Aeronautics

Volume 8 - No. 5 - 1911 May

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



[ORE EVIDENCE

East St. Louis, III., March 20, 1911

)GE ENGINE COMPANY

Rochester, N. Y.

r wire and letter at hand. I'm depending on you for Please hurry my engine along.

(Signed) J. N. SPARLING

East St. Louis, 111., March 28, 1911

)GE ENGINE COMPANY

Rochester, N. Y.

en :—

ine received and installed ; it runs like a charm, the scales at 300 lbs.*** There is absolutely NO 6*ON on the 1911 Aero Special.

(Signed) J. N. SPARLING.

East St. Louis, 111., April 6, 1911

ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY

Rochester, N. Y.

Gentlemen : —

Your engine is in my new plane; it left the ground first trial and flew steadily for over a mile. The engine ran for over an hour and stopped only when 1 stopped it, and at no time was it overheated in the least. From all appearances it could have run all day.

I wish you to know that I am entirely satisfied with the engine and that I consider it the best aviation engine made in America. I have used four or five different makes, but the Elbridge always delivers the goods.

How soon can you send me another ? I shall be ready for it next week.

Yours very truly, (Signed) J. N. SPARLING.

ELBRIDGE AERO SPECIAL ENGINES FOR 1911 ARE PRACT-LLY AUTOMATIC IN OPERATION. NO ADJUSTMENTS OF I KIND FOR YOU TO MAKE. THEY FLY EVERYWHERE AND - THE TIME.

If you are interested in a first class aeroplane, completely equip-at $1250 to $1800, write us.

□BRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY

feulver Road Rochester, N. Y.

AERONAUTICS May, 19*

Don't Be Disappointed

but get enough power to fly and not "cut grass "

fjT Profit by the experiences of others, ^ll The Engine that stands up to the work and is the "last word" in engine building. :: :: :: :: :: ::

OVER 100 FLIGHTS BY

ANTONY JANNUS and REX SMITH at Washington, D. C, without a single accident. <iA record unequalled by" the best of flyers.

Be "Wise" and get our Information

| The Emerson Engine Co., Inc.

ALEXANDRIA, VA., U.S.A. New York Office: 1737 Broadway

(Buick Building)

J. R. Westerfield Telephone 782 Columbus

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I PALMER |

J AEROPLANE TIRES |

J *

jf T TAS IT ever occurred to you that *

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J inner tubes, without cases to *

jf protect them, they would be far easier- £

j riding? Why? Because inner tubes are ^

J elastic, while cases (built of closely- -K

jf woven, unyielding canvas) are not. *

* C,The ordinary aeroplane tire is like -fc jf the automobile tire. Being made of * j canvas, it has no elasticity. The canvas J J will stretch only to an insignificant -fc jf extent, and the elastic limit of the can- *

* vas obviously fixes the elastic limit of £ J the tire. -fc

* C, Palmer Aeroplane Tires are funda- ^ J mentally different, They contain no -fc jf fabric. Around a pure "rubber inner

* tube are wound strips of rubber in which J J are imbedded continuous linen threads -ft if running parallel. The threads in one +

* ply are at right angles to those in the * J next; thus each layer supports and ->t jf complements the others. There are

j four plies in Palmer Aeroplane Tires. £

Jf C, Palmer Tires actually expand under ■¥■

J a load. They are truly elastic. In a £

3f word, Palmer Tires possess the resil-

jf iency of air plus the resiliency of the -K

j best rubber, while ordinary tires possess £

the resiliency of air only. If there is +

Jf any advantage to the aviator in using •¥■

j pneumatic tires, he will double the ad- J

j^. vantage by using Palmers. They are +

Jf true shock absorbers. +

3f C. Palmer Tires are light but amply +c

jf strong. They are made in any size, ¥

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* rims. They may be had with a pune- * jf ture-preventing tread strip of imported M j ehrome tanned leather In this form, J ^ Palmer Tires are more than ever the + jf final word in aeroplane tire construction. -K

* t Jf *

J RUBBER SPRINGS *

jf C, We are making rubber springs of the £

jf Farman type from a compound of un- -K

j common strength and proper elasticity. *

J Send for a miniature free sample spring, ^

jf and for prices of springs and tires. ■¥

Jf *

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J The B. F. Goodrich Co. I

Jf Aeroplane Goods Department *

J AKRON, OHIO {

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Propeller Perfection

PATENTED >*J>--JI__Li£-<V" MARCH 14,1911

S"".CTON.oC.v)

Maroh 21. 1911

American Propeller Company.

Washington, D. C.

Gentlemen-Beg to advise you that I received the 9* propeller which you sent me and that the results ootain-ed with the same are most gratifying.

To anyone contemplating the purchaee of a propeller you may quote me as saying that I consider "Paragon in propellers the synonym of perfection in propeller con struction at this date. You may rest assured that I will give you the order for the two propallara on the passangsr machine which I an now building.

Thanking you again for the courteous ettention and promptness with which you have made deliveries. F bag to remain.

Sincerely wours,

Mr. Willard telegraphs—"Standing thrust 390 pounds at 1100 revolutions, hard wood screw on Gnome engine (7f feet diameter by 5.70 foot pitch)."

Mr. Curtiss telegraphs—"Propeller developed as follows: No. 2 (7 feet diameter by 5.75 pitch) 360 pounds thrust at 1200 R. P M.; No. 3 (7 feet diameter by 6.20 pitch) 350 pounds at 1190 R. P. M. No. 2 very satisfactory in flight and probably nearest correct. Ship 7 foot 6 by 7 pitch to Belmont Park for Gordon-Bennett racer."

Roberts Motor Co. telegraphs—"The eight foot Paragon Propeller with five foot pitch gave a thrust of four hundred pounds on our forty horsepower motor when running at only nine hundred revolutions per minute. We consider this a remarkable showing."

Using a paragon Propeller Mr. GLENN H. CURTISS won the great speed contest at Los Angeles in 1910, defeating Radley (Bleriot), Ely (Curtiss), Parmelee (Wright), and Latham (Antoinette).

We have sold thousands of dollars worth of propellers with the remarkable record of not a single dissatisfied customer, and only one exchange for a different size or pitch ever being required.

We will send price-list and printed form for information about your machine so we can advise you just what propeller to use.

The most successful aviators in America use and recommend PARAGON PROPELLERS.

American Propeller Co. WashiDgt0D'D-c-

COUNTLESS theories have been offered in the past in explanation of the phenomena of soaring flight. Although I have studied all the available matter pertaining to this subject I know of only two theories that seem to give the most plausible solution of this problem. One of these is the quite common conception of soaring flight as being made possible by rising air currents—the other is the action and re-action theory of Prof. J. J. Montgomery which though deep and difficult to understand, is so well in accordance with phenomena that actually take place that I am thoroughly convinced of its accuracy.!

It is quite evident that birds do take advantage of rising currents to perform certain feats, but soaring flight is not dependent upon these. I had a good opportunity while on a trip to Florida by steamer of observing instances that illustrate this point. I have watched gulls following a steamer which was running against a stiff head wind. The birds could not soar fast enough to keep up with the vessel in the horizontal wind so they would flap their wings until they would reach the rising current caused by the wind being deflected from the deck.* Then they would decrease the angle of their wings thus decreasing the head resistance and thereby increasing their speed to that of the ship.

At other times during the trip when the steamer was running with the wind I have seen the gulls soar in wide circles around it. Sometimes rising, sometimes falling, and all without the stroke of a wing. Under these circumstances it would be impossible for them to take advantage of a rising current caused by the ship and a local rising current in mid-ocean would be highly improbable.

I have a good opportunity in Florida to watch the flight of soaring birds, notably hawks and vultures, and have proved to my own satisfaction that a bird can soar upward on motionless wings without the assistance of rising air currents.

JThis theory was presented to the aeronautical congress in 1S93. Also treated in "Vehicles of the Air," by Victor Lougheed, and by Prof. Montgomery in AERONAUTICS.

♦This rising current was located by liberating small pieces of tissue paper.

I once observed a turkey buzzard sailing over an open field at a height of about fifteen feet. He flew within a short distance of where I was standing so I could see him very plainly. "Without once flapping his wings he rose a hundred feet or more in less than a half a minute and then sailed off until he was lost in the distance. I went to the spot immediately and released some light cotton fiber which I had with me for this Dur-pose. It fell to the ground in a very short distance, thus proving the rising current to be nil or at least too slight to have any marked effect on the bird. Wilbur Wright has made the statement in the presence of the writer that his biplane gliders would glide over the face of a hill whose angle was so fiat that turkey buzzards in order to fly over the same course were forced to flap their wings.

This is a very interesting observation but from my study of soaring birds I will take the liberty of saying that the subjects of these observations may not have been real turkey buzzards.% This I take from the fact that there are three kinds of vultures in our southeastern states. Namely, the carrion crow, the black vulture and the turkey buzzard. The only distinguishing feature of the latter variety is its slightly greater size and its red head, the heads of the other two species being black. The flight of the turkey buzzard is much superior to that of his black-headed relations. It is very seldom that he flaps his wings and when he does, it requires so much exertion on his part that it is impossible for him to make more than three or four wing strokes without stopping to rest. The other two vultures do not possess the wonderful gliding power of the turkey buzzard. On this account it is necessary for them to flap their wings at short intervals throughout their flight.

Owing to Mr. Wright's statement to the effect that he has never seen anything to make him believe that birds can glide at any flatter angle than the gliders of the present day I am inclined to think that his observations have been limited to vultures of the black-headed variety, for I have often seen the turkey buzzard make glides terminating several hundred feet higher than the starting point when all the means at my disposal failed to reveal an ascending current.

{Continued on page 177)

SOME FACTS ABOUT SOARING FLIGHT

By E. T. Andrews.

THE INFLUENCE OF MULTI-POINT IGNITION ON THE EFFICIENCY AND OUTPUT OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

By Otto Heins.

AGIVEN engine supplied with a given volume of uniform mixture will deliver its maximum output if ignition and combustion occur when the combustion space is of minimum volume, but up to the present this condition has been impossible to realize.

REASON FOR TIMING LEAD. The time required for the propagation of the flame throughout the mixture has made it necessary to cause ignition before the piston reached the dead center. This entails a loss of efficiency, because, in the first place, Ibe combustion space is not of minimum volume when pressure is produced; and, in the second place, because of the heat loss that will result from the long contact of the burning charge with an unnecessarily large cylinder wall surface. Further loss of efficiency may be traced to secondary effects, such as thrusts due to the unfavorable angle of the connecting rod, the less homogeneous quality of the mixture, etc.

TIMING RANGE.

With engines of automobile types, and at the piston speeds common to that class, the ignition lead required to compensate for the time of flame propagation varies from 15 (leg. to 45 deg. In order to compensate for the mechanical and electrical lag existing in many ignition systems, it is often necessary to provide a considerably greater advance than even 45 deg. This timing range is usually controlled by hand, but in some instances automatic devices are provided for the sake of simplicity and to prevent the unskilful use of the spark control.

It is obvious, of course, that the maximum power production is identical with either of these {wo methods.

ADVANCE DUE TO TIME REQUIRED FOR FLAME PROPAGATION. The lag existing in these ignition systems is eliminated in the true high-tension magneto, and with this instrument the only advance required is that necessary in allowing for flame propagation. The efficiency and output of an engine will increase directly with the reduction in the time required for flame propagation, and the conditions influencing this are of interest to the engine manufacturer. It is the function of an ignition system to raise certain particles of the mixture to such a temperature that they will ignite, and from this combustion center the flame spreads throughout the mass until all particles are inflamed.

MULTT-POINT IGNITION.

It is obvious that if ignition occurs simultaneously at two or more points properly located in the combustion space, the time required for the complete inflammation of the mixture will be reduced. As an every-day example of the application of this principle, it will be understood that if a sheet of paper is ignited at one corner the flame will have but one direction in which to spread, and combustion will proceed slowly. If the sheel is set on lire at the center, the flame may spread in all directions, and combustion will proceed somewhat faster. Obviously, the progress of combustion will be much more rapid if ignition occurs simultaneously at two or more points, as, for example, at opposite sides.

The advantage of two-point ignition has been thoroughly admitted theoretically, but practically the development of the idea has been hampered by difficulties in producing absolutely simultaneous sparks, A magneto has recently

been introduced which solves the problem. As a result of the use of this instrument, ignition is produced simultaneously at two points in each cylinder, with the result that the time interval between the instant of ignition and the completion of combustion is very greatly reduced.

PLUG LOCATION.

Before proceeding with further explanations, however, it must be emphasized that the success of the system is dependent very largely upon the location of the spark plugs. If the spark plugs are placed in close proximity, as, for example, one vertically in an inlet valve cap, and the other horizontally in the side of the same pocket, there will be no noticeable difference whether ignition occurs at both spark plugs or at one, for in either ease the flame must spread from one side of the combustion space to the other.

Location of Plugs in Test Engine.

If the spark plugs are located at widely sep-» arated points, a.s will be the case with one plug located in the inlet valve cap and one in the exhaust valve cap, then the distance through which each of the two flames must travel will be very considerably reduced.

Fig. I illustrates the cross-section of a "T"-head cylinder of standard design, and it will he noted that the. spark plugs in this are located in the valve caps. It can be seen that the distance through which the flame must travel, if it originates at the two points simultaneously, will be much less than the distance to be traveled should ignition occur at but one point. The object of multi-point ignition is to reduce the time required for llame propagation as much as possible, and in this diagram it will he seen that there is a much greater volume of charge contained in the space between the two spark plugs than there is in the space between the individual spark plugs and the walls of their valve pockets. In other words, when ignition occurs a1 a plug, the flame will spread throughout the mixture in all directions, but a longer time wiil be required for the propagation of the llame from the plugs to the center of the combustion space than will be necessary in other directions.

A better arrangement of the plugs will he such as to require practically the same time for the spread of the flame from the ignition point through the charge in all directions.

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SIMULTANEOUS IGNITION. Furthermore, the sparks must occur at exactly the same instant, for the slightest difference in the occurrence of the sparks will reduce the advantage of the system. For this reason it is essential to arrange a single source of current with a single circuit-breaker, for this is the only way to prevent the inaccuracies that will he the unavoidable result of the wearing of the parts.

TEST RESULTS.

A series of tests has been made on a 4-cyl-inder "T"-head engine, built by the Chester Engineering Company, mounted on the dynamometer of the Automobile Club of America, that illustrates the above facts.

The engine is .T 9-10-in. bore by 4 %-in. stroke, and is fitted with a two-point ISosch magneto controlled by a switch that permits ignition by either of the two series of plugs or by both. This gives a ready means of comparing the power output of single-point ignition with that of two-point.

Fig. 2 is a compilation of these results.

The greatest power output with single-point ignition with an advance of 45 deg. is 24 h.p., and the same output was attained with two-point ignition with an advance of but 19 deg. With two-point ignition the extreme power output with an advance of P>2 deg. was 2S h.p. This is an increase of 4 h.p. or lfl.fi per cent.

over the best results with single-puint ignition.

It will be seen tnat the use of a properly installed two-point ignition system will result in a great reduction of the necessary lead, and consequently in a corresponding increase in efficiency and output.

It will be observed from the curve that the number of revolutions at which stated power will be produced witli two-point ignition is very considerably below the number of revolutions at which single-point ignition will produce the same power.

This indicates a corresponding saving in the consumption of fuel, and experience shows this assumption to be correct.

The development of multi-point ignition will undoubtedly result in a still greater advantage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OK TWO-POINT IGNITION.

Where the utmost power is not required, and where it is an advantage to simplify the construction and control as much as possible, the magneto should be given a moderate advance to produce approximately the same output as single-point ignition at the most favorable advance. This will permit fixed ignition to be used, and, in addition to the resulting simplification, it will insure the complete combustion of tile charge under any condition. Wy using a switch permitting ignition on one series of plugs or on both, the effect of retarding is ob-

tained by employing but one series for starting and slow running, while both series may be used for operation at speed.

For commercial cars the use of fixed ignition of this character with a moderate advance will insure maximum economy and will protect the engine in a great measure from injury through the unskilful use of the controls.

In cases where the maximum output must be attained, as is required on racing engines for automobile, marine and aeronautic purposes, the most favorable advance should be selected (approximately 30 deg.) and hand control provided.

OTHER ADVANTAGES.

Aside from increasing the output, the system has the advantage of greatly reducing the ill effects of a defective spark plug or cable; inasmuch as the two plugs are in series with the armature, it follows that the failure of one of them will not interfere with the operation of the other.

PRACTICAL RESULTS. • As concrete examples of the results accomplished by this two-point magneto, attention may be called to the performances of winning cars in the racing events of the late season. The actual gain in speed on the road by the Marmon and Lozier cars, for example, as a result of changing from single-point to two-point ignition, was from 3 to 5 miles per hour, and the stock Lozier that established an American record by averaging better than 73 miles per hour at Santa Monica was equipped with a Bosch two-point magneto.

CONSTRUCTION. In construction the two-point magneto is identical in every respect with the standard instrument, with the single exception that a second distributer is provided to serve the additional set of spark plugs. To this distributer is led that end of the armature winding which in the standard magneto is grounded. The timing is controlled by the single interrupter, which is standard in every respect.

ARMY TO HAVE 30 AVIATORS

THE fh-st intimation the public has had of the ^lans of the Army in aeronautics since it received its $125,000 appropriation, was given out by Brigadier-General James Allen at the Aero Club banquet. This sum is rather small, but General Allen feels that the results will show our Missourian Congress the value of the aeroplane with a more liberal appropriation as a result next session.

After commenting on the surprise the first Wright machine furnished in 1907 and 190S and the great lOG-mile flight cross country of P. O. Parmalee and Lt. B. D. Foulois, and other llights made by them at the San Antonio mobilization, he said:

By General James Allen. "We have also sent there from the Curtiss camp in California three officers who have been trained under Mr. Curtiss. We have sent them there to San Antonio in connection with one Wright machine and one Curtiss, so, in connection with Mr. Collier's machine, which he has loaned us, we will have three planes there. We have bought two.

TO BUY MORE AEROPLANES.

"We now desire to buy during the next year as many aeroplanes as we can buy from the amount of money appropriated, which is $125,000. We want to buy, first, aeroplanes that have demonstrated by actual flight and which are well known in the country, that are fitted for military work. We want to take over a certain number of them, and also to encourage as far as possible the building of all types of machines. We want to advance, as far as possible, the art of aviation through the entire country because, if anything occurs in this country where we would require the mobilization of a large number of troops, every aviator and every machine in the country would be necessary to carry out our wishes. The aeroplane as it stands to-day is a very valuable military Instrument. What we want them to do is to do constantly and without fail the things they are doing to-day.

"We have at San Antonio a very fair place for flying. We have those machines. Another gentleman who has two other aeroplanes of a

Left to Right—Lt. Ellyson, U. S. N.; Lt. Beck, U. S. A,; G. H. Curtiss, Lt. Kelly, U. S. A., and Lt. Walker, U. S. A.

new type, as I believe, a very wealthy gentleman whom you all know, has put up two hangars there and shipped his machines down, and I hope to have quite a little aerodome there at San Antonio, perhaps five or six or seven machines.

""We are starting at Washington. We have a very fair ground there which we are going to fix up as best we can, probably three-fifths of a mile on each side. We will take it over just as fast as we can get the officers and men to train and get our hangars built. We will take over there a number of machines as fast as we can get them.

GOVERNMENT SHEDS FOR NOVICES.

"Perhaps in the next few months we will gei' four or Ave, and in addition to that we are going to ask everybody who has an aeroplane to go down there and we will furnish the hangars and they can train their men there. The Washington climate is perhaps a little better than New York. About nine months of the year there, there is perhaps not a day that you cannot fly. Quite a flight could be made away down the Potomac River and light right down on the ball grounds which end at the White House. It will make a great place for training people, and "for people who want to lly it will afford a very delightful place. We have a fine reservation at Fort Riley and Fori Leavenworth, and I think at Governors Island; that place will be a good one, and also at West Point. We are going to try and put up these buildings on Government reservations as fast as we can, and I am sure the Government will allow anybody who wants to fly to come and put up their hangars on the Government reservations.

"There are flying-men now who are not so very expert, but we have no doubt in time they will accomplish all that is desired. We have not only got to train men to fly singly, but we have got to have a corps among them—have them fly in pairs. In France they are sending them ail out in numbers of five and ten. We cannot hope this year to train more than thirty officers. If we do we will be very fortunate, but next year I think we will be able to train many more. It is very important to have trained aviators in this country if there should be any occasion for the mobilization of any large army for any purpose whatever. Aviators would all be in demand, and we want as many men and machines as we can get."

NAVY OFFICER TRAINS AT WRIGHT SCHOOL.

Lieut. John Rodgers, of the U. S. Navy, has completed his course at the Dayton field of the Wright Company, taking eight lessons the first afternoon and operating the levers himself during two of his lessons. He is so enthusiastic that he is planning to purchase one himself and not wait for the Navy order, which is expected in July.

A Wright machine is expected to be located at Belmont Park around the first of June for the instruction of students and the carrying of passengers.

Five or six men are at the Dayton camp of the Wright Company learning to fly; and while the weather is windy, the work is beginning to open up in fine shape.

The second unit of the Wright factory is started and will he completed within a month. This will give added facilities which are very much needed in the manufacturing department

Business on the selling end is reported as very good, the factory being loaded up with work for the next two months.

Lieut. Rodgers, of the United States Navy, despite almost continual bad weather, has completed his training at the Wright camp and on April ISth flew the machine alone for the first time.

Lieut. John Rodgers, U. S. Navy, in Wright Biplane—Note Extra Lsver. Aviator Can 17ot Use Either Seat.

AT the last conference of the International Aeronautic Federation the system for keeping records, established previously by the Mixed Aerial Commission, of France," was modified and adopted. No notice will now be taken of world's records for 1 and 2 kilometers over a closed circle, nor a speed record not in a closed circle. The system is as follows: (I) Records of Speed, (2) Records of Time, (3) Records of Distance, (4) Records of Duration, (5) Records of Height, (6) Records for Climbing, and (7) Speed in Kilometers per Hour. These are classed as (A) records made alone, (B) records made with 1, 2, 3, etc., passengers.

These, in more extended shape, are as follows: (1) best speed over 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500 kilometers? progressing thereafter by 50 kils.; (2) greatest distance covered in %, Ys, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, IS, 21, 24 hours, and every 12 hours beyond; (3) longest distance; (4) longest duration; (5) greatest height reached measured above the starting point, each successive flight to be at least 100 meters higher than the previous one to constitute a record; (6) climbing speed, measured by 500 meters and in multiples of 500 meters, registered by "a barograph, recording at the same time both altitude and speed; (7) speed expressed in kilometers per hour.

IN CLOSED CIRCUIT, WITHOUT STOP.

ONE-MAN WORLD RECORDS.

Duration—8 h. 12 m. 47.4 s.-, distance made, 463.6 kils. (288.06 miles); H. Farman (II. Far-man), Etampes, Fr., Dec. IS, 1910.

Distance—584.745 kils. (363.34 miles); time, 7 h. 48 m. 31.6 s.; Maurice*-Bwtwteau (M. Far-man), Hue, Fr., Dec. 30, 1910.

Altitude—3,100 meters (10,168 ft.); G. Legag-neux (Bleriot), Pan, Fr., Dec. 9, 1910.

Speed (in K. P. H.)—109.24 (07.87 m. p. h.); Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot), Belmont, Oct. 29, 1910.

Speed Over Given Distances—

5 kil.—2 m. 44.78 s., Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot),

Belmont Park, Oct. 29, 1910. 10 kil.—5 m. 30.92 s., Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot),

Belmont Park, Oct. 29, 1910. 20 kil.—11 m. 04.78 s., Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot),

Belmont Park, Oct. 29, 1910, 30 kil.—16 m. 38.31 s., Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot),

Belmont Park, Oct. 29, 1910. 40 kil.—22 m. 12.58 s., Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot),

Belmont Park, Oct. 29, 1910. 50 kil.—27 m. 4S.70 s., Alfred Lablanc. (Bleriot),

Belmont Park, Oct. 29, 1910. 100 kil.—1 h. 0 m. 41.09 s., C. Grahame-White

(Bleriot), Belmont Park, Oct. 29,

1910.

