Aeronautics

Volume 9 - No. 2 - 1911 August

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



Vol. IX, No. 2. AUGUST, 1911 Serial No. 49

17

EVERYTHING IN AN AERO MOTOR

? Power, Strength, Compactness and Dependability

^ight Design ^ight Material ^ight Workmanship ^ight Price

TWO TYPES, viz:

: cyl., 60 H. P., 225 lbs. i cyl., 100 H. P., 300 lbs.

A Biplane Installation

A record of 300 successful flights without mishap by Antony annus and Rex Smith was made possible by a reliable EMERSON.

Write to-day for literature!

EMERSON ENGINE co. ALEXANDRIA va.

NEW YORK OFFICE: 1737 BROADWAY

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Achievements of Curtiss Aeroplanes Are Arguments That Convince

A DEPENDABLE MACHINE MINIMIZES THE RISK THAT THE AVIATOR ORDINARILY TAKES

By 1ms

pe

THE CURTISS BIPLANE—

constant striving for improvement, been made the aeroplane of most advantageous possibilities. In the development of the aeroplane Curtiss has been eminently practical; all of his ability and skill, the knowledge gained from numerous and famous flights, years of patient ex-imentation in the factory and on the viation field have been devoted to the construction of swift, safe and efficient aeroplanes. THE CURTISS SYSTEM of construction enables the biplane to be made much stronger, more dependable and powerful than other maehin'es of the same weight.

Aeroplane manipulation is an acquired art and not an acrobatic accomplishment or the result of natural instinct. But the aviator who uses the Curtiss machine has the special assistance, the additional assurance contained in a system of instinctive controls for balancing, elevating and steering.

THE CURTISS HYDRO-AEROPLANE-

Kobs aviation of half its dangers; multiplies the pleasure of flying. Air, water and land alike may be traversed by the new ( urtiss machine. The hydro-aeroplane can fly (50 miles an hour ; driven over the surface of the water, the hydro-aeroplane will run away from the fastest motor boat; it responds to its rudder more quickly than any water craft afloat. It arises from, and alights on, water as well as on land. The U.S. Army and Navy officers have recommended the Curtiss Hydroaeroplane in the highest terms. It has flown from a rough sea and from the surface of Salt Lake, Utah, to an altitude of nearly 5000 feet above the sea. After repeated tests had proved the efficiency and entire dependability of the machine, a Curtiss hydro-aeroplane was purchased by the U. S. navy department. This type of machine carries a passenger and is capable of transporting the most blase to the heights of enthusiasm.

AVIATORS THOROUGHLY INSTRUCTED AND TRAINED

The well established Curtiss policy, thorough reliability and correctness in every detail, characterizes the Curtiss training school for aviators now open at Nassau Boulevard, L. 1., Larle L. Ovington, the chief instructor, is a trained engineer as well as a licensed pilot.

This is the only school where complete and proper theoretical instruction is given in addition to the most practical training, real study and work combined to the very best advantage.

Immediate advantage must be taken of this opportunity as the number of students will be limited.

Address CURTISS AEROPLANE COMPANY, 1737 Broadway, New York.

MOTOR RELIABILITY DEMONSTRATED BEYOND QUESTION Did Beachy have confidence in his

CURTISS MOTOR

When he flew over

NIAGARA FALLS AND UNDER THE BRIDGE?

Kverybody knows he must have had Absolule Confidence. Are You going to have as much confidence in the motor You are

Going to Install in Your Aeroplane ?

You can't have if it isn't a Curtiss. There's a reason for it.

Acquaintance Develops Confidence

Why Not Start Right?

30 H. I*. 40 H. P 60 H. P. 70 H. P

■1 cylinder Power Plant 4 cylinder Power Plant 8 cylinder Power Plant 8 cylinder Power Plant

One Of These You Will Eventually Buy

Get our proposition now Prompt Deliveries

Aeroplanes now offered for unrestricted use. Early delivery of all models can be made

The Curtiss Aeroplane Company,

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HAMM0NDSP0RT, N. Y. New York Office, 1737 Broadway

In answering advertisements f lease mention this magazine.

I

HUGH L. WILLOUGHBY

N the lonely Southern beaches He has sailed beneath the ocean,

Where the frigate-bird is seen, He has raced in auto cars.

He has studied out perfection But it's now his pet ambition

In a gas-propelled machine To explore the distant stars;

There the buzzaids told their secrets And if something like a comet

To the aeroplanist wise, Shoots along at close of day,

And he learned from them the action 'Twill be Willoughby the fearless,

Of their pinions in the skies. Spinning down the Milky Way.

BEACHLY'S PERILOUS DIP. OVER NIAGARA FALLS, UNDER THE, SUSPENSION BRIDGE AND DOWN THE GORGE-BOSCH-EQUIPPED OF COURSE JUNE 2.VU1 1911

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

THE great number of bomb-throwing experiments made by aviators at contests and exhibitions has shown the utter impossibility of hitting a target from considerable altitudes without the employment of some scientific method. The hand-and-eye method, without instruments of any sort, has given indifferent results at heights of a few hundred feet, and the consensus of opinion of aviators who have made experiments along this line is, that from a safe height of, say o.OOO ft. or more, it would be foolish to attempt to drop bombs in this manner with any expectation of hitting a target. An occasional hit migVt be scored, but such hits would be without method and the result of accident.

Despite the thought put upon the subject by military men all over the world since it became evident that the aeroplane would be used for military purposes, it has remained for an American, Lieut. Riley E. Scott, a graduate of West Point, to evolve a scientific method for launchiug bombs from aeroplanes. This method is based upon the laws of mechanics, and takes into consideration the velocity of flight of the aeroplane with reference to the ground, the acceleration due to gravity, and makes corrections for atmospheric resistance and wind-drift.

In an illustrated lecture before the Aeronautical Society, on the evening of July 13. Lieut. Scott described in detail the principles of his device and his method of accurately determining the speed of an aeroplane with respect to the ground. Until worked out by Lieut. Scott, there has been no known method by which an aviator, or his passenger, could determine the velocity of an aeroplane except by the use of the anemometer, which, at best, is an inaccurate instrument and ouly measures speed through the air and not with respect to the ground. The method employed by the inventor is so remarkably simple that it seems almost incredible that it was uot developed before.

1 SBCEta-BBEEIl

FIG. 1

The device employed by Lieut. Scott, which has been patented in this country aud for which patents have been applied for in foreign countries, [consists essentially of a series of movable rings, universally mounted (that is. mounted on gimbals placed at right angles to each other), in such a manner that the center of gravity being below the plane of mounting, the inuer ring assumes a horizontal position in the same way that the ■ompass of a ship retains a horizontal position.

At the centeC of this inner ring is mounted a suitable telescope in such manner that the line of collimation describes a plane at right angles to the plane of the inner ring when the telescope is revolved. The telescope is provided with a graduated arc and vernier so that the telescope may be set at any angle in the vertical plane containing the line of flight. This inner horizontal ring, also, usually bears the projectiles, in order that they may be carried in a fixed position with respect to the ground. Figure 1 is a certain modification of this device suitable for dirigibles, showing the universal mountings, the telescope and the projectiles carried by the inner ring.

FIG. 2.

Figure 1! shows the condition of fall of a body dropped from a moving air craft. Considered in vacuo, the path, or trajectory, of such a body would be a parabola, the form of which is determined entirely by the height of fall and the velocity of the aeroplane with respect to the ground. The line of sight in this figure is the prolonged axis of the telescope, and it is evident that if this axis be in a vertical plane containing the target and lie set at a suitable angle, the projectile will strike the target if launched at the moment that the line of sight intersects the target. In order to determine the trajectory and, consequently, the augle at which the telescope must be set, it is necessary to know the height and the speed of the aeroplane with respect to

AB * AC when angle 1>

AB " BD-DC * AC

the

thii

earth. <l>eed

understood from Figure

Lieut. Scott's method of simple and ingenious

determining and may be

SCIENTIFIC DEVICE FOR BOMB-DROPPING FROM AEROPLANES

To find the speed relative to the ground, the aeroplane is headed for some prominent object and is maintained at a fixed height during the time of calculation. With the aid of the device the machine may also be kept in a vertical plane containing the object sighted. The telescope is set at 40 degrees, and, consulting Figure 3, it is evident that the horizontal distance in front of the object is equal to the height above the ground, since the legs AB and AC of the triangle BAC are equal. When the image of the object is intersected by the cross wires, a stop watch is started and the telescope is changed to zero reading; that is, vertical. A straight line of flight being maintained, the image of the object will again be intersected by the cross wires, at which instant the watch is stopped. Jt is evident that, by dividing the height above the ground in metres by the number of seconds recorded by the watch, a

practical combinations of height and speed. Therefore, knowing height and speed, it is only necessary to look in the table and find the angle at which the telescope must be set in order to release the projectiles at the proper moment. Jn addition, there are correction tables for atmospheric resistance and winds.

AN EXAMPLE WORKED OUT. Flying at a height of 50ft metres, it is found that it takes 21> seconds to describe the 45 degree triangle, as shown in Figure 3. Consulting Table 1, it is seen that the speed is 17.2 metres per second. Now. consulting Table II for that speed at a height of 50O metres, it is seen that the angle at which the telescope must be set. in order that the projectile may be released at the proper instant, is 18° 57'. In this table, speed is shown in full metres per second. An auxiliary table of differences will be used so that fractions of metres

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Altitudes in metres

25

23.1

21.4

20

18.7

17.6

16.7

15.8

15

14.3 13.6

27

25

23.3

21.8

20.6

19.4

18.4

17.5

IS.6

16

15.2

14.6

14

13.4 12.9 12.5 12.1

400

26.6 25

23.5

22.2

21

20

19

18.2 17.4 16.6 16

15.4 14.8 14.3 13.8 13.3 12.9

450

26.5

25

23.7

22.5

21.4

20.4

19.6

18.7

18

17.3 16.7 16.1 15.5 15

14.5 12.8

500

26.3

25

23.8

22.7

2i.8

2o. o

20

19.2 18.5 17.8 17.2 16.7 16.1

14.3

12.8

22.9

22

21.2

2U.4

19.6

19

18.3

17.8

15.7

14.1

27.2

26.1

25

24

23.1

22.2

21.4

2U.6

20

19

17.1 15.4

The altitudes con be continued indefinitely, as nell as the seconds column, depending up— on the ppeed of the aeroplane employed.__

300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

12

17° 22'

15" 12' 14" 19' 13° 38' 13° 03' 12° 30' 11° 59' 11° 33' 11° 11'

Speed in meter3 per second

13

18° 42' 17° 24' 16° 23' 15* 27' 14* 43' 14° 06' 13° 30* 12" 58* 12° 30' 12° 06'

14

20* 06' 18° 40* 17° 33* 16' 35" 15° 4? 15° 08' 14° 30' 13° 56,' 13" 26 13°

15

21° 22' 19° 54' 18° 44' 17° 4l' 16° 51' 16° 10' 15° 30' 14° 54' 14° 21' 13° 53'

16

17

18

22° 40'

23° 58'

25° 10'

21° U6'

22* 18'

23" 28'

19° 53'

21° ul'

22° 07'

18° 47

19° 53'

20° 56'

17° 55'

18° 57'

19° 59'

17° 11'

18° 11'

19° 11'

16° 29'

17* 2^

18° 24'

15* 51'

16° 47'

17*42*

15° 16'.

16° 10'

17*04'

14° Vf

15" 39'

16° 32'

These readings are angles of sight in degrees and minutes. The upper horizontal column gives velocity in metres per second. The altitude and velocity columns are to be continued indefinitely.

In Table I, the figures in the columns represent speed in metres per second. The distance traversed in a given time is eaual to the altitude at which the machine is flying. If the height ia 400 meters and the time taken is 18 seconds, the machine obviously has traveled 400 metres nith respect to the ground in that time. Reference to tfie table shows a speed over the ground of 22.2 metres per second. l"etres per second is used as a standard value throughout the calculation

TA B L E I

T ABLE II

/0 30

speed iu metres per second will be found. For convenience, all possible speeds are tabulated, as shown in Table I.

Another table, here shown as Table II, gives the angles at which the telescope must be set for all

will be taken care of. From Figure 2 it is evij dent that the telescope being set at 1S° 57', ifj the projectile were released when the image of the] target is intersected by the cross wires of thel telescope, the projectile will strike the target.

Now the county fair officials in the Middle West have begun to get busy with their premium books and advertising for the greatest and only county fair in that part of the State, and they want aeroplanes this year. Balloons, automobile races or a calf with six legs will not attract the patrons this year. What they want is an aeroplane exhibition, and lots of them. Since the international aviators came through the Middle West and gave exhibitions at the larger cities, all the smaller cities want to see the bird men fly. There are in the States of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska and Oklahoma over SO county fair associations of financial standing that can afford or will put up $1,500 each for an aeroplane exhibition during their county fair dates. Mr. <!. S. liennett, secretary of the Kansas City Aviation School, stated that from the inquiries he had received it would need 50 outfits to fill (he requests for exhibition tlights from the county fair managers of the .Middle West. What the people of the West want is to get up close and see a real biplane or monoplane. They want to see how it is built, how the power is produced and bow the aviator gets started. They want to see how the darned thing is worked and they have money enough to spare (his year to buy one or two if they wanted them. Out in Missouri they say "Show me" : in Kansas. "Let me feel of it"'; in Oklahoma they say "Put it in my hand"; in

Arkansas. "Let me bite it." .T. G. Uompel ha completed his third biplane. This last one is o Curtiss type lines, and is now installing a new type of engine, which was made for him a Chicago. Mr. Uompel will make his tryout abou Aug. I.

It is reported here that Guy Morgan, a well known automobile salesman of this city, has pur chased the "Banshee" of Charles Willard and will bring the "plane to this city.

Miss Katharine Stinson of Hot Springs. Ark. J is one of the newest enrollments at the KansaJ City Aviation School.

Gliders and biplanes are now being built for thJ trade at Olathe. Kan. L. C. Herman has h\4 machinery installed and will build a stock glidea and biplane to order.

The Payne A: Neighbors Co. of Sedalia. MoJ report business is s.-nnd for propellers, especially orders from the Fast.

The novice aviator frequently wants to make his own propeller, in order to exercise perspnal ingenuity. AERONAUTICS has previously had articles on propeller design and the laying out of propellers from known figures of diameter and pitch. In the following notes it is attempted to show the amateur how to make a propeller of uniform pitch (P) of a eiven diameter (Di. He perhaps has been flying with a certain propeller and wants to make another of his own style; using the same area, but shaping the blade differently, or even increasing or diminishing the a rea.

as B, C, etc., set off the blade widths from the corresponding section of the development on to the pitch lines as at EF. Then the vertical projections of E and F would srive O and II, which are points on blade outline in sidp elevation. Other points are obtained in like manner. There being six laminations : they will show in side elevation in six parallel divisions.

To obtain the outline of the blade in end elevation at any sections, as GH, take the horizontal projection of EF, which is EG plus I IF, shown in end elevation as ef.

DEVELOPED /iffEH

SIDE ELEVATION

Lay-out of a Propeller Blade.

END £LEV/IT/'ON

The sketch showing "developed area" illustrates the shape of a propeller blade which would be obtained by laying a sheet of paper on a propeller blade, cutting it out and then laying the paper flat on a drawing board and marking around the pattern thus made. In other words, this sketch shows the true widths of the blade at any point laid in the plane of the paper without the helicoidal twist.

THE METHOD OF SETTING OUT THE DRAWING.

Lay out to any convenient scale the developed surface of the blade, which shall contain the required area, and be of the desired shane. Set off the line AD, equal to one-half the diameter D, and DX at right angles to AD and equal to P —- 2 x 3.14. The angle XAD is the pitch angle at the circumference, and the pitch angle for any other point upon the line AD may be determined by drawing a line from that point to the point X.

We will suppose, as an example, that the blade is to be formed of six strips. From any points.

To obtain the lines 1. 2. 3, 4, 5 in end elevation, take the horizontal projections of IJ and IL. which are JK and I.M respectively. These set off in end elevation as the distances ik and im. Connect these points with the center of the hub as shown.

The sections of the blade at any point may he obtained by marking off the distance IX and'CO, etc., from their corresponding points on the end elevation. Any shape or form of blade may be set up in like manner.

GLUING IP.

This is rather a simple process, but should be carefully done, as a poorly clued propeller Is dangerous, to say the least. The hard glue as used by cabinet makers is usually used, and this is applied hot. The boards should also be hot. to prevent the glue from chilling before the press can be tightened up properly. Heating the boards is rather troublesome to the amateur, as it is best done in a cabinet heated by steam coils.

THE MAKING OF A PROPELLER

However, the boards may be set around a good hot stove, where bv frequent turning they may be well warmed. The cooler the boards are, the faster one must work to prevent the glue from chilling. The press should be very stiff and rigid and the screws should be heavy and strong enough to stand all the pressure one can put on.

The sketch shows one of the frames for a press. If these are spaced about a foot apart and well set up and the glue and boards are hot to start with, the joints in the resulting job will show as a very fine line, which is as it should be. The block should be allowed to set about 4S hours before being removed from the press.

shaping the block

Lay off the end elevation on the block and cut it out. Then turn the block on edge and at the various sections lay off the distances fromi the face to obtain the outline of the side elevation. These distances may be obtained from the drawing of the side elevation. We now have the leading and following edges of the face of the blade and can work it down with gouge and plane. After the faces of both blades are finished alike, finish off the back, using a caliper to determine when the required thickness has been reached at the different sections.

After both blades have been worked down and well sandpapered, the propeller should be balanced. This is a very delicate operation and great care should be exercised to get both blades exactly the same. A hole is drilled in the center of the hub and the propeller mounted on a mandrel, which should be suspended between centers. The blades are then touched up until the propeller will remain in any position, showing that the weights of the blades are the same.

TOLI SUING.

After the propeller has been balanced and well smoothed and sandpapered, it may be given several coats of thin shellac, each coat being rubbed down with steel wool. Then a coat or two of varnish may be added to give a finish and make the blade waterproof.

Press for Gluing- Laminations.

TO FIND THE HORSEPOWER OF AN ENGINE.

THE formula for finding the horsepower of an engine in use most extensively in this country at the present time is known as the A. L. A. M. formula, and is as follows:

D x D x N _l. 2.5.

D is the diameter of the cylinder in inches.

N is the number of cylinders.

2.5 is a constant based on the average performance of four-cycle motors at one thousand feet per minute piston speed.

If, however, one wishes to determine the actual horsepower of an engine, the only way is to run a brake test. The sketch shows a simple way to make and apply a prony brake.

The weight W is used as shown in order to balance the weight of the arm. 2 x 3.14 x I x It x T

H.P.=

3 3 (I on

■—in which

I is the radius of the brake arm.

T is the pull at the end of the brake arm in pounds.

R is the It. P. M.

Example: Suppose the engine speed is 1,200 It. P. IU., and the pull on the spring is 50 pounds, the radius I being taken as 4 feet; then,

= 15 II.P.

2 x 3.11 x 4 x 12Q0 x 50

H.P.—

33000

For long runs it is desirable to cool the brake in some manner. This is most easily done by employing a special ily wheel, as

shown in the sketch in cross section. A pipe can be arranged to deliver a small stream of water to the trough, and another so as to scoop it out. The feed water can be regulated so as to keep the trough nearly full.

