Aeronautics

Volume 9 - No. 1 - 1911 July

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Vol. IX, No. 1.

JULY, 1911

Serial No. 48

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

250 West 54th St., New York

Subscriptions in the U. S. A. and possessions, $3.00 Canada, $3.25 • Abroad, $3.50

single numbers 25 cents

Elementary Aeronautics REVISED TO JUNE 1st, 1911

OR

THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF AERIAL MACHINES

BY

ALBERT P. THURSTON, B.Sc.(LondL)

,ate Engineer to Sir Hiram Maxim; Lecturer in Aeronautics, East London College (University of London): Member of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain

This little volume is of the greatest interest to all who re interested in aviation. The many recent develop-lents in this science and the many new problems which onfront aviators render imperative the appearance of a •ork like the present in which all recent discoveries and heir principles are collated and explained. The great aim f the author has been to present to the reader a simple nd concise account of the action of air upon moving lanes, aerocurves, propellers, bars, and the like, and the pplication of these principles to practice. The volume is ilendidly illustrated by many photographs and diagrams hich elucidate the subject matter of the text. The book ill be highly welcome to all aeronauts and also to every udent of aeronautics, as it contains a vast amount of (formation of the highest value.

Vehicles of the Air

By

Victor Lougheed

■Member of the Aerouautic Society. Founder Member Society of Automobile Engineers. Consulting- Engineer of the Aero Club of Illinois.

Cloth 8vo.

126 Illustrations, by mail, $1.33

Si.25 net;

Ttiis book is known the World over as "The Aeronautical Bible." It is absolutely reliable, up-to-date, and concise, yet comprehensive. Nothing has been omitted. The only book that actually shows you how to construct, operate and repair all types of successful machines. Over 500 subjects. Over 200 aeronautical terms defined. 275 illustrations, including detailed working drawings and parts. 140 half-tone views. Tabulated list of flights to date, both long distance and hourly, fatalities, etc.

Price $2.50 net. Postage 25 cents extra.

Printed in Cloth, .>.>(> pages, luiiicisoniely stamped.

VICTOR LOLlUHF rJj

AERONAUTICS

250 WEST FIFTY-FOURTH STREET NEW YORK

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Be "Wise" and get our Information

The Emerson Engine Co., Inc.

ALEXANDRIA, VA., U.S.A. New York Office: 1737 Broadway

(Buick Building)

J. R. Westerfield Telephone 782 Columbus

Aeronautics

july, 1911

Whirling Table of Worcester Polytechnic Institute

PROPELLER TESTING DEVICE

By Professor David Gallup, M.E.,

OF WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE.

REALIZING the importance of aviation in the development of engineering and appreciating its special privileges for investigation, the Worcester Polytechnic Institute has taken definite steps toward the solution of the problems confronting the designers of aeroplanes and their engines. On account of the unusual lack of authentic data concerning experiments with aeroplane surfaces and propellers, most of the attention so far has been given to these two, leaving the engine development for separate consideration. Probably little is known concerning the experiments which have been going on, so that a brief description will be given:

The purpose of the investigation is to determine if possible the proper design of a propeller to give most efficient results, taking into consideration the varying factors, such as speed, pitch and diameter. Since whatever tests have been made up to the present have been of the "stationary" kind, our own experiments are to include this method, so that a comparison may be made between such tests and those made under "moving" conditions.

By stationary is meant operating the propeller on a stationary stand. The moving tests consist of placing the propeller on the end of a long arm or boom which rotates about a center in a relatively quiet atmosphere. The arm may be rotated at various speeds from 0 up to any number of miles per hour desired. The propeller at the same time may also be operated at various speeds of revolution and sufficient drag offered to the arm so that various pulls may be obtained. It must not be understood by the above that the stationary type of test is considered of much value, for it is very evident that the conditions existing, such as circulating over and over a given quantity of atmosphere, are very different from those met with by a propeller on an aeroplane which is going through the air. It is merely for the sake of comparison with the proper method of testing an aeroplane propeller—the moving test—that the stationary test is to be made. In the tests which have so far been made, the horse-power input to the propeller is determined, also the effective thrust and the

speed, from which curves may be obtained showing these relations. Some very interesting results have been obtained in these tests, as would naturally be indicated by the use of smoke, ribbons and Pitot tubes for showing the quality and direction of the various air currents set up by the different portions of the propeller. Since details of these observations are to be left for a special paper to be given before the engineering societies, it is not deemed necessary to give them here. It is sufficient to say, however, that the results as obtained are somewhat disconcerting to the average designer of the present.

In the moving tests which are to be made of the propellers, a 75-horse-power railway motor is used in driving the propellers. These will be mounted on the end of the boom, turning in a hundred foot circle about the center of a small lake which is the property of the Institute. Tests will be run and observations taken early in the morning to obviate the existence of air currents which would be present later in the day. The thrust and speed are to be measured by delicate mechanisms, so that there will be no measurable error. It is anticipated that the results of these tests will show a very interesting relation to those tests made under the stationary conditions.

The moving tests are to be made during the month of July, 1911, and many engineers and others interested in aviation are to be present as observers. It is expected that the results of these experiments will give valuable data concerning the proper relations between pitch, rotation, speed and propeller diameter, something which at present is very indefinite, as will be readily appreciated by an examination of the various types of propellers used by the present aviators. The two propellers, large, diameter, slow speed, and moderately high pitch used by the Wright Bros., are a direct contradiction to the high speed, small pitch propellers used by the various other aviators. While it may be admitted that each has its particular field, let us hope that this field will be more definitely outlined when the results of these tests at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute are completed. A very important line

From the beginning of successful experiments in operating aeroplanes, it has suggested |tself to many people that some adaptation of he parachute could be used to protect avia-ors in case of accident. A recent adaptation ind successful experiment with a parachute ittached to an aeroplane framework has exit ted considerable interest.

The parachute was carefully folded up, ashed to a section of framework of an aero-jlane, and a life-size dummy fastened in the iviator's seat and the apparatus launched from i section of the Eiffel Tower. In spite of ap-jarently numerous mechanical difficulties, the sarachute opened quickly, reducing the speed

of fall to that found by experience to afford a safe landing for a human being, and the whole experiment was a great success. The parachute measured 8 metres in diameter, giving a surface of 50 square metres, and weighed 10 kilograms, although this could be reduced to 10 kilograms by using silk instead of cotton. The parachute was enclosed in an envelope 1 6-10 metres long by S centrimetres high and 50 centimetres wide.

The Queen Aeroplane Co., of Fort George, New York City, has under construction four biplanes equipped with Gnome motors for the ilcCurdy-Willard Co. One of these biplanes is to have a 100-h.p. Gnome, and is expected to render an excellent account in the speed contests in the Chicago meet fur which it is being especially built.

A racing monoplane, costing $10,000, designed by Willis McCornick, has been equipped with two 50-h.p. Gnome motors and two 8-ft. propellers, one pushing and the other pulling on the central longitudinal axis of the monoplane, and is now at the grounds of the Aero flub of New York at Nassau Boulevard. The trials are being watched with great interest ])y experts who are especially interested in the question as to whether two rotary motors revolving in the opposite direction will do away with the gyroscopic action of a single rotary motor-. Mr. ilcCornick is the newly-elected president of the Aeronautical Society of New York and the treasurer of the Queen Aeroplane Co. He is one of the firm of McCornick Bros., bankers and brokers, members of the New Y'ork Stock Exchange, the owner of the Norman, a 100-ft. steam yacht, and an all-around sportsman, and is devoting the best of his skill and business knowledge to aviation.

Machine for Measuring Static Thrust

if work is to be taken up in the near future Jith reference to the proper shape of aero-lane surfaces determined by means of special |pparatus, the lifting power and resistance of-red by various shape surfaces. Pitot tubes [nil be applied at every available spot in the Surface of the plane to determine the above ata.

It is hoped that any interested in the devel-pment of the aeroplane will take advantage f the opportunity to visit the testing plant ny time, and especially during the time of hese tests, which will undoubtedly be con-inued throughout the summer.

CHARACTERISTICS OF PUOPEELEUS.

Jumber. Diam. Pitch.

1........7 ft. 0 in. 1 ft. 0 in.

2........7 ft. 0 in. 8 ft. 0 in.

3........7 ft. 0 in. 4 ft. 0 in.

4........7 ft. 0 in. 4 ft. 0 in.

5........7 ft. 0 in. 4 ft. 0 in.

6........G ft. 0 in. 5 ft. 0 in.

7........G ft. 6 in. 44 in.

S........G ft. 0 in. 4 y2 ft. to 5 ft. (at diam.)

9........6 ft. 3 in. 3 ft. 5 in. to 5 ft. 6 in.

TESTS OF WOODEN STRUTS MADE FOR THE LABORATORY COMMITTEE OF THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN

By Professor D. A. Low.

THE Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, the first organization of its kind in the world, founded in 1866, has rendered lasting services to aeronautics through the researches of its members and committees.

Builders of aeroplanes have longed for data on strengths of woods. Professor Low has conducted at the University of London an exhaustive series of tests for the Society's Laboratory Committee with the object of determining the strengths of comparatively slender wood struts and to find, if possible, the most suitable kind of wood to use for struts in aeroplanes, having regard to strength and lightness.

Each strut tested was of uniform cross section throughout its length, the section being rectangular, about 2 in. wide and about 1 in. thick. Seven of the struts were about 32 in. long, one was about 30 in. long, and the remaining 15 were 24 in. long. The exact dimensions are given in Table I.

The struts were tested in a 50-ton Wick-steed testing machine. The ends were rounded and fitted into grooves in iron blocks. Each strut was placed truly vertical and the load, applied vertically, was put on gradually tmtil the strut buckled or crippled. The crippling load was quite definite in every case and was the maximum load which the strut would carry, any pushing of the ends of the strut nearer to one another by working the pump simply bent the strut more and more without any increase in the load.

It was assumed that the Euler formula for struts with hinged ends was the most suitable for these struts. The formula is P= (3.1416)2E I

P

where P is the crippling load, E the modulus of elasticity of the material, I the least moment of inertia of the cross section, and 1 the length of the strut.

The crippling loads P are given in Table I. The values of E were calculated by the Euler formula already given. But the values of E calculated in this way were, in almost every case, high, and were in fact, on the average, about double the values which were obtained by direct experiment on the elastic deflection of the struts tested as beams.

It would seem, therefore, that the resistance to buckling due to the friction at the ends of the strut had the effect of fixing the ends to a certain extent, so that using the actual value of E from the elastic deflection experiments the formula would be P = 2 (3.1416)2E I

P

which is the Euler formula for a strut fixed at one end and free at the other, but guided in the direction of the load. The formula 1' = 2 (3.1416)2E I

P

will therefore be used as applying to these tests.

The following notes refer to the condition of the various specimens when the crippling load was reached.

Specimens 1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18 and 23 were bent but not fractured.

In 3 there were signs of fracture on the compression side. In 7, 10 and 14, fracture started on the compression side. In 16, 17 and 1!) there was decided fracture on the compression side. In 6 fracture took place on the tension side after the load was continued. In 20 and 21 fracture took place on the tension side. Tn 8 and 9 fracture took place

in tension and in compression. In 22 fracturJ started in tension and in compression.

Crushing tests were made on pieces about 2 in. long cut from the ends of certain om the specimens after they had been tested foil the crippling load. The pieces so tested wera in no way injured by the previous test for thffl crippling load. The crushing load was applietl in the direction of the grain of the woodl The results are given in Table II. The numl ber of the specimens given in column 1 om Table II are the same as the numbers oM the specimens in Table I from which thejl were cut. The crushing load in each case waJ quite definite.

The various struts were carefully weighed! and their volumes computed, and from thesa the density or weight W in pounds per cubic! inch was calculated. The results are given In! Table III.

In order to compare the suitability of the] various kinds of wood tested for struts foil aeroplanes, the results of the tests hava been used to calculate the dimensions foil struts of each kind of wood 30 in. long to] carry a crippling load of three tons. Tha results are given in Table IV. The struts] are placed in order of their weights W in] pounds. The cross sections of the struts hava been made symmetrical, of breadth b and] thickness d, b being equal to 2d in each easel The last column gives the number of tesi struts upon which the results are based,] the values of E and w being the means from] that number of specimens.

The foregoing tests seem to indicate than whitewood (American poplar), basswoodl spruce and mahogany are the most suitable] woods for the struts of aeroplanes. Hickory is] a very tough wood and may be bent to a] considerable extent without fracturing, but! it will be noted that it is the heaviest of all] the woods tested.

It would, of course, be more satisfactory] if a larger number of tests could be mada with specimens of the kinds of wood which] on account of their strength and lightness are obviously most suitable.

Table V gives the Euler formula in its sim-l plified form for use in designing struts of the more suitable of the materials tested, thel constants being derived from the results of] the tests made. It must be understood, however, that the formulas here given are for struts loaded as in the tests here described. As has been indicated the conditions of the tests seem to be equivalent to that of a strut fixed at one end and free at the other, but guided in the direction of the load. The Euler formula for this case being P = 2(3.1416)2E I

P

In an aeroplane the condition of a strut is probably that of one fixed at one end and free at the other, but not guided In the direction of the load. For this case the Euler formula is (3.1416)=E I

4 xl2

Hence, for aeroplane struts the expressions given for P in Table V should be divided by S.

If ii is the factor of safety then the safe working load will be P

n

The cross section of an aeroplane strut will, of course, not generally be a rectangle, but whatever its form its least moment of inertia T must be computed and substituted in the formula for determining the crippling load.

TABLE I.

N—number of specimen 1 — length of strut in indies.

b = width of strut in inches. d =: thickness of strut in inches.

1

I =: least moment of inertia of section in inch units = — bd\

12

P=: crippling load in tons.

E = modulus of elasticity in tons per square inch, calculated from the Euler formula. 2(3.1416)2EI

P —-

l2

X.

Material.**

1

b

d

I

P

E

].

American

   

2.024

1.073

0.209

2.44

604

2.

American

 

............... 24.0

2.038

0.843

0.102

2.14

612

3.

Basswood

 

............... 29.87

1.8G2

0.S66

0.101

1.8S

S43

4.

Hickory .

   

1.975

0.938

0.136

3.63

780

5.

Hickory

 

............... 24.0

1.956

0.980

0.154

4.29

S18

6.

Hickory .

 

............... 24.0

1.96C

0.997

0.163

5.19

918

7.

Honduras

 

............... 32.0

2.025

1.042

0.191

2.78

756

S.

Honduras

mahogany.....

............... 24.0

2.062

1.002

0.173

3.85

650

i).

Honduras

 

............... 24.0

2.073

0.971

0.159

3.69

682

10.

Parang*

 

............... 32.0

2.060

0.919

0.133

3.19

1,242

11.

Parang* .

   

2.192

0.780

0.087

2.4S

832

12.

Parang* .

 

................ 24.0

2.180

0.765

0.081

2.80

1,009

13.

   

............... 31.9

1.950

1.104

0.219

2.95

696

14.

   

............... 32.0

1.992

0.955

0.145

2.62

904

15.

   

............... 32.0

1.897

0.990

0.154

1.85

1,073

1G.

   

............... 24.0

1.965

1.208

0.289

4.81

486

17.

   

............... 24.0

1.957

1.206

0.286

4.S3

493

18.

   

............... 24.0

1.967

0.925

0.130

2.06

463

19.

Spruce ..

 

............... 24.0

1.969

0.972

0.151

2.24

433

20.

American

 

............... 24.0

1.S61

1.060

0.185

4.61

727

21.

American

 

............... 24.0

1.818

0.92S

0.121

3.21

775

22.

Walnut .

 

............... 24.0

1.882

1.0.26

0.169

3.96

6S4

23!

 

............... 31.9

1.866

0.S42

0.093

1.66

922

 

*Parang is

a hybrid wood

from Eastern Asia. In

appearance it resembles

mahogany.

 

fAmerican poplar.

**There were three kinds of spruce amongst the samples Nos. 13 to 19. No. 13 is best Quebec spruce, but this is ruled out for aeroplanes, as it cannot now be obtained perfect in sufficient lengths. Nos. 14. 16 and 17 are silver spruce. This wood cannot be obtained perfect in very long lengths, but it is fairly constant in quality. Nos. 15, IS and 19 come from different parts of America. This wood differs considerably, and only a few planks out of a big parcel are perfect. Planks often have a large number of small knots.

We are not sure that the Parang was perfectly seasoned.

Basswood is often confused with American whitewood (No. 23).

TABLE II.

f=zcrushiug stress in tons per square iuch. V. Material. f

1 Ash ............................... 2.92

2 Ash (American) .................... 1-75

.'! Basswood .......................... 2.98

4 Hickory ............................ 3.33

7 Honduras mahogany................. 2.53

Honduras mahogany................. 2.41

Parang ............................ 4.12

Parang ............................ 2.97

Spruce ............................. 2.41

Spruce ............................. 2.46

Spruce ............................. 2.24

Spruce ............................. 2.62

Spruce ............................. 2.08

AValnut (American) ................. 4.15

Whitewood ......................... 2.65

Specimens S. Ki, 14. 1(1 and IS gave way by crushing. Specimens 1. 2. 3. 4, 7. Hi. 11. 15, 20 and 23 gave way by shearing.

TABLE III.

N. Material. w.

1 Ash .............................. 0.020

2 American ash ..................... 0.020

3 Basswood ......................... 0.018

4 llickorv ........................... 0.028

5 Hickory ........................... 0.026

6 Hickory ........................... 0.02S

7 Honduras mahogany ............... 0.01S

S Honduras mahogany ............... 0-01Z

9 Honduras mahogany . . .■............ 0.017

10 Parang ........................... 0.024

11 Parang ........................... 0.022

12 Parang ........................... 0.022

13 Spruce ............................ 0.016

14 Spruce ............................ 0.015

15 Spruce ............................ 0.014

16 Spruce ............................ 0.018

17 Spruce ............................ 0.017

18 Spruce ............................ 0.015

l'J Spruce ............................ 0.015

20 American walnut................... 0.022

21 American walnut................... 0.023

22 American walnut................... 0.020

23 Whitewood ........................ 0.018

TABLE IV. No. of

Material.

b

d

E

w

w

Tests.

 

............ 1.94

0.97

9°°

0.0 IS

1.02

1

   

0.99

sift

0.O1S

1.06

1

   

1.06

050

0.016

1.08

7

   

1.04

096

0.017

1.10

CO

   

0.95

1.02S

0.023

1.25

CO

 

1.03

729

0.021

1.34

CO

   

1.0S

60S

0.020

1.40

0

   

0.99

S3!)

0.027

1.59

3

{Continued on page 2G)

THE first official test of an aeroplane engine in this country was made by the Technical Committee of the Automobile Club of America on May 11, 1911. The motor tested was a Leigh ton two-cycle 4-cylinder motor. This test was not made as a part of the Automobile Club's competition, but was a private test for the Motor Sales & Engineering Co., of 250 West 54th street, agents for this motor.

The results of the test are given below.

NO ENTRIES FOR $1,000 PRIZE.

LTp to the time of going to press, no aeronautical motor manufacturer has entered tlie lists in the club's $1,000 prize competition, and entries close July 1.

This is a rather remarkable situation and one must admit it does not reflect very creditably on the enthusiasm of the motor makers.

Here was not only the chance of winning the prize, but of also showing that America

can produce as good an aeronautical motor as any foreign country.

The" Automobile Club lias given makers an opportunity of publishing to the world their genius at motor building, and this opportunity, it is possible, will not be seized. "Opportunity knocks once at every man's door," but it is nowhere stated that she carries a repeating alarm clock.

DETAILS OF LEJGHTON TEST.

The motor ran continuously for a period of three hours at an average speed of 1,117 revolutions per minute, developing an average torque (at 3 ft. radius) of 57.3 pounds, with a resultant average brake-horsepower of 36.4. During this interval the total amount of gasoline used was 104.8 pounds, making an average consumption of 0.96 pounds per brake-horsepower-hour. The variations occurring in these factors are shown in the accompanying table. No excessive heating was evident during or at the end of the test.

Temperature

Time from

Revolutions

Torque

Brake

Range

Start

Per

at

Horse

Coolin

Minutes

Minute.

3. ft. Radius.

Power.

Water.

4

1114

56.0

35-6

32

J 3

1118

. 55-9

35-6

32

17

1105

55-9

35-2

32

22

1112

56.0

35-5

32

27

1098

56.0

3S-o

34

32

1092

55-9

34-8

33

37

1100

56.3

35-3

32

42

1099

56.5

35-4

3i

47

1123

56.6

36.2

32

52

1113

56.8

36.0

3i

57

1122

56.5

36.2

32

60

1112

57-0

36.2

32

67

1111

56.9

36.1

32

72

1115

57-i

36.3

3i

77

1119

57-3

36.5

3i

82

1129

57-4

36-9

3i

87

1132

57-4

37.0

32

97

1131

57-9

37-3

30

102

111S

57-9

36-9

3i

107

1104

57-9

36.4

33

112

1097

58.6

36.7

32

122

1110

58.4

36.9

32

127

1118

58.1

37-o

3i

132

1117

58. r

37-0

3i

137

1109

58.6

37-o

3i

142

1123

57-6

36-9

30

147

1123

57-8

37-o

30

152

1128

58.0

37-2

31

157

1126

58.0

37-2

32

162

1113

58.2

36-9

30

167

1117

57-9

36.8

30

172

1131

57-2

36-9

30

177

1130

57.6

37-i

29

180

ii54

57-7

37-9

29

Average

1117

57-3

36-4

3i

Rate of Fuel Consumption per Brake Horse Power Hour. Pounds. Pints.