150 kil. —1 h. 43 m. 19.6 s., Emile Aubrun (Bleriot), Bordeaux, Sept. 14. 1910. 200 kil.—2 h. IS m. 30.6 s., Emile Aubrun (Bleriot), Bordeaux, Sept. 14, 191-0. 250 kil.—3 h. 4 m. 28.2 s., P. M. Bournique

(R. E. P.), Buc, Dec. 31, 1910. 300 kil—3 h. 40 m. 55.4 s., P. M. Bournique

(R. E. P. >, Buc, Dec. 31, 1910. 350 kil.—4 h. 17 m. 26.2 s., P. M. Bournique

(P.. E. P.), Buc, Dec. 31, 1910. 400 kil.—4 h. 54 m. 6.S s., P. M. Bournique

(R. E. P.), Buc, Dec. 31, 1910. 450 kil.—5 h. 30 m. 35.6 s., I'. M. Bournique

( It. E. P.), Buc, Dec. 31, 1910. 50O kil.—0 h. 7 m. 7.S T. M. Bournique (R. 10. P.), Buc, Dec. 31, 1910. Distance for Certain Period— Vi hour 25 kil., Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot)

Belmont, Oct. 29, 1910. y2 hour —50 kil., Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot) Belmont, Oct. 29. 1910. 1 hour —95 kil., Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot)

Belmont, Oct. 29, 1910. 1 hour —95 kil., ('. G. While (Bleriot), Belmont, Oct. 29, 1910.

5

'kil.

10

kil,

20

kil,

30

kil,

40

kil,

50

kil.

100

kil

150

kil.

2 hours—167.5 kil., E. Aubrun (Bleriot), Bor-

deaux, Sept. 16, 1910.

3 hours—252.5 kil., E. Aubrun (Bleriot), Bor-

deaux, Sept. 16, 1910. 1 hours—325.905 kil., P. M. Bournique (R. E.

1'.), Buc, Dec. 31, 1910. 5 hours—407.675 kil., P. M. Bournique (R. E.

P.), Buc, Dec. 31, 1910".

0 hours—490 kil., P. M. Bournique (R. E. P.),

Buc, Dec. 31, 1910. 7 hours—522.935 kil., Tabuteau (M. Farman),

Buc, Dec. 30v 1910. S hours—451 kil., H. Farman (H. Farman), Etampes, Dec. IS, 1910. TWO-MAN WORLD RECORDS. Duration—3 h. 19 m. 39.8 s., Amerigo (Avia-tik), Germany, Dec. 11, 1910.

Distance—150 kil., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 6, 1911.

Fastest Speed (in K. P. H.)—103.211 k. p. h, Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 6, 1911.

Altitude—428 m., Verschaeve, Belgium, Jan. 29, 1911.

Speed Over Certain Distances—

m., 15.8 s., G. Busson (Deperdussin), Rheims, Feb. 11, 1911. m. 5S.2 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 6, 1911.

I m. 54.6 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 0, 1911.

7 m. 53.2 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 6, 1911.

I in. 57.6 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 6, 1911.

) m. 3S.6 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 6, 1911.

9 m. 16 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 6, 1911.

h. 2S m. 37.S s., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 6, 1911. Distance in Certain Period—

Vs hour—23.54, G. Busson (Deperdussin), Feb. 11, 1911.

V2 hour—4 6.515, G. Busson (Deperdussin), Feb. 11, 1911.

1 hour—KM.25 kil., Nieuport, March 6, 1911.

THREE-MAN WORLD RECORDS.

Duration—1 h. 3S m. 40 s., J. Mamet (Bleriot), Rheims, July 9, 1910.

Longest Distance—110 kil., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 9, 1911.

Speed in K. P. H.—102.855 k. p. h., Nieuport,

^Mourmelon, March 9, 1911.

Speed—

10 kil.—0 in., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March 9, 1911.

20 kil.—11 m. 59.4 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon,

March 9, 1911. 30 kil.—17 m. 52.6 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon,

March 9, 1911. 40 kil.—22 m. 44.4 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon,

March 9, 1911. 50 kil.—29 m. 37.4 s., Nieuport, Mourmelon,

March 9, 1911. 100 kil.—59 m. Ss., Nieuport, Mourmelon, March

9, 1911.

POUR-MAN WORLD RECORDS.

Longest Distance—50 kil., G. Busson (Deperdussin), Rheims, March 10, 1911.

Duration—31 m. 23.2 s., G. Busson (Deperdussin). Rheims, March 10, 1911.

Greatest Speed (in K. P. H.)—90.30S k. p. h., G. Busson (Deperdussin), Rheims, March 10, 1911.

Speed Over Certain Distances—

10 kil.—6 m. 16.6 s., G. Busson (Deperdussin),

Rheims, March 10, 1911. 20 kil.—12 m. 34.2 s., G. Busson (Deperdussin).

Rheims, March 10, 1911. 30 kil.—IS in. 48 s., G. Busson (Deperdussin).

Rheims, March 10, 1911. 10 kil.—25 m. 5.6 s., G. Busson (Deperdussin),

Rheims, March 10, 1911. 50 kil.—31 m. 23.2 s., G. Busson (Deperdussin),

Rheims, March 10, 1911.

CLOSH^ CIRCLE AEROPLANE RECORDS

By Geo. H. Scragg.

FIVE-MAN WORLD RECORDS.

Duration—17 in. 2S.2 s., Husson (Deperdus-sin), Rheims, March 10,, mil.

Distance—25.74 kil., Busson (Deperdussin), Rheims, March 10, 1011.

Greatest Speed (in K. P. H.)—S7.251 k. p. h., Busson (Deperdussin), Rheims. March 10, 1911.

Speed—

5 kil.—3 m. 34 s., Busson (Deperdussin),

Rheims. March 10. 1911. 10 kil.—7 m. S s., Busson (Deperdussin).

Rheims, March 10, 1911. 20 kil.—14 m. 0.6 s., Busson (Deperdussin),

Rheims, March 10, 1911.

ONE-MAN AMERICAN RECORDS.

Distance—101 miles 3S9 ft., Johnstone (Wright), Boston, Sept. 19. 1910.

Duration—3 h. 3S m. 49.5 s., P. O. Parmalee (Wright), San Francisco, Jan. 22, 1911.

Fastest Speed—67.S7 m. p. h., Leblanc (Bler-iot). Belmont, Oct. 29, 1910.

Altitude—10.42S ft., Hoxsev (Wright), Los Angeles, Dec. 30. 1910.

Speed for 5-100 Kil.—See under "World Records."

Distance for Certain Period—

J,4 hour—See under "World Records." V2 hour—See under "World Records." 1 hour—See under "World Records."

TWO-MAN AMERICAN RECORDS.

Duration—1 h. 12 m. 40 s.. O. Wright (Wright), Ft. Myer, Va., July 27, 1909. Distance not measured.

THREE-MAN AMERICAN RECORDS.

Duration—2 m. 51 s., C. G. White (H. Par-man), Belmont, Oct. 30, 1910.

WORLD FREE BALLOON RECORDS.

Distance—1,925 kil. (1,195 miles). Count de la Vaulx, Paris to Korostvchew, Russia, Oct. 9-11, 1900.

Duration—73 h., Col. Schaeck, Berlin, Oct. 10.-12, 190S.

Altitude—10.S00 m. (35.424 ft.), Profs. Suring and Berson, Berlin. Germany, Julv 31, 1901. (James Glaisher claimed 37.000 ft. in 1S62.)

AMERICAN FREE BALLOON RECORDS.

Distance—1,172.9 miles, Alan R. Hawley and Augustus Post, St. Louis to near Dake St. John, Que., Oct. 17-19, 1910.

HONEYWELL MAKES LONG TRIP.

SAN ANTONIO, Tex.. April 10.—Lieut. H. E. Honeywell, who with his aide, J. W. Tolland, started at 6.35 in an effort to lift the Lahm Cup and break the world's long distance balloon record, descended at Little Rock, Ark., after traveling through the air 505 miles.

Thev landed 15 miles south of Little Rock. Ark., at 1.30 P. M., after being in the air 19 hours.

"Throughout Tuesday we sailed through favorable air currents, but exhausted them at altitude of 10,000 feet. We headed south with 30 sacks of ballast. We left San Antonio with 47. We encountered rain, thunder and lightning in the clouds all last night, and dodging thunder storms during the day, passed over Hot Springs twice within an hour."

When the start was made in the rain at San Antonio on Monday evening the big gas bag shot off in fine shape, sailing to the west. The wind was then blowing 30 miles an hour. The balloon was so ballasted that it immediately rose to a height of 2,000, feet, where the best currents north and northeast were to lie found. Lieut. Honeywell hoped to land somewhere in Canada.

OTHER ASCENSIONS.

NORTH ADAMS, Mass., April 13.— With Leo Stevens as pilot and four passengers, the bal-

Duration—4S h. 26 m., Clifford B. Harmon and Augustus Post, St. l^ouis. Mo., Oct. -1,1909.

WORLD DIRIGIBLE RECORDS.

Distance—450 kil./C279 miles), "Braeeiano 1-bis." Naples, Italy, A909.

Duration—7 h. V> m., "Republiciue," Meudon. France, Aug. 4. l/09.

Altitude—l.Nii/ m. (5.0S4 ft. >, "Clement-Bayard," Sartrouville, France, Aug. 23, 1909.

AMERICAN DIRIGIBLE RECORDS.

Duration and Speed—D. S. Gov. No. 1, Capt. T. S. Baldwin, Ft. Myer to Cherrydale and return. Aug. 14-15, 1908. Our. 2 h. 1 m. 50 s.; speed 19.61 miles per hour. Separate ascents.

WORLD KITE RECORD.

Altitude—23,S00 ft., lit. Weather observatory. May 5, 1910.

WORLD SOUNDING BALLOON RECORD.

Altitude—29,040 m. (95,251.2 ft.), Royal Observatory, Brussels, Belgium, Nov. 5, 1908.

Whatever the value of the International Federation may be to aero clubs, it certainly is of little use for the keeping of records, which, until passed upon by this body, are not supposed to be records. Only lately has it made up a list of records to Dec. 31. 1010,. Sets of supposed records sent the I. A. F. in December for correction never got back until March, until several letters had been written asking "why."

When received, they were useless for the purpose of knowing what were correct records, and what not. According to their list, Leblanc won the Gordon-Bennett, "Grimy" White carried two passengers 2 hours 51 minutes, and Hoxsev has the world altitude record of 11,474 ft., which latter has never been reported abroad by the Aero Club of America, for reasons explained heretofore.

Records given in the official organ "Aero-phile," are left out final I v in the "official" list of the I. A. F. If the L A. F. and Aerophile don't know what are records and what not, who does? Accuracy, certainly, is not a strong point with the international body.

The above records comprise the 1. A. K. ligures, except where we know they are wrong. For the correctness of the others, we put our trust in God and shut our eyes.

The above foreign records have been compiled abroad and sent by our correspondent.

loon Cleveland left here at 10 A. M. to-day for a trip over several New England States.

The passengers were Harry Brown, William M. Ililliard, Dr. lleber Bishop and Norman Prince.

The balloon landed at East Alstead, N. II., after a trip of 2 V2 hours.

FOUR JUST ESCAPE ACCIDENT.

ST. LOUIS, April 9.—Lieut. Andrew Drew, of the Signal Corps of the Missouri National Guard, idiot; Lieut. John P. Hart and Sergts. Bayard Brookman and Jos. Obermeyer. had a close shave in the St. Louis 111 when the balloon dropped so rapidly, after crossing part of the city, that 10 bags of ballast had to be cut loose one after the other to check the descent and the basket hit a chimney and then a rock-pile, throwing out one passenger. It jumped again and made its final goal. No one was injured. The balloon was old and patched.

NORTH ADAMS, Mass., April S. 11. P. Shearman, president of Williams College Aero Society, and John Haas, in the North Adams No. 1 to Lanesboro, being in the air for 2 hours 15 minutes. This is the first time Mr. Shearman has piloted a balloon.

ST. LOUIS. March 2(1.-11. Eugene Honeywell, Knox Taussig, Guy W. Taussig and Wooster Lambert in the St. Louis IV to Cairo, 111.

ON April 29 there will be held at the Hotel Cumberland, New York, the organization meeting of the Aeronautical Manufacturers Association. Following the launching of the project in the last issue of AERONAUTICS, an organization committee got actively to work and after a great deal of time and consideration had been given to the probable success of the scheme, decided to attempt the perfecting of such a body.

Tentative constitution and by-laws have been drafted for consideration at the coming meeting. Letters of invitation have been sent out to the legitimate manufacturers, jobbers and dealers in this country.

From the replies received thus far, April 20, the meeting bids fair to he a big one. Delegates are coming from the far West. Those who cannot come have written in expressions of co-operation. Long-distance telephone messages have been received, all enthusiastic as to the possibilities for good such an organization can be made.

A national law, such as holds in the marine industry, should be framed, instead of allowing any state to make its own freak laws, similar to the automobile licensing situation now. -'3,

The public must be shown that there is a really bona fide industry. At the present moment the "game" has no very enviable reputation.

The discouragement of exhibition flights by men who are not competent would go far toward raising the art and science from its present level. In the absence of a national law, it would create an increased number of men who hold Aero Club pilot licenses. This would benefit the Aero Club of America and its affiliated clubs.

The A. M. A. should deserve the support of every aero club in the country. The A. M. A. can do more to help the clubs than can be done in any other way.

The Organization Committee consists of E. L. Jones, publisher AERONAUTICS; A. W. Lawson, editor "Aircraft;" S. E. White, F. D. Wood, the White & Wood Co.: S. Y. Beach. "Scientific American;" John Trevor Oustis, managing editor Philadelphia "Inquirer."

Purposes.

The general purposes for which the Aeronautical Manufacturers' Association is to be formed might be stated as follows:

To foster, promote and encourage the introduction and use of air craft of every character and description; to foster and promote the introduction of all means and systems of aviation; to establish, conduct and operate means and places of disseminating information as to the adaptability, construction and use of such means and systems of aeronautics and of air craft and their accessories, parts and equipment, and for such purposes to establish, conduct and manage exhibitions, displays, tests, trials and demonstrations in such form and manner as this corporation may adopt; to promote and encourage in all lawful ways the adoption and enforcement of laws and regulations providing for and securing safety, convenience and comfort in the use, keeping and operation of air craft, and of means and systems of aeronautics; to encourage and assist in the establishment and maintenance of improved courses, signals, signs of direction and all other means of rendering the use of air craft and all manner of air vehicles more secure and attractive; to afford opportunity to the members of associating and interchanging views with one and another, and establishing customs, plans and systems, to the end that the manufacture, disposition and use of air craft may be improved, the services to and the requirement of the trade better appreciated and fulfilled to the mutual advantage of the manu-

facturer, dealer and the purchaser of such vehicles and property; to gather, obtain and procure information and intelligence for the use and benefit of its members and to the credits and standing of firms, corporations and individuals; to do, perform, engage in such other things as may be incidental to or that may facilitate the purpose's of this corporation

To arrange and care for the machines of members of this corporation at shows, race meets and other places.

To do anj- and all things, in furtherance of the objects set forth above, or aid in the general advancement of the business, profession or trade of air craft of every description and any other manner or mode of travel through the air.

Suggested Work for the Association.

The promoters of all indoor aero shows would be obliged, in order to obtain exhibits, to show proof to the executive officers or the proper committee of ability to conduct a show properly and of financial resources sufficient to cover all possible indebtedness of the show, or furnish a bond covering this point. A vote by mail would be taken of all members and the majority vote would rule for or against the show. If in favor of it, the result would be a truly national representative exposition, to the benefit of the exhibitors as well as the promoter.

The Association would obviously be in a position to prevent any exhibition of a national character being held or given by irresponsible people.

The Association should require a percentage of net profits to be returned to exhibitors on a basis of space purchased by each. The Association could, when strong enough, conduct its own shows and possiblv cover all the expenses of the exhibit.

The Association would be in a position to protect its members and individuals or others outside the body from unscrupulous schemers, promoters or impossible exploitations.

A system of credit information might be arranged for the benefit of members.

The Association by taking in only reputable manufacturers, jobbers or dealers, would be in a position to more or less discourage fraudulent and misrepresenting houses and promotion schemes.

Laws for the licensing of machines, traffic rules, transportation rates, etc., could be urged by an organized body such as this.

The establishment of a laboratory, similar to that of the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, might eventually result for the good of all members and others interested in the art and science of aviation.

The standardization of certain material, uniform formulas for horsepower, etc., the compilation of aerodynamic data, would in time be considered by the Association.

The upholding of patents, the restriction of dangerous practices, the investigation and exposition of frauds, the furtherance of endurance, speed and other tests, the arranging of tours, the elimination of the charlatan and aerial mountebank, and the uplifting-of the industry in general should deserve the attention of this body.

As the Association grows with progress in the industry, new and fruitful fields will be discovered for cultivation by this body. It car be made a tower of strength to the industry and a monumental support to bona fide sporting and scientific institutions throughout the United States. These suggestions are but the first thoughts of some of those deeply interested in advancement who see the need for such an organization and observe the future possibilities for good.

(Continued on page 179)

AERONAUTICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(AERONAUTICS has frequently teen adversely criticised—by members of the Aero Club of America—for its rather independent attitude with reyarit to the club's deeds and shortcomings, and for the habit of telling readers its vieics.

To avoid any bona fide charge of unfairness, the club was actually asked to set forth in AERONAUTICS its views on the same subjects—and let the public decide as to any alleged unfairness. The offer was more than once refused.

In the complete history of the organization of the National Council, and its later >neetings, which has been printed in AERONAUTICS, facts have been given with scrupulous detail, with the obvious conclusions, as they seemed to the magazine, pointed out.

The National Council has been accorded the privilege of as much space as might be necessary to show that the faets that have been stated are untrue, or that the conclusions are incorrect.

AERONAUTICS feels free to criticise or praise, where either is due. Its policy is always one unbiased. Its columns are open for the full airing of any grievance as to ronarks for whieh the magazine stands sponsor.—The Editor.)

PRECEDED the evening before by a dinner to the delegates to the National Council, with Robert J. Collier, the president of the Council, as host, the National Council held its third meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria on April 4.

Mr. Collier was thoughtful in entertaining his guests and had as the object a harmonious session of the Council, in which he was entirely successful. Ills efforts are indeed laudable, but, unfortunately, do not result in any strengthening of the body of which he is the head. The reverse is rather true. Mr. Collier should be given credit, however, for his good intentions.

The attention of the 17 clubs present out of the total of 30 clubs belonging to the "National Council of the Aero Clubs of America," as its official title now is, was directed mainly to adopting in almost its exact wording a new agreement of organization and set of by-laws presented by the special committee appointed some time ago by the Executive Committee. This special committee was entrusted with the labor of obtaining a working arrangement with the Aero Club of America and the preparing of a new agreement and by-laws. The new agreement and by-laws are abstracted as follows:

AGREEMENT OF ORGANIZATION.

Name changed to "National Council of the Aero Clubs of America."

Executive Committee will admit incorporated clubs of 25 or more members where the annual dues are not less than $5. Each club to pay to Council $50 annual dues, latter to have privilege of assessment to extent of further $50, except in case of college clubs, which obtain reduced rate.

Each club in Council may be represented by two delegates, only one of whom can vote. Each club has but one vote.

All powers of the Council are vested in Executive Committee, consisting of President, four Vice-Presidents and 10 Representatives to be elected at the annual meeting.

The Rules Committee is comprised of three appointed by President and two named by Aero Club of America. This committee is to carry out the rules of the International Aeronautic Federation at all meets.

The Contest Committee also has five members, two appointed by the President and three named by Aero Club of America. This committee is supposed to enforce rules and regulations for conduct of meets.

"The Aero Club of America is confirmed as the representative of America in the International Aeronautic Federation, and as such shall have and is charged with the duty and responsibility of representing the Council and the Members of the Council in all international af-

fairs, and shall keep the Council advised at all times as to the progress and disposition of such matters."

Tho three paragraphs above cannot be changed by the Council without the concurrence of the Aero Club of America.

BY-LAWS.

The by-laws were passed as presented as a whole and, in general, conform to usual procedure. Below are the various committees provided for and the points relating to sanctions, etc., are mentioned:

The President can appoint the chairmen of the following committees, who in turn name their own committee members from delegates to the Council: Auditing, Membership, Law, Development, Transportation, Publicity, Academic.

One of the impossible duties of the Law Committee is the following: "To retain council * * * to prosecute or defend on behalf of the Council or any of its Member Clubs, such suits as may be necessary to assert or protect its or their property and rights, or to assert or establish any patent or other right of any person, firm or corporation, in any manner or thing directly or indirectly connected with the purposes and objects for which this Council is formed."

Clubs must pay $100 for a sanction for any meet or contest, which covers the first three days, and $30 thereafter for each day of the meet.

FEATURES OF NEW AGREEMENT. The first by-laws and agreement of the Council provided for the naming of the head of the Council by the Aero Club of America, and the Council was called the "National Council of the Aero Club of America." At the December 6 (1910) meeting of the Council this privilege of naming the head of the Council was given up by the Aero Club.

A. C. A. GIVES ONE—TAKES TWO.

At the April 4th meeting of the Council the Aero Club allowed the Council to change its name by one letter, making it "National Council of the Aero Clubs of America," but gained two important points, i. e„ the naming of two members on the Rules Committee and three members on the Contest Committee. Where the Club gave way in one point the Council gave way in two. Some of the delegates to the April Council meeting, men who were on the Council and Aero Club Conference Committees which drew up the new agreement and bylaws, were loud in their praise of the gracious attitude of the Aero Club and spoke of how much the Aero Club had given up—in fact, to hear them one would think the Aero Club had given everything to the Council save its virtue. The international relationship it could not give up, as that was a sacred thing, to be entrusted by the International Aeronautic Federation to no other body but the Aero Club of America.

To the onlooker and the aero club considering entrance into affiliation agreements with one or both of the two bodies, it looks as though the Council, since its capture at its organization meeting of June, 1910, had been thrown by the Aero Club of America, tied and branded; then turned loose to play.

A comparison of the privileges of affiliation with the Aero Club of America and membership in the Council is very much to the credit of the former body.

WHAT THE A. C. A. OFFERS AFFILIATED CLUBS FREE. Sanction for meets, free.

Services of official observer, his help on organization, rules, etc., at expense of railroad fare plus $10 per day.

NATIONAL COUNCIL AND AERO CLUB OF

AMERICA

International recognition of all records.

The holding of international meets.

Representation in the International Federation through the Aero Club.

Members of affiliated clubs have same standing abroad as members of the Aero Club itself.

Pilot licenses for spherical and dirigible ballooning and aviation.

Barographs and other instruments at rental of $5.

Competition for Lalim Cup and any other trophies, and all events of Aero Club or National Council.

Competition in National Championship Balloon Race.

Participation in all events controlled by International Federation.

WHAT THE COUNCIL OFFERS MEMBER CLUBS.

Meet sanctions at $100, plus $30 per day.

Competition in events sanctioned by Council.

International recognition of records if passed by Council on to Aero Club and by latter to the Federation, provided a representative of the Contest Committee of the N. C. be present when records are made.

REPORTS AND RESOLUTIONS.

The admittance to the Council was reported of the Aero Club of Nebraska and the Milwaukee Aeronautic Society.

Dr. A. F. Zahm was appointed a committee of one to draft proper resolutions congratulating Glenn H. Curtiss upon attaining so great a degree of success with his water machine.

On motion of Mr. Plew. the President was authorized to appoint a committee to confer with the Aero Club of America and discuss the question as to whether or not membership in the Council amounted to the same thing as affiliation with the Aero Club of America; a

number of aero clubs being already affiliated with the A. C. A. W. W. Miller, who, with Robert .1. Collier, was the Aero Club's delegate to the Council, said he saw no reason for future existence of affiliation agreements between other clubs and the Aero Club of America. ItI is safe to assume, however, that this view is] not shared by the governors of the Aero Club of America.

INTERNATIONAL BALLOON RACE TOR KANSAS CITY.

The National Council at its April 4th meet-l ing accepted the report of a special committee] which favored Kansas City as the site for the Gordon Bennett balloon race on October 5. The] elimination race to select the American team will take place July 10, at Kansas City. There will be nine balloons in the international event, three each from Germany, France and America. For the elimination race one balloon has already been entered by the Western Aero Association, the "Topeka."

The National Council was allowed by the Aero Club the privilege of naming the place for the holding of the international event this year. The new by-laws do not provide for such privilege in the future.