Prony Brake

TT qp 1

Section ■>/ Fly WhecL

The formula for gasoline engines, given below, will serve to approximate the power which may be expected from an engine: DSN

UP= C

D = diameter of cylinder in inches. S = stroke in inches.

N = total number of explosions per minute.

C= 10,000 to 13,000 for 2-cyele engines and 7.000 to S.OOOi for 4-cycle. depending on circumstances. Fair average values would be 12,000 and 7,500.

GLIDING AS A SPORT AND AS AN AID TO FLIGHT

By T. W. K. Clarke.

THE motions and sensations of gliding are, in the opinion of those who have operated machines with and without power, very similar to those in the power-driven machine, except that in the former, owing to the smaller weight in proportion to the surface, and also to the fact that it keeps closer to the ground, the motions are more exaggerated than

In Full Gliding1 Flight—Note Wing" Warp

in the latter, so that after practice in a glider the power machine is an easier matter and the possibility of damage due to inexperience with its attendant expense is greatly reduced.

The kind of glider to get depends on the ultimate object in view. If one wishes to learn to operate a specific power machine, then the larger machine will give more nearly the actual conditions and practice required, but if for general experience or sport, the smaller machines will be found very useful and cheaper. The choice lies between a comparatively small machine of about 20-ft. span with no chassis, and by various stages up to one of 30-ft. span or over, on which one is seated and started by means of a rail, tower and weight.

Whatever type or kind is selected it should be well made, of good materials, and by someone who knows how; these points add to the expense, but it will be cheapest in the end. A glider has to stand a great deal of rough usage and weathering and these will soon pick out the weak points.

Gliding is a side of flight that is a little apt to be neglected in the present rush to achieve the higher art : but it is a useful side nevertheless.

Experimenters have, it is i_ true, shown that the stepping-stone used by the Brothers Wright is not necessary in all

cases, but, all the same, we are not at all sure that gliding may not teach a lot even to the flying man.

The glider which Messrs. Ogilvie and Searight had built for them is to all intents and purposes a copy of the machine used by the Wrights in 1002, and the work has been admirably executed. It is, of course, a biplane, and has an elevator in front with a vertical tail behind. The elevator, however, is constructed according to the design shown in the Wright patent, having flexible planes instead of simple pivoted planes. The tail at the rear consists of a single vertical plane, in which respect it is in agreement with the Wright glider, but differs from' the Wright flyer, which has a double rudder. On the other hand, the main decks

are double surfaced on the machines which Messrs. Clarke have constructed, whereas the gliders used by the Wright Brothers were, we believe, invariably only single surfaced.

The material from which the glider was constructed' is for the most part silver spruce. In one or two places, where bent woodwork is required, American elm is used. The decks are double surfaced with a special fabric rendered waterproof by a celluloid treatment. The weight of this fabric is one pound to o(J sci. ft- The seams in the complete covering are diagonal, and each half of a deck, from an extremity to the center, is practically enclosed in a kind of fabric bag ; the edges of adjacent bags are laced together in the center, while at intervals the fabric is tacked dowu to the supporting ribs. In order to prevent the fabric being torn, a thin strip of wood is placed between the fabric and the heads of the nails.

The framework on which the fabric is stretched consists of a pair of transverse spars, 1 in. by 1V2 in., of spruce. At the ends these spars are joined together by a piece of bent elm. a scarf being made between the two timbers. The ribs, which are spaced every foot, are of spruce, the solid ones being t in. by % in., the ordinary ones being § in. by 3/lfi in. and are built up of these strips separated by distance pieces at intervals. The camber is 3 in. at the maximum versine. 'the method of fastening the ribs to the front spar by screws so that it virtually belongs to that member and. as it were, forms a supporting tongue for the bottom and top members of the rib proper.

Considered as a unit, the framework of the two

r VIA < Jk i"<

Just Leaving" the Bail at Start.

decks, taken together, forms an example of the usual lattice girder work which has been commonly adopted on biplanes. In accordance with the Wright system, the machine belongs to the flexible type; non-rigid joints are employed as fastenings between the main spars which separate them.

These joints are carried out the manner devised by the Wrights, but a steel plate has been substituted for the wire eye in the Wright machine. The struts have a saw-cut taken down their extremities for an inch or so, and into this is let the steel plate which is pegged and bound in place. The projecting end of the steel is drilled to receive a hook, which

and the struts

■somewhat after steel used

in this case consists of a steel U-bolt which passes through the main spar and is secured on both sides by nuts. The same steel plate also provides an anchorage for the wire ties.

The elevator is constructed according to the Wright patent. The two planes are so mounted that they flex or warp instead of merely pivoting when a change is made in their angle of incidence. The framework of each plane of the elevator is built up on a single transverse spar, situated about 9 in. from the leading edge, the full chord being 2 ft. 0 in. The method of operation will be understood by a glance at the sketch.

The tail, which is controlled by a fore and aft movement of the right hand lever, consists of a single plane mounted between two outriggers as shown. These spars are hinged to the rear transverse spars and the diagonal tie wire is fitted with a length of strong elastic so the rudder nvay swing up and not be broken should it hit the ground.

The machine as a whole is mounted upon two runners which commence a short distance behind the main decks and extend forward with a gradual curve which is ultimately increased in a sharp bend where they join on the upright supports for the elevator. The runners are stayed to the front spar of the upper main deck by a set of oblique struts. The lower deck is supported a little above the rudders by a lattice work bracing.

The pilot is accommodated in an extremely light but fairly comfortable chair—in which respect the machine differs from the original Wright gliders, where the operator took the air lying prone on the lower deck.

On each side of the pilot is a vertical lever. That on the left moves to and fro only, and works the elevator in the manner already described. That on the right can move either to and fro or sideways. The to and fro movement works the rudderj and the sideways motion warps the main decks. This warping of the main decks is carried out by means of wires, which pass through short lengths of Rowden wire. It may here be mentioned while on the subject of wire bracing, that the main wire diagonals are not fitted with any tightening device, being merely drawn hand-tight and fastened by simple brass bands, the ends of the wire being turned back over the bands to prevent them from slipping.

The lateral control of a Wright glider, or flying machine, by a single lever which warps the wings and moves the rudder, is the most interesting and characteristic feature of the Wright system, but its action is apt to be a little difficult to grasp unless each movement is taken in sequence. The lever is situated on the pilot's right: it normally stands in a vertical position when the machine moves straight ahead on an even keel. The connections are such that—

(1) If the lever is moved forward, the rudder puts the prow to the left.

(2) If the lever is moved to the right, the left hand extremities of the main decks have their rear edges warped downwards so as to increase the angle of incidence.

The next point to take into consideration is the primary result which accompanies each of the above movements made independently.

(11 From steering to the left, the increased relative velocity of the right wing tip will cant the machine so that the right wing rises.

(2) The first effect of increasing the angle of incidence of the left-hand extremities of the main deck is to increase the resistance of flight on that side of the machine, which consequently tends to slow up, or in other words tends to put the prow cf the machine to the left.

If. on the other hand, the course is kept straight by using the rudder, then the effect of increasing the angle on that side of the machine is to raise the left extremity of the main decks and so cant the machine over while it proceeds straight ahead. This manoeuvre may either be performed for the purpose of restoring equilibrium from an accidentally canted position or to establish a cant artificially for the purpose of banking when taking a sharp turn.

i It will be observed from the foresroing brief de-Ipcription that the to and fro and sideways move-Inents of the lever have results which are closely related to one another and from which it is a simple matter to deduce that—

(1) It it is desired to restore equilibrium from an accidental cant which has depressed the right hand extremity of the main decks, then the lever must be drawn towards the pilot—i. e., to the left —in order to increase the angle of incidence of the right hand extremities of the main decks which it is desired to lift and <ii the mime time the lever must be pushed forward so as to steer to the left in order that the initial effect of warping described above shall not turn the machine from its straight course.

The result of making, or rather trying to make, simultaneous movements of the lever along axes at right angles to each other is to follow a diagonal path ; from this fact may be deduced the following very important fact :

(1 ) Equilibrium and a straight course with thr Wright dyer are maintained by a diagonal movement of the lever, in which

(«> It is moved obliquely forward and towards the pilot, in order to rectify an accidental canting of the right-hand extremities of the main decks downwards, or

(b i The lever is moved obliquely backwards away from the pilot, in order to check a cant which has depressed the left wing.

This oblique neutral line, represented in one of our diagrams, is the normal path of travel for the pilot's right hand, while he keeps the machine on a straight course. Any movement of the hand away from this line must result in a curved course, because the rudder or the warping effect preponderates.

The precise nature of the movement which the pilot would perform in order to steer, say. to the left, depends on the manner in which he wishes is to carry out the operation, which in turn is governed by the sharpness of the curve, his speed of flight and other considerations. In general, however, it may be said that the pilot's hand for such a manoeuvre moves through an oval path starting and finishing in the neutral vertical position : this oval path is the result of a perfectly performed sequence of very short straight movements each of which has resulting in a combination of warping and rudder action. Needless to say, such perfection is not immediately within reach of the novice, the movements of whose hand would be more than likely to show up the straight line components of the curve.

It should perhaps be mentioned here that the reason why the rudder and the warping of the planes has' to take place simultaneously is primarily due to the fact that the Wrights warp the main decks of the machine instead of employing independent balancing planes. When the main decks of a glider or flier are wanted it is not possible to warp one extremity up and the other extremity down to an eoual extent considered from the point of view of effectiveness. To all intents and purposes only that extremity which has its trailing edge warped downwards need be taken into consideration, because while that undoubtedly does exert a powerful lift, the corresponding warping of the other extremity does not result in an eoual amount of depressing action because the resultant curvature of the decks at that end of the machine is such that their angle of incidence is diminished but not effectively reversed. On the one side of the machine, therefore, an active force is in operation, whilst at the other extremity the conditions are rather of the passive order. The resistance of that extremity which has an increased angle of incidence given to it makes itself felt, and there is no corresponding resistance at the opposite end of the flying machine to neutralize the swerving effect which it induces; on the contrary, the resistance there is less than in the normal condition of straight line flight, so that the swerving effect is outside. Hence the need for using the rudder.

From the side elevation it will be seen that ihe starting rail itself is about !>0 ft. long, while the derri'k is I." ft. high. The actual arrangement shown was that constructed for Mr. Ogilvic's glider at Camber, and there the derrick was made from such timber as was available on the spot, and Ihe starting weight originally consisted of a bag containing the earth excavated from below the derrick. Later this was changed to a number of metal discs un to a total weight of 250 pounds. The rail itself, consisting of "T" iron in loft, lengths mounted on long wooden blocks, was laid

pn a slope of about one in ten. and to compensate por the irregularity of the hillside a clearance of p/4 in. was allowed at the joints. Owing to the long grass present in this particular case, it was pound necessary to put additional wood blocks 6 ■ns. deep under the sleepers. The actual details pf construction are clearly shown in the three ■mall sketches, while the precise arrangement of Phe starting rope can be followed from the side ■elevation.

I In launching, the glider is placed in position plose up to the derrick (as shown in the drawing), ivith its two small grooved trolley wheels resting mn the "T" iron rail; the 250 pounds weight is Pheu raised by hauling on the free end of the rope, p-hich terminates in an iron ring: this is then flipped over a downwards-pointing iron hook, car-pied on the end of a wooden bar fixed in front petween the skids of the machine. At first a Planila rope, about 1^ ins. circumference, was employed, but a wire cable has since been substituted. [ The glider is balanced laterally on the monorail by hand on each side (when in motion this lis effected by the action of the wing-warping llever), and is held hack by hand against the pull lof the rope. As soon as the pilot is ready the [machine is released, the weight falls, and the slider is shot forward along the starting rail.

When there is a good wind, the machine usually Irises into the air after traversing only about 30 ft. of the rail.

By gradually closing up the points of support to a single point, both the above motions can be practised together. When sufficiently proficient try some short free glides from a part of the hill about one in six. If it is a large machine about four helpers will take hold of the bottom spar by a short end of rope if necessary, and run you and the machine down hill facing the wind, when the speed is sufficient the machine will be completely air-borne and the helpers should then let go simultaneously and dodge away; a few such trials, and then if there is a starting rail, this may be used and will be found a great help.

Always face the wind direct; never leave the machine by itself on a windy day or it will be struck by*a gust and overturned. One man is enough to holdi it if the elevator is kept depressed and he be ready to "sit on its head." If the machine should be overturned don't pull it over against the wind but manoeuvre it so that the wind returns it back.

If a side gust strikes a machine, unless the machine can give with it, it will up-end sideways ; this is a danger with long chutes methods of launching and certain forms of captive gliders, and also necessitates a very heavv weight when using a launching rail.

It is better to have the center of gravity too far ahead than too far back.

Don't let the bracing of a machine get flabby.

If a hill has a very steep slope suddenly changing to a gentle one, the wind is apt to flow over this and leave a calm pocket near the change of slope.

WHERE AND HOW TO GLIDE

Choose a hill with slopes in as many directions as possible. The hill should, if possible, have a long slope of about, say, 1 in S, rising to 1 in 4 or 5, at the steepest part, and be free from obstructions, such as trees, ditches, etc., as well as other hills in front. Such hills are best found by studying a contour map of the locality.

Having found a suitable shed, or erected a tent in a sheltered1 and convenient spot, it will be well to start by practicing each coutrol (longitudinal and transverse) separately. For this purpose it will be best to enlist the services of two friends (for a small machine), or four if it is a large one (a few more will be useful if they are of the right sort). Choose a day with the wind blowing up one of the slopes (or this cau be done on the level) with a velocity sufficient to take the major part of the weight, say, about 12 to 13 miles per hour. Keep the machine facing the wind, take your place in the machine and let the two friends hold the ends of the wings on a line about a foot or less in advance of the center of gravity of the machine when loaded. In the case of most biplanes this will mean holding the machine at the front edge, then lift up the machine and pilot; the machine is now capable of a pitching motion, but not of sideways rolling, and the pilot can devote his whole energies to mastering the movements of the elevating lever in order to keep the machine on a level keel ; when this is mastered, the machine should be placed on a plank or planks placed across other planks edge up, so that it can see-saw sideways (in the case where a starting rail is used, balance the machine on the rail), transverse balance (by warping or other means) can then be practiced until it becomes instinctive.

Diagram 2, of which the small rectangle at the centre represents the right-hand control-lever, shows in plan how the two movements capable of being given to this lever result in a third oblique line of movement, along which the aviator's hand passes to and fro to preserve the bilateral equilibrium during flight. Figure 2 shows the central portion of lower plane, with aviator's seat and the lever-control system of the glider. It will be observed that the right-hand lever can be moved sideways as well as forwards and backwards. Figure 3 illustrates the flexible elevator Figure 4 is a

side elevation of starting derrick and rail for full-size glider. Details of mounting the rails and joining the sleepers are shown in Figure 5.

Scale Drawings of Wright-Clarke glider, with sketch of the flexible-joint connecting the vertical struts to the main decks. A slight notch is made at the lower end of the XT bolt to keep the eye of the strut central. The other sketch shows that instead of pulleys where the warp-ing-wires leave the decks, short lengths of Bowden wire sheath are used clamped to the rear spars, as shown above.

TO SPLICE SHORT BAMBOOS

H. C. Cooke, of 128 West 65th street. New York, who has been flying last summer at Mineola, has advised us of his method of joining short lengths of bamboos. Often while of same outside diameter, the hole inside one bamboo is larger than that in the other. Drill iboth holes exact size of dowel sticks on the [market. Bore 4 in. deep each end. Cut dowels mot over 8 in., and measure depths of holes so that bamboos will come together. Use steel [sleeve 6 in. long and bolt it on one bamboo 3 pn. Tighten up the two nuts on that end of the sleeve. Then glue dowel and push in—do not drive or bamboo will split. Then take other bamboo and slip on over protruding

dowel and tighten up second two bolts on the other side. Drill notes through sleeve and bamboo on each end, fasten with stove bolts. If guy wires are used, the turnbuckles can be fastened to the stove bolts.

J. G. Stewart of Cincinnati has purchased a Grav Eagle biplane, equipped with a Roberts motor, and has contracted with a Curtiss flyer to exhibit the machine. The Rubel company has sold Gray Eagle motors the past week to R. C. Jennings, Unionport. I'a. : Kyle Smith of Wheeling, W. Va„ and II. 11. Klein. Jr.. Hartford, Conn. The Kubel concern has adopted the policy of taking back all Gray Eagle motors where customers are dissatisfied.

THE WILLARD HEADLESS BIPLAN1

CE. WILLARD has completed the construction of a biplane with the propeller in . front, and all steering surfaces in the rear. This will be taken to Canada, where future work will be conducted. His partner in the McCurdv-Willard Aeroplane Co.. J. A. D. McCurdv. is also having machines built to his design in New York City. Whatever machines are marketed bv Messrs. Willard and McCurdy will be as individuals, while ithe MeCurdy-Willard Aeroplane Co. wili confine itself solely to exhibitions.

Results of nights will be watched with interest, as but one or two biplanes, like the Breguet and the Roe, have ever successfully flown with the propeller in front, and none but these has ever made any big name for itself. This may not be due to the placing of the propeller alone, but to defects in the design. The principle is theoretically less efficient, particularly with a biplane, than the placing of the propeller in the rear of the main planes. Following is a description of Mr. Willard's novel machine :

main planes. These are each in five demountable sections, the lateral beams being joined by steel plates, top and bottom of beams, and bolted through. The main beams have three laminations, spruce and ash. The guy wires arc Roebling flexible cable. 7/64 and 3/32 in., and are tightened by turnhuckles. each with a locking device to keep the wire from loosening up through vibration. The struts are fish shaped, solid spruce, and fit in steel tube sockets. On the end of the strut is a brass ferrule to keep the strut from swelling in the socket. Continental cloth is used both sides and tacked on with copper tacks.

boihi. A novelty has been introduced in the construction of the rear half of the machine. Instead of outriggers, as usual with biplanes, a triangular body is employed, made of bamboo entirely, even to the diagonal braces, with the base of the triangle at the top. At the rear end is

the elevator and rudder. The manner of attacB ment of the diagonal bamboos to the main membeB is by steel tubing. This fuselage is divided in tw« sections, midway the length, the after one beinB capable of being slipped" inside the forward one for purposes of shipment. The fuselage will be entirely enclosed with fabric.

running gear. A central skid is used in com! bination with four wheels. The two center. 20 in. by 3 in. wheels, support the machine and are flexibly mounted with Goodyear rubber spring in the usual manner. Fore and aft respectively is a lG-in. wheel, which normally is 2 in. off the ground. In landing, the two center wheels taW the first shock, letting the machine down casilH on the remaining ones. The 'skid does not come in contact with the ground at all.

i'oircr plant. Not settled upon. Two GnomeB are already owned by him and it is possible he will take delivery of a couple of rotary Indian! on which he has a call. The placing of the gas« line tank depends on what engine is used. A G-eylinder Anzani is also a prospect. In any casB a shield will be built up at the rear of the ruotcB to protect the operator from oil. which the GdodiI particularly have a habit of throwing in oneB face without any discretion whatever. The spaiB advance and throttle are located on the steerinJH post and are controlled by Bowden wire. wifB copper tubing wherever there are bends.

stability. Ailerons are used, fastened with ordinary brass hinges to the rear beams, but ail positively operated in both up and down diretH tions in such a manner as to give equal resistanoH on both sides of the machine to avoid any tnrninB tendency from the operation of the ailerons.

controls. All steering and operating of aileronB are by one steering post and wheel, universal]* mounted. Pushing forward steers down, and viJB versa. Turning the wheel steers right or lefB while swinging the whole affair to left or riglM operates the ailerons.

