Aeronautics

Volume 9 - No. 3 - 1911 September

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



Vol. IX, No. 3. SEPTEMBER, 1911 Serial No. 50

4 cyl., 60 H. P., 225 lbs. 6 cyl., 100 H. P., 300 lbs.

YOU will make no mistake intrusting your power problem to specialists in light, powerful, high speed motors—motors that have more speed championships to their credit than any other single American competitor. Write to-day for literature.

EMERSON ENGINE co. ALEXANDRIA va

NEW YORK OFFICE! 1737 BROADWAY

Hobiloil

Endorsed by

GLENN H. CURTISS

Mobiloil

VACUUM OIL COMPANY,

No. 29 Broadway, New York.

Gentlemen:—

I am again pleased to report the success I have met with in the use of Mobiloil for the lubrication of the engines in my aeroplanes. I have used this oil for the past three years, and I am greatly pleased in having found such a good oil for my aeronautical work. Yours very truly,

Are You Using the Right Oil on Your Car?

THE most important thing left entirely to the judgment of the owner in the operation of his automobile or aeroplane is the selection of a lubricant. The discriminating car owner selects the grade of MOBILOIL especially suited to his type of motor—a grade for eaeh type.

Is it not significant that aviators generally, in this country and Europe, use MOBILOIL on their motors exclusively ?

Vacuum Oil Company

Rochester, U. S. A.

The Largest Refiners of Automobile Oils in America New York Ofiicc - - 29 Broadway

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

HA

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AVIATION POWER PLANTS MEAN PROFESSIONAL SUCCESS

They are earning thousands of dollars for the many users throughout the United States and the Orient.

They can be depended upon to operate successfully under most trying conditions, and require the least amount of adjustment, care and attention of any aviation power plant built.

Hall-Scott power plants are being generally purchased by amateurs and professionals who have not been able to obtain results with other makes, among these the following:

MATHEWSON AEROPLANE CO., HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO., Denver, Colorado, July 8th, 1911.

San Francisco, Cal.

Gentlemen:—Your valued favor of June 27th, received on my return from a trip in Wyoming, where we gave a two days Aeroplane exhibition with one of our headless bi-planes. We made a five-minute flight at Gillette on Sunday which was considered a very successful one on account of the condition of the ground, wind, etc. In trying out the motor Sunday, preparatory to a flight Monday, the ***** went wrong with the ***** aiKJ we were up against it with that motor. We wired into the General Aviation People here, for their Hall-Scott motor, received it Monday night at ten o'clock, and by nine the next morning had it properly installed and the machine balanced up. Gillette, Wyoming, is a very rough country in more ways than one, and it was up to us to fly at ten o'clock, wind or no wind, as per advertisement. The machine rose out of the sage brush with a run of less than 75 feet and crossed over to the top of the foothills which were at least 800 feet high and less than a mile from where we started. The wind must have been blowing better than twenty miles an hour and full of eddies. The thermometer registered 10-2 degrees. The altitude at Gillette is a little better than .5,000 feet. Everything being considered it was anything but an ideal place to fly. The machine remained in the air about seven minutes, making three large eircles at an altitude of 500 feet. Several times Thompson ran into air holes and whirlwinds which would have certainly smashed him if we had been using our old motor.

At 7:30 the same evening after the wind had died down he made another flight, rising with a start of 61 feet from a small baseball ground, eircling over town several times at an altitude of over 1,000 feet, made several long dives, and, in fact did everything that any aviator in a machine could have done. We fully realize that without the Hall-Scott motor both of these flights would have been impossible.

Very truly yours, THE MATHEWSON AEROPLANE CO.,

Signed: E. L. Matiiewson, Pres. and Treas.

This is one of many instances where Hall-Scott motors have proved their worth. For details of other flights made, and power plant details,

Address

Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., San Francisco, California

In anszcering advertisements please mention this magazine.

* ?

ROBERTS MOTORS I

WE HAVE FULFILLED EVERY PROMISE

Don't Buy Motors on Manufacturers ''GUARANTEE" alone

t HERE ARE THE RESULTS : J

j 40 motors sold outright in 4 months j

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$ Not one has failed to fly j

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* Not one has ever back-fired j $ Not one dissatisfied customer *

t We would gladly refer you to every single one of our J

J forty customers, and will forward names and addresses on J

request. WRITE US TO-DAY. CATALOG FREE. }

THE ROBERTS MOTOR CO. {

1430 COLUMBUS AVE., - - SANDUSKY, OHIO J

ARE GOOD MOTORS>

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In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.

WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH AVIATION?

Principal manufacturers of aeroplanes and supplies, motors and accessories have been asked to contribute their views on the subject of progress of aviation in the united states.

these articles will be printed in the order of their receipt. some of them will be found below.

the chicago meet seems to have renewed hope in the breasts of those who, but a short time ago, were more or less pessimistic. in making the request for contributions to this symposium several items were mentioned:— the lack of prizes for the stimulation of individual effort or research, the losses sustained at meets, the harmful effect of inexperienced aviators attempting to give ex-

By HUGO C. GIBSON,

a. m. i. e., chairman technical board aeronautical society.

principally, that the whole industry is bred and fed upon hot air, and such support as it gets is obtained upon tbe basis of the prospects of unreasonable profits from the spectacular and death-invoking antics of untutored fledglings fired by the lust of desired approbation and unusual monetary reward; or, unusual, at least, for the class, who, in america, are mainly attracted to the new occupation.

profits are being made by some concerns engaged in tbe show, and perhaps in tbe accessory business; and such concerns are liable to be satisfied and say that aviation is a success here, but unprejudiced observers must confess to the really slight advancement that is being made.

aviation is a science, and for its advancement requires an army of scientific workers, not nerveless incompetents, nor high-strung, nerve-wracked scatterbrains; it is a serious business, and when tackled by serious minded engineers, who know how to select their designs, forms, material, methods and labor, and who are relieved from the necessity of prostituting their product by parsimonious economy, it will become a standard money-making business in the provision of the many thousands of machines which will be used by sportsmen on land and water, by the farmers on the plains of the west, and eventually, as time becomes more precious, by everyone who appreciates euclid's definition of a line, "the shortest distance between any two points."

how will this be accomplished? regretfully i would predict that tbe method will be similar to that second-handed one which was necessary to give america its place in the automobile industry—to copy the best product of the european continent. this will be done, of course. in fact, it is being done, but it is a precarious method, because the operator probably will not know why he does these things—he will just copy. at least, if copying is to be done, let it be plain copying—no tassels on it. there are probably fifteen so-called copies of the gnome engine being messed with in the states today. in each case the copyist's stoek in trade wherewith he secured the neeessary capital was "improvement." "double the horsepower," or some similar inordinate claim; quite unnecessary if the job is just copying. it might be thought from this that america has not the necessary initiative. that is not so. there is all the inventive and investigative initiation necessary, but there is not the support nor encouragement for the man of service, the man who would make two blades of grass grow where one grew before. the most lamentable instance of this in late years is found in the futile efforts of the american inventor of the knight engine, who was turned down cold all over america. made a stupendous success of

hibitions contracted for by ambitious booking agents and the obvious attempts at fraud, misleading advertisers, the scarcity of aeroplanes in the hands of amateur sportsmen, the aeroplane-less aviation schools, stock-schemes, the scarcity of capital available for investment, the great amounts of bad debts on the books due to over enthusiasm and downright fraud on the part of buyers and unreasonable credit by sellers, the general "tightness of money," and so forth. it was also suggested, parenthetically, that perhaps "you do not agree in the lack of progress and feel that we are moving as rapidly as ean be expected."

that some did not "agree" is evident.

in england, it is now presented to american purchasers as the greatest thing that ever happened, the argument being based on the reputation of its kinglish backers, and the wonderful success they have made of it. that invention could have remained in america to her enrichment.

positively, the situation in america is continuously made worse by the habit of financial men relying solely on the word of the inventor, instead of consulting an engineer of broad experience, with the object of having the flaws in the story pointed out clearly and put up for discussion. then again, most inventors seem to find it neeessary to represent their invention as a bonanza or get-rich-quick proposition. it practically never is, but the average american investor seems to need either ;i gilt-edged security, or a no-percent profit world-beater, and the inventor, misled by the scareheads of yellow journalism in reference to "wizards of this or that," tries to live up to the situation, forgetting that our greatest scarehead wizard, edison, makes his most impressive manifestations in investigating and commercializing the inventions of others.

that is the point. (jet down to brass tacks by knowing what to do and how it is done. be satisfied with reasonable returns. don't spoil the ship for a haporth of tea. make a reasonable investment and don't expect big returns in the first few months.

my opinion is that the greatest cause of the present state of aviation in the united states is that hut air replaces basic knowledge.

BY E. W. ROBERTS,

y. p. roberts motor co.

delay in aeronautical progress in the united states' is due in a great measure to the inability of the aviator or builder who is just starting in the game to appreciate just what is needed to ensure successful hying. it has been my privilege to visit some of the great aviation fields of the country within the last few months as well as to view the chicago meet in its entirety. i have seen, as well, a number of amateur attempts of many curious kinds.

one of the greatest mistakes made by the amateur, is in the choice of his power plant. like many a beginner in automobiles, his choice is based more on price than on what the motor has reallv done. tie installs one of these bargain-counter outfits and by the time^ he finds that he has been stung, he is out of funds and his friends are so disgusted at his attempts to fly that they will lend him no aid. i he number of american built motors that have really llown a dozen different aeroplanes can be counted on the fingers of one hand and 1 doubt if all of these could be depended upon

^anottrt^eofdeiay is the fact .that many amateurs actually make contracts lor ^hibitions when their machines are incomple e and neither they nor tbe machines have ever been n the air they appear on the field, and

either get "cold feet" and fail to get off the ground, or meet with disaster.

All these things delay progress, and fill the papers with exaggerated accounts of the "danger" of the aeroplane. As a matter of fact, had there been a nine days' series of automobile racing similar to the Chicago Aviation Meet, it is likely that the death roll would have been at least ten instead of two. It is a fact that there are few automobile accidents that result in serious injury to the car itself without injury to occupants. Compare this with accidents to aeroplanes.

By Lyman J. Seely.

TOES. ELBRIDGE ENGINE C< >.

Replying to your letter of the 25th: It seems to me you have pretty nearly outlined the answer in your inquiry.

There seems to be very little sporting interest in aviation in America. Except in very rare instances the machines are being built by men of little means who expect to reap a harvest from flying. As few of them have really well-built machines, nor the time and money to properly learn to fly, they don't make any money: consequently they cannot pay those who have trusted them for materials or money.

The great American "Bug-a-boo" is undoubtedly the unsatisfactory status of the Wright patents. That keeps money out of the proposition. People are afraid to make investments of any size.

So far as juvenile interest is concerned, there is plenty of it. Rochester did practically nothing last year because we- had no Hying field. This year the Aero Club secured a fail-field and now there are eight of ten fairly good machines in almost daily use. By and by men with money may get interested and then we shall see something like Europe is seeing at the present moment.

From the business standpoint the proposition is paralleled by the tiny dog who has a large litter of puppies. She simply hasn't milk enough to nourish all of them. Some of them have to die off for lack of nutrition. Too many concerns are trying to make a big thing out of aviation in America. It isn't a big field as yet, so some of them are bound to get left. The business won't go 'round.

The exhibition business is too frankly one of exploitation. The press-work and promises are overdone. The public has been led to expect too much, and in consequence are disappointed and don't go a second time.

Just the same, the game is a comer. The mushrooms will die off and a real business spring up.

By Alfred J. Moisant. PRESIDENT THE MOISANT INTERNATIONAL AVIATORS.

The status of aviation in the United States lias changed so rapidly in the last month that, whereas four weeks ago a great deal could have been written about "What's the matter with American aviation?", now one may truthfully answer that question with the one word, "Nothing." T have been in business for thirty-five years and I cannot recall any time in my experience when any business or industry made so complete a revolution from torpor to activity, from an indifferent condition to one whose present presages a wonderful future, as has aviation in the United States in the past month.

The one tiling which has helped, perhaps most of all, to create this new situation is the. Chicago meet. Organized on a sportsmanship basis and carried out strictly on that line the support of the public and the activities of the aviators competing there would seem to show that competition on a purely sporting basis, without guarantees of any kind,

stimulates interest in the flying machine as no other means of exhibition can. Three or four meets more of the same high calibre and on the same non-guarantee basis as the Chicago meet, if they are held in this country between the present time and next summer, will do more to put aviation in the United States on the same high level as it is in I^u-rope than anything I know of. Clean competition always produces the best results, and only in non-guarantee meets can clean competition be assured both to aviators and to spectators.

1 naturally take a great deal of pride in the fact that four licensed pilots have now been graduated from the Moisant Aviation School at Garden City. With the exception of the Pan, Mourmelon, Buc, and Hendon schools in Europe, the Moisant institution has already turned out more pilots than anv other school in the world, although it has been in active operation for only two months. We have graduated four pilots this month and with good luck we shall have two more before the first of September. Now that there is in the United States a well-established and successful aviation school where anybody who desires to do so can learn how to fly, 1 believe the American public will very quickly take advantage of such an opportunity.

Aviation in this country has been held back because there was, until our institution was formed, no place where the public could go to learn how to fly. We intend to establish in the very near future six more schools exactly like the one at Hempstead Plains, and T am now completing arrangements for four of these.

To my mind there is nothing now the matter with American aviation. I could not have said that truthfully a month ago, but, as T have said, things have so changed in the last four weeks that I am glad not to be able to make such an answer correctly and sincerely.

Kiigiiie Horsepower Tests.

There seems to be rather a peculiar impression amongst some people engaged in the manufacture, of motors in regard to the horsepower of their product. In one case the "horsepower" is obtained by mounting the motor on a carriage and letting a propeller drag it along. The horsepower Is then calculated by taking the thrust of the propeller multiplied by the R. P. M. and by the pitch of the propeller, all divided by 33,000. That this gives the real horsepower Is a matter for investigation, for there are so many losses that the power calculated in this way may be higher than the actual by as much as 209r. The power may be measured correctly, however, using" a propeller. It would be necessary to measure the torque of the propeller. This times the R. P. M. divided by 33,000, will give the true power.

Charles F. Walsh, one of California's first aviators, filling bis first engagement under the direction of the Curtiss company, flew 37 minutes at Sterling, 111. He is well booked up through Nebraska and western territory. He has discarded his old machine and is using a regular Curtiss exhibition machine as used by all the other aviators of the Curtiss Exbltion Co. Twelve flyers are now busy filling dates: Lincoln Beacbey, .lames J. Ward, Hugh Robinson, C. C. Witmer, R. St. Henry, Beckwith Havens, Cromwell Dixon, lOugene Ely, Charles K. Hamilton, Charles F. Walsh, Earle L. Ovington.

I do not know what I would do If It never came. Other aero magazines can not take the place of AERONAUTICS.

H. Ij. Worley.

7G

THE effect of color upon the flight of aeroplanes is a subject which is never spoken of by constructors. Is it possible that some of the builders consider color of such importance that their machines are turned out, one after another, all with the same colored material? Or Is It just a matter of fancy, unconsidered as a factor aside from that?

Most, if not all, of the foreign machines, and those of the Wright Brothers are white, or nearly so. The Wrights have gone even further, by not only using white surfaces but by giving every uncovered part a bright aluminum finish. In the foreign machines the woodwork is generally given a coat of varnish or shellac which preserves the natural light color of the wood.

It appears that the Wrights have taken color as quite an item, as their machines show. And have they not good reasons for this?

Color seems a trifling matter but in these days of more or less experimenting with gasless machines, it is considered by all

blacked sides, causing resistance and the fan is propelled away from the rays. Walk up to the window and allow your shadow to fall on this little instrument and it will immediately slow down and perhaps cease to revolve altogether. This is but one of the many ways of showing the resistance caused by the rays of the sun. This illustration is given for 1 constructed an apparatus after this principle in an effort to discover, if possible, the exact difference in resistance on black and on white surfaces. Unfortunately, the air currents (which are very numerous and almost continuous in California) interfered with my efforts and I am, therefore, unable to state definitely what the difference is in figures, though through these little experiments I was able to find quite a variation between the two surfaces.

The contrivance consisted of a three-foot square surface fastened on a stick seven feet long by 1Y2 inches thick, one side was covered with white cloth and the other side

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that advantage must be taken of every possible assistance to get into and remain in the air with the least effort.

All are endeavoring to cut down weight, or to add more surface, or to use material shaped to offer the least resistance to the air. Why not consider the sun's rays, which, when resisted by a large surface, offer a proportionate repelling power?

As a general rule, one will observe in an optician's window a small device, known as a "radiometer," which is used more to attract attention than anything else. It is composed of either a two- or four-bladed fan, placed on a needle point in a vacuum bulb; the blades on one side are usually quick-silvered and on the other, lamp-blacked. When this little device is placed In the sunlight it revolves very rapidly because of the sun's rays striking the lamp-

with black fabric. Tab; was pivoted one foot away from the square and was counterbalanced three feet further out by a pail of sand. After turning the white surface to the sun for some ten to fifteen minutes, and filling the pail with sand sufficiently to balance, the plane was then reversed and the black side faced the sun. At first it balanced perfectly but after some three or four minutes 1 was forced to either move the pail or put in more sand.

Even on so small surface, the difference after fifteen minutes was either a whole handful of sand or a movement of the pail 3« of an inch towards the end of the stick.

One could barely hold his hand on the black surface while the white surface retained its original cool temperature. One was able to see the heated air shimmering above the black side. For this reason preference is

DOES COLOR AFFECT AEROPLANES?

By H. F. I*ntternon.

given to white garments in tropical climates.

The whole apparatus was rough and crude, yet even with this in a still atmosphere considerable data could be obtained by one so interested.

It is a known fact that aeroplanes f\y more easily on a dull day, even in a light rain, or early in the morning and in the dusk of the evening, than when the sun is shining brightly. It is a mistaken belief that air is heavier during rain. If such were true, why does the mercury drop in a barometer and force the liquid in the other tube upward, had it the usual counterweight 01 heavy atmosphere? This is a simple form of expressing the difference.

High altitudes, thus far, have been accomplished in "white" aeroplanes, even though some of them have had less powerful engines to drive them upwards than the faster colored machines, and therefore, were simply "nursed along" until the atmosphere became so cold that the discomfort of the aviators forced them to descend, or because of the possibility of the engines' freezing, as the machines were still capable of climbing higher.