Kansas City has natural gas, which is popularly supposed to he of little use for ballooning, and particularly bad for racing. The gas company, however, states that by treating the natural gas it can be made as light at least as coal gas. with a specific gravity of .37 to .40. One million cubic, feet can be supplied through a 16-inch pipe. The natural gas is passed over a bed of incandescent fuel to increase its lifting capacitv. Kansas Citv agrees to offer $3,000) in prizes. The $5,000 heretofore put up by Bennett, the donor of the cup, is not offered this year. For the elimination race, free gas and "suitable" prizes are offered.

HOW TO MEASURE THE PITCH AT ANY POINT OF AN EXISTING PROPELLER

By Hugo C. Gibson

AT any distance from the hub mark points A and B upon the entering edge and the leaving edge. The angle of the line joining these points in relation to the plane of revolution of the propeller is the angle at which the air is attacked. The proportion of the propeller blade occupying the position of that angle would, in making one revolution, assuming that there be no slip, advance a certain distance through the medium upon which it is acting; in this case, air. This distance is the pitch, and to determine its magnitude proceed as follows:

From a table of tangents, which may be found in any engineering book such as Kent's, find the tangent of the angle which was meas-used as indicated above. Then form the equation

P

tan A =

3.1416 V D

where D — the diameter of the circle swept by the points A and B and P =: pitch.

Taking an instance: Mark the point A B at a radius of 3 ft. from the center of the propeller hub. Then those points will swing in a circle 6 ft. diameter, therefore, 1) — 6 ft.

Suppose the angle of the line A B to he at 17° 30", then the tangent of the angle 17° 30" is found from the table to be .31530. Substitute these figures in the equation, which then P

becomes .31530 — - .-. P — 3.1416 x

3.1416 y D 6 v .31530 .-. P— 5.94 feet.

The same process can be repeated at each position along the blade, taking a new D each time.

Jingle ojC

ffosjsection

John C. Montgomery, who presided in an original manner at the last annual dinner of the Aero Club of America, practically admitted that he did not know an aeroplane from a meridian of longitude, and that before introducing the speakers of the evening he had sought enlightenment from Allan A. Ryan, the Wall Street president of the organization.

"I have studied •Young's Night Thoughts.'" said Mr. Montgomery, "and 'Pilgrim's Progress.' Never before this afternoon have I studied aeronautics. I purchased an aeronautical magazine to-day to read on my way to this dinner. And I want to tell you frankly that as far as 1 am concerned I prefer 'Young's, Night Thoughts.' So in my desperation for some definite information as ti> what aeronautics was all about. 1 applied to your president.I Mr. Ryan. Anil Mr. Ryan's reply was: 'How the hell should 1 know?' "

Cable: Aeronautic. New York Phone 4833 Columbus published by

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subscription rates United States. $3.00 Foreign $3.50 advertising representatives.

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No. 45 MAY, 1911 Vol. 8, No. 5

COPYRIGHT, I610, AERONAUTICS PRESS, INC.

Entered as second-class mailer September 22, 1908, at the Postoftlce New York, under the Ac! of March 3, 1879. AERONAUTICS is issued on the 20th of each month ^> All copy must be received by the 10th. Advertising pages close on the 15th. :: :: :: :: :: ::

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THE NEW FRAUD MEDIUM

THE editorial in the last issue of AERONAUTICS, entitled "Stop! Look!! Listen!!'." has brought out a wave of complimentary criticism from all over the country.

The art and science of aeronautics is being made the medium for numberless schemes and stock flotations; many purely fraudulent, others close to the border line.

Schemers are getting men with capital to back them, they buy or build an aeroplane and

solicit students at flight under the tutelage of "So-and-So." Those who know the tutor are familiar with the fact that he has never been in an aeroplane, yet he advertises to teach tlight.

Concerns advertise Curtiss or Bleriot machines at ridiculous prices—they do not even say "Curtiss-type" or "Bleriot-type" to distinguish bad copies from originals. All the automobile journals seem anxious to run half to full page advertisements, and even some of the aero papers fall for the contract. When the advertising bills are presented for payment there is "nothing doing;" perhaps one more insistent than another obtains a judgment. The advertiser immediately sells out the business.

The small towns are imposed upon by schemers and publicity campaigns are started to spread the news of a long-distance flight of several hundred miles or more from some place to the town doing the publicity work. An investigation of the mode of transportation shows up a photograph of a small model in flight, represented as the machine itself. Flights are claimed at some of the known aviation fields, where the aviator who is to make the wonderful flight is in fact unknown.

Engine manufacturers are constantly asked to furnish an engine for some 'plane, with great publicity to result to pay the engine maker for his share in the enterprise. Search often finds the aeroplane on paper only, a poor copy of some well-known type of machine, or the operator is totally inexperienced despite his claims to fame. Such a combination of engine maker and aviator is perfectly legitimate, of course, when the builder is honest and means to do his best; but more frequently the opposite is true.

Schools of aviation are being established about the country. These sometimes consist of nothing more than a desk, typewriter, stenographer and the "professor." How can one learn the science of aviation unless the instructor knows something of it himself? How can one learn the art of flying unless the school has a machine capable of successful flight? Prospective students should be sure that the school has at least these two advantages.

Various ones are entering the exhibition field, to the great disappointment of the public which pays. Boards of trade in small towns are contracting for flights with aviators who claim great records abroad, or at Mineola, or elsewhere: but these aviators are either unknown or unfavorably known at all these aviation centers. The day of the exhibition sees some poor attempts to get off the ground, or at best a short straightaway flight, and the management settles all or a portion of the agreed amount and vows "never again."

To the man with little money but a great ambition to become a famous aviator, working with every cent he can scrape up and his abun^ dance of energy, to schools who have some-Ihing definite to offer, to the small manufacturer of 'planes who is trying to sell where be can an honestly built machine capable of flight, to anyone legitimatelv offering anything to the public in the line of aeronautics, there are none but extend the very best wishes for success. But for the man who is using the aeroplane, like many another great invention as a vehicle for misrepresentative and fraudulent exploitations, there is nothing deserved but condemnation and exposure.

AERONAUTICS would like to hear from all who read this. If you know of any fraudulent operations write a letter stating the mere facts as you know them. Your letter will be held strictly confidential. If you can put your statements in the form of an affidavit, so much the better. If you can give the name of others from whom information may be secured, please do so. If the facts are borne out by investigation it is planned to present the evidence to the Post Otlice Department for its action.

If the "game" is to take its proper place and progress with the rapidity which its importance demands, it must be kept free from the Continued on page 78?

(Continued from April number)

Reference to drawings will show that two diagonals ran from the front wheel up and back to the top of the main frame, and two more from the wheel forward to the short cross-pieces near the apices of the A-frames; there is also a vertical strut which intersects two horizontal pieces running between the ends of the longer cross pieces of the A-frames. Altogether, there are five attachments on each side of the front wheel, through which the able bolt must pass; namely, the connections to the skid, to one of the diagonals to the engine bed, to one of the rear diagonals, to one of the front diagonals, and to one side of the fork carrying the vertical strut. Of these the skid attachments should be on the inside, closest to the wheel, and the engine-bed diagonals next.

The four additional diagonals running to the front wheel may be spruce of the same section used in the A-frames, or turned 1 inch round. At each end they have flattened ferrules of steel tubing. The beams of the A-frames have similar ferrules at the ends where they attach to the main frames. These attachments should be made on the socket holts of the struts on either side of the middle 6-foot section, and on the outer side of the main beams—not between the beam and the socket itself.

It is possible to make all the A-frames and diagonal braces of bamboo, if desired. Bamboos for this purpose should he between 1 and iy± inches in diameter; where ferrules are fitted on the ends the hole of the bamboo should be pluggd with wood, glued in place.

Generally in the construction of the outrigger frames the builder can use his own discretion to a considerable extent. There are innumerable details which can be varied-far too many to consider even a part of the possibilities in this limited space. Tf the builder runs across any detail which he does not see mentioned here, he may safely assume that any workmanlike job will suffice. Often the method may be adapted to the materials which the builder has on hand. The 'diagonal wires from the cross-pieces of the A-frames to the struts should be crossed.

RUDDER AND TAIL CONSTRUCTION.

The frames for the rudder and tail are constructed in much the same way as those for the elevator. Spruce sticks 1 by V2 inch are used throughout except for the piece at the back edge of the rudder and the long middle piece across the tail; these should be 114 by Yi inches. This long middle piece of the tail is laid across on top of the rest of the framework; when the cloth is put on, this makes the upper surface slightly convex, while the lower surface remains flat. The ends of this piece should be reinforced with sheet steel, fairly heavy, and drilled for J/i-inch bolts attaching the tail to the A-frames.

The rudder is hung from two posts extending above and below the tail. These posts may be set in cast aluminum sockets, such as may be obtained for 20 cents apiece from any supply hoase. The posts need not be more than %-ineh in diameter. At their outer ends they should have ferrules of steel tubing, and the turnbuckles or other attachments, for the truss wires are atached by a wood screw running into the end of each. From these posts the rudder may be hung on any light hinges the builder may find convenient, or on hinges improvised from screw eyes or eye-bolts, with a bolt passing through the eyes of each pair.

In steering, the rudder is controlled by a steering wheel carried on a. hinged post in front of the operator. This post should be

ash about 1 by 1% inches. It hinges at the bottom on a %-inch steel tube passing through it, supported at the ends on the diagonal beams to the engine-bed. Two diagonals of lighter tubing may be put in to hold the post centered between the two beams.

The post is, of course, upright, and the hub of the wheel is horizontal. The wheel may conveniently be mounted on a piece of tubing of the same size as the hub hole, run through the post, and held by a comparatively small bolt running through with a big washer on each end. The wheel is preferably of the motor-boat variety, with a groove around the rim for the steering cable.

The rear edge of the tail should be about an inch lower than the front. To make the rudder posts stand approximately vertical, wedge-shaped pieces of wood may be set under the sockets.

The steering connections should be of some of the flexible cables that are made for this purpose. There should be a double pulley on the post just under the wheel, and the cable should be led off the post just at the hinge at the bottom, so that swinging the post will not affect it. The cable is then carried under the lower main plane and out the lower beams of the A-frames. It is attached to the rudder at the back edge; snap-hooks should be used for easy disconnection in packing. Perhaps the best way of guiding the cable is, instead of using pulleys, to run it through short pieces of tubing, lashed to the beams with friction tape. 'j.he tubing can be bent without flattening by first filling it with melte'd lead, which after the bending can be melted out again.

AILERONS FOR LATERAL STABILITY.

The frame-work of the ailerons is made in the same way as that for the elevator, tail and rudder. The pieces around the edges should be lYs by Y? inches, as also the long strip laid over the top of the ribs. The ribs should be Ys by % inch. Each aileron has two holes, one for the strut to pass through, and the other for the diagonal truss-wires at their intersection. The back edge also has a notch in it to clear the fore-and-aft wires. Each aileron is hung on four strips of soft steel about y2 by 1/16-inch, twisted so that one end is at right angles to the other. These are arranged one on each side of the strut which passes through the aileron and one at each end. Bolts through the struts carry three of them, and the outer one is trussed by wires to each end of the outer strut.

A frame of %-inch steel tubing fits around the aviator's shoulders and is hinged to the seat, so that he can move it by leaning to one side or the other. This is connected by flexible cable to the rear edges of the ailerons, so that when the aviator leans to the left he will raise the left and lower the right aileron. The upper edges of the ailerons are directly connected to each other by a cable running along the upper front beam, so that they must always move together.

CLOTH COVERING OF THE PLANES.

Many different materials can be used successfully for covering the planes, and the materials chosen will depend largely on the condition of the builder's pocketbook. About 55 square yards of material will be required (in comparing prices per yard always consider the width, as this may vary from 2S to 50 inches). Rubberized silk, which is used on the standard Curtiss machines, is the most expensive covering; its cost may run up to a couple of hundred dollars. There are also several good aero cloths on the market which sell at 60 cents a square yard. There are also several brands of varnish, most of them,

166

* Begun in the February number.

HOW TO BUILD A CURTISS-TYPE BIPLANE*

By G. H. Godley

JUDDER

s

-2/6"-

 

y-"S

ELEVATOR Top View

6'0"

 

?-^

-/

 

\-)

I_J

<..... . 5'8" -

Is 1

ELEVAT0R|^ear5ide

 

_ AILE

TAIL

sockeTs for rudt)

6'3" - 6'0"

fer posB

l4

strut

)n

• a'io"

-6'0"-

3r0'

Construction of Frames of Elevator, Rudder, Tail and Ailerons.

however, quite expensive. The cheapest way, and one which will give good satisfaction, is to use a strong linen cloth coated with shellac.

Covering the planes with the cloth may well he postponed until after the engine has been installed and tested, thus avoiding the liberal splashings of oil and dirt which the cloth would otherwise receive during this process. For the sake of completeness, however, the covering will be considered here, with the above understanding.

First, the wire to which the cloth is laced must be strung along the rear ends of the ribs of each plane. The wires pass through holes in the ends of the small ribs and are attached to the main ribs with turnbuckles. At the end of the planes the main ribs must be braced against the pull of the wire by a piece of Vi-inch tubing running from the end of the rib diagonally up to the rear beam. Both turnbuckle and tube are fastened with one wood screw running into the end of the rib.

The cloth should be cut to fit the panels between the main ribs and hemmed up, allowing at least an inch in each direction for

stretch. Small eyelets should be put along the sides and rear edges an inch apart for the lacing. At the front edge the cloth is tacked directly on to the beam, the edge being taken well under and around to the back. Strong fish-line is good for the lacing.

After the cloth is laced on it must be tacked down to the small ribs. For this purpose use upholstery tacks; they have big cup-shaped heads which grip the cloth and do not tear out. As an extra precaution a strip of heavy tape may be run over each rib under the tack heads. All the control members are covered on both sides, the edges being folded under and held by tacks.

Albert Filieux, who flew with the late John Aloisant from Paris to London, has come back to America with a 50 Gnome Bleriot, with which he promises to fly from Van Cortlandt Park down Broadway to the Statue of Liberty. He obtained his license in record time and has a letter from Bleriot himself complimenting him upon his prospects for becoming one of the great aviators.

JANNUS TAKING PASSENGERS.

The Rex Smith headless biplane has been doing- its Hying the past month at the Polo Grounds in Washington, instead of at College Park. Many notables have been carried, among them some women. Two passengers were carried on one flight, making the weight lifted 1,457 lbs. The power plant is made up of an Emerson I0i0-h.p. engine and Paragon propeller.

Antony Jannus, the aviator, has been practicing short turns and gliding with the motor throttled down. The extensions on the upper plane were removed, reducing the spread from 40 ft. to 32 ft. This, however, increased the speed and lateral stability.

WIRELESS USED.

The week of April 3, Rufus R. Bermann, of the Signal Corps Wireless Laboratory, was taken up and messages from the aeroplane were received at the shed and at the laboratory. The best lady passenger was Miss El-enora Rivera, daughter of the Cuban minister. PONTOONS TRIED.

The builder of the machine. Rex Smith, is the owner of a patent on hydroplanes as applied to aeroplanes.

On April 15th the first and only trial was made. The aeroplane, fitted with a pontoon fastened to the skids, 8 inches high by 14 feet long, was launched from the sea wall. The water was shallow here and the pontoon rested on the mud bottom, although this was not seen at the time. As soon as the edge of the deep dredged channel was reached, the greater weight of the machine being forward of the center of gravity with the pontoon on, caused it to dive head first. Jannus was carried under and had to disentangle himself and swim clear of the wires. A man who could not swim would have been drowned.

Flights from land were again made on April IS, one of 12 minutes' duration. Complete circles were made, shorter than McCurdy's when he was in Washington with the Curtiss army machine. In landing, the soft mud caught the wheels and skids and the impetus of the aeroplane threw it on its nose. Its strong construction saved it from damage. Bystanders righted it and it was run under power to the tent.

The biplane is now back in ils shed at College Park. It will be seen at the Bennings racetrack flights, where the Curtiss aviators are to give an exhibition.

BURGESS BIPLANES AT MINEOLA.

On April 12 the first Model F Burgess biplane, "The Moth," known as the Burgess-Wright aeroplane, arrived at Mineola from the factory of the Burgess Company and Curtis at Marblehead, Mass. The biplane was taken to Mr. Darkness' shed the same afternoon and was set up before nightfall. Early the next morning, April 13, W. Starling Burgess, the builder, took the machine to the aviation field, and without waiting for any preliminaries started the biplane off on a ten-mile flight. The aeroplane rose smoothly and circled outside the limits of the aviation field under perfect control. In fact, the control proved so well balanced that Mr. Burgess was enabled to take his hand from the levers in order to wave back the crowd while turning just before landing after completing four circuits outside the field. He reported the balance as being better than on the original Wright machine on which he learned last winter in Augusta, Ga.

After sixteen minutes of flight Mr. Burgess, with an engineer's caution, brought his machine to earth and took down the motor to make sure that all parts had operated correctly. Everything was found in perfect condition throughout. By the time the motor was re-assembled, however, the wind had increased and further flights were impossible for that day. Mr. Burgess received the congratulations of the interested onlookers for making such an unusual maiden flight on the first attempt.

The machine, in fact, had not been under power before that morning.

The Burgess-Wright aeroplane, manufactured under license from the Wright Company, is a duplicate of the latest Wright with the 35-h.p. Wright power plant. The power plant and transmission were furnished by the Wright Company. While built on the same lines as the Wright model, the Burgess Company and Curtis have, however, introduced many minor modifications, all of which add either to the strength or to the finish of their Model F. The value of these slight changes is more apparent to the constructor and the connoisseur than to the general public, as most of them are inconspicuous, and, in fact, some of them are completely hidden within the surfaces. The outside finish is up to the high standard which has made the Burgess racing yachts famous in Eastern waters. The woodwork has a coat of spar varnish over the alum-

Jannus Carrying Serg. Wilson, U. S. Signal Corps.

FLIGHT PROGRESS ABOUT THE COUNTRY

inum paint. All metal parts are nickel plated. The brasswork is polished and tb e whole machine is finished and maintained in apple-pie, ship-shape order. As a finishing touch a small signal staff is mounted on the front skid, where it carries the Burgess private signal, first made familiar on the Burgess cup defender "Puritan." The equipment includes a Mea magneto and an imported revolution indicator conveniently placed in front of the aviator. A light automobile clock is also mounted on one of the skid struts.

A critical inspection of the biplane showed the main body in perfect alignment and so rigid that no deflection was observable either in the front truss or in the tail when the weight was unevenly supported by lifting up either extremity. This machine is of the "headless" type and is controlled by the well-known Wright flexible rear elevator and box vertical rudder.

While future Burgess-Wrights and Grahame-White "babies" will be covered with Goodyear Xo. 10 aeroplane fabric, the present aeroplane uses the special sail cloth known as Union Silk, furnished and cut by Messrs. Wilson & Silsby, the Boston sail makers. Goodyear 20x2 inch aeroplane tires are used, mounted with the usual Wright suspension. As may be inferred from the foregoing, the Wright Company co-operates heartily with the Burgess Company and Curtis in the construction of these machines.

HAMILTON BUYS BURGESS BIPLANE.

On April 15 Charles K. Hamilton bought the new Burgess-Wright biplane which had arrived at Mineola but three days before. Hamilton was so enthusiastic over the workmanship of the Burgess product that he at once gave up his trip to France, which he had arranged for the present month, planning to buy there a Maurice Farman biplane with Renault motor. Mr. Hamilton declared the Burgess biplane to be superior to any other machine in existence.

As this purchase would deprive the Burgess Company of its best school machine, and would thereby interrupt the classes in aviation which had already been organized, Hamilton generously offered to take over the Burgess students himself and instruct them on the new machine. He had the biplane shipped the same night to Hartford. Conn., where he will instruct Messrs. Atwood, Hammond and other Burgess pupils at the earliest opportunity.

Another Burgess-Wright aeroplane will be shipped to Mineola from the Marblehead factory on May 1st. It is planned that Mr. Burgess shall give instructions at Mineola on the later machine. A number of pupils are waiting for their lessons on this biplane.

HILLIABD HAS MOTOR TROUBLES.

The first school biplane (Model D) of the Burgess Company and Curtis lias been at Mineola since March 20, awaiting favorab'e weather for instructing a class of aviators in its management. AY. M. llilliard, the instructor, has made several flights during the period of waiting, but the weather has been too severe to permit pupils to go up.

On April 17, however, llilliard started out with A. Leo Stevens as passenger for a crosscountry flight. He had gone hardly two miles before motor trouble developed, the motor stopping short in mid-air. Owing to the nearness of the motor parkway bridge and fences. Mr. Milliard had no opportunity to find a smooth landing place, but was forced to come down in a cramped position so abruptly that parts of the biplane broke and the aviators landed on the ground. Luckily neither was hurt and the machine was soon back in quarters. Owing to the unfavorable weather conditions to be expected at Mineola for the next few weeks, the machine has been shipped to Boston, where it will probably be returned to service in the Burgess Company's school at Squantum as soon as the weather permits.

The Burgress-Curtis-Made "Graliame-White Baby."

While the landing was so abrupt as to be startling to the occupants and to drop them and the motor on the ground, nevertheless it was not severe enough to injure the running gear, and only a few wooden parts were broken.

The Burgess Co. and Curtis have ordered a Gnome 50 engine from the Aeromotion Co. of St. Louis.

1G9

MR. AND MRS. COPPYN PLY IN GALE.

To Mrs. Frank Coffyn belongs the honor of having made the longest flight, in duration and distance, of any woman in the United States.

At 7.40 on the morning of March 30, Mr. ami Mrs, Frank Coffyn left the Wright Company's Augusta (Ga.) instruction camp on Monte Sunn hill in the Model B Wright machine and Hew to the winter resort Aiken, S. C, a distance of 30 miles by the route taken, in 41 minutes, alighting on the polo field there at S.21, in time to breakfast with Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hitchcock.

There was a fair wind blowing when the start was made, but before reaching Aiken it had increased to around 25 miles an hour, and very gusty. Mr. Coffyn was extremely busy with the management of the machine during this time and a little concerned as to how Mrs. Coffyn would take the pitch and swing of the machine at the height of 500 feet that they were traveling; but she showed a whole lot more nerve than many a male passenger in an aeroplane and enjoyed the jaunt hugely. Twenty minutes after alighting, the wind had increased to such a velocity that it was uprooting trees. _

Mr. and Mrs. Prank Coffyn After the Plight.

AMERICAN MACHINE IN ENGLAND.

The so-called "Grahame-Whi to Baby" biplane attracted considerable attention at the recent British show on account of its Hying at llendon in the hands of Grahame-White, Greswell and Martin.

English journals seem to forget that die-so-called "Grahame-White Baby" is an American product—or, perhaps, Mr. While did not make it a point to inform. This is the machine that .1. A'. Martin, late of the Harvard Aeronautical Society, has been Hying as one of White's aviators. II was built—seven of Ihcm

--by the Burgess Company and Curtis, of Mar-blehead, out of American material. Goodyear fabric and tires are used, and the Burgess Company's "gate control," allowing either hand to be used, is standard, though White has changed the latter to a one-lever control. English "Aero" mentions the machine as follows:

"The machine is, in a general way, a miniature Farman, but the lower plane is much closer to the ground, and consequently, in order to get the necessary height above the ground for the propeller, the engine is raised till the center of propeller thrust comes almost m'dway between the main planes. This is a distinctly good feature in the design, as the center of thrust comes very much nearer the center of resistance than usual, and consequently when the engine is switched off the machine has more tendency to travel in a straight line.

"A biplane tail, much of the ordinary Far-man type, is used, and elevator flaps are fitted behind the tail, which are coupled to the front elevator. Ailerons are fitted to both the upper and lower planes, and the planes are made easily detachable so that the outer sections of the wings can be taken off, leaving the machine the width of its own chassis only. As in the Farman, a lever controls the elevator and ailerons, and the steering is effected by a foot lever. A 50-h.p. Gnome engine is fitted.

"A peculiarity of the machine is that on the top of the front edge of the upper plane, at each end, is a little flap working on a hinge and coupled to the ailerons on the opposite wing, so that when the ailerons are pulled down on one side, so tending to lift the mi-chine, the flap is pulled up on the other side, thus tending to depress that side, the idea being that not only is one wing lifted and the other depressed, so giving quicker lateral control, but extra resistance is given by the raised flap, so counteracting the tendency of the machine to swing round in the direction of the side on which the ailerons have been pulled down.

"The finish of the whole machine is very neat and taking to the eye."

AT BELMONT PARK.

The sheds erected for the international meet are rapidly being filled with builders and students.

W. Diefenbach and Henry Bachard. of 17S E. Eighty-fifth street, Xew York, have a well-built Farman-type ready for the motor, which is to be one of the new 6-cylinder Kirkhams. Tt spreads 38 ft. The tail is a single plane, adjustable angle.