A PRESSURE EQUALIZER FOR AILERONl

THE accompanying sketch shows two views of a differential device for securing and maintaining at all times an equal pressure on the ailerons on the opposite sides of a

Referring to Fig. 1 it will be seen that the gearl A and B are secured to shafts on which are thl pulleys G and II, around which are wound thl cables that operate the ailerons. Gears A and 15 ei gaye the gear C. which is mounted in the ring ll

ERONAUTICS

August, ipn

"Vvillard Headless Biplane.

Fig. 2 is a cross section on the line XX. It ill be seen that if the control lever is held tationary the wheel F and the gear C, which are oth secured to the same cross shaft, cannot re-olve, but should there be any difference of presume on the ailerons, the ring E will revolve in he mounting D.

The operation of the control lever will revolve he gear C, which will operate the ailerons in pposite directions, but the ring E will be free at .11 times to revolve and equalize the pressure.

Many sales have been made of the Roberts motor ' iu the short time it has been on the market. T. \V. Benoist, of St. Louis, has been making flights in one of his Curtiss-types with it at Kinloch Park and S. 1). Dixon and 11. \V. Powers are flying at Chicago. Ilaupt has it in his Bleriot-copy and Ralph Cole, of Xorwalk. O.. has been "making some sensational novice flights in a machine of his own design.

Aviation fans now may have a new sensation. Everyone wants to know how high the aeroplane is. Just sight along a special walking tick and look at a table in your vest pocket, and ou know, provided you know what machine it s that's flying, and one isn't a "fan" unless he ^nows them all afar off. The Metroscope Manufacturing Co. of Springfield, O., has produced in (.' cane the homely but characteristic altitude neasuring device of the Wright Brothers, de-wribed some time since in AERONAUTICS.

/ have found a great many interesting thim/s in your magazine and am sure it is well worth the price.—Gko. J. Ferguson.

/ found your magazine very satisfactory and instructive and the best on the market.—Allan W. Carpenter.

/ would, like to praise Aeronautics through its editor for its noble irork, which no doubt has improved to the delight of its subscribers, and those who perchance come across a stray coin/.— R. P. Davies.

STEEL construction is beginning to come more and more into favor. Several steel machines have been built in this country, and judging from the way they withstand the wear and tear and tumbles' it would seem as if the steel construction were superior to wood in a good many ways.

The machine illustrated was designed and constructed by William Kirkbride. of Detroit, Mich. Steel tubing has been, used almost exclusively, the only wood being in the skids and the engine and seat foundations and control levers.

Main Planes. The upper plane has a span of 30 ft., being two feet longer than the bottom one. The lateral main beams, both front and rear, are of 1%-in. 20 gauge tubing, reinforced in the center by slipping another tubing inside. This gives more strength where it is needed and does not increase the size of the spars. The ribs are also of tubing, the light ones being % in. 20 gauge and the heavy ones in way of uprights % in. : they are all joined to the spars by brazing, the joints being flush. Contrary to usual practice, the ribs do not pass either over or under the rear spars, but butt against it and are brazed. Quarter inch tubing forms the rear edge of the planes, to which is brazed the ends of the ribs.

A novel feature of the construction is the doing away with all strut sockets, guy wires and turn-buckles in the main plane. This is done by brazing the struts to the main spars, and by using %-in. 20 gauge tubing in place of wire. The small tubing is cut about 1/1G iu. sh,ort and heated and brazed in place ; when the tubing cools it comes to a good tension. If it were not for heating these diagonals they would be slack after the brazing. They are also brazed where they cross. The struts are 1-in. 20 gauge tubing and are round instead of oval. The cloth is stitched by hand and covers both sides.

Steering. The outriggers are of %-in. 20 gauge tubing. They can be detached from the planes by taking out four bolts ; the main spars having clips brazed on and the outrigger spars are fitted with an eye, making a very simple and strong

joint. The elevators and rudder are constructed in the same manner as the main planes.

Controls. The control is of the Farman type, fore and aft movement of the lever manipulates the elevator and sideways the ailerons. Thq rudder is controlled by a foot lever.

The power plant consists of a Model 2 Maxi-motor, weighing 225 pounds.

This is equipped with a Detroit radiator, Mea magneto and Schebler carburettor. The propeller is of 7-ft. diameter by 4%-ft pitch and gives from 275 to 315 pounds thrust at from 1,000 to 1,200 R. T. M.

Running Gear. The running gear consists of two skids and wheels. The wheels, which arl 2 in. by 20 in. Hartford, are mounted on a long axle, which is suspended by rubber springs.

All the control wires are 3/32-in. Roebling flexible cable, running over pulleys wherever it is required to turn corners with the wire.

The weight of the complete machine, without the operator, is 505 pounds.

Gray Eagle aero motors have recently been supplied to the following parties :

P. J. Butler, Vallejo. Cal.; II. II. Hoover, Memphis. Tenn. ; D. D. Iluddleston, Salem, Ore.

D. L. Dennis, of Franklin, Ind.. has been making daily flights with his Curtiss type biplane equipped with a Gray Eagle motor, and Earl Slaick of Indianapolis, Ind.. has been making many flights with his Curtiss biplane equipped with'a Gray Eagle motor.

Hoover is also making daily flights with his Gray Eagle biplane at the Louisville aviation field.

K. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., since Mr. Rubel purchased his partneFs interest in the business, ia devoting most of its energies to the sales of Gray Eagle motors and propellers, though a new model biplane will be brought out for 1912. A six-cylinder, 00 h. p. V-motor. two-cycle type, with open crankcase and no carburetor, is being developed. The first motor has already been satisfactorily tested out on the block.

KIRKBRIDE BUILDS ALL STEEL BIPLAN3

Xirkbride All-steel Biplane.

NEW YORK-CHICAGO FLIGHT

Urbana, O., July 10, 1911.

Editor of AERONAUTICS.

Dear Sir : I have just read the article by R. E. Scott, "What's the Matter With America." and 1 am impressed with his view of the case.

The "Scientific American" in a recent number asks, "Why is Europe ahead of America?" in. primary inventions, and auswers much in the same way.

If mechanical flight is to stop where it is as to development and usefulness, then it may as well stop at once: but all thinking people arc agreed that it will not stop ; then let us on this side have a hand in the development.

I propose to post this challenge—that I will build a 'plane that will cover the distance between New York and Chicago in the light of a single day carrying two persons, and without a stop, for $25,000, 40 per cent down with contract, balance when the machine is accepted, and

If it fails to do as claimed I will at once refund the advance payment. Or I will organize a company and sell ^lOO.OOO worth of stock for $25,000 and guarantee to make it worth par in one year or refund the money paid by subscribers.

It seems to me that there should be someone Interested in the advancement of the gentle art of flying that would be willing to stake the ugr of the money long enough to prove this claim and I hat is all that would be lost, for you can refer to any of the banks named on my card and find that I am able to do as I offer.

The offer of largo prizes is not a very satisfactory way of advancing the cause, as the contestants are compelled to build cheaply for fear of failure.

If yon will post my challenge fn your next number yon will be helping the advancement of American aeronautics.

Respectfully,

(Signed) C. M. WAXZEIl.

AERONAUTICS August, 1911

CONSTRUCTION" AIDS XIX

on Wrighi Blpline

FLIES FROM BOSTON TO WASHINGTON

Atwood's Time Table.

Miles.

BOSTON ....................... O.dO

NEW LOXDOX ................. 03.00

XEW YORK .................... 112.40

ASBURY I'ARK ................ 32.45

ATLANTIC CITY ............... 05.15

BALTIMORE ................... 122.40

WASHINGTON ................. 35.20

Total ...................... 401.20

ATWOOD MAKES EIVE CENTURY PLIGHT.

THE biggest flight ever made in this country, more than four times as long as any previous attempt, was successfully accomplished by Harry N. Atwood after not more than six weeks of aviation experience, lie learned to fly at the Wright camp at Dayton and then went with the Burgess Company and Curtis, flying their Burgess-Wright machines.

On June 30, while at breakfast, the suggestion was evolved in his mind that he fly to New London and see the Yale-Harvard: boat races from aloft. He did it. When he arrived there a newspaper man asked him why he didn't fly to New York, lie did. Then he thought he might as well go on to Washington and demonstrate there the new Burgess army aeroplane which had been sent by train. And he did that, too. All this without any prize or profit, save a cup given by a local newspaper after he started and a small purse raised by Atlantic City. The Chamber of Commerce in Washington was expected to reward the flight in a financial way, but. after it was made, the seeming necessity for a prize diminished daily, and the purse was finally not made up.

The Aero Club of Washington, however, did give him its gold medal and he was introduced to President Taft, who made the presentation. This was on July 14. lie flew into Washington, landing in Potomac Park, and had luncheon and then flew right into the White House grounds. This was a very ticklish job, as well as the getting out, for he had to dodge trees, shrubbery, fences and walks. After the presentation, he turned his machine and flew out of the grounds and back to College Tork.

The Burgess-Wright machine is made by the Burgess Company and Curtis, of Marblehead, Mass., licensees under the Wright patents. The power plant is made by the Wright Company itself, at Dayton ; the woodwork, other construction aud assembling is Burgess-Curtis. Products of other manufacturers entering into the whole are : wheels, shock absorbers and cloth, of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Diamond Chain Co., Mea magneto.

Atwood r lying Around the linger Building

Courtesy iY. Y. World

the flight dat by dat.

June 30. Flew from Sqnantum field, near Boston, with his mechanic, .1 nines Fleet, as passenger, at T a. m., to a field near New London, arriving at 9:10. The mayor quickly eaine to the spot with police and flew with Atwood over the course while the college crews were racing. The flight took 2 hours and lo minutes to New London.

July 1. Flew alone from New London. 7 :0i\ a. m., to New York City, stopping 3S minutes,for gas just across the East River, at Astoria, L. 1.. directly over the East River bridges and across the skyscraper district of New York around the Singer Building and down to Governor's Island,

Atwood's Long- riijht Mapped.

in the hay. 10:20 a. m. lie followed the New Haven railroad tracks all the way down the Connecticut shore to the upper end of Manhattan Island, where he swung out over the Fast River to Astoria.

July 3. Flew around Governor's Island and the hay, and took Lieut. Fickel around the Statue of Liberty. A hundred miles in all were flown here, it was figured. While up over Brooklyn at a height of 2,200 ft. his gas ran forward in the tank away from the feed pipe to the engine and he glided down to the Island.

July 4. Started at 8 :.r>0 a. m. and arrived at Atlantic City alone, at 2 :'.v2 p. m., after stopping at Asbury Park, and at Sea Girl on the way for oil. and at Tuckerton for gas. This stage took a long time for he had to buck head winds all the way. Asbury Park was mistaken for Atlantic City and-he had to go twice Ihe distance again to reach the latter place.

July 5 0. Made passenger (lights at Atlantic City, taking up ('has. K. Hamilton and various local people. Here Hamilton was Invited to tly with Atwood to Washington, and accented.

July 7. Hamilton and Atwood started, but a dog got in the way of a propeller and was neatly

dissected'. A second start was unfortunate forB the machine did not raise well and they had toB land in water. The waves broke the planes andl got in the engine.

July 8. Hamilton had his own Burgess-Wright I towed behind an automobile all the way from New Britain, Conn., taking 20 hours on the road I without sleep, and this way used the rest of the! day.

July 9. Made a start but had to land a quarter! of a mile away on Captain Hugh L. Willoughby'sI grounds and injured the machine, which did not! seem to lift.

July 10. At 5 :04 in the morning another startB was made and a landing made then at Farnhurst.B Del., at 0:45, where gas was obtained. Start-B iug again at 7 :30, another landing was againl made at Stemmer's Run, Md., at 9 :25. All alongl the machine was flying close to the ground audi it seemed impossible to get it to lift. The ex-1 treme heat was charged with this. Just before! reaching Stemmer's Run they passed close over a moving train and the hot air and smoke from! the engine boosted them up in the air enough! to clear the telegraph wires and make a landing! in a nearby field.

July 11. Despite the very long grass, a start! was made, still with Hamilton, at 4 :40 a. m..l landing at 5 :50 a. m. at College Park, which At-I wood thought was really in the city of Washing-! ton instead of nine miles away. As he planned! to fly to Washington itself he was still not satis-l tied until he completed his journey to the Capitol.I After going into town for breakfast he took out! the Burgess-Wright government machine for its I demonstration but broke it up.

July 12. Meets the President and announces an I early flight from Chicago to New York.

July 13. He buys Hamilton's machine, which! has been used from Atlantic City, and flies over the city of Washington for half an hour, circling I the dome of the Capitol itself, landing back at I College Park.

July 14. Flies to the White House grounds and is presented with the gold medal.

July 21. A bad wind storm took the machine, which was out of the shed at College Park, blew I it up in the air and dropped it hack to earth, completely wrecking it.

JOHNSTONE BREAKS DURATION RECORD.

St'. Croix Johnstone, of the Moisant Company, flying a Moisant-BIeriot, broke the American duration audi distance records over a measured course on July 27 at Mineola, L. I., in a flight lasting 4 hours 1 minute 53 4/5 seconds, circling the course 39 times and a fraction for a distance of 170 miles, 1,254 feet, officially observed by representatives of the Aero Club.

He started1 very early in the morning, just as the sun was coming up over the eastern horizon and finished his flight over a four-mile 2.099-foot course shortly after 9 :00 o'clock. The machine was loaded down with 25 gallons of gas and 11 gallons of castor oil. A small leak in tut- extra gas tank prevented a- longer flight.

The new figures to be added to the list of American records are as follows:

2 recoups broken. 0 established.

Duration, 4 hr. 1 min. 5.", 4/5 sec.

Distance, 170 in. 1,254 ft.

150 kil. in 2 hrs. S min. 1/5 sec.

200 kil. in 2 hrs. 4!) min. 52 1/5 sec.

250 kil. in 3 hrs. 32 min. 50 3/5 sec.

Two hours. SS m. 1,13!) ft.

Three hours, 133 in. 1,729 ft.

Four hours, 170 ni. 1,254 ft.

The records that were beaten follow :—

Duration. 3 hr. 39 min. 49.5 sec, P. O. Parme-lee (Wright). San Francisco. Jan. 22. 1911.

Distance, to I m. 3S!> ft., Ralph Johnstone (Wright), Boston, Sept. 19, 1910.

BEACHEY'S TLIGHT OVER NIAGARA.

For spectacular daring and accomplished flying, no one has "anything on" Lincoln Beachey. 11 is flight of June 27 hack and forth over the Niagara River and down the Gorge will be remembered for some time.

Beachey was the principal feature of an international carnival under the auspices of the twin cities Niagara Falls, N. Y., and Niagara Falls, Fan. The start of his flight was from a baseball park on the American side of the river. From here he circled round and flew across the Niagara Kiver and Goat Island and back of the Horseshoe Falls to the Canadian side. Without stopping he turned in below the Falls at the beginning of the Gorge and flew along its course and over the big steel bridge. Then he turned again and flew back up the Canadian side nearly to the Falls. At this point he repeated his flight down the Gorge but made it more sensational. Dropping close to the boiling ltapids, he shot along, this time passing under the central arch of the bridge.

On previous days he had made a series of spectacular flights over the Niagara Kiver in the wind and rain with his Curtiss machine which he now flies without a front elevator. Just a few days before, P.eaehey, McCurdy and Wittmer gave an exhibition at the famous Fort Frie race track, across the lake from Buffalo. Here a number of sensational flights were made by all three and on one day. in a stiff wind. Beaehoy flew across the river and over the business district of Buffalo.

FLIGHT OVER NEW YORK.

Following the sensational flight of Atwood over the peaks and canyons of lower Manhattan. Ladis Lewkowiez, in his five-cylinder Anzani-engined Bleriot on July S left Nassau Boulevard and flew high over the other end of Manhattan Island, attaining an altitude of over G.000 ft. As he crossed East Kiver and was about over East U.oth Street he noticed his oil giving out and he deliberately shut his engine off and began to glide the long distance across the Hudson Kiver and the Palisades to Leonia, N. J., a distance of at least three or four miles in an air line. In landing he caught his wheels in the long tough grass of the salt meadows and turned the machine over, breaking its back.

DOUBLE ENGINE MONOPLANE FAILS.

The Queen Aeroplane Company's double Gnome-engined monoplane eame to grief and the aviator, Stone, had a narrow escape.

This company, which is building fine copies of the Bleriot 'at Fort George, New York City, built a speed machine with two engines, mounted one in front as usual and one directly behind the aviator, turning in opposite directions. Instead of the usual rectangular body in Bleriot machines, three hollow outriggers, s°parated at

the front far enough for the rear propeller to swing, extended back to a point where a rather small vertical rudder was hinged. A four-wheeled chassis was used to support the whole. It was expected that the machine would develop phenomenal speed but it did not fly far enough to get much of an idea as to what it might do. It jumped off the ground like a scared rabbit and almost immediately keeled over on one side and Stone was unable to right it. If it had been higher that might have been possible but it was acknowledged that the vertical rudder was entirely too small.

NEW McCURDY MACHINE.

The new MeCurdy aeroplane has started on the road before anyone had a chance to see it. It was taken to Nassau for one short hop to try the balance and shipped to Hamilton, Unt.. where an exhibition is to be given. From here it goes to Toronto and on to Chicago for the meet.

II. F. Kearney is making flights at Creve Coeur audi is to try out pontoons on his biplane. Several other novices are about to move over from Kinloch, as the former is a more favored flying ground.

NAVAL MACHINE HAS NEW FEATURES.

Lieut. Theodore G. Ellyson. the navy's qualified aviator, has been flying all the month at 11am-mondsport with the hydroaeroplane bought by the Navy Department of the United States Government. On many of his flights he has carried passengers, among "whom was Capt. W. I. Chambers, head of the aeronautical work of the navy, who was taken up Keuka Lake to its end and back, a distance of about 40 miles.

The naval student. Lieut. J. II. Towers, has also been a passenger to I'onn Yan and back. Penn Yan is at one end of the. lake and llammondsport at the other. Over a measured course the machine covered 10 miles in IS minutes, carrying the two officers. »>n the return trip fromi Penn Yan the machine circled the little steamer that plies between the two towns for the express benefit of Lieut. Paul W. P.eek, the army aviator, who was known to be a passenger, and the navy took this occasion to show the army what a naval aeroplane was like.

The end of July, Lieutenant Beek was taken as a passenger in the machine.

At the present time four military officers are training at the Curtiss factory—Lieutenants Beck. Ellyson. Towers and J. W. MeClaskey, the latter of the United States marine corps. Beek and Ellyson are qualified pilots.

The other navy machine is a four-cylinder land aeroplane, of the usual Curtiss type.

The Navy's Hydro-aero-plane

ONAUTICS

August, ipn

innovations in hydroaeroplane.

The naval hydroaeroplane is two-seated, each being equipped with an individual shoulder brace for the operating of the ailerons. These can be connected together or disconnected at will. The passenger must, if they are connected, allow himself to sway with any movement of the braces caused by the aviator. The passenger is free to draw or make notes, or can at once take over the control of the entire machine.