The question is, can a dark 'plane with' the same construction throughout do as well on a sunny day?

Another test! ITace a black and white! cloth side by side on the snow in the sun.| No matter how cold the day, the snow will melt slowly around the edges of the white cloth and if left long enough a pile of snow would be left standing the shape of the' cloth. The black cloth will gradually sink into the snow and eventually all the snow underneath will melt, leaving a hole the size of the cloth. Small pieces of soot will do likewise, owing to its blackness.

Someone will probably suggest that all birds are not white. It is probable that Nature seeks rather protection from foes than absolute efficiency of movements. The chameleon changes its color to that on which it rests, making it almost impossible of detection by its natural foes. Nevertheless, most of the arctic and antarctic birds and animals are snow-white.

Believing, however, that color is a factor to be considered with aeroplanes, the writer humbly submits this subject to those interested in the hope that others may experiment in the effort to advance aviation and make it safer, surer and more popular.

STRESSES DUE TO DIVING OR SWOOPING

IN view of recent accidents frequently ascribed to the overstraining of the machine by the sudden dips and swoops that are practiced by some aviators, it might be well to call attention to the conditions of overload that exist.

The following table has been computed by Dr. A. P. Zahm, in order to show clearly the stresses that are set up in an aeroplane while doing these spectacular stunts.

It is obvious that the greatest stress in the machine occurs at the bottom of a swoop, if

Velocity V,

         

of the

 

Kiidius

of Curvature, It.

 

Afioplane.

         
 

100 Ft.

200 Ft.

300 Ft.

400 Ft.

500 Ft.

Miles per

Weight.

Weight.

Weight

Weight.

Weight.

Hour.

         

30

0.41

0.20

0.14

0.10

0.08

40

0.73

0.30

0.24

0.18

0.15

no

1.14

0.57

0.38

0.28

0.23

(JO

1.64

0.82

0.55

0.41

0.33

70

2.23

1.11

0.74

0.56

0.45

80

2.91

1.45

0.97

0.73

0.58

!)()

3.08

1.84

1.23

0.92

0.74

100

4.55

2.27

1.52

1.J4

0.91

the machine be made to rebound on a sharp curve. The total force acting on the planes may be found from the table, if V and R be known, by adding unity to the figures given, then multiplying by the weight of the machine. For example, with a speed on the swift descent of 60 miles per hour, and a radius of curvature 200 feet at the end of the descent, the total force on the sustaining surface would be 1.82 times the weight of the machine.

Aviation in Germany Is making' rapid strides. Within the past year a number of big cross country events have been held, as well as many flying meetings and contests. Tt is possible that Germany may soon overtake France in this sport and science. Aviation has interested the very best of German engineers and mechanics and in the building of motors have notable advances been made. At the present time

there might be mentioned the Argus, made in 50 and 100 horse-power types; the Daimler, which has made a big name for itself through the prize winnings of Helmut Hirth, in his Rumpler-Etrich; and the rotary motor Hoffman, largely used at the moment, in 50, 100 and 120 h. p. sizes.

Flying in Germany is under the control of the great federation of aero clubs and scientific organizations devoted to aeronautics, numbering thousands of members. The most prominent club is the Frankfort Aviation Club, which own two flying machines largely used by the members.

The performances of Hugh A. Robinson's hydro-aeroplane, was one of the big sensations of the meet. Rising from the aviation tield Robinson would soar in the air, alight in the water, skim along its surface and mount again to the clouds in a most thrilling manner. He takes absolutely no regard as to whether his wings are wet or dry, whether they are exposed to the sun or wind, or to what effect the elements may have on them. This is because the Goodyear fabric is so made that under no conditions will it warp, crack or lose its shape. Without such a material a hydro-aeroplane would be no better than a butterfly, fit only for one or two flights, for water, sun and wind would quickly ruin an ordinary rubber cloth.

Aeroplanes Calculated

and Designed

PATENTS INVESTIGATED

Grover Cleveland Loening, b.sc. a.m., c.e.

Consulting Engineer on Aviation -ADDRESS-

82 East 77th Street - - New York

IN the "Baby" or Model E. biplane built by the Burgess Company and Curtis, of Marblehead, Mass., for C. Grahame-White, though in general appearance resembling closely a Farman, there are many structural features, and those of design, also, which vary from its larger prototype. '

It has become noted for its fine construction and for the speed developed by it in flights made with it first in England by James V. Martin and C. G. White, who ordered six of them during his visit to America last fall. Martin has made a number of fast cross country flights with it and was entered in the European Circuit race, when he decided to return to this country. He Drought back with him a Burgess Baby and flew it at Nassau before taking it to the Chicago meet.

Alain Supporting Planes. These are built In three sections, the two outer ones being easily detachable at the points where the elevator and tail spars join the main lateral beams. Extensions of the upper plane are provided which increase the spread to 36 ft. 10 inches, which enables the carrying of a passenger. The rib curve has a depth of 2%", located 1' 5" back from the front edge. On the ground the angle of incidence is 12° 20'; the flying angle, 6° 50'. The ribs are screwed to the lateral spars, which vary in cross-section, both upper and lower. Those in front are rectangular (cross-section), measuring 1V2" deep by 1V2" thick in way of engine and seat; 1M" by 1%" in the middle body section and 1" by 1*4 in the wings. The rear spars are by 1%"

in the middle and 1" by 114" for the wings. All are solid spruce, the three lengths being connected by ferrules.

The struts are fish-shaped, of solid spruce, attached to the main spars by steel sockets.

Roebling solid plated "Aviator" wire, Nos. 10, 12, 14 and 16 is used for staying the cells. These guy wires are attached by eyes to eyebolts and are tightened by means of turnbuckles attached to eyes in the wires, which are secured by small copper sleeves.

Goodyear No. 6 aeroplane fabric is used in a single layer and attached to the spars by pockets in the cloth.

Elevators. Single plane, double covered elevators are front and rear, as usual, working in conjunction. The elevators have their upper surfaces curved, the under, flat. A single lever, moved forward or backward operates these, or the Burgess "gate control" may be used, as originally fitted to the machine. Instead of a single vertical lever to control both the elevators and the ailerons, the pilot holds a horizontal wooden link which connects two vertical levers, one each of the boat-shaped body in which he sits. This allows him to be protected from the wind and there is little opportunity for fouling the control cables. Another advantage, either hand may be used. This boat-shaped body is covered with fabric and is provided with a seat for a passenger.

Rudders. These are similar to the regular Farman, hinged to the struts of the biplane tail. The operating wires run to a steel tube yoke which forms, also, a foot rest.

Supplementary Fixed Surfaces. A fixed biplane lifting tail is employed, at upper rear edge of which is hinged the rear elevator.

For passenger carrying, extensions are fitted to the outer extremities of the upper main supporting surface, each held rigid by four stay-wires, two of which are connected to tops of two masts erected on the outermost box rib of the upper surface, and the other two are attached to eyebolts at the extremities of the lower wing proper.

Burgess " Baby "

THE BURGESS-CURTIS "BABY"

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BURGJ

Stability. This is secured by ailerons hinged to the rear lateral beams, of both planes, and they are operated by a lateral movement of the gate control. These ailerons extend out beyond the rear edge of the planes. Where the operating wire turns

beams. A rear skid supports the tail and is supplied with a flexible joint and rubber spring.

Power Plant. Bosch-equipped Gnome engines have thus far been used, with the propeller between the engine and the mount-

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'06z

corners, it goes through copper tubings. The ribs of the ailerons are light, solid, box and "T," covered in same manner as the main surfaces.

]>'ii nnin<j Clear. Usual Farman type. The lower plane is much nearer the ground than in the. bis' machine, which is made possible by placing the propeller high up. The skids are of ash, with ash struts running from the steel sockets up to the main lateral

ing, placed midway between the planes, giving a high center of thrust. The Chauviere propeller is used turning at 1,200 R.P.M.

Gcnrral Information. Spruce has been employed almost entirely throughout the machine, ash being used only for the skids and their struts and the struts of the central cell of the planes. Sheet steel sockets are used all over the machine.

MAY CROSS ATLANTIC.

Hugh A. Robinson, one of Curtiss' star aviators, has announced his intention of attempting" a transatlantic flight with one of tiie Curtiss hydroaeroplanes, in the Spring of 1'J12. Arrangements are being made for the financing of the trip and for boats to be stationed along- the route with supplies of gasoline and oil, and a duplicate engine.

Flights with the "triad" recently at Seattle, in very rough water, says Mr. Robinson, assures a creditable possibility of success during favorable ocean weather. The present triad can carry oil and gas for eight or ten hours' straight flying and even might carry another viator along with whom to alternate while resting or taking-food.

Robinson had a thrilling experience at

the anniversary celebration of the founding of Astoria, Ore., on Aug 24th, with the Curtiss hydroaeroplane. Robinson made several beautiful flights the day before and was just starting out again in very rough water when his propeller struck a large wave and broke. One piece of it cut a large hole in the float which partially filled with water and the aeroplane turned over backwards and floated upside down. Robinson refused to leave his machine and, perched on top of the upturned float, directed the towing of the disabled craft to the side of the launching barge. It was finally raised out of the water and found to be in good shape, but he had not enough extra parts and could not continue flights. The accident occurred directly in front of the grand stand and aroused great excitement.

Aviation " Expert " Arraigned—

"E. Maynard Harrison, who says he is an army officer, and who was arrested in Detroit by federal agents, charged with swindling would-be aviators by a mail scheme, was brought to Chicago yesterday. He was arraigned before United States Commissioner Mark A. Foote and waived examination. His bond was fixed at $1,000."

Press Clipping.

THAT many aeroplane "schools" give to students nowhere near what they advertise and promise is the much modified substance of a very strong remark recently made by a man who had conducted more than a casual investigation into the aero school situation. How far was he from the truth?

The answer in some instances is found in the files of the United States secret service bureau of the department of justice and in the records of postal officials. Here and there a school, so-called, has sprung up with wide acclaim (paid for at space rates) —but its demise and disappearance never is recorded.

An investigation by the writer into trie aeroplane school situation has convinced him that one of the first and greatest aids aeronautical bodies could extend to the world of aviation would be to clean out the fraudulent institutions, whether they be defrauding through malice or ignorantly. These work chiefly by advertising- what they cannot deliver and taking from hundreds of clerks, bell-boys, young mechanics and farmers' sons their hard-earned funds, which the latter have invested believing they would be placed upon the golden highway of fortune supposed to be traversed by all aeroplane pilots.

I found schools advertising a correspondence course to teach a man to fly; all holding out alluring lists of prizes said to be offered, most of which now are mythical; several arranging "booking courses" for their "graduates;" all advertising "shop courses" and immediate flying lessons; at least one of these latter did this without having a machine; one advised students they would be helped by an "inside influence" to get a job in a new department of Uncle Sam's army.

Advertisements tell the neophite he should start at once, learn by the correspondence course how to fly and then come on, learn how to build a machine in the shops and get practical flying. The shop course attempts in a month to make of clerks, bell-boys, etc., finished carpenters and expert builders in an art in which the leaders openly admit their advances have been only in the genesis. The school, by the way, plans to sell the machines the boys have paid to learn how to build.

Usually students have not been given prompt flying lessons in the field—some have been given none. Most of the students have waited weeks and months and then many of them have come to our office and asked what they could do, and how they could actually learn to fly. No less than fifty such inquiries have been received.

One school, so-called, until the federal authorities arrested the alleged imposter, advertised as a member of its staff, a "lieuten-

ant in the United States army," who would help students into the army in fine positions if they finished in this school. This man had a pilot license issued to another man, and with his name written - underneath it. The "lieutenant" is under arrest.

One school owner admitted he was innocently defrauding students.

"I can't give them what I advertised," he said; "I thought I could. This shop course stuff is all rot. The plan is wrong. I want to get out, clean up, sell what I have got, pay the boys back who have been hit, and stay away from it."

The investigation leads the writer to two conclusions, for work for the aeronautical world:

First, clean up the fraudulent schools— drive them out of business by federal prosecutions and publicity.

Second, encourage actual flying schools along an intelligent method of doing what the name implies—teaching flying.

Along this last line, I submit for consideration the conclusion I have reached for a successful school:

Divide the work into three parts: correspondence, handiwork and flying departments.

Advertise the correspondence course for just what it is—simply a plan to teach the learner why an aeroplane flies and something of the principle of the cambered wing and propeller: the laws of the air as to resistance; all this with the clear understanding it will not tell him how to fly, but why a machine does fly.

The handiwork course at the school should devote a couple of days to teaching the student how to assemble and take apart a machine; how to make sound wire splices and joints, little handy things in the way of adjustment, etc. A clay might be used in going over arrangement of stresses, etc., and how to stretch fabric and p^tch it. Ten days more, finishing the course, should be devoted to instruction in the "art" of running a gasoline motor, till the student is sick of the words, "poppet valve, carbure-tion," and the like.

The field course? One machine, built heavy and strong against serious breakage, good for 1,000 feet jumps and one turn ONLY, will take care of twenty students, each worked five to ten minutes every morning, going ahead slowly, and starting with a flight as a passenger for several trips in every instance. By degrees they will learn to turn to right and left.

Equipment ought to be bought outright. A "school" that cannot afford this hasn't much back of it. If the school desires to operate a light flyer for tests for aviation pilot licenses, that could next be taken up.

"When it has worked its students through the course suggested, they will not know how to build an aeroplane, probably, but they will know why it flies and how to fly it, and that is all they want to know to start in pursuit of that golden reward.

Above all, the school should be absolutely frank and aboveboard with its students. A modest beginning will not militate against it in getting students if it tells them just what "they can get and gives it to them, and soon it will leave behind its blatant "competitors."

If it is desired to build aeroplanes—build them, but do it with skilled workmen, not boys and clerks.

In conclusion, I would like to suggest that persons contemplating taking up a course in aviation make inquiry of former pupils it has in mind, and compare its plan with this I have suggested. This, I think, will be the most effective in putting an end to the frauds being perpetrated daily.

AVIATION ''SCHOOLS''

By Grover K. Sexton.

SECRETARY, AERO CLUB OP ILLINOIS.

View of Army Sheds at College Park. The Wright machine is shown at the left, the Burgess-Wright next and the Curtiss third. Copyright by G. V. Buck, Washington, D. V.

MILITARY AVIATION

The U. S. Army Aviation Squad at College Park has settled down more or less to a matter of routine. The aviators so far are Lieut. T. de W. Milling, handling the Burgess-Wright; Lieut. Harry N. Arnold, the straight Wright. Both these men were trained at the Wright factory. They have in turn trained Capt. Chas. de Forest Chandler, and Lieut. R. C. Kirtland. Capt. Chandler is now at the Wright camp at Dayton officially, to inspect aeroplanes and for further training.

The longest cross country flight that has been made from the camp, is to Frederick, Md., by Arnold and Chandler, 41 miles air line, to visit the National Guard camp there. Returning that night, Chandler broke up the machine, landing at Gaithersburg. It has been repaired.

Capt. Paul W. Beck is flying an eight cylinder Curtiss. He attended the Chicago meet on furlough. Lieut. Frank M. Kennedy, 10th Inf., is to be the first Curtiss pupil. Of course, there is a good deal of rivalry between the Wright and Curtiss men.

The two Navy aeroplanes, one Curtiss "triad" and one Wright machine are expected at Annapolis by September 1st. The work of the Navy in aeronautics, under the charge of Captain W. I. Chambers, is entirely independent of the fleet operations, despite the newspaper stories to the effect of aeroplanes to lie tried out at the fleet maneouvres at Prov-ineetown during August. However, Captain Chambers hopes to sandwich in some stunts when the opportunity offers. The assembled fleet has been doing target practice at kites and the Board of Ordnance has been urged to conduct an investigation in the subject of guns for repelling aerial attacks or frustrating aeroplane reconnoitering. This is still in the experimental stage.

The object aimed at by Captain Chambers, is the development of the naval aeroplane to the position of ship equipment and then assign one or two aeroplanes to each ship, just as life boats are part and parcel of the outfit.

NEW U. S. AEROPLANE GUN.

The Bureau of ordnance, Navy Department, for some time has been experimenting with a gun capable of being sighted through an

extreme number of degrees for high angle firing. The first photograph is herewith shown of the new gun, just tested at the Indian Head Proving Ground.

The Navy's High Angle Aero Gun

The gun used was an ordnance service one-pounder, on a mount especially designed to permit of filing at high angles without damage to the mount due to the excessive recoil. The cylinder seen on top of the gun is the recoil cylinder which is ordinarily carried under the gun, but was in this case placed on top so that it would not interfere with giving high angles of elevation to the gun. The remaining parts of the mount shown in the

photograph, are those ordinarily used with a three inch gun.

The recent experiments at Tndian Head were purely for the purpose of determining whether the mount as designed was sufficiently strong

to withstand the shock of vertical firing. The experiments were entirely successful and the information gained from them will be used in the further development of the service gun of this type, and, perhaps, in bringing out three and four-pounders.

NEW 2-MAN AMERICAN ALTITUDE RECORD.

The American 2-man altitude record of 3.0S0 ft. made by George W. Beatty, in his new Wright biplane on August 5, was the first record to be established at the grounds of the Aero Club of New York. Beatty had only just finished a two-weeks' course with A. L. Welsh, the veteran Wright instructor, who taught \V. Redmond, Cross, Edson P. Gallaudet, Wm. C. Beers, the first of America's long- hoped for amateur sportsmen flyers.

On Aug. 6, Beatty made his second crosscountry flight, over to Long Beach with a young lady, Miss O'Hagen. Here he landed on the sand of the beach. Taking up another passenger for a flight over the ocean, he experienced considerable trouble in starting and had to run along the wet sand close to the edge of the water, narrowly escaping the wetting of his planes. This was repeated, though he wet his tail in getting off, when he started back to Nassau with Miss O'Hagen. The night before he flew with a passenger to Long Beach and out over the ocean returning in the dark. The trip lasted 1% hours. This was the flight in which he made the new 2-man altitude record.

A goodly number have gained pilot certificates at Nassau, whose names are given elsewhere in this issue.