0.91 1.21

0.89

0.89

0.92 0.93

0.91

0.99

0.96

1.04 1.07

0.96

1.18

1.18

1.22 1.24

1.21

1.32

i-34

1.3S 1.42

1.27

Headings Taken During Test. 6

THE TESTING OF AEROPLANE ENGINES

Lubrication of the motor during the test was accomplished by mixing the oil with the gasoline Ln the proportion of I part oil to 14.5 parts gasoline, by weight. 7.2 pounds of oil were- added to the gasoline during the three-hour run. Beside this, approximately O.S pounds were added from a hand-operated mechanical oiler.

The throttles were kept wide open during the run, the position of the spark being varied slightly from time to time. Near the end of the second hour the mixture was richened slightly by opening the needle valves. The only other adjustment was the replacement of a cotter pin which held the inlet valve spring washer in position. During this replacement the speed of the motor fell momentarily three times to 850 r. p. m., but no stop was made.

The motor is of the two-cycle type, having four cylinders of 5-inch bore. The stroke is

4 5 inches. Automatic inlet valves are used between the carburetor and crank-case, and a third port also between the carburetor and crank-case is opened by the piston when same is at the top of the stroke. The compression r f the charge is effected in the crank-case as in conventional two-cycle motors. The transfer ports register with ports in the piston walls, through which the charge leaves the crank-case in passing to the cylinders.

The weight of the motor with two carburetors, timers and its operating levers, plugs and their wires, water pump and connections thereto, and balancing counter weight (no flywheel) was 276 pounds. A flywheel (weight 88.5 pounds), an exhaust header (weight 24.5 pounds), and an auxiliary hand operated oiler (weight with piping and brackets 5.5 pounds) were used during the test, but are not a part of the standard equipment.

ARMY AND NAVY AVIATION

THE Curtiss aeroplane lately attached to the Manoeuvre Division at San Antonio has been shipped to College Park, aid., where it was shipped the latter part of June. There will be on duty here five officers and a detachment of fifteen enlisted men of the Signal Corps. A summer's course of instruction in aeronautical work is being entered upon. Within a short time it is expected to have three machines at this field with two officers assigned to each machine.

A new Wright machine arrived on June 19. Capt. Chas. DeF. Chandler has charge of the College Park field.

The Army aeroplanes now total as follows: Two Wright machines, one at San Antonio in charge of Lieut. B. D. Foulois, and one to be delivered shortly at College Park, Md.

One Burgess biplane, to be delivered at College Park in charge of Capt. Chas. DeF. Chandler, Lieuts. Milling, Arnold and Kirtland. One Curtiss at College Park under the di-

rection of Lieut. Faul W. Beck and Lieut. John C. Walker, Jr.

The Wright machine, loaned the Government by Robert J. Collier, has been returned. The first Wright machine sold the Government, in 190S, is to go to Smithsonian Institute.

NEWS OF THE NAVY.

The United States Navy has now contracted for three machines.

One of these will be a Wright machine of standard type, the others a Curtiss water machine called tl:e "Triad," and a Curtiss 4-cylinder machine for instruction purposes only. On July 1st the naval appropriation becomes available, but delivery will not actually be made until the aerodrome at Annapolis is ready. Preliminary work has been somewhat de'ayed by the absence of Capt. W. Irving Chambers, who has charge of all aeronautical work in the Navy.

TABLE OF AMERICAN AERONAUTIC MOTORS

Compiled by E. L. Jones and S. Y. Beach.

THE accompanying schedule covers, it is firmly believed, every motor made in America, with the exception of the Brooke, a notice of which appears in this issue. Details of this were not obtainable at the time the motor table was compiled.

Several of the motors in this schedule cannot claim actual presence on the market, as but two or three motors have been made to date and they are still in the experimental stage. Some even are still on paper. It was decided to include every motor known in America expected to be eventually on the market.

In the blanks sent manufacturers, request was made to state the weight as including "all essential parts, including carburetor, ignition system, lubricator, radiator, ready for fuel and oil to start. Proofs of the schedule were sent eacli maker and many additions and corrections were made, but it may be said that the weights in many cases are obviously erroneous; evidently the bare engine weight has been given in the first instance and left uncorrected on the proofs.

The figures printed are those given us under this condition.

Blanks—Dotted lines are used where information has been requested and not supplied.

A. L. A. M. Rating—The A. L. A. M. formula is bore squared, times the number of cylinders, divided by 2.5. The result times 1% gives one rating, used above, for 2-cycle engines.

'Rotating motors. fThe Elbridge Company maki s siv sizes as does the General Machinery Company, makers of the Smalley. tfThis is also made in 50, 70 and 100 horsepower sizes. IMade also in 50, 70, 100 and 150 horsepower sizes.

JfOther sizes are 40 and 60 horsepower. The same sizes are also made in four-cycle engines.

At the last moment it has been found the Goblin motor has been omitted. Following are the details: 4\\x5, manufacturers rating 50 h.p., A. L. A. M. rating 51 h.p., 6 cylinders, radial, automatic intake valves, variable compression, ball-bearing connecting rods and crankshaft, Church carburetor, air cooled (rotary), 4-cycle, oiling by oil in the gas, Bosch, magneto, cast-iron pistons and cylinders, 18" lbs. weight.

C. P. Rodgers & Co., 2:; Cambridge Building, Cincinnati, O., have entered the exhibition business with a Wright headless, the first Wright machine to give exhibitions by owners other than the Wright Company itself. C. P. Rodgers, who will be the aviator, learned at Dayton. His cousin, Lieut. Rodgers, 17. S. Navy, ha.-= also learned to operate a Wright machine ana will undoubtedly fly the one just purchased bj the Navy Department,

Name.

Bore and Stroke.

Manufacturers' Rating.

A.L.A.M. Kating.

Number Cylinders

 

4H X 5

40

32

4

   

80

65

8

 

4w X 5

160

130

16

* tt A.-M..........

3& X 3H

35

34

7

 

2*4 X

35

29

6

 

3*4 X 3*,

25

22

4

 

5H X 5

3D

34

2

 

4 X 4

60

51.2

8

Boulevard.........

41* X 4H

30

32

4

Boulevard..........

4H X 4H

60

64.

8

 

5 X 5

40

40

2

 

4H X 4%

45

32

4

 

6 X 5M

50

29

2

 

6 X 5kj

100

58

4

 

3*$ X 4

26

23

4

 

4 X 4

50

51

8

 

5 X 5

50

40

4

 

5«X5

20-30

24

2

tElbridge......--.

 

40

55

4

 

4&$ X 4&

60

84

6

 

5 X 5

40

40

4

 

5 X 5

60

60

6

 

5 X 5

65

66

4

 

5 X 5

100

98

6

 

6 X 6

80

72

5

 

34 X 3^

24

32

4

 

34 X 3W

36

48

6

 

4*4 x m

60

59

4

 

4% X 4^

90

80

6

 

4M X 4%

60

50

7

Hall Scott.........

4 X 5

40

51

4

 

4 X 5

80

51

8

 

4 X 4

30

26

4

 

4 X 4

60

52

8

If-DeK ..........

4H X 5

30 40

33

4

 

X 6

60-80

43

4

 

4 X »H

60

51

8

 

4%x4%

50

53

7

 

4% x 4%

50

41

6

 

If, X 4%

55

45

6

• Macomber........

5 X 4H

40 60

 

4

4)4 X 4fcj

50

50

7

 

4« X 4H

30-40

32

4

 

4H X 4J4

50-60

48

6

 

5 X 5

40 50

• 40

4

 

5X5

60-76

60

6

 

4 X 4

30

26

4

 

6}J X 6*4

120

126

7

 

4H X 4H

58

57

7

 

X 3&

35 .

34

7

 

4 X 4

30

26

4

 

4 X 4

5(1

51

8

 

4h X 5

50

52

4

 

4H X 5

75

79

6

 

3H X

35

34

7

 

4H X 4J4

50

50

7

 

4*4 X 4%

70

63

7

 

4h X 414

100

101

14

Oray Eagle.......

4va X 4H

30-40

29

4

 

4% X 4H

20-100

26-80

2-6

4 X 4

25

13

2

• Stenzy ■__________

4 X 5

50

13

2

 

5 X 5

200

40

4

4 X 4

24-30

38

4

xx Whitehead

4!4 X 4fcj

30 40

43

4

 

5^X5

25-30

24

2

Cycle.

Arrangement of

Intake Valve.

Compression, Lbs.

Cylinders

 

4

Vertical.

M.

80

4

.. v

M.

80

4

•' V."

M.

80

4

Radial.

M.

85

2

Radial.

None.

80

4

Horizont.

A.

75

2

OpDosed.

None.

 

4

A.

72

4

Vertical.

M.

90

4

"V."

M.

90

2

Vertical.

A.

 

4

"V."

M.

70

4

Opposed

M.

96

4

Ooposed.

M.

96

4

Vertical.

M.

 

4

" V."

M.

 

4

Vertical.

M.

74

4

Opposed.

M.

90

2

Vertical.

None.

60

2

Vertical.

None.

60

4

Vertical.

A and M.

4

Vertical.

A and M.

 

2

Vertical.

None.

 

2

Vertical.

None.

 

4

Radial.

M.

 

2

Vertical.

Nooe.

 

2

Vertical.

None.

 

2 Z

Vertical. Vertical.

None, None.

 

4

Radial.

M.

Variable.

4

Vertical.

M.

83

4

"V."

M.

82

4

Vertical.

M.

83

4

•• V."

M.

83

4

Vertical.

A.

72

4

Vertical.

A.

85

4

"V."

M.

4

Radial.

M.

 

4

Vertical.

Sliding sleeve

90

4

Vertical.

Sliding sleeve

90

2

Vertical.

M & A.

50

4

H'rizont'l

M.

Variable.

4 1

 

A.

65

4 1

Vertical

A.

65

4 f

(en bUic).

A.

65

* J

 

A.

65

4

Vertical.

M.

 

4

Radial.

M.

 

4

Radial.

M.

 

4

Radial.

M.

 

4

Vertical.

M.

 

4

•• V."

M.

 

2

Vertical.

Rotary.

75

2

Vertical.

Rotary.

75

4

Radial.

M. "I

 

4

Radial.

M. 1

 

4

Radial.

M. f

 

4

Radial.

M. J

 

4

Vertical.

Automatic.

50

2

Vertical.

None.

4

Tangent.

A.

70

4

Tangent.

A.

10

4

Tangent.

A.

10

2

Vertical.

A.

60

2

Vertical.

A.

90

4

Opposed.

Mechanical,

65

Con. Rod Bearings.

H.-B.

H.-B. Bronze. Bronze. Bronze.

Bronze. Bronze.

Die Cast. Brz & Bab. Brz. & Bab. Spe. N'l Com Spe. N'l Com Spe. N'l Com Spe. N'l Com Bronze.

Bronze. Pronze.

b' II. BatK-tt. Babbi t. Bronze. Ball. Nickel Bab. Nickel Bab. Nickel Bab. Nickel Bab.

Baiii Ball. Ball. Bronze. Bronze. Brz. & Bab. Brz. & Bab.

ii

Bright. Ball.

Nickel Alloy, Babbitt.

Bronze. Bronze. Bronze.

Crankshaft Bearings.

H.-B. H. B. Bronze. R. I. V. Brz. & Ball.

Ball. Ball.

N. D. Ball.

Babbitt.

Baobitl. Spe. N'l Com Spe, N'l Com Spe. N'l Com Spe. N'l Com

Bronze.

Babbitt.

Babbitt.

Babbitt,

Babbitt. Ball.

Bronze. Bronze.

Bali. Babbitt. Babbitt. Babbitt. Bali. liess-Kright. Bess-Brlght. Hesa-Bright. Hesa-Bright.

Ball.

Ball.

Ball. White Brass. Wnite Brass. Nickel Bab. Nickel Bab.

Hes«. Bright. Ball.

Nickel Alloy. Babbitt.

Special nab.

Bronze. Die Castings.

Choice.

Choice.

Choice. Schebler. Own. Indiv. Ash. Schebler.

Mayer.

Choice.

Choice.

Choice.

Schehler.

Scaehler.

Schebler.

Schebler,

Schebler.

Schebler.

O. & A.

G. & A.

Schebler.

Schehler.

Schebler.

Schebler. Own.

Schebler,

Schebler.

Schehler.

Schebler.

Schebler. Strom herg Stromberg Stromberg Stromberg

G. & A.

G. & A.

Indian.

Choice. Choice. Schebler. Choice. Schebler. Schehler. Schehler. Schehler. Own. Own. Own. Own. Schebler. Schehler. Kingston. Kingston. Schebler

or G. & A.

Schebler. Schebler. Schebler. Schebler. Schehler. Br.-Detroit Schebler. Schebler.

Cooling.

Oiling.

Ignition.

Material Pistons.

Material Cylinders.

Weight, Pounds.

El Arco.

F. F. & Sp.

Bosch.

G. I.

G. I.

125

Kl Arco.

F. F. & Sp.

Bosch.

G. I.

G. I.

210

El Arco.

F. F. & Sp.

Bosch.

G. I.

G. I.

325

Air.

F. K.

Mea.

G. I.

Nick. Steel.

125

Air.

F. F.

Mea.

G. I.

Nick. Steel.

«0

Air.

F. F.

Mag.

C. I.

Steel.

134

Air.

Oil in Gas.

 

G. I.

G. I.

98

Water.

F.

B. or Mea

C. I.

C. I.

262

El Arco.

F. F. & Sp.

Bosch.

G. I.

G. 1.

150

El Arco.

F. F. & Sp.

Boscb.

G. I.

G. I.

255

Water.

F. F. & Sp.

Bosch,

C. I.

Nick. Steel.

150

Water.

F. F.

Mea.

C I.

C. I.

175

El Arco.

F. F.

Choice.

G. I.

C. I.

185

El Arco.

F. F. & Sp.

Choice.

G. I.

C. I.

325

El Arco.

F. F. Jt Sp.

Bosch.

J McAdnm-

1 G. I.

130

El Arco.

F. F.

Boscb.

1 ite & C. I.

f G.I.

250

El Arco.

F. F. & Sp.

A K.

C. I.

C. I.

280

Air.

F. F.

Boscb.

C. I.

C. I.

149

El Arco.

Oil in (,a-

Bosch.

G. I.

G. I.

198

El Arco.

Oil In Gas

Bosch.

G. I.

G. I.

El Arco.

Oil in Gas. 1

Mea or Atwater-Kent.

r spe, i.

Spe. I.

 

El Arco.

Oil In Ga-. 1

1 Sue. I.

Spe, I.

312

El Arco.

Oil in Gas. [

1 Spe. 1.

Spe. I. Spe. I.

El Arco.

Oil In Gas. j

1 Spe. 1.

348

Air.

Mechanical.

Duplex.

280

Water.

Oil in Gas,

Boscb.

   

Water.

Oil in Gas.

Bosch.

     

Water.

Oil in Gas.

Bosch.

     

Water.

Oil in Gas.'

Bosch.

     

Air.

Oil in Gas.

 

Conv. Steel.

Nickel Steel

 

Hail-Scott.

F. F. <St Sp. F. F. & Sp.

1

C. I.

C. I.

ISO*'

Hall-Scott.

1 Bosch

C. I.

C. I.

270

Ilall-Scott.

F. F. & Sp.

1 or Mea.

C. I.

C. I.

143

Hall-Scott.

F. F. & Sp.

J

C. I.

C. I.

265

Water.

M. & Sp.

Mea.

C. 1.

Steel.

160

Water.

M. & Sp. F. F.

Mea.

C. 1.

Steel.

255

Water.

Bosch.

   

375

Air.

F. F.

Boach.

   

Water.

F. F. & Sp.

Simms.

C. I.

C. I.

"235

Water.

F. F. & Sp.

Simms.

<:. l

Nickel Steel

205

R. T Co.

Oil in Gas.

A K., B.

C. I.

C. I.

285

Air.

S. I*.

Bosch.

C. 1.

C. I.

240

] Detroit [ > and , I El Arco 1

F. F. & Sp.

Mea.

Van G. I.

Van G. I.

190

F. F. & Sp.

Mea.

Van G. I.

Van G. I.

260

F. F. & Sp.

Mea.

Van G. I.

Van G. I.

220

F. F. & Sp.

Mea.

Van G. I.

Van G. I.

300

Water.

F. F. & Sp.

Boscn.

C. I.

C. 1.

155

Air.

Sp,

Bosch.

Si eel.

Steel.

375

Air.

Sp.

Bosch.

Steel.

Steel.

18(1

Air.

Sp. F. F.

Boscn.

Steel.

Steel.

120

El Arco.

Boscb.

O. I.

G. I.

130

El Arco.

F. V.

Bosch.

G. 1.

G. I.

285

El Arco.

Oil in Gag.

Boscb.

G. I.

Aeiolite.

190

El Arco.

Oil in Gas.

Boscb.

G. I.

Aerolite.

260

f Air.

F. F. 1

Bosch f or < Mea. [

 

Nick. Steel.

140

i Air.

F. F. 1

 

Nick. Steel.

175

1 Air.

If. F. f

 

Nick. Steel.

200

1 Air.

F. F. j

 

Nick. Steel.

350

Air.

S. F. & S.

Bosch.

C.' G.' I.

30* Car. Stl.

182

Water.

Oil in Gas.

Mea.

G. I.

Al. St'l Lin

103-316

Air.

Oil in Gas.

Bosch.

G. I.

G. 1.

65

Air.

Oil in Gas.

Bosch.

G. I.

G. 1.

80

Air.

(ill in Gas.

Bosch.

G. I.

G. 1.

200

Water.

Oil in Gas.

Bosch.

Iron.

I., Cop. Ja.

190

El Arco.

Splash.

Bosch.

C. I.

Steel.

130

Air.

Oil In Gas.

Boscb.

G. I.

G. I.

160

AERONAUTICS juiy> ipiI

THE VALKYRIE MONOPLANE

THE "Valkyrie" machines, as built by the Aeronautical Syndicate, Ltd., are of more than usual interest, as they are of distinctive design and have many well-worked-out details of construction. Three types are put out by this company: Type "A" being a single passenger machine, Type "B" a cross country racing model, and Type "C" the passenger-carrying machine. The Type "B" machine, which is the one illustrated, is fitted with a "Gnome" engine, driving an 8-foot propeller. '.

In order to impart a certain amount of automatic stability the main planes have been given a pronounced dihedral angle. There is also a longitudinal dihedral angle between the main planes and the forward fixed plane the former being set at an angle of nine degrees and the latter at an angle of thirteen degrees.

The main planes are in three sections, the center one having a shorter chord than those at the ends to allow room to swing the propeller. The planes are single surfaced and are built up in the same way as the Henry Farman.

The front fixed plane is situated 11 ft. 9 in. in front of the main planes. The angle of this plane may be changed in order to correct for any change in the loading.

The elevator, which is below and to the rear of the front surface, is on this machine characterized by a slightly upturned trailing edge.

Lateral stability is secured by the use of flaps at the extremities of the wings, but wing warping can be used.

The rudders are situated some three feet from the rear of the main planes. It has been found necessary to fit blinkers at the front of the skids, as without them when making a short turn the machine was likely to turn completely about its radius of gyration and come down in a heap.

The details of construction have been carried out in a most thorough and workmanlike manner. A great number of special castings are used. Sketch Xo. 1 illustrates the neat way in which the stay wires are attached to the front and rear wing spars. By means of the small oblique lug, all bends in the wire are obviated. Special long nuts and the fine cut thread on the wire result in the strength of the wire being unimpaired. Fig. 2 shows the joint used at the junction of the longitudinal and vertical members of the fuselage. The stay wires are accommodated in a similar manner to that of the wing stays, the wire passing through the castings both top and bottom. Fig. 3 shows the device for altering the angle of the front fixed plane. It also shows the position of the blinker, which simply consists in covering in the nose of the fuselage with fabric. The elevator is operated in a novel manner, as illustrated in Fig. 4. All danger of slipping of the lower crank is obviated by the coupling up to the front edge of the plane.

In Fig. 5. the adoption of the Farman running-gear is shown. Instead of the rigid radius rods being employed, flexible steel ropes are used. This allows the wheels to act las true casters, relieving the axles of a good [measure of strain. Fig. 6 shows the arrangement of the seat and control gear. These are arranged as on the Henry Farman machines, the fore and aft movement operating ithe elevator and sidewise the ailerons. Fig. 7 [shows the arrangement of the joint of the pnain planes and fuselage, and the employment lof special castings. Fig. S illustrates the cane fender under the rear end of the skid. [ A considerable business has been worked lup at the English flying grounds taking up passengers. The Valkyrie people will take up

The new Type B Cross Country Valkyrie Racer, Fitted with Gnome Engine.

1006

passengers at $iu a head for a short flight of about 214 miles; "a longer and higher flight $25; an extended flight, considerably higher and finishing with the famous 'volplane,' or descent with engine stopped, $50; cross country flights by arrangement." This is the only

10.,corn known that has thus far attempted passenger carrying on this basis.