John 11. Davis, 25 Broad street, Xew York, has a monoplane with novel ailerons. This is equipped with a Hall-Scott motor, for which he is agent.

Dr. Wm. Greene has a light Farman-type, without engine.

M. P. Talmage's (Garden City, X. Y.) Cur-tiss-type has been making some flights. This is fitted out with an 8-cvlinder Bosenberger engine, Gibson propeller, El Arco radiator and Bosch ignition.

Fred. Shneider, 1020 E. 178th street, Xew York, has six p u p i I s on the grounds. Some short flights have been made, but the ground is very soft and the fences have been put up so that flying is restricted. The school machine is a Curl iss-type, with Farman-type of running sear and skids. The engine is an El-bridge. 101 Arco radiator, Bosch ignition, Hartford tires. A Curtiss-1 yjie with Hlbridge engine has been sold by Shneider to Tony Caste'.-lane, of Brooklyn. A big Wurman-type is to be delivered to G. b\ Laser, a Xew York man. This will have a 10,0-h.p. Emerson.

lOarlc \j. Ovinglon. Queens. D. 1., who returned three weeks ago from Europe with a pilot's license in his pocket, has a new 70 Gnome Bleriot. This is a beautiful piece of wWrk-r-" A revolution counter is convenient for the sight of the pilot, as well as a map case which rolls the map along as territory is covered. There arc die usual pressure gages. The fixed tail is concave on the upper

International Aero Construction Co. Mono.

Photo by Edicin Levick

side, one notices, and the extra pair of racing wings has a slight inverse curve at the rear.

Romaine Berger, 03 S. Franklin St.. Hemp-Stead. N. Y., has two monoplane frames assembled. These resemble fairly closely the Bleriot. In two weeks he promises to have one machine complete, with a wonderful new nine-cylinder rotary 125-horsepower engine of his own design. This will have Mea ignition and a Han is-Gassner propeller.

The International Aero Construction Co. of Woodhaven, N. Y., have a fine looking monoplane. As will lie noted in the illustration, the 50 Gnome engine drives by chain from its position under the wings.

Saliger and Kerrigan have a following surface machine with a 100'-horsepower Emerson engine, which has failed to fly thus far.

W. It. Kimball will have a biplane witti four chain-driven propellers in one of the sheds before the end of April.

A "Wright machine is due about June 1 for school purposes.

NEW KIMBALL BIPLANE.

AY. B. Kimball is putting the finishing touches on a new biplane along the lines of his Xew York Xo. 1 t AEUOXAUTICS, Jan., 1909); in fact, it will be called Xew York XTo. 2.

Like its predecessor, it is a tailless machine, differing mainly in the use of two propellers instead of eight and a chain drive instead of wire rope transmission. The chain drive is accomplished, however, by gearing to a 6-inch counter shaft, thus making it unnecessary to cross one chain.

The novel rudders at each end of the main planes give somewhat the appearance of the new Voisin tailless. This disposition of the steering mechanism has a tendency to restrict skidding in making turns.

Fore and aft equilibrium is maintained by a fixed horizontal surface 16 feet in advance of the main planes, and an elevator of the same size 3 feet further front.

The trussing is all done with steel rods, none smaller than ig-inch diam., and the whole con-although this is overlooked because of the gen-struction sives the impression of niassiveness erally rounded shapes of the corners, the double covered surfaces and general appearance of extremely small head resistance. Four large ailerons of the Farman type indicate a provision for flying at low speed, and the big surfaces, 40x6 ft. 1 in., promise big passenger carrying capacity, although a 4-cylinder automobile-type motor only 4x4 in. is installed for use on the first try-out, with two Gibson propellers s ft. diam., JS-ft. pitch.

Long skids and Farman running gear make up the chassis, in which sheet steel joints and trusses is a noticeable feature. In the specially shaped ailerons is noticed a provision for the installation of two additional propellers as a part of an extended series of experiments to be tried out as to efficiency of planes and propellers under varying conditions of practice.

The aeroplane not only presents a unique appearance at a distance, but closer inspection shows a number of innovations in construction details, the most noticeable, perhaps, being in the joining of all stay wires at the center of each panel by spoke nipples in a steel ring,

making the tightening system of easier access than at the corners, as generally used.

A fixed ignition Bosch magneto leaves only one control, the throttle lever, necessary for the engine.

The steering is done with the feet and the front control and the ailerons worked with one hand leaves the other free.

The machine unmounted, with fuel and water, weighs 950 pounds.

Philip W. Wilcox, the Columbia student who made several short flights in a Farman-type machine of his own design, last summer, at Mineola, will be connected with the Moisant company.

Kimball Tailless Biplane.

"FREAK" AEROPLANE FLIES.

The unique biplane, or monoplane, whichever suits best, built by Wm. P. Gary, of Paterson, N. J., made its first ami last flight on April 9. Mr. Gary resents its being classed as a "freak," and perhaps one doesn't blame him. The locomotive was once a freak, along with the telephone.

However, Mr. Gary reports great confidence in his second machine, now building.

The machine flew about a hundred yards, when the axle and a wheel broke, with the Harriman 50-h.p. engine and Paragon propeller going at full speed. Not having skids, the aeroplane buried its nose in the ground. The engine is centered 9 feet above the ground and registered 400 lbs. pull at 990 r.p.m. The weight carried was 900 lbs. No ribs were used, as the tautness of the end wires on the rims of the circle regulated the curvature. This was found unsatisfactory, and the new one will be better built anatomically. Good luck to Mr. Gary.

Gary's object is to secure good stability by the style of construction.

MOISANT SCHOOL TO OPEN.

The Moisant Aviation School is expected to open on Long Island about May 1st, under the management of A. J. Moisant, with two competent and qualified pilots in charge as instructors.

One of the instructors will he Andre llouperl, a pilot from Hleriot's P;iu School. He obtained his licence last February, liolh will he French pilots of monoplanes. A French constructor is also on his way here lo take charge of the building of the Moisant School machines which will be of the Bleriot-1 ype, with Anzrini engines.

Mr. Moisant has been developing for some time his "Moisant Junior" all-steel monoplane, which will be equipped with 50 or 70-h.p. Gnome motors. Trials of the machine are being made in private, and no information will be available until results prove satisfactory lo Mr. Moisant. Garros and Audemars have taken two of these machines with then) abroad

and will try for places on the French Gordon Bennett team, as well as take part in other events. They will return to America about July 15th and take part in a meet to be held in Chicago.

ALUMINUM BIPLANE.

Edward Wilson, of Joplin, Mo., has been making flights in a Curtiss-type biplane designed by E. M. DeChenne, of the DeChenne Aeroplane Co., Monett, Mo.

A feature of the machine is the use of aluminum for the framework, and the builder is even thinking of using sheet aluminum instead of cloth for covering the planes. In this instance it is claimed that aluminum has the advantage over wood in that it "does not break from the shock. It can be bent almost double and straightened out again as good as ever, several different times if necessary, lt is really lighter for the same amount of strength, also." The machine actually fell from a height of about 50 feet without doing very much damage. When the aviator is more proficient, it is intended for him to make exhibition flights. The motor in the machine is a DeChenne. Outside of the strut sockets, which are cast aluminum, and the. aluminum struts and other parts of the framework, the machine follows in general style the well-known Curtiss with the inevitable El Arco radiator.

Henry M. Neely, Betz Bldg.. Philadelphia, will continue this year his lecture work which met with such splendid success in 1910. Mr. Neely is a well-known figure in aeronautics, and. besides being one of the founders of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania, has been active in various aeronautical organizations. "Aeroplanes —Why and How They Fly," is the title of one of his talks. In simple language, the principles of flight are explained and the operation of aeroplanes shown by working models. "The Airship in Peace and War" is a supplementary lecture. Both are illustrated with lantern slides and moving pictures.

What You've Been Waiting For!

The Hempstead Plains Aviation Co.

ANNOUNCES THE

OPENING

MOISANT AVIATION SCHOOL

At Garden City, Long Island, N. Y.

under the personal direction of

ALFRED J. MOISANT

The finest flying grounds in the United States, 1,200 acres without an obstruction, 18 miles from New York City 2Jr mile straightaway

FRENCH PILOT

AVIATORS ARE INSTRUCTORS

Flying is a Fine Sport, a Splendid Science and a Rich Livelihood.

LEARN TO FLY!

For full particulars address

ALFRED J. MOISANT, Pres. - Times Building, New York City

The Tire That Can't Tear Loose When the Machine Lands!

Goodyear Detachable Aeroplane Tires are held to the rim by the vise-like grip of wires in base of the tire. Hence, though the aeroplane lands at an angle, it cannot be injured, for the resilient Goodyear sticks tight to the rim. It is the only aeroplane tire in the world so made.

(JOODjffEAR

Detachable Aeroplane Tires

The Goodyear Detachable Tire embodies the principles of the famous Goodyear No-Rim-Cut Auto Tire.

The resilienc}7 is the greatest possible —the extra tough tread makes the tire almost non-puncturable. In weight it is extremely light.

Judge the Goodyear by the fact that these aviators have equipped their own machines with it: Brookins, Parmelee, Grahame-White, Garros, Glenn Curtiss, Billiard, Capt. Thos. Baldwin, J. A. D. McCurdy, Charles J. Hamilton, ITark-ness, and scores of other famous American and foreign aviators.

Goodyear Rubberized Aeroplane Fabrics

are used by The Wright Co., Burgess Company cv Curtis, The Curtis Aeroplane Co., and practically all American manufacturers. These pioneers know what is best.

Goodyear Rubber Shock Absorbers are

used extensively where floating type wheel attachment is used.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.MaiB ^Hestrnedef.actory Akron, Ohio

Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities (309)

The Gary Plyer—Before and After.

CLEVELAND METAL MONOPLANE.

The Burgess-Wiseman Mfg. Co., Cleveland, O., is to ]>ut out a monoplane, designed and built by E. H. Wiseman on somewhat different lines than the present monoplanes, and enjoys the distinction of being the first Cleveland machine to make a successful flight. However, since that llight, which occurred shortly before Curtiss made his flight to Cedar Point and return, Mr. Wiseman, desirous of building a more improved machine, upon which he bad been working for some time, became associated with It, C. Burgess, who furnished the capital necessary for the completion of the present machine and formation of the eompanv, which is incorporated for $10,000.

Wiseman is a thorough mechanic, having constructed the entire machine, including the motor, and, considering the success he attained with his former machine, which might be de-

scribed as crude compared with the present machine, the eompanv has no fear for the complete success of it.

The main plane measures 20 by 6 ft., not including space out for fuselage, covered with Goodyear fabric. Elevator 3 by 6 ft.: rudder 2 by :> ft. The lateral beams are of 114-inch Xo. IS steel tubing. The ribs are of basswood 173 in. by v2 in. by ft ft.

The motor, 4-cylinder, double opposed, 25 h.p., A. L. A. M. rating, 2-throw crank, steel cylinders 4x4, copper jackets, automatic intake, weighs stripped 110 lbs. Ignition by magneto, Shebler carburetor.

DETROIT SEES NOVICE FLIGHT.

]>etroit, Mieh., has been backward in the way of flying machines, so the flight of Donald Gregory, 1U years old, of S03 Spring St., Michigan City, Ind., was a novelty in that city.

The Burgfess-Wiseman Machine.

Ed. Wilson in DeChenne Aluminum Machine

Just previous to the flight, young Gregory had done a little '"grass cutting," and then arose for a rather extended flight. He made a circle of the Athletic Field, which is about a mile in circumference, at a height of about 40 to 50 feet, and then attempted to rise. Apparently the plane rose faster than the aviator had anticipated, and to check himself he threw the elevator down too hard and simply dropped. The Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co. motor was running when he struck the ground. The biplane is a wreck, but neither the aviator nor the engine were injured.

The engine is placed in front, as in a monoplane, the elevator being in the rear.

The manufacturers of the engine have sold another one for use in Japan.

BALLOONIST BUILDING NOVEL 'PLANE.

Jos. A. Blondin, well known in the history of American aerostation, who is now living at 3209 S. Main street, Los Angeles, Cal., has an aeroplane well along. He has incorporated into it several novel features. The machine rests on skids and lands on skids. In starting, it is possible by moving a lever to push down the wheels, with which the machine is also equipped, into contact with the ground. The aviator's seat is capable of swinging from side to side as the machine tilts, automatically operating the ailerons.

To avoid any turning movement of the aeroplane which may be caused by operating the ailerons, due to unequal pressure on either aileron, a system of differential gearing has been devised so that the resistance of either aileron will be exactly the same as the other, irrespective of whether both have or have not the same angles of incidence, negative and positive. It is reported that there are several applications in the Patent Office covering this same point.

It will be remembered that one point in the Wrigh t-Curtiss injunction case was that of one aileron alleged to have a different angle with respect to the line of flight than the other, claimed to result in a turning of the aeroplane as a whole, to be corrected by the vertical rudder.

IN INDIANA AND OHIO.

At Muncie a party by the name of Frazier Warner is building a monoplane of the Bleriot type; also manufacturing propellers on a small scale. Clarence Boomer is building a monoplane of the Bleriot style also, and Arthur Humfeld is constructing a biplane.

I spent a morning at the Wright factory and the afternoon at their training ground, where Walter Brookins was instructing Lieut. Rodgers how to fly. Some very pretty flights were made in a 20-30-mile wind, and every day the weather permits they instruct one or more prospective aviators.

At Cincinnati Chas. Ambrose has constructed a lightweight monoplane of original design, fitting it with an S-cylinder, water-cooled motor that he built himself. A Mr. Schillinger. of the Schillinger Hardware Co., at 8th and Main streets, has built a biplane and is now ready to equip it with two motors and two propellers, although I was unable to secure definite information on its construction.

There is much activity in the aero motor building department of the Dean Mfg. Co., makers of the Fox motor, and they seem to be very enthusiastic over their product.

R. O. RUBEL, JR.

New Aeroplane Engine.

A new two-cycle aeroplane engine has been put on the market by H. J. Leighton of Syracuse, a well-known builder of engines for racing boats. It is unique as far as aeroplane engines are concerned, in that it has as much bearing surface on the crank shaft as is found in most marine motors. The weight of the entire engine is guaranteed to be not over 2G0 pounds, and the horsepower not under 50— practically 1 horsepower to every five pounds of weight. The motor works on the two-cycle, three-port system, and is of remarkably compact construction.

The Motors Engineering and Sales Co. is the metropolitan distributer, and this company has a motor on exhibition in its showroom at 250 W. 54th St., New York City.

ROBERTS

pull

!7VIore per With higher Propeller 170 Pounds 100 to 450 pounds

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1430 Columbus Avenue :: :: :: Sandusky, Ohio, U.S.A.

We wright flyer

OUR aeroplanes are not experiments. Every part is tested, standardized and made under constant expert supervision in our own shops.

The WRIGHT FLYER holds all American records. ALTITUDE—11,474 Ft.

DURATION AND DISTANCE—3 hrs., 39 m., 48 s. CROSS COUNTRY—106 mi. (two passengers) SLOW FLYING—5 1-4 mi. in 13 m., 48 s. ACCURACY OF LANDING—5 ft., 4 in.

C. These records together with the wonderful work of Model B, for the army on the Mexican frontier proves beyond dispute that THE WRIGHT FLYER has established its position not only as the PIONEER but the PEERLESS machine. Manufactured under the Wright Brothers' patents and fully protected. C. Already our orders exceed our production for April and May. C. Orders should be placed at once to secure summer delivery.

WRIGHT COMPANY dayton'T*"1 ohio

Scientific AmaricanTrophy, Offered in 1907

The Scientific American Trophy

(won thrice and finally by glenn h. curtiss)

WAS THE FIRST AVIATION TROPHY

offered in America. Likewise, the Scientific American was the first weekly in the United States to treat of Aeronautics. All important advances in this engrossing science have been chronicled in the pages of the Scientific American during the past 66 years, and the huge strides now being made so rapidly are reported from week to week. Only by reading the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

regularly can you keep up-to-date in Aeronautic matters. C.Send us $3.00 and we will place your name on our mailing list for one year beginning April 1st, and send you besides our 11th Annual Automobile Number, as well as theSpecial Mid-month Number for February and March. The Scientific American for 1911 has been enlarged and improved. A big special number with colored cover is issued every month. Two of these will be devoted to Aviation. Subscribe now and follow the progress in Aeronautics, Mechanics, and Electricity week by week.

MUNN & CO., Inc. £*SST5^

361 Broadway :: New York

Two Views (1 and 2) of the Meyerhoffer Machine. No. 3 Is the Fortney.

THE MEYERHOFFER TRIPLANE. By Cleve T. Shaffer.

THIS interesting and beautifully made machine lias been miscalled a biplane, a following plane and a multiplane; but while it is a combination of the above, the correct appellation should be "triplane." The design has a suggestion of the Goupy in the placing of the upper plane forward and of the Montgomery glider in the placing of the upper planes one behind the other in the line of flight.

The spread is 32 ft. by 33 ft. fore and aft. Two planes, »-ft. chord, placed one behind the other a distance of 4 ft., are superimposed 5 ft. over a similar plane set below and between the upper surfaces; a side view gives the appearance of a "V" with a plane at each point.

The upper rear surface is set at an agle of incidence considerably greater than the front and the lower plane (due to the downwardly moving and disturbed air from the front plane which it so closely follows). While an almost equal lift is thus obtained, the drag necessarily calls for a greater expenditure of horsepower. Mr. Meyerhoffer, the designer and operator, claims, however, that the greater stability obtained by the use of a following plane more than compensates for the additional propeller thrust required. The following plane incorporates several other unique ideas with a view to stability. For instance, the center section of the upper rear plane has been left entirely open over the propeller and extends 2 ft. further laterally on each side than the front and lower planes. There is also a raise toward the center, or open space, giving the two sections a slightly inverted dihedral angle. This would seem to lessen the lifting efficiency of this plane to a small extent.

Ailerons, 2 ft. x 6 ft., pivoted to the front vertical struts on either side, are operated in a novel manner. A belt which buckles around the operator under the arms takes the place of the familiar shoulder fork.

A slight flattening of the planes on the outer

sections is noticeable, ("amber in center sections 33i in. in end sections 3 Vi in. This idea, while not a new one, has been adopted by few. It would seem to give some small amount of natural stability.

The planes are single surfaced, of Xaiad cloth, tacked to the under side of the ribs and to front beam, laced to section ribs, and at the rear to a wire passing through ferrules in the ends of the ribs. An efficient drumhead-tightness of surface results. Ribs are laminated of clear spruce, "Camasco" made. The section ribs. 4-ply, % x ",i in.; center section, 5-ply, s4 x 1U; intermediate, 3-ply, 9-16 x 9-16 in. Ribs attach to front beam by flattened steel ferrules and to under side of rear beam by suitable clamps. Beams are 1 x in.,

ciear spruce, of a special stream line form. Center section beams are laminated, 2-ply, of slightly larger size. Struts are of stream line form. Strut connections, "Camasco" design, are of steel, no aluminum sockets whatever being used. This follows tlie latest practice. While but slightly heavier (?) than aluminum, or alloy castings, they are far superior in strength, have little head resistance, are neat, mechanical and allow of quick assembling and disassembling by a very slight loosening of the guy wires: and furthermore, it is impossible for the struts to work loose or drop out.

Xickel steel eyebolts are used. In the upper beams the eyebolts receive the upper ends of guy wires, while all turnbtickles are below and easily accessible, being directly connected to the lower strut connections by a short steel strip which holds one of the tnrnbuckle eyes. Roeb-ling stranded steel "Aviator" cable is used throughout; there being no wiring, however, in the center section, which is braced by 16 ga. steel tubing diagonally to the oak engine bearers. This is a very good feature.

Three 20-in. "Camasco" wide-hub wheels support the machine, without any type of shock absorbers. A 6-cyl. 90-h.p. Kldbridge engine drives direct an S-ft. x 6-ft. pitch propeller.

�969�4192�451438132466

NOVICES IN SAN FRANCISCO

El Arco radiator. Thrust, 420 lbs. Brakes are fitted on both front and rear wheels. The elevator, rudder and ailerons work as in the Curtiss.

Mr. Meyerhoffer has made a number of flights in this machine in which almost no attention was paid the lateral balance. The machine was built in the California Aero Mfg. & Supply Co. shops under the designer's directions.

SHIr'Af & DE B£REI BIPLANE.

A Farman-type machine that managed to clear "Calamity Gulch" and almost make the half mile was a novelty, but it met with the usual fate upon landing.

Spread 30 ft., fore and aft 36 ft., chord 5 ft. 0 in., camber 3 V2 in., "Camasco" ribs. Single front elevator 3 ft. x 7 ft. Tail, skids and wheels are usual barman type. A small castor wheel supports tail, tubing diagonal; skid struts are used instead of wood.

Farman flaps operated by Curtiss-type control. Weight 900 lbs.

Mr. Geo. Loose, who flew the machine, claims it was out of balance longitudinally, being heavy in front. It made a creditable flight, however, considering that the engine was giving trouble.

Bower Blant: a 4-cylinder. 5 x 0, 60-h.p., MeDermott motor, weighing 325 lbs., drives direct an S-ft. dia., 6-ft. pitch propeller. Thrust (stated) 500 lbs., at 1.200 r. p. m. An aluminum tube radiator of novel construction weighing 19 lbs. was fitted.

KEARNS BIPLANE.

This Curtiss-type machine of very crude construction made several short flights over "Calamity Gulch," but collapsed each time upon landing, the last flight wrecking it beyond immediate repair. General dimensions are similar to the Curtiss except the chassis wheels. Weight (stated) about 425 lbs. An Elbridge 40-60-h.p. motor drives direct a Bequa-Gibson propeller, 6-ft. diameter and 4%-ft. pitch.

PORTNEY MONOPLANE.

This large monoplane, viewed from a distance, had a very fine appearance, but close inspection showed a number of weak points in construction. Spread 4 6 ft., fore and aft 33 ft., total surface 300 sq. ft. Blanes double covered, S-ft. chord in center, sloping to 5 ft. on ends. Camber about 6 in. Fuselage entirely covered by cloth, main longitudinal members are encircled at proper distances by bicycle rims, upon which are nailed thin wooden strips to which the light cloth covering is tacked. At the rear, vertical and horizontal fins end with double rudders and elevators.

Aileron flaps are attached to rear ends of

planes. The running gear was apparently too light and not well enough braced for such a large machine. In general design it was similar to one of the earlier Antoinette models, the planes having supplementary supports In this case, a wheel at the end of a tube placed vertically through the center of each plane.

A short skid carries the usual single main supporting mast. Two 20-in. wheels pivoted on either side work through a sliding collar against a spring encircling the mast. A wdieel is also placed under aviator's seat, while a skid supports the tail. Weight (stated) S50 lbs.

Bower Blant: a 4-cylinder, 5x5, 60-h.p. Knox automobile engine, weighing 400 lbs., drives direct an S-ft. diameter, 4-ft. propeller.

This machine after two short jumps met with the usual fate of the novices. Louis Fort-ney, the builder, deserves credit for staying in the game, as this is his third machine to be destroyed.

The AEROMOTOR!

STANDS THE RACKET

JpfTThe AEROMOTOR is made of tlie very lightest and toughest stuff— chrome nickel and vanadium steels, aluminum, man-Jjganese bronze, etc., without stint of time and money. And not a pound has been taken off at the expense of strength.

The AKROMOTOR is made by the workmen and designers who built the motor-boat engines that for live years held the Detroit Championship against the speediest racers in the United States.

It's the systematic designing of the parts that makes the AEROMOTOR so remarkably compact. The manifold, far instance, is built into the cylinders, and the mechnnieal oiler into the erank case.

When you start into the air for that trying first flight you'll have enough to think of without worrying about your engine. If your engine is a 11 AEROMOTOR you won't have to worry. Von can be sure the AEROMOTOR wilt stand by you as it has stood by aviators scattered over 14 states and several foreign countries. .'The AEROMOTOR stands the racket," they tell us.

Do you want the Aeromotor booklet?

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4 and 6 Cylinders....................Vibrationless...............200 to 400 lbs. Thrust

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+

4

REQUA-GIBSON PROPELLERS

THE SAFEST

What! Still not convinced that I print only the truth—then read this letter:

April 13th, 1911.

Mr. Hugo C. Gibson,

806 11th Ave., New York City. Dear Mr. Gibson:-

In my recent trip to the Orient and the Straits Settlements I used a Gibson propeller exclusively, without an accident or a breakage of any kind. To my mind, it is the best propeller made and the results obtained are absolutely perfect.