The weekly matinees of the A. C. of N. Y., have been omitted of late as the aviators there have been flying at Chicago and Boston. NEW McCURDY AEROPLANE

J. A. D. McCurdy, is back from Chicago with a new machine illustrated herewith:

A detailed description of this will shortly appear in AERONAUTICS. Its speed is over 51 miles an hour on a circular course.

This is the same type of machine that Mr. McCurdy used in the Chicago meet, one of which was burned when it came in contact with a live wire and was built to Mr. McCurdy's design by the Queen Aeroplane Co.

Dock Wildman, one of the new finds of the McCurdy-Willard Company, gives promise of becoming one of America's foremost aviators. His performance at Nassau Boulevard recently, in the rain, with this new machine was nothing short of marvellous. J. A. D. McCurdy and Dock Wildman have entered two of these machines in the Louisville Aero Derby.

GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE.

The following teams are expected to start from Kansas City, on October 5th in the international balloon race:

Germany.—Ing. Hans Gericke, Lieut. Vogt, both contestants in the last race held in this country, and Freiherr von Pohl.

France—Alfred Leblanc, Emile Dubonnet and Welby Jourdan.

United States—Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, John Berry and Wm. F. Assmann.

The Aero Club of America has made it obligatory that the American team be provided with rubberized fabric balloons, by reason of the fact that the trophy, if won by the home team this year, will remain forever in the United States, as the property of the Aero Club, as it has been already won twice in succession by representatives of the United States.

Lieut. Lahm has been awarded the Aero Club's gold medal, in recognition of his victory in 1906, whereas, all subsequent winners have been awarded medals heretofore.

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION CUP.

Henry A. W. Wood has been named a committee of one to take up with American manufacturers the subject of the defense of this cup, in 1912 and "will be pleased to hear at any time from those already thinking of building machines for next year's race. Let it be hoped that his efforts "to induce American builders to compete may be directed in such lines as to bring results this time.

$100,000 FOR 2867-MILE FLIGHT—MAYBE?

President Collier, of the San Diego (Cal.) Exposition in 1913, and president of the San Diego Aero Club, with John D. Sprec-kles, the Californian sugar king, both the "whole show" in the exposition, is endeavoring to raise a fund of $100,000 for the first aeroplane flight from tbe Fanama Canai to San Diego after the opening of the exposition. It is planned that the aeroplane carry a photograph of the first vessel to navigate the canal, which photogaph would be sold at a high figure to a Pacific Coast newspaper. A prize of $10,000

New McCurdy Headless Biplane 86

has been offered by the exposition company and negotiations are in progress with Mexico and Central American countries, with the expectation of bringing the amount up to $75,000 or $100,000. The distance in a direct airline is at least 2867 miles, over the snow-clad peaks of Mexico's old volcanoes and the Sierra Madre range of sky-puncturing ridges.

A route (might be followed along the coast, which would increase the mileage tremendously. However, the prize can not be taken seriously as yet, for like all other aero club presidents, with two or three exceptions, Mr. Collier is not up on aeronautics, either aerostation or aviation.

NEW PILOTS.

There are now 57 pilots who have registered with the Aero Club of America, and the latest who have obtained certificates are given below, with place and date of final test. Numbers are not assigned until license fee, photograph, and details as to birth, etc., have been furnished.

33 Harry N. Atwood (Burgess-Wright, Gov-

ernors Island, July 3rd and College Park, Md., ......................July 13th, 1911.

34 Lee Hammond (Baldwin), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I........................July 24th.

35 W. Bedmond Cross (Wright), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I........................July 27th.

36 William Badger (Baldwin), Mineola, L. I.,

................................. July 30th.

37 Harriet Quimby (Moisant), Mineola, L. I.,

............................... August 1st.

38 Ferdinand E. de Murias (Moisant), Mineola,

L. 1., ......................... August 1st.

39 Capt. Paul W. Beck (Curtiss), College Park,

Md............................August 3rd.

40 William C. Beers (Wright), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I., ....................August 4th.

41 George W. Beatty (Wright), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I., ....................August 4th.

42 Hugh Robinson (Curtiss), Nassau Boulevard,

L. I...........................August 4th.

43 Cromwell Dixon (Curtiss), Nassau Boule-

vard, L. I., ................... August 6th.

44 Matilde Eleanor Moisant (Moisant), Mineo-

la, N. Y., .................... August 13th.

45 Lieut. Roy Carrington Kirtland (Wright),

College Park, Md............August 10th.

46 Oscar Allen Brindley (Wright), Dayton, O.,

............................... August 3rd.

47 Leonard Warden Bonney (Wright), Dayton,

Ohio., ....................... August 3rd.

48 Lieut. John Rodgers (Wright), Dayton, O.,

............................... August 3rd.

49 C. P. Rodgers (Wright), Dayton, O.,

............................... August 7th.

50 Andrew Drew (Wright), Dayton, O.,

............................... August 8th.

51 Louie Mitchell (Wright), Dayton.. O.,

............................... August Sth.

52 .lames .1. Ward (Curtiss), Chicago, III.,

.............................. August 11th.

53 Charles C. Witmer (Curtiss), Chicago, 111.,

.............................. August 15th.

54 Shakir S. Jerwan (Moisant), Mineola, N. Y.,

.............................. August 26th.

55 Norman Prince (flying name: Geo. W. Man-

nor), (Wright-Burgess), Boston, Mass.,

.............................. August 29th.

5G Glenn L. Martin (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Cal., 57 Paul Peek (Rex Smith), Washington, D. C.

('apt. Charles De F. Chandler, LT. S. Army, and Charles F. Walsh, of California, will both shortly undertake the tests.

Beryl Joseph Williams, of Pasadena, California, wishes to pass his license tests at Santa Ana. Eugene Ileth (Wright) has also applied for a license. If. II. Brown (Wright) and Beckwith Havens (Curtiss) also are ready for their tests.

THE BOSTON MEET,

The Boston Meet, Aug. 26.—Sept. 4, met with bad weather after the first day, and flying had to be postponed to Sept. I. C. G. White (Nieuport and Farman) took most of the money the opening day. His Nieuport, the first to be seen in the States, attracted a lot of attention.

Very little interest has been shown in the affair. White, Sopwith, Coffyn and Atwood are taking up passengers at $50 a flight.

The following aviators are present:—

C. G. White (Nieuport and Farman); T. O. M. Sopwith (Wright and Bleriot); Geo. W. Beatty (Wright); Eugene Ely (Curtiss); Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss); Arthur Stone (Queen); J. V. Martin (Burgess "Baby"); H. W. Gill (Burgess-Wright); F. T. Coffyn (Burgess-Wright); H. N. Atwood (Burgess-Wright) ; Earle L. Ovington (Curtiss & Bleriot).

CALLS ON CUBTISS BY 'I'LAiVE.

Walter Johnson, who has been quietly doing some exhibition work the past year with one of the headless biplanes made by the Thomas Brothers, of Bath, N. Y., made a flying trip, cross-country the first part of August and called on Glenn Curtiss at Ham-mondsport.

He wasn't exactly expected at the Curtiss factory, but like the flea, he got there just the same. Starting from the Kirkham factory at Savona, some IS miles to the southward, by route, where a new 6 cylinder 50 h. p. Kirkham engine has been installed, he flew along the railroad to Bath, where he turned north. Here he picked up the little single track railroad, over which a train makes frequent trips—every time a new Curtiss aeroplane is shipped—and followed its winding course between the vineyard clad hills to the shore of Lake Keuka. For five miles of the route there is nothing to land upon but a rocky creek, the railroad and thousands of poles with clinging grapevines. Two days later he flew back with the wind behind him at 70 miles an hour.

The Hammondsport county is the Rheims of America. Like the Rheims of France, it is a champagne center as well as an aviation center; in fact, there is even a little town nearby called Rheims. What's that? Oh, is it on the map? Yes indeed! (You bet!) Curtiss and Kirkham have made it excell in aviation as their forefathers did in the revivi-scence of spirits.

BOY MISSING

Donald Renwick disappeared from Conesus Lake, N. Y., Tuesday night, August 8th. He is 16 years old, weighs about US lbs., 5 feet 6 inches tall, of slender build, has light hair which he brushed straight back, high forehead, blue eyes and dark eyebrows; was deeply tanned. In conversation uses excellent English.

He is intensely interested in aeronautics, and is conversant on this subject. When last seen he wore long yellow khaki trousers, a swimming shirt, and was without coat or hat.

Any information regarding the whereabouts of this boy, or which may lead to his recovery, should be communicated by wire to his father,

C. J. RENWICK, 508 Prudential Building,

Buffalo N. Y.

Received sample sopy and like your magazine very much. Inclosed find M. O. for a year's sul-scriptiun.— W. W. Swan.

I could not do without your magazine.—Ei'c.exe

G. KlGGS.

AEROXA'UTICALi M VM'FACTl'REKS ASSOCIATION Meeting September 18.

Members of the Aeronautical Manufacturers Association, representatives and non-members are requested to attend its second general meeting: to be held, September is, Saturday nialit, at the Motel Cimiberl mil. Broadway and 5ttli Str.et, New York, at s o'clock, P. M.

Now that vacations are over, cool weather is forecasted with usual Weather Bureau accuracy and aviation concerns and those concerned in aviation are getting back to earth, members are being urged to buckle down to work. During the summer the bylaws have been printed and distributed and a majority of the business houses have been invited to join. Many have already accepted and it is hoped that the coming meeting will have a goodly attendance, in order that the work may he prosecuted by those best fitted. Owing to the short notice, many were unable to attend the organization meeting. Out-of-town manufacturers and dealers are requested to make a special effort to come to New York on this date.

WESTERN ASSOCIATION FORMED.

The magazine "Aviation" has been able to form a concrete body on the Coast under the name Western Aeronautical Association. Its members include the Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., Eames Tricycle Co., Shaffer Aviation Co., Eaton Brothers, Gage Aviation School, Dosh Aeroplane Co. and the Aeronautical Society of California. Meetings have been scheduled in Los Angeles and San Francisco. This organization will co-operate with the Eastern body in the establishment of aviation at a fixed angle, in the elimination of frauds and fraudulent concerns, in the standardization of certain material, and in maintenance of reasonable prices.

The meeting, as stated before, is at the Hotel Cumberland, New York. September is. Please put this on your calendar.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

VEHICLES OF THE AIR, Third Edition, by Victor Lougheed, 500 pp., 270 ills., 8 vo., cloth, published by Reilly <fc Britton, at $2.75 postpaid. Subjects treated in this new enlarged and revised edition are: The Atmosphere. Properties and Characteristics, At Rest, In Motion, Meteorology, Winds, etc. ;-■—Dirigible Balloons, with drawings and photographs illustrating every type, their construction and all matters relating thereto;—Flying Machines of the various classes, with a history of the development of aviation;—Aeroplane Details, covering the various types of aeroplanes, taking up in careful detail the arrangement of surfaces, sustentation, balancing, steering and controlling, with full sketches and halftones of principal systems, scale drawings of the best known machines, and their details;—Propulsion, with thirty pages of data on propellers, mounting, efficiency, forms, etc.;—Power Plants, taking up the mounting, cooling, ignition, carburetion, and smaller details, as well as the subject of the transmission of the power;—Bearings is another chapter which covers thoroughly the subject of engine bearings;— Lubrication is the next important item to be discussed and this subject is exhaustively gone into;—Starting and Alighting is a chapter which takes up the actual flying

Curtiss McCurdy-Willard

of the machine, while Materials and Construction, and Accessories are covered in further sections of the work. A tabulated chronological history of aviation takes up a number of pages, beginning with the reported flights of the Middle Ages, through the first fledgling attempts of the twentieth century to the present period of astounding accomplishments in aerial locomotion. Lougheed's book was the first of its kind to be brought to the attention of the aeronautical field, and has held since a position in aeronautics comparable to Kent in engineering. This new edition, just finished, can be secured from the office of AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St., New York, at $2.75 postpaid.

C.VLRM)AK OF KVENTS.

•2—Eagle Grove, Nebr.,

aviators. 4—Louisville, Ky. aviators.

4—Little Falls, N. Y., C. F. Willard. 6—Lewiston, Me., Curtiss aviators. ■8—Wheeling, W. Va., Curtiss aviators. 8—Glean, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. 8—Providence, R. I., Curtiss aviators. 8—Lincoln, Neb., Wright aviators. 8—Wheeling, W. Va., Curtiss aviators. 9—Hamline, Minn., Wright aviators. 8—Smith Center, Kan., Curtiss aviators.

8—Marion, Ills., C. A. Zornes. 6—Corning, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. 7—Fremont, Nebr., Curtiss aviators. 7—Rome, N. Y., Chas. F. Willard and

Baldwin flyers. 8—Morrison, Ills., Curtiss aviators. 8—Bloomfield, Nebr., Curtiss aviators. 8—Clay Center, Kans., Curtiss

and Wright aviators. 9—Yankton, S. D., Curtiss aviators. 9—Cincinnati, O., McCurdy-Willard flyers.

15—Grand Rapids, Mich., Wright flyers.

12—Moscow, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. 12—Marshalltown, la., Curtiss aviators.

13—St. Jolinsbury, Vt, Curtiss aviators.

-15—Huron, S. D., Curtiss aviators. -16—Milwaukee, Wise, Curtiss aviators.

13—Red Lodge. Mont.. Curtiss aviators.

13—VV'infield, la., Curtiss aviators. -14—Ashland, Wise, Curtiss aviators. -14—Mandan, N. D., Curtiss aviators. -15—Chadron, Nebr. 14—Emporia, Pa., Curtiss aviators. 14—Youngstown, (»., Wright aviators.

-15—Lancaster, Wis. -16—McAlester. Okla. IS—Noonan, N. D., Curtiss aviators. 19—Ogdensburg, N. Y., Curtiss aviators.

-21—Uneonta, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. 22—Aledo, Ills., J. C. Mars. 22—Chippewa Falls, Wise. Wright and

Curtiss aviators. 21—Clarinda, la., Curtiss aviators. 21—Riverhead, L. I., Curtiss aviators. 22—Williston, Mont., Curtiss aviators.

22—White River Jet., Curtiss aviators.

-22—Billings. Mont., Curtiss aviators. -22—Ithaca, N. 'Y., Curtiss aviators. .22—Chanute, Kans.. Curtiss aviators. .30—Nassau Blvd., N. Y., open meet. 24—Carmen, Okla., Curtiss aviators. 24—Berlin, Germany, aviation meet. .30—Helena, Mont., Curtiss aviators. .29—Rochester, N H., Curtiss aviators. -28—Houghton, Mich.. Curtiss aviators. .2<»—Carlisle, Pa., Curtiss aviators.

.2*9_Canton. Ohio, open meet.

(Continued on page 111.)

Sept.

Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept.

Sept. 11

Sept. Sept.

Sept. 12

Sept. Sept.

Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. Sept. Sept.

Sept. 20

Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept.

In California this winter at famous Dominguez Aviation Field, Los Angeles.

Aviation School of the Aeronautical Society of California offers practical instruction, either monoplane or biplane.

Directed by Licensed Aviators.

Finest Flying Field in America.

Impossible to find a better course of instruction anywhere else.

For rates and other information, address

Aeronautical Society of California, Los Angeles

The location of the Western office of the J S Bretz Company of New York, has changed to 504 Ford Building, Detroit, Michigan, where J W. Hertzler, their Western representative, wili make his headquarters. A full sample line of F. & S. imported ball bearings, German steel balls. Star ball retainers, D. & H. master magnetos, Bowden wire mechanism, Hartford universal joints and clutches, and drop forgings will be displayed there for the convenience of the Western trade.

During the past month the following parties purchased Gray Eagle Motors: Raymond W. Garner of Davenport, la., Lincoln Aviation Co of Lincoln, 111., H. H. Hoover of Memphis, Tenn., Jesse Cooke of Fort Worth, Tex., United Aeroplane Aviation Co. of Chicago, 111., H. G. Baker of Harland, la.

The apparent demand for a reliable motor, selling at a reasonable price, shows evidence of what the aspiring aviators want from this list of recent purchasers.

Albert Elton, Youngstown, Ohio, Cadillac dealer for northeastern Ohio, has bought a model B Wright plane and will install his recently purchased Maximotor. He finished his aviation course at Dayton.

On August 14th, Maximotor Makers booked orders for nine Maximotors. They report recent receipts of from two to four orders a dav.

The envelope for the Vaniman dirigible has been completed by the Goodyear company and shipped to Atlantic City, where the airship is being assembled for its trans-atlantic trip

Lieut. Conneau (Beaumont) has won this year some $102,330, heading the list. Vedrines won, in the Paris-Madrid race and others, a total of $40,000, while Garros and Vidart have earned $30,000 and $20,000 respectively

A new exhibit has been added to those on view at the office of AERONAUTICS by the New York Aeronautical Supply Co., which is in good standing with the landlord at 50 Broadway, New York. It covers a complete line of strut sockets, beam connections, wire strainers, and parts. Ribs and struts are treated with a waterproof solution before the varnish is applied. Laminated work is guaranteed not to open up. The company has its own metal and wood-working shop and is shipping promptly. To visit the office is to be astounded at the number of standard type machines which must be building all over the country and in South America and the Argentine. If motor and aeroplane makers are complaining of hard times, the parts and supplies merchants certainly have no cause to grumble.

That there is a verdant field in Cuba and South America evidently is the opinion of this house, for it is printing a catalogue in Spanish.

P. S. The publishing business might be better, too.

Daffydills.

If Wilbur Wright has an ivory dome, has Henry A. Wise Wood?

If the Burgess machine Is pretty, Is the Curtiss aero—plane?

I i/iit more assist/nice from the pat/en of Aeronautics than mi)/ one individual could tjirc me. Through Aeronautics mi/ inventions have been improved tenfold.—.Toe W. N.u'ue.

I could not do trillion! uouv mu//n.;inc.— Kicene

(J. llKitiS.

/ altraiis look forirard eagcrhi for each succeeil-ing ixxue. I onlii irixh Akuonai'TK's came nftcncr. "It's a long time between drink.* !"—J. 1. 1..

7654

NEW WOKIjD RUCOKDS

World Altitude—11,642 ft., Aug. 20, Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss 50).

World Two-limn Duration—3 his. 42 min., 22 1/5 sec, Aug. 19, G. W. Beatty (Wright 30).