The Aeronautical Syndicate has been established since 1909 and was among the first in England to take up practical work. The summer of 1910 saw their first really successful flights with the present type of machine.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS Wireless Received in Balloon

FORT OMAHA, Neb., May 24.—Captain Chas. DeF. Chandler and four other officers to Woodbine, Iowa, 35 miles. Duration 50 minutes. The balloon cont.nually received wireless messages from the Fort Omaha station during the trip. Balloon wireless is not new, as the Signal Corps used it during the summer of 190S on a trip from Washington, D. C.

To Church by Balloon

LOWELL, Mass., May 28.—Charles J. Glid-den and J. J. Van Valkenburg in the "Boston 11" to Topsfield, Mass., landing near a church, where they attended the services.

ST. LOUIS, Mo., June 10.—J. M. O'Reilly, Lieut. John D. Hart and Corp. L. Schmidt made a night ascent, landing 314 hours later at Springfield, 111.

HAMILTON, O., June 15.—Albert Holz, pilot; Charles Troutinan and E. Guggenheimer in "The Drifter." Duration 1 h., 25 min.; distance about 5 miles.

LOWELL, Mass., June 17.—H. H. Clayton, pilot, with J. F. Haworth and Harold H. Brown in the "Boston II" to Hamilton, Mass. Duration 1 h., 45 min.

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., May 19.—A. T. Ath-erholt, Clarence Wynne and Wm. Shedwick in the "Penn. I" to Haverford, Pa. For three hours the balloon followed a circuitous course over and around the environs of the city.

STOCKTON, Cal., May 13.—Dr. B. F. Walker, Bernard Glick, John Morrissey and Thomas Cook to near Bellota.

FORT OMAHA, Neb., May 7.—Lieut. Hart and two other officers in an Army balloon to Springfield, 111. Duration 7% hours.

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., June 3.—Dr. T. E. Eldridge, Edw. Pyle, Ft. L. Barrett and D. H Simmermann, a four-year-old boy, in the "Philadelphia II."

INTERCOLLEGIATE BALLOON RACE.

Three colleges were represented in the first intercollegiate balloon race, starting from North Adams on the afternoon of June 3rd. The Universitv of Pennsylvania entered the balloon "Philadelphia II," with A. T. Atherholt, pilot, and Geo. A. Richardson, aid.

Dartmouth entered the balloon "Boston," with J. B. Barton, pilot, and J. W. Pearson, aid. Williams entered the "Stevens 27," with H. P. Shearman, pilot, and K. T. Price as aid.

The balloon "Philadelphia IT" covered 115 miles in about 7 hours, landing near West Peabody, Mass., winning the cups for duration and distance. The "Stevens 27" landed at Paxton, Mass., after having covered 66 miles in 4 hrs. 40 min. The "Boston" landed at West Pelham, Mass., after being in the air 3 hrs. 25 min., and covering 41 miles.

These figures are only approximate, as the A. C. A. had received no report up to the time of going to press.

AERONAUTICS J"b> 7P77

FRENCH COURT FAVORS WRIGHTS

THE recent decision of the French court holds the Wrights have made good their claim, not only so far as the use of wing-warping in conjunction with the vertical rudder, but to the use of either of these systems separately. The latter is the crucial 'point contested by other manufacturers.

HISTORY OF THE SUIT.

In France the Compagnie Generale de Navigation Aerienne, the sole French concession-naires of the Wright patents, brought actions against the following manufacturers: Santos-Dumont, Bleriot, Farman, Antoinette, Esnault-Pelterie, Koechlin, Clement-Bayard, Fernandez, and the Ateliers Vosgiens. Judgment in these actions has been delivered by the Tribunal Civil de la Seine (April 29). Santos-Dumont alone withdrew all defence and, curiously enough, he is the only defendant in whose favor judgment was given, on the score that his aeroplane' was not built for purposes of trade or private gain. In all the other cases judgment was practically given in favor of the Compagnie Generale.

At the same time the court appointed a committee consisting of M. Leaute, .Major Paul Renard, and M. Marcel 1 >eprez to determine whether the Wright patent (March 22, 1904) had been anticipated, etc. (See last paragraph).

Although the case is not, therefore, finally settled, it is evident, nevertheless, that the French courts are prepared to recognize the whole extent of the Wright Company's claims.

TYPES INV< ILVED

The types of aeroplanes involved in the litigation were the Antoinette and Bleriot monoplanes with warping wings, the Farman with ailerons, or "flaps," at the rear lateral margins of tlie planes, and the Hautier-Vendome with ailerons at the front of the wings. A large part of the decision relates to matters in the French law which render patents invalid under certain circumstances, such as failure to work an invention within three years of the time of applying for the patent, and the revelation of an invention before patenting it. Following are the main particulars of the case.

CLAIMS OF THE PLAINTIFF.

The decision sets forth the claims of the plaintiff as follows: "The Compagnie Generale de Navigation Aerienne, licensees of the Wright patents, lays claim that the patent of March 22, 1904, gives them the right to claim as being its personal property not only the joint and separate action of the mechanism of the rear direction rudder and the variation of tlie angles of incidence (to wit, the combination), but separately each of the elements of this combination in so far as it is employed for the result provided for; that is to say, for the reestablishment of the lateral equilibrium and maintaining the direction."

POINTS OF THE DEFENSE.

The main points of defense presented to the Court by the defendants in the case were: (I) That the Wright patent of March 22, 1904, was not valid because (a) the Wrights had revealed their invention before applying for patent; (b) they had not worked their invention in France within throe years after taking the patent; (c) the invention was known in the art prior to the time of the patent; (2) that the French manufacturers did not infringe the Wright patent, which gives the Compagnie Generale de Navigation Aerienne the property of the combination employed by the Wrights and not the distinct elements which are employed (separately and Independently to permit obtaining the reestablishment of equilibrium elements which they assert are public; property."

The claims of forfeiture were rejected by the court.

ARGUMENTS PRESENTED.

After the evidence on both sides had been presented and the case argued, M. Piede-lievre, a substitute judge, sitting as advisor on technical matters, advised the Court (1) that the combination claimed in the Wright patent of March 22, 1904, was patentable; (2) that in an invention of this nature it would be impossible to entirely keep the invention secret, and that the descriptions and photographs published of the machine were not sufficient to render the patent invalid; (3) that the Wrights were the first to fly (Some of the defendants had claimed that a flight had been made in France in 189S), and that they had invented the system of control that had made it possible for man to fly; (4) that the patent had been worked in France as soon as was possible under the circumstances; (5) that the patent was valid; (6) that the independent operation of the wings and rudder, as used by the French, was not sufficiently claimed in the Wright patent, and that therefore the French machines were not infringments of the patent.

One month later, on the 29th day of April, the Court, composed of three other judges, rendered its decision. It held (1) that the combination described in the patent of March 22, 1904, was patentable; (4) that the patent had been worked within a reasonable time; (2) that the photographs and descriptions of the machine prior to the application for patent were not sufficient to invalidate the patent; (6) that, while the independent operation of the wings and rudder were not specifically claimed in the words of the patent, yet the independent operation of the parts could not be considered as a new invention, but simply as an improvement of detail of the original invention, and that the patentees of the original invention were entitled to the benefits to be derived from it.

The words of the opinion follow:

"Considering the point once established that the separation of the two elements claimed is a type of improvement, this separation ought to be considered as an appurtenance of the patent of 1904, that the improvement is a natural development of the primitive invention from which it can not be separated, and that proceeding from the master idea which is the generator of it, the patentees should have the right to profit by it. Of what little importance, then, is it, that in 1907 the Wright brothers took out two other patents in which the independence of the warping and of the directing rudder was expressly provided, except that the combination of the two elements could be, if desired, effected by the hand; admitting that these two patents of 1907 repeat in certain parts the things which can be found in the patent of 1904 and that even these improvements in detail which were then meant to be patented were without importance, they would not have in them, to say the least, any utility as patents of extension."

It will be noted that the Court reversed the opinion of the "substitute" on the only point on which he found in favor of the defendants. In reversing this point, that the independent operation of the wings and rudder circumvented the patent, the Court said:

"In the patent of 1904 the connection of the warping device with the rudder is so minutely described that it can be understood and applied by engineers and constructors of aeroplanes; there is no reason to believe that the Wright brothers should have made a more general claim and should have claimed each of the elements,

taken separately, but they should be confined to the limits which they have described in the patent.

"After the patent of 1904 the invention consisted in a method of maintaining or reestablishing the equilibrium of the aeronautic apparatus and of guiding the machine in a vertical or horizontal direction. Among other elements the patent provides (I) the existence of two horizontal surfaces or wings, consisting of a frame on which fabric is spread, and connected one to the other by means of posts and articulations, which permit of movements of tortion and flection of the ends of the wings in opposite directions; (2) of a vertical rear rudder, connected to the cables that produce the tortion of the ends of the wings.

"The combination of the two elements is well within the scope of the patent. It says in lines 14 to 19, page three:

"'By this means of attachment the .same movement of the cables which actuate the enits of the wings also presents to the wind that side of the vertical rudder which is turned toward the end having the smaller angle of incidence.'

"In vain the suing company cites two other passages of the description. The passage from the 34th line to the 43rd line of the third page does not say that the rudder can be independent; nor is the passage from the 45th line to the 57th line more explicit:

'"This invention is not limited to the construction and attachment of the rear rudder herein described, nor to tliis particular construction of surfaces or wings, for one can employ this combination in the use of any moveable rear rudder operated in covju iction with any icings capable of being presented at different angles of incidence at their opposite ends, for the purpose of restoring the lateral balance of a flying machine and of guiding the machine to right or left.'

"The words, 'actuate at the same time,' about which so much has been argued, can be interpreted only in the sense that there is a device which permits of the movement of the two commands at the same time. This point once established, the disaasociation of the elements claimed is a type of improvement.

"This disassociation must in principle be considered as a dependent of the patent of 1904, since this improvement is a natural development of the primitive invention, proceeding from the master idea in which it had its origin, and from which it can not be separated. The patentees alone have the right to profit by it."

The Court, before pronouncing final judgment, has given the defendants another opportunity to look for a machine that prior to the time of the Wright invention contained the same combination of parts. In the opinion of the "substitute" the defendants failed to produce anything that could be considered an anticipation of the Wright patent. The Court has also given to the defendants an opportunity of demonstrating before the Commission of Experts appointed by the Court that the combination of parts used in the French machines is used for a different purpose from that of the combination of the patent of 1904.

The Tribunal evidently did not wish to pass final judgment and declare the defendants infringing, for they expressed in the following terms the desire to have a knothole through which they might later find it expedient, or otherwise, to crawl:

"The science of aviation which, since the superb flight of the great white bird above the camp of Auvours makes each day some necessary progress and does not cease to astonish the entire world by the prowess and the audacity of aviators who, at the risk of their lives, search for the definite formula for the conquest of the air, it is a science still so new that it should be unwise not to turn for the solution of the two questions in litigation to men whose judgment is not to be questioned.

"If the action in pursuit of a claim is established in principle, it is subordinated to tlie double question of knowing if there has not been one or more priorities of all the parts opposed to the patent of 1904, and if, on the other hand, it will not be found void as against certain of the defendants as they may have made an entirely new adaptation of the mechanical means pointed out by the Wrights for the reestablishment of the lateral equilibrium, and of which they shall have conceived a structural means constituting in connection with the patented invention an invention entirely new and original." "The mission given to the experts is singularly limited, and does not allow the defendants any hope of emerging victorious from the contest. So one should not be astonished that many of the defendants are already expressing an intention of appealing from a judgment which they consider disastrous to them."

This is the opinion of M. J. Imbreco as given in the official organ of the Aero Club «-.f France.

U. S. CALENDAR

June 24-25—Flying at Kinloch Park, St. Louis.

•lune 29-July 4—Detroit, Moisant aviators. July 1—Gordon Bennett aviation race, England.

July 10—Gordon Bennett balloon elimination, Kansas City.

July 12-21—Winnipeg, Alan., Wright exhibition.

July 20-22—Saratoga Springs, X. V., Wright exhibition.

July -Uochester, X. Y., Moisant aviators, Captain Baldwin, and Curtiss aviators.

July 25-29—Grand Forks. X. I)., Wright exhibition.

August 2-4- -Colorado Springs, Col., Wright exhibition.

August 12-20—Grant Park, Chicago, International Meet.

August 26-September 4—Boston, meet of Harvard A. S.

September 29-October 7—Springfield, 111., Wright exhibition.

October 5 Gordon Bennett balloon race, Kansas City.

October ■-Macon, Ga., Wright exhibition.

January 10-20, 1912—Los Angeles, aviation and arrangements not certain.

--Lincoln, Xeb., Wright exhibition.

-Des Moines, la., Wright exhibition.

July 3-4 — Battle Creek, Mich., Wright exhibition.

July i—Zanesville, O., Curtiss aviators. September 30-October 8—St. Louis, Mo., meet.

July 3-1—Corpus Christi, Tex., Wright ex-h ibition.

July 3-4—Clearfield, Pa., Wright exhibition. July 3-4—Meridian, Miss., Wright exhibition. July 3-4—Troy, X. Y., Wright exhibition. July 3-4—Princeton, 111., Wright exhibition.

Frank W. Goodale sailed his dirigible from Palisade Park down over Xew York as far as Forty-second street the night of June 9 and back without mishap.

3531

Am©ww .-•TTkih

LATEST CURTISS "TRIAD."

Glenn H. Curtiss has been experimenting at Hammondsport with a still further improved type of water machine. It will be noted from the photograph that some changes have been made. The elevator is placed very low; in fact, just above the bow end of the pontoons. There is also a small hydro-surface just forward and below the bow end. A standard eight-cylinder, 50 H. P. motor is installed, and the speed obtained is between 45 and 50 miles an hour over the water. Lieutenant Ellyson, United States Navy, has been a passenger.

Tt will also be seen from the photograph that there are but two wheels, the front wheel having been done away with. These rear wheels are pulled up out of the way after the machine is in the water by means of a hinged brace which runs from the wheel hub to the front beam.

SMALL MACHINE CARRIES PASSENGERS.

A four-cylinder machine is being used as a teacher in which the surface has been increased by about 50 sq. ft. It has been possible to carry a passenger with this on account of the increased surface. It will be noted that the planes are not cut out for the propeller, which is mounted on a long shaft. At the rear end of the engine bed is a Hess-Bright ball bearing. This supports the long shaft. Four by twenty inch Pennsvlvania tires are being used in the rear and 2^4-in. in the front.

The school is in operation right along, the pupils flying about five days out of the week. The location is very favorable for a school, as the weather is calm in the morning and evening. The pupils at present are: Lieutenant Ellyson, United States Navy; Roland B. Middleton, Beckwith Havens; Charles llussell, Frank Paine and two men from Ohio.

FLYING- AT SQUANTTJM, MASS.

The Burgess Company and Curtis Flying School opened formally Tuesday, May 30, at Squantum, Instructor Harry N. At wood giving his first lessons on that date. Previous to the formal opening, Mr. W. Starling Burgess, president of the company, had made trial flights with the first school Burgess-Wright and two other Burgess-Wright aeroplanes sold to Mr. Charles K. Hamilton and others. The preliminary flights by Mr. Burgess had covered about 42 miles, on one-third of which he had taken Mr. Hamilton as pupil, and on two of which he had carried John W. Meyers, another pupil.

On May 30 Instructor Atwood made 16 flights, covering a distance of 104 miles, while Mr. Burgess in three flights flew 13 miles. On this date Messrs. Albert Adams Merrill, of Brookline; Eugene Lleth, of Memphis, and Doctor Percy L. Reynolds, of Amherst, began their lessons, the pupils being carried a total of 60 miles. In addition five guests were taken mi as passengers for a distance aggregating 29 miles.

Curtiss and lit. Ellyson Leaving' the Water. 15

PROPELLER ss&fsgzi* PERFECTION |

{

PATENTED MARCH

1911

""A/GTON. DC

OTHER PATENTS PENDING

Douglas, Arizona, April 20, 1911

Maroh 21, 1911.

African Propeller Company, Washington, D. C.

"•entleroen:

Beg to adviae you that I reoeivod the 7' 9" propeller which you sent me and that the results obtained with the same are moat gratifying.

lo anyone contemplating the purchase of a propeller you may quote me as saying that I consider "Paragon" in propellers the synonym of perfection in propeller con-atruction at this date. You may rest assured that I will give you the order for the two propallers on the passongar machine which I am now building.

Thanking you again for the courteous attention and promptness with whioh you have made deliveries, I beg to remain.

American Propellor Co..

Washington, D.C..

Dear Sirs:

In regard to the propoller you medo for me,a week ago I mounted It on my machine, Elbrldge four, fe took the thrust and apsed of engine accurate; at 940 r. p. n. developed thrust of 500 lbo. I flew at first attempt, ae clipping will show.(1^ mllos at about 50 mileo psr hr.) On my fourth attempt I got caught In a gust and fall about eighty foot, smashed up the machine a little and shattered the blade Rush me another eame pitch and diameter, all spruce. I guess you havs a copy of blade you furnished me. Dldlsr Uasson was here with a machine but could not leave ground In thle altitude equipped with .««»-•..«• Engine and Blade,thrust at 1100 r.p.m, 240 lbs. I hope ycur new blade Bill bs as good as ths last. Yourc truly,

Sincerely woura

Mr. Williams has since purchased another Paragoi Propeller and reports that it gives even better results. H lias ordered a third.

Mr, G. Van Arsdalen, Vice-President of the Mathewson Aeroplane Co., of Denver, Colorado, wrote ns as follows:

"Sometime ago yon advised us to use a Paragon Propeller similar to that which you furnished Mr. C. F. Willard. In the the meantime we were talked into getting a propeller of another make. Now then we are 5,280 ft. above sea level. Altogether, we have had ten propellers of this other make, some of which are quite freakish no two of them measuring up the same or developing the same thrust at the same engine speed. We are only getting 230 from our best propeller the rest falling down to 180. I believe your propeller will fly this machine, if our engine can handle it, and you know whether it can or not. My success lies in what you can do for me."

On June 19th, Mr. Van Arsdalen sent the following telegram:

"The seven foot nine inch Paragon Propeller which you furnished us is giving entire satisfaction. At nine hundred fifty turns we received three hundred pounds thrust with Elbridge 10-(>0 Aero Special. On May 9th, Thompson made his first cross-country flight of twenty-two miles using a Paragon".

Mr. Van Arsdalen "s case is typical of many others who have written us.

MR. WILLARD TELEGRAPHS—"Standing thrust 390 pounds at 1100 revolutions, hard wood screw on Gnome engine (7$ feet diameter by 5.70 foot pitch)".

The ROBERTS MOTOR CO. TELEGRAPHS—"The eight foot Paragon Propeller with five foot pitch gave a thrust of four hundred pounds on our forty horsepower motor when running at only nine hundred revolutions per minute. We consider this a remarkable showing."

The GYRO MOTOR CO. obtained a thrust of 140 pounds on several tests with one of our eight-foot propellers l.t ft. pitch at 1100 r.p. in. on their 7-cylinder revolving motor.

Using a Paragon Propeller, Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss won the great speed contest at Los Angeles in 1910, defeating Radley (Bleriot), Ely (Curtiss), Parmelee (Wright), and Latham (Antoinette).

We have sold thousands of dollars worth of propellers with the remarkable record of not a single dissatisfied customer, and only one exchange for a different size or pitch ever being required.

The most successful aviators in America use and recommend PARAGON PROPELLERS.

We will send price list and printed form for information about your machine so we can advise you just what propeller to use.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO.

WASHINGTON, D. C.

50 Horse Power

170 Pounds Weight

DESIGN

Revolving cylinders Mechanical intake valves Variable compression Double exhaust system

Large ball bearings throughout

Positive lubrication

Gyro fuel inspirator

Standard Magneto, tachometer, etc.

.Easy starting device Aviator starts motor from his seat without priming

MATERIALS

Cylinders, Connecting Rods, Gears, etc.—31 per cent, forged nickel steel Cranks—Chrome nickel steel, treated. Crank-cases—Vanadium steel Valves 30 per cent, nickel steel

PERFORMANCE

400 to 450 pounds thrust with 8 ft. Paragon Propeller All motors furnished with PARAGON PROPELLERS to suit the aeroplane

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY

774 GIRARD STREET :: WASHINGTON, D. C.

77ie original pioneers in light-weight revolving cylinder motors

High winds interfered with the progress of lessons during the remainder of the week, only GO miles being flown by the pupils, though Instructor At wood succeeded in Hying 122 miles, including two or three nights for altitude, while two guests were each given five-mile flights. Sir. Burgess covered 11 miles.

In the course of the week ending June 10, flying was practicable upon every day except Tuesday. During the week Instructor Atwood flew 3X5 miles; Mr. Burgess, 48 miles, and five pupils covered a total of 310 miles, in addition to five guests who were carried 63 miles.

In the course of the week Instructor Atwood took Charles K. Hamilton, first on Wednesday, on a flight to Nantasket Beach and return, followed the same evening by an over-sea and cross-country trip crossing several promontories of Boston, Hying lengthwise of East Boston and Revere, crossing inside of Xahant while skirting Lynn, and on to the Tedesco Club at the further boundary of Swampscott. The next day, after an exhibition of skilfull flying by Mr. Atwood at the Tedesco Club, he carried Mr. Hamilton back to Squantum in a wind which gave them a speed considerably faster than a mile a minute. Two days later Aviator Atwood carried Mr. Ifeth, another pupil, across country to Franklin Field, in Dorchester, where his exhibition of fancy flying added to the celebration of Dorchester Day. Owing to the uncontrollable crowds, Mr. Atwood was obliged to leave his passenger on the field, returning wit,h a special message from the mayor by a fast flight to the Squantum field.