Very truly yours,

(Signed) THOMAS S. BALDWIN.

Still a little dubious? Then there is only ONE HOPE for you—BUY ONE to start with—Your order will receive prompt attention—Send for Red Book

Designer and

'Phone 3672 Columbus

Manufacturer

Co™'E. W. BONSON

HUGO C. GIBSON, A. M. I. E. E. 806 11 th Avenue, New York City

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It's the THRUST per H. P. that COUNTS!

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<l±a wittemann

Aeronautical Engineers

•LEADING AEROPLANE MANUFACTURERS OF THE UNITED STATES

Aeroplanes Gliders—Supplies

C.The Wittemann Biplane built for safety and reliability, equipped with double controls, strongest spring landing chassis. Construction embodies the beSt design, and a desirable faclor of safety allowed for all material used in our machine.

C We carry a large stock of Steel fittings, laminated ribs and Struts of all sizes and designs, also all other materials which are used in Standard makes of machines. Complete sets of Biplane parts knocked down and accurately fitted. Send for list. :: :: :: :: :: :: CATALOGUE ON REQUEST

Works: OCEAN TERRACE and LITTLE CLOVE RD., Staten Island, N. Y. City

Telephone: 112 W. West Brighton, Post Office, Stapleton

JOHNSON MONOPLANE.

The Bleriot type machine of Johnson Bros., Sunnyvale, Oal., has some interesting' and novel features. Equilibrium is obtained by a unique system, the basis of which is a variable camber; for instance, on the side that is clown, the camber is increased, and vice versa. Another novel feature of this Bleriot type machine is the landing gear, where, instead of the large swivel wheels usual in a Bleriot, the frame is supported by two rigid wheels with no shock absorbers. The large tires, however, make landing easy. Pennsylvania tires are 20 by 4 and Goodyear cloth is used throughout. An Anzani 25-30-horsepower engine drives direct a Bequa-Gibson propeller 6 ft. 10 in. diameter. 2 ft. 0 in. pitch, obtaining 2001 pounds thrust, which is claimed is sufficient for flight. Total surface ISO ft. Weight 4 00 pounds. Mr. Johnson reports that he has made several short flights up to 600 ft. The machine is of neat workmanship.

Each plane (spread 30' ft. fore and aft, 27 ft.) has the regular two parallel wing bars or beams 1 1 ft. long, fitted into sockets on the fuselage and held in place by the usual stay wires. To these beams the ribs are suitably fastened, being made of laminated spruce, the first five on each side nearest the fuselage have a fixed curve of 1 in 20, while the outer ribs are flexible, and by the inward movement of a wire, between the beams, connected to bow wires fastened to each end of these flexible ribs, the camber is increased. The outer ribs on the other plane being simultaneously flattened. The center or warping wires are suitably connected to the control wheel.

The idea is that when the machine is flying to increase curvature of wing on the low side, thereby increasing the lift, at the same time the other wing is made flatter, correspondingly decreasing its lift and thus bringing the machine to equilibrium. It is said that the most noteworthy effect gained so far is that the machine is not deflected from its course by the curve variations, it being unnecessary to use the rudder in keeping a straight course.

The principle seems a good one, and further results will be eagerly awaited.

BREWER BROS. BIPLANE.

Composite type machine, slightly suggestive of the Farman. Spread lower plane, 30 feet; upper 3!) feet. Fore and aft 33 feet, chord 6 ft. with a 4% in. camber. Bibs of novel construction very strong and light; consists of a thin upright piece sawed out to the proper rib shape, which have two small half rounds glued on top and bottom, the half round having a groove which fits over the upright piece.

Hear beam is placed underneath. Skids wih two sets of 24-in. Farman-type wheels are hung by steel and rubber springs. A small 20-in. wheel is set in front, as in the Voisin, to prevent a too steep landing.

A rather unique system of truss work is used under and over the center section, which construction seems unnecessary. The head resistance of the chassis is increased, but, of course, so is the factor of safety.

The joining of the diagonal skid struts with the upright should be at the skid instead of above it, to take care of sidewise landings.

Ailerons pivoted to front struts are operated by a wooden shoulder fork. Steering wheel controls double front elevator, by a push rod, and rudder by turning.

A thrust of 240 pounds by a 40-h.p. Butenber automobile motor weighing 350 pounds was unable to raise machine. Propeller 6 ft. 6 in. diameter, 5-ft. pitch. 1,200 r. p. m. Bosch magneto, Schebler carburetor. Cooling by a 3-gal. radiator weighing 18 pounds, made of 32-ga. copper tubing. Weight of machine (stated) 675 pounds.

WHEELER MONOPLANE.

Bleriot type with fan tail. Spread 32 ft., by 24 ft. fore and aft, chord 6 ft. 6 in., camber S1^ in.. 1-3 back from front edge.

This machine, of very neat construction, was under-powered and unable to attain sufficient speed for flight.

Planes are double covered, have three wing bars which fit into tubing sockets in the fuselage. Thickness of planes 6 in. in center. Two 20-in. wheels are used instead of the 28-in. usual in the Bleriot. Skid in rear.

The two main uprights are of 1 15-16 ash round. A mast is placed underneath the fuselage, but is brought almost too near the ground by the small wheels used. The rear controls appear a bit heavy. A single semi-circular elevator is operated by the movement of a steering wheel fore and aft. Turning wheel operates ailerons.

Weight 700 pounds. Power plant: a Franklin 26-b.p. automobile motor drives direct a 7-ft. diameter. 4-ft. pitch propeller at 900 r. p. m. Thrust 250 pounds.

GISELMAN BIPLANE.

The construction and general details are practically similar to the Brewer Bros, machine, with the exception that the ailerons are pivoted diagonally to the line of flight. Weight (stated) S00 pounds.

The power plant consists of a 40-h.p. Pope Toledo automobile engine, weighing 300 pounds, driving direct a 7-ft. propeller with a 5-ft. pitch. After several short flights across "Calamity Gulch," the machine was converted into kindling wood upon landing.

FACTS ABOUT SOARING

(Continued from page 155,) JThe name turkey buzzard is sometimes incorrectly applied to all vultures of the southeastern states.

Victor Longheed is responsible for the statement that in California he has seen a condor start from a fence post and soar over the mountains without the stroke of a wing, when no rising current was perceptible. To my mind these observations prove that a force like gravity can act on a body like a bird in such a manner as to make it rise against the force. Just as a force, the wind acts on a body, the sail boat which in turn moves against the force. In fact, I think we are deeply indebted to Prof. Montgomery for the twenty years of labor and study applied to solving the ages—old problem of human flight in a way that will rival even the condor and the albatross. Experiments are now being recommended by Prof. Montgomery in California and it is to be hoped that he will soon be able to accomplish the long-looked-for soaring flight.

I have also been making some experiments at Daytona Beach, Florida, with a Montgomery glider. The picture shows the glider in the course of a two mile flight which was accomplished by towing the machine behind an automobile. When the tow rope was slackened during the flight the machine would begin to glide at a very flat angle. With this fact in view I had intended to tow the machine into the air, then release the tow rope and glide to the earth, but owing to an accident in which the machine was smashed and my foot hurt, I did not get an opportunity to try this out. In closing I wish to warn other experimenters to profit by my experience and avoid all forms of towing flight. I have found this to be dangerous. A machine which if free would be perfectly safe is made as erratic as a child's kite by the attachment of ji rope. I, for one, shall seek other means of getting into the air.

Garros Plying- Over Vera Cruz.

EXHIBITION FLYING AND MEETS

SWAIN CIRCUIT.—Tlie W. I. Swain Show Co., of New Orleans, started out the end of March with Walter Johnson, flying- the Thomas headless biplane; William Evans, to fly the Swain Farman, and J. J. De Praslin. of St. Louis, a novice, under the name "National Aviators." They started at Morgan City, La. (with a two-day meet scheduled at each place), where there was a big crowd the first day and no one the second. Johnson only one to attempt flight in strong wind: smashed. The local committee cancelled the second day at Houma and New Iberia. Lafayette was a "frost," as the aviators had trouble with Swain, and no flying was done. Lake Charles and Crowley cancelled flights. Evans could not do anything with Swain's Farman, and the Johnson machine was the only one to fly, with bad grounds, muddy fields and rains.

The aviators left Swain and started to fly in the small towns. Johnson flew his machine successfully at Lake Charles and Crowley. At Crowley, on April 17, made some very good flights. William T. Thomas left on this day for Natchez, Miss., to arrange for flights there.

HAVANA, Cuba, March 22-27.—The Moisant Aviators flew for the new Aero Club of Cuba. Henry A. W. Wood represented the A. C. A. at the flying, as it was thought a new altitude record might be made.

Mr. Wood furnished valuable information in behalf of the running of the meet, also how official records were to be taken for altitude, duration and speed; and drafted a set of forms for them for that purpose, which proved very valuable. Wonderful flying was done by Garros, Simon, Barrier and Audemars. St. Croix Johnstone made a remarkable flight over the city, dropping two oranges at Morro Castle at the height of about 2,000 feet, one fell in the harbor anil the other hit in the Castle yard. The flight was about 41 minutes, covering about 3S miles. ITis highest altitude was supposed to have been about 3,000 feet; he used a Bleriot with a 50-h.p. Gnome. The attendance was fair and greatly appreciated the flying.

Cuban records were created for altitude; (Garros, B.818 feet) and for duration (Simon, 50 feet 36 inches).

Barrier flew from the grounds out to Morro Castle and back, repeating the MeCurdy flight, the prize of $3,000 having been extended. Barrier beat MeCurdy's time and claimed the prize. It was later definitely awarded MeCurdy, as the

A. C. of Cuba realized it had no right to extenH the time limit after it had been flown for.

PINEHURST, N. C. March 30-April 5.—Linl coin Beachey (Curtiss) finished up the tuitioBJ of Roland G. Middleton, who has been learning to fly the 4-cylinder machine. Commanded Shichigora Saito, of the Japanese Navy, waB one of Ely's passengers. During this weeBJ Beachey spent 18 hours in the air in seveH (lavs.

DAYTOXA, Fla., March 2S-30.—McCurdl (Curtiss) flew.

ST. AUGUSTINE, Fla., April 2.—McCurdl and Ward flew.

GREENSBORO, N. C, April 7-S.—Beachel flew.

FAYETTEVILLE, N. O, April 0.—Beachel made flights.

KNONV1LLE, Tenn., April 12-13.—McCurdl and Beachey filled this date.

SAN DIEGO, Cal., April 2.—H. A. Robinsonl Curtiss aviator, gave a bomb dropping exhibition with California oranges. Liuet. Ellysoil and C. C. W'ittmer. another new Curtiss aviator, did some grass-cutting.

RABID CTTY, S. D., April 10-12.—H. A. Robinson flew here. Weather prevented very successful flights. Additional surface had to hi added to the plane.

PUEBLO. Colo., April 17-19.—Moisant A vial tors tlew. From here they come East, flying al towns along the way.

SAN BERNARDINO. Cal., March 20.—Will lard and Kobinson made four flights each bel fore I 0,00i0 people.

PASADENA, Cal., March 20-30.—Willard anl Ely made exhibition flights.

SALT LAKE CITY, April G-10.—BrookinsJ Parmalee, Ely, Curtiss and Willard tlew. All made tine flights, reaching altitudes above the ground up to 4,000 feet, and flying over till Great Salt Lake and above the smelters. CniB liss tlew his water machine, but had difficult! in getting up, due to the great percentage of salt in the water ami die high altitude of thl lake, 4,300 feet. Elv got up to S.300 feet abovB sea level, or 1.000 feet above the lake. Hrooll tional living in windy weather. Harrier lie* over the city. The bird-like High is for whicB ins and Barmalee's bomb dropping exhibition and glides were sensational.

HUTCHINSON, Kans., April 13-in.—Moisanl Aviators, Simon and Barrier, provided seusal

THE SAN DIEOO UNION. THURSDAY MOHN1NO. MARCH 2. 1911.

TO

Passenger Carrying Tests Demonstrate Efficiency to Military Representatives.

STUDENT MAKES FLIGHT

Lieut. John C. Walker, Jr., Pilots Aeroolane Over North Island Course.

Two flight! made by Glenn H Curt*

achool on North Island yoaterday proved (be patsennrr-carrylnit nualt-tlca of tht Curtlaa biplane to military and naval representative*

Th* flnt paneenier to rH# with the blrdman yeaterrfny waa Lieut John C Walker. Jr at the Eighth In-fantrv A paasenjier'a eeat waa attached to *ho lower'plane to* the left of tho pilot pled by LI Curtlaa at

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07

26

THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION

By Henry Harrison Suplee

To Be Illustrated with Original Drawings

By Ottorino Ronchi

A Series of Articles Upon The Vital Topic of the Day

DEVELOPMENTS IN

Commerce, Government

Warfare, Daily Life

How the Man who Lives in Three Dimensions is to Transform Society and Make the World Over

& & &

WHAT THE DOMAIN OF THE AIR REALLY MEANS

This intensely interesting series of articles will discuss, in the light of what Professor Tyndall called the scientific use of imagination, the result of the work of the engineers in the air.

This series will be commenced in CASSIER'S MAGAZINE FOR MAY, 1911, and continue through the year

Do not miss this series of valuable articles

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Simon lias now become famous, caused amusement as well as real fear for bis safely in some of his daring exploits.

NO BELMONT ELIMINATION MEET.

The meet planned by the Aero Club of America for the latter end of May at Belmont, during which the American team in the Gordon Bennett aviation race would be selected after an elimination race, for which Robert J. Collier has offered a $5,000 prize, has been called off as it did not appear that enough aviators could be expected to enter to insure a meeting comparable to that of last fall. It also seer s certain that there is no machine in (he hands of Americans at the present time that will have a look-in for the Bennett prize.

There is still the hope that the Wright Brothers will bring forth another speed marvel which will be far and ahead of the one which Brook-ins had the misfortune to smash at the Belmont meet.

NEXT MEET PURELY SPORTING.

It is very likely that the next meet conducted by the Aero Club of America will be run on a purely sporting basis. This is a step in the right direction. The publication of a note in the last issue of AERONAUTICS urging the placing of flying on a sporting basis suggested a good strong speech on the same subject by Major Reber at the Collier dinner. The club will demand entrance fees and all contests will be contests in fact as well as in name. It will mean that makers will have to do their best to produce machines suitable for the contests in which they enter. Heretofore there has been no incentive of this kind at the meets.

Competition in meets conducted on a sporting basis would be a privilege for the entrant. In the past it has been necessary for the promoters of meets to pay out considerable sums as appearance money, the result being (he prizes were nominal.

Competition is a matter of life or death for an aviation meet, as has been amply proven. The excitement is gone when the conclusion is foreseen. There ought to be just as great an element of uncertainty about the result in an aviation contest as in a horse race.

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION RACE.

There will be 15 aeroplanes in the international aviation race to be run in England on

July 1: three each from America, Austria, England, France and Germany.

P. O. Parmelee (Wright) is desirous of competing if the Wright Company decides favorably. Charles F. Willard with his Gnome-en-gined Curtiss has written in for details. Americans abroad will have the privilege of tlying before ollicial timers and will have a chance on (he team.

OPEN FOR ENGAGEMENT.

Listing- in this column is free. State qualifications, kind of machine, permanent address and experience at flying, giving places where flights were made.

("APT. THOMAS S. BALI )\V1X, Box 78, Madison Sq. P. O, Xew York. Baldwin biplane. Pilot A. C. America.

WALTER JOHXSOX, care Thomas Brothers. Bath, X. Y., Thomas biplane.

WM. EVAXS, 20i24 Agnes Ave., Kansas City, Mo., biplane.

LAD1S LEWKOWICZ. 51 West S4th St., Xew York, Bleriot monoplane. Pilot A. C. France.

CALENDAR FOR THE UNITED STATES.

Mav 4-6—Boston, glider contests of Harvard A. S.

Alay 4-7—Wichita. Kan., Curtiss exhibition. Mav 4-7—Washington, D. C, Curtiss exhibition.

Mav 11-13—Bridgeport, Conn., Curtiss exhibition, with McCurdy, G. H. Curtiss and Beachey.

Alay 29-June 2—Wilkesbarre. Pa., Curtiss exhibition. Beachey. McCurdy, Ward.

Alay 29-.Tune 3—Columbus, O., Wright exhibition.

June 2-3—Fort Wayne, Ind., Wright exhibition.

June 0-10—Joliet, 111., Wright exhibition. June 13-14—Peoria, 111., Wright exhibition. July 1—Gordon Bennett aviation race, England.

July 10—Gordon Bennett balloon elimination, Kansas City.

July 17-24—Saratoga Springs, X. Y., meet. Date and arrangements not certain.

August 2(i-September 4—Boston, meet of Harvard A. S.

October 5—Gordon Bennett balloon race, Kansas Pity.

January 10-20, 1912—Los Angeles, aviation and arrangements not certain.

AERONAUTICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION {conihuml/mm p„ye ir,2)

The following letter from Air. Pustis points out some pertinent matters:

Philadelphia, April 19, 1911. Editor of AERONAUTICS,

Xew Y'ork City. Dear Sir:—

The proposed organization of a national aeronautical trade body seems to me the most important step forward ever conceived by the exponents of the science and industry in this country. The formation of an aeronautical manufacturers' association should accomplish even more than is outlined in the tentative plan that has been made public. The industry has now readied a point where its members need more accurate recognition in their individual lines, as well as protection from charlatans. Through such an organization as is proposed, the legitimate dealer in aeronautical apparatus and equipment will be strengthened, and his opportunities for developing his end of the industry will be increased.

It seems to me most important, too, that through the medium of such an organization the public shall be made to realize that the aeronautical industry is already established on clean business lines. There seems to be some misap-

prehension on this point, many persons assuming that aviation, in particular, has not yet reached the stage of development where there is standardization of materials and accessories. Those of us who know how splendidly the various branches of this new industry have been built up, in the face of scepticism and extraordinary liability of loss, will welcome such a campaign of education as will follow the formation of the new association.

We Americans have encouraged the art of flying with an enthusiasm that at times has threatened (o develop into hysteria. The time has come when we should extend more active support and co-operation to the men who make flying possible by the building and improving of the machines. The manufacturers are the men behind (he guns. To them, more (ban to the pilots or aviators, we must look for the future progress of aero-nau tics.

Faithfully yours. JO! IX TKEVOR CUST1S.

(Air. Custis is Alanaging Editor of "The Philadelphia Inquirer," the first newspaper in the United States to have a regular weekly aeronautical section, and is also well known as a writer on aeronautic topics.)

Breguet biplane, which carried 12 people for 3 kilometers at a speed of 60 miles an hour on March 23rd. The engine was a 100-h.p. Gnome. The total weight lifted, including aeroplane and passengers, was 2,600 lbs. Two of these Breguet machines have been supplied to the Trench army to use on the western coast of Africa to carry mail. The following day Roger Sommer carried 12 passengers, or 13 in all, flying a kilometer. A few days previous Sommer carried 8 people for \y2 hours.

NOTES

FROM

ABROAD

FLIES FROM LONDON TO PARIS.

Pierre Frier Makes the 223 Miles Without a Stop.

BREAKS CROSS-COUNTRY RECORD.

Journey Occupies 236 Minutes.

lssy-Les-Moulineaux, April 12.—The aviator, Pierre Prier, flying a 50 Gnome Bleriot, arrived here at 5:33 o'clock this evening from London, having made the trip of about 223 miles, without a stop, in 230 minutes.

Prier left the aviation grounds at Hendon, near London, at 1:37 in the afternoon. Above the English soil the aviator found fogs and squalls, and, going higher and higher in an endeavor to obtain better weather, crossed the English Channel near Hover at a height of over 3.000 feet.

Leaving the channel behind him. Prier encountered fine weather until he reached Beau-vais, fifty-four miles from the French capital, and from that city the rest of his voyage was made through a haze.

Prier is an instructor at the Bleriot school in England

The average speed was more than 50 miles an hour.

WHITE, BLERIOT, MAXIM, LTD.

On April 1 the organization of tlie above company was announced, and subscriptions to stock are being solicited. Throe of the live directors arc Sir Hiram Maxim. Louis Bleriot and P. CI. White. White has been engaged as manager for ten years, Bleriot as teehnical adviser for five years, and Sir Hiram Maxim as chairman of the eompanv.

The capital stock is $1,000,000, of which 300.000 shares are offered to the public at par; 200,000 shares ($325,000) have been issued in part payment of the purchase price, together with $100,000 in cash. The company takes over

flying ground, the British patents of Bleriot and inventions, present and future, for Great Britain, Colonies and India; $35,000 will be spent on the erection of factories and •$25,000 for the purchase of machines, leaving available for working capital out of the stock to be sold a sum of $113,000.

The prospectus states that Bleriot has sold from his factory in France more than 300 monoplanes, and it is expected that the company will dispose of 100 machines the first yeai* at a profit of $1,000 a machine. Aeroplane sheds will be rented at an average yearly rental of $500 each. During the past 14 months 200 pupils have been instructed at Bleriot schools in France, and 100 pupils yearly are figured on for the new company, lt is proposed also to give exhibitions, the receipts from which are figured at $50,000 for the year. The estimated yearly revenue from the company is figured to be $197,000, of which but $60,000 are expenses.

MICHELIN CUP RULES.

The holder of the International Michelin Cup for 1911 will be the one who covers the greatest distance over a closed circuit before November 1. The distance must exceed 5S2.935 kilometers. The flight must be made around two points and not less than 50 and not more than 100 kilometers from each other, in the oroximity of a large town. He is permitted to land as often as necessary to take on oil and gas. But the time will be counted in as for the lap. and the total time for the lap must not equal or exceed a time calculated by the time-keener as representing a speed for that circuit of 50 kilometers per hour.

THREE MORE DEATHS.

An Italian aviator, Joseph Cei. Hying a t'au-dron biplane, met his death on March 2S. Crossing the lliver Seine on an attempted crosscountry flight, the motor failed and he fell on an island. He was taken to a hospital, but died three hours later.

CHEVUEFSE, France, April 11.- Lieutenant

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The Morans Monoplane.

Byasson. of the Xavy, while making an aeroplane flight here to-day, fell with hisjTnachjnei and was mortally injured,. jplxtX'cf x$iutftif/

Lieutenant Byasstm died later, lie was maneuvering a monoplane over the field here when the machine capsized.

VERSAILLES, France, April 18.—Capt.T^ar-ron, of the French Array Aviation Corps, fell with his aeroplane from a height of 250 ft. today and was crushed to death. The aviator left Orleans for this city and was midway between Villacoublay and Y**rsaillds when his machine plunged to earth, turning over/as it fell. . Cav-roii was caught under the wreckage.,, 1

WINS $4,000 PRIZE.

MEXICO BUYS AEROPLANES.

It is understood that the Alexican government has placed an order for six aeroplanes in France. Roland Garros of the AToissant International Aviators, upon his return from France, for which country he left America in April, will take charge of the aviation department of the Alexican army after completing his contract with Aloisant.

The poor showing made in Alexico by the machines of J. J. Frisbie and Charles K. Hamilton has materially assisted in turning the order for the aeroplanes abroad. Hamilton, as is well known, severed his connections with the Aloisant aviators at Alexico City and Frisbie broke his propeller the 'first time he Iried to fly. and. unfortunately, this created a bad impression of the American machine. E. L. Ramsey of A'era Cruz has started the construction of a Bleriot XI, which he expects to equip with an American engine.

E. L. RAA1SEY.

PROFITS OF GNOME ENGINES.

The last fiscal year the Gnome engine makers made $45'J,359 net profits, nearly twice the capital of the eompanv. The net credit balance was $355,824.

The Bleriot factory made $CC.S00 net; capital $200,000.

On April 24 Pierre Vedrime, who left Paris in his 100-h.p. Gnome-engined Aiorane monoplane on April 22, arrived in Pau on Monday. April 24, covering a course of 500 miles in G hours 55 minutes actual flying time, winning the $4,000 prize' offered for the fastest flight between the two cities by way of Bordeaux. Several stops were made on the way. Several trials have previously been made by him, each ending in an incident which necessitated a new 'attempt. On March 31 he flew back from 'Poitiers to Paris, after one of his attempts, a distance of 1S0 miles, in 2 hours 12 minutes, with a 25-mile wind behind him. His speed averaged 81.S miles an hour. At times his speed was 94 miles an hour. On the way out his speed was G7 miles an hour.