World Climliiiig Speed—500 meters in 3' 35", T. <J. M. Sopwith (Bleriot 70) and Rene Simon (Bleriot 50), tied, August 19th.

\'KW A 31 Kit IC W UUCOKDS

Vltitnd.—11,642 ft., Aug. 20, Lincoln

Beachey (see above). 10.S37 ft., Aug.

IS, P. O. Parmelee (Wright 30). Two-man Speed for 10 km.—7 min. 50

sec. T. O. M. Sopwith (Bleriot 70),

Aug. 17, 1911. Three-man Speed for km.—6 min.

56 2/5 sec, T. O. M. Sopwith

(Wright), Aug. 15. Fastest Two-man Speed in 31. 1*. II.—

57.7S5 m. p. h., T. O. M. Sopwith

(Bleriot 70). Aug. 17. Fastest Three-man Speed in >l. 1*. H.—

34. 6 m. p. h., T. O. M. Sopwith

(Wright 30), Aug. 15. Two-man Duration—3 h., 42 m.. 22 1/5

s., G. W. Beatty (Wright), Aug. 19.

2 h., 11 m., 35 s., G. W. Beattv

(Wright 30), Aug. 12. 2 h., 4 m.,

A. L. Welch (Wright 30), Aug. 12. Three-man Duration—1 h., IS m., 22 s.,

G. W. Beatty (Wright 30), Aug. 13.

1 h., 10 m., 26 s., T. O. M. Sopwith

(Wright 30), Aug. 13. 0 h., 4 m., 20 s.,

F. T. Cottyn (Wright 30), Aug. 12. One-man Climbing—See under "World

Records."

Weight Carrying—45S lbs., P. O. Parmelee (Wright), Aug. 19.

Two-man Altitude—30S0 ft., Geo. W. Beatty (Wright), Nassau Boulevard, Aug. 5.

TWO men lost their lives, 3 new world records were made, 300,000 people were present and aviators received $101,114.87 at Chicago, Aug. 12-20, the second big meet which has been held in this country; one which outshone the other at Belmont last fall. The Wright Company won $16,029 and received royalties of $100 a day from Rodgers, Beatty, Sopwith, Brindley and Drew, independent Wright flyers. Curtiss' men got $27,291, Moisant $8,143. The largest single winner was Sopwith who drew down from the paying teller $14,020, while the smallest was poor Lewkowicz who, with his Queen Monoplane, won 60 cents in a flight of IS seconds, plus 250 expenses for having his machine on the grounds. The expenses of the meet were approximately $195,000 and the total receipts were $142,901 leaving a deficit of over $50,000 for the promoters to face.

The Chicago Club produced one of the world's best exhibitions of flight without drawing in the least upon foreign talent. Every contestant, except Mestach, was already either an American or one who had been in the country, flying, for the past few months.

There were no accidents to aviators beyond the two fatal ones, but many accidents to machines occurred and an auto truck was kept fairly busy carting machines to sheds, minus wheels, or skids, parts of wings, etc.

The Aero Club of Illinois is the first club In the world to conduct a meet on a purely

sporting basis, in the same manner, practically, as horse-racing is carried on. Entrants, except the big exhibition companies, had to put up a $1,000 bond to insure then-attendance. When their machines arrived each received $250 in cash and another $250 after a flight of 5 minutes had been mide. The exhibition companies had to take their chances on winning enough to make their entries pay. How well they succeeded is shown by the figures. In the case of the Wright aviators, the policy of no-Sunday flying lost for them considerable of the total duration money. The independent flyers of Wright machines, Beatty, Rodgers and Brindley ran their duration up to top-notch figures, Rodgers within four hours of the greatest possible obtainable.

A year ago such a meeting would have been impossible, for guarantees were demanded by all aviators and none had the stamina before to start purely sporting events.

The field was very small, indeed, right on the edge of Lake Michigan, a spot always known as windy—and isn't Chicago called by those who do not live there, the "Windy City?" On some days, starts had to be made with the wind blowing straight out over the lake, as there was no room to start against the wind. The Wright company would not allow its men to take any chances of failing to get off and dropping in the lake, and the machines could not get off running along with the wind from the side.

The turbulent air currents came down from over the roofs of the skyscrapers lining one side of the field and blew down on the aeroplanes as they tried to rise.

The nine Curtiss machines went through the meet without accidents other than the smashing of propellers, due to carelessness. Beachey and Ely flew on one day when the other machines could not get off the ground and demonstrated that they could fight out any wind.

Beachey's flying with his "headless machine put him decisively at the extreme pinnacle, both figuratively and literally. He flew himself to fame greater than ever before and won more money than any other aviator using one make of machine. In the free-for-all race on the 16th he beat Oving-ton, in his 70-horsepower Bleriot in 12 miles.

His world altitude record was a feat which may stand unbroken for a long while. He started on his 2-mile climb knowing that he might fail because of the small capacity of his fuel tank, even expressing doubts of the result. He kept on. however, until he had drained the tank dry and then glided down every foot of the way. Beachey actually was in the air two hours when he had gas' enough for but an hour and three-quarters.

The barograph showed that he climbed steadi-lv and came down steadily at a sharper angle. The line on the record sheet goes straight up to its highest point, and then directly down at an angle still more nearly the perpendicular. He took about 1 hour and 4S minutes to go up and 12 minutes to come down.

The best flving of the meet was done by Beachev, Ovington and Welsh. The most interesting events were the races over the lake to a crib some four miles out, and back, in which Ovington and Sopwith with their 70 Bleriots had it touch-and-go. In the straightawavs the 70 Bleriots had a little the best of it over Beachey, Ely and Ward, but the latter made up considerable on the turns. Beachey carried a passenst-r 8 miles in 10. min. 19.87 sec.

The Wright company had four sizes of machines ft the meet, the standard 39-foot machine, the 32-foot and the two smaller ones. The 8 cvlinder engine, seen at the Belmont meet last year, was installed in one of the

THE CHICAGO MEET

A

ma

SiilillMllBW1*"!! ti^n KW""11----

libit IIHH

The Chicago Aviation Field on the edge of Lake Michigan.

escorted by Brindley (right).

Atwood (left) is arriving,

big- machines for weight carrying and quick starts but was discarded. Parmelee used the 32-foot machine in making his altitude record.

The Curtiss hydro-aeroplane, a special feature, attracted a deal of attention flying above the boats on the lake, over the grounds, and back to the lake again. Robinson flew out to the Johnstone machine when it fell in the water and was ready to assist in the rescue work. The use of this craft for rescue work was demonstrated effectively. Robinson could get to the scene at a rate of a mile a minute and could always land within but a few feet of the desired spot.

When Rene Simon, of the Moisant flyers, fell into the lake with his monoplane. Robinson alighted within a few yards and drove his hydro-aeroplane up until the little French aviator could touch it with his band. Robinson wanted to take Simon off his wrecked monoplane, but the Frenchman refused to leave it until a tugboat arrived and fastened lines to his machine for the purpose nt towing it ashore.

Again, when St. Croix Johnstone fell in his monoplane and sank in at least 40 feet of water, Robinson, who was in the air at the time well out over the lake, flew to the spot where Johnstone sank, alighted on the water and cruised about for ten minutes, hoping that the unfortunate aviator would rise to the surface so that be might rescue him. Johnstone, however, was fairly trapped in his machine and never rose to the surface. Robinson stood by the wreck until dredgers and motor boats arrived on the scene and located the body of Johnstone.

George W. Beatty, although a novice flyer, one might say, having received his pilot certificate at Nassau Boulevard only a few days before leaving for Chicago, was one of the bright stars of the meet. He flew the Wright model B owned by Walter B. Davis, of New York, the same one as used at Nassau Boidevard on August 5th when he made the new American

two-man altitude record of 3,0t>0 feet. He finished second with the total number of hours in tbe air.

Sopwith, Mho was the biggest single winner, used both a 70 h. p. Bleriot and a Wright which be purchased from William C. Beers at Nassau Boulevard just before the meet. This be altered and fitted the Farman universal control lever, with foot-yoke for'the rudder.

The several Queen monoplanes met with disaster and Lewkowicz got but one chance to fly and that lasted just IS seconds. Tbe 100 h. j). Queen was not tried. Mestach was not very experienced with his Morane. the first to be seen in this country, and landed only two prizes. Cummings did not fly at all and loaned his 50 Bleriot to Ovington, who used it three days of the meet. Frisbie came to life at Chicago with his Gnome-engined Curtiss-type and did good flying.

Baldwin had bad luck with his own three machines. Hammond dropped the SO h. p. Hall Scott-engined Baldwin 3 miles out in the lake, then broke the propeller of a second through a pliers having been left on the plane. This was the old Baldwin school machine. Badger broke up the third and Mars did his living on Baldwin's old Curtiss 50. The new McCurdy machine hit a live wire and burnt up.

On August 7, papers were served upon officers of the International Aviation Meet Association, in a suit brought by the Wright Company, which alleges that the machines competing are infringements of the Wright patent. A share of the profits and damages are asked.

Each aviator was allowed "expenses" of $500 after he had flown for 5 minutes. Two dollars was paid for every 60 seconds an aviator was in the air, in addition to all prize money won in contests provided that tbe sum thus earned exceeded his prize winnings alone, in which case he was given the difference between the prize winnings and the total at the $2 a minute rate. Where no prizes were won the $2 a minute rate was applied.

The totalization of duration prize originally was $10,000 but as the unearned prizes amounted to $6,000, this amount was added to the original $10,000, divided according to the ratio of the division of the first amount. These figures give the money received, whether as prizes, at $2 a minute, both, and the expense money allowed.

Four days before the meet opened, Rene Barrier (Moisant) made one evening flight high above the field and over the lake but this was his only one as his doctor forbade him to fly.

The meet closed officially on the 20th but on the following day a benefit performance was given by all the aviators for the widow of St. Croix Johnstone.

Correct List, Contestants and Results.

Totalization of Duration. Total money Rodgers, C. P., (Wright 301. .27:00:16 $11 Beatty, G. W., (Wright 30). .24:21:58 Brindley, O. A., (Wright 30).23:44:54

Ward, J. J., (Curtiss 50)____20:36:34

Welsh, A. L., (Wright 30).. .19:49:46

Beachey, L., (Curtiss 50)____14:33:05

Simon, (Bleriot, 50 Gnome).. 9:55:47 Sopwith, T. O. M., (Bleriot,

70 Gnome & Wright 30) 9:14:56

Ely, Eugene, (Curtis 70).....7:28:13

Ovington. Earle L., (Curtiss

50 & Bleriot, 70 Gnome) 5:04:49 Parmelee, P. O., (Wright 30) 5:04:0S Turpin, J. C, (Wright 30)... 4:21:07 Mestacb, Geo., (Morane, 50

Gnome) ................... 3:53:48

Gill, H. W., (Wright Baby 30) 3:45:17 McCurdy, J. A. P., (McCurdy,

50 Gnome) ................. 2:55:55

Frisbie, J. J., (Curtiss-type,

50 Gnome) ................. 2:49:43

Mars, J C, (Curtiss 50)..... 2:44:0S

Martin, J. V., (Burgess

'•Baby," 50 Gnome)........ 2:03:43

Brookins, W., (Wright 30).. 2:3S:11 Hammond, Lee, (Baldwin, SO

H-Scott) .................. 1:51:46

Beck, Paul W., (Curtiss 50). 1:03:53 Stone, Arthur, (Queen. 50

Gnome) ................... 1:01:28

Coffyn, F. T., (Wright 30).. 5S:56 Robinson, H. A., (Curtiss 70) 55:51 Baldwin, Capt. T. S., (Baldwin, 60 Hall-Scott)........ 2S:02

Drew, Andrew, (Wright 30). 17:13 Witmer, C. C, (Curtiss 50).. 13:38 Bonney, L. W., (Wright 30). 09:19 Lewkowicz, L., (Queen, 50

Gnome) ................... :1S

James Cummings (Bleriot, 50

Gnome) ................Did not fly

Johnstone, St. Croix, (Moisant

50 Gnome)

Badger, W. R., (Baldwin 60 Hall-Scott) ................

Atwood, Harrv N., (Burgess-Wright) ...................

For Curtiss Hydro-aeroplane

4:56:36

2:2S:00

Rec'd 285.00 ,125.00 ,351.00 ,413.00 ,121.00 667.00 ,050.00

020.00 4,672.00

i,900.00 4,451.00 1 022.23

967.60 2,450.00

2,400.00

2,000.00 S2S.27

750.00 816.37

1,050.00 900.00

622.93 650.00 611.70

556.07 650.00 527.27 51S.63

250.60

250.00

1,093.20

900.00

,000.00 ,500.00

Totals ....................206:31:1S $101,364.87

THE CANTON MEET.

The Aero Club of Ohio, in conjunction with the Business Men's Association and the Stark County Agricultural Society will hold an aviation meet at Canton, September 27-29, and propose to spend $50,000 on the affair. Negotiations are pending for the aviators who have been flying at Chicago, and it is expected that three women monoplane drivers will also enter.

I am taking several other papers now, but 1 will subscribe as soon as they expire, a» I would lather have your paper than all the others put together.

Newton Lumm.

BEACHEY WON INTER-CITY RACE.

The first American inter-city race, flown between New York and Philadelphia, on August 5th, was won by Lincoln Beachey with Hugh Robinson a close second. Hamilton, who was an added starter to take the place of Eugene Ely (who first planned to be one of the three), at the last moment resigned his chance to Elv again, who flew after all, according to the firs't plans, though he was totally unprepared for the trip.

Starting from Governor's Island, a United States military post situate in New York Bay, all three flew their machines up the Hudson River several miles, then turned diagonally east directly over the great transatlantic docks and ferry-slips, the tenements and factories to above the Gimbel department store, at 33rd Street and Broadway, the center of the shopping district of New York, keeping at a height of 2000 feet. They were timed here officially for the start of the flight, which ended oflicially at the Gimbel store in Philadelphia, a distance of 82.8 miles in straight lines from Gimbels to Trenton, to Gimbels.

Beachey was the first to start and the first to arrive over the Philadelphia crowds. After passing the line he started in to give the Quaker City a free show, flying around William Penn's statute on the City Hall, before he flew off to the final landing place in Fairmount Park where thousands of people were worrying the mobilized police of the Sleepy City into, for the time being, unwonted activity. Here Beachey made his machine do the tricks of a bronco in the throes of heing "broke." It was nearly a half hour later before Robinson arrived. He had lost his way just before reaching Trenton, N. J., and made a wide detour, stopping once at New Brunswick. Both aviators stopped at Trenton for gasoline.

Ely and Beachey were pretty close together at Rahway but over Princeton Junction a plugged feed, so it is said, caused Ely to descend. Both Beachey and Robinson ran into a rainstorm and were soaked to the skin. The three flyers encountered a 15 mile head wind all the way to Philadelphia.

The total duration of Beachey's time was 2 hours, 0 minutes; that of Robinson, 2 hours. 50 minutes. Counting only actual flying time, or time in the air, from one Gimbel store to the other, the figures are as follows:

Beachey ............1 lir. 50 min. 1-8 sec.

Robinson ............2 Ins. 8 min. 47 sec.

Ely descended after 56 minutes flight approximately, not counting 2 stops at Princeton Jet., and New Brunswick. Beachey's average flying speed ..45 miles per hour.

Robinson's average Hying speed ..3s miles per hour.

Gimbel Brothers donated a prize of $5,000 and arrangements were made with the Curtiss Exhibition Company for the race. Luncheons to the newspaper men, and friends, were given at the Gimbel stores on Thursday and Friday preceding the contest.

Beachey used his headless machine and Robinson one of the late type standard Curtiss machines, as did Ely. who flew a new one direct from the factory. All were fitted with Curtiss 8 cylinder 50 h. p. motors. Naiad cloth is used for' covering the surfaces, El Arco radiators cool the water from the droning motors which are kept running by the sparks from Bosch magnetos.

Fokmkk Itorxn Titir of Hamilton

On June 13, 1910, Charles K. Hamilton made the trip to Philadelphia and return, making no stop on the way to Philadelphia. He covered this 74.31 miles in 103 minutes. On the return trip he made a landing at South Ainboy, which increased the distance to 53.12 miles returning and the flying time by one minute. His average speed for the 149.511 miles covered was 43.34 miles an hour.

The fourth day of the Chicago meet saw the fatal accidents to William R. Badger, of Pittsburg, and St. Croix Johnstone, of Chicago, a Moisant flyer of a year's experience. Badger was little more than a novice, having only gained bis pilot certificate two weeks before the meet opened. Badger was making a sensational slide downward in his Baldwin biplane, with the full power of the big Hall-Scott engine behind him, tbe terrific strain upon the machine in "leveling up" suddenly exceeded the limit and the 'plane collapsed. The builders of the Baldwin machine assert that the stay wires must have given way under the sudden pull. The machine was reduced to a mass of wreckage. Although the poor aviator was rushed to a hospital he died after a few moments. No official report has been made by the Aero Club of Illinois, nor has an investigation been made into the death of Johnstone, who, with his machine, dropped beneath the surface of Lake Michigan.

Badger came to Chicago direct from Mineola where be bad been learning to fly under the tutelage of the veteran Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, known everywhere for bis extreme caution. "Uncle Tom" has always found it difficult to keep his enthusiastic young proteges, Hammond, Badger and Mars, from being a mite what you might call reckless. His first public exhibition, Badger was a little inclined to "show off." He wanted what all want, the plaudits of the multitude, however reckless or foolish it might be in its demands for sensations. Many an aviator and automobile race driver has taken one chance too many in order to please or appease the wanton spectator. The demands of the excitement seeker are alike, whether in the bull rings of Spain and Mexico, the saucer tracks of the bicycle race, the hurdles of Longchamps or Belmont, the prize ring, the lightning-fast Brooklancls and Indianapolis, or the aerodromes of an aviation "meet:" a secret desire that "something will happen." The showman's realization of this is his stock in trade. The power-driven dives and spiral shoots are to the aviator the loop-the-loops and Hying rings of the former.