On the same date Mr. Hamilton, having familiarized himself with the new type of control, took charge for the first time of another Burgess-Wright biplane, carrying passengers on flights about the field.

Thus in the last 12 flying days the four Burgess-Wright biplanes used for school purposes at Squantum have been flown by Instructors Atwood and Burgess Oil and 81 miles, respectively, while the five pupils and guests have covered the following distances:

Miles.

Charles K. Hamilton......................200

Albert Adams Merrill..................... 47

Dr. Percy L. Revnolds................... 67

John W. Meyers.......................... 28

Eugene Ilelh .............................105

Guests ..................................102

Mr. J. V. Martin at the Walt ham meet flew the " Grahame-White Baby," designed and built by Burgess Company and Curtis, while Mrs. Martin has been provided with a full size Burgess-Farman delivered from the Marble-head factory. Earl ovington, the third aviator of note at Waltham, is negotiating ^.with the Burgess Company for a Gnome motor to replace his own motor which was recently disabled.

WRIGHT SCHOOL NOW AT BELMONT.

A. L. Welch, aviator, arrived at Belmont the middle of June with three Wright headless machines, one of which is a regular exhibition

Wright Flexible Running Gear.

machine, while the other two are highly finished aeroplanes for delivery to customers. Three purchasers are taking lessons now under the instruction of Mr. Welch. These are supposed to be William C. Beers, of Xew Haven, and Richard Gallagher and William Crosby.

Turnbuckles are now being used on some of the wires in the center section. All metal parts are nickel plated, even the guy wires. The cloth which has been used on all Wright machines is now especially treated by the Goodyear Rubber Company. Even the Goodyear tires have "Wright Flyer" moulded in the rubber. Each link of the nickel-plated chains which go over the control pulleys is now composed of three-cheek pieces instead of two as in ordinary chains.

The Goodyear rubber springs as used on the Wright machines measure 2% in. outside diam. by 1 Vs in. inside diam., 2-in. face. These have a strength of 500 lbs. and an ultimate stretch of 10 in., and the cost is but 75 cents each. Goodyear single-tube tires 20 by 2-in. are used. The Wright running gear is very flexible and there is no danger of tearing off tires or wheels by "side swipes," the rubber bands taking all (he strain.

One of the two new machines belongs to Alexander S. Cochran, the yachtsman, who is now in Europe.

LEWKOWICZ FLIES HOUR.

The Aero Club of Xew York's grounds at Nassau Boulevard, L. I., saw on Saturday, June 24, the greatest amount of flying yet seen in one afternoon in the East outside of meets and exhibitions. More than a thousand people were present, by invitation, to see Tom Sopwith carry passengers in his Howard Wright. His were the only promised flights, and he kept busy all the afternoon.

Lewkowicz, who has started a school here, flew his 5-cylinder Anzani-engined Bleriot for an hour, and was so high during the whole of his flight that he could be made out with difficulty bv the naked eye. He estimated his own height at 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Hammond, a student of Captain Baldwin, made several fine circles of the field on his ninth flight. Mars and McCurdy, as well as Captain Baldwin, all made flights in the Baldwin machine. A. L. Welch flew his Wright over from Belmont with a young man by the name of Beattie, who is about to purchase a Wright, and after making some short circles and swoops landed on the field. At the close of the afternoon Welch and his passenger flew back and Hammond took the Baldwin machine over to Min-eola to its shed.

HAMILTON FLEW OVER NEW BRITAIN.

Charles K. Hamilton made his debut in his new Burgess-Wright biplane last month, and after a half hour's practice had the new control well in hand. He said he did not find it very hard to change off from the Curtiss machine to the Wright. He made his practice flights at Squantum, Mass. There, with AU wood, one of the most latest gradual ?s from the Wright school, Hamilton made a great many cross-country flights; the longest was when the two aviators flew from Squantum to the Tedesco Club, about 30 miles away.

On June 14, Hamilton towed his big biplane* from Boston to New Britain, Conn., behind his automobile. He had to have his aeroplane in New Britain on June 15 and could not trust to the trains, so hauled it down himself. On June 15, Hamilton made a splendid flight with his Wright over his home town, circling around the church steeples and landing, after twenty minutes in the air, at Walnut Hill Park. Again on June 19, he flew from Xew Britain to Hartford, circled over the buildings and started to fly towards Springfield, Conn., but had to return because his gasoline supply was exhausted.

$200,000 FOR CHICAGO MEET.

Two hundred thousand dollars will he available to carry out the plans of the Aero Club of Illinois for its meet at Grant Park, in the heart of Chicago, August 12-20.

A new system of awarding money is to be inaugurated. Each aviator will receive $2 for every minute he flies during flying hours. If the total due each aviator under this basis is bigger than the amount of prizes he has earned, he will receive the larger amount. The prizes total $S0,000, and $100,000 has been raised already. The only arrangement in the way of a guarantee is an offer of $500 to each entrant, which would merely cover about the actual cost of transportation.

The Wright Company is being ignored in the arrangements for the meet, no license fee having been paid them nor any arrangement made for entry of any of their machines. Moisant and Curtiss have been practically signed.

NEW UNOFFICIAL SPEED RECORD BY BALDWIN.

Captain Baldwin took the Morsehouse-Mar-tens Cup at the Columbus flight exhibition, May 29-June 3, for the fastest 5 miles around the track, which he made in 5:32. one lap of a mile was done in 59 seconds, representing a speed of 61 miles per hour, which is a big advertisement for his Hall-Scott motor. This was around a course with no watchers at the corners.

Parmalee and Sopwith contested in a slow race which was for 3 miles, Parmalee winning by going it as slow as 5:51, while Sopwith took but 5:49, quite a shave at that. Parmalee's slowest lap was 2:02, an average of 29 miles per hour. Parmalee also secured Governor Harmon's and ex-Governor Herrick's silver cups for excellency in bomb dropping and quick start contests, which were held on all four days of the meet.

Parmalee's Wright was equipped with a Horton wireless outfit, and successful messages were sent from the aeroplane.

AT THE MOISANT SCHOOL.

There are now, or will be, rather, about the end of June six Moisant monoplanes in use at the school at Hempstead Plains, four of them of 30-h.p. and two of them of 50-h.p. Of the four 30-h.p. machines one is made heavy and is intended only for the use of beginners, so that they cannot possibly get off the ground with it. The other three 30-h.p. machines are lighter and all of them fly. The five fireproof concrete hangars, which are being erected, will be completed by the 10th of July, and it is hoped to start immediately thereafter on the construction of a concrete club house for the use of the school pupils, and of a grandstand for the school aerodome, so that exhibitions and meets may be held there. The grounds have been rolled and are thoroughly prepared for flying now, with both a 2 and a 5-kilometer course surveyed and laid out. It is expected that before the 15th of July at least three of the present Moisant pupils will he prepared to qualify for their pilot's licenses. Included in this list is Miss Harriet Quimby, the dramatic editor of Eeslie's Weekly, the first American woman aviator.

The Moisant aviators have entered in the open Detroit aviation tournament, which starts on June 29 and closes on July 4—Rene Simon, Rene Barrier, John J. Frisbie, St. Croix Johnstone, A. Raygorodsky, a Russian biplane flyer, and another aviator. It is the Moisant policy to compete for prizes rather than for guarantees, and to place aviation in the United States on a competitive sporting basis rather than a series of circus performances.

"Unless this method is adopted by every aviator in the business, everyone in the United States will tire of hippodrome performances with the splendid vehicle which cannot possibly take its place among accepted conveyances unless its merits are established by competi-

tion and clean sportsmanship," says A. S. Be Vino, press representative.

Koland Garros and Edmond Audemars may return to the United States at the end of the present Paris-1 .onilon tour, provided crosscountry prizes sufficient to warrant their coming here at that time are posted. In the event that no prizes are put up in this country before July 15, Garros and Audemars will stay abroad to tly under the Moisant management in Moisant machines for the rich prizes that are posted in Europe. The Moisant Company is prepared to bring Garros to the United Suites as soon as a cross-country prize commensurate with the distance to be flown is posted, and it is suggested that a long cross-country race of 1,000 or 1.500 miles for prizes aggregating $100,000 be arranged. For such a race at least two Moisant aviators are promised, one of them to be Roland G. Garros. Unless the foreign competitions keep him too busy, Garros will be here to fly in the Chicago tournament in August.

GOULD PRIZE EXTENDED.

As only one machine was promised to he' ready on July 4 for the contest for the $15,00(1 Edwin Gould prize, offered "for the most perfect and practicable heavier-than-air flying machine, designed and demonstrated in this country, and equipped with two or more complete power plants (separate motors and propellers), so constructed that any power plant may he operated independently, or that they may he used together," the offer has been repeated for another year.

FLY OVER BOSTON.

The Waltham aviation meet was opened on June 15 with flights by Earle L. Ovington and Harry N. Atwood over the city of Boston. Ovington dropped a message to the Boston •Journal" from an elevation of 3,000 feet during a sensational flight over the city from the Waltham field, lasting more than half an hour.

Bess than an hour after Ovington's flight, Atwood left the field on the Squantuin marshes, passing over South Boston and Dorchester, he circled the State House and continued to the Held at Waltham.

James A". Martin, vice-president of the Harvard Aeronautical Society, and hailed about the sheds as "the man who came back," also flew in this meet, flying a Grahame-White biplane built by the Burgess Co. & Curtis.

Early in the day Atwood made a cross-country flight with Dr. Percy L. Reynolds from the Squantum field, covering a distance of 45 miles. Dr. Reynolds is one of the pupils at the Burgess school in which Mr. Atwood is instructor.

Charles K. Hamilton and Harry X. Atwood made a cross-country flight on June 7 in the Burgess-Wright machine owned by Hamilton from the field at Squantum to the Todesco Country Club. The distance, covered was approximately 30 miles. As the machine is fitted with duplicate control both aviators took turns in handling the machine. The flight was filled with many stunts, racing with trains, etc.

The new Mathewson headless biplane at Denver was given a very successful trial on June 13. With George Thomson as aviator, the machine was sent out in a stiff breeze and at once demonstrated its ability to negotiate a high wind better than any machine heretofore tried out at this altitude. Thomson flew for 22 minutes, attaining an altitude of several hundred feet. The machine proved so successful that (his type will be used in future1 in all the exhibition flights of the Mathewson aviators. The headless machine is equipped with an El-bridge Aero Special, 40-CO h.p.

The Kansas City Aviation School has a real French aviator for instructor at the training camp at Overland Park. They have scoured Henri De la Roche, formerly of the Bleriot school, to teach the students how to My and how to land safely.

NOT a shed is to be had at any of the grounds near New York. Mineola, the home of the Aero Club of America and the Aeronautical Society, Nassau Boulevard, where is situated the new Aero Club of New York, and Belmont Park, where the twenty sheds erected for the meet last fall are filled, are seeing daily flying by experienced aviators as well as by amateurs.

Next to Belmont, Nassau Boulevard has the biggest aggregation in its ten sheds, and ten more sheds have already been started. The field, while a little small in one direction for learners, has been rolled very smooth, and the cafe in the club house, to which the members of the Aero Club of New York and their friends have access, is a great boon to would-be and "is" aviators who find flying dry sport.

On June 10 the club had a formal "opening," with flying by Baldwin, Shriver, Russell and Lewkowicz.

AT NASSAU BOULEVARD

Ladis Lewkowicz, who is conducting a school with a Bleriot machine, has been making short flights, tuning up his new 5-cylinder Anzani.

A 4-cylinder Curtiss is in the next shed, belonging to George Russell. A novice, Mr. Moore, has a Curtiss-type machine with which he has made some excellent short flights. The third time out he made a circle, flying over the sheds. Alexander Williams has a machine and engine of his own make. A sort of gate control operates his stability device. The elevators, similar to that of a Bleriot NI, may be moved either in conjunction or in opposite direction.

Harry M. Norton now owns the old Wilcox 'plane, which is being rebuilt and fitted with an XO-horsepower Hall-Scott motor. A new Farman-type landing sear is to lie put under it, with 4 by 20 in. Goodyear tires.

Sopwith, "Tom," comes after Norton, with a Howard Wright, which he wrecked at the Columbus affair, lie has made no flights here as yet.

The Aerial Exhibition Co.. of 1 777 Broadway, New York, has a Curtiss-type fitted with a C-cylinder Kirkham nearly completed.

A new monoplane, of beautiful construction, along the general lines of a Bleriot, with a modified landing gear, fitted witli a 7-cylinder rotary engine of his own make, is being assembled for its designer, W. Irving Twonibly, of 220 Fast 41st street, New York.

The Church Aeroplane Co. has just completed

a Curtiss-type for A. N. Ridgely. This follows the late Curtiss, with shortened front outriggers, single elevator and fan tail, fitted with a G-cylinder Kirkham.

Howard Dietz, of Mill Road, Hempstead. L. I., has a monoplane over which is fitted a hollow mast containing a parachute.

A Bleriot copy, built by the Queen Aeroplane Co., is laid up with a broken gear in the 3-cylinder Anzani.

A new stunt in running gear has been brought out by the Aerial Exhibition Co. and A. Williams. Instead of two wheels each side of a skid, as in the usual Farman device, there are two skids and a single wheel is placed between, with the ordinary rubber shock absorbers employed in the usual fashion.

THE MINEOLA FIELDS

Hadley & Blood have been cutting down their big Farman-type with the Roberts motor.

A number of students have been taking lessons from Capt. Baldwin, who returned from Columbus on June S with his smashed machine. It was put in shape in one day by the Wittemann Brothers, who made the 'plane, and on the 10th he flew over to Nassau Boulevard, along with Tod Shriver, who has just returned from the Orient, and both made flights on that day before a thousand invited guests and members of the Aero Club of New York who came down to see the grounds and some flying on this, the opening day. Lewkowicz got his 5-cylinder Anzani-engined Bleriot going after a while, but did not get a quarter mile before his motor stopped and he made a very flat glide to earth in a nearby street newly cut through. Russell also entertained the crowd with a flight or two. Both Baldwin and Shriver flew back to their Mineola sheds after the affair was concluded. The Shriver machine is the ordinary Curtiss type with Hall-Scott GO-horsepower motor, with which the Baldwin machine is also equipped.

<>ne of Baldwin's students. Hammond, has already made some fine flights.

Dr. 11. W. Walden is building another monoplane of the same type, with a 4-cylinder Hall-Scott motor.

The Curtiss-type built by students of (he Aeronautic School of Engineers is still being repaired.

Walter L. Fairchild has made some changes in the monoplane, bringing the bottom of the frame closer to (he ground. No flights have yet been made this month.

Two Antoinettes of Harry S. Harkness are now reposing peacefully in their shed.

St. Croix Johnstone has been making great nights and has acquired a whole lot of experience since he attached himself to the Moisant company. During the international polo game he flew over the field at Westbury and dropped some carnations during an Intermission in the game. Teaching is going on early every morning at the Moisant school.

BELMONT FLYERS

Arthur Stone has been doing good flying with the Bleriot copies made by the Queen Aeroplane Co., of Fort George, N. Y. On the 18th he made a 26-minute flight with an Anzani engine—an American duration record for this motor.

Barle Ovington, who has a shed here, has been away flying some dates.

Elevator on Salliger Headless Biplane.

W. J. Diefenbach and Harry Bachand have a well-built Farman copy, with a 6-cyUnder Kirkham. The tail is a single surface, with the rear part acting as an elevator in connection with the front one. Bachand spent two weeks at the Kirkham factory to rush along his motor, with which he is greatly pleased.

John H. Davis, agent for the Hall-Scott engine, has a monoplane of novel construction. Everything about the fuselage is triangulated.

A large passenger-carrying Farman copy is in course of construction by Dr. William Greene.

Another shed is occupied by Joseph Novo-selsky.

Horton Turnbuckle Iiock.

Romaine Berger is still at work on a Bleriot-type, and a man named Charles Silversteine, of 70 East Fourth street. New York, has a curious machine, resembling nothing else so much as a turtle. Another experimenter has a monoplane shaped like a triangle as to the plan view.-

A. B. Salliger has a big headless biplane, with a 100-horsepower Emerson engine, spreading 36 ft. by 6y2 ft. by 6 ft. between planes. The engine, with Mea magneto, pulls to the limit of the scale, which is 500 pounds. The tail is a biplane, with the elevator hinged to the rear thereof. Steering and operating ailerons is done by one universally mounted lever. The fittings are of light cast bronze. The landing gear is unique and very heavy.

A nicely built miniature Farman type has been built by the Morok Aeroplane Co., of 303 Fifth avenue, New York, with a 4-cylinder water-cooled Y-shaped Anzani 30-horsepower motor, G. and A. carburetor. Ailerons are fitted to upper wings only. All struts are of Honduras mahogany, the planes are covered one side only with Naiad fabric, while Goodyear wheels and shock absorbers are used. Chrome leather is used for hinges for ailerons and rudder instead of metal.

Fred Shneider has two Curtiss-types, with Elbridge engines. One of these has been doing short flights with Tony Castellano as aviator, who has purchased the machine. Twin El Arco radiators are noted on one of these and the usual Curtiss style landing gear has been changed for a shock absorbing arrangement very similar to the Farman. Hartford tires are standard, with Gibson propellers and Bosch magneto.

Morok Uses Leather for Hinges.

A beautiful little monoplane has been built by the Johnson brothers, who came to Belmont from San Francisco. The fuselage resembles that of the Bleriot XI closely, while the landing gear is like that in the Hanriot, with 4 by 20 in. Pennsylvania wheels. The wings are single covered, with a varnished linen. The power plant is a 3-cylinder Anzani with G. and A. carburetor.

The tail-less biplane of Wilbur R. Kimball, twin propellers, is ready for trial. The vertical rudders are placed between the planes at the end, hinged to the front strut. They can swing inward toward the center of the machine by pulling the control wires or by the force of the air if a change in direction is made during flight. They can not swing outward for they are prevented by the cross guying between the outer front and roar struts The steering gear for these vertical rudders is unique. Two-foot levers are pivoted at a central point. To turn to right, one pushes outward on the left foot, and vice versa. A coiled spring attaching the cable to the rudder pulls it back into stream lines after the foot pressure is taken off. The ailerons are positively operated downward only, the air pressure lifting them, as in the Farman. A stop is arranged, however, to prevent their pulling down too far or hitting the ground. Goodyear tires and shock absorbers are fitted.

ABOUND ST. LOUIS.

The Benoist school at Kinloch Park, Mo., is as busy as a bee. An ever-increasing number of pupils are being enrolled and many are making successful (lights. One of the students is a Denver woman. Two sheds are occupied by the Aeronautic Supply Co. with Mr. Ben-oist's machines, with American-British and Roberts motors.

The Goodrich Brothers, of St. Louis, have a Farman-type and has shown itself to be a successful flyer. Charles Kuhno has his seventh machine at the same place, a Farman-type, with a 4-cylinder Hall-Scott motor. C. I. Sweinhardt has a Curtiss-type with a MaxN motor. H. A. Robinson lias the Curtiss machine he bought, with the S-cylinder Curtiss motor. L. L. Prince has the Bleriot copy he built, with Boulevard engine. A monoplane has been built by C. O. Prouse, with Elbridge engine.

On June 19 the first circular flight of Charles A. Zorne's new Elbridge-engined biplane was made in public, by Hugh Robinson. Mr. Robinson made a couple of straightaway flights to test the machine, and then circled the field a couple of times. The machine is equipped with an Elbridge "Featherweight" engine, taken from Zorne's last year's machine.

Other machines here include a Demoiselle-(ype and two disassembled machines.

At East St. Louis, 111., are located J. N. Sparling with his school, and J. W. Curzon, who was the first American to bring a Farman to this country, the Michelin winner of 1909. Both machines have been doing flying during the month past.

CHICAGO PLYING.

The permanent aviation field located in Cicero, neaf Chicago, is now open and in full swing. Every shed is filled and there is but one machine on the ground that has not been in the air. Cicero, although not yet a part of Chicago, is almost surrounded by the city and (he new field is but a short distance from the old Hawthorne race track, where the Chicago novices practiced most of the winter. Several short (lights have been made at the new field lately and there was also a notable crosscountry flight by (Tarry Cowling, instructor in the Chicago School of Aviation.

Cowling was invited to dinner in Cicero on June 9 and flew the 7 miles over from Hawthorne with his Elbridge-engined biplane. On June IS he made another flight of nearly 15 miles over the. city of Benton Harbor, Mich., and surrounding towns.

Lcnard, the builder of a. baby headless biplane and a 1-cylinder air-cooled motor used in driving it, had the first accident since the

The Johnson Brothers' Control and Skid.

field opening while trying to fly in a high wind a day or so ago. The outrigging and a Paragon propeller were smashed, but the driver was uninjured. Otto W. Brodie was out the same day for several flights in his Gnome-equipped Farman.