The steering post is hinged on an axis fore and aft, so that the wheel can be taken by either of the occupants and full control of the machine instantly shifted from one to the other of the people. In case of accident to the driver, the passenger can grasp control without chance of losing balance of the machine. The possible danger of two men trying to operate the machine at tlie same time is avoided. The elevator is tilted by a horizontal rod running forward from the lower end of the steering post. A patent has been applied for on this hinged steering column.

The diagonal stay wires in the three center sections of the machine are doubled and the motor is one of the new TO-h.p. eight-cylinder motors, just completed.

The aileron-operating cables run from the shoulder brace over the two large pulleys on the front struts, as shown in the. photograph, crossing above the aviator to pulleys at the extremities of the upper plane and down to the ailerons. From each aileron a cable runs over a pulley at the outer extremity of the lower plant in to the shoulder brace again.

NEW WRIGHT MODEL.

A new miodel Wright machine has been produced, of M2-t't. spread, a one-man machine, designed particularly for use in restricted grounds. It flies faster than the two-man model B, is a fast climber, but not so speedy as the Baby Wright.

The navy's machine, a model B, the third Wright machine purchased by the government, was delivered on July 19, after an hour's demonstration by Urville Wright. After this flight he took up ('apt. W. 1. Chambers, head of aeronautics in the navy, for 2.'J minutes. While he was aboard, Mr. Wright made a beautiful glide of about three miles at reduced power, and as he approached the earth he started up the engine and immediately ascended.

II. II. Brown of Boston has received a model B and he will complete his training at Nassau boulevard. George Frederick Norton and Professor Reynolds are the latest students at the last place, while Mr. George W. Beatty is rapidly becoming proficient in the machine bought by Walter B. Davis.

At Dayton, O. G. Simmons is learning to drive for Robert J. Collier. Messrs. H. V. Hills of Milwaukee, and J. 0. Henning, who is learning to flv to give exhibitions in a machine bought foiMiim b'v a syndicate, are now students here. Mr. Hill's will place himself at the disposal of any firm that needs a man to demonstrate machines. Louis Mitchell, who owns a Burgess-Wright, has also bought a Wright model B and is learning to flv it. Twenty-four men have been trained this year,"and 10 machines have been delivered. Other pupils trained by the Wright company are awaiting deliveries, five of which are promised by Aug. 10.

A new aileron scheme has been employed by James B. Slinn. of Chillicothe, 111., in his monoplane. The ailerons are situated on the upper rear edge of the main planes and are operated by a shoulder brace, in one direction only.

The trailing edge of the elevator, 15 ft. by 2Vi ft., is directly above the leading edge of the main plane. This is operated through the bell crank and link by tilting the steering column fore and aft. The cross-bar operates the rudder. The main plane is 27 ft. spread and 5 ft. chord.

Clarence II. Walker of Salt Lake City, who purchased a Curtiss machine last year, is now giving exhibitions in Australia. Masson and Addosides are also there with a Bleriot.

Charles K. Hamilton will soon be flying for the Curtiss Exhibition Co. again, his financial differences with the company evidently having been patched up. _

The race to be flown Aug. 5 between New York and Philadelphia by the Curtiss aviators, Hamilton, who has just joined with Curtiss again, Beachey and Robinson, has aroused no little comment, Robinson is coming East after making numerous hydroaeroplane flights at Seattle. The; Moisant management has written to Gimbol Brothers suggesting making of the race an open affair, in order that Moisant flyers. Johnstone. Barrier, Simion or any one or all of them, or more, can take part. A. Leo Stevens, who is booking Henry N. Atwood, is anxious that he be given a chance at the $5,000 prize. There are still others, independent aviators, who are anxious to try. The Curtiss office looks upon it as a business proposition, and one which anyone else had the same privilege of arranging.

With over a quarter million ignition outfits in use in the United States, the Bosch Magneto Co. is now introducing throughout the country an extensive service system through which users of their apparatus wherever they may be located will be able to secure prompt and skilled assistance in case of need.

The scheme adopted is very far reaching and should prove of great value and assistance to those employing Bosch products. The plan includes the appointment throughout the country of official distributers, who will have a complete stock of repair and spare parts for Bosch apparatus, as well as a completely equipped repair shop in charge of a mechanic especially trained for the work.

The distributers will furthermore be in a position to handle sales of Bosch products to the local trade. Close co-operation is planned between the Bosch Magneto Co. and the distributers, which will give the latter the benefit of special publicity, circularizing, etc., as well as the necessary technical assistance.

Each distributer as appointed will be furnished with an enameled sign featuring the Bosch magneto, reserved entirely for official Bosch distributers, and arc to be displayed by the establishments designated in this way.

Distributers aie now being appointed, and it is expected before many months have passed they will be operating in all of the localities of the United States and Canada where automobiles, motorboats, motorcycles, etc., are in sufficient use fo var''"'it the appointment.

Slinn Aileron Scheme.

WRIGHT COMPANY TO START WHOLESALE SUITS.

Within the next oO days infringement suits will he started by the Wright company against manufacturers and aviators in this country who are manufacturing and exhibiting alleged infringing aeroplanes.

This is not the legal procedure originally intended by the company, but one that has beeu more or less forced upon it by public censure. The plan was to bring infringement suits against manufacturers or users of the main types of machines, such as Curtiss, Farrnan and Bleriot only, and to obtain as early an adjudication as possible for the benefit of the art and industry, for not until final confirmation or dismissal of the Wright claims would capital be likely to invest in aviation, nor would the public buy machines of types in suit.

Suits were brought against Paulhau, using the Farman ; against Curtiss, and against White, using a Bleriot and Farman, and injunctions asked for. In the first two cases, that of Curtiss and Paulhau, the injunctions granted by the Circuit Court were set aside on an appeal, and the next step was to wait for the trial of the infringement suit. White's lawyers obtained a delay and advised him that the makers of his machines should defray at least a part of the suits, but White could not induce cither Farman or Bleriot to even pay a share of the costs of fighting, as they had their own cases to fight in France. The White suit is up for trial in October, as is the Paulhau. It is possible that judgments may be obtained by the Wright company against both, but it is not at all certain that damages can be collected so long as both defendants stay abroad, at least not in France. It is quite probable that English courts would review favorable judgment in this country and make White pay up.

Curtiss must have his evidence in in September for the trial of the action in October. Both the Wrights and Curtiss have been collecting evidence and taking testimony during the past six months.

the wholesale suits.

Criticism was unite general of the action of the Wrights in the alleged selection of these few to be the "goats." and people wondered why the Moisant aviators were not prosecuted, why Sop-with was allowed to come over without molestation, why Ovington, Baldwin, Willard and the large number of lesser lights who are killing the chances for future meets or exhibitions all over the country by failing to satisfy the public or even fly at all in many cases, were left to fly as they pleased.

Now suits are to be started against all who are doing anything at all in the way of manufacturing, exhibition or contest flying where there is financial reward. No doubt the public will criticise this move also, and not without reason, for consistency was never a virtue with the dear public.

Sopwith has already been served with legal documents, as has Barrier. Simon, Audemars, Frisbie and two managers of the recent Moisant n.eet at Detroit.

F. 11. Uussell, manager of the Wright company, has stated : "Our first desire was not to bother the general public until it could be informed as to the legal status of the Wright patent, but with such rapid developments in this country, and with the coming over of foreigners who are not interested in development, excepting in so far as they would make money to take away from the country, we were becoming criticised for the very-policy which we considered most broad and: liberal." Then, too, by refraining from these further suits, we might be considered as acquiescing, to the detriment of our legal position.

"Another reason, quite as important as the popular feeling (.above expressed i which has altered our policy, is the fact that manufacturers and licensees in these exhibitions who have recognized our patents and paid our royalties arc very rightly requesting the protection in their business which they feel the patents should insure, and which they have paid for."

weight suits in other countries.

In France the court rendered the opinion, printed in the July number, which opinion acknowledged the validity of the Wright patent as a combination, and the present system as sufficiently described in the patent specifications, but which allowed the commission appointed opportunity within the next year to discover prior claims.

The German company, which owns the German rights, won its first case against infringers.

AUTOMOBILE CLUB MOTOR PRIZE.

It is much satisfaction to note that 15 entries have been received for the Automobile Club of America's $1,000 motor prize, of which full particulars have previously been published in AERONAUTICS, just before the closing of the entries on July 1, when it seemed likely that not a single entry would be received.

When the July issue went to press two days before we were informed that none had been received.

The time for closing has now been extended to Sept. 1 to give certain manufacturers more time to enter or prepare their product for the test.

The 15 entries are as follows :

Albatross (six-cylinder), entered by Albatross Engine Corporation.

Albatross (two-cylinder), entered by Albatross Engine Corporation.

Anzani. entered by Aerial Equipment Co.

Cooke Revolving, entered by W. C. Cooke.

Gnome, entered by Aeromotion Co. of America.

Ilarriman Aero, entered by Ilarriman Motor Co.

Ithaca, entered by Ithaca Motor Co.

Kirkham, entered by Charles B. Kirkharn1.

Maximotor, entered by Maxiinotor Co.

Renault, entered by Aerial Equipment Co.

Requa, entered by Requa Motor Co.

Roberts, entered by Roberts Motor Co.

Springfield Aviation, entered by Springfield Gas Engine -Co.

Willard, entered by II. J. Willard.

Wright Aero Motor, entered by the Wright Co.

objects to extension.

C. B. Kirkham writes as follows :

In your last issue you stated that up to the time you went to press there were no entries to the aeronautical motor competition to be held by the Automobile Club of America, and as you evidently went to press after the 1st of July, 1 will have to take issue with you on this noint, as the Kirkham motor was entered previous to this time, and 1 have since learned that the date of entry of this competition has been postponed to Sept. 1. It seems to me very strange that the time of entry should be extended in order to favor manufacturers who had not confidence enough in their motors to get in at the time originally set. It looks very unsportsmanlike to me, aud it should not be. for "if they have not confidence enough in their motor to make entry at the date originally specified, especially after the competition had been advertised as long as it has, then it seems to me that they should have been left out, and had I not gotten my entry in. I would most certainly have expected to stay out entirely. My entry and specifications are in and they will not be changed, for if I cannot win this competition with a stock motor, I would rather not win it at all."

RACE FROM NEW YORK TO PHILIY.

Through the $.".(100 prize of Ginibel Brothers, a large depart mien t store firm of New York and Philadelphia, the first American cross-country aeroplane race will be tlown from New York to Philadelphia on Saturday, Aug. 5, and the aviators competing will be Lincoln Beaohey, the California n who a few weeks ago made his daring flight in a Curtiss aeroplane over Niagara Palls and through the gorge; Chas. K. Hamilton and 11. A. Robinson, expert and experienced fliers.

The contestants will start from Governor's Island, New York Ray, and fly up the Hudson River to the Oimbel store, Broadway and Thirty-third St., each aviator passing over the store, which will be considered the official starting point of the race.

After being officially timed for the start, the aeroplanes will set out on a course from New York to Philadelphia. T4 miles, following in a general way the tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad as far as Trenton, where they may take up the course of the Delaware River to Market St., Philadelphia. Each aeroplane will pass over the (Umbel store in that city, thus completing the official time of the race. The aviators will then Ily up tin1 Schuylkill River to a landing place in Kairmiount Park.

THE AEROPLANE IN POLAR EXPLORATION.

For the first time a newspaper man has obtained an interview while flying as a passenger. During the last month the British representative of the American journal of aerial locomotion, AERONAUTICS, George II. Scraggs. flew for an hour with Lieut. Hugh E. Watkins at Brooklands motordrome in the lieutenant's Howard Wright biplane. The arrangement of the exhaust in this machine mullles the engine considerably, and it is not difficult to converse. During the flight Lieutenant Watkins was asked with regard to his proposed use of an aeroplane on his Antarctic-trip. ''We are using one of the new R. E. P. monoplanes." said he, "which will be equipped with a shield, covering the aviator as much as possible, in order to protect hiin against the severe cold. The machine will be used for scouting and locating open fields of ice that can safely be traveled by the exploration party. 1 do not consider an exploration outfit complete to-day without an aeroplane."

During the whole hour's duration of the flight conversation was easily carried on and pictures were taken while aloft. Lieutenant Watkins has a line record as an aviator, and is the twenty-fifth man to secure a pilot license from the Royal Aero Club.

THE CHICAGO MEET.

The strictly competitive Chicago meet, under the auspices of the Aero Club of Illinois, will start Aug. 12 and last 10 days. Forty-nine different events are scheduled in order' that the $.s<),000 in prizes may be earned. The totalization of duration prize alone is $10,000, while daily prizes of $1,000 for the same feat are offered.

For the first lime no guarantees are paid to insure attendance of certain aviators. All are free to enter or stay away, and every dollar won will be earned through flights.

Garros, who has been flying in the wonderful cross-country races, and Audemars, who flies three different machines, are expected back by the Moi-sant company to take part with Simon. Barrier, Frisbie, Raygorodsky and another "dark horse" in the meet. The Curtiss company will be represented by several flyers. Sopwith, Beatty, .Tames V. Martin, Ladis Lewkowicz and Ovington an; expected. Chicago itself has a number of novice flyers who will not make the affair any less inter-esl ing.

The Wright company may also enter a full complement of machines if Ihe prizes they are certain of winning total as muich as may be earned elsewhere in the same period.

Charles F. Walsh is coming from the Coast, mid Willard and McCurdy will be on hand with their two new machines.

EARLE OVINGTON TO FLY THE CURTISS.

Earle L. Ovington will have charge of the training school to be established by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. at Nassau Boulevard. The first machine will be on hand for flights by Aug. 1. Under Mr. Ovington students will have the best theoretical as well as practical instruction, for lie is an expert on engines, a most competent aviator, an engineer graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a thoroughly good fellow, particularly well fitted for such work. Cromwell Dixon, who was a mere boy when he sailed his first dirigible, which his mother and he built in the back yard, will be the first pupil.

NEW COMPANIES.

The Pioneer Aeroplane and Exhibition Co. has been incorporated in St. Louis for $12,000 and lias secured Andrew Drew, formerly manager of the Kinlocn and Creve Coeur aviation fields, as aviator. He is now at Dayton, Ohio, taking lessons on a Wright aeroplane which has been purchased by the company. A school will be conducted at one of the two St. Louis fields.

Sharp Aeroplane Co.. Cleveland, O., $10,000. .Tames G. Reyant. K. C. Morris, Amiel Radtke, John Sharp and Hattie Sharp.

Tacoma Aeroplane Mfg. Co.. Tacoma, Wash., $50,000. G. W. Stoomer, W. F. Longmire and J. A. Anderson.

Wildwood Aeroplane Co., Wildwood, N. J. A Bowman and T. S. Goslin.

U. S. Aerial Navigation Co., So. Dakota, $225,000.

Washington Aeronautic Co.. Seattle, Wash., $50,000. Jos. A. Kelly, A. B. Roberts.

Western Aviation Co., San Francisco, Cal., $10,-Ooo. 11. E. Buggies, F. J. Crisp and James Leach.

Utah Aviation Association, $25,000, Salt Lake City. J. A. Kaufman. W. E. Palmer. E. M. Cooper, Peter Clegg, William R. Smith, William S. Marks, William Soelburg and Philip Aljets.

The Bridgeport Aeronautical Co., Portland, $100,000. C. E. Eaton, T. L. Croteau.

Chicago Aeroplane Mfg. Co., of Chicago, $100,000.

McCurdv Aeroplane Co., J. A. D. McCurdy, $5,000, 17S0 Broadway, New York.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

THE PRINCIPLES OF AEROPLANE CONSTRUCTION, by Rankin Kennedy. C. E. Cloth, S vo., 145 pp.. 51 diagrams. Published by D. Yan Nostrand & Co., 23 Murray St., New York, at $1.50.

Contents: Elementary Mechanics and Physics, Principles of Inclined Planes. Air and Its Properties, Principles of the Aeroplane, The Curve of the Aeroplane, Centers of Gravity, Balancing and Steering, The Propeller. The Helicopter, The Wing Propeller, The Engine, The Future of the Aeroplane.

There is absolutely nothing new in the book in the way of experiments ; no new or original ideas of any kind.

One gets the idea that the author was not so very sure of the subject with which he deals. This comes from the very indefinite way in which a great many of the subjects are handled, as well as the fact that there are some inaccuracies.

The book belongs to that rapidly increasing class, which starts with nothing and ends with not much more, and contains no real information ; they have not even the merit of being pleasant reading.

CHARTS OF THE ATMOSPHERE1 FOR AERONAUTS AND AVIATORS, by Prof. A. Lawrence Rot eh. founder and director of Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, and Andrew II. Palmer, research assistant ; published by John Wiley and Sons, 4:1 E. P.Mli St., New York, $2.00 net.

It is a handsome cloth-bound book of nearly one hundred printed pages measuring nine by eleven inches, and illustrated by twenty-four full page charts representing a great variety of physical properties and conditions of the atmosphere, sometimes at a height of a few hundred feet, again at all depths from the ocean face to the mountain tops. Among the data graphically portrayed

AERONAUTICS

An (just, 1911

in the charts are the atmospheric density, pressure and temperature, the wind velocity", direction and impactual pressure. Some of these relate to the general ocean of air. others to particular localities, and more especially to that of the Blue Hill Observatory. A large portion of the data are taken from original observations made at the Blue 11ill Observatory and in the four expeditions sent in 1905-1007 by Messrs. Teisserenc de Bort and Botch on the steam yacht "Otaria" to exDlore the atmosphere in the intertropical regions of the Atlantic Oceau, both in winter and in summer.

Interesting features of the work are the observations charted and the conclusions derived from them, in the last three parts of the book. These show the wind speeds and directions in the northeast trade region of the Atlantic Ocean, and their applicability to aerial navigation over that part of the sea. Aerial summer routes across the north Atlantic from America to Europe and return are outlined, over which it is declared to be possible to cross the ocean in either direction in one or two days less time than by the fastest steamship, in a dirigible balloon capable of sustaining a speed of 25 miles an hour, and of remaining four days at an elevation of half a mile. The eastward route extends from Boston to London at a height of 3,Mod ft., and is estimated to require 32 hours covering a distance of 3.300 miles ; the westward route extends from Lisbon to the Lesser Antilles, a distance of 3.0O0 miles, and is estimated at 50. hours, the voyage being made near the sea level.

The work is a timely contribution to the science of aerogeography, and a convenient reference book of aeronautical meteorology. Coming from investigators of so much experience, it should be heartily welcomed by aeronauts and aviators who have need of practical statistics of the atmosphere so concisely summarized and elegantly diagrammed.

LES LOIS EXPERIMENTAL!? DE L'AVIA-T10N, par Alexandre See. ancien eleve de l'Ecole Polytechnique. Paper, 34S pp., with diagrams. Price. 7 fr. 50. from la Librairie Aeronautique, 40. rue de Seine, Paris.

Table des Matieres : Generalites sur le probleme du vol. Les lois de la resistance de l'air. Theorie de l'aeroplane. Le vol des oiseaux. Le vol a voile. L'heliee an point fixe. L'helieoptere. L'heliee propulsive. La stabilite.

FLYING MACHINES TO-DAY. by William D. Funis, M. E., Professor of Mechanical Engineering. Polytechnic Institute. Brooklyn. 12mo., cloth, 21S pp., 123 illustrations. Published by D. Van Nostrand & Co.. 23 Murray St., New York, at .$1.5<>.