Before the horror of this catastrophe had begun to pall upon the enormous crowd, Johnstone plunged into the lake about a mile out. Robinson, who was in the air nearby en bis hydro-aeroplane when it occured, flew to the spot, but nothing was to be seen but the tail, the propeller and some sticks of Mood floating upon the water. The fast motor boats which came up managed after >me time to recover the body from the tangled wires and sticks. Doctors tried to resuscitate Johnstone, but gave it up after nearly an hour's efforts. It was the opinion of one of the doctors considering the small amount of water which came from the lungs and a severe cut, that the aviator sustained his immediate death by being hit by a portion of the aeroplane rather than by drowning.

Hugh Robinson describes the accident as follows:—

"High above me I could see Johnstone winging in the clouds. He was 2,500 feet in the air and traveling slowly. Fully two miles out from land I saw him change his course and start downward. He came with terrific speed. I thought at first he was merely 'sliding' to obtain a different air stratum.

"When he was 500 feet from the water I saw lie was in trouble. His planes were not working right. Down it shot toward the water at a sickening speed.

"I didn't think of Johnstone dying at that minute. 1 thought, 'Now I'll get to him and save him.' 1 started my hydro-aeroplane and

gave it full speed. I was fully a mile away, but I made the distance in not more than a minute.

"I could see Johnstone every second from the time the monoplane collapsed until he struck the water. Johnstone was standing up in the cockpit when tbe aeroplane started down, and he was still standing when it struck the water. I can see him now standing there, helpless, his arms in the air, seemingly frantically trying to balance the mass of wreckage.

"As the waters closed over him he went in feet first. I doubt if he thought of death. He was too busy thinking of righting the shred of a machine.

"It couldn't have been more than ninety seconds from the time he hit the water until I was landing near the wreckage and hunting for him, although it seemed an hour. I was almost crying, because it seemed to me that machine of mine wouldn't get up enough speed. I pulled every bit of power out of it it had.

"When I reached the wreckage the ripples were still on the water. Above the water the tail of the machine was sticking and for feet around were bits of wood and canvas. The machine had been torn to pieces by the fall.

"I worked the hydro-aeroplane into the wreckage and then scouted all around. I cut in circles, hoping that Johnstone had started swimming. I knew if I found him 1 could carry him on my planes until the launches came.

"1 couldn't get sight of him, however. It was fully ten minutes before the launches and pleasure boats arrived. I was satisfied by that time that Johnstone was dead beneath the wreckage."

KISSIAX A'KMV A1RJI \X KILLED.

ST. PETERSBURG, Aug. 29.—Lieut. Zolot-nehin, a Russian military aviator, fell with his aeroplane while making a flight here today and was killed.

KIMSII1E KILLED.

NORTON, Kan., Sept. I.— J. J. Frisbie was killed by a fall in a Curtiss biplane at the Norton County Fair. He met with an accident the day before, and went into the air again only when driven to it by the taunts and jeers of the crowd. He lived for about an hour.

Frisbie, an old parachute jumper, was flying for the Curtiss Company. He began in 1910 with a machine he built himself.

FRENCH AVI VTOIt II UK AED IN AIIDAIK.

TROVES, France, September 2.—Lieutenant de Grailly, of the Eighth Cuirassiers, was burned to death in midair.

The disaster probably was caused by the explosion of the fuel tank, the burning fluid being scattered all over the machine. The blazing aeroplane fell with Its pilot at Rigny-la-Nonneuse, about twenty-five miles from this city, and he was completely incinerated.

ANOTHER ARMY OFFICER KILLED.

NANGIS, France, September 2.—Captain de Camine, one of the most experienced aviators in the French army, fell with his monoplane while flying here today and was killed instantly.

ENGLISH AVIATOR KILLED.

LONDON, August 2. Gerald Napier, a young English aviator, met death last evening while flying with a passenger at Brooklands, in a Bristol biplane. Napier was driving a biplane and a sudden gust of wind dashed the machine to the ground, killing him instantly. His companion was thrown clear of the wreckage and escaped uninjured.

ANOTHER DEATH.

.1UV1SV, France, July 23. Charles Joly, in a 70 li.p. Voisin biplane, was killed.

DEATH OF BADGER AND JOHNSTONE

The Model B Wright, with "Blinder" Modified, at Chicago Meet.

THE WRIGHT BIPLANE, MODEL "B"

THE first tiling that strikes an observer on seeing one of the new Model B machines that are being delivered to customers of the Wright Co. is the neat appearance of the entire machine. This is due not only to the finishing of the parts, but in a great measure to the harmony of the entire design. A cursory glance at the machine does not at once reveal such strength and solidity as a closer examination makes evident. A study of all the various details of construction brings one to realize that every part has been thought over and carefully designed for its particular use and position.

Unlike most of the other machines on the market this one is not intended to be completely taken down for shipment. The front portions of the skids are so hinged that they can be folded back parallel to the main planes, and the foot rest folds up out of the way. The rear outrigger to tail taken off complete, slid between the main planes from one end, and tied to the struts, the machine may be put in an end-opening box car. Of course, the assembling takes a very short while, which is a desideratum for military as well as private use, and there is no danger of the planes being poorly set up.

The machine is highly finished in every part. (Exposed strut-sockets and connections, wires, hinges, straps, planes, etc., are nickel plated. The woodwork is of bright aluminum finish. This is obtained by dusting aluminum powder on a specially prepared wet varnish, giving a harder coat than a covering of varnish alone. This is rubbed down and the final finish is like that of a piano.

' About sixty men are now employed at the Wright factory at Dayton, turning out duplicates of this model. Russell A. Alger, Robert J. Collier, Redmond Cross, Wm. C. Beers, Edson Gallaudet, A. S. Cochrane and other wealthy I amateurs are recent purchasers. A number have also been sold for exhibition work, on a royalty basis. George W. Beatty used a Model B at Chicago, where he made a new world 2-man record. C. P. Rodgers took first prize for totalization of duration at the Chicago meet with standard Model B.

OTHER MODELS. The older machines, as will be remembered, had a biplane elevator out in front and no rear

elevator. The machine Wilbur Wright first flew in France, and the first Government aeroplane was of this type. Following these two in 1910 a rear elevator was attached and worked in combination with the front elevator. At the Asbury Park exhibition, 1910, the headless machine made its first appearance. This was one of the same machines as then standard, with the front elevator merely removed. With slight increase in the size ofi the rear elevator, the machines from that time on were headless, and as new machines were built, the outriggers formerly used to support the front elevator were left off. In the Model B, put out in 1911, the front construction was shortened up, and the "blinders" at the front end of the skids were made a little larger. In July the new machines of this model had in addition, a pair of rectangular blinders under the upper surface in the middle section.

Starting was formerly accomplished on a rail; first with a falling weight, and later without. The first headless machine was equipped with a running gear, the same as in use today, and this got off the ground, no matter how rough, without the use of any outside assistance. Starting rails have not been used with the Wright aeroplane for over a year.

Model R, the "roadster," was first shown at Belmont meet, in the fall of 1910. Of these, the only one in the hands of sportsmen is that of Alec Ogilvie, in England. This spreads 2C,y2 feet, planes 3 feet 7 inches fore and aft and weighs 585 lbs., equipped with the standard 30 h.p. motor. This type was used by Johnstone when he broke the world altitude record at Belmont, making 9714 ft. It is without doubt, for the horsepower the fastest climbing machine in existence, according to times and altitudes measured at Belmont meet. Ogilvie made a speed of 52 miles an hour in the 1910 Gordon-Bennett race with 30 horsepower.

A special racer was built for the Belmont meet, with but 22 ft. spread, with a special S cylinder 60 h.p. motor, but this, unfortunately, was smashed before it crossed the line in the Gordon-Bennett. A 32-foot machine, one passenger, has also been built for exhibition work where the grounds are small.

DETAILS OF MODEL B.

Main I'hiiies. These have a spread of 39 ft. 1 and a chord of 6 feet 2 inches, and are each 1 built up in three sections. Tbe cloth, which is I prepared by tbe Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., is I laid diagonally, being attached to each section I separately and the sections laced together. The I cloth covers both sides of the planes. The main I spars are of spruce, as is the most of the wood- I work, lV by lV, the greatest dimension I being vertical in the front spar and horizontal I in the rear spar. They are larger in the middle I section of the lower plane, being 1%" by 2V6" I for the front and 1V4" by 2]/2" for the rear where I ash is used. There are 34 ribs to each plane, I spaced a foot apart in the center and wider I toward the lateral extremities of the planes. I The ribs which come near struts are solid be- I tween the main spars. The others are built up I of an upper and lower strip, with blocks spaced I about six inches as distance pieces. The two I ribs that support the engine and the two seat I ribs are the only ones between the spars of the I lower plane for the center six feet.

There are nine pairs of uprights of various I sizes, the outer two sets on each end being se- I cured to the planes by the familiar flexible joint. I the remainder by a sort of socket joint, both I being illustrated herewith. It is noticed that I a few turnbuckles have made their appearance I in the center section. This is doubtless in order! to be able to replace the engine or other parts! with greater ease. All the steel piano wires! not fitted with turnbuckles are cut to length! and are interchangeable. When setting up the! planes the wires are attached and the struts are! then sprung in place. These guy wires are cut! and the loop bent by a special tool at the fac-H tory. As the wire used has a breaking strength! of from 800 to 2400 lbs., according to size, it can! be seen that once the plane is set up there wil! be no occasion for further adjustment through! the stretching of the wires.

The curve of the planes is 1 in 20, the greatest! depth being two-fifths back from the front! edge. The aspect ratio is 6.25.

Saiiiilrnirntarii Ft sal /Surface*. The little semi-! circular blinkers in the 1910 machines have! given place to two sets on the latest machines! This is due to the fact that greater area is required, now that the skids have been short! ened up. The shape and location of these arm shown in the drawings.

Vertical /{udder. This is, in general, of the! same construction as in tbe early models! although somewhat smaller. The rudder is] operated by the combination warping and direction level', as shown in the sketches. As shown,J this lever also warps the wings. By "break-1 ins" tbe top section "B" either to the left o! the right alone, (without moving the balance ofj the lever from its normal or other position), thel rudder only is moved to steer left or right, re-l spectively. In making fiat turns, without bank! ing, this top section only of the lever is used! The movement is entirely a natural or instinc! tive one.

This separate movement of the rudder is ob-l tained by having tbe sector "D," movablyi mounted, capable of individual action with re-| spec t to lever section "A," through the steell tube actuated by the section "B" of tbe lever.l The wire which goes over the top of sector! "D" must go to tbe left side of the rudder cross-l liar.

FJeralor. The front third of this surface is held rigid while the rear two-thirds is flexible! This is" operated by forward and back move-] men! of the elevator lever, as shown in thel drawings; the wires being crossed so than pushing out on the lever steers down and pull-l ing toward the operator steers the machine! up. The cloth is laid on diagonally ("on tha bias") and only one thickness is used, th! ribs and spars running through pockets in th! c loth.

There is a second elevator lever, which call be used by a student passenger, who woul! then do the warping (and rudder) with his righl

AERO. CS

hand. Some of the Wright aviators use the seat next the engine, with the warping lever at the left. Others, taught by these, sit on the outside seat. This second elevator lever has a disc ttaehed, encompassed on its periphery by a flat steel friction band to hold the lever in any set position.

Transverse Control. While the control of the machine does not appear to be instinctive, it certainly is easy to learn, and after having been once firmly impressed on the mind, seems to be very satisfactory. It would seem that the exertion of moving the warping lever fore and aft is a great deal less than if it were arranged to nun e sideways as in some other machines.

The warping is done by the lever "A". Pushing forward, raises the left wing and depresses the right. The same movement turns the rudder to the left—the side having the lesser angle of incidence, when the lever as a whole is used, not being broken at the joint "C."

Tlie wiring for the warping is shown in the diagrammatic sketch. The rear spars of the two end sections of the planes are hinged to those of the center section, so that warping may be accomplished without Hexing the spar.

The lever arrangements have varied on many of the machines. Some are ilown with the aviator using the left band for warping. Students taught by these, use the right hand for warping, as a rule. This is now the practice in "breaking in" flyers, in order that any passenger or other weight they may carry will occupy a central position on the machine and retain the balance. However, one or two machines have been put out with 2 warping and 2 elevator levers, for those who desired to fly together and who had both learned the use of the same hand for warping.

THE MAKING OF SPIRALS.

Referring to the sketch of the combination warping and rudder lever, the wooden lever "A" is jointed, or hinged, at the top. The short section "B" turns left or riidit on the axis "C for independent rudder action. The lever as a whole moved forward warps the left wing up and the right wing down, at the same time turning the rudder towards the left (to offer resistance to the side having the lesser angle of incidence). The elevator is also warped down to enable the aviator to gain speed, and the machine has begun to bank, the right side being the higher.

Next, this combination lever as a whole is gradually brought back to normal position, as the 'plane is now half way to being "on end." At this stage, with this lever (as one) normal, and the wings straightened out, the top section of the lever is "broken" over to the left which turns the rudder only to this side. This operation is gone through in making the short circles, or spirals, for which the Wright machine is so famous. The operation for turning to the left has been given. For right spirals the reverse must be done.

Care must be taken to straighten out before the machine has banked at so steep an angle as to make recovery impossible. In the sketch the Section B is broken to the left, turning the rudder only to the left.

Power Plant. The 4 cyclinder, vertical, motor is rated as 30-35, and the brake horsepower runs, on test, in conformity with the rating. Frequently the brake horsepower is more. The engine in Beatty's machine has shown 42 horsepower on the block. The cylinders are 4 s8 inches bore, by 4-inch stroke, rated by the A.L.A.M. at 30.6 horsepower. The gray iron cylinders are cast separate and have aluminum water jackets held in place by steel rings shrunk on. The nickel steel crankshaft is cut from a solid block, as is the camshaft. A camshaft within the crankcase operates overhead valves by means of rocker arms. The connecting rods are of hollow steel, "T" shaped ends, on bronze and white bronze bearings. For shutting the motor off the exhaust valves are

September, 1011

MOdEL R,(9I0

AERONAUTICS

Scpi'eml

ro RoHT vj Mi

-ALUM. CASTING -war ping

lOLLACLON SI-IAF-T

THL7 V7ARPiri6 RUbbltR. LlrVErR-

lifted, when a wire over the head (if the operator is pulled. A cut-out is used when desired, to short-circuit the Mea magneto which is driven off the camshaft through steel gears on the outside of the crank case. Gasoline is fed directly into the cylinders by a gear pump placed on the right side of the engine, the gasoline entering a vertical tube through a jet orifice. This pump controls the amount of gasoline fed the engine in direct ratio with the engine speed. This vertical tube leads to the center of a simple horizontal equalizing manifold which opens direct to the inlet valves. The only method of controlling tbe engine speed is by advancing or retarding tbe spark. In the Mea high tension magneto the. spark is of the same fatness at any advance, through its manner of construction. A foot lever pushed out against a spring retards the spark for starting the propellers. There is a catch on the magneto to hold it in retarded position so that the operator may start his own machine, without danger of its running off before he gets in the seat. Oiling is effected by a gear pump inside the base, with a glass sight which shows the level of oil in the reservoir from which the oil is pumped to the trough under each cylinder.

The cylinder head and valve cases are not water jacketed, but are made very heavy. The Inlet valves are automatic, with light springs. The weight of the bare engine is 180 lbs.

Cooling is through a vertical tube radiator which has a capacity of three gallons, sufficient for 6 hours' running. The tubes of this radia-

tor are now made fish-shape, instead of rectangular as before. Circulation is by centrifugal pump.

The gasoline consumption is about four gallons per hour, the 12-ga"llon tank carrying sufficient for three hours' flying. A gauge on the gasoline tank shows at all times the relative amount of gas remaining in the tank.

The engine is mounted at either end of the base on cross-members which in turn rest on the engine foundation ribs, which are solid. Duplicate sprockets screwed and locked to the crank shaft back.of the flywheel, drive through specially made Diamond nickel steel roller chains the two propellers, the gearing being in the ratio of 11 to 34. At an engine speed of 1,325 revolutions, which the engine turns up during flight, the propeller speed is 428 revolutions, with a flying thrust of about 250 lbs. The mounting of the propellers on their short chrome nickel steel shafts is shown in tbe drawings. Iless-Bright ball bearings are used. The chain can be tightened by means of the adjustable stay.

The early engines were 4" by 4", then 4>i" by 4" and now 4%" by 4".

In starting, the propellers are turned (with the compression "off") to fill the cylinders with gas. Then the compression rod is pushed in, the magneto retarded and tbe propellers given a quick pull.

In gliding down, or preparing to land, the compression is released and the propellers rotate solely by their impetus or by reason of tbe air

FORWARD OR LCA/tR A"TURM5 RUbbER Ltf-~X Allb WARR5 RIGHT WIM6 DOWN AH5 LErfT VING UP. "BREAKING" ^ErCTIOM "B" TO Ltn, WITH LOWCR ^tCTIOM /10RHAL, TURM5 RUDbER OriLY-TO LtP"T

DIAGRAMMATIC VIEW WRIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM

currents, without any braking effect of the pistons. Compression may be obtained again during flight by pushing back the rod mentioned above.

Landing Gear. Wheels are used in combination with the usual skid arrangement. There being no need for the skids extending so far forward, after having done away with the front elevator, the skids have been shortened until they are only long enough to make the likelihood of tripping the machine rather remote. The exact mounting of these wheels is illustrated herewith.

Weight. The machine weighs, with operator, and passenger, ready to fly, in the neighborhood of 1250 lbs. The weight thus carried per horsepower is about 40 lbs. The weight carried per square foot of supporting surface, on the abo\e basis, figures out at 1\k lbs. Lancaster gives the Wright machine an efficiency of 63(/r, after deducting 5% for loss in the chains. The new book by Eiffel, just published, makes the remarkable statement, in view of the known facts, that it takes 30 horsepower to fly the Wright machine, which is obviously an erroneous conclusion.

THE WRIGHT MACHINE BY YEARS. For the first time is given a complete series of pictures showing the Wright aeroplane in each stage of its development. In the early

power machines of 1903 to 1905, the aviator was flat on his stomach and the engine, even, was laid on its side. In 1905 the rudders and elevator were placed further from the main planes.

Wright Running Gear.