The following men are, at the new field: Harold McCormick. monoplane, Gnome engine, Paragon propellers; Young-Hearne biplane, Hall-Scott engine. Young propellers: Franco-American Aviation Company, Otto W. Brodie, aviator, Gnome-engined Farman, Paragon and Requa-Gibson propellers; Lenard, headless baby biplane, with Lenard air-cooled motor. Paragon propellers; Aeronautical League monoplane, Valkyrie type, no engine: D. Kreamer, Curtiss-type biplane, 50-h.p. Harriman engine and propeller; D. Kreamer, Curtiss-type, Boulevard motor, Paragon propeller: International Aeroplane Manufacturing Company, Curtiss-type, Roberts engine, Paragon propeller; Aeronautical League, biplane, no engine; William Mattery, Curtiss-type, Harroun engine, Paragon propeller.

The Modern School of Aviation and the International Aeroplane Manufacturing Company have merged and are now known as the Modern and International Schools of Aviation, Combined.

IN AND ABOUT SAN PBANCISCO.

Activity in aviation has been more or less hindered in the near vicinity of San Francisco by reason of the lack of suitable grounds or practice fields, such 33 Mireo'a or Dominguez.

• A Locking' Wire Tightener made by Wittemann. Bros, for Capt. Baldwin and others,

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Selfridge Field, used for the San Francisco meet, was chosen by persons who knew nothing of aviation and could not be told. This unfortunate selection was the cause of the numerous accidents to both professionals and novices. With very few exceptions, experimenters have had to go some little distance out of the city for suitable grounds.

Fred. Wiseman, the best known of local dying men, served his apprenticeship at Petaluma and Santa Rosa; Clarence Walker at Palo Alto; Ivy Baldwin at Alameda. Prof. J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College, who has international fame as one of the pioneers in aviation, is expected to resume experimentation in aeronautics shortly. Eugene Ely, the aviator, is a well-known San Franciscan.

Among the novices who have had some degree of success might be mentioned Young, Smith, Fortney, Case, Free, O'Brien, Crosby, Clarke, Loose, Hagen of San Francisco, Peters of Santa Rosa, Meyerhoffer of Oroville, Kerns of Chico, Hall of Fresno, Brewer and Guey of Oakland, Timothy of San Mateo, Gordon of Bostonia, St. Henry of San Diego. A note on the machines used by the above appears below.

Clarence Walker, a professional aviator, is touring Australia with an S-cylinder Curtiss machine.

Fred. Wiseman, using a Farman-type machine of his own make, with a Hall-Scott S-cylinder motor, is touring the Northwest.

Touring California is Ivy Baldwin, professional aviator, with a Curtiss-type machine of his own make.

Camasco" All-Steel Strut and Beam Connector.

Frank Johnson, who flew a 4-cylinder Curtiss, has retired from the profession.

R. St. Henry is on an exhibition tour with a genuine Curtiss machine. Rex Young is practicing short flights with a 4-cylinder Curtiss. S. Smith has made some short flights with a Curtiss, equipped with 4-cylinder Curtiss motor and Gibson propeller.

J. Clarke has made some short flights with a Farman-type machine of his own, fitted witli a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller. Orver Meyerhoffer is making short flights with an original triplane made by the "Camasco" people and fitted with a 6-cylinder Elbridge engine, Gibson propeller. G. H. Loose, while making some short flights recently, wrecked his Farman-type machine.

The Farman-type of C. O'Brien, equipped with an S-cylinder motor, has been wrecked. T. Kerns has been practicing short flights and turns with his home-made Curtiss-type machine, using a 4-cylinder Elbridge motor and Gibson propeller.

Roy Brewer damaged his Farman-type machine, which had an automobile motor and propeller of his own design, while making some short flights.

The Farman-type machine of C. E. Hagen, fitted with an automobile engine and propeller of own design, was wrecked while some short flights were being attempted. The short flights of Fung Joe Guey. in his Curtiss-type machine, have not been publicly observed. Louis Fort-

ney wrecked his Antoinette-type machine, equipped with an automobile motor and propeller of own design, trying to make some short flights. S. R. Timothy is practicing short flights with his Antoinette-type machine of local make, equipped with an s-cylinder Curtiss air-cooled motor.

Several short flights have been made by D. H. Gordon in his Curtiss-type machine, fitted with 4-cylinder Curtiss engine and own propeller. On account of lack of power, W. C. Wheeler has not been able to fly with his Bleriot-type machine, which has an automobile engine and propeller of own design. J. W. Hudson is building, a new engine for his Bleriot-type machine, and will use a Gibson propeller. T. R. Goth has an original hydroaeroplane which is equipped with a local engine and will be fitted with his own propeller.

The Berger Monoplane Has a Brake and a New Turnbuckle.

The original multiplane of C. E. Lambreuth, which has an automobile motor and local propeller, has been poorly designed.

George Wagner is now building an original multiplane which will have two Adams-Far-well revolving motors and Paragon propellers. A machine of the Demoiselle type is now being built by M. P. Desmet, and is to have a Detroit "aeromotor" and propeller.

The Bleriot-type machine of John W. Hamilton, which has an Elbridge "Aero Special" of 4 cylinders and Gibson propeller, shows every possibility of proving a success. P. L. Criblet is building a Curtiss-type machine and will use a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller. A Curtiss-type machine is now being built by the Diamond Aeroplane Co.. and will be fitted with a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller. Ed. Dony is building an original monoplane and will use an automobile engine. An original monoplane is being built by S. Doi which will be equipped with a 3-cyi-inder Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller.

.1. A. Froberg is building an original monoplane. W. A. Merralls is constructing an original biplane and will use his own propeller, as is E. H. Morton. E. L. Reidling is constructing an original monoplane. Mr. Stewart is another who has an original biplane, not yet tried. Leever's original biplane, fitted with a Holmes rotary motor, has not yet been put to a test.

The Curtiss machine of P. .1. Butler, the Demoiselle of Siefert & Rybitcki, fitted with an automobile emrgino and Gibson propeller, the Bleriot-type of P. F. Gillette, the Demoiselle of Sullivan & Erickson, the original biplane of Frederickson, which will have a power plant of own design, and the original monoplane of the California Aero Manufacturing it- Supply Co., which will have an Aero Special motor anil Gibson propeller, to be iised for experimental work only, have not yet been tried out.

Knieling it Pillsbury are building an original biplane to be fitted with power plant of own

BACK ELBE

CHAS. F. WALSH, Los Angeles

^pHE only real test of an aviation engine that is cone Engines have been used in more successful amate

successful flig cally every r. titudes, and ui

GEORGE SCHM1TT, Mineola, N. Y.

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Jas. M. Wait Co. Chicago

Mathewson Auto Co. I Denver

Cal. Aero Supply & Mfg.| San Francisco

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MATHEWSON BIPLANE, Denver

,il flight. "Elbridge Featherweight" and "Aero Special" lights, in the United States, than any other, and these lade in practi-" iry, in all al-:ier conditions.

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A. P. Homer Boston

WM. EVANS, Kansas City

design. P. Takahashi is constructing an original biplane.

A "dirigible helicopter-aeroplane" of own design is being built by one Murray, and will have three auto engines and three propellers.

A Wright-type machine is being built by Sutro & Kierulf which will be fitted with an automobile engine.

A Curtiss-type machine is being built by the California Aero Manufacturing & Supply Co. which will have an Elbridge "Aero Special" motor and Gibson propeller, and used for professional work. In this machine a change in metal strut socket and beam connection has been evolved. The piece of steel "A" in sketch is bent double and inserted in a slot in the strut. A ferrule keeps the end of the strut from splitting. The "insert" being rectangular in section, the strut is prevented from turning round as it would if it were a round pin, This does away with cast sock< t is neater in appearance and saves the 1:13 of a bolt through the beam.

Sprague & Lekas, of San Francisco, are building a Bleriot-type machine, spread 30 ft. fore and aft, 27 ft, 3 in. The machine is of somewhat crude construction and parts will undoubtedly have to be changed, as they are con-structionally weak. The square fuselage is very rigid and strongly built, but is probably too narrow for the aviator's comfort or engine setting.

Kimball Rudder System.

The planes: chord 7 ft. G in., camber 6% in., 37In. back from entering edge. Have five wing bars or beams, the first being %x2% iu-I second, %x2%; third, 2y8x%; fourth, y8xl%; fifth, %xl%. The planes, unlike most of the rest of the machine, as can be seen from the foregoing, are quite strong enough. Ribs about 15 in. apart. The rear construction, or em-penage, differs from the Bleriot in that it is much larger and that the center section is movable and constitutes the elevator, while the ends are used for lateral balance, moving in opposite directions. This scheme, to the writer, Is very doubtful even if the frame were wider and properly cross-braced. The torsion would be very perceptible and would cause excessive twisting stresses on the fuselage, and, aside from this, it is improbable that it would work properly.

An odd feature in the running gear is the use of solid iron connections to the wheels, which are 20 in. in diameter. The size, %x%, Is very heavy, and it is doubtful if it has the strength of the usual tubing.

John W. Hamilton, of San Francisco, is putting the finishing touches to his Bleriot-type machine in the shop of the California Aero Manufacturing & Supply Co., the machine being practically a duplicate of the original Bleriot cross-channel type. An Klbridge Aero Special Is installed.

S. R. Timothy, of Palo Alto, made a short flight on his big monoplane, purchased from the California Aero Manufacturing & Supply Co. recently. He rose to a height of about 15 feet and flew steadily for about 600 feet. This was Mr. Timothy's first attempt at flight.

Charles W. Walsh is flying in Portland, Ore.l Mr. Walsh has been doing some very fine fly| ing and is making a hit. He has left for Vic-I toria, B. C, for a two days' exhibition, thenca to Seattle.

Jack De Pries, who is connected with thel Manning Bros., is now practicing, and as soon] as proficient will start on the road with Mr. Walsh. Mr. Walsh stays up for 15 minutes at a time, and makes very good landings. He is not particular about the country he flies over.l as he is doing a lot over mountains and forests. In one flight his rudder cable slipped off the pulley and got jammed, making steering impossible with the rudder. He was able to pull it enough to one side to enable him to make a very large turn, which took him several miles out of his way, and by using his ailerons as a help in steering, he managed to return to the enclosure and land safely.

LOS ANGELES BOOMING.

Aviation is booming in the neighborhood of' Los Angeles. Great progress has been made since the meet last December. There are at present more than a dozen amateurs who have made successful flights.

Chas. F. Walsh has graduated to the professional ranks and is now touring Oregon. Beryl Williams and Edward Loudinclos have a splendidly-built Curtiss-type machine of their own construction, with which Williams has been making some very good flights. Earle Remington has Radley's Bleriot. He has had several smashes in trying to learn its tricks. William Stevens has a steel monoplane of his own construction which will be tried out in the near future. Remington has another small monoplane somewhat on the order of the Bleriot, fitted with a 5-cylinder motor, built by C. H. Day, a local man. This machine is used for short practice flights.

C. M. Crosson is making successful flights with a large Farman-type machine, and hopes to try for his pilot license in the near future. Harry Holmes has been flying a monoplane of unique design which was constructed by Charles Skoglund for Harry V. Schiller. Bob Greer has a monoplane equipped with a 40-h.p. automobile engine. So far only short flights have been made. J. Gage has ordered a more powerful engine for his machine, as the old one was too small. This machine is very well and solidly built, and it is Mr. Gage's intention to start an aeronautical school. Bernard Bir-nie, of Long Beach, has a machine of his own design and construction. The most noticeable feature is the employment of metal ribs.

J. J. Slavin's machine has made several short flights. This machine is equipped with an automatic lateral stability control, which has not as yet been thoroughly tested on account of the motor being too small to keep the machine up on the turns.

The death of Mattie Hartle was the first tragedy in the local colony.

The Aerial Construction Co., of New York is another instance of an automobile concern launching out into the field of aeronautics.

F. T. Sanford, the president of the F. T. San-ford Automobile Company, is the leading spirit in the new Aerial Construction Co., which has taken a lease upon an additional building in West Forty-third street to be devoted exclusively to aeronautical work.

For the past six months Mr. Sanford has been turning out propellers which have shown up well in comparative tests for design, construction and finish.

From a visit to the works the new concern evidently means business, and with well-established reputation for thoroughness and attention to details, one may predict a prosperous future for the company.

AERONAUTICS My, r9u

NEW COMPANIES ORGANIZED.

Moisant Company $1,000,000 Concern.

The Moisant International Aviators was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York in November, 1910, as the International Aviators. Its capital stock at that time was $250,000. all paid in. Permission has been secured from the secretary of state, of New York, to change the name of that corporation from the International Aviators to the Moisant International Aviators, and to increase the capitalization to $1,000,000, of which $500,000 is 7 per cent cumulative preferred and $500,000 common stock. The increased capital is to be used for the erection of a thoroughly up-to-the-minute factory, wherein they can make their aeroplanes from propeller to tail, including propellers, motors and everything that goes into an aeroplane except the fabric. It is quite possible that they will manufacture the wing and tail fabric as well. Manufacturing rights of several aeroplane power plants have been acquired, and the best of these will be developed and manufactured by the Moisant factory. It is planned also to increase the number of aviation schools to ten, exactly similar in appointment, course of instruction, etc., to the present school at Hempstead Plains.

The board of directors of the Moisant International Aviators has been increased from three to seven as follows:

Alfred J. Moisant, president and treasurer; Adolph E. Wupperman, secretary and general manager; W. J. Taylor, capitalist, No. 3 Broad street, New York City; H. W. Jacobs, assistant superintendent of motive power, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, Topeka, Kans.; Edwin E. Bush, assistant general traffic manager, American Express Company, No. 65 Broadway, New York City; James S. Herrman. trustee of the Union Dime & Savings Bank, No. 407 West Fourteenth street, New York City; Christopher J. Lake, vice-president of the Lake Torpedo Boat Company, Bridgeport, Conn.

At a meeting of the directors, held June 16, it was unanimously decided to increase the manufacturing and school facilities of the company, and to devote their energy to the manufacturing and sale of Moisant aeroplanes, the directors . authorizing a progressive program for the next 12 months.

McCurdy-Willard Partnership.

J. A. D. McCurdy, one of the original members of the Aerial Experiment Association, who, at its dissolution, took up exhibition flying for Glenn H. Curtiss for the purpose of securing greater experience on the actual operation of machines, has joined hands with Charles F. Willard, the first man in this country to give exhibitions of flying, and they have formed a company called the McCurdy-Willard Aeroplane Company, at No. 1780 Broadway, New York City.

This company will conduct exhibitions for a while on a large scale, making them more in the nature of real meets, and will have associated with them four other aviators of reputation who are now flying exhibitions.

C. F. Willard & Co. and the McCurdy Aeroplane Company have also been formed to manufacture aeroplanes from designs of Messrs. Willard and McCurdy. The McCurdy machine will be of the headless biplane type, with a direct connected propeller in the rear. The elevator will be placed just forward of

the rudder, and there will be no fixed tail surface. The machine will spread 25*4 ft. The first machine is promised for the middle of July, and is now being built in the shops of the Queen Aeroplane Company, at Fort George. No ailerons or plane warping will be used for stability, but the ribs will extend back of the rear beams considerably and will be warped.

The Willard company will build a biplane designed by Willard of the headless type with two shaft and gear-driven propellers in front. There will be no shoulder control on this, all stability and control movement being obtained by a universally mounted steering post. This machine will be ready July 1. They will be built in two sizes for one and three men, respectively. Both machines will be fitted with Gnome engines,

OTHER NEW CONCERNS.

Eagle Aeroplane Company, Brunswick, Ga.; $100,000. Incorporators, John M. Biggs, P. J. B. Morris, C. A. Lincoln, J. H. Worden and Lieut. Edward Shelnutt.

International Aviation Meet Association, No. 64 East Congress street, Chicago, 111.; for the purpose of conducting an international meet on August 12-20, 1911.

Aerial Construction Companv, No. 44 West Forty-third street, New York City. F. T. Sanford, proprietor.

Brooke-Kuh nert Company, No. 321 South Wabash avenue, Chicago, III.; motor manufacturers.

American Motors and Aviation Companv, 206 McPhee building, Denver, Colo.; $100,000; to make aeroplanes, motors, etc. Incorporators, M. F. Murray, W. J. Aujand, M. C. Dolan, E. L. Aujand, Joe Murray, H. V. Kennedy and P. Devault.

H. Angus Conners Aviation Company, Boston, Mass.; $50,000. Incorporators, Frank S. Corlew and H. A. Conners.

Morok Aeroplane Company, No. 303 Fifth avenue, New York City.

The Mercury Aviation Exhibition Companv, $20,000, Brooklyn, N. Y. Directors: R. A. Mac-Gregor, of Brooklyn; James E. O'Brien and William A. Wahrow, of Manhattan.

Wildwood Aero Company, Wildwood, N. J., to promote the building of a compound biplane invented by Aviator Bowman. Officers include J. Thompson Baker, president; Robert Kay, secretary; Wilbur Young, treasurer; O. 1. Blackwell, solicitor.

The Bachelder Aeroplane Company, Cleveland, Ohio, $20,000. J. E. Bachelder, B. J. Guthery, W. C. Malin, G. E. Mann and E. R. White.

Kavs Exhibition Aviators Companv, 149 Broadway, New York City, $100,000.

Pacific Aeroplane Company, San Francisco, Cal., $50,000. Incorporators include F. H. Howard, A. Knieling, E. C. Fabe and R. G. Reylard.

VANIMAN TO CROSS THE OCEAN.

It has been definitely announced that Melvin Vaniman, chief engineer of the "America," in which Walter Wellman first essayed to reach the North Pole, and which later lost when he attempted to cross the Atlantic Ocean in It. will again attempt to sail across the ocean, and this time in a .ship which is being built according to his own ideas. The total expense of the venture will be approximately $150,000.

His non-rigid dirigible, the parts of which are already being built, will be equipped with two 105-h.p. sleeve-valve Knight engines, and

S3

will measure 268 ft. long by 47 ft. wide, approximately the size of "America," which was abandoned in midocean by the members of the Wellman expedition last October. Its gas capacity will be 050,000 cu. ft., and it will be capable of lifting 25,000 lbs.

"The crew will include myself," said Mr. Vaniman, "a wireless operator, a navigator, two mechanics, a cook and the cat which accompanied us on the previous attempt. The balloon will be completed on August 1, after which time several trial trips will be made at Atlantic City. The real start will be made in October."

The Vaniman expedition, which is to cross the Atlantic Ocean in a dirigible balloon, is being financed by Frank A. Seiberling, president of the Chamber of Commerce of Akron, O.. and of the Goodyear Rubber Company. Besides being a capitalist and philanthropist he is himself an inventor of distinction and has long taken an interest in aeronautics.

Mr. Seiberling early became interested in the rubber industry and he invented and patented the quick-detachable rim for pneumatic tires which has done so much to make automobiling pleasant and popular. Ever since aviation became a practical reality instead of a theory he has closely followed the development of both the aeroplane and the dirigible. He imported special machines for the manufacture of rubberized fabric especially for the Vaniman dirigible and suitable for the wings of gasless machines and for the envelopes of balloons.

Naturally, Goodyear cloth is to be used in the new Vaniman dirigible; of two different kinds of fabric—one for the balonette, and the other for the outer envelope. The balonette cloth will be two-ply, and the other three-

piy.

BOOKS RECEIVED

NOTE—Anv of these books may be obtained directly from AERONAUTICS, 250 West Fifty-fourth street, New York.

THE AEROPLANE, by Claude Grahame-White and Harry Harper; rtvo., cloth, 819 pages, fully illustrated, published at $8.50 by the J. 15. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pa. To the man who knows nothing about aeronautics from a technical standpoint but, at the same time, has heard of White as one of the world-famous aviators, this book will be extremely interesting, both on account of its text and the beautiful illustrations, and will, in addition, not have his mind at all disabused of the greatness of "Grimy" White. The S7 illustrations are the finest that have appeared in any recent book, and of these more than one-third are of Mr. White, of his machine, or of both. Why the book should have White as author is not readily apparent, as all the articles but three are by other men such as Col. J. E. Capper, Louis Bleriot, Henry Farman, Howard Wright, Holt Thomas, Louis Paulhan, C. G. Grey and C. G. Grunhold.

What would have been a valuable section of the book is a more or less complete list of aviators, but apparently no serious attempt whatever has been made to have this accurate. One learns from this that Ljeut. Paul Beck flies a Wright aeroplane, and that some "Mr. Humphry" recently took up Colonel Roosevelt. A man named "Kimball" is another Wright pilot, while "S. J." Moisant flies a Bleriot. The fame of Ralph Johnstone, Cant. Thomas S. Baldwin, \V. Stirling Buriress, William Milliard. F.arle Ovington and others has apparently not reached Messrs. White and Harper.

WHITE MOTLEY, by Max Pemberton; 8vo„ cloth, 311 pages. Published bv Sturgis & Walton Co., 3) East Twenty-seventh street. New York City, at $1.30 net. An absorbing novel, with an aeroplane of 1913 type, the vehicle of the hero in a hair-raising flight over the Alps.

ROTATIONS FLUGMOTOREN, by Friedrich Hansen. Pamphlet of 30 pages, with 27 pictures, bound in paper; published at 40 cents by C. J. E. Volckmann Nachf. G.m.b.H., Berlin W. 62, Germany. Special attention is given the Gnome, of which photographs are shown of every part. Other (principally German) rotating motors are mentioned.

