Aeronautics

Volume 8 - No. 4 - 1911 April

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Vol. VIII, No. 4.

APRIL, 1911

Serial No, 45

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

250 West 54th St., New York

Subscriptions in the U. S. A. and possessions, $3.00 Canada, $3.25 • Abroad, $3.50

single numbers 25 cents

^ Sample Letter-Why Experiment?

ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY,

Rochester, N. Y.

Mineola, L. I., February 28th, 1911, Attention Mr. DeLong.

Gentlemen:-

I have watched your engine which Frank Paine used here and feel sure if you have a 4-cylinder 1910 "Featherweight" engine you can ship us immediately at a fair price, I can make good with it.

Mr. T-- had a talk with Mr. DeLong last year and he made him

a proposition which Mr. T----- did not accept at that time, but if

you have a second-hand engine at this time send us your terms as soon as possible.

I have been using a---motor in the T---plane but

recently after a half-mile flight this motor went entirely to pieces, leaving us with a number of bookings we cannot fill without power.

Our machine was taken as a model and her measurements used by Mr. Gill in his continued article on "How to Build a Curtiss Biplane".

Hoping to hear from you by return mail, I am.

Yours truly,

The motor used by Mr. Paine, we are informed, was one originally •Id to a professional aviator and seized for debts when he was hired to 7 with another engine. It has been lying around Mineola for nearly five onths, without attention, but was ready to fly when called on. " American mateur Aviation" free for the asking.

:lbridge engine company

10 Culver Road, Rochester, N. Y.

ribson Propellers

El Arco Radiators

Don't Be Disappointed

but get enough power to fly and not "cut grass "

JTT Profit by the experiences of others. or/The Engine that stands up to the work and is the "last word" in engine building. :: :: :: :: :: ::

if 4? SU fl-g 6-s IU

OVER 100 FLIGHTS BY

ANTONY JANNUS and REX SMITH at Washington, D. C, without a single accident. zA record unequalled by^ the best of flyers.

Be "Wise" and get our Information

The Emerson Engine Co., Inc.

ALEXANDRIA, VA., U.S.A. New York Office: 1737 Broadway

(Buick Building)

J. R. Westerfield Telephone 782 Columbus

Grahame-White Biplanes

CONVERTIBLE TYPE FOR ONE OR FOR TWO PASSENGERS

RELIABLE—FAST :: Built to the exacting requirements of MR. C. GRAHAME-WHITE By BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass.

burgess biplanes

(Licensed under the Wright patent?)

Single-passenger models B and C

3&

5£»

Two-

passenger

model D

MODEL D IN FLIGHT,

T..,« Ct-^L-inn LJAv^mantc- <J Mr. JC. Grahame-White's first order was for SEVEN Biplanes designed and 1W0 OiriKlUg EjIlUUrbeilieillfc . j,uilt by us. <flThe Wright Company, on account of the excellence of cur construction, invited, us to become the first manufacturers in America licensed to build aeroplanes under their patents.

Burgess Company and Curtis Marblehead>Mass-PARAGON PROPELLERS WIN

Ileclnceil facsimile of very large photograph presented to us by Mr. Chas. F. Willard. Taken at the start of his great Los Angeles-Pasadena flight. He wires us that this 7-ft. 9-in. propeller gives 390 lbs. thrust at 1,100 r. p. in. on his Gnome engine.

Using a l'aragon propeller Mr. Glenn Curlisswon the great speed contest at Los Angeles, defeating Radlev (Bleriot). Kly (Curtiss), t'armelee (Wright) and Latham (Antoinette.)

We guarantee satisfaction and better thrust than any other propeller of equal pitch and diameter.

We will send you price list and a printed form for information about your machine so we can advise you just what propeller to use.

Here are some of the figures as our customers report them :

Willard. 1% feet diameter, 5.70 feet pitch, 31)0 lbs. thrust at 1100 r. p. m. Curtiss, regular, 7 feet diameter, 5.05 feet pitch, Mi) lbs. thrust at l->0<) r. p. m. Curtiss, racing, feet diameter, 7.00 feet pitch, I'll lbs. thrust at 1000 r. p. in. Smith, regular, il feet diameter, 5.02 feet pitch, 500 lbs. thrust at 1000 r. p. m. Smith, racing, H feet diameter. 8.00 feet pitch. :?(i0 lbs. thrust at 700 r. p. in.

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY - WASHINGTON, D. C.

Maker* of the Celebrated Paragon Propellers

1 I

I I

EUGENE RENAUX ARRIVING AT PUY-DE-DOME WINNING MICHELIN GRAND PRIZE ($20,000) FOR A FLIGHT WITH PASSENGER. FROM PARIS, 217 MILES, MARCH-7-1911

OF COURSE HE USED A BOSCH MAGNETO.

mi

j

A TRANSCONTINENTAL AERO WAY

By Morris Wm. Ehrlich.

SECRETARY, AERONAUTIC ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, W. S. Y. M. C. A.