In the spring of 100S, after a period of three years devoted to business negotiations and experiment, flights were renewed at Kitty Hawk, N. C, the scene of the early glides and power

Left Side of Wright Engine

flights, and the world "sat up and took notice" for the first time. Later in the year, Wilbur Wright went to France with one machine, shown in the illustration, while his brother, Orville, demonstrated the Government machine at Washington. After creating untold interest in Europe, Wilbur returned to this country. In the meantime the unfortunate accident occurred at Washington and a year later a new machine was demonstrated to the Army officials and accepted. Then, the experiment was made by Wilbur Wright at College Pnrk of takingolf the uoper surface of the front biplane elevator and attaching it rigidly to the

The Mea Magneto used in all Wright Machines

tail, at the rear of the rudder. Next, this rear stabilizer was made movable and connected with the elevator lever, working in conjunction with the front elevator, which was generally used as a biplane.

In the summer of 1910, after a number of exhibitions had been given throughout various cities of the United States by a corps of aviators who were taught to fly at Dayton, a machine made its appearance at Asbury Park's exhibition, minus the front elevator altogether. It was just merely left off, the usual supporting struts remaining. From that time on, all machines were made headless and the two diagonal struts which stuck out were sawn off and small "blinders" were put on. Next, the front outriggers were shortened up, as we have explained in previous paragraphs.

TO FLY FOR HEARST PRIZE.

Robert C. Fowler, a dark horse aviator, with a stable of four Wright's is to start before the middle of September, from Eos Angeles for the Hearst $50,000 coast-to-coast prize. A weal, by Californian is backing the endeavor, which will cost any contestant, according to the estimates

figured out by well known aviators, aiij where from $30,000 to $50,000 to carry through.

Burton H. Dreyer, of Toledo, is now at Nassau Boulevard with a 70 horsepower Gnome engine, Bleriot copy, made by the Brooks people of Saginaw, Mich. Dreyer will start during September and lly West.

HARRY N. ATWOOD, an aviator of but three months' experience, who made a new American cross-country record by flying from Boston to Washington, 461 miles in straight lines, June 30 to July 10, between the days of August 14th and 25th began and concluded another flight which beats by nearly a hundred miles the best previous cross-country flight, the Circuit of Europe, which took 19 days and which distance was 1,073 miles, measured in straight lines from town to town. Atwood's flight, carrying a message from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch to the New York W'orhl, measured from stop to stop, totals 1.155.B2 miles from the point of start at St. Louis, Mo., to the point of landing at Governors' Island, New York. The distance measured by the railroad, which Atwood followed pretty generally all of the way, has been figured up at 1,266 miles. No official attention has been paid the flight, unfortunately, by any club and no figures that can be verified are available of the exact time of flight, nor of the distance. As Atwood veered even from the railroad course at times to fly over some town, his distance undoubtedly considerably exceeded even the 1,266 miles.

In recording this wonderful flight among the annals of aviation history, mention must be made of the fact that no repairs were made throughout the entire distance to the Burgess-Wright aeroplane, beyond re-babbitting two bearings at Nyack, within twenty-five miles of New York. And this was the same machine used in Atwood's flight from Boston to Atlantic City. Although two complete machines followed the intrepid aviator by express, they were not touched. Aside from the personal victory, manufacturers of the Goodyear fabric and tires, the Roebling wire and Mea magneto will come for their share of the glory.

Using the greater mileage as a basis, the daily average is 105 miles. Not a day Intervened between any two stages—the daily grind was accomplished irrespective of wind or rain.

Very little money came the way of the aviator, despite his wonderful achievement. About $5,000 were the net proceeds. Victor J. Evans, patent attorney of Washington, offered a prize of $10,000 for the flight if it could be done between the dates of August 14 and 27. It was attempted to secure prizes from the cities along the route, stops to be made in those cities which hung up a purse. This scheme was only partially successful and at Lyons, N. Y., Atwood broke away from this arrangement by the payment of some $4,000 and continued his flight to New York according to his own desires. On the evening of the 25th Mr. Evans presented the prize to Atwood at the Hotel Knickerbocker.

ATWOOD MAKES NEW WORLD DISTANCE FLIGHT

3liles in I-' Days. Summary of the Flight.

Distance by path..........1,26G miles

Distance, straight line, from town

to town ...............1,155 miles

Duration of flight............12 days

Actual time in the air 28 hrs. 53 min.

Mean speed........43.9 miles per hr.

Mean daily flying time. 2 hrs. 27 min.

Mean daily mileage.......105.5 miles

Started from St. Louis,......Aug. 14

Landed New York...........Aug. 25

Walking record for same distance ......................22 days

Atwood starting from the top of the Palisades at Nyack. Note the wing warp and the air. tanks.

Atwood carried with him on the machine a suit ease, with some clean clothing and a few tools. No passengers were carried, though an attempt was made to take up Leo Stevens for the stage from Elkhart. It was, however, found impossible to get off the ground in the small field. A pair of cylindrical copper tanks, 9 ft. long, 10 ins. in diameter, were attached to the machine at Castleton for the flight down the Hudson River. The wire stays used in this machine were made 2 gauges heavier than usual and ferrules were used at strut ends at those points where they are wrapped with twine in the Wright machines. Where plates eome together and are generally riveted, welding is done to make doubly sure. All ribs were "box."

In 1910 two prizes were open for cross country flights; one of the N. Y. Times of $25,000 for a flight from Chicago to New York and the other of the N. Y. World and St. Louis Post-Dispach, $30,000 for a flight between St. Louis and New York. Neither were contested for.

Both prize offers expired by the end of the year. The World offer was open for six months, the Times prize was for a race starting a set day.

There is no prize open for 1911, save the Hearst coast-to-coast flight.

\OTE:—The first column of fiijuvs represent railroad miles: the second, mile* in xlrait/ht line: the third, filling lime.

The Kllglil Duy by Day.

AUG. It.

ST. LOUIS ...............

SPRINGFIELD. ILLS.. 98

PONT 1 AC, ILLS.......97. .

CHICAGO. ILLS......91..

283 259.92 6:12

This was the longest day's flight of any. Passed through two rain storms. Averaged

46 miles an hour. At Pontiae a supply of gasoline and oil was obtained and dinnei was had at Springfield. The landing in Chicago was at the aviation field on the third day of the meet there. Further than the rain, the weather was fine and Atwood took it easy.

AUG. 15.

CHICAGO...................................

ELKHART, IND......101 ......89.87......2:16

AUG. 16.

ELKHART PETTI SV1LLE, TOLEDO, O.,

O.,

. .97. . .37.

. .92.55......2:06

. .37.28...... 35

134 130.13 2:41

Getting into Toledo, Atwood flew with the wind which increased his speed to 65 miles an hour. Atwood had railroad time tables with him and at towns swooped down low to read the name on the stations. His speed for this day's flight was 50 miles an hour.

AUG. 17.

TOLEDO...................................

VENICE, O...........55 ......41.60...... :59

SANDUSKY .......... 3...... 2.24...... :05

CLEVELAND ........65......53.92...... 1:26

123 97.76 2:30

Average speed 45 miles an hour. From Toledo all the way to Buffalo, Atwood had the wind sideways off Lake Erie. The wind was especially bothersome from Toledo to Cleveland.

AUG. 1S.

CLEVELAND, O...........................

SWANVILLE, PA..... 84 ...... 87.68 ...... 2.07

From Cleveland the speed dropped to 39 miles an hour. The start was made from Cleveland on a narrow strip of sandy beach, narrowly skimming the lake. Puffy side winds all the way. The course followed along the edge of Lake Erie.

AUG. 19.

SWANVILLE

ERIE .......

BUFFALO . .

.11.

.88.

99

. 8.00. .81.28.

S9.28

. :14

.2:09

2:23

At Swanville the start was made in a strong wind. Arriving at Erie one new sparking plug was inserted, the first mishap of any kind, if such it may be called.

BELLE ISLE . . . FORT PLAIN . .

Averaging 44 miles an hour, with the air so calm that Atwood either flew with his hands in his pockets or became absorbed in the doings of the hero in the railroad timetable, Fort Plain was reached without incident, where he was enthusiastically received by Ginseng Bill.

FORT PLAIN CASTLETON .

.66.

.53.44.

.1:32

From Fort Plain, Atwood followed the Mohawk River for a way then cut off below Albany to the Hudson River, which he followed to Castleton, where he changed his second spark plug. He stopped 15 minutes at a small town named Glen for gasoline.

AUG. 24.

CASTLETON GARRISON . NYACK ____

. .86. . .23.

109

101.44

.2:05 , :32

2:37

At times flying here was 60 miles an houi, the fastest speed that has ever been made on, under or above the waters of the Rhine of America, first navigated by power when Fulton sailed to Albany in the Clermont. Since then the Hudson has seen Wilbur Wright fly over its lower end, and Curtiss flew its distance in 1910. Before crossing the river to land on the east bank at Garrison, Atwood circled over the parade ground at West Point, in the expectation of landing, but the air currents which are always bad at this narrow and crooked part of the river, made him finally go further.

AUG. 25.

NYACK ......

NEW YORK.

.28......2S.00.

GRAND TOTALS .1,266

1,155.62

. :46 2S:53

Finding something wrong with the engine, a landing was made necessary at Nyack, on the top of the high hills which a little lower down the river form the Palisades. Here two bearings were found to be burnt out. These were babbitted again over night, and in the dense fog of the next day, the 25th, flew down the rest of the way to Governor's Island, where he was cordially greeted by the officers of the military post.

AUG. 20.

BUFFALO ................................. ^

LYONS ..............104......96.00......2:11 4.

AUG. 21. +

LYONS ..................................... +

AUBURN ....................22.88...... :56 *

BELLE ISLE ........40 ...... 15.68...... :32 %

38.56 1:28 *

AUG. 22. 4>

....................... .g,

.95......83.84......2:10 *

*

AUG. 23. *

+

............................ *

JCqgnetc

BOSTON-WASHINGTON

ATWOOD

BURGESS COMPANY and CURTIS

Marblehead. Mass., Aug. 28, 1911. Messrs. Marburg Bros., Broadway and 58tli St., New Yotk, N. Y. Gentlemen:—

Allow me to congratulate you upon the high quality of the Mea magneto which served so well on my flights fiom Boston to Washington and from St. Louis to New York.

It may interest you to know that Hie only control over the motor was through the retardation of the spark as no throttle or other control of the gasolene supply is provided. The method of control through the spark has given satisfactory results in all of my long distance flights.

Yours very truly, (Signed) HARRY N. ATWOOD.

+

! WRIGHT X

USED BY

SIMPLEX

BURGESS-WRIGHT MERCEDES AUSTRIAN FIAT HALL-SCOTT MAXIMOTOR

ASK FOR CATALOG No. 9

MARBURG BROS.

1777 BROADWAY —NEW YORK—

ST. LOUIS-NEW YORK * +

WHAT f

HAS TO SAY I

PARAME, France. Sept. 4.—Flying over the sea here to-day, Garros broke the world's aeroplane altitude record by ascending 13,!)ia.

Tlie 2 y\u\i \l(i(n<le Itecort'l. It was reported from England that Comte de Montalent and passenger flew up to 2,200 meters (7,216 ft.) in his P.reguet biplane at Brooklands, Aug. 9. Conf irmation of this will be awaited with interest.

1-Man Altitude

ETAMPKS, France, Aug. 5.—Capt. Felix director of the Military Aviation School, ascended 3350 metres in his Bleriot, (10,988 feet) breaking the aeroplane record for height. The ascent was made in 59 minutes, and the aviator planed down in 6 minutes. The flight lasted in all 1 hour 15 minutes.

The official record for altitude had been held by Legagneux, who at Pau, France, last December rose to a height of 10,168 feet.

The late Archie Hoxsev reached an unofficial height of 11,474 feet at Los Angeles, Dec. 26.

Vedrines Flies 496 Miles.

PARIS, Aug. 9. Jules Ved'ines (Mo ane) the French aviator, broke the record for a longdistance Hight over a closed circuit in competing for the Michelin Cup. He covered 811.2 kilometers (504 miles; in 10 hours 56 minutes and 42 seconds beating Loridan's mark.

Vedrines flew over a mensured course of 101 kilometers. In the third round he stopped 22 minutes for gas and oil, and 50 minutes in the 6th and 7th. His official record stands at 800 kilometers for this prize. His average flying speed was 93 kilometers per hour. The 10 hours 56 minutes includes the 50 minute stops. He used the same machine which covered the 1010 mile British circuit. His actual flying time was 8 hrs. 54 min. 45 sec.

Cody Finishes 1010-Mile Race.

BROOKLANDS, England, Aug. 5.—Capt. F. S. Ody limped back to Brooklands today, two weeks after his departure on the 1010 mile Circuit of Great Britain. His French rivals Beaumont who won, and Vedrines, completed the course in four days.

With the arrival of ("apt. Cody the coir, e-tition, in which only four men out of nineteen finished, is ended. The other man to finish the entire course, placed third, was J. Valentine, who reached home the night before. These two though badly beaten by the Frenchmen, made it a point to show that all British aviators and machines could start if given time enough.

Vedrines, after finishing second in the big race, flew home to lssy, near Paris, on Aug. 4, using the same machine. He stopped oncn at Dieppe, after crossing the Channel. He covered 290 kilometers in 2 hours 35 minutes. New Michelin Trial.

SAINT CYR, France, Aug. 7. Eugene Re-naux (M. Farman) came near to Loridan's (H. Farman) Michelin Cup record made July 21, 700 kilometer, when he covered 657 kilo-melers (41S miles) in 11 hours of actual flying: time for stops not counted.

New 2-Man Distance Record.

CHARTRES, France, July 30.—Level (Sav-ary biplane) heat the two-man! <ii tance record by doing 2U.79 kilometers. His time w;is3 hours 13 minute^ 3.5.8 seconds. The duration record up to the time of the Chicago meet, was held by Amerigo. 3 hours 19 minute--.

Bevels other records made, Julv 9, are:—

2 hrs...............................151 kil.

3 hrs.............................224.85 kil.

200 kil..............2 hrs. 38 min. 26.4 sec.

Beats Vedrine's Recora. MOURMELON, France, Aug. 26—M. Helles, a young French aviator, has broken Jules Vedrine's long flight record in competition for the Michelin Cup. He covered 860 kilometers.

AERO

Engines for Sale.

ENGINE FOR SALE.—A. Hani man, 30-H. P. engine; Eisemann magneto; late model; bargain at $400. Address Harriman, care AERONAUTICS. TF

FOR SALE—One 50 H. P. 4 cylinder, 4 cycle, Harriman engine. We bought this engine for a biplane, but the plane was a failure and was never completed, the reason we are selling. Harriman Co. selling this engine for $1,650, our price with two propellers, $700.

LE BRON-ADAMS AEROPLANE CO.,

313 So. I2th St., Omaha, Neb.—Sep.

FOR SALE—An 8 cylinder "V Type," aviation engine, 30-40 H. P., in perfect'condition. Very little used. 270 lbs. thrust driving, 7' 6" dia., 4" pitch propeller. Demonstration to prospective purchaser. $560 complete, including brand new Boseh magneto and propeller. Address "X," c/o AERONAUTICS.—Sept.

FOR SALE AT A SAORI Fl CE.—Five brand new four throw crank shafts, finest vanadium steel made by P. II. Gill, Brooklyn, N. Y. Suitable for 25-30 II. P. engine. Reason for selling, we are no longer building engines of this size. For price, specifications, etc., address quick,

ENGINE BUILDERS, Care Aeronautics, Sep.

MART

1'ositlons Wanted.

EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, experienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer to give flying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care "AERONAUTICS."

Sep.

Csirlmretiir Mights for Salt'.

FOR SALE—The J. M. Automatic Carburetor for sale. Rights sell for $2.00 or 20'"o in same to manufacturers. John McDonald, Jr., Point Prim, P.E.I., Can. Sep.

Iliisiness Car<ls.

J. ED. SHERIFF, MECHANICAL ENGINEER AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DE-SIONS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW YORK. Dec.

\«To|>lanes for Sale.

AMATEUR AIRMEN:—Full size MONOPLANE ready for power, $75.no. One passenger; fine flyer. Four cent stamp for particulars. Send now. 10. C. MINERT AERO CO., 1122 West Locust St., Davenport, Iowa.

Sep.

FOK SALE CHEAP—Curtiss (Type) Hiplane. length 33 ft , width 30xf> ft., $3.50.(10. r>oH.I\ U.K. AVIATION MOTOR Al condition, with two 7-ft. Propellers,* t,34 and 5:,4 ft. pitch, one ti-gallon Gasolene Tank and one 3-gallmi Radiator, .*.500.(K). TENT Al condition, 40xtid ft.. Hi ft. wall. $175.0(1. First come, first served.

LOUIS O. EKICKSON. K72 Liberty St.. Springfield, Mass.| -Sept

GARROS MAKES NEW ALTITUDE

THE Aeronautical Society in its promotion of aeronautics lias made good progress in the past month in the way of affording facilities for members' benefit. Its regular semi-monthly lectures and discussions have been particularly good.

Mr. Alfred Thompson, a noted scientist and authority on Vanadium, gave an interesting lecture, illustrated with lantern slides, showing the comparitive merits of Vanadium steel with other steels. The Society is publishing this lecture in full detail in bulletin form, showing tables and cuts used, which will be forwarded to its members and to the interested public upon request.

Thursday evening, August 10th, was very interesting, tbe discussions for the evening being devoted to Internal Combustion Motors, presented on all sides by tbe following speakers: R. B. Whitman, "Gas lOngine Principles," Lewis R. Compton, "The Two < ycle Engine", Jas. G. Dudley, "The Two Cycle Engine". Hugo C. Gibson, "Tbe Four Cycle Engine and

Common Misunderstandings", George S. Bradt. "General Faults in Motors", Ernest A. Von Muffling. "Tbe Six Cycle Motor".

Members in general at tbe meeting joined in the discussion on the merits of the two and four cycle motors, and information of considerable value was brought to light.

Thursday evening, August 21st. was the evening devoted by the Society to a general discussion and a special talk by Mr. Arthur It. Mosler on "Spark Plugs and Their Construction in General". Mr. Mosler exhibited numerous models and samples of Spit Fire plugs and explained their operation and advantages.

Mr. R. E. Sabin gave an interesting talk and special information on "Air Holes", with demonstrations on blackboard.

The Society will continue to hold informal meetings every Thursday evening at its Club Rooms, 250 West 54th street, while the Entertainment Committee has arranged a series of notably interesting lectures and talks for the Fall and Winter, which will be held on the General Meeting nights—the 2nd and 4th Thursdays of each month.