Contents: The Delights and Dangers of Flying; Soaring Flight by Man; Turning Corners; Air and the Wind; Gas and Ballast; Dirigible Balloons and Other Kinds: Question of Power: Getting Up and Down; Models and Gliders: Aeroplane Details ; Some Aeroplanes ; Some Accomplishments ; The Possibilities in Aviation ; Aerial Warfare.

The book gives in a very readable form a chronicle of the contemporaneous accomplishments in the air: it makes no pretence of doing more than point out the general principles of the aeroplane and lighter-than-air apparatus.

It is a book that is intended for the lay reader, who cannot but appreciate the different points as they are touched upon, so simply and clearly are they dealt with.

NEW AERO CLUB LICENSES.

Aviators' licenses have been issued by the Aero Club of America to the following :

Lieut. Thomas deW. Milling (Wright). No. 30.

Lieut. Harold II. Arnold (Wright). No. 20.

Howard W. Gill (Wright). No. 31.

Edson F. Gallaudet (WrightL No. 32.

Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss). No. 27.

Harry N. Atwood (Burgess-Wright).

Lieut. Theodore G. Ellyson (Curtiss hydroaeroplane), No. 2.S.

Others who will try shortly are Messrs. Geo. W. Beatty. William 0. Beers, W. Redmond Cross and Lee Hammond.

Balloon pilot license No. 41 has been issued to Frank M. Jacobs of Topeka, Kan.

AVIATION INSURANCE.

The cost of aero accident insurance, as scheduled by the Glascow assurance Corporation. Ltd., is of particular interest at this time in view of the refusal of American companies to write accident insurance for aviators and aeronauts, even attaching clauses to ordinary life policies held by the general public, practically cancelling most of the face value of the policy in case of death in aeroplanes, balloons or airships. Such shortsighted policy, in the presence of competent data, further illustrates the backward state of the art in America.

Following we give a list of the benefits: The premium to insure the whole of the above benefits for one quarter is just about $30. We have changed the pounds to dollars in round numbers in the following schedule:

$1,250 in event of death by any other than aerial accident.

$625 in event of death by aerial accident.

$750 for loss of both hands, or for both feet or for both eyes.

$500 for either loss of one hand or one foot or one eye.

Double, half or quarter benefits are written at proportionate rates. The above schedule is about one-fourth as great in amount for the same injuries as allowed in the average American accident policy and the annual rate is about nine times as much or nine times the premium for one-fourth the insurance. Assuredly, tlws is better than no insurance at all, and cancellation of ordinary life insurance.

Here is a sample of imbecility on the part of one American accident insurance concern. A man engaged in, for instance, publishing an aeronautical journal applies for an accident policy, $2,500 face value, premium $12.50 yearly. He is classed as "special" and an endorsement is attached to the policy, which states that if "performing any work or services on or connected with any airship or balloon, the company's liability under this policy shall not exceed $250 on account of the as-sured's death resulting from such injuries, and the company's liability under any other provision or provisions of the policy shall not exceed $50."

The holder might be sitting in the grandstand, according to the wording of this clause, noting down the operations of an airship over a course and taking time, and in case of death from heart failure the beneficiary would receive but $250. This is a bright example of actuarial ingenuity. In the evident desire to play safe, the statistician overlooked the fact that aeroplanes had been invented and the clause mentions only airships and balloons. Now, an airship certainly is not an aeroplane, despite frequent newspaper usage.

Since the above was written and set in type, W. II. Markham & Co.. Pierce Bldg., St. Louis. Mo., are now prepared to cover aviators and aeronauts against death from aceidents up to .$5,000 through Lloyds. The premiums for bal-loonists are as follows: One day, 1 per cent.; two davs. 1 y. per cent. : seven days, 2Ji per cent. : one month, 5 per cent.; twelve months, 10U pet-cent. For aviators the above rates are doubled. To insure an aviator's life for a year in a $5,000 policy would cost $1,050.

Messrs. Fiehtei & Sachs. Schweinfurt. Germany, the makers of the well known F. & S. annular ball bearings, and whose American representatives are the J. S. Bretz Co.. have begun an action against the R. 1. V. Co.. the importers of the R. I. V. bearing, for infringement of the side entrance slot tilling patents which they own.

The value of these patents and others used in combination with theim consists in their permitting tin1 use of halls of the largest diameter, also the use of more balls in a given size hearing, and consequently maximum load-carrying capacity.

it

Si

An Elbridge Equipped Curtiss Type Biplane

and the "Aero Special" in four and six cylinders, from te^ as light in weight as anything of equal power. Another thing

since passed the experiment; power plants for the man wl

If you will send us a

together with weight, dime!

to advise you, to the best I power plant.

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ARMY PLYING.

During the past mouth lhe army Wright machines have been kept busy. No less than 1 -7 Hights were made up to July lift, during which 50 passengers were carried. Flights over Washington from College 1'ark occurred twice during the month by army aviators, Below is a synopsis of the work accomplished. That there are absolutely no frills to the story is obvious. It illustrates the matter-of-fact method of a Government report, its conciseness and accuracy :

During the past mouth the following were the principal incidents in the course of instruction at the Signal Corps Aviation School, College Park, JUd. :

July 0, 1911, Lieutenant Milling, when trying for pilot's license, landed five feet from point marked as starting and landing point. July 7, 1911, altitude of 3,2<>0 feet made by Lieutenant Arnold; Lieutenant Milling, with Lieutenant Kirt-land as a passenger, flew to Washington Barracks, D. C, landed and flew back; highest altitude, 2.2O0 ft.; average altitude, 1,400 ft. July 10. 1911. Lieutenant Arnold, with Lieutenant Kirtland as a passenger, drove to Washington. D. C. and returned without landing; time. 40 minutes; highest altitude, 2,400 ft. July 18, 1911. Lieutenant Arnold during a flight of 27 minutes and 30 seconds' duration reached an altilude of 4,107 ft. To July 20. 1911, 127 flights have been made, during 50 of which passengers were carried.

The following officers are on duty at the Signal Corps Aviation School: ('apt. C. DeF. Chandler, commanding: Capt. Paul .W. Reck. Lieut. K. C. Kirtland, Lieut. II. II. Arnold, Lieut. T. DeW. Milling.

AT LOS ANGELES.

The future is bright for aviation in and around Los' Angeles. The amateurs are gaining ground. Since the last meet Beryl Williams has come forward with a home-made Curtiss which he is Hying successfully. With G. L. Martin he has been tilling exhibition engagements. Charles F. Walsh is filling engagements along the North 1'acitie with a big machine, using a oo-li. p. 11n 11-Scott engine. Messrs. (Jage, Crosson and Stiles are making short flights every week at the Do-uiinguez field.

Kit ton Brothers & f'o. have established an aviation field at Hyde l'ark, which is a new place within a 10-cent fare from the city, and bids fair to become an ideal held. Jack Cannon is instructor in the school they have established. The Katun boys have made several very creditable Curtiss type machines, and with Dwight Paulding as aviator are tilling engagements.

Farle Remington and William Stevens are laboring hard at Dominguez lo fly the two Bleriots

which Ttemington purchased of James Kadley. Remington has had bad luck and has smashed the Blcriot twice himiself. The last smash was engineered by Frank Campion, who got up easily enough, but was unable to shut off the Gnome engine in attempting to get back down again, lie landed head on, plowing up the ground with the propeller and badly injuring the engine.

The following year will see numerous flyers develop from the local bunch of amateurs struggling toward success.

The 4th of July saw amateur meets and exhibitions all over the country. At Riverside, Los Angeles, one straight-away' flight was made by Beryl Williams. <>n attempting the second one, he broke the running gear.

At Santa Barbara, Jack Cannon in a short flight, landed in a haystack and broke his machine, and Dwight Paulding in a short flight ran into a fence and smashed his machine.

AT MINE OLA

Nine pupils are taking instruction at the Moi-sant school at Mineola. Miss Harriet Quimby, dramatic editor of '"Leslie's," Miss Mathilde Moi-sant and F. de Murias will try in a few days for pilot licenses. Miss Moisant has taken up aviation solely for the sake of the sport and is not going to give exhibitions—but she is determined to fly.

The concrete sheds which are being erected on the permanent grounds over on the Wcstbury side of the Hempstead Plains will be finished the 1st of August. The walls are up and the rolling iron curtains, which will be used in place of heavy wooden doors, are only waiting to be installed. In the meantime instruction and flying have been conducted at the old sheds put up by the Aero Club of America at Mineola.

Capt. George W. MacKay of the signal corps, Michigan National Guard, has been detailed' to take up flying at the Moisant school and took up his work the last week in July. lie is the first National Guard officer to be taught to fly. He was assigned to this study through Adjutant-General Cox by Governor Osborn. whose mind was focused on the subject during the recent Moisant exhibition in Detroit.

Miss Harriet tjuimby is doing good work, circling lhe entire held and staying up as long as the motor will stay cool. She soon graduates to one of lhe Gnome-engined machines, under the instruction, of Iloupcrt. Two men students are grass-cutting and making short hops, and De Murias is Hying very well.

Captain Baldwin has gathered together quite a galaxy of novice stars. Three of his steel machines are kept busy and he is building a racer

for his graduate, Lee Hammond, to have an SO-h. p. Hall-Seott motor. Blanche Scott has been flying every day for the past month, and now "flies like a man." And she makes just as nice a looking llight as does the genial Captain, himself. Hammond rapidly left the student stage and is now an expert instructor. William Evans, who dug his own flying knowledge out of the Kansas air all by himself a couple of years ago, has now received his Lovelace monoplane, which will also have one of Baldwin's six Hall-Scotts : with all of whom, and Mars, another tour of the Orient is planned.

T. T. Tuttle, press agent for Captain B., decided he knew about all that was necessary about flying, as he had seen several machines make many flights, and essayed an aerial feature himself. Scared so that his feet pushed the throttle wide open, he shot up and down, down and up, in a series of beautiful wave-like undulations, until he neglected to straighten out and the machine started tunneling to China. The P. A. is pretty tough, anyway, so a" week in the hospital brought him around all right again, fit as a fiddle, save for a cut and busted ankle and numerous sore spots, et cetera. The steel construction saved the machine, and after straightening out the beams to the front wheel, flights with the machine were resumed.

William Ilaupt, who learned to fly the Wana-maker Bleriot, has had built by the American Supply House a copy of Ovington's 70-h.p. Bleriot and fitted, it with a Roberts motor. It made a good sustained flight the moment it was finished, and he took it out for exhibitions at Altoona. Pa., and other places. A two-seater is being built for A. J. Brackett of Boston, Mass. This machine also has the reverse curve tail and hood over the Roberts engine and tanks. Another order has been received from A. C. Meuges of Marion, Ind.. for a duplicate of Haupt's miachine. to be equipped with a 70-h. p. Gnome. A St. Louis man has sent in a 100 h. p. Emerson to be installed in another monoplane, of combination type, especially designed by the purchaser.

The illustration shows a fine piece of work in the way of a monoplane of the Bleriot order.

E. E. Boland of Railway, N. J., is now at Mineola with a tailless biplane, similar, in a way, to the Valkyrie. This seems to fly even faster than Baldwin's "Red Devil," but the controls seem very delicate and Boland makes a very wavy flight. A little more practice and there will he some real flying. There is no vertical rudder, steering being done by means of triangular vertical panels between the planes and the outermost struts. This has an eight-cylinder engine of his own make,

which is finely designed and develops real power, although it was made more than two years ago.

Another Curtiss type is at Mineola with a Smialley engine.

Walter L. Fairchild is trying propellers and is ready to fly his second machine again as soon as he has his engine tuned up.

Dr. Henry W. Walden has been more or less of a sensation at Mineola. With a machine but little larger than a Demoiselle, the smallest in the world, he has been making real flights. Dr. Walden has been building one machine or another for three years, and has finally adopted the monoplane, which has earned for him much laughing comment in the past. The man who departs from established custom usually gets criticised just because his construction is "freakish." This was true of "Doc." But ho has made good in fine shape. He has changed his baby air-cooled engine for a real motor, a 40 h. p. four-cylinder Hall-Scott, and only the other day flew to Ilieks-ville cross-country and back again, and was tip for Si I intimites. The same flight was repeated the next day.

A description of the Walden monoplane was previously published in AERONAUTICS.

AT NASSAU.

There are now 30 sheds erected at the Nassau Boulevard, L. I., grounds, 20 of which are all occupied. Weekly flight matinees are held every Saturday and one is assured of seeing fine flying between Sopwith ; Welch, Wright tutor; William C. Beers. Edson F. Gallaudet, W. R. Cross and Geo. W. P.eatty, Wright graduates ; Earle Ovington. Lewkowicz, and Arthur Stone, the Queen company's pilot. Then, too, usually cither Captain Baldwin or his pupil, Lee Hammond, flies over from Mineola, and sometimes lloupert, the Moisant teacher. On July 22 Hammond tried for his pilot license, and made good in a very sensational manner with the fast Baldwin machine.

One must add to the list published in the July number the name of Hamilton & lleilprin, who have an untried monoplane equipped with a Maxi-motor engine.

W. Irving Twombly has the framework completed for a finely built monoplane, and the engine, which he has designed himself, will shortly be tested out and installed.

A. N. Ridgely, witli his six-cylinder. Kirkham-engined Curtiss type, made one rapid jump in the air on his first trial and the machine sustained a severe attack of general nervous breakdown.

Haupt's Well-made Bleriot Copy. Gl

CIRCUIT Or BRITISH ISLE.

ANDRE BEAUMONT, French military aviator, won the 1,010-mile race around England, ending July 26, after an exciting neck and neck finish wilh Vedrines, who was but 31 minutes behind him in point of time, and his winnings in the three big races tolal more than $100,000. Beaumont's time was 22 hrs. 28 min. and Yedrine's, 22 hrs. 58 min. and 55 sec.

The British race for the "Daily Mail's" $50,000 prize was without question the most interesting and exciting of the three big circuits, as there were no stops along the way to give exhibition flights, nor rests in between the stages. It was a bruising contest from the outset. The stage from Bristol to Brooklands, 264 miles, was thrilling. Starting but two minutes apart Vedrines and Beaumont (Lieut. Conneau), who had a lead of about 22 minutes, raced with nerves strained to the utmost, knowinc that one of them only could win, and they arrived at Exeter but two minutes apart. Vedrines was given a special prize by the "Mail" of $1,000.

The three consecutive victories of Beaumont (Paris-Rome race, 910 miles; European Circuit. 1,073 miles; British race, 1,010 miles) are a testimonial of iron nerves and a brave heart. Imagine the terrific strain of flying steadily, day after day, wilh scarcely a respite, from one race to another, totalling 2,993 miles. The Paris-Kome flight was made in four days, and the British race in five days. The European Circuit consumed 20 clays. Beaumont also started in the Paris-Madrid race but retired the first day when he broke a wing.

THE EUROPEAN CIRCUIT.

The 1,730 kilometer (1,073 miles) circuit of Europe was most successful. In view of past performances in long distance cross country flights it did not appear that many would get through. "Where Bleriot's first crossing of the channel was heralded the world wide as a most stupendous flight, here 11 crossed in going and nine on the home run quite as a matter of course. This race has done a world of good in showing the vast number of skeptics that the aeroplane is likely to become "really practical."

Out of 52 entrants for this race around Europe, which started June IS and ended, again at Paris, on July 7, 40 actually started off the ground. Eighteen got through the first day's journey and nine were given a place at the end, though of these only seven actually tlew every stage. The last two skipped some of the sections of the flight. One monoplane, an U. E. P. of Gihert's, and two Maurice Far-man biplanes, those of Renaux and Barra, finished without replacements or changes in mounts, though Barra skipped two stages. The other competitors changed mounts or made repairs at various points. Sometimes new machines, all ready to start, were waiting along the line.

Kenaux carried a passenger every foot of the way.

The figures are from the official report of the committee in charge.

A total of $91,500 was to have been distributed in prizes, of which $40,000 was offered by tlie Paris "Journal" for the complete course winner, $12,500 by the London "Standard" for the winner of the stage from Paris to London and $1,000 by the "Journal" for another section. Additional prizes were offered for the various stages and in those many shared, as frequently aviators who do not figure as hav-

ing completed the course, made fastest time in the stages here and there. The stage-prizes have been divided as follows:

"Beaumont," who is Lieut. Conneau in real life, won $21,244, Garros $8,466, Vidart $3,311, Vedrines $2,217, Gibert $1,555, Kimmerling $1,155, Renaux $1,122, and Barra $922.

COMPETITORS AVHO FINISHED TOTAL DISTANCE.

 

hr.

min.

sec.

 

. 58

38

00

 

, 62

17

16

 

. 73

32

57

 

, 86

34

02

Gibert (R.E.P.), time..........

S9

42

34

♦Kimmerling (Sommer), time..

. 93

10

24

 

110

44

05

♦Biplanes.

Renaux used a Renault engine of 60 h.p. and Gibert a 60 h.p. R.E.P., the balance using Gnomes with Bosch igrnition. Propellers varied between Chauviere. Norinale, Rapid and Regy. F. & S. bearings are used in all Guome engines.

THE GERMAN FLIGHT CIRCUIT.

The first prize in the German inter-city race, which began at Berlin, June 11, and ended at the same city, July 0, was won by Konig (Albatross biplane), who flew a total of 1,500 kils. Vollmull-er (Rumpler-Etrich monoplane) was second with 1,470 kils., and Buchner (Aviatik), 1,001 kils., third. Lindpaintner (II. Farman) came fourth with 97S kils.; Wittenstein (M. Farman) 840 kils., YViencziers (Morane) 651 -kils., Schauenburg (Wright) 585.5 kils., Laitch (Albatross) 458, Thelen (Modified Gnome-Wright) 497 kils., Muller (own biplane) 143 kils., Jahnow (Harlan monoplane) S3 kils. Helmuth Hirth, one of the star performers in competitions along the route, did better than the race contestants, for he won the $10,000 prize for a flight from Munich to Berlin within 36 hours.

One, two and three day meets were held at five of the cities which made the race last longer than it otherwise would. Twenty-six aviators either flew part or all of the course or entered into the meets. All eight prizewinners, save "Wiencziers, carried passengers along, mileage being added at the rate of 25 per cent, as a bonus.

Konig won $10,000, out of a total of $25,000 offered by the Berlin "Zeitung am Mittag." The money was divided on a percentage basis, one of the conditions increasing possible winnings where German built machines were used.

WINNINGS OF MANUFACTURERS.

The European Circuit, the British Circuit, the German inter-city race, Cattaneo's long flight, the Gordon Bennett and Johnstone's American record flight, are all wins for the makers of Gnome engines and their accessories, Bosch magnetos and F. & S. bearings. Hirth, in his long flight, used a 70 h.p. Daimler-Mercedes motor, and Bosch ignition.

Two Lonjf Cross Country riifflits.

Berlin, June 30.— Helmuth Hirth (Etrich-Rumpler monoplane) finished to-day a flight of 335 miles, from Munich, which city he left the night before at 7 p.m. with a passenger. A stop overnight was made at Nuremberg and another landing at Leipsic which were required by the conditions. His actual flying time was 5:51. He won a prize of $10,000.

Buenos Ayres, June 25.—Cattaneo (Bhuuot) flew from Uosario to Buenos Ayres, non-stop, 250 miles, in six hours, made a new non-stop cross-country record, and won a $3,000 trophy.

BEAUMONT FLIES 2,993 MILES—WINS FORTUNE IN THREE CROSS-COUNTRY RACES

Map of Three Big European Races.