NEW SPEED RECORDS AT PAU.

On the 12th of April Alfred Leblanc (Bleriot) established a new speed record of 08 miles an hour. The new times are as follows: 5 kil.—2 m. 41. s. 10 kil.—5 m. 30.8 s. 40 kil.—22 m. 12.2 s, 50 kil.—27 m. fefcS "S. 100 kil.—54 m. 55.0 s.

The time for 20 and 30 kilometers was slower than the Belmont figures. The new records for a certain period are as follows: ]t hour— 20.1990 kil. V2 hour— 53.1246 kil. 1 hour—1 ON.4246 kil.

German AVright machines are being equipped with 50-h.p. Al. A. G. engines and automatic compressed air starters to start the engine after soaring.

Apparently nothing further has been done with the Bleriot XIII which carried eight people.

THE NEW FRAUD MEDIUM

charlatan, the fakir, the schemer and the fraudulent promoter.

April 5. 1911. I have been reading regularly six aeronautic publications, but I must say I think they are mostly "twaddle." -Your editorials on "What Our Aeroplane Builders Xeed." and "Stop! Look!! Listen!!!" are excellent. There is grave danger of

discrediting the "game" in its early stages, which will set it back twenty years in development. 1 have had some experience with the wireless telegraphy business, and that is what happened there, alas! Hoping you will continue your excellent policy of "show down," I remain. Very truly yours.

SUBSCRIBER.

WRIGHT PATENT CASES.

So many inquiries have been received regarding the status of the Wright suits' that the following summary is printed:

The Wright Company's testimony in the Wright-Curtiss case is in, and the Curtiss testimony is due within a limited period. It is believed that the Curtiss testimony will be taken shortly.

In Germany, the Wright patent has been upheld. The litigation in France has not yet been actually settled. Reports from France state the foreign makers no longer deny that their appliances constitute an infringement. They only contend that the value of the patent of 1903 is rendered null by the publicity which they say was previously given to the invention. The suit in this country against C. G. White has not been settled. White has, it is said, been advised by his attorneys not to defend the suit, but let it go by default, on the ground that the makers of the aeroplanes, Farman and Bleriot, should protect the user. If this case should go by default, it will secure the Wright Company the right of obtaining injunctions on Farman and Bleriot machines. The suit against Louis Paulhan is still open.

FRIZES TOR AMATEURS.

R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., of Louisville, Ky., manufacturers of the "Grey Eagle*' Curtiss-type biplanes, and jobbers and retailers of aeronautical supplies, have offered 40 handsome silver trophies valued at $1,500 as prizes for flights made with aeroplanes equipped with power plants purchased of them.

The cups are offered in five classes: (A) to the first 27 aviators who make a 50,0-yard flight within 90 days from receipt of motor; (B) to the first 10 who fly for 30 minutes within 90 days of receipt of motor; (C) the first aviator who carries a passenger for 10 minutes; (D) for the longest cross-country flight during 1911 and the first two months of 1912; (E) to the aviator who stays up the longest period over an hour before February 29, 1912. The cups increase in value consecutively in classes B, C, D and E.

The Rubel company handles the following motors: Gnome. Brott, Kirkham, Harriman, Aircraft, Gray Eagle, Elbridge, Detroit Aeroplane, Fox, Emerson, Boulevard, Call, Aero-motor, Rinek and DeChenne.

CURTISS BACK EAST.

Glenn IT. Curtiss arrived in his home town of Hammondsport. N. Y., on April 17, aften-finishing the winter experiments with the hydro-aeroplane and the training of the army and navy officers at San Diego, Cal. He stopped off at Salt Lake City to give an exhibition with the water machine, and spent a day at St. Louis.

No definite plans have been made as yet in regard to the near future of the work at Hammondsport. Mr. Curtiss has personally purchased the factory from the receiver of the bankrupt Herring-Curtiss Co. for $25,10.0. The mortgage which he holds on the plant is considered as part payment. It will be operated by the Curtiss Aeroplane Co.

INCORPORATIONS.

Aero-Development Co.. 1327 S. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. Capital stock, $1,000,000. .1.

H. Keeler, G. R. Combs, Henry Keeler and Wm. A. Hutson.

Lundgren Aeroplane Co., Youngstown, O. Capital stock, $10,000. Will build machines patented by Earl Lundgren.

Burgess-Wiseman Mfg. Co., Cleveland, O. Capita], $10,000. E. H. Wiseman, president; R. C. Burgess, secretary-treasurer; W. P. Clevey, manager.

Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co., Detroit, Mich., $65,000. Max Dingfelder, president; Emil W. Snyder and John T. Patterson.

The Aircraft & Auto Parts Mfg. Co., Bran-ford, Conn., has been incorporated with capital of $24,000. The directors are Edwin E. Roberts, Frank W. Gordon and Frank S. Bradley.

United Aeroplane Mfg. Co., New York, $100,000. The directors are: William G. Lovatt, 144 W. 64th St.; David A. Sterling, 2S W. 112th St., New York City; J. Harrv Aushutz, 724 Washington St., Pittsburg, Pa.

Dillon Aviation Co., Dillon, S. C. The promoters of the company are: W. Murchison, J. D. Manning, F. Thompson, Fred. E. Rowe, R. L. Lane, J. L. Bridgers, E. V. Richards.

Chickasha Aeroplane Co.. Chickasha, Okla., $1,500, C. C. Kirkpatrick, M. S. Blackburn.

Cooley Aerial Navigation Co., New York. Manufacturing aeroplanes, etc. Capital, $70,-00(0.. Incorporators: J. Cooley, Rochester; J. Goldenson, A. D. Cameron, New York City.

National Aerial Navigation & Equipment Co., Cullman, Ala. Incorporated with $125,000 capital stock. Fred. J. Buchanan, president; L. N. Buell, secretary; George Steifelmeyer, treasurer; Fred. L. Schauffler, manager.

The Baltimore Monoplane Co., incorporated to build aeroplanes, have elected the following officers: President, D. J. Carter, 20O9 Boone St.; vice-presidents, W. L. Anderson, 911 N. Gilmor St., and Dr. Clinton Blades, N. Broadway; secretary-treasurer, Edward Wolfsheimer, 710 Newington Ave.

BALDWIN HOME.

Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin has returned from his tour with J. C. Mars and Tod Shriver through the Orient. This last winter they left San Francisco for Honolulu, where flights were made. From there the tour followed to Hong Kong and Tiapo, in China; thence to Manila, back to Shanghai and from there to tthe following points in Japan: Nagasaki, Kobe, Osaka, Kioto, Yokohama and Tokio.

The second Baldwin machine was sold, after putting in Shriver's Kirkham engine, to an experimental school in Manila. The Curtiss engine which Captain Baldwin had been using was put in the Sh river 'plane and Mars had the first Baldwin 'plane with the Hall-Scott engine, which the captain bought while in 'Frisco.

A new machine is being built at Mineola now with parts made to specifications by C. and A. Wittemann, in which one of the two new type A-2 Hall-Scott motors ordered will be installed. This will be along the same lines as its predecessors, but with longer ribs and less spread to the planes.

Mars and Shriver were to leave for home on April 15. Great crowds attended all the exhibitions. In one place the number was given as 400,000.

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CUPS TOR MODEL BUILDERS.

Two solid silver cups, both IS in. in height, are to be competed for by amateur aviators in a series of model aeroplane contests under the auspices of the West Side Young Men's Christian Association, No. 318 YV. 57th St. The cups are identical in make and design.

A. Leo Stevens, the aeronaut, has given one of the cups, and the other is the gift of Sydney B. Bowman, the American agent for the Clement-Bayard airships and the Santos Du-mont Demoiselles.

The Bowman cup is to go to the best constructed model aeroplane and the Stevens cup is for the longest flight. Both cups will be awarded at the close of the contests for the season.

The contests are open to boys between the ages of 12 and IS years, whether or not they are members of any Y. M. C. A. The only conditions are that the model aeroplanes must be made by the boys and must rise from tlie floor under their own power.

Besides the cups, Louis F. Ragot of the New York Aero Club offers a silver placque for the model aeroplane showing the greatest lifting power.

NEW BOOKS.

THE FLIGHT OF BIRDS, by Giovanni A. Borelli, .is the title of the sixth installment of the "Aeronautical ("'lassies" published by the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, which may be had at one shilling from King. Sell & Olding, 27 Chancery Lane, London, W. C. This is edited by T. O'B. Hubbard, secretary of the Aeronautical Society, and J. H. Ledeboer, editor of British AERONAUTICS.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR AUTOMOBILE STUDENTS AND MECHANICS. By Thomas H. Russell, A. At., Al. E. Published by Charles C. Thompson Co., Chicago, 111., at $1 Bound in cloth. The book includes 600 questions and answers on engines and motor cars. There is a great deal of material in here of prime interest and value to the experimenter who is buying or using an engine.

ELEMENTARY AERONAUTICS, bv Albert P. Thurston, B. Sc., Svo., cloth, 126 pages, illustrated, published bv The Alacmillan Co., 06 Fifth Ave., New York, at $1.25.

Contents:—Normal and Inclined Planes; Aerocurves; Automatic Longitudinal Stability and Alanual and Automatic Control; Automatic Lateral Stability; Propellers; Helicopters; Calculations Relating to the Design of a Flying Alachine: Laboratory Instruments and Apparatus: Types of Machines; Aeronautical Engines.

The aim of the author has been to present to the reader a simple and concise account of the action of air upon moving planes, aerocurves, propellers, bars and the like, and the application of these principles to practice.

In a letter to the Wright Company, P. o. Parmalee tells of descending into the Rio Grande River on the recent trip from San Antonio to El Paso, 100 miles each way. After dragging the aeroplane out on the banks they found that the wings were not affected a particle by the thorough drenching. The cloth was absolutely moisture-proof and did not shrink a particle. Had it been any other fabric, Air. Parmalee says, the wings would have been twisted all out of shape bv shrinking of the cloth.

T. B. Funk, a^7 a>itomobile_ agent in Dallas. Tex., will soon/aw a Wright flyer, the first to be owned by a/Texan.^

Harry S. Harkness is reported to have given the big biplane built for him by the Eaton Bros., of Los Angeles, to his mechanic, J. E. Kiley. The machine, along Curtiss lines, with a biplane tail and double vertical rudders, fitted with a Alacomher rotarv engine, was given its first flight on April 8 bv C. F. Walsh, who made

a 3-mile flight. Kiley himself then took it and, after some grass-cutting, flew it for a straightaway jump.

C. F. Walsh had his old machine out on April !> and 12, with Elhridge engine, trying for a pilot license. A broken wire delayed trials and, as the machine is old, he will transfer the motor to a new plane.

Otto Brodie, who flew the Curtiss machine bought by James E. Plew, of Chicago, has been making flights with the Farman sold a Chicago concern by Clifford B. Harmon. A Gnome engine and Gibson propeller is used.

R. St. Henry, a Canadian, is the latest graduate from the Curtiss California school.

C. F. Walsh, of Los Angeles, after putting J. J. Slavin's old Elhridge engine in his own machine, made a 15-minute flight.

Hugh L. Willoughby's "Pelican" is almost completed and is now being taken in boxes to his aerodome at Atlantic City to be finished.

Dr. Walter F. Provan, dentist, of Dorchester. Alass., and Gil Rankin, N. I-:. Agent for AERONAUTICS, 1 Beacon street, Boston, are building a monoplane especially for passenger-carrying cross-country flights. It is along the general lines of the Bleriot 12, a notable feature being the elimination of special fittings, for in so far as possible every bolt, nut and other fitting will be of "stock" hardware that can be easily replaced anywhere at any time in case of accident.

The wings will measure 16 ft. by 7 ft. 6 in., making the spread about 34 ft. and giving a sustaining surface of 204 sq. ft. in the main planes. The chassis will extend back 10 ft., and at 11 ft. there will be a take-down joint; another at 16 ft. back, the length of fuselage being 26 ft. in all. The stabilizer tail will be fan-shaped, 10 ft. long by 6 ft. at the extreme end, to which will be added the elevating rudder. The vertical rudder will resemble 1-1 ar-roun's, as will, in fact, the whole tail.

Dr. Provan is well known locally as a wrestler, having held the N. E. amateur championship until recently.

H. F. Kearny, who attempted to fly the Pfitzner monoplane, at the Boston meet, suddenly appeared in St. Louis with a Karman-type machine. Leland Scott, of the Hall-Scott Motor Co., supplied an engine for the trial, and on April 16 made one flight, his first, in this machine. A broken stay wire caught the propeller and broke it.

Thomas Benoist, of the Aeronautical Supply Co., St. Louis, is building more machines for his school work.

Air. Orvar Aleyerhoffer, of Oroville, Cal., has been making some good flights in that vicinity, hut on his last met with an accident. After flying in fine shape for Vz mile, in passing over a tree, his running gear caught in the topmost branches and threw the machine to the ground. The belt device that operates ailerons undoubtedly saved Air. Aleyerhoffer's life, as he was violently thrown forward and would have been thrown out of the machine but for the belt. The machine escaped without any serious injury, despite the height from which it fell. This is no doubt due to its very strong construction. Apropos of this, Air. Aleyerhoffer can, by supporting both ends of the machine, take off the tires, etc., the machine being suspended by the end supports: furthermore^ it is so rigid that lie can walk from end to end on the top while suspended.

The British War Office Committee has now been appointed. It consists of three officers appointed by the War Office, C. Grahame-White, Alexander Ogilvie, Roger Wallace and Col. .1. 1). Fullerton representing the Aeronautical Society, with two or three more. One meeting has already been held.

A. C. A. FIRST TO HAVE OWN CLUB HOUSE.

The Aero Club of America is to have one fine big club house at 297 Madison avenue, New York, corner of Forty-first street. It is a five-story private dwelling house, of unusually attractive and dignified architecture.

At a meeting of the members, at which more than a dozen were present in person and over a hundred by proxy, held April 10th, it was unanimously voted to secure a two-year lease of the property at a rental of $5,000 a year. The sum of $2,50i0 was made available for some slight changes in furnishings and the installation of suitable furniture. A buffet will be arranged and members will have the privilege of putting up out-of-town guests there. The house is very nearly complete as to hangings and carpets, so that little money is needed in this direction.

It is the plan of the members and officers who started the club house movement to increase the membership and provide an attractive place where members may congregate. Up to the present the club has not been in a position to support a club house of its own and has occupied small quarters which were used more for an office than anything else. They were certainly not attractive for members, but it 's hoped that this is all changed and that henceforth the having of a home will stimulate greater activity.

A. C. A. BANQUET.

The Aero Club of America held its fifth annual banquet on March 29, attended by about 150 guests. Allan A. Ryan presided, with James C. Montgomery as toastmaster. The guest table was decorated with trophies won by pilots of the club, including the Lahm Cup, the Gordon Bennett balloon and aviation, the Duration Cup, won by Arch Hoxsie at the Belmont Park meet; the Michelin Trophy, won by Wilbur Wright in 190S, and the Scientific American Cup, won by Glenn H. Curtiss in his flight from Albany to New York.

31 r. Montgomery's remarks occasioned considerable merriment owing to his lack of knowledge of aviation matters and the fact that he almost presented to Alan R. Hawley the cup intended for Glenn H. Curtiss. In the absence of Mr. Curtiss, Augustus Post received the Scientific American Cup for the longest flight from Charles A. Munn, owner of the "Scientific American."

Brigadier-General James Allen, Chief Signal Officer of the U. S. Army, whose remarks are printed in abstract elsewhere, made the principal address of the evening.

THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY HAS PERMANENT ROOMS.

At the Aeronautical Society's general meeting held March 23d, a resolution was unanimously passed renting the rooms on the eighth floor of (he building, 250 West Fifty-fourth street, opposite the Automobile Club, beginning May 1st. The furnishing and lighting and general arrangement of the rooms has been finished and a library of patent publications, periodicals, models, photographs and other paraphernalia will be provided for the benefit of members at any time they choose to call, whether for lounging or studying.

LECTURES CONTINUE. E. W. Marshall, of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, patent expert and attorney, made a most interesting address on "Practical Experiments and Demonstrations with Gasoline." The interest was enhanced by the simple nature of the experiments and the nontechnical language describing them, and was

particularly instructive in illustrating clearly the harmlessness as well as dangers in the use of gasoline. A gasoline can was lit at the opening, showing that there was no danger of explosion, and upon heating some gasoline in a test tube it was shown that the fumes are heavier than air and could be ignited considerably below the opening of the test tube but not above. Mr. Marshall smoked a cigar and extinguished it in gasoline, proving that the embers of a cigar are not hot enough to ignite gasoline, and then he made a carburettor of this cigar by drawing in from this saturated cigar and blowing a mixture which ignited over an alcohol flame. Water is not a proper extinguisher for a gasoline fire, because it goes to the bottom and does not have the effect of smothering the flames was clearly shown in a small bowl which was ignited and then water poured on, which went to the bottom and was not extinguished until a chemical extinguisher was ,poured on, creating fumes that filled the flame. A paper bag was inflated with a combustible mixture through spraying gasoline through a perfumery spray nozzle and exploded by an electric spark while the bag was held in the hand. Kerosene oil was heated in a test tube to show that the fumes emanate therefrom were equivalent to the fumes of cold gasoline and demonstrating the fundamental differences iit an oil engine and gasoline motor. To prove that gasoline without the connection of air to add oxygen was not in itself inflammable or dangerous, an electric spark plug was introduced in a glass filled with gasoliile and a continuous series of visible sparks ensued without any result until the spark plug was drawn away "from the liquid where the oxygen came in contact, when it was ignited above the liquid.

On April 13th the general meeting was addressed by Prof. Dwight Tiering, of New York University, on compressed air, illustrated with lantern slides. His address was particularly clear in language and expression, and very instructive by pointing out the many different uses of compressed air, both for static, passive and dynamic forms.

In its application to aeronautics, Prof, ller-ing thought there would be many uses, among others the ability to let out jets of air current lo counteract disturbances on one side of an aeroplane, and gave illustration of what amount of air can be confined in a tube and its weight and length of operation to enable the members to form their own conclusions with a view to making experiments.

OYINGTON GIVES FINE TALK.

Earle L. Ovington, who has just returned from the Bleriot school of aviation at Pau, France, after having obtained his license, made some very interesting'remarks about the conditions in France to-day. Mr. Ovington was formerly president of the Federation of American Motor Cyclists, and becoming interested in aviation through attending the several exhibitions of the Society at Morris Park, and determined to fly his own machine. With this purpose in view, went to France and has brought back with him a Bleriot machine and a certificate as an acomplished aviator. One ramarkablc comment Mr. Ovington made regarding progress in France was that no effort is being made to obtain automatic stability, but altogether towards speed or weight carrying capacity, and that the forward attacking edge of the aeroplanes wore getting thicker and thicker, showing advantageous results in each instance and proving thereby that there was a law of currents that we do not fully understand yet. The latest Bleriot has a wooden tube structure at the forward edge close to 5 in.

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lin diameter which does not seem to present jany extreme resistance. Rome tails of monoplanes were provided with surfaces of inverse angle which apparently added about 5 miles to the speed without any other difference to the machine.

AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY BANQUET.

By the time this issue is received, the big Idinner of the Aeronautical Society, at the Hotel |Astor, on April 27, will have been a matter of history. More than 700 guests are expected from all parts of the country. Sir Hiram iMaxim, brother of the Society's President, Hudson Maxim, is coming and several foreign clubs khave appointed delegates.

Among the notable guests are: President WilMam H. Taft, Hon. George von Lengerke Meyer, Hon. Jacob Dickinson, Hon. William Randolph Hearst, Hon. Charles D. Walcott, Prof. Robert Simpson Woodward, Dr. Willis L. Moore, Dr. John Henry MacKracken. Hon. Edward B. Moore, Brig.-Gen. James Allen, Hon. J. S. Martine. President Aekerman, of the Senate of the State of Xew Jersey; Hon. John J. Fitzgerald. Hon. Timothy D. Woodruff, Hon. John W. Goff, Admiral Fletcher, Rear Admiral O'Neil, Pol. O. B. Mitch am, Capt. Washington Irving Chambers. Hon. James M. Beck. Dr. W. Payson Richardson, Gutzon L. M. Borglum, John Temple Graves, Arthur Brisbane. Glenn H. Curtiss, J. A. Haskel, Thomas Sopwith and many others.

There are sixty-two boxes in the big ball room, and these are not being sold, but are being apportioned in return for voluntary donations to create a fund to erect a monument at Washington, D. C, in memory and honor of those who have lost their lives in the cause of aviation. Applications have come in with checks varying from $50 down to $10.

The Aero Club of Cuba, Havana, has affiliated itself with the Aero Club of America. The list of officers and members are as follows: President, Regino du Repair de Truffin: Vice-President, Dr. Ricardo Dolz: Secretary, Dr. Manuel M. Coronado: Vice-Secretary, Evelio Cuervo: Treasurer, Juan Arguelles; Consulting Engineer, Dionisio Yelasco; Directors, Marco A. Carvajal, Ramon G. Mendoza, Enri<|u Conhill, Orestes Ferrara.

Among the members are: Elicio Arguelles, Emilio Alamiila. F. D. Duque Galdos. Joaquin Gelats. Ernesto P. de la Riva. Ernesto Sarra, [Bienvenido Saavedra, Herman Upmann, Ignacio Weber, Carlos de Zaldo.

I The Aero Club of Illinois has established permanent headquarters at Room 130, Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, lit.

NEW AIR CLUB FORMED TO PROMOTE AVIATION.

The Aviation Club of Nebraska, which expects to build, exhibit and operate aeroplanes in Omaha, has been organized by a number of Omahans interested in aerial navigation.

Clarence l'\ Adams, former sergeant of Fort Omaha Signal Corps and builder of several aeroplanes, was elected chief aviator, and .1. J. Deright was chosen business director and manager. The other officers are: Harry Sackett, assistant chief aviator; Ray L. Wl'it'Unrp pres-irlent; Hugo Heyn. vice-president and photogra-pTToT: Leonard Sjoberg, recording secretary; Daniel McCarthy, treasurer; Arthur Frenzer. correspondent; Louis Wade, assistant correspondent; Fridolf Hngstrom. inspector, and Kenneth Norton, Held officer; Carroll Eng-strome, librarian.

The club now has two aeroplanes and six sliding machines, which were ready for operation April 1.

Aero Club of Long- Island, incorporated April 22, 1011, with office at Garden City. The club has leased several hundred acres of land between Garden City and the Meadow Brook Club. The directors are: Gage E. Tarhell. head of a local land company; Philip Wilcox, Frederick J. Dollinger, assistant secretary of the

National Council: A. J. Moisant, A. E. W. Up-permann and Albert S. Le Vino, of the Moisant International Aviators.

The Michigan Agricultural College Aero Club, East Lansing, Mich., has been organized among a number of students of the Engineering Department. The club has the use of a glider owned by one of the members and will probably undertake the construction of a Curtiss-type machine.

The officers are as follows: Ion J. Cortright, president; II. W. Schneider, vice-president; A. N. Hall, secretary; A. M. Lynn, treasurer.

The Southwestern Aeronautical Association

has been incorporated under the State laws of Texas.

It may be well to state that the old Aero Club of Fort Worth was the father of this organization. After its failure the Southwestern Aero Club was created, changing into the Southwestern Aeronautical Association.

HOWARD H. MARTIN,

P. u. Box 821.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania held a meeting on April 7. which was addressed by Geo. II. Cove and W. C. Jennings. Mr. Jennings showed, among others, a picture of Boston, taken from a balloon. On the 0th the club sruprised the veteran balloonist. Samuel A. King, on the occasion of his 83rd birthday.

Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, president of the Ben Franklin Aeronautical Society, made the address presenting the purse of gold to Prof, and Mrs. King.

Prof. King was born April 9, 1S28, in Old Cohocksink, and in 1851 made his first ascension in Fairmount Park. Since that time he has made 458 free ascensions in all parts of the United States. In a number of races and distance attempts he has been lost in the region of the Great Lakes and the forests of Wisconsin and Canada. In addition to the many free tlights he made and the experiments he conducted for clubs and societies, he held a number of important positions with the United States Government, especially aeronautical adviser and balloonist for the Signal Service.

It is estimated that in his time he has carried more than 1,000 persons in free balloons and thousands in captive ascensions.

The Aero Club of Delaware, Wilmington, has

been incorporated.

The Aero Club of San" Jose (Calif.) is being formed.

The Milwaukee Aero Club has elected Wm. G. Bruce president; John H. Kopmeier, vice-president; A. O. Smith, second vice-president; Frank A. Cannon, secretary, and Gladstone Cherry, treasurer.