It should be noted that the Technical Board of the Society, composed of twenty-five eminent men from all sections of the country, is doing exceedingly valuable work. This Board is sub-divided in the following committees: Standardization Committee, Research Committee, Record Committee, Construction Committee.

Each of these committees is at the special service of members seeking advice, co-operation or assistance in advancing the particular work the member may have in view.

The Aero Club of California, Los

Angeles, has changed its rooms to 1140 South Hill street. The club is also taking steps to acquire new grounds nearer the city.

The Eaton Brothers and Co., have established a flying ground at Hyde Park, a suburb of Los Angeles. They are manufacturing biplanes at present. They have a machine of their own make, a Curtiss model, but modified as to the running gear, which is partially a Sommer.

They have two engines, a Hall-Scott 60 h. p. and a Ford automobile engine. Tins engine (Ford a 22 h. p.) has been tuned up until it gives between 30 and 35 h. p. and Warren S. Eaton is making daily flights with it.

In fact, the engine works so well that he is able to take up a passenger. Mr. Eaton is one of our old club members. Though young in years, being but 19, we expect to see him de-

velop into one of our crack flyers in the near future. He is a graduate of the Los Angeles Polytechnic High School, where he received his mechanical training.

Frank Champion, a Long Beach boy, in a Bleriot belonging to Earl Remington, (50 b. p. Gnome), made a cross-country Right from Dom-inguez field to Long Beach and return on July 30th. This is his first flight in this country. A year ago he went to London and took lessons in flying. 1 am informed that the Aeronautical Society of California, has secured Pominguez field for its Hying ground. This flight lasted about 45 minutes and the course lay partly over the ocean.

H. La V. TWINING

The Trenton Aeroplane Club, Trenton, N. J., has been incorporated.

Mechanics' Aeronautical Association is the

name of a new club at Rochester, N. Y. Officers are as follows: President, George Boulton; vice-president, Fred Dengler; corresponding secretary, H. H. Simms; treasurer, Howard B. Nurse: governors, Fred Robinson, Charles Rick and Glen Atkins. Communications will reach the club in care of Mr. Nurse, 301 Cutler Building.

The Continental Aero Club has been formed at Richmond, Ky.; Capital $1,000. Incorporators: W. F. Higgins, W. J. Newson, H. R. Tevis and S. ,E. Norman.

Aeronautical Research Club of the Y. M. C. A.

Buffalo, N. Y., formed during August. The officers elected are: President, N. E. Corrin; Vice-President, James Steller; Treasurer, N. E. Marks; Secretary, H. C. Myers; Consulting Engineer, C. L. White.

The \rro Club of California, with Earle Remington as president, has been established as a sort of combination business and club arrangement and bids fair to survive its birth. The Society has secured Dominguez Field for its flying grounds.

Author of "V'elileloN of the Air" ItcNlgiiN Chicago Club.

Chicago, August 12th, 1911. Mi-. Grover F. Sexton,

Secretary Aero Club of Illinois, Auditorium Hotel, Chicago.

My dear Mr. Sexton:—

1 am surrendering herewith my membership card, and with it tender my resignation in the Aero Club of Illinois, the same to take effect immediately.

Feeling that many of my friends in the club mav expect and arc entitled to some explanation, 1 am herein stating my reasons for this action.

When I enlisted in the formation of the club, it was then clearly intended that its organization was for the effective and intelligent promotion of aviation progress In this locality, and it was anything but my understanding that it was to be utilized in any wav as a vehicle for the furtherance of personal interests or social ambitions on the part of any portion of Its membership. Assuring him of this view, I prevailed through personal friendship upon Mr. Octave Ohanute to lend his great prestige

to the infant club, by becoming its first president—an office that he most reluctantly agreed to accept, and then only with the distinct stipulation that the example of a well-known and much-criticised eastern aero club, which had degenerated into an association of millionaire balloonists, was the type of thing to be avoided at all costs.

The outcome I regret to state, has been anything but what was hoped, and certain aspects of the present International Aviation Meet enterprise compel the realization that The Aero Club of Illinois no longer offers any opportunity whatever for men not bulwarked by money, nor rated in society to contribute to the progress of aviation. Instead, there has come into being a sordid self-seeking on the part of individuals—an almost complete subordination of practical and personal interest in aviation to a chiefly academic regard for and a social patronage of its possibilities.

One of the principal purposes behind the organization of The Aero Club of Illinois was that of casting off the domination or the Aero Club of America, an essentially local New York Club, which because of its early formation, usurped and has sought to maintain control of aviation sport throughout the country, and has thus succeeded in constituting itself a clog upon rather than a help to flight development. At one time, when a secession of western clubs from the Aero Club of America was led in New York by the writer and other members of The Aero Club of Illinois, it appeared as if the democratization of the sport was really in prospect, but since then everything accomplished has been practically nullified by almost a complete acquiescence in almost every imposition of the eastern club—even to the extent that the superserviceable secretary of the Aero Club of America has been employed to define and dictate the rules of the present Chicago competition.

The meet itself, under the guise of a nonprofit-paying corporation, has been turned into a salary-disbursing business organization, and its management vested in the hands of a man with the tact of a Missouri mule, whose only claim to the special knowledge desirable for the place inheres in the fact that he has a p_ull with the city administration and was a notorious local politician out of a job.

Concerning the question of passes and admissions, which it has been attempted to magnify into the reason for the fast-growing criticisms of the meet and its management, this has been left arbitrarily in the hands of favored officials, who have utilized their authority to favor their friends and antagonize others. Already this question has become a sore subject with almost every working newspaper man or other person having legitimate a business at the fields or hangars, and already there are many representatives of the press who have paid admissions or missed news rather than waste time in the continued attempt to secure that to which every tradition of their profession and every interest of the meet legitimately entitles them. And yet it was a matter of general consent Saturday afternoon .'that while everyone with proper business instead of a special pull was bullied away from the hangar enclosure—a place of undoubted danger if overcrowded—this place was packed with from one to two thousand friends, and friends of friends of certain meet officials—a stripe of petty grafting that naturally excited criticism.

As for the quality of the exhibition that is furnished, while this is certain to prove vastly attractive to the numerous local population whose interest has been heretofore almost unsatisfied by Chicago's unparalleled and wholly unnecessary backwardness In aviation, every expert in this

field of engineering knows that it is anything but what so important and populous a community has a right to expect at this time for the amount of money expended. Indeed, Chicago is being made to pay heavily for a show that is not even as good as can be seen for nothing at almost any time, at any of the European aviation grounds, or even at the grounds of the Wright company in this country. Yet there should have been no difficulty, for the same expenditure, in bringing to Chicago, for the time at least, practically every world's aeroplane record, thus making the most constitute an epochal point in the history of aviation. Instead there is billed simply a hippodrome exploitation of such aviation progress as had been made up to about a year and a half ago, at which time there were plenty of flyers capable of doing everything that is going to be seen at this meet.

This condition has resulted largely from the patently ill-advised policy of refusing bonuses and guarantees to the great flyers of the world, whose claim for special financial consideration has been recognized at all other meets and is most legitimately based upon the fact that they are the men who have spent their money and risked their lives for the experimenting and the manufacturing that have afforded the most important results. The effect upon the quality of the meet as a result of this no-guarantee policy is readily discoverable in an analysis of the entries, which have shrunken from the much-touted list of fifty to the actual appearance of sixteen, the eliminations including most of those from whom really notable results were reasonably to have been expected. Those left include little of novelty aside from Curtiss' interesting hydroaeroplane and a lone Morane that is one of the first of its type to reach this country. The rest are a few Curtiss machines, one antiquated Bleriot, three or four American counterfeits of ancient Bleriots, and a considerable number of Wright biplanes, which can be depended upon to carry away the lion's' share of the prize money. And had it not been for the Wright's fortunate eleventh-hour decision to forget 'for the time their own serious differences with the meet management, this most considerable portion of the show would not be in evidence—with the effect, for example, that the eight machines in flight at once on Saturday would have been reduced to three.

It is evident to all who know that from such an aggregation of slow and obsolete aeroplanes there can be little hope of new records coming—unless by the process of claiming them instead of making them, as was done in the case of the passenger flight of Welsh on Saturday, which despite the misstatements to the contrary, does not supplant the three hour and nineteen minute flight made by Amerigo abroad, nor the one made in France on July 1, by Level in a Savary machine, M. Junquet as a passenger. Similarly mediocre, and equally significant of what is to be expected here, was yesterday's flfty-mile-an-hour speed record when compared with the world's official speed record of eighty miles an hour, and numerous unofficial records abroad in excess of one hundred miles an hour.

The time is fast approaching when there will be room in Chicago for an aero club that will concern itself with the problem of flight and the advancement of flight, rather than with circus exploitation and society patronage of the men who are doing things in this field of engineering. And such a club will depend for its strength not upon wealth lavished upon the snectacular end of a hobby, but upon a membership of the men who are building and improving aeroplanes and flying them.

I am,

Sincerely, VICTOR LOUGHEED.

AERONAUTICS PRESS. Inc.

250 Wot 54th St.. New YorL

anyone will credit us with charging- fake against Ovington, Baldwin and Willard whose names were mentioned, but several minds, who obviously must be quite dense have endeavored to make it appear that we have classed these gentlemen, friends with those referred to above in quotation marks. We hope that this paragraph will make it clear to all.

Cable: Aeronautic, New York 'Phone 4833 Columbus

A. V. JONES, Pres'l E. L JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — J. C. 8URKHART, Ass't Editor

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WHOLESALE WRIGHT SUITS.

Attention has been called to the wording of a sentence which appeared under this caption, in the fifth paragraph, in the August number. While the sentence perhaps is a little bit obscure as to meaning, it was certainly intended to make a distinction between those well-known aviators who were specifically mentioned, and "the large number of lesser lights who are killing the chances for future meets or exhibitions all over the country, by failing to satisfy the public, or even fly at all in many cases." It does not seem possible to believe that

COMMENDABLE, BUT INCONSISTENT.

In a recent bulletin issued by the Aero Club of America, the following resolution occurs: "RESOLVED that the Aero Club of America strongly deprecates the practice of flying over large cities at this stage of the development of aeronautics; that this practice presents in many cases danger to the public and offers no particular good or utility, from a scientific or any other standpoint, and that any accident brought about thereby at this time would greatly discourage the progress of the Art by arousing popular prejudice against it."

This is but following in the wake of foreign clubs, some of which have suspended pilots for flying over thickly populated districts. It is undoubtedly a step in the right direction, and, if consistently followed up, will tend to decrease cross-city flying, which certainly presents features of a dangerous nature at the present stage of the art.

Resolutions, however, are of little use when not consistently backed up by a judicious exercise of authority; and, in this case as in many others that we might mention, the Aero Club has painfully demonstrated the truth of the old saying, "Consistency, thou art a jewel!" In short, just a few days after the issue of the aforesaid interesting bulletin, a cross-country contest was officially conducted under the auspices of a club affiliated with the A. C. A., which contest involved flying over the most thickly populated parts of at least two cities, New York and Philadelphia. Moreover, at least one of the machines in this contest was new and untried and an aviator of wide reputation refused to take the risk of flying it without trial.

LTp to the present writing, we have not heard of the Aero Club rising up in righteous indignation on account of this flagrant disregard for its "resolutions," nor have any of the aviators concerned been threatened with excommunication, so far as we know. All of which causes us to remark, with tears in our voice, "Consistency, old top, cheer up; the worst is yet to come!"

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The Adams Company, Dubuque, Iowa, who in 1S98 built the first revolving cylinder motor that actually ran, and since 1903 have been building the Adams-Parwell car, driven by a motor of this type, are now turning their attention seriously to the production of high-powered aviation motors, and have brought out a 72 h.p. motor, revolving vertically, as shown by photograph herewith.

Since most of the laurels won by heavier than air flyers have gone to motors of the revolving cylinder type, this new motor, by the world's first builders of that type, is of especial interest. In addition to building Adams-Farwell motors and cars, the Adams Co. are large manufacturers of machine tools and hardware specialties, so have not found it necessary to market an aviation motor in the experimental stage.

In some respects this motor is very similar to the five cylinder revolving motors used in the Adams-Farwell automobile, having the same number of cylinders, the same single throw crank, the same positive oiler and the same crank construction. In other respects, however, it is quite different, being designed from the ground up solely for aviation purposes, and revolving in a vertical plane, so that it may be direct connected to propeller shaft or have propeller mounted directly upon the motor for aeroplane work.

The most interesting improvement found on this motor and no doubt, the most important advance made in the construction of aviation motors since the introduction of the revolving cylinder type, is the elimination of the carburetor and employment of injection with a means for absolutely regulating the amount of gasoline injected into each cylinder, and insuring that all cylinders will receive exactly the same mixture. This also makes it possible to do away with the inlet valve, and employ one valve for both inlet and exhaust, as only air is drawn in by the suction stroke of the piston, while the gasoline Is sprayed within the cylinder where it is mixed with the charge of air before compression. Having but one valve in the head of the cylinder, it can be made amply large to insure a full charge and a free exhaust.

In order to relieve the cam controlling the action of all five valves from the heavy load of opening a large valve against the high pressure at the time exhaust takes place, the cylinders are provided with auxiliary exhaust ports, which are uncovered by the piston on its downward stroke. No check valves are required over these auxiliary ports, as on the suction stroke, pure air and not a mixture of gas is drawn in, so what air is drawn in through the auxiliary ports on the suction stroke becomes a part of the explosive mixture in the cylinder, and being a constant quantity does not affect the operation of the motor.

The control of the motor is entirely taken care of by regulating the amount of gasoline used, and the only adjustment that might be construed as belonging to the carburetion system, is the valve by means of which this control is accomplished. The motor is not sensitive to adjustment, and the speed may be regulated through quite a wide range by this simple means.

The lubrication system above mentioned consists of an oiling device covered by one of Mr. F. O. Farwell's patents. This oiler consists of a single rotary member much resembling in form the cylinder of a revolver, with longitudinal chambers bored therein. Each of these chambers carries a plunger which, as the cylinder revolves is driven from end to end by two stationary cams, causing a small amount of oil to be drawn in to each of the chambers at the bottom and ejected into a corresponding tube at the top.

This oiler supplies cylinder oil of an extra heavy grade to the various bearings and to the cylinders, doing away with the necessity for splash lubrication which calls for the flooding of other revolving cylinder motors with a great quantity of oil which gums up the valves and soots up the spark plugs.

There are two spark plugs in each cylinder of this motor, and two independent ignition systems are employed, so that either or both of the set of plugs may be used, thus insuring against the accidental stoppage of the motor from a broken wire.

Something over ten years ago, the Adams Company conducted a series of experiments to determine the action of the air in circulating about the cylinder of a revolving cylinder motor, and as a result, established beyond question the fact that longitudinal ribs are much more efficient than the circular type. The air coming in contact with the cylinder walls is thrown off radially, circulating lengthwise of the" cylinders, so the only logical arrangement of cooling-ribs is lengthwise of the cylinders. The placing of ribs in this way has the further advantage of strengthening the cylinder against tensile strain caused by the action of centrifugal force, and the explosion.

This new motor operates satisfactorily on any grade of gasoline, using ordinary stove gasoline or naphtha with perfect success, but when these grades are employed, it is desirable to have a small tank of higher grade gasoline to facilitate starting.

In designing this motor, reliability has been considered above extreme light weight, as evidenced by the large bearings on the connecting rods, and crank shaft, and the fact that four rings are employed on the pistons where some builders of aviation motors are using only a single ring.

The materials employed are, of course, of the highest class, and Vanadium Chrome Nickel Steel is used wherever practicable.

Having a bore of six inches and stroke the same, this motor is rated at 72 h. p. by the A. L. A. M. formula (square the

IN THE MANUFACTURING FIELD

Description of the New 7Z II. I'. Adams-Farwell Aviation Motor.

bore, multiply by the number of cylinders and divide by two and one-half), and on actual propeller tests, has delivered more power than this. It drives a 9 ft. 6 in. propeller of 6-ft. pitch at 900 to 1,000 r. p. m. developing a thrust of 440 to 460 lbs., which pull can be maintained indefinitely without overheating motor.

Probably 72 h. p. is more than the average aviator requires at present, but as competition in this line becomes more keen and greater records must be set to interest government officials and other prospective purchasers of heavier than air machines, this additional power will be required and as machines, of greater stability and larger carrying capacity are built, the high power will be found essential. Another point to be remembered is that while a motor of small power may be able to fly when properly tuned up, it is necessary to have a motor of larger power if one is to be sure of flying under all conditions and rising from the ground quickly, where there is not room for a long run in starting.

Those who have seen this motor on the testing stand, declare that it is the ideal motor for aviation purposes and will, no doubt, be the future power plant of many record breaking machines.

The J. i>I. Carburetor

John McDonald, Jr., of Point Prim, P. & B. Island, Canada, has sent us the following description of a carburetor of his own design, which he is desirous of putting on

CARBURrrTOI^

the market. This is intended to fill all requirements, and to run perfectly at speeds from 50 to 1,200 r. p. m. No adjustments of any kind are to be made. The illustration shows the arrangement and operation. Gas enters at A and passes through needle valve B, which is actuated by the float, keeping the gasoline at the same height as the nozzle C. The main air intake is at

DD. The piston E, driven by the cog from the engine power, compresses the air and gas, forcing it up into the mixing chamber P, from which the engine receives it. For high engine speeds there is an auxiliary air intake provided in the ball cage GG. The mixing chamber has a hot water jacket to assure an even temperature at all times. The piston of the compressor is oiled by splash from the base of the carburetor.

"Curtiss-Type'' Aeroplanes.

The use of the words "Curtiss-type" in advertisements of aeroplanes built by others than the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. has caused the statement which appears below, to be sent out from the Curtiss office.

One concern which operated in New York and carried big advertisements in some of the other aeronautical papers and automobile journals boldly promised to deliver "Curtiss" aeroplanes without motors, at around five hundred dollars. The word "type" was not even used. Statements, though not in advertisements, were even made by this company that their machines were actually made at the Curtiss factory. Anyone who purchased a machine on such a condition from this five-hundred-dollar concern were certainly defrauded.

For the purpose of quickly telling the genera] appearance of some newly built aeroplane, the use of "Curtiss-type" has something to commend it.