Long List of Broken Records.

NEW WORLD

DISTANCE AND RECORDS.

DURATION

Mourmelon, France, July 21.—M. I.oridan, the aviator, piloting a small II. Farmaii biplane at the aerodrome here to-day. covered 463% miles, remaining in the air 11 hours and 43 minutes.

WORLD DISTANCE RECORD BEATEN.

Brussels, July 17.—The Belgian aviator, Jean Olieslagers, in a Bleriot monoplane to-day made a flight of 635.2 kilometers (394 miles), at the aerodrome here without a stop. His time was 7 hr. IS min. 2G sec.

NEW WORLD SPEED RECORD. Nieuport's speed in the Gordon Bennett was slower than his time in the elimination trials

on June 16. when he made the following wor.d records. His fastest 5 kilometers was made iust under SI miles an hour:

5 kil.................. 2 m. IS.4 s.

10 kil.................. 4 m. 37.2 s.

20 kil.................. 9 m. 14.6 s.

30 kil..................13 m. 53.S s.

40 kil..................1S m. 31.6 s.

50 kil..................23 m. 10.0 s.

100 kil..................4 6 m. 27.4 s.

NEW-

WORLD DIRKJIP.LK ALTITUDE RECORD.

Soissons, France. June 19.—The "Adjndant-Vincenot," made bv Clement-Bayard, with 6 men on board, attained the height of 2,000 metres.

Garros, Who was Second in the European Circuit; A. G. Moisant, His Chief, and Audemars.

NEW WORLD ALTITUDE RECORD. July 8.—Loridan (racing, H. Farman) made a new world altitude record of 3,280 metres (10,758 ft.).

NEW SPEED AND DISTANCE RECORDS.

Chartres, France, July 0.—Level (Savary biplane with 70 h.p. Labor motor), made new two-man speed and distance records over a closed circuit as follows:

200 kil.............2 h. 38 m. 26.4 s.

The Growing1 Death List.

FATAL ACCIDENT TO PA1LLOLE. While testing his machine on the Maison Carree race course near Algiers, before attempting to fly to the military ground where the troons were being reviewed by Gen. Baiel-loud, the Frenchman Paillole had his machine cansized in a gust of wind and was killed on the spot.

WOMAN AVIATOR REPORTED KILLED.

Etampes, France, July 21.—Mme. Deniz Moore was killed at the aerodrome here tonight by a fall in an aeroplane.

Mme. Moore had already made several fine ascents and was about to make a high fight. When about one hundred and fifty feet in the air her biplane was caught by a gust of wind and capsized. It fell straight to the earth, and she was crushed beneath it.

Mme. Moore was a French woman, about 25 years old. She had hoped to obtain a pilot's license next week.

MILITARY STUDENT KILLED. Chalons-Sur-Marne, France, June 29.—Lieut. Truchon was mortally injured to-day while making his first trip alone in a small H. Far-man biplane. He came down with the motor running and in trying to shut it off moved the elevator lever and he was thrown out.

PASSENGER K1 LLED. St. Petersburg, July 25.—The aeroplane piloted by M. Slusarenkos in the St. Petersburg-Moscow race fell near Tsarskoe-Selo today.

The airman's passenger, M. Rhimansky, was killed, and M. Slusarenkos was badly Injured, both legs being broken. The race'covers a

distance of 400 miles. Prizes aggregating $50,000 are offered.

Death of Kreamer.

Dan A. Kreamer, one of the steadiest flyers on the field of the Aero Club of Illinois, was killed July 13 while making an. attempt in a Curtiss type biplane with a 50 h. p. motor to win his aviation pilot license under the observation of Grover F. Sexton, representative in Illinois of the Aero Club of America, lie attempted to make too short a turn.

Kreamer was making a turn and seemed to slide toward the center of the circle. He tilted the machine downward to gain speed but he was too close to the ground and the aeroplane struck on its nose. The machine was a Curtiss-type, of last year's vintage.

lie was well known as a bicycle racer, took part in several six-day contests and had traveled all over the world, racing. At the time of his death he was on leave of absence from the Illinois Central R. R., on which he was employed as an engineer.

CALENDAR CP EVENTS.

August 2-4.—Colorado Springs, Col., Wright exhibition.

August 6-20. Belgian Circuit race.

August 12-20.—Grant Park. Chicago, International meet.

August 20-September 9.—Astoria, Ore., Curtiss aviators.

August 26-September 4.—Boston, meet of Harvard j\. S.

August 26-September 4.—Montreal, McCurdy, Willard and Curtiss flyers.

August 28-31.—Des Moines, la., Wright exhibition.

September 4-8.—Nebraska State Fair, Wright aviators.

September 20-21.—Clarinda, la., Curtiss aviators.

September 23-24.—Fond du Lac, Wis., Curtiss aviators.

September 24.—Berlin aviation meet.

September 25-30.— Helena. Mont., Curtiss aviators.

September 29-October 7.—Springfield, 111., Wright exhibition.

October 5.—Gordon-Bennett balloon race, Kansas City, Mo.

October —.—Macon, Ga., Wright exhibition.

January 10-20, 1912.— Los Angeles, aviation and arrangements not certain.

September —.—Iowa State Fair, Wright aviators.

September —.—Minneapolis, Minn., Wright aviators.

ASCENSIONS

(Continued from page 67)

la

latest type, more or less popularized bv D( Yaulx.

Holineshurg. Pa., June 25.—A. T. Atherholt. pilot. Clarence P. Wynne and 11. 11. Knerr in the "Penn. 1," to Blue Bell, Pa., after a .".'/6-hour journey.

Los Angeles. July 0.—Albert Carter and 10. Unger in a dirigible sailed around for four hours, after colliding with the roof of a house at the start and breaking the framework in two. There was no engine in the airship and it floated around just like a free balloon of spherical type. Landing was finally made at Saugus, Calif.

St. Louis, July 4.—Lieut. Frank P. Lahm and John P. Hart in the "Missouri-' to Granite City. III. The ascension was made to study the expansion of the gas in extremely hot weather and an all night trip was planned but which had to be foregone1. The temperature on leaving the ground was 114 dog. Fahr.

AERONAUTICS

THE GORDON BENNETT

August, ipn

RACE

By George H. Scragg.

The Contestants' Standing.

1. Cr-S. T. WEYMAXX, America (100 h. ]>. Gnome-Nieuport), 1:11:30.2, speed 7S miles per hour.

2. ALFRED LEBLANC, France (100 h. p. Gnome-Bleriot), 1:13:40.2, speed 75.S miles per hour.

3. EDOUARD NIEUPORT, France (70 h. p. Gnome-Nieuport), 1:14:37.4. speed 74.s miles per hour.

4. ALEC OGILVIE, England (50 h. p. N. E. O.-YVright), 1:49:10.4, speed 51.2 miles per hour. Deducting for time lost in getting gas his speed would be 53 miles per hour.

5. M. CHEVALIER, France (2S h. p. 2-eylinder Nieuport-Nieuport), 37:50.4. Completed partial course only, due to engine trouble. Speed 5S.9 miles per hour.

0. G. IIAMEL, England (100 h. p. Gnome-Bleriot), fell on first lap in making turn.

The distance was 150 kilometers (93.15 miles) ; raced at Eastchurch, England, July 1.

PREVIOUS CONTESTS.

1909- Rhcims, France, won by Curtiss: 20 kils. in 15 m. 50.4 s., mean speed 47 miles per hour.

1910—Belmont Park, won by White (1O0 h. p. Gnome-Bleriot) ; 100 kil. in 1 h. 0 m. 47.0 s., mean speed of 01 miles per hour.

OF course, you know by cable that the cup goes back to America, and Weymann, our solitary entrant, is responsible for it. The victory, however, is not so thrilling as it might have been, considering Weymann is a llay-tian by birth, lives, and has done all his flying in Europe, and pilots a French machine. Last year I felt that Great Britain and White received more attention than was due. considering it was Bleriot's brain and experience that built the winning machine; and so the same may be said this year of Weymann. Of course, at the present stage of aviation, when the man is 20 per cent, factor and the machine SO, we must not underestimate Mr. Weymann's feat, but surely we would all be more pleased if each country were represented, not only bv a native aviator, but also by a home-built machine, as AERONAUTICS has so often suggested.

As 1 was the only American correspondent of an American aeronautical paper, I was the subject of sympathy—not expressed, to be sure, but 1 read the glances thrown me by fellow press men. "You poor fellow, what chance have you?" However, I had not forgotten that the same glances were bestowed upon me at the London Stadium at the Olympic games three years ago, when Johnny Hayes broke the tape first and Old Glory ran to the top of the flag pole, and I held my peace and hoped.

My eyes were fixed on two things : First, Weymann. as our representative, and secondly, the Wright machine, the only American machine in the race. When I heard that Weymann had been set to represent us on a Nieuport. I pinned my hope on him and picked him for the winner, and the result shows my judgment was not at fault. In fact. I do not see how anyone else could have been picked, barring accidents and all other things being equal.

The past performances of the Nieuport with but 28 h. p. had proved it the fastest machine in the world, and now with 100 h. p. I felt sure it would hold its own. especially in the hands of a skilled pilot like Weymann.

The other two Nieuports entered, driven by Nieuport himself and by Chevalier, were only 70 and 2S h. p. respectively, so they were not to be feared.

The Gnome engine, of course, was a question. Most of the good work done by them—take the

Madrid and Rome races, for instance—were the 50 h.p., with old model valve springs. The new engines have more than once failed at a critical moment, and so as the weather was a bit rough I kept my eye also on Ogilvie. whose machine is much fitter to tackle a big wind than any of the others. And Ogilvie could save time sticking to corners, as only the Wright machine can. Ogilvie had been practicing quietly for weeks, assisted by Wilbur Wright, at tuning up the "Baby" with an X. E. C. engine.

The race began badly. After a gustv morning, which even made the big Bristol biplane rock ariirl roll, the sun came out and the sky cleared, and just before 3 oclock Mr. Ilamel's (England) machine, a special Bleriot. in the tests of the morning had proven itself slower than the Nieuports, so he decided to clip two ribs off each wing. Bleriot. however, advised him against such a course, as he figured the machine had as little surface as it could afford and in case of engine trouble the descent would he hasty and it would lie difficult to make a safe landing. Mr. Hamel. however, persisted, and this no doubt lost him at least a place in the race. On his first circuit, in taking a corner his machine skidded and his left wing tip caught the ground. He was thrown out. rolled over and over and lay still. When assistance came to his aid they found him bleeding profusely from injuries to his face and legs, though declining assistance. He was suffering from slight concussion and was much bruised, but is doing well.

M. Chevalier was second on the field, but his machine was little faster than the Wright, but then he only had a 2S h. p. Nieuport motor. lie only flew 10 circuits when he came down rather abruptly with engine trouble. He tried again later with another machine, but came down.

Meanwhile. Weymann had flown off at a great pace. He did his first five laps in 2 m. 40 s., which works out at S3.5 miles per hour. His speed after this decreased slightly, hut he succeeded in doing the 150 kil. in 1 h. 11 m. 30 1/5 s.. which averages 7S miles per hour; and the Nieuport is a bigger area machine than the Bleriot.

The crowd enthusiastically applauded at the termination of his fine performance. I said little, but returned some of the glances that I had received earlier in the day. Then Ogilvie (England) went up on the Wright.

Ogilvie did not put up the show I expected of him and certainly nothing eonal to Brookins' speed last year at Belmont on the "Baby." This, no doubt, was due to the engine. He only averaged a little over 51 miles an hour. Stopping for oil cut the speed down from 53 miles an hour, lie did better than this last year at Belmont with a 30 h. p. Wright engine.

This left England out of the running, as no third competitor turned up to champion England. Grahamo-White was on the field and in answer to questions said he had no fast machine. 1 wonder what has become of the 100 h. p. Bleriot he won the trophy with last year? It has not seen much use, if any at all. since his return from America.

The day was not ended and I have learned the lesson well not to count my chickens prematurely. His time was good and he had finished safely, so I was more than hopeful. Leblanc was the only competitor that worried me. but I hardly thought the Bleriot. with its greater head resistance, could compete with the Nieuport. though 1 had taken into consideration the great skill of Leblanc.

U 5.30 Nieuport. and Leblanc with his wings clipped, got under way, and though they both put up fine performances, they failed to wrest the trophv for France. Nieunort completed the course in 1 h 14 m. 37.4 s. Leblanc was several minutes beyond Wevmann's time for twenty laps, and then it' became apparent that America had won.

It was a good dean race, the winner being but two minutes ahead of Leblanc. who in turn had but a minute the best of Nieuport.

The cup, plus $5,000, was presented to Weymann at an informal banquet on the grounds the same evening.

While being overjoyed with the result, I could not help but feel sorry for France, which has done so much in the development of the speed marvels and has as yet never had her hands upon the cup. Auother tale would have been told had each country entered its own machines. Glenn 11. Curtiss is the only man yet that has taken the cup witli a machine and engine made in the country which he represented. Let us hope now that we have the cup again, that next year when our visitors trudge across the ocean that we will have a man. an engine, and a machine, all American, to defend the trophy and to be equal to the task of keeping it.

"It was amusing to find the 'American' winner compelled to reply in French. lie is a native of llayti. who has lived on the Continent and done most of his flying there—on French machines, of course. The victory is, nevertheless, sure to be hailed with great delight in the States, and it will doubtless prove gratifying to the donor of the trophy." says "The Car."

In connection with the Gordon Bennett race, the Aero Club sent its members a bulletin which included the report of its special committee.

SECONDS THE I'LEA OF "AEUOXAUT1CS."

For the first time the club has expressed the suggestion that it might be appropriate for America to be represented in aeronautics by American designed and built machines with American motors. This is a really and truly good spirit to show, oven overlooking the past. The two international balloon and aviation trophies are rather jokes; they are put up by a man who prefers to spend his time in Europe, they are first competed for in Europe, and the representatives of America, most of whom happen to also live in Europe, use apparatus built in Europe.

The cups might well go uncontested for by America, and with honor, rather than to win them under the above conditions.

The bulletin goes on to state that the Wrights could not be induced to enter on account of lack of time to build an engine ; that Curtiss was too busy ; and that—

"SUPERIORITY" OF FOREIGN MACHINES.

"A diligent search of the field in this country failed to reveal anyone else who was competent to construct a suitably fast machine; so it became necessary for your committee to turn to foreign makers, and to such Americans abroad as were competent to fly speedy foreign machines. Early in the year Mr. Campbell Wood particularly, and others of us who had carefully noted the progress of flying abroad, became convinced of the superiority of the Xieuport monoplane, at least so far as speed was concerned, and also of the-prowess of Charles T. Weymann. the American, as a clever track flyer. Through Sir. Campbell. Wood, your committee thereupon got in touch with Sir. Weymann. who appeared to favor the Mornne monoplane, and succeeded in inducing him to equip himself with a Xieuport of the power which we deemed necessary for the race, and to undertake the race on behalf of the Aero Club of America.

"James Martin, who was flying a Burgess-Cur-tiss "Baby" (Irahamo-White biplane in England, was the only other flyer abroad who seemed worth consideration ; but, his machine not having sufficient speed, he was not chosen as a member of our team.

"Earle Ovington. who had been flying a TO h. p. Bleriot in this country, was considered but was not put on the team for the reason given in Mr. Martin's ease."

CFRT1SS TO COMPETE IX 1011.

Glenn II. Curtiss will build a special machine to compete in the next contest for the grand aviation prize which Henry Weymann recently won in England and will bring to this country. Mr. Curtiss made this announcement a few days ago. He believes that American aeroplane builders will be able to hold the prize in this country, claiming that they can build machines that are quite as speedy and much safer than the French monoplanes, which have had the field to themselves recently as regards speed.

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NO. 49 AUGUST, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 2

copyright, loll, aeronautics press, inc.

Enlcred as second-class mailer September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: #T Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

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AERONAUTICS' BRITISH OFFICE.

On account of the increased European circulation and the necessity for an exclusive representative ahroad. it is with pleasure that we announce the open ins of a London office at 12 Xewgate St.. under the management of Mr. George 11. Scragg. At this address, tlie center of aviation in England, puhlishing "Who's Who iu Aviation." "The Aviation World." etc.. visitors will he welcome. Those going to England can use this office for their wall, sending it in care of AEROXAI'TICS.

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ST. LOUIS WINS BALLOON ELIMINATION

THE East's representative, the 'New York." of Harmon and Tost, in the elimination race for the selection of the American team in the international balloon race at Kansas City. Oct. 5. was badly beaten by the six other balloons which competed on July 10.

Alan R Ilawley. who won the big race in 1910, has, of course, the privilege of being one of the three. The other two. or all three if Ilawley does not go this year, are supposed to be those who finished best in this elimination race.

Eight balloons in all went up, but the "Missouri," of J. C. Hulbert and Henry Weber, was not a contestant.

Following is the official standing of the balloons :

1. ST. LOUIS IV. (Honeywell), Lieut. F. P. Lahm, U. S. A., and Lieut. J. F. Hart, to La Paz, Ind. Dur., 22 hrs. 26 min. : dist.. 480 miles.

2. MILLION POPULATION CLUB (Honeywell), John Berry and P. J. McCullough, to La Crosse, Ind. Dur., 20 hrs. 49 min.; dist., 445 miles.

3. MISS SOPHIA (Iloneywein. Wm. F. Assmann and J. M. O'Reilly, to Franklin Park, 111. Dur., 16 hrs. 26 min. : dist.. 415 miles.

4. BUCKEYE (Stevens), James H. Wade. Jr., and Reuben Hitchcock, to New Holland, 111. Dur., 21 hrs. 32 min.: dist., 2SS miles.

5. TOFEKA II. (Honeywell). Frank M. Jacobs and Raffe Emerson, to La Barpe, 111. Dur., 14 hrs. 42 min. ; dist., 210 miles.

6. KANSAS CITY II. (Honeywell), II. F. Honeywell and Jon Watts, to Packwood, Iowa. Dur..'s hrs. 5 mi.; dist., 193 miles.

7. NEW YORK (Baldwin i. C. B. Harmon and Augustus Post, to Fremont, la. Dur., 8 hrs. 5S min. : dist., 1S6 miles.

Non-Contestant, Missouri (Honeywell), .1. C. Hulbert and Henry Weber, to Des Moines, la., 170 miles.

A lot of credit is due George M. Myers, president of the Kansas City Aero Club, and his board of governors, for making possible one of the most successful contests held in this country. The natural gas was very good, being reduced by Mr. Showers' hard labor to a specific gravity of .38, and was delivered to the balloons in record time of 40,000 cu. ft. in 4% minutes, but due to inexperienced labor used in handling the sand bags 2VS hours we're consumed in getting away.

The French-American Balloon Co. products totalled five out of seven balloons in the race, as well as the "Missouri" which Hulbert used. The Topeka balloon carried three people.

OTHER ASCENSIONS.

The first skyscraper to be used as an aeronautical (station, despite nil 1 the press agent stories each time a new building is laid out on 1'aper. lias really and truly been established and put in use in New York City in July.

Using the roof of one of the two John Wana-maker store buildings, each of which occupies an entire block. A. Leo Stevens piloted Rodman Wanamaker iu his newly purchased 65.000 cu. ft. Lachambre balloon, the "Wanamaker I." for which Mr. Stevens is the American agent, to Nyack, N. Y.. on its initial trip.