THE rapid development in the art of aviation may no doubt be attributed partially to the generosity of some of the wealthy men and newspapers, who in the way of monetary offers, have lent encouragement to the bird-man. It is a well-established fact, however, that the investment in air-craft for any special occasion or competition and the expense incurred by maintenance and otherwise, especially in long distance flights, comes somewhere near balancing the amount of the prize offered, and sometimes the expenditure may exceed the sum won.

To encourage cross country flying in America, William Randolph Hearst, of the "New York American," some time ago offered a prize of $50,000 for a coast-to-coast flight. The achievement of such flight would no doubt still further aid in establishing the aeroplane as a practical vehicle of conveyance.

The rules governing the transcontinental llight of about 3,000 miles, leaves the choice of a route to the discretion of the aviator, though the start must be made either at New lork City or Boston, and the finish at Los Angeles or San Francisco, or vice versa, from "West to East, with a landing at Chicago. The entire distance must be covered within 30 consecutive days and the aeroplane may be repaired as found necessary, but the contestant must use the same machine until the goal is reached.

The amount offered by Mr. Hearst will no doubt be increased considerably by the contributions of some of the local newspapers along the line of flight and by independent parties.

Many noteworthy performances have been accomplished both here and abroad by cross country fliers who rely either upon maps or upon their knowledge of the topography and surroundings of the country. But the late John B. Moisant, known the world over for his cross-country feats, flew from London to Paris, territory wholly unknown to him, by the sole guidance of a compass. In his many other flights in the United States and abroad he has demonstrated the feasibility of the reliance upon the direction of a compass in passing over foreign territory.

For those contemplating the trip across the United States via aeroplane, a general cross section of the country is given in the accompanying diagram, on which is shown the general aero way described below. The nomenclature represents the following:

N. Y.—New York City; A. M.—Appalachian Mountains: C.—Chicago; R.—Mississippi River; M. Y.—Mississippi Yalley; G. P.—Great Plains; R. M.—Rocky Mountains; G. I. B.— Great Interior Basin; S. N.—Sierra Nevada; S. F.—San Francisco. The dotted line represents the line of flying altitude of the aero way. To this are added the various altitudes of the different clouds, shown with their respective names, abbreviated thusly: S.—stratus; N.—nimbus; Cu.—Cumulus; S. C.—Stratus-cumulo; while A. and P. stand respectively for the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Another point is A. H.—marking the unofficial altitude record of the late Arch Hoxsey, amounting to approximately 11,500 feet.

The general physical divisions of the United States in order from East to West, arrange themselves in three sections and are:

Section 1—The coastal plains and plateaus between the Atlantic Ocean and Appalachian Mountains.

Section 2—The extensive plains and plateaus from the Appalachians to the lofty range of the Rocky Mountains, and

Section 3—From the Rockies, covering the plateaus and the groups of mountain chains of the Western coast.

The air-line or course of the aero way outlined hereafter, is approximately in a direct line from New York City to Chicago, thence directly to San Francisco, or vice versa, from the West to the East, high above all dangerous obstacles. The aero way proper is, however, fundamentally based on the consideration of both the meteorological variations, as observed at the various stations of the U. S. Weather Bureau, and the physical divisions arranged in three general sections as named above.

Commencing the flight in the East, one should attain a general altitude of about 2,500 feet above the sea and pass over Section 1,

Hundreds of Miles

Gxkzral Cr.oss - Section of tki. LtolTXD 5TATX.£>

Division.

Zlevation

.Element"

Ja.n.

Tab.

 

Apr.

 

June

July

 

S«pt

Oct

Nov.

Dec.

Mem

Sect J ox 1

Arls-nt-k. Oc»a.R

to th£

Appila-chiin Mountains

Sti. level

Temperature in.

Decrees Tihr.

30

24

41

45

55

<5o"

72-

S9

e>&

50

42

54

Z50O ft

26

2 1

36

30

4-8

5<s

63

so

57

4-3

37

31

47

Sea. level

Wind Wlodtij Miles per hour

JO

JO

JO

JO

9

8

7

7

7

3

JO

JO

9

z500 ft.

2.0

zo

2.0

lo

IB

J6

14

34

J4

J8

20

20

. J8

Pressure in lbs. p«r sq.foot

■50

•/O

•50

•iTO

•45

•32

•25

■ZS

•25

•45

' -^0

•50

•46

Direcfion of Wind

W

W

W

«w

W

sw

6 W

5

SW

ww

SW

SW

SW

Sr.CTlOM 2. Appa. labium

Mountains

to tha Rockies

Sea. level

Temperature Decrees Fa.Kr.

2S

26

42

41

53

es

73

70

S3

4-9

38

SO

48

-tooo ft

19

19

31

3o

35

48 10

54

51

46

 

29

22

35

Sea. level

W.nd Vfelocif y

11

J2

14

J<S

IJ

9

s

JO

J2

12

12

11

•4-000 ft.

XiUt t*r hour

25

27

32

36

25

22

20

zo

22

27

27

27

Z5

Pressure in. lbs per s^foot

.61

•7&

• 98

i-ze

•SI

• 50

• 45

•45

■ SO

72

•72

•72 1 •«!

[Direction, of Wirvd

KYT

7VW

3VV

•NW

SW

SW

SW

•NX

SW

SW

W£.