The Aero Club of Connecticut held its first annual banquet at the Strattield Hotel in Bridgeport, Conn., on April 20. About sixty enthusiastic guests were assembled to give promise of a live organization. Mr. Beers, of New Haven, told of his flights abroad as a passenger in various aeroplanes. He has ordered a Wright machine for delivery in May. Other speakers were: Hiram Percy Maxim, H. A. W. Wood. Allan A. Ryan, Augustus Post, Captain Baldwin and Representative Judson. A. Holland Forbes, the club's president, presided.

To those who delight in calling attention to the alleged special dangers of aviation, one can point out the fact that during 1910 the gentle art of mountain climbing as practiced on the Alps caused the death of 128 people. In 1000 the list totaled Iff. In two months out of the twelve, 45 were killed. The fatalities of aviation totaled in 19I0i, 27. Unfortunately, no figures are at hand on the number of people who en.ioyed the pleasures of mountain climbing during this period. Tt is likewise impossible to arrive at a total of the flights made, but it is safe to assume that there were at the close of the vear in all countries in the neighborhood of 2,0n0 aeroplanes making short to long flights.

NEW EXHIBITS AT "AERONAUTICS."

There have been recently added to the Permanent Exposition at AERONAUTICS" office samples of Wilson & Silsby fabric. These have attracted considerable attention, and show already evidence thereof, with sample pieces cut out here and there by enthusiastic builders.

W. C. Durgan, of 115 Brown St., Syracuse, N. Y., has installed an exhibit of Curtiss and Demoiselle laminated ribs. These are exceedingly well made and the makers deserve the patronage of those who have use for such ribs.

Another exhibit is of "Ambroid" glue and varnish, made by the West Mfg. Co., 350 Broadway, New York.

Bubel Makes Motor.

After nine months of continual hard testing, the "Gray Eagle" aeronautical motor has been placed on the market by R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co. of Louisville, Ky.

Many things of interest could be said about this particular motor. Its strongest points to be considered, are the liberal 14 in. of bearings on the crankshaft and its large concentric valves.

Unlike most air-cooled motors, the "Gray Eagle" is capable of continually running without overheating. Although the general design follows that of successful automobile motors, it has several features not found on ether tvpes of aeronautical motors.

It is a four-cylinder, 30-10-horsepower air-cooled engine of the four-cycle type, having a bore and stroke of 1 \i by 4V£ in.

The large overhead concentric valves designed and patented by R. M. Roof, M. E., are somewhat similar to the well-known air-cooled Franklin automobile motor.

"Gray Eagle" Air Cooled Motor.

Much of its success is attributed to these concentric valves, which are in size nearly as large as the bore of the motor. This facilitates cooling and increases the actual horsepower. The intake valves are made of nickel steel, with electric-welded valve stems, and the exhaust valves are made of a special cast semi-steel.

The cylinders are machined mi the inside and outside from a solid 30 per cent carbon ingot. Each cylinder casting weighs .r>5 pounds and is carefully machined to a net weight of less than 11 pounds. Turning each cylinder from a solid cast ingot of steel insures an even radiation of heat and cylinder walls of uniform thickness. This is the method of manufacture that the celebrated Gnome air-cooled motor follows.

The crankense consists of two aluminum alloy castings with under-pan, which is easily removed, allowing a rapid examination of beamings or adjustment.

The four-throw chrome nickel-steel crank* shaft runs in Ave large bearings. These bear-1 ings are made of a high-speed nickel alloy! measuring 14 in. in length.

The "Gray Eagle" motor is equipped with! Bosch high-tension magneto, Schebler car-| buretor, force-feed oiler, Bosch plugs, terminal! and oil tank.

The makers expect to build not less thanl 75 of these motors during this year, and havel reduced the cost of manufacturing to such anl extent that the complete motor with equip-^ meut will be sold at $4S5.

A thrust of 210 pounds to 250 pounds is] guaranteed with an expanding pitch propeller! and the motor is fully guaranteed for one year.l

Although the weight of the radiator, water] and pump are eliminated, the "Gray Eagle" | motor was designed for hard use and abuse such as they are likely to receive in the hands of amateur aviators, and their net weight of ITS pounds compares well with any motors of' the same horsepower. At the present time all of the endurance records are held with air-cooled motors.

By using an air-cooled motor, the inconvenience and weight of water, besides the reduction head resistance, makes it a desirable featur.

School for San Francisco.

The California Aero Manufacturing and Supply Co. of San Francisco have moved to new and larger quarters at 7S1-3 Golden Gate Ave., where they now have two floors, 50 by 120 each, and will be fully equipped to handle and build machines of any design. A large machine shop, forges, etc., have been installed, and preparations are being made to install an aero school in conjunction with an automobile school. The course will consist of training in the construction of gliders and ordinary types of machines, such as the Curtiss and Bleriot and actual flying practice on grounds which they are now negotiating for.

S. Doi, a Japanese of San Francisco, is constructing a biplane of original design. He is using "Camasco" material throughout. A description of his machine will shortly appear in AERONAUTICS.

John W. Hamilton of San Francisco is building a Bleriot No. II monoplane, which is remarkable for its fidelity to the original. It is neat and well made. He will use a 40-60 Elbridge Aero Special.

C. E. Fredrickson of San Francisco is building a biplane on original lines. He will use a two-cycle motor of his own design.

The California Aero Manufacturing and Supply Co. reports the sale of two 1011 Aero Special Elbridge engines, one to John AY. Hamilton and one to the Diamond Aeroplane Co. Both orders were taken inside of a week. They also report the sale of two Detroit aero motors. The demand is good for standard materials, such as Requa-Gibson propellers, Goodyear tires and cloth, stranded aero cable, which they carry in stock.

Wolverine Two-Cylinder Motor.

The. 'Wolverine- two-cylinder opposed air-cooled aero motor was recently placed on the market by the Wolverine Aeronautic Co. of Albion, Mich.

The design is extremely simple, and, having only two cylinders, makes it possible to produce a light-weight motor which is at once economical in fuel consumption, strong, powerful and can be relied on to deliver its full rated power continuously.

The bore is 5*£ in., stroke 5 in, horsepower 25 to 30, depending on the speed; weight 130 pounds.

The motor sells complete with battery ignition, Schebler carburetor, a 7-ft. spruce and

1S6

IN THE AERIAL MARKET PLACB

AERONAUTICS

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REGULAR TURNBUCKLES

10 and 12 cents

E. J. W. LOCKTURN BUCKLE

17 and l20 cents

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3=

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WOOD for AEROPLANES

We manufacture RIBS, SKIDS, PROPELLERS, HOLLOW WING BARS, Etc. Our equipment is perfect and we are prepared to execute any special work.

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MOTORS TESTED

Dynamometer tests of aeronautic motors made for inventors, manufacturers and experimenters.

Any size—Any speed Reliable, conclusive and confidential reports. .

JOSEPH TRACY

Consulting Engineer 116 West 39th St. :: :: :: New York

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BEFORE IN FLIGHT AFTER

Send on Receipt of $4.00, EXPRESS COLLECT

DESIGNED BY

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Specially made for

Aviators and Automobilists

Water proof, dust proof and comfortable in any weather

t A • 1 • 17* 11 Aviator f

J AViatlOn riela LO., Bernard Levey, Mgr. |

Cap Dept., Clason Point, New York

+ +

Wolverine Tumbuckle and Tool.

oak laminated propeller, for $350, guaranteed to deliver 220 pounds thrust at 1,000 r. p. m. Bosch magneto, $50 extra.

The company also manufactures propellers and aeroplane parts, both wood and metal. One is a special wire tightener and tool for applying same, which does away with turn-buckles and enables the wires to be quickly connected or disconnected or tightened as much as desired. The tool sells for $3 and the tighteners S cents each.

They make propellers from sever il kinds of wood and sell for different prices, the highest being spruce and mahogany, laminated and highly finished with rubbing varnish, fi and 7 ft., any pitch. $40. The lowest-priced is made from oak and white wood, finished with shellac, 6 and 7 ft., any pitch, $25.

All propellers are formed on a machine from accurate master propellers, so the lowest-priced are just as accurate, efficient and strong as the highest-priced.

Aeroplanes, any type, designed and built to c rder.

Dean Six-Hour Test.

Lieut. John Rodgers of the United States navy was present at the factory of the Pean Manufacturing Co. April 9 to witness a six-hour endurance test of a four-cylinder 4 34 by 414 Fox De Luxe aero motor, 60 horsepower. The motor was started at 10 a. m. and shut down by Lieutenant Rodgers, who wrote as follows:

"At 4.06 p. m. I shut down the Fox De Luxe four-cylinder motor (aero, 60-80 horsepower. No. 3645), after witnessing a six-hour run, during which time the engine ran at a speed of between 1,200 and 1,300 r. p. m. At the end of the run the motor was cool, in good condition and ready to start up again."

Following this test a special half-hour run was made at 1,450 revolutions to give the exact gasoline consumption at this speed.

Fully 100 people witnessed the test, and there were IS present at the starting.

A full account of this test will be sent by the manufacturer upon application to parties who are interested in aero motors by writing to the Dean Manufacturing Co., Newport, Ky., who manufacture a line of 22 sizes of marine and aero motors.

The aeronautical booking office and exchange for new and unused aeroplanes and supplies, is the latest development. The Aero Clearing House of 299 Broadway, New York, has for some time been working up a booking business, and they state now that they are booking the Rex Smith, the Kirkham-Eells, the Thomas aeroplanes and Ladis Lewkowicz, the Russian aviator.

These men are being placed on a no-fiight-no-pay basis; the local people are required to put up a cash guarantee sufficient to cover expenses, and in case bad weather prevents flights during the week, a bonus of about one-half the guaranteed money; then the flights are charged for by the day, gradually growing less, in proportion to the length of the engagement. The men are being placed at prices from $1,500 to $3,000 for the week.

Two or three good aeroplanes are for sale, both foreign-made Bleriot and Arnerican-made biplane types. There are many demands for motors, but only a few write that they have motors for sale.

The concern states:

"YVe have iust completed arrangements with the United Fairs Co., the fair department of the United Booking Offices of America, by which we furnish them all the aeroplanes they use for their exhibition work this year and in return by which we give them exclusive rights on all the fair territory east of Cincinnati.

"There are a number of Western dates coming in, and we are now negotiating with some Western aviators to take care of that territory, so as to prevent any long jumps for our eastern men."

The Coff Aeroplane Co. of Chicago have been appointed Western agents for the Rinek Aero Mfg. Co., makers of the Rinek engines.

A branch office of the Goff Aeroplane Co. has been opened in Milwaukee at 558 Jefferson St. in the Studio Building. Mr. A. Gunde-lach has been appointed manager.

The new catalogue of the Goff Aeroplane Co.,, 219 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., is stir-prising as showing the extent to which the model-making business has reached. Everything necessary for building of models is listed. In addition, this concern has models ready built at but 30 cents each, postpaid.

Oar] Chapman of the Kalamazoo Aeroplane Co. has a new monoplane ready for the flehl. lie has installed one of the 1911 models Elbridge Aero Special engines.

Five machines have tlown at Mineola so far this year, and three of them were equipped with Elbridge '•Featherweight" engines. The engines were 1910 models in use for a year or more, but all gave good results.

With more than 300 machines building in the vicinity, Philadelphia promises to have an active season in aviation. Carman & Bowes, Bourse Building, the Philadelphia representatives of the Elbridge Engine Co., report a number of orders and much interest in hie new "Aero Specials."

J. X. Sparling of the Sparling aviators, East St. Louis, bought his third Elbridge engine a few weeks ago and has already orders : a fourth.

Acting on (lie advice of J. .1. Frisbie, Lieut. A. F. W. McManus of San Antonio will install a more powerful motor in Lis monoplane. lie has ordered an Elbridge 40-60.

Tom Gunii, said to be a representative of the Chinese navy, has arrived in New York from Oakland, Cab. to take up some work at the Aeronautic School of Engineers, 312 W. 52(1 St., New York.

The school has built three machines now, genus Curtiss. Both, equipped with Elbridge engines, will be at Mineola before the 1st of May. One is a two-man machine. The chassis of an electric automobile lias been used a a limning gear for one machine, which will be employed as a "grass-cutter," in which the students will run over the ground, learn the sensations of bumping along the handling of the engine, etc.

Arthur Maynard, a student from Holyoke, Jlass., has completed a course and has taken to bis home town a Curtiss type machine, which he built at the school. Two Demoiselles are being built and a Detroit Aeroplane Co. two-cylinder 1911 motor is on baud for installation in one of these. A contract has been made with the Goodyear and El Arco radiator people to use their material as standard equipment. The school is now controlled by Frank Fitz Simons, Frank J. O. Ferris and Henry ,T. Winter.

Andy Brott, the Denver aero engine builder, has already shipped one of his engines to Toledo, (). (eight cylinder), and is just completing his second (four cylinder), which is to go to Seattle, Wash. His motors are water-cooled, V type, and seem to give results. Mi-. Brott will not say to whom the motors are shipped.

The Walters engine, which is built by Guy & Walters of Denver, is to be tried out on Mathewson 'plane No. 2 in competition with the Elbridge. As yet he will give out no details. E. Linn Mathewson, financier of the Mathewson Aeroplane Co., who reported he was to open an aero school, may not do this. Mr. Mathewson does not know whether he can spare his aviator, George Thompson, and helper, George Van Arsdale, for this kind of work, lie will decide this very shortly.

ROBERT A. DONALDSON.

Glenn Curtiss has now taken up Goodyear fabric, the Army machine using the number seven. The detachable tires made by the Goodyear Company are being used by Curtiss, Walker and Robinson.

The Chicago Aeroplane Manufacturing Co., 2232 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago, 111., has a largo number of students taking (heir practical course in actual construction of aero-nlanes. A 2S-ft. Curtiss type machine has been completed, to lie equipped with a Boulevard motor, and another is being started. Eight are expected to be finished this summer. The students have outdoor work and learn to fly. A correspondence course is also conducted under the charge of w. J. .Jackman, A. B., M. E.

The opening of spring has brought a great impetus to aviation—both manufacture and exhibition. Ample evidence of this is furnished by the Glenn H. Curtiss offices in this city, where increased space has been taken to accommodate the growth of business. Twice within the year the Curtiss offices at 1737 Broadway have been moved into larger quarters in the same building.

Jerome Fanciulli, general manager of both the Curtiss Aeroplane Company and the Curtiss Exhibition Company, announces that the Exhibition Company has already made contracts for exhibitions aggregating $200,00.0, covering the period from April to October. The prospects for sales of aeroplanes are also very bright, and Mr. Fanciulli reports a number in hand for May and June delivery.

"There is great interest in aviation this spring," said Mr. Fanciulli, "and this year promises big business. Aside from our extensive bookings for the summer and fall throughout the country for our eight aviators, there are many inquiries from those desiring to purchase aeroplanes. This is proof that the wonderful strides in flying by aviators is fast convincing the public that the aeroplane is no longer a toy. but a practicable machine, safe and serviceable. I believe we are just on the eve of great activity, such as now exists in France, and that the coming summer will witness some wonderful performances in flying.

"Mr. Curtiss has just returned from San Diego, Cab, where be carried on bis experiments and the training of five military officers during the winter, and is now at bis factory at Hammondsport. N. Y. He will devote himself entirely to experimental work, with an occasional-exhibition flight in bis new hydroaeroplane. This machine will prove to be the biggest development in aviation in recent years. It will be a great thing for beginners, as it reduces the danger of accidents and enhances the pleasure of flying by making lakes and rivers available for aviation fields."

Mr. Fanciulli has been with Mr. Curtiss ever since the Hammondsport manufacturer returned from Rheims, France, where he won the first international cup for America. Before entering the business side of aviation, Mr. Fanciulli was one of the star men for the Associated Press at Washington, being attached to the Capitol staff, where his work in reporting the proceedings of the House gave him a wide acquaintance with the public men of the country.

He brought great energy and executive ability into the aviation business, and has been most active in keeping Mr. Curtiss and the Curtiss aeroplane before the people of the United States. Through his personal efforts and under his management, the first aviation meet in New York to prove financially successful was pulled off under the Curtiss auspices at Sheepshead Bay last summer, and bis exploitation of the Curtiss machine, with the resultant sale to the Government and the excellent reputation of the Curtiss flyers, is evidence of the value of good advertising and publicity.

The executive staff of the Curtiss Exhibition Company in this city numbers eleven persons, and those of the Aeroplane Company five. Included among the former are Mr. 10. D. Moore, formerly night manager of the Associated Press in New York, who is in charge of the publicity work; Thomas T. Tultle, a well-known young newspaper man: A. L. S. Alc-Ourdy, brother of the noted aviator, road manager, ami J. K. Lockwood as Mr. Fanciulli's secretary.

Among the noted aviators on the Curtiss staff are Eugene Ely. J. A. D. McCurdy, .1. J. Ward. Lincoln Beachey, H. A. Robinson, C. C. Witmer and R. C. St. Henry. The last two are new men, but as they were thoroughly trained by Mr. Curtiss himself at San Diego, they are expert flyers.

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Manufacturers are writing me for patents obtained through me. Send for 72-page guide book; list of 200 inventions wanted. Free upon request. My clients' patents sold free. Personal services. Aeronautical expert.

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PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ENGINE one for working, other for reserve U. S. Patent issued Partner wanted for Foreign Patent Rights. Liberal Interest. write promptly for particulars

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returned. No others give this absolute guarantee; 30 yea's experience has taught me how.

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VICTOR J. EVANS &, COMPANY

Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASH I N GTON, D. C.

PROPELLERS FOR MODELS; S&^^X1.^

shaft accurately and securely attached: 3% in. 15c, 5 in. 20c, 6 in. 25c, 8 in. 35c, 10 in. 50c. Post-paid. Low quantity prices. Jersey Skeeter Aeroplanes 25c,Flying Squirrel Aeroplanes 15c LINCOLN SQUARE NOVELTY WORKS. 1939 Broadway, New York

For Sale

At Bargain Price Absolutely New 30 Ft.

Curtiss-Farman Biplane

complete with Radiators, Propellers, Tanks, etc.

all except engine. Can be seen any time. Also A-l tent

Curtiss, c. o. Aeronautics

WRINKT F'S preservative

VV J BALLOON VARNISH

An Elastic Non-Porous Varnish for Silk, Linen, Muslin and other Fabrics used in manufacturing of

BALLOONS, DIRIGIBLES, AEROPLANES, TENTS, etc.

More Balloon Varnish sold than all other Manufacturers combined. Sample Can Free. WRINKLE PAINT MFG. CO.. COLUMBUS. OHIO

* *

j Chicago Aero Works *

J 164 N. Wabash Ave. - Chicago, 111. j

- H. S. RENTON. Prop.-

AEROPLANES

Accessories Motors Parts

Hardware Propellers Wheels

also Models and Models Stock

Aviators Taught Flights Furnished

Established 1909 First in Chicago and the Middle West

37

SANTOS DUMONT TYPE AEROPLANES, IMPROVED

^=$1000.00 =

Write for prices of material for Bleriot and Curtiss-type aeroplanes.

Get our prices on complete machines, Turnbuckles, "U" bolts, Sockets, Wheels, Steering gear, Landing gear, made in our own factory.

Craftsman perfect propellers, $40.00.

Oval seamless steel tubing, 25c. per foot.

9626 ERIE AVENUE j CHICAGO, ILL.

M. STUPAR

AIRCRAFT

E. B. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co.

Makers of

Everything for Laminated spruce and mahogany propellers any size, any pitch immediate delivery; $6 per ft. Aeroplane hardware Aeroplane woodware

3403 Southport, Chicago

Send Six Cents in stamps for illustrated catalogue

THE MASTER MAGNETO--F. & S. BEARINGS

BOWDEN WIRE. j. S. BRETZ CO.

250 West 54th St. Phone, Columbus 8758

The Arbogast Aero Co., a $10,000 corporation of Anderson, Ind., purchased a 30-ft. "Gray Eagle" biplane of R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co. of Louisville, Ky. They will use it for exhibition purposes throughout the states of Indiana and Ohio and have contracts for 40 engagements.

This is the fourth aeroplane sold by the Rubel company this year, and prospects look good for the sale of at least 20 more before the season closes.

The Ideal Aeroplane and Supply Co., 1200 Bedford Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., has been organized by PI. Rosenstein.

AERONAUTICS has received a letter from one of the purchasers of ribs from W. C. Durgan of 115 Brown St., Syracuse, N. Y., commenting most favorably on the workmanship. It is a pleasure to read letters complimentary of the product of our advertisers.

Ribs made by Durgan are all laminated, several times as strong as all spruce, and every rib is weighed, so that all ribs are of exactly the same weight.

These recent foreign records establish the fact that the Bosch-equipped motors have won every existing record of the aeronautical world, or to .be more specific, the Bosch-equipped aeroplanes hold the following records:

Speed records in a closed circuit, either for distance in a given time, or vice versa; aviator alone, or with passengers.

The greatest speed obtained irrespective of circuit; aviator alone, aviator with 2 passengers, and aviator with 4 passengers.

The greatest duration of flight; aviator alone, aviator with 1 passenger, and aviator with 2 passengers.

The greatest altitude; aviator alone, and aviator with I passenger.

The greatest weight or number of passengers.

The greatest cross-country distances covered in one continued flight.

"AERONAUTICS" EXCHANGE COLUMNS

"WANTED—To interest someone financially in a new principle of flight embodying revolu-ble beating wings, means of supplying air beneath them and other salient features. Can't capsize. "Will fly straight up, back or forth at will of operator. Good results from principle under test. Address H., care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE—40 to GO H. P. Elbridge 1911 Aero-Special engine, complete with Bosch magneto and G. <Sr A. carburetor. Brand new, in perfect condition, has never been used.

Also 12-gallon gasoline tank, El Arco radiator, 1 Requa-Gibson propeller, 1 Paragon propeller and Requa-Gibson propeller flange.

Complete plant cost over $1,600. Will sell for cash for $1 350.

Immediate delivery.

M. F. II. GOUYERNEUR,

Wilmington, N. G.

$1,000,000 NOT WANTED, but a party with a few hundred dollars to invest in good-paying proposition. Read A. O. Paulson's adv. op posite page 193.

MAN OF ABILITY, now taking course in practical flight, desires offer for subsequent engagement, preferably on shares. Specialty, cross country and long distance. Address A. R., care AERONAUTICS.

GREAT SACRIFICE. 32-ft. Curtiss type biplane, with or without motor; duplicate parts and material enough to build another plane, ribs, tires, wheels, spruce lumber, etc.: shipping boxes; with or without 30 by 60-ft. tent. A complete outfit ready for the road. Stored in New York. Flew at Mineola last fall. Owners in business in Southern Florida have no time or place to use. "Opoortunity," box 79, 1570 Broadway, New York City.

AVIATOR, INVENTOR. DESIGNER AND BUILDER OF THE FIRST AMERICAN MONOPLANE TO FLY, HAVING AEROPLANES AND MANUFACTURING, HOUSING AND FLYING FACILITIES, SUITABLE FOR FLYING SCHOOL, EXHIBITION OR MANUFACTURING PURPOSES, OFFERS SPLENDID OPPORTUNITY TO PARTY DESIRING TO JOIN AS PARTNER OR SHAREHOLDER. ADDRESS INVENTOR, CARE OF AERONAUTICS.

PATTERNS AND CASTINGS for aeroplanes. Send sketch for estimate. "Mail Order" Garage, Fox St., Bridgeport, Conn.

VOIS1N TYPE biplane, entirely of steel tubing, same as the standard Voisin sold in France to-day. With or without power plant. Address Manufacturer, care AERONAUTICS.

EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, experienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer to give flying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care "AERONAUTICS."

FOR SALE—50-horsepower "HF," or Harri-man, aviation engine, new $700i This is the same size engine that the Harriman Motor Works are charging $1,675 for. Address Box 3, Girard, Kan.

LEARN AT HOME, in a few evenings, how to construct, operate and repair Flying Machines, Commercial Trucks, Automobiles, Motorcycles, Motor Boats. Gasoline Engines, Electric Motors. Big demand, with good pay for competent men. Thousands of positions open. Let us help you in place and pav. A postal card will do. Address EXTENSION DEPARTMENT, The Charles C. Thompson Co., 549 "Wabash Avenue, Chicago.