From the Wanamaker store the balloon crossed the Hudson River and traveled over Newark and Paterson. Here the balloon was sent up to 7.000 ft., and a counter-current was met, which carried it back over Forty-second St.. New York, toward Long Island. As the Sound was reached the balloon was dropped to a lower altitude and the return made over Yonkers and up the Hudson River, following along with one of the Albany boats. As it ilea red Nyack, which is some twenty miles up the Hudson, the balloon was dropped still lower, and it turned inland to the west. One of the residents of Nyack who saw the balloon come close to the ground near his house, with the assistance of the neighbors, caught the drag rope and the [million was eased to the ground by letting out gas. The trip consumed 3 hours 23 minutes.

K Iff >03'i

The Wanamaker Balloon Leaving the Roof.

A hydrogen gas plant has been installed on the roof of the Wanamaker building, which is now available to anyone desiring to make an ascent. The cost for making the gas for a small balloon of 18,000 cu. ft., which will carry two people, is around $150. It is planned before long to make a dirigible ascension from the same building.

Hamilton. O.. July 16. Dr. L. E. Custer in the "Luzern." to Waynesville, O., 40 miles. Dur. 2 hours.

Lowell. Mass., July 1.—John .1. Van Yalken-burgh. alone, in a balloon. Bostou to East Dan-vers. Mass. Duration. 1 hour 45 minutes: distance. 22 miles: altitude, 3.S00 ft. Ascent was made alone to qualify as pilot.

Philadelphia. Pa., June 27. Dr. Thomas E. Kl-dridge, Miss Maude Johnson. Anna Nittinner. Dr. <!. II. Simmerman and Dr. T. F. Herbert in the "Philadelphia II." up to beat Miss Kidgway's record for the Simmerman cup. After a circuitous trip thev landed at Hartford. N. .1., after 2 hours. Altitude. 7.030 ft.

Chicago. 111.. Julv 4.—Herman Mossiier, up alone, landing on the outskirts of Chicago.

dirioiblk asckxt.

Saunderstown. R. I.. June 30. Stewart Davis and his passenger, James .1. Scott, made an extended ascent from here over Newport and Nar-ragansett. landing at Wickford. in a dirigible balloon imported for Mr. Mavis by Leo Stevens from the Zodiac builders in Paris, and is of the (Cmtinued on paje 'i)

The Hall-Scott Engine.

The Hall-Scott engines, made hy the Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., Crocker Building, San Francisco, though placed on the market but last Fall have created very favorable impression and are now-being used by some of the best known flyers in this country.

Three sizes are being made, of 40, GO and 80 horsepower, the two latter eight-cylinder machines. The first and third have cylinders 4 by 5 and the GO horsepower cylinders are 4 by 4 inches.

A special advantage is claimed hy the makers in cooling the oil used for lubrication. Oil is forced by gear pump, through an oil jacket in the carburetor manifold, which operation serves two purposes, of heating the manifold and cooling the oil before it passes into the end of the hollow cam shaft and distributes to the main case, excess draining into the sump from which it is again pumped through the strainer and so around.

The following description is of the four-cylinder 40-horsepower motor. The eights are exactly the efficiency. Valve seats 1% in. diameter. Valve

stems % in. Valves operated by single cam shaft and individual push rods and rocker arms.

Cam shaft of steel tubing, with cams of machine steel hardened and ground to size, secured in place with two taper pins, riveted over. Particular attention is called to the crank shaft size with its 1% in. bearing. Cut and machined from one solid hand forged and heat treated block of special nickel steel. Main and connecting rod bearings lined with highest grade of Win. Cramp's Parsons white brass. Main bearing caps cut from solid steel blocks. Connecting rods machined from hand forged heat treated nickel steel. Crank cases, water and oil pump casings, etc., of the best aluminum alloy. Oil sump cast integral with lower case, provided with sight oil glasses at either end.

Ignition is by means of Mea high-tension magneto, with connection to Bosch spark plugs. The motor may be started as easily with this system as with battery and coil, and with magneto in retarded position, so that there is no danger of back kick.

Hall-Scott 4 cyl. 40 H. P. Motor

same construction, except there are more cylinders and they are arranged "V" shape.

Type A-1 is of the four-cylinder vertical, fourcycle, water-cooled, typo, with cylinders measuring 4 in. bore by 5 in. stroke. Cylinder walls, pistons and heads are made of special cast iron. Cylinder walls are machined inside and out, which absolutely insures even expansion. Steel water jackets, press fit, placed on cylinders, then cylinder inside ground to size. Heads are cast with water jacket integral, a by-pass between head and cylinder prevents any danger of water leak into cylinder. Circulating water system is ample, with large capacity centrifugal pump in connection. Copper asbestos gaskets placed between heads and cylinders, and the assembly held in place by means of rods running through crank case and bolted through heads, with castellated nuts, cotter pinned at head end. Pistons carry three cast-iron snap rings, pinned in position. Pistons supported at connecting rod end in bronze bushing with hard-

ened steel pin. absolutely secured in position, so there is no danger of side play with consequent scoring of cylinder wall. Valves of chrome nickel steel, all in one piece, seated directly in heads without the use of cages. This valve position, together with the fact that heads are machined upon inside, is known to give maximum power and A special aluminum Stromberg glass bowl carburetor is used, with connection to the oil-jacketed manifold.

Type A-l power plant complete, consisting of Type A-l motor, complete with carburetor, magneto, water and oil pumps; a 7-ft. diameter, 4Vi-ft. pitch propeller, special light weight radia-

IN THE MANUFACTURING FIELD

tor. 3-gallon copper gasoline tank with filler cap and outlet flange, and all necessary hose and copper pipe connections, crated ready for shipment, $1,050 f. o. b., Ran Francisco, California.

Two New Curtiss Motors.

Two new Curtiss engines have been produced, of 40 and 70 h. p. respectively, four and eight cylinders, 4 by 5 in. bore and stroke. The other two motors which have been produced for the past two years are rated at 30 h. p. and GO h. p.

In the new motors the method of lubrication has been slightly changed, the four-gallon oil reservoir being cast in the lower half of the crank-case, from which a submerged rotary pump forces the oil direct to all bearings via the hollow cam and crankshafts. The connecting rods are made hollow and oil is also forced through them to the piston pin bearings and cylinder walls. The excess oil falls into the splash pan and thence through the overflow pipes back into the reservoir. An increase of oil is supplied the engine as it speeds up.

New Curtiss 70 h. p. Motor.

The base of the new cylinders is now round and attached to the case by 12 bolts, and the bearings are much larger all around. The long case now incloses the thrust bearing, and particular pains have been taken to make the motor oil-tight, which is often very difficult, as oil is apt to find its way out where the cylinders join the base or be pumped out by the suction of the push rods. A slightly different type of manifold is also adopted.

The weight of the large four-cylinder power plant complete is ISO pounds; that of the large eight is 275 pounds. These weights include El Arco radiator, Curtiss propeller, Bosch magneto, Schebler carburetor and fuel tank. The eight-cylinder motor shows 500 pounds thrust at 1,200 r. p. m. with an S-ft. dianwter 7-ft. pitch propeller, while the four develops 315 pounds at 000 r. p. m. with a propeller a foot less both ways. The pitch speed of the eight-cylinder motor on the navy machine is 90 miles an hour.

The fuel consumption on these motors is quite remarkable. During the two-hour test run made in behalf of the navy, the eight-cylinder consumed but four gallons of gasoline and one gallon of oil per hour.

German Monoplane Agency in the United States.

The Grade monoplane, which was one of the very first aeroplanes in Germany to make notable flights, is being represented in the States by a firm of young men. Griffith & Meixner of 405 Delaware Ave., Buffalo. X. Y.

The machine, more or less known here through the aeronautical magazines, is a monoplane of its own type, fitted with a two-cycle, air-cooled, four-cylinder motor, designed and made solely by Hans Grade. Several types are manufactured. For the 10-24 h. p. engine but 1.7 to 2 gallons of gasoline are used per hour, with the oil consumption 0.4 gallons.

From one to five people can be carried, according to type, with motors from 10 to 45 h. p. A principal feature of the machine is that the aviator and his passengers sit below the wings and can see the whole of the ground at all times One lever operates the rudder and elevator at the same time it is used for warping the wings.

The aviator. Schall, during one of the German meets, attained 7,000 ft. altitude in 23 minutes, with the 10-24 motor. During a cross-country flight of 37 miles Grade himself, as pilot, took second prize from competitors of much higher power.

Wright Motors for Sale.

Wright motors are now available to the general public from two sources. The 35 h. p., four-cylinder and the 70 h. p., eight cylinder motors, complete with magneto, water and oil pumps, weight 193 pounds for the 35 h. p., power guaranteed, may be obtained from Du Mois Aero-nautiqne, 17 hue Casette, Paris (Vie), France.

The Wright Company in America is selling American-made motors at $1,500.

II. T. Gratz, a former Louisville man. who was connected with the automobile business in this city, made four short flights on July 4 without accident at I'rban Park, 111., before a crowd of 2.500 people. Gratz is flying a Gray Eagle biplane for the Gray Eagle Aviation Co., a Louisville corporation, and with his apparent skill in Hying a new miachine he shows promises of becoming an aviator of the first rank.

The Maximotor Makers, Detroit, report a strong demand for their aero engines. Another 00-75-h.p. engine was shipped to lsaburo Yamada in Japan for his dirigible and a number have been sent to novice aeroplane builders throughout this country. Among those who have purchased motors are: Thomas Longo, Danville, Ky.; Hamilton & lleilprin, Xassau Boulevard ; A. M. Xassr, Pensacola, Fla. ; Horace S. Kemmerle. Fpland, Pa. : J. X. Sparling, East St. Louis, 111., and Theodore Krasting, Xew Britain, Ct.

The Sparling Aviation School, at Washington Park, Mo., is progressing nicely and weather is ideal. Park has finished- his course and is now flying in the West. II. E. Maier of Denver has been making straightaway flights for the last week and is going to tackle the turns in a few days. Students handle the straight flights in winds up to 15 miles per hour before attempting the turns. A heavy low-powered machine is used by beginners and not until they are familiar with all the workings of the machine in low straight flights are they given a real flyer.

During the past week the following pupils enrolled : II. A. Signor of Meadville. Pa., who made good straightaway flights the third day in the machine, and promises to make a good cool-headed flyer; Ed Xeimiller. East St. Louis, and Harry Kelley, Colorado Springs, Colo.

The Thomas Brothers of Bath. X. Y.. have completed another headless machine with a six-cylinder Kirkham motor. It is a fast flier and a rapid climber. Walter Johnson promises to make still better records for himself.

The postoffioo authorities have brought to account an alleged aviation school. A certain self-styled "lieutenant" was a strong bidder for students, representing that he was head of the aeronautic work of tile Fnited States army and was connected with the school temporarily for the purpose of securing a nucleus for his aviation squad in fhe army. Advertising of the school has been accepted right along by magazines and papers of all classes. AEKOXAFT1CS conducted an investigation of its own at the outset and cancelled further advertising.

J liarr read your editorial mile lor duly irilh admiration and enthusiasm, and note your splendid adrertisiiu/ patronage, and its logical nature. Your periodical' has been «x complete i iroiid-iride) and ncarlu as wonderful as the triumph of Oreille and U'ilbin- Wright. John McGovkkn.

UNITED STATES PATENTS ABSTRACTED

Henry ,1. Casanova, Chicago, III., 005,437, June 20. 1011. Filed Aug. 0, 1010. FRAME CONSTRUCTION.

John O. Wrenn. Portland, Ore., 003.512. June 20, 1011. Filed July 2G, 1000. FEATHERING BLADE PROPELLER.

' George Francis Myers. Columbus, O.. 905,550, June 20, 1011. Continuation of application flied Jan. 20, ISO". This application filed May 31, 1904. AX AXXI'LAR AEROPLANE.

Lincoln Winters and Samuel Hofstetter, Free-port, 111.. 005,750. June 20, 1911. Filed Dec. 30. 1910. HELICOPTER.

James Lester Walker, Eagle Point. Ore., 995,810, June 20, 1911. Filed Aug. 20, 1910. Aeroplane with AUTOMATICALLY OPERATED AILEROXS for securing lateral and longitudinal STABILITY.

John Burns, Los Angeles. Cal., 900.OSS, June 27, 1011. Filed Dee. 27, 1910. FARACIIUTE.

Thomas Wigston Kinglake Clarke, Surbiton, England. 000,001, June 27, 1911. Filed July 11, 1908. ADJUSTABLE FOLLOWIXG SURFACE AERO-PLAXE.

De Witt Clinton MeCallum. Los Angeles, Cal., 090.105, June 27. 1011. Filed June 3, 1910. Aeroplane with REYOLVABLE SERIES of ELB-VATIXG PLAXES.

Guy Snow, Kaufman, Tex., 900.153, June 27. 1011. Filed May 12. 1910. Comibined HELICOPTER and ORTIIOPTER.

Ernest Peter Yineent, Xew York, N. Y., 990,171, June 27. 1011. Filed May 2S. 1010. Triplane with middle surface having greater depth than the other two.

Albert Hugo Friedel. Baltimore, Md., 990,233, June 27, 1911. Filed Jan. 31. 1910. Aeroplane with extensible CURTAINS for the purpose of STEERING.

John J. Rectenwald, Tittsburg, Pa., 090,301, June 27, 1911. Filed June 7, 1010. Device for utilizing the balloonets of a dirigible as LIFE SAYERS in case of accident.

John J. Rectenwald. Mt. Oliver Borough, Pa., 006.302. June 27, 1011. Filed Aug. 13. 1910. INFLATABLE BAGS to keep aeroplane afloat in water.

John J. Rectenwald, Pittsburg, Pa., 990,303, June 27. 1011. Filed Xov. 3. 1010. Aeroplane with FOLDABLE PLAXES and device for applying power to wheels.

Walter W. Roberts, Seattle. Wash.. 000,300, June 27, 1911. Filed Sept. 10, 1910. HELICOPTER.

Attilio Pusterla. Bath Beach, X. Y., assignor of one-half to Samuel Schenkein, New York, N. Y., 990.425, June 27, 1911. Filed July 0, 1000. HELICOPTER.

Julius Christiansen, Xew York, X. Y., 000.456, June 27, 1011. Filed Oct. 27, 1909. MULTIPLANE having air-eonfinin^ side pieces.

Richard Wilcke, Friedenau, near Berlin, Germany, 090.547. June 27, 1911. Filed Sept. 10,

1910. PROPELLER for aerial vehicles. Cassius B. Lamburth, San Francisco, Cal.,

990,592, June 27, 1911. Filed Dee. 12, 1910. Aeroplanes having pointed flaps for preserving EQUILIBRIUM.

Yietor Carnal, Paris, France, 990,013, July 4,

1911. Filed March 17, 1910. Machine in which vertical lift is obtained by a set of RECIPROCATING SAILS.

Francis M. Eggert, Lansing. Mich.. 096.027, July 4, 1011. Filed March 31, 1911. LIFTING and PROPELLING mechanism.

Preston Tugman Moody, LaCrosse, Wash., 900,050, July 4, 1911. Filed March 10, 1911. Hinged lateral planes swinging in a vertical direction and interconnected so as to preserve LATERAL EQUILIBRIUM.

John A. Renniee, New York, X. Y., 990,728, July 4, 1011. Filed Feb. 23. 1910. PROPELLING and balancing apparatus for airships.

Weslev Wait, Xewburgh, X. Y., O00.S15. July 4, 1011. Filed Sept. 9, 1908. HELICOPTER.

William Kriedter and William Bourdon. Xew York, X. Y.. 99G.SG3, Julv 4. 1911. Filed May 27, 1010. UN IYER SAL RUDDER for flying machines.

Robert Leidorf, Cleveland. O., 000,032. July 4, 1011. Filed Xov. 7. 1010. Aeroplane having several sets of rotatable wings to preserve STABILITY.

George A. Owen and George A. Bates, Hartford, Conn., 007,001, July 4, 1011. Filed Oct. 17, 1010. Yariable height of CENTER of GRAYITY, also method of precipitating the engine from the machine and landing as a parachute.

Otto A. Fenn, Xew York, X. Y.. 007,122. July 4. 1011. Filed May 10. 1010. Flying machine with plurality of STEPPED supporting SURFACES.

AERO

MART

Engines for Sale.

EXGIXE FOR SALE—A. Harriinan, 30-11.r. engine; Eisemann magneto; late model; bargain at $400. Address Harriman, care AERONAUT-1CS. TP

RlNEK EXGIXE FOR SALE—A Rinek S-cyl-inder engine, 1910 model ; just completely overhauled by factory; in perfect condition ; complete with EI Arco radiator, magneto and gasoline tanks; ifOOO. Address Rinek, care AERONAUTICS. TF

FOR SALE—One 2-cylinder double opposed, weight 125 lbs.; price $00.00. One 4-cylinder upright, weight 120 lbs.; price $140.00. Both in first-class condition. Address X. Y. Z., c/o AERONAUTICS. Aug.

FOR SALE—50-lt.p. II. F. or Harriman aviation engine; new ; $500. This is the same size engine that the Harriman Motor Works are charging $1,075 for. Address "Bos 3, Girard, Kans." TF

FOR SALE—40 to C.O-h.p. Elbridge Aero Special, 1911. Complete with Boseh magneto. Absolutely new; guaranteed just as received from factory- Cost $1,350; will sell for $S50. Aug.

M. F. II. OOUYERNEI'R,

Wilmington, X. C.

FOR SALE—Two motors for aeroplanes. 30 and 00 h.p. Weight 13.0 and 180 lbs. respectively. Price low. Address Fred Suellv, R.F.I). 2, Bridgeport, ft. —Aug.

Business Cards.

J. ED. SHERIFF, MECHAXICAL EXGIXEER AXD IXYEXTOR. ORIGIXAL DESIGXS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., XEW YORK. Dec.

Aeroplanes for Sale.

AMATEUR AIRMEX—Full size MONOPLANE, ready for power, $75.00 ; one passenger, fine flyer ; 2e. stamp for particulars. SEXD now. E. C. MINERT AERO CO., 1122 W. Locust St., Davenport, Iowa. Aug. Positions Wanted.

EQUILIBRIST. SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, experienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer to give Hying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care "AERONAUTICS." Sep.

I AM desirous of entering the services of a reliable aeroplane manufacturing firm ; have served 4U, years building high-speed gasoline motors, understand aeroplane construction thoroughly; all l.vpes of miotors ; at present am in naval service; will consider anything to learn. Address B. II. D., care "AERONAUTICS." Aug.

AVIATOR — Trained at Wright Flying School, Dayton. Ohio. Now open for position. Address IT.V.LL, 323 Newport Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. —Aug.

CHICAGO CLUB HAS GROUNDS.

The Aero Club of Illinois formally opened its ISO-acre flying field, just without the city limits of Chicago. July 4. with a series of amateur flights in aeroplanes and a balloon ascension, all of which would have done credit to professionals.

The club field is the largest and best private clnh grounds in the world, being as level as a lawn and having space for a mile course 350 ft. wide, ample room in any direction for a 500-metre straightaway course such as is required in taking the tests for an aviation pilot license, and it has room to hangar 250 aeroplanes if the time should come when that many are owned by members of the club.

In addition there is ample room to seat 40,000 persons and still have considerable space for automobile parking. To the west extends 350 miles of unbroken Illinois prairie, and the club easily could establish a 10-kilometer course of ground absolutely satisfactory to airmen. Fifteen machines already are on the grounds, and at least four more will be taken out directly.