TEUT-ON VOLAR SANS A1LES, par Paul Colliard. Eight vol., paper, 10S pages, with diagrams. Published at 3 francs by Librairie Aeronautique, 32 rue Madame, Paris.

Les accidents d'aviation si nombreux, et souvent mortels, qui viennent d'assombrir la fin de 1'annee, appellent l'attention du public et surtout des specialistes de l'aviation sur le nouvel ouvrage qui vient de paraitre: "Peut-on voler sans ailes?"

L'auteur etndie les differents modes de sustentation d'un corps pesant dans l'air et demontre la possibilite de realiser ce qu'il appelle: La sustentation en vitesse.

Cet ouvrage donne lieu a un debat scienti-fique interessant, et tous ceux qui s'occupent d'aviation voudront le lire, pour prendre parti pour on contre la theorie de l'Aerolet,

FLYING APPARATUS OF THE BLOWFLY, by Dr. Wolfgang Ritter. Published by the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C, from the Hodgkins Fund. This is the latest of the many free publications on aeronautical matters issued by the Institution; that is, a contribution to the morphology and physiology of the organs of flight in insects. It is illustrated with many diagrams and plates.

BIRDFL1GHT AS THE BASIS OF AVIATION, compiled from the experiments of Otto Lilienthal, by Gustav Lilienthal. Large Svo., cloth, illustrations and plates; $2.50 net, from Longmans, Green & Co., Fourth avenue and Thirtieth street, New York City, . or from AERONAUTICS. Contents include: Evolution, introduction, the fundamental principles of free flight, the art of flight and dynamics, the force which lifts the bird in flight, general remarks on air resistance, the wings considered as levers, the energy required for wing motion, the actual path of the wings and the sensible wing velocity, apparent effort of birds, the over-estimation of the energy requisite for flight, the work required for various kinds of flight, the foundations of flight technique, the air pressure on a plane surface moved perpendicularly and uniformly, air pressure on a plane rotating surface, the center of pressure on the wing during the down stroke, increasing the air resistance by beating movements, economy in energy due to accelerated wing lift, the expenditure of energy for flight without locomotion (hovering), the resistance of the oblique movement of a plane surface, the energy required in forward flight with plane wings, the superiority of natural wings over plane wing surfaces, the determination of the wing shapes, the most favorable wing section, the advantages of curved wings over plane surfaces, the difference between plane and curved surfaces as regards air resistance, the influence of wing outlines, the determination of the air pressure on birds' wing surfaces, the air pressure on birds' wings determined on rotating surfaces, comparison of the direction of the air pressures, the work necessary for forward flight with curved wings, birds and wind, the air pressure on a bird's wing measured in the wind, the increase of lifting effect due to wind, air pressure on the bird's wing in calm air deduced from measurements in wind, the energy required for flight on calm air as deduced from the wind experiments, surprising phenomena observed when experimenting with curved surfaces in the wind, the possibility of sailing flight, the bird as our model, the balloon as an obstacle, calculations of the work required for flight, the construction of flying apparatus, concluding remarks, addendum and index.

cable: aeronautic, new york "phone 4833 columbus published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, inc. A. V. JONES, Pres't E. L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

ERNEST L. JONES, Ediior — J. C. BURKHART, Ass't Edilor

subscription rates

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advertising representatives:

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No. 48 JULY, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 1

COPYRIGHT, loll. AERONAUTICS PRESS. INC.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1906, at the Posloffice New York, under the Act ot March 3, 1879. AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month ^* All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :: :: :: rfT Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

AGENTS FOR "AERONAUTICS."

NEW YORK—American News Co., 15 Park PI.; Brentano's, 5th Ave. and 27th St.

ST. LOUIS—Aeronautic Supply Co., 3932 Olive St.; H. F. Mardorf, 4068 Olive St.

JERSEY CITY—A. W. Castellanos, 231 Virginia Ave.

BOSTON—I. N. Chappell, 26 Court St.; J. F.

Murphy, South Terminal Station. SAN FRANCISCO—Foster & Orear, Ferry

Bldg.; San Francisco Stationery Co., 20

Geary St.; California Aero Mfg. & Supply

Co., 441 Goldengate Ave. CINCINNATI—J. R. Hawley News Co., 11 Ar-

MEMPHIS—R. M. Mansford, 26 S. Main St. CHICAGO—P. O. News Co., 178 Dearborn St.;

H. S. Renton, 49 Wabash Ave. BOISE—Rawl's, 917 Main St.

PORTLAND, ORE.—S. S. Rich, 267 Morrison St.

SALT LAKE CITY—Sheppard, the Magazine Man.

DALLAS—S. W. Aeronautic Supply Co., 214 Main St.

LOS ANGELES—Whalen's News Agency, 233

S. Spring St. WASHINGTON—Brentano's.

BERLIN—W. H. Kuhl, 82 Koniggratzerstr., S.W.

PARIS—Brentano's, Place de l'Opera. LONDON—Aeronautics, 27 Chancery Lane; Ceo.

H. Scragg, 12 Xewgiite St., London, F.. C. BERNE—A. Francke's Sortiment.

Frank A. Krause, 21 years old, of 4325 East Eighteenth avenue. Denver, Col., is building a big machine, similar to the Wright, he saj.-s, with a a wing spread of 32 ft. The planes will be 6 ft. the other way. It will be equipped with a 40-60-h.p. Elbridge engine.

Frank Fitzsimons, who has been flying with an Elbridge '"Featherweight" at Mineola during the past month, has two new machine. Both are biplanes of the Curtiss type, equipped with Elbridge Aero Special engines.

WHAT IS THE MATTER WITH AMERICA?

WHAT is the matter with aviation in A merica? That there is something seriously the matter no one who will take the trouble to compare the indifferent state of affairs here with the brilliant achievements in Europe can deny. Americans returning from abroad have expressed themselves as astounded at the progress and activity there; while foreigners, coming here, can scarcely understand our lukewarm interest and lack of progress. In 190.S, the epoch-making flights of the Wright brothers in France and at Fort Myer electrified the world, but, in the short space of three years, we have changed places from the head to the font of the procession. In the present year of grace, 1911, progress seems to be at a standstill in this country and not one first-class event is scheduled for the present summer. What is the matter?

A diagnosis of this interesting case would seem to point to one of three ailments, or, possibly, a complication of these.

The first symptom that attracts our attention is that of a frigid condition of the pedal extremities, commonly called "cold feet."

"What!" you say, "impossible that America, the mother of the aeroplane and foster-mother of the automobile, should suffer from such a malady!"

Well, let's see. Of course, you, hot-blooded young would-be aviator, who have just spent your last two bits for a copy of this invaluable magazine, cannot understand such a condition, but let's put it to the test. Drop in at your aero club or aeronautical society tonight, being careful to wear a wrist watch, propeller scarf pin or any other article that will indicate that you are a "bug." If your club is of the "common, or garden variety," there will probably be, among the assembled "enthusiasts," several men of means; maybe one or more millionaires. Do not "butt in" on any of the learned discussions on "centers of pressure" or "cyclonic swirls," but, biding your time, innocently ask one of the aforesaid gentlemen of means what style of plane he drives. Do not show your surprise when he tells you that he considers aeroplaning altogether too dangerous at the present time, but that he expects to "get into the game when aeroplanes are a little bit safer."

After having satisfied your curiosity hy further questions, quietly slip out and blow yourself to a beer. While pensively sipping the same, you will begin to wonder why these gentlemen who take no active interest in aviation belong to aero clubs at all. Do not rush back to the club, but wait until to-morrow morning, buy a copy of the morning paper, read about the club meeting, observe the names that are mentioned and your question will be answered.

The second symptom that we notice is an extremely nervous condition of the trousers pocket. In other words, aviation, outside of the exhibition business, does not seem to be sufficiently profitable to attract the attention and interest of men of capital. They do not see in it a sufficient future, from a business point of view, to warrant their encouragement bv offering prizes and inaugurating contests. As a sport—well, as a sport, aviation must rise to the high level of other sports in this country—automobile racing, for instance—and show substantial returns in the form of gate receipts, otherwise it may be neglected, lias anyone noticed any strenuous efforts being made in this country to build a machine that will give us a ghost of a show to win this year's Coupe Internationale il'Aciation?

In fact, the interest shown was so slight that the elimination contests had to he dispensed with. Why? Surely not because our sportsmen and men of wealth have had to

spend too much for fizz water and furbelows at the coronation, doncherknow! Surely not because aviators and builders over here could not spare the time from exhibitions at county fairs to take part in this contest of pure sport! Oh, dear, no!

The third and probably most pronounced symptom seems to be a species of kleptomania. It is a known fact that America did not take hold of the automobile seriously until it had been developed in Europe, and then we appropriated what we needed. It is barely possible that the same high purpose has had some effect in producing the deplorable state of affairs that now obtains in this country with respect to aviation. Our army, or Congress, at least, seems to hold this view, for the opinion has frequently been expressed by high officials that it is advisable to wait and see what foreign nations do before "wasting money on aeroplanes." A very economical, if rather unsafe, policy, indeed; but suppose that we get caught napping sometime? Suppose that one of our diplomatic toes—the Monroe Doctrine, the Philippines, Panama—and they all have corns on them—gets badly trodden upon? What are we going to do? "Oh," you say, "we have Fifteen Thousand (capitals, please) soldiers down in Texas and—three aeroplanes!" Ahem! So we have! I had quite forgotten them for the moment.

Well, these are the symptoms. What shall the remedy be? What shall those who are genuinely interested in aeronautics do to put America abreast of the times? Surely the

relatively few recent disasters in Europe have not given us "cold feet"; neither are we such poor sportsmen that the almighty dollar will be allowed to overshadow this new sport! Then let's wake up and do something!

There are several dozen aero clubs in this country whose members number several thousand. These clubs have been formed for the advancement of aeronautics—at least their constitutions and by-laws say so. Cannot these clubs, working separately or together, organize cross country and inter-city flights with prizes sufficiently large to induce keen competition? Are we so poor or parsimonious that we can't get up fifty or a hundred thousand dollars in prizes for a race between New York and Chicago, New York and St. Louis, New York and Atlanta, New York and Washington, or even between New York and Atlantic City? Or, better still, a circuit including several large cities?

Tell us not in mournful numbers that the Summer and Fall are to pass without some big aviation event in America! Let our public-spirited citizens, backed by our public-spirited newspaper and aero clubs, get together and show the world that America is not "taking the count," aeronautically speaking, but intends to wear the championship belt again.

As the country woman said when she saw her husband hugging the hired girl, "Something must be did!"

R. E. SCOTT.

DETROIT CLUB'S MEMBERS TOURNAMENT

THE first aero club in America to take an active part in arousing interest among its members, is the Aero Club of Michigan, located at Detroit. In a most practical way this club took a definite step in advance when it obtained a Wright aeroplane for the use of its members during the three days of June 19-21, with Frank Coffyn as pilot. The machine has been purchased by a syndicate beaded by Russell A. Alger, and two other combinations of the same nature are now organizing to purchase two other Wright machines for purely sporting purposes.

45 Flig-hts Without Incident.

Mr. Coffyn made 45 flights, ranging from 21 to 5 minutes each, and took up 41 passengers. Many nationally prominent men and women had trips at this first club flying tournament, among whom were, naturally, Mr. and Mrs. Russell A. Alger, Mr. and Mrs. Fred M. Alger, S. D. Waldon, officer of the Packard Motor Co., Mary Mannering Wadsworth, her husband and their three children, aged 5, 12 and 15, and C. H. Taylor, a well-known automobile engineer. C. B. DuCharme, secretary of the club, E. W. Lewis, secretary of the Timken-Detroit Axle Co., R. D. Chapin, a famous automobile designer; Wm. 10. Metzger and Howard E. Coffyn, motor car manufacturers, were some of the others who enjoyed flights from the golf grounds of the Grosse Pointe Country Club. A most beautiful flight was made out over the lake in front of the club by Aviator Coffyn alone, a demonstration of the capabilities of the machine in spectacular flying.

Offers were made some time ago by the Wright Company to various aero clubs throughout the land offering them the use of a Wright machine and the services of an aviator for the taking up of club members in the hope of arousing a greater interest among the people who have the means to buy aeroplanes for sporting purposes only, but outside of the Aero Club of Michigan not a single club took

advantage of the offer or saw its way clear to attempting anything similar under club auspices.

The aero clubs of the country, it is regrettable, though unnecessary, to mention, have been quite too fond of parlor aviation, and that condition still obtains. It is barely possible, however, that the experience of the Detroit club will result in a mild sort of enthusiasm here and there. Nothing very startling, however, may be looked for.

The congratulations of Aeronautics are extended to the Aero Club of Michigan and its members and guests who were privileged to

fly.

TESTS OF WOOD STRUTS

(Continuedfrom page 5) TABLE V.

. No. of

Material. Formula. Tests.

I

Whitewood .............. P = 1S.209 — 1

l2 I

Basswood .............. P = 1G.S64 — 1

I2 I

Spruce.................. r = 12.S32 — 7

]2 I

Honduras mahogany...... P = 13,S4S — 3

I2 I

Pa ran- ................. r = 20,350 — 3

l2 I

Walnut ................. P = 14,303 — 3

I2 I

Ash .................... P — 11,007 — 2

l2 I

Hickory ................ P = 10,S04 — 3

12

HOW TO BUILD A CURTISS-TYPE BIPLANE

By G. H. Godlsy.

(.Continued from May number)

XOTh\ An error has been noticed in I he draw-in;; oil page 101 of the March, 1911, number of a cross section of the struts. The front of the strut is marked 1 inch "radius." This should read 1 inch "diameter.''

However, as air is so unsubstantial an element, a propeller work in it has considerable "slip"; that is, it does not actually advance its full rated pitch at each turn, but only a more or less great per cent, of it. The better the propeller, the less the slip.

SOME advice on the selection of a motor was given in the first article, which appeared in the February number. It was there stated that any fairly light automobile motor which would actually develop 30-horsepower at 1,000 revolutions per minute would fly the machine, and that the total weight of the power plant should not exceed 400 pounds. Considerable weight may be saved on an automobile engine by removing the exhaust manifold and tne fly wheel, the propeller taking the place of the latter. A lightweight aeronautic radiator should be used in preference to the automobile type.

When placing the engine in position, it should be remembered that the complete machine, with operator on board, should balance on a point about 1% feet back of the front edge of the plane. As the operator and motor represent much the larger part of the total weight, the balance may easily be regulated by moving them forward or back slightly, as the case may require. Of course, the engine should be far enough back to let the propeller swing clear of the planes.

The installation of the engine should have no difficulties for anyone who has had experience in automobile work. The engine rests on the two engine beams, just as on the frame of an automobile; the propeller takes the place of the fly wheel. Just in front of the engine is the best place for the gasoline tank, which is often cylindrical in shape and should hold about ten gallons. A cigar-shaped motorcycle tank might be used, suspended from the upper plane. Be sure there is a fair amount of drop to the pine before it reaches the carburetor. In front of the tank is the radiator. The El Areo people make a twin radiator, each half being placed on either side of the operator to assist in cooling.

Controls can be arranged to suit the preferences of the operator. Usually the magneto or battery switch is on the steering column, just below the wheel; there may be also an additional one of the "knife" variety placed on the seat. The throttle and spark advance may be by pedals or by levers at the side of the seat. Another pedal should work a brake on the front wheel. The brake shoe is a strip of sheet steel, hinged or pivoted at one end to the front end of the skid, and pressed aeainst the wheel by a bamboo rod running direct to pedal. An emergency brake can also be made by loosely bolting a stout bar of steel on the skid near the rear end; one end of the bar is connected to a lever near the seat, so that when this lever is pulled back the other end of the bar is forced to dig into the ground.

DESIGNING THE PROPELLER. The propeller deserves careful consideration; it is as important in an aeroplane as in a high speed boat. The terms used to describe aeroplane propellers are the same as those for boat propellers. The pitch is the distance the propeller theoretically forces the aeroplane ahead at each revolution. The propeller cuts through the air just as a screw cuts through wood. At each turn a screw advances the distances between adjacent threads, called the pitch. The pitch of a propeller is harder to measure, as the propeller blades are only narrow sectors of the complete screw thread; but it is still a ^ ery definite quantity.

The aeroplane should have a sneed of 35 to 40 miles an hour, at say, 1,200 revolutions; with these figures it is easy to work out the proper pitch for the propeller.

40x5,280x100 • . ,

60xl,200x 85=3/s approximately.

Explanation; 40 (miles an hour) times 5.2S0 (feet in one mile) divided by 60 (minutes in one hour) gives the speed of the aeroplane in feet per minute, dividing this by 1,200 (revolutions per minute) gives the number of feet advance for each revolution. The 100/85 allows for 15 per cent. slip. The result, for this particular case, is a pitch of about feet. Forty miles an hour is the maximum speed to be expected; the number of revolutions of the engine should be that at which it works to the best advantage.

For a machine of this size and power the propeller should be 6 feet in diameter. There are a number of makes of propellers on the market, but as the prices average $50. many amateurs will prefer to make their own.

FINDING THE PITCH ANGLE.

Obviously a point near the tip of a propeller moves faster than a point nearer the hub—■ just as in rounding a curve, the outer wheel of an automobile goes farther than the inner wheel. Therefore, if these two parts of the blade are to advance through the air equally, the inner part must be set-at a greater angle than (lie outer "art.

Each part of the blade must be set at such an angle that at each revolution it will move forward through the air a distance equal to the pitch. The pitch divided by the circumference of the circle described by any part of the blade will give a quantity known as the "tangent" of an angle for that particular part. The angle corresponding to that tangent can be found in a book of trigonometrical tables.

For example, take.that part of the blade of a 3 Mi-foot pitch propeller, which is 6 inches from the center of the hub.

3 y, x 12

i ,)T1. =1.1141, tangent of 4S°5'

d X jlrm

Here, \2xi2 reduces the pitch to inches; 6x2 Pi. (Pi=3.1416) is the circumference of the circle described by the point 6 inches from the center of the hub..

However, in order to give the propeller blade a grip on the air, it must be set at an angle slightly greater than these figures would indicate; that is, it is given an "angle of incidence," just like the main planes of the machine. This additional angle runs from 2°30' to 4°, depending on the speed at which that part of the blade travels; the greater the speed the less the angle.

Here is the complete set of figures for a blade of 3%-foot pitch, the angles being worked out for sections of the blade 3 inches

apart:

       

Pad.,

Tan-

Pitch

 

Final

ins.

gent.

angle.

Add.

angle.

6

1.1141

4S°5'

4S°

9

.7 127

36°36'

37°

12

.5571

2 9 ° 7'

3°13'

32°20'

15

.1457

24° 1'

3°9'

27°10'

. IS

.3719

20°24'

3° 6'

23°30'

. 21.

.31S3

17°4(V

3°0'

20°40'

24

.27S5

15°40'

2°50'

1S°30'

27

.2476

13°54'

2°4fi'

16°10'

30

.2228

12°40'

2°45'

15°25'

33

.2025

11°27'

2°43'

14°10'

These angles are used in the accompanying drawing, showing one blade of the propeller and its cross-sections.

It should be understood that these calculations apply only to that type of propeller known as the "true" pilch, as distinguished from the "variable" pitch. The variable pitch oropeller has advantages when properly made, but there are only about three men in the Fnited States who know how to make them properly. Their design is a matter of personal skill and experience, hardly capable of .e.xnression in a formula.

The laminated blocks of wood from which the propeller is carved is built up of eight boards, four of them of spruce y?-inch thick, and four of maple 14-inch thick, other woods are frequently used.

Spruce is the strongest wood known in proportion of its weight, but is soft and cracks easily. Maple is tough and hard;.the two outer layers make a good backing for tne steel Manges at the hub. and the rear layer extends the full length of the thin rear edges of the blades.

The boards should be 6 inches wide and 6 feet 1 inch long. They must be glued together wilh great care. The glue must be of even consistency and smoothly applied, and the boards must then be clamped under great pressure to a solid block of wood, so that they cannot assume a curve For this purpose the rib press described in a former issue will come in

handy. The blocks are laid together and used as a base, and the boards clamped down on top of them. After the glue is thoroughly dried (he laminated block may be cut out to the outline of the propeller on a power saw.

ACCURACY BY USE OF TEMPLATES.

The rest of the work must be done by hand, with spokeshave, plane and gouge. For finishing, pieces of broken glass ^re often used to scrape the wood to a smooth surface, followed by sandpaper. Templates should be made from the drawings to use in finishing the work accurately. Draw the sections out full size on sheets of cardboard or tin and cut out along the curves, finally dividing the sheet into two parts, one for the upper side and one for the lower side. Care should be. taken to get the sides of the templates square, and when the templates are used die propeller should be laid on a perfectly flat and true block. Each template should be carefully marked to indicate what part of the blade it fits.

The hub should be of the same diameter as the flange on the engine crank shaft to which the fly wheel was bolted, and should have its bolt holes drilled to correspond. In case the fly wheel of the engine is keyed to the shaft, some other expedient must be found. It may be possible to cut out the hub of the fly wheel and bolt the propeller to its web or spokes.

The drawing shows the rear (concave) side of the propeller. From the viewpoint of a man standing in its wind and facing forward, it turns to the left, or anti-clockwise. On many of the propellers on the market the curved edges goes first; this type may have advantages, but the straight front edge is easier for the amateur to make.