SW 1 SW

Section 3

MountVins to txe. Pa-eific Oces.n

Sea. level

Tem.pera.fure in.

Decrees Tihx.

38

40

 

50

ss

SI

<ge

<sa

53

53

46

38

52

7500 ft.

23

24

27

30

32

3<S

40

38

35

32

27

23

31

Sei level

Wmi Velocity

£>

6

JO

10

9

e

e

8

7

7

7

e

8

7500 ft.

Miles per hour

23

20

25

25

23

20

20

20

37

17

17

zo

20

?ressure inlbs.persii.foot

•45

• 52.

.50

• SO

•45

•32.

•3 2

• 32

• 23"

•25

•Z5

•32

•■32

Direction of Wind

5

WW

WW

WW

NW

WW

W

xw

NW

HW

JtW

WW

 

ArA-N MoWTTJ-U-Y I^VR-l ATIOJMS OF THE. WEATHER. IN TKtU-5. Morris Willia-m. XhrJicK

at that height. This includes the low coastal plain extending: west for about 40 miles and having a general elevation of I'50 feet, and the plateau region adjoining, which is about 100 miles wide and rises to about 1.000 feet at its western boundary which meets the picturesque range known as the Appalachian Mountains. These narrow ridges are separated one from another by intervening trench-like lowlands, and extend for about 100 miles, joining the Mississippi Valley.

The mean temperature of this territory varies from 20 deg. F. in winter to 80 deg. in summer, having an annual mean at sea level of 54 deg., and the mean velocity of the prevailing wind blowing southwest, is 9 miles per hour. But at the flying altitude of 2,500 feet, the annual conditions will have varied thus: the temperature will be about 47 deg. with a corresponding wind velocity of about IS miles per hour though the resultant or effective pressure will be equivalent to approximately .4 5 of a pound per square foot, for the atmospheric pressure will have decreased to 13.45 pounds per square inch.

Having crossed the Appalachian Mountains, one must gradually rise to a general altitude of 4,000 feet and cross Section 2 at that height. The territory to cover thus, is the Mississippi Valley and the Great Plains, which extends west for about 1,200 miles and then joins the ltocky Mountains.

Traveling towards the west over this region of grass-covered prairie plains, one must not forget to alight at Chicago, this being one of the requirements to fulfill the conditions. This brings one into the more pleasant plains of tlie lakes which rise above the water about 300 feet and have a general elevation above the sea level of 800 feet.

Continuing the flight above the unvaried patchwork of grass, one may notice the difference in the humidity of the surrounding atmosphere, though still high above the level, gradual rising land. The view, indeed, becomes most pleasing as the former monotony is broken by winding stream-formed valleys, and by the flourishing towns and villages, and

the variety of hues offered by the different species of vegetation.

These lowlands gradually rise by insensible gradations and meet the barren highlands or plateaus of the Great Plains which in turn, again, rise to meet the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of about 5,500 feet.

The mean weather for this whole section varies slightly from that of Section 1, resulting in a mean annual temperature of 48 deg. F. at sea level with a corresponding wind blowing in a southwesterly direction at a velocity of II miles per hour. At the mean altitudes of flight of 4,000 feet the temperature will be about 35 deg. while the. wind will be blowing at the rate of 25 miles per hour with an effective pressure per square foot of .til pounds on account of the decrease in atmospheric pressure to 12.7 pounds per square inch.

The country remaining to be crossed now. Section 3. extends for about 1,200 miles to the Pacific Ocean and is the highest and most rugged portion of the United States.

Xow, rising to a flying altitude of about 7,500 feet one must continue at this general height.

First, one meets the lofty range of the Rocky Mountains, having a general elevation of 0,000 feet, while the more prominent peaks rise to 10,000 feet and as high as 14,000 feet. In traveling by land, to cross these mountains, detours have to be made to get around them, while by traveling in the air, one may and should pass over, high ahove all obstacles. Having crossed the Rockies one now reaches the rugged region of plateaus, known as the Great Interior Basin, which has a general elevation of 3,500 feet. This desert-like region, with its dry climate is chiefly known by its "inland lakes," streams that do not reach the ocean. Continuing west, one now again faces the more lofty peaks of the Sierra Nevada range, which rises to a general elevation of 7,000 feet and as high as 12,000 feet. Having crossed these barriers of the coast one passes into the region known as the Valley of California, rapidly approaching the goal, San Francisco, which is seen in the distance.

In the Sky, Relaxing Fabric Means DANGER!

Dampness and cold above the earth causes shrinking of the wings of aeroplanes when built of plain, varnished or *'treated** fabrics. This is followed by "stretching,'" which leaves the cloth flapping, cuts down speed and is the DANGER SIGNAL!

GOODYEAR fabric, the new rubberized aeroplane cloth, makes stretching and relaxation ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE! it is waterproof and cannot shrink and stretch when subjected to moisture and then dried.

Our rubberized cloth is the lightest fabric for its purpose in the world.

This wonderful fabric's coating- is permanent and constructed to last for many years. It is unaffected by heat or cold.

