,002,323, Sept. 5, J. C. Schleicher. RUDDERS. 1,002,516, Sept. 5, W. C. Henderson. Plur-alitv of rotating FEATHERING blades. 1,002,528, Sept. 5, N. R. Lamb. HELICOP-
1.002,674 BALANCE porting surfaces each side of the
Sept. 5, W. D. Lindsley. Flyin?
Sept. 5, J. A. Goodwin. LATERAL device. Swinging panels in sup-and in vertical panels at main cell.
1,002,682, Sept. 5, A. Haidin. Al RSHTP.
1,002,703, Sept. 5, H. A. King, PROPELLERS, turning in opposite direction.
1,(102,724, Sept. 5, G. F. A. McDougall Novel MONOPLANE.
1,002,908, Sept. 12, O. L. Dunton. Sustaining surfaces adapted to be deflected in opposite directions by inequalities in air movements or manually so operated.
1,003,162, Sept. 12, A. O. Paulson. The use of Box Kite formation for SUSTAINING SURFACES.
1,003.459, Sept. 19, L. B. Holland. Means for swinging the vertical surfaces of machines of Voisin type about a diagonal turning so as to assist in banking.
RODGERS BREAKS ALL RECORDS
bc,\ts atwood record
new york. october 13.—cal p.rodsorshas reached kan ■ sas city, mo., on his al templed flight from new york lo the pacific coast. 1 ic left on september 17 in a new s> foot kx one-man wright biplane, wilh extra law fuel and oil tanks. i lo lias broken every exist ins: record for ions: distance continued hying, llis distance to tin's place measured in straighl lines from place to place totals 1311 miles. llis actual route was considerably longer.
hoberl g. fowler slaried from the coast onscplcmber 11 and fro i only as far as colfax, cal., 1->i miles by the 23d. where he is still located, l-'owler used a standard model li wrighl, with exlra large tanks, .lames .1. ward, in a cuiliss. stalled from new york on september 13and got to addison, n. v., a distance of j >1 miles in straight lines, where he gave up the trip.
all slartcd for the i icarst $.50.(1(10 prize under the ini pression i hat it was only necessary to start before oct. 10 and finish in 30 days, with compulsory slop at chica go. however, alter they stalled it was made plain i hat i he i rip must be finished by the loth of october so after all i he compel itors had frone lo all the trouble of starling they learned i hey had no chance.
AVIATION POWER PLANTS MEAN PROFESSIONAL SUCCESS
an be depended upon to operate successfully under most trying conditions, and require the least amount of adjustment, care and attention of any aviation power plant built.
d.HALL-SCOTT Power Plants are being generally purchased by professional airmen who are in a position to know what is necessary in a power plant for successful flying.
Dr. H. W. Walden in flight over Coney Island
The Only Original American Monoplane That Has Flown Successfully HALL-SCOTT 40 H. P. Power Plant Used
C.HALL-SCOTT equipment is not only well endorsed on account of its use bv such well-known airmen as Capt. Baldwin, Shriver, and Chas. K. Hamilton who were among the first licensed pilots in America, and obtained their licenses with use of other than Hall-Scott equipment, but here are seven airmen in addition who obtained their licenses with Hall-Scott equipment: Win. H. Badger, Lee Hammond, Paul Peck. Glenn L. Martin, Beryl Williams, h\ L. Holt, and J. J. Frisbie.
For details of flights made, and power plant details, address
HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO., San Francisco, California
In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.
YOU HAVE BUT TO
ASK THE AVIATOR
BEACHY FLYING WITH A 4-X ROBERTS
St. Louis, Mo.. Oct. ti, 1911. Roberts Motor Co., Sandusky. Ohio
Gentlemen:—1 wish to express my appreciation of the treatment you have accorded me in connection with the purchase made of one of your IX Motors. In practice it flew the plane owned hy Mr. llilleary lieachy and myself to our entire satisfaction and later when on the road giving exhibitions it flew the plane and got the money which is more than any motor has done for us up to date.
M. A. 11 KIM A NX.
Note.—Mr. Bcachy was testing a motor of another make at the time of his recent accident.
Alma, Neb., Sept. -25, 1911. Tin; Roberts Motor Co., Sandusky, Ohio
Dear Sirs:—1 thought possibly you would like to know what success I had on my western trip.
This to advise that I u«ed my Benoist Biplane equipped with one of your tX Motors in all my flights and wish to say that the motor was the last to quit in every instance and 1 am more than pleased with it.
At Alma, Neb., which is 2200 feet above the sea level, 1 attained a height of 1500 feet, covering a distance of ten miles cross-country, and at Aurora, Neb., 1 Meat up iOOO feet, crossing the Republican River, making two complete eircles over Ex-Governor Schalle.i-burger's resilience; in the latter flight 1 covered a distance of about 18 miles.
AYitaliiiiif yon success, I remain,
Yours very truly, (Signed) WILLIAM H. 1SLEAKLEY
THE ROBERTS MOTOR COMPANY
1430 Columbus Avenue :: :: :: Sandusky, Ohio
In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.