The engine is started by swinging the propeller, and this is an operation requiring far more caution than ordinary cranking. The man who is doing the cranking should be careful to keep both hands on the same blade and always to pull the blades downward—never upward. With the switch off, first turn the propeller over several times to fill the cylinders wilh gas, leaving it just ahead of dead center of one of the cylinders and with one blade extending upward and to the left at about 45°. After the switch has been put on, take the left blade with both hands and swing it downward, getting out of (he way of the following blade as quickly as possible with dual or battery ignition alone it is possible to start by merely "cranking" and then closing the switch.

TESTING FOR SPEED AND THRUST.

The first thing to be done after the propeller is finished and mounted on the engine is to test the combination for speed and thrust. From these two quantities can be figured the power that the engine is delivering. The instruments necessary are a spring balance that will read to 300 pounds or over; a revolution counter, such as may be had for a dollar or so, and a watch. One end of the spring balance is fastened to the front end of the skid and the other to a stake firmly driven in the ground a couple of feet back. The wheels should be set on boards so that they will not offer any resistance to the forward thrust. When the engine is started the spring balance will show the forward thrust of the propeller.

At the same time the thrust is being read another man should be counting the number of revolutions the engine is turning per minute. A small hole should have previously been countersunk in the center of the propeller hub, to receive the rubber lip of the revolution counter. The observer stands behind Ihe propeller, watch 'in one hand and wilh the other lirnily pressing the counter agahisl the propeller.

The horsepower delivered is figured as follows assuming for the example a thrust of i.")0 pounds ;it 1,»00 revolul ions;

>:>0 x 1.200 x;ii x 100

3:5,000 x s.j ' '

As before Ihe 100/8.) makes allowance for Ihe slip of the propeller. The ;!:!.00( is the number of foot-pounds per minute equal to one horsepower, and the 3-V is the pitch of the propeller.

AERONAUTICS . My, igu

FLOCK OF BIRDMEN CIRCLE EUROPE

900 MILES FOR $90,000.

AS the magazine goes to press more than a dozen daring men are speeding against ktime around a 917-mile circuit over the whole of Europe in the biggest of the five wonderful cross-country contests that have been held this year from France and Germany.

Imagine fifty actual starters, leaving one after the other like homing pigeons, biplanes and monoplanes, piloted by the world's best flyers, on a tour comparable to an automobile road race from New York to Chicago, with "controls" at various points along the way!

There are nine stages to the circuit, besides a number of compulsory stops, as follows: Paris-Liege, Belgium, 212 miles. Liege-Spa-Liege, 37% miles. Spa-Utrecht, Holland, 112% miles. Utrecht-Brussels, Belgium, 93% miles. Brussels-Roubaix, France, 56 V4 miles. Roubaix-Calais, France, 62% miles. Calais-London, England, 93 V-i miles. London-Calais, 93*4 miles. Calais to Paris, 156% miles. The total of prizes in the race, organized by the Paris Journal, London Standard and Brussels Petit Bleu, and for which these papers offer munificent prizes, as well as do municipalities along the route, is more than $91,000.

On June IS the race started and seven reached Liege the same day, despite the furious winds. Many dropped by the wayside to come on later or to return disconsolate to that dear Paris. Eleven arrived the following day.

On the 21st fifteen flew the Spa-Liege stage and seven got to Utrecht on the next day, where they rested and made exhibition flights until the 26th, when they started for Brussels, where seven arrived safely by the time the control closed. The best time was made by-Naval Lieut. Jean Conneau (Bleriot), 37 hours, 21 minutes. This is not the actual time, but the elapsed time figured, since the official start and considering the controls.

Fatalities Mark the Start.

Three fatalities and a number of other aviators were injured the first day in landing at various points.

THE DEAD.

CAPTAIN' l'HINCKTAU — Planes caught fire just as he got in the air. Before he could unstrap himself he was burned and fell d< ad to the ground. He was one of 12 officers in the race.

THEODORE LE MARTIN—Fell in the high wind at the very start and dropped in a clump of trees. The steering gear of his • Bleriot was blamed.

LANDRON—His Pischoff machine caught firo in the air and the gasoline tank exploded. Enveloped in flames, the aviator jumped and was burned to death on the ground below.

MANY OTHER AVIATORS KILLED.

HAVANA, Cuba, June 5.—Marcel Penot died of injuries received in making a landing with his Curtiss-copy biplane at San Antonio de los Banos, near Havana, a few days before. He apparently was gliding all right, but the machine struck on the front elevator and one of Penot's ribs punctured his lung. Only the front outriggers and elevator were broken. He was filling an exhibition contract for P. Brauner & Company. Louis Rosenbaum took his place after repairing the machine. The Hall-Scott engine was not damaged.

JOHANNISTHAL, Germany, June 9.—Georg Schendel and his passenger, Chief Mechanic Voss, of the Dorner factory, were killed by losing control, consensus of opinion by experts states, of the Dorner monoplane in a high wind while up after the 2-man altitude record. His barograph showed he had broken the record with 5.S00 feet.

ST. PETERSBURG, May 17.—An aviator named Vladimir Smith died in a hospital from injuries received in a fall from a height of 120 feet in giving an exhibition with a Sommer biplane.

VOGHERA, Italy, May 2S.—Ciro Cirri, an Italian aviator, died from injuries received during a flight.

STRASBURG, Germany, May 23. — Carl Laemmlin was killed by falling from his aeroplane when it hit the tree tops after he made a turn over the crowd to avoid another machine.

ROME, Italy, June 8.—Marra was killed by striking a high power electric wire in making a turn and was killed by shock, one report has it. Another is to the effect that a strong wind overturned the machine.

WIENER - NEUSTADT, Austria. — Vincenz Wiesenbach was killed by his own built monoplane, which doubled up at a height of 50 feet.

NICE, Fiance, June 5.—Lieut. Bague, the French aviator, who holds the over-sea flight record, left Nice on a flight to Corsica. No news has ever been received of the airman, and it is feared that he may have fallen into the sea.

Torpedo boats have been sent out from Nice and Corsica to search for him. The distance from the French mainland to the island of Corsica is about 130 miles.

He expected to continue from here and fly across the Mediterranean to Tunis.

1,166-MILE GERMAN CIRCUIT.

An aeroplane race, 1,166 miles, around Germany for $25,000 prize, offered by a Berlin newspaper, and other prizes aggregating $106,250, was interesting enough to have 25 entries.

Seven actually started on June 11 from Berlin, five of which carried passengers.

Lindpaintner (Farman) was only one to get through the first stage, to Magdeburg, 140 kil., in 2 h.. 11 m., the same day, though the second and third days saw two more reach here.

The following day four more started from Berlin, all with passengers, and these reached Magdeburg1. One man who started on the 11th got to Magdeburg on the I2th, though not in time to start with the four. Another got there on the 13th.

On the 13th five left for Schwerin, all of whom reached this place. IS2 kil.

The remaining stages were to Hamburg (120 kil.), Kiel (110 kil.), Luneburg (153 kil), Hanover (115 kil.), Munster (ISO kil.), Cologne (16S kil.), Dortmund (140 kil.), Cassel (153 kil.), Nordhausen (102 kil.), Halberstadt (112 kil.), back to Berlin (203 kil.).

Various stops of several days having intervened at each place, in June 26 six aviators left Hanover for Munster, though two of these only have made all the scheduled flights, each stage to this point having totaled 396 miles.

If some aero club should get up a race like this in America the surprise would be so great that a large number would succumb to the shock.

NINE HUNDRED MILES IN FOUR DAYS.

The Faris-Rome-Turin Race.

This race was organized by the "Petit Parisien," of Paris, and was for prizes amounting to $100,000. The aviators were permitted to land as often as they pleased, they having from May 2S to .lune 15 in which to cover the distance of 1,300 miles. The race was In three stages, the first from Paris to Nice being a distance of 53S miles with recording stations established at Dijon. Lyons and Avignon. The second stage. Nice to Rome, was 372 miles, the recording stations being at Genoa and Pisa, In the last stage the aviators expected to retrace part of their course and reach Turin by way of Florence and Bologna, the distance of this stage being 391 miles.

Of the twenty-one entrants only twelve faced the line. Vedrines, the winner of the Paris-Madrid race, had not returned in time for the start.

The Race.

The first stage of the race began at 6 A. M. on the morning of Sunday, May 28, when Garros (Bleriot, 50 Gnome) crossed the line closely followed by Lieut. Conneau (Bleriot, 50 Gnome). Lieut. Conneau flew under the name of Beaumont in the Paris-Madrid race. They were followed in the following order by the other ten starters: Vidart, (Deperdus-sin, 50 Gnome); Kimmerling, (Sommer, 50 Gnome); Manissero, (Bleriot, 50 Gnome); Frey, (Morane, 50 Gnome); Weymann, (Nieuport, 70 Gnome); Level, (Savary, 70 Labor); Gaget, (Morane, 50 Gnome); Bathait (Sommer, 50 Gnome); Bielovucic, (Voisin, 70 Gnome) and Molla, (Sommer, 50 Gnome).

Lieut. Conneau and Garros alternated in the lead all the way. They were the only ones to reach Avignon the first day, Conneau taking 12 hrs, 43 min., 51 sec. and Garros 13 nr., 38 min., 32 sec.

Of the twelve starters four reached Nice (538 miles), the rest abandoning the race as the results of accidents. Lieut. Conneau was first in 37 hr., 19 min., 51 sec.; Garros second in 37 hr., 57 min., 50 sec; Frey third in 50 hr., 2 min., 19 sec, and Vidart fourth in 76 hr., 9 min., 36 sec. Only Conneau and Garros arrived the following day, the 29th. The other two followed later.

Lieut. Conneau increased his lead in the stage from Nice to Rome (372 miles), arriving there May 31, after changing his motor. His total time was 82 hr., 5 min.; Garros was second, 106 hr., 16 min.; Frey third, 132 hr., 41 min.; and Vidart fourth in 171 hr., 13 min.

Bad weather kept the aviators in Rome for some time; finally Frey started out on Monday morning, June 12, but returned on account of the fog. The next day he started again in spite of warnings. After landing at Casti-glione to inquire his way, he was not heard of for some time until he was found in the woods where he had fallen, near Ronciglione. Both his arms and legs were broken. The other aviators were forced to abandon the idea of completing the circuit.

FLIES 80 MILES AN HOUR.

Gordon Bennett Entries.

Flying in the French elimination trials to select the Gordon Bennett team, Alfred Le-blanc, with a 100-h.p. Bleriot, called the "Bleriot 23," beat all speed records up to 150 kiloms. Five kiloms. were covered in 2 min., 24 sec, a speed of 125 k.p.h., the speed record for the world. This was on June 12, at Etampes.

Maximotor makers, Detroit, have tripled their capacity in the last two months and are putting on more men every week. Their present program calls for the building of 300 motors this season.

They are now specializing on their 40-50-h.p. 4-cylinder, 5-in. bore by 5-in. stroke, and their 60-75-h.p., 6-cylinder, 5-in. bore by 5-in. stroke.

Their present quarters are too small for the work, in spite of the fact that they have given up building marine speed engines to devote themselves to aerial motors. Plans are now being arranged for the building of a new factory. -

While Louisville may not be the actual center of the aeroplane manufacturing industry in the United States, it by no means is on the extreme outer rim, for already the enterprising young firm of R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., scarcely three years old, has had to enlarge its quarters, to accommodate the rapidly increasing business that is coming Its way. This firm, which has been manufacturing aeroplanes and aeronautical supplies since its birth, has just leased another three-story building two doors north of Its present location which will be used exclusively for the assembling of aeroplanes.

The supporting surface totals but 9 sq. meters; weight ready to fly, 315 kilos.; spread, 9 meters. The propeller is 2.3 meters pitch by 2.5 meters diam., turning at 1,100.

The new records are as follows:

5 kiloms............ 2 m. 24 s.

10 kiloms............ 4 m. 51 s.

20 kiloms............ 9 m. 46.2 s.

30 kiloms............ 14 m. 42 s.

40 kiloms. . .'......... 19 m. 37 s.

50 kiloms............ 24 m. 30.8 s.

100 kiloms............ 4S m. 5S.2 s.

150 kiloms............1 h. 13 in. 35 s.

Fastest speed, 125 k.p.h. [77.6 m.p.h.]

It is expected that there will be thirteen aeroplanes in the Gordon Bennett aviation race to be held July 1 at Eastchurch, on the Isle of Sheppey. These are as follows: France—•

Alfred Leblanc (100-h.p. Bleriot).

E. Nieuport (70-h.p. Nieuport).

L. Chevalier (70-h.p. Nieuport).

Emile Aubrun is substitute with a Deper-dussin. Nieuport, on June 16, flew a distance of 145 kilometers at the rate of SO miles an hour. Leblanc's best speed in the 1910 Gordon Bennett was 67.8 m.p.h.

Germany—The names of the German entries have not been given out. Lindpaintner is possibly the best man, and he has been flying a Sommer monoplane, as well as Farman biplanes. England—■

Alec Ogilvie (30-h.p. "Baby" Wright).

G. Hamel (100-h.p. Bleriot).

A third representative is to be named yet.

Austria—But one man has been selected out of the three, Yosef Flesch.

New 2-Man Record.

On June 12 Nieuport, and a friend, beat his own world's passenger speed records at Chalons, as follows:

5 kil................ 2 m. 52.S s.

10 kil................ 5 m. 44.8 s.

20 kil................ 11 m. 23.2 s.

30 kil................ 17 m. 2.4 s.

40 kil................ 22 in. 35.S s.

50 kil................ 2S m. 9.S s.

100 kil................1 h. 6 m. 47.S s.

150 kil................1 h. 2S m. 24.S s.

Fastest speed, 10S k.p.h. [67 m.p.h.] New 2-Man Altitude Record.

Helmut Hirth, in a Rumpler-Etrich monoplane, established on June 6 the new 2-man world altitude record of 1,600 meters. This is the third time he has made a world passenger height record. His machine has a Bosch-equipped Daimler motor of 65 horsepower, 4 cylinders, vertically arranged.

The new addition increases their floor space to more than 20,000 square feet, all of which is badly needed, as orders are coming in rapidly for their machine, the Gray Eagle.

This firm also lately has leased a smooth tract of land embracing 93 acres for an aviation camp. Three purchasers of Gray Eagle biplanes are now being taught to operate their machines there and several other builders of aeroplanes are expecting to bring their craft for trials at an early date.

Everything from a nut to a complete power plant, or a complete machine, is listed in the catalogue of the E. J. Willis Co., S5 Chambers street. New York. This was the first eastern concern to carry a line of aeronautical supplies, to which they have kept adding as the state of the art advanced, so that now they are in a position to fill orders for anything one could imagine in their line.

That this has been no little task is well understood by those who have followed the rapid progress in the art of aviation closely. To those who have not, it will be a revelation to see this progress so clearly indicated as it is in this catalogue.

AERO CLUB HAS OWN HOME.

Aero Club of America—The formal opening of the new Aero Club of America's home occurred on June 14, attended by more than 100 members and guests.

This was the first occasion that most of the members had had to see the new clubhouse, and it was very seriously inspected from cellar to garret. A collation was served, and there was music by an orchestra. In the absence of the president and first vice-president of the club, Dave Hennen Morris, second vice-president, acted as toastmaster and called upon T. O. M. Sopwith, Clifford \i. Harmon, Thomas A. Hill, James K. Duffy and Alan K. Hawley to reply. Everyone, including the speechmakers, made public acknowledgment and complimented highly the committee which has certainly labored very industriously in outfitting the club. The success of the committee was due to no small extent to the strenuous efforts of James A. Blair, Jr., who, on this evening, turned over the building to the club.

This is the only aero club, so far as known, which has an entire clubhouse of its own. It was recently realized that to a large extent the future success of the club depended upon having suitable quarters, and a number interested themselves actively in looking around for the right kind of a building. A private bouse at 297 Madison avenue, corner of Forty-first street, owned by a wealthy New York man, was leased for a period of two years. Little change was necessary, principally in the furnishings. The house shows a lavish display on the part of the original owner in the

way of elaborate wood mantels, carved leather wall hangings, stained-glass windows and chandeliers. On the first floor is the grillroom and main reception hall. Here it is possible to have simple meals, and members can arrange dinner parties. Out-of-town visitors may secure lodging. On the second floor is found the reading room, library and secretary's office. On the floors above are card, lounging rooms and bedrooms.

The Intercolleg-iate Aeronautical Association cf America has been incorporated with George Atwell Richardson, University of Pennsylvania, nresident; Cyrus McCormiek, Princeton; R. N. Bird, University of Virginia; Elmer Rae, Cornell; Prof. David Todd, Amherst; James R. McConnell, James K. Duffy and Fred J. Dol-linger.

The Nashville Aero Club has been organized at Nashville, Tenn., with Charles H. Dezevallos as president. It conducted an exhibition by Curtiss aviators on April 27-29.

The Aero Club of California has appointed the following standing committees through its president, George B. Harrison, for the ensuing 12 months:

Membership—Raymond I. Blakeslee, Los Angeles; E. Roger Stearns, Los Angeles; Ed. R. Maier, Los Angeles; Leon Eseallier, Los Angeles; "William Stevens, Los Angeles: Glenn L. Martin, Santa Ana; Frank T. Searight, San Diego; E. H. Earle, Pomona; James R. Ricketts, Long Beach; Harvey H. Hinde, Riverside; Louis Mortimer, Los Angeles; James R. Townsend, Los Angeles, and E. J. Campbell, Pasadena.

House—Charles F. Walsh, M. C. Tunison, Mrs. H. La V. Twining, R. S. Stratton and Charles Forman.

Entertainment—L. P. Barrett, Earle Remington, C. H. Temple, L. K. Freeman and F. G. Calkins.

Technical and Contest—H. La V. Twining, H. S. Dosh, W. S. Eaton, Charles Rilliet and Buel H. Green.

Financial and Auditing—.1. J. Slavin, W. H. Leonard, M. H. Gallagher, Chas. Skoglund.

Investigating—R. C. Hamlin, C. H. Dav, W. B. Cannon, W. H. B. Kilner, Alfred Solano.

Member National Council of Aero Clubs of America—Earle Remington; alternate member, Ernest L. Jones.

Xew York Representative Committee—E. L. Jones, T. A. Hill and F. 10. Moskovics.

Foreign Representatives—London, R. J. II. Hope; Paris, Louis Paulhan.

The Illinois Aeroplane Club, 2S.r>2 North Clark street, Chicago, is endeavoring to sell a $1.00 stock certificate to 50,000 lllinoisans for the purpose of building a dirigible balloon.

The Aeronautical Society's annual election, which should have been held in April, and which was somewhat belated owing to the amount of work required in the preparation of the banquet, took place on June S at the club rooms, 250 West Fifty-fourth street, Xew York. The following officers and directors were elected through the votes cast by those present, there having been no proxies used;

President, Willis .AleCornick; past presidents, Lee S .Burridge and Hudson Maxim; vice-presidents, Thomas A. Hill, James M. Beck, Dr. John Henrv McCracken, Roger B. Whitman. Capt. W. I. Chambers; Board of Directors. Willis Jle-Cornick, Lieut. F. W. Humphries, Senator J. F. Duhamel, Col. E. A. Havers. Geo. F. Cairmbell Wood, Francis T. Sanford, Carlos deZafra,

Thomas A. Hill, Hiram P. Maxim, James M. Beck, Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, John H. Mc-Cracken, Lee S. Burridge, Hudson Maxim, Roger B. Whitman. Arnold Kruckman, W. Irving Twomlily, William .1. Hammer, Hugo C. Gibson, Louis R. Adams, C. Wesley Howell, Geo. S. Bradt, Wilbur R. Kimball, H. A. Wise Wood, Capt. W. I. Chambers: treasurer, Geo. S. Bradt; general secretary, Arnold Kruckman; recording secretary. Raymond Beck; technical board, Hugo C. Gibson, chairman; William J. Hammer, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. Dwight W. Hering, Prof. David Todd, A. Leo Stevens, Earl Atkinson, W. L. Fairchild, Prof. John J. Montgomery, Greely S. Curtis, Capt. W. I. Chambers, Prof. Herschel C. Parker, J. Bernard Walker, M. B. Sellers, W. Irving Twombly, Carlos de Zafra, Ernest V. Lallier, Prof. C. P. Bliss, Prof. D. L. Gallup, Prof. Wm. Hallock, Wilbur R. Kimball, Lewis R. Compton, Harry R. Burt, Earle L. Ovington.

Many committees were also elected.

The plan of voting for members of committees was done with a view of putting some responsibility on these various committees and particularly the chairmen, and was intended as a recommendation for the coming president, who duly confirmed all the committees at a following meeting on June 15, when a meeting of the new directorate was held and new plans of activity were formulated, and the committees are now meeting to make recommendations in every department so as to increase the usefulness of the organization.

While the election was going on, Col. E. A. Havers, the noted lecturer, gave the most enlivening talk on his impressions of the possibilities of the art and described a fanciful trip to Europe in a vivid manner.