SITUATION WANTED—Active and clean-cut young man, ex-observer of U. S. Weather Bureau and Meteorological expert, desires affiliations with aeroplane manufacturing company, with object of being instructed in practical flying, for which tuition will be paid. Proficiency acquired, position of demonstrator and salesman for company would be expected. A-l references given and required. Address, Harry T. Johnson, 1213 Emerald Ave.. Chicago Heights, 111.

"AERONAUTICS'-COMPLETE files or HACK NUMBERS WANTED, Spate I'kick, j. S. STEPHENS, 7321 Bond Avenue, Cliiciiso, 111.

ISO

—F/c.4:

spur r/fl/zp

h. l., a. e. & h. 0. short, wheeled carriage for plying machines,

984,497.

Albert H. Friedel, 9S4.270. Filed June 23, 11109. "Patent covers a flexible leading edge. Forward of the usual front lateral beam open aeroplane. Introduces a rotating combination horizontal and vertical wing tips or extensions to wings for increasing or diminish in™ the lift of either side, thus affording a means of securing later equilibrium. These produce a downward pressure at one side of the aeroplane and an upward one on the other.

Henri Peuvot, Paris, France, 984,295, Feb. 14, 1911. Filed June 14, 1909. "KITE" Flex-

ible plane surface, bracing, etc.

P. \V. Stewart, O 14, 1911. Filed Feb. CH1XR, Claims cov of following, lateral arranged in echelon tween rear follow planes adjacent to planes and rudders.

Horace L. Short, . O. Short, Battersea

cellular system attached,

akland. Cab, 9S4.311, Feb.

15, 1910. "AERIAL J1A-er combination of a series ly offset integral sections formation; propeller being sections; balancing the lateral sections, tail

Mbert E. Short and Hugh Park, London, England,

UNITED STATES PATENT ABSTRACTED

Kirkham Motor

kirkham aeronautical rtoTOR.

£T A careful study of the above cut will reveal some of the features that make the KIRKHAM MOTOR the most RELIABLE medium weight motor on the American Market.

^T Note the symmetry of design ^Uand the sturdy construction, which in connection with the high class material and workmanship employed and the Motor Knowledge that the Designer has put into this motor, makes it The Motor YOU ought to have in your plane if you want RESULTS. Better Get Literature and Prices

Charles B. Kirkham

MANUFACTURER

BATH

NEW YORK

Motor Troubles

Eliminated

by the use of the

G & A

Adju stme n tless

CARBURETOR _i _———

Special Aeroplane Type

Practically all Aviation Records

are held by the

Adjustments GU Carburetor

All climatic conditions taken care of without the use of any springs or any adjustments. Send for booklet on carburetion and . Special Offer to Aviators

G. & A. Carburetor Co.

^4^5f^esM9U^t^^ew^orl^

imms

MAGNETOS

FOR AERO ENGINES THE SIMMS MAGNETO CO.

1780 BROADWAY NEW YORK CITY

London new York paris

WH E ELS

Stock Sizes

Prompt Deliveries

16 x lx2 in. monoplane tail wheel. weight 3 lbs. 20 x 2 in. curtiss type. weight 7 lbs. rims, either

wood or steel 20 x 2^2 in. wheels for single tube tire. 20 x 3 in.

20 x 4 in. " clincher tire.

24x3 in.

hubs furnished 4 x 5 x 5*2 or 6 inches wide. fitted with plain or knock out axle or bronze bushed to fit 1 in. axle. other sizes to order.

farman type running gear 14-inch steering wheel

Don't Fail to Get Our Price*

J. A. Weaver, Jr., Mfr. l^ZTA0^.

JUST PUBLISHED

NEW CATALOGUE OF

Aeronautical Supplies

Contains more than 150 illustrations of complete Aeroplanes, Motors, Propellers and Fittings

PROMPT SHIPMENTS AND LOW PRICES $1500 00 IN PRIZES TO AVIATORS WHO purchase motors of us

*P enclose 8 cents in stamps

R. 0. RUBEL, Jr., & CO., 133 N. 4th St., LOUISVILLE, KY.,U.S. A.

THE AERO SUPPLY HOUSE OF AMERICA

A PROPELLER THAT PROPELLS

Write for interesting circular describing

these efficient propellers. SOLD ON A BROAD GUARANTEE

The "EXPANDING PITCH" .Propeller. Guaranteed to deliver a thrust of 6.25 to 9/25 pounds per actual horse power at 1200 R. P. M.

R. O. RUBEL, JR. & CO., - (133 N. 4th Street) - LOUISVILLE, KY.

THE AERO SUPPLY HOUSE OF AMERICA.

ij $750

ii THE

$750

L'EIGHTON MOTOR

+

+ +

+

t

+ +

+ +

+

+

Designed by H. J. Leighton, of Syracuse, N. Y. jj

Is sold subject to Dynamometer Test of The Automobile \

Club of America—We guarantee 40 Horse Power j

4 Cyl., 5x5, 2 Cycle, Back Fiting Eliminated |j

MOTORS ENGINEERING AND SALES CO. ]

250 WEST 54th STREET, NEW YORK ]

9S4.497, Feb. 14. 1911. Filed July 28, 1910. •'WHEELED CARRIAGE FOR FLYING MACHINES." Claims cover the combination with paralelly arranged skids [1, 2] extending longitudinally, and framework connecting same to flying machine; tubular axle 6, extending transversely over and laterally beyond said skids, means for resiliently connecting axles to upper surfaces of skids and permit upward motion of axle 7, wheels carried and freely revoluble and capable of endway motion, locating of one wheel adjacent to the inner face of each skid, means for resiliently limiting the endway motion of eacli wheel upon axle, a vertically extending strut 10 adjacent to each'wheel, means for connecting the lower enus of axle struts to axle, a collar 9, fixed on the axle adjacent to each wheel, means for connecting the lower ends of axle struts to axle or to collars, a tie 11 connecting upper ends of axle struts and extending to and connected with outer ends of axle, means 12 for tensioning same, rear-wardly extending struts IS connecting flexibly or otherwise the upper ends of axle struts to the rearward framework of skids to maintain axle struts approximately vertical, means for flexibly connecting the forward ends of upper struts to the upper end of axle struts [Fig. 4] and for connecting the rearward ends of said upper struts flexibly to skid. Framework [Fig. 5] and stays 14-15 connected to axle and extending and connected to the forward portion of skids to support axle against rearward motion; rigid stay flexibly connected to and extending diagonally from each outer end of axle forwardly to the respective skid adjacent to axle end, means for flexibly connecting the forward end of rigid stay to skid, and a flexible diagonally extending tension stay for each end of axle connected to skid at one end and to axle at its other to support axle against rearward motion

John Yvr. Hearst, Oakland, Gal., 984,667, Feb. 21, 1911. Filed March 17, 1910. "STORAGE BATTERY ATTACHMENT FOR AIRSHIPS."

"W. B. Luce, Hingham, Mass.. 9S4,6S3, Feb. 21, 1911. "TOY FLYING MACHINE."

John W. Hearst, Oakland, Cal.. 9S4,812, Feb. 21, 1911. Filed Jan. 15, 1910. "PROPELLER WHEEL FOR AIRSHIPS." Hub, blades extending therefrom to a run.

James A. Home, Portland, Ore.. 985,034, Feb. 21, 1911. Filed April 14, 1910. "FLYING MACHINE." Biplane with the upper surface in sections each mounted on a pivot running fore and aft. Normally these sections stand vertical. A crank operates all those on one side

together and by movement thereof causes all on one side to lie horizontal giving lift on that side of the machine by making virtually a plane horizontal surface. Propulsion is by a paddle wheel arrangement.

E. K. A. Baumann, Stuttgart-Oberturkheim, Germany, 9S5.126, Feb. 28, 1911. Automatic longitudinal and lateral STABILITY.

James Rooney, Croton, N. Y., 985,372, Feb. 28, 1911. Novelty in CONSTRUCTION for lightness and small resistance.

James Rooney, Croton, N. Y., 985,373, Feb. 2S, 1911. Means for WARPING and tilting planes.

A. W. Schaef, Wellington, New Zealand. 9S5.375, Feb. 28, 1911. In an aeroplane, the combination with the main frame thereof, of a horizontal rear plane pivoted at its rear end to the main frame and overhanging the same for elevation and depression, and a vertical rudder plane disposed over said rear plane and pivoted at its end to the rear part thereof for lateral shifting in relation to said rear plane and being adapted to move up or down with the rear plane.

M. B. Dunkle, Moscow, Idaho, 9S5.G65, Feb. 28, 1911. Device for allowing planes to automatically change their angles of incidence, together or separately, to provide STABILITY.

David Smith, Deverre, Nebr., 985,84!), March 7, 1911. Manually operated OSCILLATING WINGS.

John H. Nolan, Boston, Mass., 985,925, March 7, 1911. HELICOPTER.

Karl Hipssich, Bremen, Germany, 986,002, March 7, 1911. Shape and arrangement of planes to preserve STABILITY.

H. Mitchell, St. Paul, Minn., 986,195, March 7, 1911. Pendulum-operated STABILITY device.

Henry W. Yost, Springfield, Ohio, 986,258, March 7, 1911. HOLLOW LAMINATED POSTS.

Melvin D. Compton, New York, 986,364, March 7, 1911. Flying machine in which wings consist of a frame inclosing SHUTTERS which open and close mechanically.

Wm. H. Harrison, New York, 986,418, March 7, 1911. Flying machine using JET PROPULSION.

James O. Brookbank, Driftwood, Pa., 986,431, March 14, 1911. DIRIGIBLE.

(

Charles A. Kuenzel, Buena Vista, Colo, 986,579, March 14, 1911. DIRIGIBLE.

Ernst Werndl, Pyrach Post Garsten, near Stevr, Austro-Hungary, 9S6,S82, March 14. 1911. STEERING GEAR.

Charles A. Kuenzel, Buena Vista, Colo., 987,-3S0, March 21, 1911. Improved suspension, direction, etc., of a DIRIGIBLE.

Harold M. DeGraw, Camden, N. J., 987,439, March 21. 1911. Means for varying the wing llexure of an aeroplane and connecting wing

warping or ailerons with the rudder for obtaining STABILITY.

Louis Bleriot, Neuillv-sur-Seine, France, 987,540, March 21, 1911. Filed Jan. 1 1, 1909. Flexible system of RUNNING GEAR, as used on all Bleriot monoplanes.

'aero supplies^

Models, complete stock, largest in Chicago Send for catalogue. Prompt efficient service. I

GOFF AEROPLANE CO, S^h?!9,?^^ J

Suite All is CHICAGO

IT

TO GO kUP IN THE AIR"

No Salary Limit for Aviators

PAYS

<J We teach you to design, build and fly aeroplanes. Special course to out-of-town students. We need competent aviators in our exhibition department. Can place you with exhibitors and manufacturers. Write for booklet.

Chicago School of Aviation, (Dept. C) Chicago, 111.

ERO CLEARING HOUSE

For Everything Aeronautical. New and used Machines, Motors and Accessories bought, sold and exchanged. Booking House for Aviators. Tentative arrangements with Foreign and American Aviators of Reputation. RATKS KXTRKMKI.V RKASOX AR1.K

299 Broadway, New York. Cable Address,"Clerohouse''

W. H. AITKEN

\\ illard Type Ribs, 1(5 Iarg-e 12 small, main beams and uprights, laminated spruce and ash, only $75; Turnbuckles only lOcts. each, sample rib $1.00

Address all communications to New York office

337 Adams Street - Brooklyn, N. Y.

BLUE PRINTS AND$1.00 WORKING DRAWINGS 1

we furnish you lull size working drawings of the curtiss, farman and bleriot aeroplanes. also, blue prints of model wright, curtiss, bleriot and antoinette aeroplanes at the same price. address department it

CHICAGO AEROPLANE MFG. CO.

2230-38 Cottage Grove Ave. :: :: Chicago

Each

H. W. WALDEN

Designer and Sole Patentee of

The Walden - Dyott Monoplane

Announces that hereafter he will build, fly and market the Walden Monoplane under his original patent.

H. W. WALDEN

FACTORY - - M1NEOLA. N. Y.

trade mark

We manufacture propellers from four inches up, also M.A P. Monoplanes with an automatic lateral stability.

M.A.P. MONOPLANE MFG. CO.. P. 0. Box 66, Station D., New York

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight— Strong and

Durable.

Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed. Send for Catalogue 19.

AH Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

CURTISS (Type) $CCfk AEROPLANES ODK)

We furnish you this biplane in 2S-foot size complete in every detail except the motor, in the knocked down style ready to assemble.

The aviation season for 1911 is close at hand. Grasp this opportunity and be in shape to compete for the rich purses and exhibition prizes which are now being offered, which at the present date amount to over $750,000.

Write or w ire at once as we are only putting out a limilcd number of these aeroplanes at this price.

All parts of any make Aeroplane at low prices.

CHICAGO AEROPLANE MFG. CO., Inc.

2230-38 Cottage Grove Ave., Dept. C, Chicago, 111.

MODEL AEROPLANE SUPPLIES

«I Engines, J4 H. P., Weight, iYs lbs— 1 H.P.6%lbs. Very strong, powerful and efficient. Complete line of accessories, ball-bearing propeller shafts. Miniature pneumatic tire wheels, made in six sizes. Turnbuckles, metal fittings, propellers, rattan, bamboo, all six sizes of selected woods, finest grade English Rubber strand, etc.

CORRECT PRICES, COMPLETE CATALOGUE SENT ON REQUEST

THE WHITE AEROPLANE COMPANY, Brooklyn, N.Y. Office and Salesroom: 337 ADAMS STREET Telephone, 3878 Main

EMERGENCY RATION

prepared as per formula of U. S. Army Emergency Ration. This ration weighs 8 oz. net and will sustain the average U. S. Soldier for a period of 24 hours in perfect physical condition.

Prepared by amm^^^^^^^^^m^m

POWELL'S, Canal and Sullivan Sts., New York

WIRE Aviator wire of high strength—Plated finish—Easy to solder —Aviator cord of twisted wire.

John A. Roebling's Sons Co., TR£N3ON-

Special grades of bamboo for aeronautic work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. All Grides In Stock.

J. DELTOUR, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York

telephone 5565 spring

AEROPLANE WHEELS

/til O" built to order on extremely

C^lll OlZeS short notice. CWe do experimental work of all kinds. C.We are specialists in light, tubular, frame construction work :: :: '.: ;: "

Tiger Cycles & Aeroplane Co. 7Rff&&-SJ-

FOR AEROPLANE MOTORS USE

PEDERSEN LUBRICATORS

C. The P pump is the smallest practical rotary pump and can be regulated. Write for circulars.

644 FIRST AVENUE, NEW YORK, U.S.A.

EDWIN LEVI CK

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

Photographers

Telephone 108 FULTON STREET Cable

100 John NEW YORK Pholonews, N.Y.

Photographs of Practically every Aeroplane and Airtbip in iha World

Lantern Slides and Enlargements our Specialty Write for Catalogue Agent* Throughout Europe

kAviaIion is the coming l , profession. In three 1 I years the demand for | ' experienced Aviators nd Mechanicians will | r ''be as great as the demand Tor Chauffeurs and Auto Ex- | porta is today. No Bouts I'ged—No Tools to Boy. We teach yon to fly, care for, assemble and repair aeroplanes Unlimited cour | practical work; flying prac-I tiee on Anialion Field, Ref- f erences required. Write to-, I day fnr full particulars.

AVIATION TRAINING SCHOOL? ' 1195 Locust St.,

| Kansas City. • - Missouri

RIBS

STRUTS & SPARS

Laminated to Order W. C. DURGAN

SEE OUR EXHIBIT AT "AERONAUTICS"' OFFICE 115 Brown Street :: :: Syracuse, N. Y.

OPPORTUNITY IS AT YOUR DOOR!

KNOCKING IT SAYS:

A practicable monoplane allowed nine basic patent claims, containing parachute feature if desired—new and positive-control—-no experimenting—wants to :: make money for you ::

New and Practical Automatic Stability Idea and also New Aero Engine Invented Capital wanted to push those sure money makers, or manufacturer to manufacture :: :: on royalty :: ::

For particulars address

ALBERT O. PAULSON, Oakes. N. Dak.

Anions the first in Aeronautics in America

COMPLETE PRICE LIST OF "IDEAL"

MODEL AEROPLANE SUPPLIES

on request, if you mention "Aeronautics" LET US GET ACQUAINTED!

Seamless Miniature Rubber We manufacture all accessories. Tired Wheels and Ball Bearing Propeller Shafts our specially.

IDEAL AEROPLANE ft SUPPLY CO. 12brooklyn?n.yve ADAMS-FAR WELL

THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST

T H

MOTOR

Less than 3 lbs. per H. P. A. L. A. M. rating

Self cooled by its own revolution

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, near Danzig, Germany, 987,ITS, March 21, 1911. DRIVING MECHAXISJt for DIRIGIBLES.

M. A. Parisano, Xew York, 987,596, March 21, 1911. Cylinder with propellers in side, outspreading wings from sides of cylinder.

Frederick Hansen, Stratford, Ont., Can., 987,624, March 21, 1911. Novel PROPELLING MECHANISM, usable for steering.

Orville and Wilbur Wright, Dayton, O., assignors to the Wright Co., of New York, 9S7,-662, March 21, 1911. Filed Feb. 17, 1908. The object of the invention is to maintain LATERAL BALANCE by horizontal surfaces adjustable to different angles of incidence on right and left sides of the center of the machine, in combination with adjustable air-resisting surfaces on the right and left sides of the center of said machine, and means for controlling either, separately or in conjunction.

In order to compensate for the unequal resistance to - advance when the planes are warped, vertical rudders or vanes 15 are arranged at each side of the machine. These vanes are actuated by cords IS, which pass over pulleys and around the drum 19, provided with a lever 20 and friction clamp 21. The handle 20 extends parallel and close to handle 10 which warps the planes, so that both may be grasped in one hand and both operations made simultaneously. Wrhen the lever 20 Is moved In one direction one vane takes the desired angle to the line of travel and, the other end of the cord being slack, the opposite vane Is free to take a position parallel to the line of flight.

This new patent closely follows one allowed in England Nov. 10, 190S (No. 24,077), tiled Nov. 18, 1907.

PATENT COVERS AILERONS.

That the Wright Brothers had in mind what are now called "ailerons" is shown by the following paragraph:

"It is to be furthermore understoood that while the horizontal adjustable surfaces are herein shown as composed of integral portions of the main aeroplanes themselves, they may he otherwise constituted. And so also the resistance surfaces 15 may be otherwise constituted without departing from the spirit and contemplation of our invention. It will also he understood that while the invention is here shown as applied to a biplane it is equally-applicable to any flying machine comprising one or more aeroplanes. It will, likewise, be understood that the words 'horizontal surfaces,' 'adjustable horizontal surfaces' and the like, as used in the specification and claims, refer

to adjustable wings or lateral surfaces which effect lateral balance, irrespective of whether or not the adjustable surfaces are formed integral with the supporting surface."

C. H. Cornelius, Fresno, Calif., 9S7.796, March 2S, 1911. Assignor of one-half to James Warrington, Fresno. Monoplane with means for changing the area, and to assume a parachute-like condition in descending.

Joseph Ostand, Cincinnati, O., 987,S19, March 28, 1911. Gas-supported apparatus with parachute attachment.

Wm. J. Craig, Belvidere, 111., 9S7.963, March 28, 1911. BOX KITE.

J. J. Slavin, Los Angeles, Calif., 988,039, March 28, 1911. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device, supplementary surfaces, each movable by action of the air on the others individually through a plurality of pistons.

Charles Kramer, North Braddock, Pa.. 988,113, March 2S, 1911. Superposed oscillating planes on aeroplane, former connected on the principle of lazy tongs.

Edward B. Latch, Merion, Pa., 988,115, March 28, 1911. Utilization of the head wind in raising a dirigible.

Preston A. W^atson, Dundee, Scotland, 988,415, April 4, 1911. Rigid, non-warping plane above main plane of aeroplane, movable about its longitudinal axis.

J. K. Toles, Stockton, Calif., 9S8.523, April

4, 1911. HELICOPTER.

ARMY AVIATORS AT SAN ANTONIO.

On April 18 Lleuts. Beck, Kelly and Walker, of the U. S. Army, took .up duty at San Antonio. Eugene Ely, Curtiss aviator, officially delivers the Curtiss army machine and demonstrates it for acceptance by Major Geo. O. Squier, Chief Signal Officer of the Maneouver Division, LT. S. A.

The military and naval aviators who have learned during the last winter to fly aeroplanes are as follows: Lieut. John Rodgers, U. S. Navy, who learned at the Wrights' Dayton camp; Lieut. Theodore G. Ellvson, LT.

5. Navy, and Lieuts. Paul W. Beck, G. E. M. Kelly and John C. Walker, Jr., U. S. Army, who took their training at the Curtiss camp at San Diego.

Lieut. B. D. Foulois and Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, both Wright operators, are the other two army aviators. Lieut. Lahm is not doing aeronautic duty at this time. Lieut. Foulois, as is well known, has been flying the Wright machine loaned the Government bv Robert J. Collier.

LATEINER MODELS

this successful flyer is made from silk, bamboo and fine english block rubber and is fitted with our hand-made wood propeller.

the complete model, weight l-l 1-2 ounces and is almost unbreakable

heady made

knockdown

demoiselle

s3.no -

s2.00

lueriot

5.00 -

2.00

antoinette

5.00 -

2.00

(! rade

3.00 -

2.00

farman

n.oo -

2.75

curtiss

s.oo -

2.75

wright 2 prop.

11.011 -

3.25

effioiknt ri:oi>kl.l.eks

(laminated 1 ich s .45 s .50

the only exact real fiyins mode on the niaiktt. the knock-down model contains all parts ready bent for making above wonderful exact model except* toolm.

.70 .so

.'.ml 1.00 1.15

.s.) 1.00 1.10

1.20

si nd slamp for price

CHARLES LATEINER

Successor to Lateiner & Cutter

106 LIVINGSTON STREET BROOKLYN, N. Y.

t

X

BALDWIN'S! VULCANIZED I

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. |

First rubberized aeroplane on the t

%

market. Lightest and strongest ma- $

4.

terial known. Dampness, heat and J

*

cold have no effect on it. Any strength *

or color. *

I Captain Thomas S, Baldwin

% BOX 78, MADISON SQUARE, NEW YORK

PROOF

MATERIAL

t

t

HALL-SCOTT

Aviation Motors

THE ONLY AMERICAN BUILT AVIATION MOTOR SOLD TO PROFESSIONAL AVIATORS

raiiip

MII Our Type A-I power plant develops a sustained thrust of 250-260

pounds at 1200 R. P. M.,

enough power to fly a Curtiss

type plane with reserve

power at command.

Its absolute simplicity of design, accessibility to parts, ease of adjustment and light weight, particularly adapt it for use of beginners in aviation as well as for professional work in lighter type machines.

Motor complete, with Mea-Magneto, carburetor, oil and water pumps, $1,500.00 f. o. b.,

San Francisco. ((nt ,„,,„t a i

The "New 1911 Type A-I

Complete power plant consisting of motor, 7' diam., 4?' pitch blade radiator,copper gastank, and connections, $1,650.00 f. o. b., San Francisco

Write us for further particulars regarding this and other types

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO.

San Francisco, Cal.

New York Representative

JOHN H. DAVIS 25 Broad Street

Can't Keep Our Balloons Down

PILOT ASSMAN TAKES LAHM CUP FROM FORBES, SAN ANTONIO TO GOWER, MO., FEB. 24, 1911,-715 MILES

("^UR Balloons Won National Contest 1 909, also Made Good in National Elimination Races 19 1 0— Result: The only Two American-made Balloons in the International Contest, St. Louis, Oct. 17, 1910.

gUILT thirty-four (34) Gas Bags in a Single Year More than All Other American Manufacturers Combined.

if*

Can't We Build Yours?

Our Records:

"Miss Sophia," winner of the Lahm Cup—Feb. 24, 191 1.

CHICAGO—9 Competitors—Won both Distance and Endurance

trophies by a big margin.—Water Record of the World—350 miles INDIANAPOLIS—6 Competitors, 1st and 3rd prizes. PEORIA—3 Competitors, 1st Prize. ST. LOUIS—9 Competitors, 1st, 2nd and 4th Money.

CAN YOU gEAT IT?

How we do it: By using the very best material in the country; building on safe, practical lines, with good workmanship.

| AIRSHIPS—AEROPLANES—INSTRUMENTS

+ +

FRENCH

CO.

AMERICAN BALLOON

H. E. HONEYWELL. Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A. J

answering advertisements please mention this magazine.


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