Its invention is the result of an exhaustive investigation by experts in France, England, Germany, Switzerland and America. We have constructed special machinery and a large, new building for the sole purpose of making the perfect aeroplane fabric. Our exclusive process is thorough in every particular.

Goodyear Aeroplane Fabrics have been adopted by The Wright Company, Burgess Company \- Curtis, The Lovelace-Thompson Co.. The Metz Co.. The Detroit Aeroplane Co.. and many other prominent manufacturers as well as aviators. These pioneers know what coverings are best.

Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric is the SAFEST, LONGEST-WEARING aeroplane cloth known to science.

Goodyear Aeroplane Tires are the

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Branches and Agencies in All the Principal Cities

>

» *

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400 POUNDS THRUST with a

Roberts 40-50 H. P. Aviation Motor

READ THE BROOKS LETTER BELOW.

1-100 sec. exposure at 900 r.p.m. absence of blur shows freedom from vibration.

EXACT WEIGHT 170 lbs. complete (not stripped) EASY TO START, as spark is same, irrespective ^jL» of advance, as the drive and not the circuit breaker is advanced.

Will run indefinitely without distress or overheating. Just the motor for sustained flight. The best evidence of Roberts Quality is the fact that Mr. Armstrong of the Brooks Aeroplane Company bad the choice of the best foreign and American makes and selected the Roberts after trying several other well-known makes. The results of the test made under his personal supervision is given in the following letter:

BROOKS AEROPLANE COMPANY

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:— Saginaw, Michigan, March 8th, 1911.

Representing the Brooks Aeroplane Co. of Saginaw, Mich., manufacturers of aeroplanes and desiring to purchase for them a high grade, efficient and trustworthy aeroplane motor, the undersigned arranged with the Roberts Motor Company, of Sandusky, Ohio, for a test under personal supervision and service conditions of one of their model 4-x aeroplane motors, and would certify to the following facts:

Mounted on testing stand, swinging a 1'aragon propeller 8' diameter and 5' pitch, the motor developed and maintained a thrust of t()()# at 900 revolutions per minute, ran smoothly and without any trouble or difficulty of any kind for a period of live hours and showed no cause or reason why it could not have still continued this endurance test for another period of as many or more hours.

During this test the motor was continuously under my personal supervision and there were no adjustments nor attention required of any kind. All the conditions of the test were the same as if the motor had been mounted in an aeroplane, (except of course, that the motor was mounted on a testing stand), the cooling water being circulated through a honey-comb radiator by the pump of the motor itself. The motor ran perfectly cool, showed no signs of overheating, never back-fired, and at the end of the test was in as good condition as when the test began. The speed control was all that could be desired, the absolute freedom from hack-tiring and the special magneto spark advance allowing all changes of speed to he made without affecting the smooth running of the motor in the least. The motor started easily, is economical of fuel, lubricates perfectly and ran until the spark was cut off.

Upon the showing made, the motor was accepted, the motor being in fact more than satisfactory and more than fullilliug the claims made by the Roberts Motor Company.

The writer knows of no motor on the market today that combines the simplicity, power for weight, high grade of workmanship, ample strength of all working parts, and dependability, as does the Roberts Aeroplane Motor.

Yours very truly, BROOKS AEROPLANE COMPANY,

(Signed) E. R. Armstrong, Aviation Engineer.

Write today for catalogue and prices

The Roberts Motor Company, 1430s^uu3!ybuo^,vunseA.

t

i

The hot and arid climate (if this Western coastal region affects the mean annual conditions of the whole section thusly: from a temperature in the winter of 30 deg. to a summer condition of 75 deg. with an annual resultant of 52 deg. F. The corresponding velocity of the wind blowing in a northwesterly direction, amounts to about S miles per hour.

At the altitude of flight the temperature will decrease to about 31 deg. with a corresponding increase in wind velocity to 20 miles and a resultant effective pressure of about .3 2 pounds per square foot, because of the decrease in atmospheric pressure to 10.45 pounds per square inch.

Having briefly described the physical conditions in relation to the aero way and slightly touched upon the conditions of the weather, we will now examine the monthly meteorological variations given in the accompanying tabulation:

This table gives the mean temperature, wind velocity and its prevailing direction at sea level for each month of the year, together with the computed variations for the three

consecutive sections, representing different elevations, with an added column of effective or resultant wind pressure.

This "effective" pressure is based on an assumed homogeneous atmospheric layer, because as the wind velocity increases with height, the atmospheric pressure decreases correspondingly.

With this data at hand, one may readily decide the month for commencing the flight. The trip should not take the form of a monstrous task, for by traveling at a mean rate of 50 miles per hour, and 2 hours per day, or an equivalent mean daily travel of 100 miles, the distance of 3,000 miles may be readily traversed in tne period allowed, 30 days.

The aero-champion who will accomplish this trans-continental feat will gain immortal glory for himself and his machine and aid in finally silencing the critics who now consider the aeroplane a mere toy, by proving the practicability of the new and ideal vehicle which has now arrived and come to stay.

THE HYDRO-AEROPLANE

By W. R. Turnbull, M. E.

IiST the "Scientific American" for Dec. 17, 1910, there is a description of a hydro-aeroplane that is most interesting.