Mr. Thomas A. Hill moved the following resolutions concerning the bill going through the Legislature at Albany, which were adopted. The bill provides for the establishment of a State "Aviation License Board":

Whereas, Many serious accidents from flying machines can be prevented if badly constructed machines are not permitted to be flown and if incompetent persons are prevented from Hying machines in public places, and

Whereas, Those attending aeronautical meets, exhibitions, shows or contests will have better protection if due provision is made for proper safeguards,

Therefore be it resolved. That the bill before the New York State Legislature entitled "An act to amend the State Boards and Commissions Law, in relation to establishing an Aviation License Board" is fop the best interests of the science of aeronautics and is essential for safeguarding life and property within this State, and

Be it further resolved, That the Secretary of the Aeronautical Society forthwith

send a copy of these resolutions to the members of the Senate and Assembly of the State of New York. At the regular meeting of the society, June 22 (general meetings being held on the second and fourth Thursday of each month), a small attendance was present owing to the heavy storm. Mr. John B. Maus, of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., spoke of the advisability of the members using extreme care in the selection of their cloth and the danger of what could happen should it shrink or stretch with dampness as some cloth does, and the great care used at their factory to make all the manufactured product impervious to weather changes. A great deal of money was being spent to make their cloth now fireproof, which was the next great desideratum in view of thb recent unfortunate accidents in France in which the aviators lost their lives through the planes catching fire. Mr. Maus also referred to the president of the company, Mr. Seiberling, who was magnanimously financing a new expedition of Mr. Melvin Vaniman to cross the Atlantic this fall in a dirigible airship to be built on new lines from the "America," which failed last year. This would cost from $150,000 to $250,000, and was to be expended by Mr. Seiberling purely through public spirit to keep the United States in the fore of world aeronautic efforts.

Mr. Wilson S. Howell, Jr., Mr. J. Marschucci, and Mr. William File each described new inventions of their own, illustrated by working models, which were examined with much care and interest.

Mr. Hugo C. Gibson related his experiences in hydroplaning at the Polytechnic Institute in 'Worcester, Mass., where a rotating boom is employed to test propellers through electric current, and his experiments were made in a flat bottom dory attached to the end of the boom which he was carried at the rate of 40 miles an hour, and could lean to one side to have the boat skim over the water very successfully till he was finally thrown unceremoniously into the water.

Detroit Club Has Flights.

The Aero Club of Michigan is active in Detroit. Frank Coffyn was here June 19-21 and made 45 flights, on 41 of which passengers were carried. Among these were many club members and their wives and female friends. On the 23 Augustus Post lectured before the club. Leo Stevens will be on hand July 20 for some balloon trips. From June 29 to July 5 an aviation meet is to be held for prizes in the neighborhood of $25,000. This club is the first to arrange aeroplane flights for members in this country.

The Aero Club of California at its annual meeting elected the following: President, Geo. B. Harrison; first vice-president, L. P. Barrettj second vice-president, H. S. Dosh; secretary, Van M. Griffith; treasurer. II. LaV. Twining; directors, Chas. E. Rilliet, W. S. Eaton.

NATIONAL BALLOON RACE.

Seven balloons are expected to be in the race July 10 to select the Gordon Bennett balloon team. The last two are still but tenative entries.

Kansas City Aero Club—"Kansas City," II. E. Honeywell, pilot.

--—"Million Population Club," with John

Berry, pilot, and Paul McCullough.

--"Buckeye," J. II. Wade, Jr.

Aero Club of St. Louis—"St. Louis IV," Lieut, F. P. Lahm, pilot, and Lieut. J. P. Hart.

Aero Club of St. Louis—"Miss Sophia," Wm. F. Assmanii.

Aero Club, of America—"New York," Clifford B. Harmon.

Western Aero Association—"Topeka II," by a Mr, Jacobs.

The German entrants in the Gordon Bennett balloon race have been selected by an elimination race, as follows: Hans Gericke, Lieut. Vogt and Baron de Polt. The two former were contestants in 1910.

The American Aeroplane Supply House, 2G6 Franklin street, Hempstead, L. I., has just completed a duplicate of the 1911 cross-country Bleriot 70, similar to the one Earle L. Ovington has been flying. This duplicate is for William Ilaupl, who has been flying the Wana-maker Bleriot XI, and a Roberts motor has been installed. A two-seated machine is also being built, with the same engine, for J. Albert Brackett, of Boston, and a one-seater for A. C. Mengis, of Memphis. This will have a Gnome 70 engine. The concern now lias facilities for turning out a machine a week in the new quarters.

Assembling- Koom of Calif. Aero Mfg\ ana Snpply Co.

New Pedersen Lubricator.

The accompanying drawing shows a new multiple feed rotary pump lubricator brought out by the Pedersen Lubricator Co., 644 First avenue, New York. A novel feature of this lubricator is its extreme simplicity. Another feature is that it allows for a wide range of attachment to a motor.

This pump comprises a casing and cover, the casing having a cylindrical end bore with inlet and discharge openings. Within the casing there is a rotating shaft, with head and stem fitting the bore of same, and with the end of the head wearing against the under surface of the cover. This head is recessed in its outer face and transversely slotted, with a sliding piston fitting in same, this piston being also recessed, forming at one end a head and at the middle a pin or stud. Fastened in and projecting from the under side of the cover are one or more studs, according to the number of feeds required. Equally spaced between the fixed studs in the cover and passing through same are adjusting screws having tapered ends. These act upon the neck

of the piston, which is of a corresponding taper. This action takes place when the piston is in line with the outlet port. The amount of discharge can be varied by means of the taper ended screw, as when same is at its extreme inward position it gives the piston its greatest movement, consequently discharging more oil, and vice versa when at its outward position.

In the face of the casing is a circular recess having openings leading to the circular bore, forming inlet or suction ports. Equally spaced between these are the discharge ports, communicating direct from the bore to the outlet connections. The operation of the pump is as follows: I.y rotating the shaft the piston is given a transverse movement opposite the inlet port. This draws in the oil which is confined between the casing and the piston until opposite the outlet, when the piston is again acted upon by the tapered screw and the oil discharged.

The Brooke "Non-Gyro" Motor.

The principal feature of the Brooke "non-gyro" motor, as manufactured by the Brooke-Kuhnert Company, 320 South Wabash avenue, Chicago, 111., is the absence of any gyroscopic effect. This effect is claimed by the builders of this engine to be a very serious menace to the safety of aviators. In the Brooke motor

Brooke Motor on Testing Frame.

this force has been entirely eliminated, the motor may be sustained by a single chain and operated at top speed, and may be turned in any direction by a slight touch of the finger. The style "E" motor, which sells for $2,500, is

No Vibration Can he Noticed.

of 10 cylinders arranged in two sets of fives, which may be run either independently or together. The cylinders, which are 414 by 4Vt bore and stroke, are offset slightly. The makers' rating is 75-85 II.P. The feature of operating either one or both sections Is very desirable in long cross-country flights, as, in case of acci-

dent to one set, the other can be easily and quickly brought Into action. The lubrication is positive, a nine-tube forced feed oiler being ised. Two Stromberg carburettors are used, one for each unit. Bearings are of phosph or bronze, of liberal proportions. The intake valve is situated in the piston head, the exhaust head being in the cylinder head. The cylinders are air cooled, as is usual with all rotary engines. There are no springs in operation to weaken or break. This should be an advantageous point, as the best of springs will break. There are a set of light springs employed to hold the valves in place while the motor is at rest, but these are not necessary when it is running. A Bosch 2-cylinder magneto is used with only 12 inches of high-tensioned cable in the entire motor, there being no contact between the stationary and revolving parts. This makes a very simple and positive electric system, which is a point that will be appreciated by all who have had trouble with complicated wiring systems.

The G & A. Carburettor.

The great object in the design of carburettors is to obtain a perfect mixture at all engine speeds under all atmospheric conditions. That this is hard of attainment can readily be seen by the number of carburettors on the market. Most of them require more or less complicated adjustments for difference in altitude as well as for differences in atmospheric conditions.

Where il is Picked Up by the Inrusbing Air From the Main Air Take E-* The Mixture of Air and Gas Then Passes Throuoh the Upper-End of the Venturi Tube Into the Mixing Chamber F'

Grouvelle and Arguembourg have spent 25 years in the study of the problem of obtaining a carburettor which would positively make all the changes for different conditions automatically. The result of this labor is shown in the present G & A carburettor. This is made so there are no adjustments for the operator to make. Every carburettor is fitted to its particular engine, and is so calculated that it will deliver the proper mixture to the engine at all times. The three features of construction which enable the G & A carburettor to perform these functions are, first, the location of the spray nozzle in the Venturi tube. The second point is the uniform temperature maintained in the mixing chamber, resulting In the supplying of the mixture at the right temperature. The third feature is

the use of a cage of balls of varying sizes and weights to automatically regulate the auxiliary air intake. It is this feature that allows the carburettor to meet all the varying conditions of temperature, moisture and speed. That these carburettors do meet all requirements is shown by their employment by Panhard. Le-vassor, Delauney-Belleville, Otto Gas Engine Company, Humber, of England, and other well-known automobile firms. They are also fitted to the Clement-Bayard engine, the well-known Anzani, the Gnome and other aeronautical engines.

R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., importers, jobbers and makers, of Louisville, Ky., have put out a catalogue which can be studied with profit by those who are contemplating the construction of a machine. In it are listed not only the usual assortment of parts and accessories, but a large line of motors, including their own make, "Gray Eagle." Sets of complete parts for machines are listed for those who wish to build their own 'plane. These parts are cut out and semi-finished and are accompanied with complete sets of blue prints, thus enabling the novice to do the work himself and save the greatest item of expense.

The ten cents asked for this catalogue will be well expended, as there are a great number of cuts and line drawings which give a much better idea of the articles than mere description.

The new six-cylinder Kirkham motor is being used with success by Aviator Howard LeVan in the Chas. J. Strobel's biplane. The motor used in tins 'plane is the very first one of the new Kirkham motors to be built, ard Strobel has placed his order for two more, to be delivered just as soon as possible.

Chas. B. Kirkham is now located in a new plant at Savona, N. Y.. where a large force is working day and night and the size of the factory is being increased.

Many sales have been made of the new Roberts engine to the International Aeroplane Mfg. Co., of Chicago; Aeronautic Supply Co., of St. Louis; J. N. Sparling, of E. St. Louis, and John C. Kirby. of Houston, Tex., all for Curtiss-type machines. There was one sold in Chicago which has already been installed and flown a machine.

The International Aeroplane Mfg. Company is conducting a school of aviation at 2025 Michigan avenue, Chicago. L. M. Driver is instructor on construction. Associated with him is S. D. Dixon. Lester W. Bratton is their mechanical engineer. S. D. Dixon has been making successful flights with one of their aeroplanes in which they have one of the Roberts motors. They speak very highly of the motor and say that it will do even more than the Roberts Co. claim for it.

The Bosch Magneto Co. has added to its facilities by taking the building at 154 West 54th street, New York, for use as a garage and for its publicity office. Mr. Alfred H. Bartsch, advertising manager, is now located at the new address.

It is possible that C. F. Willard will attempt a new American duration record for the purpose of testing out the new "Gyro" motor made by the Gyro Motor Co., 774 Girard street, Washington, D. C. He has been to Washington to inspect the engine and just as soon as one or two arrangements are made it is probable that he will make the attempt.

W. .1. Jackman, author of the book, "Flying Machines," has withdrawn his connection from the Chicago School of Aviation. His address at present is 633 Plvmouth Court, Chicago, 111.

NOTICES

ENGINES FOR SALE.

ENGINE FOR SALE—A. Harriman, 30-H.P. engine; Eisemann magneto; late model; bargain at $400. Address Harriman, care AERONAUTICS.

RINEK ENGINE FOR SALE—A Rinek 8-cylinder engine, 1010 model; just completely overhauled by factorj'; in perfect condition; complete with El Arco radiator, magneto and gasoline tanks; $600. Address Rinek, care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE—One 50-H.P., J-cylinder, 4-cycIe, Harriman engine. We bought this engine for a monoplane, but the plane was a failure and was never completed, the reason we are selling. Harriman Co. is selling this engine for $1,650; our price with propeller, $700. LeBron Adams Aeroplane Co., Omaha, Nebr.

FOR SALE—50-h.p. H. F. or Harriman aviation engine; new; $500. This is the same size engine that the Harriman Motor Works are charging $1,675 for. Address "Box 3, Girard, Kans." TF

Aeroplanes for Sale.

AMATEUR AIRMEN— Full size monoplane ready for power; $75 one-passenger; fine flyer; 2-cent stamp for particulars; send now. E. C. Minert Aero Co., 1122 W. Locust St., Davenport, la.

FOR SALE—Hydro-aeroplane, guaranteed to fly from land or water; the finest construction of any machine in the world. Intending purchasers must call in person or send representative, and will teach you to fly from water first, as it is the only safe method. We only have one machine for delivery. You had better telegraph me you are coming. The price is $5,000 complete, with Emerson 4-cyl.. 2-cycle motor. The Brown Aeroplane Co., 3SI3 Roland Ave., Baltimore, Md.

Aeroplanes Wanted.

BIPLANE, new or second-hand: send description and best price; with or without engine. Breeze, care AERONAUTICS.

Capital Wanted.

MONOPLANE—Experienced man wants $3,500 to build machine in quiet way; $10,000 can be made this season: exceptional machine; endorsed bv leading engineers. Address S, care AERONAUTICS.

Business Cards.

J. ED. SHERIFF, MECHANICAL ENGINEER AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DESIGNS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW YORK.

Positions Wanted.

YOUNG man desires position as aeroplane

operator; has had seven years' experience at steam and electrical engineering; 28 years old;

can give best of references as to character,

etc. Address J. P. Allison, care AERONAUTICS.

EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, experienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer to give Hying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care "AERONAUTICS." Sep.

Back Numbers Wanted.

JANUARY, 1911, wanted by J. J. Long, Brown University, Providence, R. I,

Jpan M. Alleas, Boston. Mass., 001,GSG, May 'J, 1011, filed Oct. 21, 1900. HELICOPTER.

Max Dingfelder, Detroit. Mich., 091,770, May 0. 1011. filed Dec. 2, 1000. Novelty in PLANE ('(INSTRUCTION. Stability and steering rudders.

Daniel P. McLaughlin, Chicago, 111., 001,794, May 0, 1911, filed June 30, 1909. HELICOPTER.

Sew-all A. Witherspoon, St. Louis. Mo., 091.811, May 0. 1911, filed Jan. 2(3, 1910. Flying-machine especially designed to act as a parachute in case of fall.

Otto Haselan, New York, N. Y.. 901,S4G, May 0, 1011, filed May 3, 1000, renewed Oct. 21. 1010. Inlying-machine wilh special arrangements for automatic stability.

Charles Lakeman Tweedale, Weston, near Otley, England. 092,086, May 0, 1011, filed Oct. 30, 1000. BOX KITE with propeller actuated by means of a string.

.lohn Zimmerli, Providence, R. I., 992,000, May 0. 1011, filed April 23, 1010. Combined HELICOPTER and AEROPLANE.

Edward J. Elsas, Kansas City, Mo., 992,410, May 16. 1911, filed Oct. 5, 1910. AEROPLANE in which there are two motors, to run separately or together.

Edward L. Ault, Iola, Kans, 992,470, May 16, 1011, filed Dec. 23. 1910. Biplane with ailerons hinged to horizontal bars connecting front struts, to act as resistance means for turning or to preserve transverse STABILITY. In front of eael» of these two ailerons is a propeller. A third propeller is at the rear of the machine, in usual position. Engine placed below lower plane.

Charles N. Newcomb, West Palm Beach, Ela., 902.570, Mav 16. 1011, filed Aug. 5, 1008. OR-N1THOPTER of which the wings are capable of change in conformation.

Valentime M. Kutscha, Scotch Plains, N. Y., 002.678. May 16, 1011, filed .Ian. 9, 1911. Monoplane in which the SUPPORTING PLANE is pivotally suspended from vertical masts, with means for restoring the plane automatically to normal position.

Edwin Lvman Madden, Ingersoll. Okla., 002.726, Mav 16, 1911, filed May 19, 1910. HELICOPTER.

Willi, m F. Smith, Roodhouse, 111., 992,816, Mav 23,,1911. Filed Aug. 22. 1910. Aeroplane, with means for TILTING SUPPORTING SURFACE.

Frank W. Jatunn, Los Angeles, Cab, 992,S74, May 23, 1911. Filed Feb. 21, 1910. Plurality of FEATHERING PADDLE WHEELS.

Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, near Danzig, Germany, 992,909. Mav 23, 1911. Filed Dec. 29, 1910. Means for STIFFENING AIRSHIP FRAMES.

Robert Ernest Heath, Yorkville, S. C, 993,0G3, May 23, 1911. Filed Feb. 3. 1910. Triplane with lower PLANES capable of being TILTED on axes transversely as well as parallel to the line of flight.

Thomas Rhoades, Hanna, Utah, 993,108 May 23. 1911. Filed May 7, 1910. Aeroplane with pivotally suspended frame, propeller capable of being turned through an arc of ISO degrees, automatically operated stabilizing planes.

Timothy Henry Konrad, San Mateo, Pal , 993,256. May 23. 1911. Filed April 20, 1910. STEEItING DEVICE and tubular body for flying machines.

Robert P. Hall. Searchlight. Nov., 993.297, May 23, 1911. Filed April 9, 1910. AIRSIIIT with series of gas tanks.

Henry Bernegger, West New York, N. J., 993,948, May 30, 1911. Filed Feb. 25, 1910. BALLOON.

.John T. Rydberg, Garwood, N. J., 993,G23, May 30, 1911. Filed March 22, 1909. FLYING-MACHINE combination of fixed and adjustable propellers and tiltable supporting surface.

Oliver G. Simmons, Washington, D. C, assignor of one-half to Kenneth L. Kintzel, Tamaqua, Pa., 993,724, May 30, 1911. Filed Aug. 13, 1910. AILERONS operated by shafts and gears by sideways movement of operator's seat.

William Kriedter and William Henry Bourdon, New York, N. Y., 993,842, May 30, 1911. Filed Feb. 23, 1910. WING SURFACE with a box or cell at outer extremities.

John W. Harrison, St. Louis, Mo., 993,987, May 30, 1911. Filed Nov. 12, 1910. Aeroplane.

■ Victor P. Fleiss, Lakewood, N. J., 994.072, May 30, 1911. Filed April 27, 1910. Aeroplane with plurality of superimposed supporting surfaces, which increase in length from the bottom one to the topmast.

William Charles Hurst, New York, N. Y., 99 1,104, May 30. 1911. Filed Dec. 1, 1909. MOVABLE GROUPED AILERONS.

William Boyd Alexander, Montreal, Que., ("an., 994,106, June 6, 1911. Filed Feb. 10, 1911. Aeroplane in which FRAME (fuselage) is triangular in cross section, inverted, with baffle flanges" extending on either side laterally from the top edges thereof.

Henry P. Rhett, Hempstead, N. Y., 994,197, June 6, 1911. Filed June 11, 1910. Triangular supporting planes pivotally mounted at entering edge, for purposes of AUTOMATIC STABILITY.

Henry P. Rhett, Hempstead, N. Y., 991,198, June 6, 1911. Filed June 11, 1910. Rectangular planes, pivotally mounted at entering edge, one operating opposite to the other, by action of unequal pressure, for purposes of AUTOMATIC STABILITY. The previous patent is the same in operation.

Gustav Scheel, New York, N. Y., 994,202, June G, 1911. Filed June 17, 1910. AIRSHIP.

Paul Seiler, San Francisco, Cal., 994,339, June 6, 1911. Filed June 13, 1910. OSCILLATING WINGS.

Nathaniel L. Mahew, Beaumont Tex., 994,417, June G, 1911. Filed July 15, 1910. Helicopter with plane surface, composed of flaps, capable of being used to lessen speed of descent in case of failure of propellers.

Maurice E. Wright, San Diego, Cal.. 994,490, June 6, 1911. Filed April 5, 1911. TOY PARACHUTE.

George Kunicke. New York. N. Y., 994,757, June 13, 1911. Filed Nov. I, 1910. Flying machine, with plurality of propellers pivotally mounted for purpose of STEERING.

Robert Paton, Carrington, N. D., assignor of one-third to Lucas K. Silvertson and one-third to Thomas N. Putnam, both of Carrington, N. D., 994,7S2, June 13, 1911. Filed Dec. 14. 1910. Pendulum device for STABILITY.

David A. Albright, Gainesville, Fla., 994,897, June 13, 1911. Filed Jan. 22, 1910. Combined aeroplane, helicopter and ornithopter.

James W. Woodington, Folcroft, Pa.. 994,966, June 13, 1911. Filed Nov. 14, 1910. Helicopter.

Georges Barbaudy, Marseilles, France, 994,96S, June 13, 1911. Filed June 4, 1910. SUPPORTING SURFACE in which lateral extremities form a more or less complete cone.

John A. Hoffman, San Francisco, Cal., 995,-nni, June 13, 1911. Filed Nov. 21, 1910. Means for tilting the supporting plane fore and aft, at the same time tilting it transversely.

Earl M. Ralls, Sacramento, Cal., 995,033, June 13, 1911. Filed Feb. 12, 1910. AIRSHIP, rectangular in cross section, with plurality of gas bag units, laterally extending planes at tlie sides.

Emile Losse, Villeneuve-St.-Georges, France, 995,361, June 13, 1911. Filed March 22, 1910. AEROPLANE with semi-cylindrical body, two lateral surfaces consisting of revoluble discs having blades.

UNITED STATES PATENTS ABSTRACTED


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