Farman produced an aeroplane with certain more or less easily distinguishable features and machines made by others, which resembled the Farman original were called "Farman-types" for the purpose of giving at once a general idea of their forms and principal characteristics. Curtiss produced another pattern with easily distinguishable characteristics, and copies of this, or machines resembling" the Curtiss in a general way, were also described by saying "Curtiss-type."

This manner of nomenclature has been adopted universally. To describe the general appearance of an aeroplane without using such an expression as above, would necessitate the use of a photograph every time a certain not-well-known machine were mentioned, or would entail a lengthy, dry description, which would be worthless save to convey to the mind of a reader all that is simply set forth in the two words in question.

It is claimed that such an expression as this lays the user thereof open to prosecution where it is used to induce the sale of aeroplanes, on the ground that a name is an asset and no other manufacturer has the right to derive profit from its use. The Curtiss Company says:—

"Because of the dependability and popularity of the Curtiss biplane, numerous attempts have been made to copy it. Throughout the country alleged aeroplanes, representing nothing more than the efforts of local carpenters and blacksmiths have been brought forth. Because in these structures, endeavors had been made to reproduce Curtiss ideas and achievements, these 'machines,' as defective in many instances that they couldn't be flown under any circumstances, have been called 'Curtiss' or 'Curtiss-tvpe' biplanes. In attempting to fly these imitation aeroplanes many would-be aviators have come to grief. They have injured themselves physically and financially. Out of pocket always and in the hospital usually, they learned by sad experience that something more than a two dollar blue-print was required to insure the construction of an efficient aeroplane.

"Occasionally, in a machine more or less rudely copied from a Curtiss model, an amateur has succeeded in making straightaway flights for short distances. But all the. 'achievements with 'home-made imitation Curtiss biplanes' amount to scarcely more than this. Several persons, having more known hardihood than ability, have advertised themselves, in an entirely ^unauthorized manner, as 'Curtiss aviators.

Aeroplanes at $90.

Aeroplanes are getting' to be cheaper than automobiles. Here is a concern, the Wolverine Aeronautic Co., of Albion, Mich., supplying all the pai'ts for a biplane, save the cloth, motor and wheels, ready to be bolted together, for ninety dollars. The biplanes are even guaranteed to fly and replacements from defects are replaced free of charge for a year. The same machine set up, clothed and in its right mind, except for power plant, sells for $400. The first of these was bought by T. Tanner, in Cleveland, O., who put in a Roberts motor and flew it first shot without any trouble at all. There is no excuse now for anyone staying on the ground, except that of cold feet. All aviation editors will now have machines of their own, no doubt.

Two-.Soator Aiuerivuii-lluilt Monoplane.

Willie Haupt wants to make a flight over New York or around Manhattan Island in the new monoplane, copied after the late 70 h. p. Bleriot, which he bought from the American Aeroplane Supply House, of Hempstead, fitted with a Roberts two-cycle motor. A new machine with the same kind of a motor has been completed for Judge J. A. Brackett, of Boston. This i* a two-

seater and is probably the only one of Its kind as yet in this country. This was demonstrated the first of August, by Haupt, who circled the Mineola Field for 15 minutes with a passenger. A. V. Reyburn, of St. Louis, is another purchaser of one of these monoplanes, to be fitted with a 100 h. p. Emerson.

A visit to the factory of this concern, at 266 Main street, in Hempstead, E. 1., was rather of a surprise. The workmen are doing overtime on the monoplanes in order to meet the urgent demands of the cu.i-tomers who want to break thorn up or fly them before snow falls. All the woodwork is done right in the one building, the covering of the planes, the brazing of the metal parts like tubing. Even the Bessemer "U" bolts, of the varying sizes, are bent and threaded here. The workmanship displayed on these machines is excellent and fully up to the original.

Application of Clutch to Aeroplanes.

With progress rapidly being made in the maneouvering and construction of aeroplanes, refinement of details are occupying the minds of designers and engineers who have become interested in aviation. Pilots are being comfortably shielded from the elements, and instruments of precision and maps are already a part of the equipment of the present-day 'planes- non-magnetic compasses, revolution counters, anemometers, gasoline and oil sights, barometers, pressure gauges, inclinometers, etc. For a long time dirigibles have been as completely outfitted proportionately as the latest ocean liner.

The one thing that, after the invention of the motor, made the automobile of today possible, the clutch, has been applied to the Zo-

V

diac dirigibles, those of the Astra company and the new Zeppelins, and even to the aeroplane.

The modern aviator starts his motor with a crank, the same way as he starts that of his automobile, with which he has come to the aerodrome. The starting of the engine by turning over the propeller against the compression, with its attendant possibility of a "kick," ever a source of danger and an accomplishment that has already caused the injury and death of several mechanics, is soon to be a thing of the past.

To design an aeroplane clutch with a proper friction surface, and without too great weight, has been a problem, apparently solved in the new Hele-Shaw clutch marketed by the Merchant & Evans Company, of Philadephia. To obtain small friction surface and not too great spring tension, a novel method has been adopted.

In spite of the very small encumbrance ot the device, the undulated discs offer," nevertheless, a relatively large friction surface, they also produce a final wedging, requiring only one-third of the pressure necessary for any other system. An annular V being raised in these discs, the latter are extremely rigid and can sustain enormous pressures without losing shape.

To allow the aviator to increase the pressure on the discs from 0 to 300 and 400 kilos, the system of starting has been combined with an effort not exceeding 10 kilos and that, too, without exerting any axial push or tension. Consequently, one need have no fear in mounting the clutch on motors of the lightest construction.

This result has been obtained by applying the pressure between two ball bearings of which one is stationary and the other advances to compress the discs B and C. On the aeroplane models the pressure is applied by means of a non-reversible screw.

The aeroplane clutch is composed of a drum with its muff A containing bronze discs B and steel discs C that glide alternately in the grooves of the drum and core 1'. This core is forged with the spindle 10. Thus, when there is no pressure on the discs, they all turn on each other and the drum can turn while the spindle remains immovable.

As soon as the pilot presses on the discs there is immediately produced a slight friction, which carries along: the steel discs and with them the spindle E. This rotating increases with the pressure up to the moment when the two series of discs hound together and the spindle turns at the same speed as the drum.

The two ball bearings F are contained in two concentric cages, one slipping into the other.

The bearing C presses against the roller J, which is itself held in place by the screw K, into which is fitted the roller L," forming the support of the spindle.

The cage 1 is fixed to the chassis by the shoulder M and this cage is lengthened on each side by a support N for the lever O. This lever, whose axis is in P, is joined with the cage H by the rods Q. Consequently, when the lever O is moved forward the rods Q push the cage and the bearing F and also the rods Fl and the compressor plate S which compresses the discs.

xVs soon as the lever O is released the movable parts of the starting gear come back-

O. When the discs pile up the pointer comes down a notch to maintain the pressure.

For the clutches of which the power exceeds 100 h. p., the starting gear is generally made by a helicoidal rise acting between the two ball bearings; this rise being operated by a fly wheel and worm.

This system is in use on the dirigible balloons Zodiac, Astra, etc., and on the new Zeppelins.

CALENDAR OF EVENTS.

(Continued from page S7.) Sept. 28—Evansville, Ind., Curtiss hydroaeroplane.

Sept. 2S-29—Dubuque, la.. Curtiss aviators. Sept. 28-29—Beach, N. D., Curtiss aviators. Sept. 28-2K—Binghamton, N. Y., Curtiss aviators.

Sept. 29-Oct. 7—Springfield, 111., Wright exhibition.

Sept. 30-Oct. 7—St. Louis, Mo., open meet, not definite.

ward under pressure of the springs around the rods Ft.

After this description, one notes that the lever takes its point of support on the bearing G to advance the bearing F and that there is no axial push. The pressure on the discs is only limited by the load that these bearings .can stand. On the clutches for aeroplanes, the pressure is limited to .'550 kilos. There is no loss of power as a consequence of the work of the bearings.

So as to be able to limit this pressure and increase the lever arm, the apparatus is provided with a pointer T. in which is placed a spring (sized) so that the end of the pointer can leave its cage when the pressure determined on has been exceeded. On the axis U of the pointer T, is keyed a lever V, Avhose length of 340 mm. allows the exertion of a pressure on the discs up to 350 kilos with an effort of 10 kilograms.

To prevent any disengaging on account of the vibrations, the end of the pointer T is engaged in a series of notches on the lever

Oct. 2—Walterborough, S. C, Curtiss aviators.

< )ct. 2—Beatrice, Neb., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 2-7—Cedar Rapids. la.. Wright aviators.

Oct. 2-7—Spokane, Wash., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. ;S-t>—Conway, Kan , Wright aviators.

Oct. 4-5—Bad Axe, Mich., Curtiss aviators.

< >ct. 5—Gordon-Bennett balloon race, Kan-

sas City, ]\Io.

i >ct. 5-8—Peoria, 111., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 0-12—Lewiston, Idaho, Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 9-12—Muskogee, Okla., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 10-20—Macon, Ga.. Wright aviators.

(Jet. 11-14—Albuquerque, X. AL, Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 12-18—Macon. Ga., Curtiss aviators. Oct. 17-19—Raleigh, X. C, Curtiss aviators. Oct. 18-20—Garden City, Ivans., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 19—Hatchez, Miss., Curtiss aviators.

Oct. 25-30—Turin, Italy, 5th Congress Permanent InternatT Aeronautical Committee.

Jan. 10-12, 1912—Los Angeles, Cal., open meet, arrangements not certain.

4115

- MANUFACTURERS OF--- in Brass, Steel and Aluminum

Aeropl

■ J ■ Engine mountings for any

2LI1C raftsrlorT t.,so,Copper and

brass 1 anks of any description.

STEEL TUBE FRAMES TO ORDER

Reliance Auto Parts Manufacturing Company

244-250 West 49th Street, New York City

Telephone 5135 Bryant

QUEEN AEROPLANE COMPANY

197th STREET and AMSTERDAM AVE., - - NEW YORK CITY

This company is ready to make quick delivery of its single or passenger carrying monoplanes equipped with Anzani or Gnome motors. It guarantees that in workmanship, strength of parts, beauty of finish and in superior materials employed that the product of its factory equals or surpasses the finest aeroplanes manufactured in this country or abroad. The Company has an aviation school on Long Island for the instruction of purchasers or others; and the ability and skill to gain an aviator's pilot license from the Aero Club of America is guaranteed to pupils.

We have four complete Queen Monoplanes, ranging from $2,000 to $8,000, ready to fly and can be delivered at once.

INSPECTION INVITED.

Our machines have flown at Chicago International Aviation Meet, Boston Aviation Meet, Garden City, L. I., and Atlantic City, N. J.

EXHIBITION FLIGHTS ARRANGED FOR. TERMS UPON APPLICATION

BLERIOT MONOPLANES

On June 31st WILLIE HAUPT made a twelve-minute tiiyht at an altitude of 500 feet, at the Mineola Aviation Field, in one of our duplicates of the

1911 CROSS-COUNTRY TYPE BLERIOT MONOPLANE

This machine is an exact duplicate of Karle L. Ovinsrton's machine, and is the first machine of the latest

type to be built in the U. S.

-SINGLE SEATERS, PASSENGER MACHINES, MILITARY AEROPLANES, RACING MONOPLANES, ETC.-

Tuition Given Free to all Purchasers at our Aviation School

AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE

266-68 FRANKLIN STREET -J ' - HEMPSTEAD, L. I., N. Y.

In ansivering advertisements please mention this magazine.

AERONAUTICS September, 1011

U. S. PATENTS ABSTRACTED

Copies of these patents may be obtained for rive cents each, by addressing the "Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C."

Grover C. Younggreen, Los Angeles, Cal., 997,354, July 11, 1911. Filed Feb. 15, 1911. PARACHUTE applied to aeroplanes.

John Travis, Cascade, Mont., 997.521, July 11, 1911. Filed March 7, 1911. ORTHOPTER.

Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, Near Danzig, Germany, 997,419, July 11, 1911. Filed July 14, 1909. Steering, stabilizing and lifting apparatus for DIRIGIBLES.

John Hafely, Boston, Mass., 997,496, Julv 11, 1911. Filed June IS, 1910. Screw-propelled channeled DIRIGIBLE BALLOON.

Ferdinand Lischtiak, Eggenberg, near Gratz, Austria-Hungary, 997.455. July Id, 1911. Filed March 2, 1911. Foldable KITE.

Charles Alfred Swenson, Medford, Mass., Assignor of one-half to Otto E. Kuehl, Medford, Mass., 997.587, Julv 11, 1911. Filed Sept. 17, 1909. PROPELLER with adjustable blades having projecting curved ribs.

Halvor Gaara, Bo, Norway, 997,612, Julv 11, 1911. Filed August 17, 1910. Steering device for aeroplanes, in which the rudders are assisted in manual operation by the force of the wind turning a propeller (with blades angularly adjustable by a lever) which rotates a shaft on which wind the control cables of the rudders.

Charles Winston. Topeka, Kansas, 997,727, July 11, 1911. Filed Sept. 20, 1909. Aeroplanes with PLANES MOV ABLY CONNECTED with the frame.

Pius Beidl, Vienna, Austria-Hungary, 997,733, July 11, 1911. Filed October 26, 1909. Device for manual and automatic STEERING of aeroplanes.

Max Goehler, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 997,804, July 11, 1911. Filed June 2S, 1910. Pivotallv mounted. vertical. oscillating BLADES TO PROPEL aeroplanes, acting similar to the sculling of a rowboat.

Charles Obediah Rowland, Chicago. Ills., 997.856, July 11, 1911. Filed December 27, 1909. AIRSHIP comprising a body provided with a closed front end, an open rear end and a longitudinal opening in the under side of the body and a framework suspended from the body, adjustable planes mounted on the said framework on both sides of the said body, means for adjusting the said planes, a horizontally disposed plane secured to the said framework beneath the said body, exhaust fans in the said body, for drawing air into the body through the said opening and exhausting the said air rearwardly out of the said rear end of the said body, and means secured to the said framework for operating the said fans.

Matthew B. Sellers, Baltimore. Mel, 997,860, Julv 11, 1911. Filed April 28, 1909. STEPPED AEROPLANE with two or more

aeroplanes arranged in stepped form, means supporting said aeroplanes at their froni. portions, yielding means supporting the rear edges of said aeroplanes and adapted to permit the same to be depressed at their rear edges, a rudder, a steering means, connections between said steering means and the rudder, and connections between the steering means and the rear edges of the aeroplanes. Combination wheel and runnei chassis, with means for automatically or otherwise releasing the wheel of the machine after it has left the ground.

The present patent is for improvements in the machine of the former patent, incidental to its use as a power machine and especially for the combination of the wheels and runners, the wheels alone being used for starting and runners alone for finishing a llight. The wheels are adapted to be automatically raised or released after leaving the ground in flight. The claims also cover the steering device in form of a handle bar; lateral balance and elevation being effected by depressing the rear^ of the planes. In the machine Ilown by Mr. Sellers, the front and upper plane is used for both elevation and for lateral control.

Daniel D. Wells, Jacksonville, Fla., 997,-SS4, July 11, 1911. Filed August 5, 1909. Reversible and adjustable pitch propeller.

Christopher John Lake, Bridgeport, Conn., 998,295, July 18, 1911. A flying machine having a series of SUPERPOSED CONCAVE SUSTAINING SURFACES of a generally triangular and forwardly pointed shape and a propeller located in front of said series, each of said sustaining surfaces being larger and extending beyond the edges of the one below.

Frederick Farmer, Worcester, Mass., assignor of one-half to Matthew P. Whittall, 99S.333, Julv IS. Filed July 12, 1910. AUTOMATIC STABILITY. On each of two vertical shafts mounted at the outer front struts is a triangular balancing plane in the form of a quarter-section of a screw (said plane having two rearwardly extend-

ing edges at an angle to each other, the outer one of said edges being higher than the inner one), which can be swung by cables over pulleys, one inwardly and the other outwardly, automatically operated from a pendulous weight, so that the balancing plane on the lower side of a laterally tipping machine would swing out and the other one in. Vertical vanes are provided, also., which automatically swing to prevent the natural turning movement of the machine caused by the above operation of the balancing surfaces.

SANTOS DUMONT TYPE AEROPLANES, IMPROVED

^=$1000.00^=

Write for prices of material for Bleriot and Curtiss-type aeroplanes.

Get our prices on complete machines, Turnbuckles, "U" bolts, Sockets, Wheels, Steering gear, Landing gear, made in our own factory.

Craftsman perfect propellers, $40.00.

Oval seamless steel tubing, 25c. per foot.

9626 ERIE AVENUE I CHICAGO, ILL.

M. STUPAR

hydrogen

For BALLOONING Uses

MMIE International Oxygen Com* puiy's plant is located on 1 he main line of the Pennsylvania Rail-ro;id. and the Company is prepared to make immediate shipment for ballooning uses, to any part of the United States, of practically unlimited quantitiesof pure liydrojren, in high pressure cylinders, at a low cost per cubic foot. Write for I. O. C. catalog. We install complete plants or furnish Oxygen and Hydrogen in cylinders

INTERNATIONAL OXYGEN COMPANY

68 Nassau Street, New York

Works : Paris, France :

Wavorly Park. Newark, N. J. 39 Rue de Chateaudim

BUILD YOUR OWN AEROPLANE

We supply Blue Prints with exact measurements of the Curtiss, Bleriot XI and Farman machines. Blue Prints are 27x40 inches and larger, and are

drawn to scale. - Price $2.00 each -

AEROPLANE BLUE PRINT CO., 208 W. 56th St., New York

Send for List of

aero books

AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York

Light Powerful Enduring Safe

Brooke Non-Gyro Aero Motor

A*]" This is not one of the mechanically impossible blue print guesses, but is the result of ^L. the highest engineering practice—Mr. Brooke spent over four years and #xjl,000 in developing this great motor, and did not at any time announce what he was going to do; lie just went quietly ahead and did it! This motor does a number of good stunts that no other motor can do, and does not do a lot of bad stunts that most other motors do.

If yon will wrilfl w.v we will lie glad to mail yon detailed particulars

BROOKE-KUHNERT COMPANY

'321 South Wabash Avenue :: ::

All Foreign Rights for Sale

Chicago, III.

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.


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