In this connection, it may be of interest to describe two air-propelled hydroplanes, designed and built by the writer in the years 1906 and 1907.

At that time I built these machines as preliminary experiments for subsequent conversion into hydro-aeroplanes, but the only light weight engine I could obtain at that early date was a 16 h. p. "aeronautic motor" of

two cylinders, built by Duryea at Reading, Pa., and this motor gave so much trouble and proved so unsatisfactory that the tests with the hydro-aeroplanes were never completed and for this reason the machines were not heretofore described.

Since the subject is again presented in Mr. Fabre's excellent design, it may be as well to publish my incomplete results in the hope that they may be suggestive to persons working along similar lines. Other things being equal, experimenting on and above water, has always

appealed to me as being- the safest and most rational method for dynamic flying machines, until aerial navigation is a solved problem.

The machine built in 1906 is shown in Figures 1 and 2, and consisted of a scow-like boat-body with five double-curvature hydroplanes beneath, formed of sheet metal supported by wooden ribs, with transverse arms above the ribs attached to the bottom of the boat.

A light superstructure carried twin airscrews belted to the engine in the body of the boat. The hydroplanes were fully immersed but as the speed was increased it was supposed the body of the boat would lift above the water and the hydroplanes skim the surface. The cross-arms prevented this, and, besides, the air-screws were badly designed and the engine gave constant trouble, so nothing was obtained but a little experience.

The 1907 design was much simpler and better (See Figures 3 and 4). The boat body was entirely eliminated and the hydroplanes became also the floats; the forming ribs being completely enclosed in a water-tight sheet metal covering.

Depending on the amount of immersion the forward float could support weight up to 250 pounds and the rear, large, float up to 620 pounds when fully immersed. The weight of the whole machine with engine and operator was about 550 pounds.

The superstructure was of steel tubing and the forward float was pivoted on this and acted as a rudder (not very satisfactorily) through the steering wheel shown.

One 6-foot propeller was directly connected to the same Duryea engine, before used, and a 51 pound flywheel was also used but the torque of the engine was most uneven, causing constant trouble from sheared-off keys, broken propeller arms and the like. All the

propellers used were made with steel tubing arms and hard-fibre blades and were in every way inferior to the wooden propellers of today.

The cross-section of the floats is shown in Figure 5, the dotted line being a dashboard, for waves, that was found necessary.

The constant trouble with engine and propellers, and also the low power of the engine, prevented any satisfactory results being obtained and the experiments were consequently abandoned.

With the long list before us of fatalities with aeroplanes that have occurred in 1910, it would seem well worth while to give great consideration to any combinations of

u/ 7f Tt/rnbul/

aeroplanes and hydroplanes that are sound from an engineering standpoint. The great problem of aerial navigation is by no means solved yet; our aviators are a race of "flying-men," who are constantly "breaking their wings," and who depend upon their own skill and mental ability to maintain equilibrium.

At present the man is a 70 per cent, factor and the machine is a 30 per cent, factor. Not until all this is reversed, and we have a dynamic flyer with automatic stability and iii which the machine is the 70 per cent, factor will we be measureably in reach of the goal.

LIBERTY PRIZE WON, LOST, WON?

THE $10,000 prize offered for the fastest flight from Belmont Park around the Statue of Liberty and return was originally awarded the late John Moisant, who bad the nerve to take a straight course over the houses of Brooklyn and who made the best time.

White officially, through the Royal Aero Club, protested the award to Moisant on the ground that the latter bad not flown an hour during the meet as originally required by the rules. A special meeting of the International Aeronautic Federation was held January 10 in Paris and the matter was referred back to the Aero Club of America, sustaining White's protest.

The Aero Club of America held a meeting on March 14, and in view of the decision of the I. A. F., and in view of the fact that White had made a "foul" by not flying outside all the pylons in making the preliminary circuit of the course in starting for the Statue, announced its decision in favor of De Lesseps, the slowest man of the three who tried. The club could not stand back of its original ruling for fear of being ejected from the I. A, F.

Now White protests the award to De Les-seps.

THE POINT AT TSSUE ORIGINALLY.

During the meet the contest committee changed the rules to the effect that it was not necessary thereafter to make an hour's flight to qualify for competition for the Liberty prize. White, having been an "earlv bird," had already made his hour flight the first davs of the meet so as to have that part "cinched." Fie immediately objected to the change, but

the contest committee overruled him and he entered the contest, however, with full knowledge of the change in the rule, and he did not fly in the race "under protest." He apparently accepted the conditions in force at the time of the flight. He did not take the straightest course to the Statue with his 100-h.p. Bleriot and Moisant beat him with a 50-h.p. machine.

The judges also found the same evening, upon receiving the report of the pylon observers, that White flew inside one of the pylons in making his start, sufficient to disqualify him on that score.

Other changes in rules were made from time to time during the meet, all of which changes were accepted. If the contest committee had the right to make one change, it had the right to make another, one might say. But there must always be something upon which to hinge a loser's protest.

De Lesseps himself made no hour flight according to official records, though one of his Hights did last an hour.