The grounds are reached in 23 minutes for a 5-cent fare from the "Loop"' district or business center of Chicago by means of the Douglas Fark branch of the Metropolitan elevated railroad. This railroad has built a special station for the club, and has put in turnstiles capable of checking 22.000 persons per hour into this Held, and cheeking more than that number back onto the railroad after events. The field is fenced in. and has a beginners' runway 700 ft. wide and 15,000 ft. long that has been scalped and rolled, and is perfect for testing machines.

July 4 the flying events were arranged, four of the amateur aviators—Dan A. Kreamer, II. W. Powers. Otto W. Brodie and Allan Lougheed— sharing in the prize money. Tn addition there were short jumps and the hangars were thrown open to the public.

Flying matinees are planned to be given weekly through the year, including winter events.

The officers of the club are : James E. Flew, president: Harold F. McCormick and T. Edward Wilder, vice-presidents; Grover F. Sexton, secretary ; Charles E. Bartley, treasurer, and James S. Stephens, consulting engineer.

The Aero Club of America has added to its affiliated clubs the recently formed Aero Club of New York, located at Nassau Boulevard. Garden City, L. I., which has nearly 200 members. Arrangements have been made for the use of the Aero Club of New York grounds by the members of the Aero Club of America. The clubhouse, which heretofore has been used by the residents of Nassau boulevard, has been turned over by the real estate company which controls the grouuds to the Aero Club of New York. A joint grounds committee has been appointed, with members from both the Aero Club of America and the Aero Club of New York.

The Aeronautical Society continues to hold its regular bi-monthly public lecture and weekly members' meetings.

On July 13 Lieut. R. E. Scott described his bomb-dropping device for aeroplanes and dirigibles, the calculating of speed over the ground, etc., an article on which subject is printed in this issue. S. Y. Beach told his troubles with a monoplane at the high altitude of Denver and Dr. Mcllvry, of the Hall-Scott motor concern, told of their habit of sending out propellers of steeper pitch for high altitude flying. On July 27 A. J. Thompson honored the society with a most valuable illustrated lecture on "Vanadium and Its Relation to Machine Design, and Its Uses in General."

COMMUNICATIONS

Criticizes Article on Soaring-.

Dear Sir :—

I read the article in the Mav issue of AERONAUTICS of "Some Facts About Soaring Flight," by E. F. Andrews, in which I think 1 can help toward the advancement of same.

The planes must be thicker at the forward edge, as I have always said to myself.

1 do not know the exact distance that the thickest part should be from the forward edge, but 1 should judge about one-quarter the length of the rib. And the thickness of rib at the thickest place should be 1 in. to every foot in length. The thickness depends upon the speed of the craft. The front upper part of plane should be rather abrupt, but rounded, and the lower forward part should be a little more than level. As you know, the forward part of a plane surface will lift more than the rear, thus overcoming what little down pressure there would be on the upper front side.

Most 'planes made nowadays, especially the biplanes made in this country, are a true or "nearly true" parabolic curve, alike on both sides; this leaves a heavy backward and down suction under the forward part of plane. This, I think, is what brought Hoxsey to his death, when the rear elevator was not sufficient to overcome the same. The said elevator being rounded or parabolic on the top. as a rounding surface will not pull much, so I think a small elevator close up to the planes in front would help on any aeroplane in addition to the one in the rear. If the planes were set at a steep angle to overcome the suction, the rounding upper part would not be of any account.

1 QR£PTEST LIFT**

Regarding soaring flight,. I think the wings or planes must be about level, so that the forward part points downward. This, when starting to fall, will start forward. Thus the rounding upper surface will turn the air upward and make the air rarefied on the top, producing a lift. I may not be right in my views, but that is "perhaps" a possible way of rising and soaring without power or an upward moving air current.

Ovington's talk on pa<*e 1S4 will convince you to some extent in this idea of having the planes thick at the forward edge.

1 am building an aeroplane of the monoplane type along my owu original ideas, of which I will let you know more when I make my first flights or try-out. It has these special designed planes, of which I herewith show sketch of end section.

If an aeroplane or soaring machine were to be made, the aviator and motor would have to be located within a fish-like body to overcome the head resistance and the suction on the backs of same. The struts and other parts of framework would have to be made in like manner, so that the aeroplane would move forward easilv.

K. R.

Raymond W. Garxku. 'i. Box 31, Davenport, la.

AERONAUTICS August, 191A

SUBSCRIBERS' FORUM AND EXCHANGE

MIGHT BE USED AS A "WIND WAGON."

327 Orange Street. Newark, X. J., Dec. 29, 1910.

Dear Sir:—

Having read with great interest, in your December issue, the description of a "glider" actuated by "bicycle movement," I thought perhaps my experiments along similar lines might be interesting, if not useful, to some of your many readers. I have not reached the point of making an actual trial at flying with my own power, but hope to do so in the near future. I am enclosing a photo of my device in order to make tre description more clear.

In the construction of my device I have used bicycle parts and spruce, the only special metal work on the machine is a 6-in. roller pin bearing on which the propeller turns.

The propeller is 6 ft. long and 5 in. wide, cut out of a solid piece of spruce, the blades are straight and slightly concaved on the face, the back is finished oval, forming sharp edges.

The propeller is driven by means of an extra grooved pulley attached to spokes of rear bicycle wheel, over which a belt passes by way of idler pulleys to the grooved pulley on the propeller.

The highest speed I have been able to obtain with a leather belt is 325 r. p. m., owing to the slip of the belt, but at this speed T maintained a steady pull of 9 lbs. for nearly two minutes; the test was made with a good spring scale, attached to the rear of the machine, the driving wheel being lifted clear of the floor by suspension from above, the front wheels resting on the floor. A second lest was made with a weight attached to machine by means of a cord and pulley with the same result.

T am about to substitute a chain and sprocket drive in place of the belt, in order to stop the loss of power by the slip of the belt, and I believe the gain in pull will more than compensate for the added weight of the chain. The machine is of the biplane type, except that no front elevator is used, the control being by the reai- tail plane. The main planes have a supporting surface of 152 sq. ft., the tail plane 15 sq. ft.

The weight of device shown in the piclure is 40 lbs. The total weight of the machine complete is a little less than 100 lbs. The ratio of the gearing is 5 to 1.

Hoping Ibis small contribution will prove

interesting to vou, and believing some day I will be able to*fly with my own power, I am,1 Respectfully yours.

A. N. PIERMAX.

Wants Hearst Conditions Easier.

Editor AERONAUTICS:

Sir: Although, the copy was merely sent to you for your information and co-operation, I felt that "the promptness with which you gave a couple of pages of your valuable land crowded magazine to my letter to Mr. Hearst in your December number was extremely flattering and kind. However, you are like the cow that gave all the good milk—and then kicked over the pail. It happens that I did not read it in print until a moment ago, and I find that you have made two interpolations which took the snapper off the end of my lash and might affect the result which my letter was expected to accomplish. To give serious recognition to the Hearst prize in its present condition will undo all the earnest work of years in soliciting prizes to encourage the accomplishment of possible achievements. "While it is entirely legitimate for Mr. Hearst to achieve publicity by offering a prize for a stunt, which, if at all possible (and this involves besides the aeroplane performance and the endurance of the aviator, a sequence of 720 hours of perfect meteorological conditions throughout this continent and at altitudes up to some 10,000 feet, if not actually through unexplored regions), we should not let the magnitude of the prize on paper bewilder us in interpreting its terms to Mr. Hearst himself. If, as we have no reason to doubt, this prize is offered in the spirit, for example, in which M. Deutsch of Paris gave prizes of similar magnitude for flights of a few kilometres, Mr. Hearst will no doubt be influenced by the opinions of the aeronautical societies and engineers into amelioration of his terms.

Now. the first of your interpolations stated that Prof. Simon Newcomb "seemed to argue that flight was impossible at a time when the Wrights were actually flying." I have carefully reread both papers and find nothing on which you might base your statement. On the contrary, in the first of Newcomb's papers he states that "both the Wrights and Farman have had success." In his second, "The Problem of Aerial Navigation." he starts out with "The recent construction of machines on which for the first time in history men have flown through the air." etc. Again "The vital question is not whether aerial navigation is practicable, for that has been settled in the affirmative; now it is proved in the best of all ways, that of actual trial, that a man can fly through the air on an aeroplane." In your second interpolation of my argument that flight would be impossible in a 70-mile wind, you state: "As a matter of fact, an aeroplane does not lose lifting force going with the wind, owing to increased speed," which does not affect my argument, but might give an impression that I had not been aware of it.

Air in motion is not to be depended on for dynamic flight. The helicopter "gets into the air" on still air, but descends immediately because it sets up a descending current and churns up the air. To illustrate the absence of sustaining force in a gale, the stream lines of the churned air must be referred to. and in the sketch herewith a condition is shown which would readily solve the mystery of poor Hoxey's fall. Dangley said: ' "Wind cannot be compared to the flow of a river," but that it consists of infinitely complex internal gyrations. In my sketch the resultant of these would be a sustaining force of nothing, although it is not a "hole in the air" or rarified section, but a compressed swirl.

A 70-mile wind is classified as a hurricane and its navigation, which would be perilous even if it flowed like a river, would be impossible, because of these swirls.

C. \V. SIRCII.

Dos Angeles, March 31, 1911.

Rochester had more than its share of flying during July. The aero club there secured Simon, Barrier ano Frisbie, Moisant aviators, whose flights were appreciated by thousands, most of whom sat outside the field and saw the show for nothing. Three days later, Beacney and Robinson, of the Curtiss Co., flew under the auspices of a newspaper at other grounds and drew large paying crowds. The rival flyers attended the second meeting and saw for the first time Beachey do his sensational stunts and Beachey did not cut anything off the program because of the presence of his peaceful adversaries.

Wants Capital for Novel Monoplane.

Dear Sir:

Thinking that my work or patents would be of use to your valuable journal, thought that I would send you a drawing showing the general construction of the monoplane that I would like to construct or get someone to furnish me the capital to do so. I have several patents pending on this machine.

As I have three or four different warping devices, with the one showing, which is oper-

A Laboratory Suggestion.

Editor "AERONAUTICS,"

New York. Dear Sir:

The writer has a suggestion to make to experimenters in aerodynamics by means of which all the principles underlying bird flight could likely be discovered, as our knowledge along these lines is admitted by all to be quite defective, and there is much to be revealed concerning Nature's secrets in the flight of birds, bats and other creatures, and especially the soaring of many birds without perceptible wing movements, which mystifies the closest students of this phenomenon. Witness also that the condor, for instance, sustains 395 pounds per horse power, while the most efficient man-made flying machine lifts less than 50 pounds for each horse power used.

My suggestion is to take very rapid moving pictures of a large bird or bat flying through a column of smoke, or in a smoky room, and then reproduce these pictures as slowly as possible to make a continuous picture. Extra-rapid moving pictures—up to many thousands a second—have already been taken of insects' flight, but sui bono? Such pictures of the larger flying creatures' movements could be much more easily studied, the wings being larger and the movements slower. If they could not be taken by the same method—a

Josiph Plcucl At»Ofl»»l W.ih SArLIYDf.CC >»G A„TOM„t,C Wuirjmc Dt.Ul .

ated by gears, arms, etc., I also have patents on a safety device which is used only when an accident happens when in the air. The whole monoplane is made of steel tubing, the beams in the wings are also steel tubing and are reinforced inside by a process of my own to give the added strength so as not to cause them to buckle, as there are no wires whatever used on the above.

I will give you an idea as to how the monoplane acts when the safety device is used. When the above is flying I have a small lever near one of my hands that, just as soon as L pull same, the wings are unlocked from position and are caused to turn; just as soon as wings are starting to turn and wings are unlocked, my weight causes the frame to drop down backward in a vertical position to the way it flies; as the seat is loose on the frame so as it may slide down the frame for about 15 feet, so as I may act as a pendelum to the wings as soon as frame is in this position the wings are locked automatically.

The warping device acts automatically, as the seat which I sit in acts as a pendulum for the above; the steering is operated by turning wheel right or left, the same as an automobile. The elevating is done by the same wheel by pushing backward or forward.

Of course, these things, such as engine, etc., are balanced so as to make the safety work quickly and in the right way. There are also two springs right on the second beam from the front, so as to help turn the frame.

JOSEPH PIERCE, 2713 X. Warnock St..

Philadelphia, Pa.

continuously moving film and electric spark for light—two or more biograph machines could be arranged into one, taking pictures alternately, or in succession, and reproducing likewise, but slowly. The object of the smoke mentioned is to make the movements of the air visible—something absolutely essential before we can fully understand the principles of natural flight. Then by applying the principles thus discovered to propellers and planes we can equal, perhaps excel. Nature, as we have done with the bicycle.

Yours faithfully,

ELMER G. STILL, Editor Livermore (Calif.) "Echo."

Editor of AERONAUTICS, New York City. Dear Sir :

1 have read with interest the article in May AERONAUTICS by Mr. E. V Andrews, entitled "Some Pacts About Soaring Plight." I have never had any practical experience iu gliding, but I have had a whole lot of it in watching and photographing the flight of birds, and these have included gulls, terns, shearwaters, ospreys, eagles and vultures all along the coast from Maine to Florida and through Cuba. I have never seen anything to indicate that any bird can rise and ad vance against the wind without motion o:i his part or the aid of currents.

Mr. Andrews is first in error in stating that there are three kinds of vultures in our southeastern states. There are but two species, the turkey vulture and the black vulture. The latter is a shorter bird, with less expanse than the former, but is heavier, consequently it cannot sail or glide as easily.

The comparing of a soaring bird to a tacking boat is a fallacy. The wind striking the sail of a close-hauled boat exerts its force in two directions—to carry the boat along with it and to propel the boat forward, the former of which is combat ted by the resistance of the water on the keel and broadside of the boat. The wind against the wings of a soaring bird also exerts a force in two directions—one upwards and the other backwards, but none with which to make forward motion against the wind ; the resistance of the air not being sufficient to overcome the backward thrust of the wind, the bird will be carried backwards .unless he has the assistance of rising currents or exerts some force himself.

Tt is more than probable—it is almost certain— that if a bird is progressing against a wind without flapping and in a flat or ascending plane, that bird is propelling itself even if the motion of the wings be imperceptible. Gulls or vultures never sail with no movement of the wings or body ; the body may rock, one wing may tilt a trifle—movements scarcely perceptible to the eye. hut every one calculated to maintain balance and to propel in the direction desired.

Birds cannot exceed aeroplanes in speed, but they are past masters in the art of flying; they know just exactly what to do and when to do it. Perpetual motion is no more of a dream than is the theory that a bird or anything else can progress against a wind, in an ascending plane, by the sole use of an adverse wind and gravity.

Chester A. Reed,. S. P..

Worcester. Mass.. May 12, 1911.

FOR SALE—A perfect Santos Dumont monoplane, thirty horsepower, fitted witb pontoons for water and wheels for land. Guaranteed to fly. Just the thing for an amateur. Will demonstrate to purchaser or send photo while in flight. Reason for selling buying two-passenger machine. Price at Akron. O., 8800.00, J. R G AMMETER, Akron, O. —Aug.

AEROPLANE FOR SALE—Genuine imported French Aeroplane, monoplane type, French motor, 3(>h.p.,4 cycle opposed 5x 5 cylinders, water cooled with French radiator, G. & A. Carburettor, French Magneto, Chauviere Propeller, for $800.00, complete ready to fly. The power plant is high-class in every way and is worth more than what we offer the complete outfit for.

LANIER & DRIESBACH MFG. CO. 248 Butler St., Cincinnati. O. —Aug.

/ icish to express my hearty appreciation of Aeronautics ; it contains more useful information than, any other publication i know of.—Harry R. Kiessig.

Please continue to send the magazine, as i icould not be without it for three times the cost.—■ Prof. U. Sorenson.

Anyone interested in aeronautics can ill afford to be without Aeronautics.—Dr. A. S. Howe.

Your magazine is an absolute necessity.—P.. J. Pressey.

ENGLAND BUYS FOUR BIPLANES

By Geo. H. Scragg*.

The recent announcement in the House of Commons that the British War Office had par-chased four "Bristol" biplanes naturally attracts a great deal of attention to this machine. The military machines now being constructed are an improvement on the type of machine which took part in the army manuevers on Salisbury Plain last September. The appearance of the biplane at once conveys the idea of immense strength and power. The spread of the planes, including the extensions, is 51 ft. 3 in., the length overall is 39 ft., and the height 11 ft. 10 in. Fitted with a 70-h.p. Gnome engine the total weight is 855 pounds.

The planes, after a great deal of experiment, have been so shaped that under normal conditions of flight a considerable amount of lifting power is always in reserve, and have been constructed especially with a view of facilitating rapid repairs. At each end of the upper plane is fitted an extension, which can be demounted in a moment, saving considerable storage room. The machine can be flown without the extensions mounted, though, of course, in that case the weight carrying capacity would be somewhat reduced.

The chassis is so constructed that it is extremely difficult to buckle the wheels, an important part in a machine which may be required to land on rough ground, and combines the advantage of the skid landing gear and a wheel chassis without the defects of either. Here, as in every other part of the machine, the importance of effecting renewals and repairs very rapidly has been borne in mind, and in ease of breakage renewals can be made easily and quickly. The total supporting area of the machine is 62 square meters, and it is fitted with three comfortable upholstered seats set in a gracefully shaped body, the pilot's seat in front and the passengers' seats abreast behind.

The control is by a vertical column pivoted at the bottom to work fore and aft for elevation, at the top of which is mounted a wheel rotating in a vertical plane for lateral stabilizing. For steering, throe rudders are fitted, and

are worked by means of a lever, pivoted centrally and working in a horizontal plane, operated by the feet. This method of control is a considerable improvement on the old, as it is much less fatiguing for long distance flights. The propeller is of the "Bristol" type, made of laminated walnut, and is exceptionally strong and powerful. Altogether, one cannot but feel that our military aviators will be mounted on the best machine possible for military purposes.

The "Bristol" Racing Biplane, which was also shown at the recent British show, is a very speedy looking machine, with a fuselage rather on the lines of that of a monoplane, and is almost a midget compared with the military biplane just described. The weight has been cut down to the lowest possible limit, and this little racer, complete with engine, weighs only 570 pounds. The width of span is S.2 meters, the length overall 7.6 meters, and the height 2.9 meters. The planes are specially constructed to give the maximum of lift with tha minimum of drift, and the stanchions are so shaped as to give the least possible head resistance. The engine fitted is a 50-h.p. Gnome engine with "Bristol" propeller, and the control is practically identical with that of the military type. There is, however, only one rudder.

The "Bristol" Monoplane, which was also shown, is an exceedingly graceful and swift-looking machine. It has a span of 10.2 meters, a length overall of 9.6 meters, and a height of 2.8 meters, and the total weight is 580 pounrs. The wings are supported by three separate wires in parallel instead of the usual steel ribbon, as in the opinion of the "Bristol" manufacturers the latter system is very treacherous. The chassis is a combination of skid landing gear and wheel chassis, but where speed is the only desideratum, as in racing, the skid portion of tile chassis can be entirely removed, considerably lessening the dead weight and head resistance. The control is a modification of that already described in connection with the other types, and permits of long flights without discomfort. The engine is a 50-h.p. Gnome.


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