By his barograph record, and from other information, he undoubtedly was in the air more than an hour on one occasion. On the records, however, he got credit for but 47 minutes. Under the system used, certain hours were set apart for, for instance, duration flights. Any time employed in flying before or after this hour went for nothing so far as counting toward the total accumulated duration figures in the division of prize money. But in granting the Statue race to De Lesseps the Aero Club took into consideration the true time flown by De Lesseps, irrespective of the system used during the Belmont for counting time. And still they say "consistency is a virtue."

IIS

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THE present day finds aeroplanes in flight all over the world, and the idea of flight getting a strong hold on the popular imagination. Much has been written about how to fly, about the dangers of flight, and about the profits of individual aviators. There remains much which bears upon the rearing of a substantial industry concerning which few of us have given heed. The spectator at a flying exhibition usually has one of two sensations, either the hair-raising thrill at the daring tricks of a too reckless operator, or the feeling of how easy and simple it all is. These two attitudes are revealed in the expressions one hears at the flying exhibitions.

Those who do not want to go up with the first aviator they see are loud in their condemnation of the art as too dangerous. Of course, there is a middle ground, but the casual observer does not often consider it. In the same way aviators seem to be divided into two types. Those who have never been frightened consider flying safe and the present machines creditable pieces of engineering. The late John B. Moisant was one of these who was not frightened until it was too late. His article, "The Gentle Art of Flying," published in a popular magazine, is a gruesome verification of the existence of this idea. The more thoughtful, and none the less brave, aviators look at the hundreds of machines flying about the country, and shudder at the thought of flying in more than one or two in every hundred. ~ ortunately, those flying in the death traps suffer very few accidents. This craze for flight has started many incompetent people building aeroplanes. The patent office is full of the inventions of those who have never flown and who know less than nothing about the problems which their devices purport to solve. An enormous demand for aero motors has been created and many very poor products have been advertised and sold to an innocent public. Forty-nine out of every fifty of these motors never fly, either on account of the aeroplane, the inexperienced owner, or because the motor fails to deliver its rated horsepower.

Professor Langley, of the Smithsonian Institution, is usually conceded to have been one of the greatest minds ever engaged in the solution of problems of mechanical flight. He seems to have been the most thorough in his experiments and certainly was eminently qualified to probe the unknown. He and those subsequently engaged in proving flight possible realized that the motive power was the most important factor in the make-up of a motor-bird. Professor Montgomery, of Santa Clara, Cal., another scientist with Langley's thoroughness and insight, believes sustained flight possible without much power. His attempts to simulate the soaring buzzard have met with wonderful success, but still leave the records for sustained flight in favor of the motor-bird. The Wright broilers, after proving the air capable of sustaining the weight of a motor, found the motor problem their worst one. Octave Chanute was handicapped in many of his desires by me inability to secure suitable motive power. Bleriot had only moderate success until he found the Gnome motor. The designer of the Antoinette monoplane found it necessary to develop a motor and his success has attended the experiment. Glenn H. Curtiss' success is to be attributed primarily to his skill as a gas engine designer and operator.

In the early days of the automobile, the noisy, unreliable engine of only four horsepower was sufficient, and people enjoyed auto-mobiling then, many thinking the desired had been accomplished and that the clumsy little rattle-traps were a great invention. The design of those early automobiles was very blind to good engineering. Most of them were poor jobs of carriage building, with a very crude motor attached. The condition of the carriage building trade at that time was very little

behind what it is to-day and there was no excuse for such atrocious body designs as were perpetrated in the name of the automobile. How different the present thirty to sixty horsepower car with its refinements and conveniences and excess power enough to negotiate any hill or road with ease? This refinement has not come from learning how to build better carriages or do better upholstery, but from the increased life and service of the motor—the improvement that has changed the auto from an occasional plaything to a daily necessity.

Aeroplane building is following in the wake of the automobile, and already is more attractive as a sport. Unless the'public is more discerning in its demands, the progress in the development of the aeroplane will be as slow as with the automobile. To be sure, the automobile grew at a tremendous rate, but the aeroplane should profit by the lessons taught. There is no good reason for building aeroplanes with wood work on tnem that would make any conscientious carpenter blush with shame, with metal work that any good ornamental iron worker could improve by HO per cent., and with covering of which no upholsterer or sail maker would he guilty. The haste to get to flying and win the large prizes offered for various flights has been provocative of these things, and as a result, most of the prizes have been premiums on daring, rather than substantial recognitions of scientific or engineering ability applied to aeroplanes.

The money prize as a premium on daring is a detriment to the growth of a substantial industry. The public wants aeroplanes built with the same engineering intelligence that is applied to roads, ships, bridges and present-day automobiles. The sooner the crude little aeroplanes, built by adventurers, are replaced by the production of skilful and thorough designers, the better chance this country will have to lead the world in aeronautics. It should be possible for us to profit by the experience of the past and avoid great waste of money and effort on worthless productions.

The aeroplane was made possible by the gasoline engine, and the increasing radius of aeroplane possibilities seems to depend on the improvement of the engine. All the experiments of the scientists led to one conclusion. As soon as men were able to fly. no experiments proved so valuable as those in flight, and the knowledge gained was accurate and startling. The necessary requirements in weight, surface and power for certain conditions in flight are fast becoming absolute quantities. Greater horsepower, less weight, greater strength, less fuel consumption, and, above all, reliability, are the demands on future aero engines. Except in the few instances where aeroplane builders have been their own engine builders, tnere has been no money prize offered the engine manufacturer. Owing to the great cost of developing a new motor, the manufacturer has been content to offer what the "innocent public" would buy, and as those first in the field found themselves without competition, scores of these soon-to-he-obsolete and always-unreliable motors were sold. The public has no protection in this engine question. There is no tribunal or engineering board with the authority to rate aero engines so that purchasers can know what they are getting. Manufacturers of gas engines would soon feel the effect of such a board and some uniformity of rating would result. Many engine builders would suffer materially, whereas others would receive just recognition of their wares.

There are those building engines and those building aeroplanes who are keenly aware of the conditions as they exist and are producing their best, and these builders will eventually get the recognition that comes to him who

(Continued on page !■'>'*)

no

WHAT OUR AEROPLANE BUILDERS NEED

THOMAS A. EDISON once said that the storage battery was the greatest invention ever brought out to develop man's latent capacity for lying. It strikes us that the storage battery has "nothing on" the aeroplane.

The future aerial battleships and transports, monster freight carriers and speed demons, conceived in a frenzy of imagination and protected in the Patent Office at Washington, are as numberless as the sands of the sea. The satisfaction of having produced the world's greatest aerial invention is boundless—until it is to be exploited. Of these we have no criticism. Everyone is entitled to his own ideas. If one wants to patent a broom for sweeping water, that is his privilege.

But when stock in these freaks of fancy is put on the market to be sold to gullible enthusiasts whose knowledge of the art is nil, or to easy-marks attracted by the wonderful prospects of the on-paper flying machines, it is time that clubs and other organized bodies make some effort to call a halt. Usually the inventor actually believes in his achievement. This is an example of what might be called a "virtuous fraud."

Then there is the "intentional fraud," the fake pure and simple. The inventor, who is often his own promoter, is not necessarily a believer in his claims. He must have a patent as stock in trade.

An elaborate office is opened in some big office building, half-page stories with vivid word and pen pictures of an aerial monstrosity appear in sensational newspapers; perhaps great advertisements call blatant attention to the latest marvel. "Sucker lists" are circularized, and for a year or so the promoter is in clover.

Perhaps there is even a large sized model which is shown to the more discerning and wide-awake prospects. A motor is started, there is a flapping of wings and the heavy model slowly rises to the ceiling—while a balance weight does the trick, more or less concealed from view. This demonstration usually lands the most obstinate. This is the true aero faker, unembarrassed by belief in his invention.

There is still another class, the commercial parasite which lives on the legitimate enterprises by advertising similar wares at ridiculous prices, or by exaggeration and misrepresentation. This animal proposes to sell Curtiss or Bleriot aeroplanes, say, without motor and all ready to put together, at one-tenth the price of a bona fide machine. He does not always remember to say that his parts are copied, nor that there may be considerable expense in the important matter of fitting the parts. When the prospect gets really interested the seller plainly states, though not in writing, that his stock was actually made in the Curtiss factory. He actually knows nothing about the business and will agree to sell motors at a price known to all "in the game" to be impossible. He can't fulfill his word; yet he goes merrily on, asking why one should pay $5,000 for a real machine when one can buy the parts for a song. Why buy a Bleriot from Bleriot when this trimmer will sell you one at half the price or less?

His advertisements mention great sums offered in prizes, which no one but he has heard of. They put earnings of aviators up to twenty thousand dollars a week. This is misleading, to say the least. Fifty thousand lias been won in a few hours. No aviator can regularly make such a sum. That's even more than an aeronautic editor gets.

This class is perhaps only half bunco. One might really get the set of parts for a copy of a machine.

For the sake of the original maker of the machine copied, in behalf of the later concerns who openly and clearly advertise they sell parts for the copied aeroplane, for the protection of the public whose interest is so easily attracted toward this new industry, warning must be given of these "fly-by nights."

To the maker of parts who truthfully puts his claims we do not object. That is a matter between the original maker and the parts man.

Beware of the visionary and the perpetual motion flyer, the plain bunco man, and the misleading advertiser whose money is not accepted by the best aeronautical journals.

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The Scientific American Trophy

(WON THRICE AND FINALLY BY GLENN H. CURTISS)

WAS THE FIRST AVIATION TROPHY

offered in America. Likewise, the Scientific American was the first weekly in the United States to treat of Aeronautics. All important advances in this engrossing science have been chronicled in the pages of the Scientific American during the past 66 years, and the huge strides now being made so rapidly are reported from week to week. Only by reading the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

regularly can you keep up-to-date in Aeronautic matters. CSend us $3.00 and we will place your name on our mailing list for oneyear beginning April 1st, and send you besides our 11th Annual Automobile Number, as well as the Special Mid-month Number for February and March. The Scientific American for 1911 has been enlarged and improved. A big special number with colored cover is issued every month. Two of these will be devoted to Aviation. Subscribe now and follow the progress in Aeronautics, Mechanics, and Electricity week by week.

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A1R0XAUTICS April, i9u

FARMELEE and FOULOIS MAKE GREAT RECORD

Parmelee and Foulois at San Antonio.

FLYING the new and finely finished Model B Wright Flyer, loaned the Signal Corps recently by Robert J. Collier, 106 miles over new and uninhabited territory from Laredo, Tex., to Eagle Pass, Tex., one of the three railroad points of entry into Mexico, on March 3, P. O. Parmflee and Lt. B. D. Foulois established two new American records at one and the same time.

This distance is greater than has ever been flown before across country in America. The weight lifted. 1,400 lbs. in all, is greater than lias been carried any distance in the States previously. The weight additional to that of the machine totals more than TO per cent, of the weight of the machine itself.

Tiiis distance was traveled in 2 hours 10 minutes, to be accurate—and accuracv is one feature in AERONAUTICS—a mean speed of 4S.9 in. p. h. An average altitude of 1,200 feet was maintained.

NO PLACE TO LAND FOR CENTURY OF MILES.

For the first four miles landings might have been made, but there was no landing place for the remaining 102 miles, save in the Rio Grande River. The machine carried 20 gallons of gas, an extra gallon of oil, tools, maps, compass, barometer and field glasses.

"WIRELESS ON RETURN TRIP. On the return trip on March 7, the machine carried 1,4 50 lbs., including a wireless set. Owing to trouble with the engine it was necessary to descend about half an hour after the start, but the only damage done was in removing the machine from the water of the Rio Grande River, where a "landing was made." The wireless set worked satisfactorily and messages from the aeroplane were picked up by wireless stations between Eagle Pass and Laredo. En route to Eagle Pass the course was laid out and plotted with map and compass, the country on both sides of the Rio Grande was studied, and messages were dropped to the detachments of United States troops in the vicinity over which they passed.

Beginning the end of February many flights were made by Parmplee and Foulois at Fort Sam Houston, near San Antonio, where the United States Army has recently been mobilized, and a number of Sisnal Corps men took their first rides. Here the Collier machine was given its introduction to the air and pronounced fit.

MACHINES BOUGHT BY GOVERNMENT.

One Wright and one Curtiss have been ordered to report at San Antonio. It is likely the old Wright, first bought by the Signal Corps, will be devoted to teaching and the new machines for active service.

Parmplee was obtained from the Wright Company for the purpose of making these flights in Texas and will return to the service of the company.

New Model Wright.

It is rumored on good authority that the Wright Company will soon have on the market another model, a sort of "gentleman's race-about." This will be smaller than the Model B, the regular two-man machine, and larger than the "Baby Wright." which is really for racing and altitude work. This new machine will be for the operator alone. The power plant will be "more efficient" and it will have greater climbing speed and speed on the level than the standard model.

Details are not available at the time of going to press on either this subject or that of the proposed flight from Chicago to New York, which, if accomplished, will constitute the world's greatest event to date in aeronautics.

SAN ANTONIO. Tex.. March 16.—Lieut. Foulois and P. O. Parmplee again demonstrated the value of the aeroplane as a means of communication for military purposes by taking a message to Maj. George O. Squier. U. S. Signal Corps, from Gen. Carter. The flight was made from San Antonio to Leon Springs, a distance of about 26 miles, each way, and return. The total time consumed was 1 hour 45 minutes.

Curtiss IV. (Military)

McCURDY PLIES MILITARY CURTISS.

On March 17, before a distinguished group of army officials and members of the Diplr. matic Corps in Washington, D. C, J. A. 1 McCurdy gave two exhibition flights over th Potomac in the Curtiss war machine, whic ■ will be sent to. the Texas-Mexican border lirtj for use by the United States Armv encampen there.

This is the first of the "Type IV" or "military" machines produced by G. H. Curtiss. anj is the first Curtiss machine to be bought bv the Army. Tt is the same in all respects save size as the Type 11T brought out in California (see March issue). One feature of this type is its ability to "knock down" in small sections for transportation. Each section of the planes is interchangeable. The engine is the usual one, 51.2 h.p., S cylinders. Equipment includes Bosch ignition and El Arco radiator.

McCurdy started from an open tract of ground several hundred yards east of the bandstand on the Speedway. The machine had been sent to the starting point early in the morning, and McCurdy rose into the air for his first flight at 9.25 o'clock. He was in the air 10 minutes. He circled the Speedway and the open country for a mile on the Virginia side of the Potomac ten or twelve times. In making one round of the imaginary track he followed the river down stream for 3 miles .and came back the same way, alighting gracefully and without mishap within a few yards of where the machine had arisen.

CURTISS MILITARY IV.

The new machine sent to San Antonio, after the flights at Washington, is just a little larger than the standard Curtiss. which is 26 ft. 3 in. by 4 y2 ft. for main planes. A small section, interchangeable, is inserted between the two larger sections on each side. The passenger sits directly behind the pilot. Supporting' surface. 2S0 s<|. ft.: weight, 700 lbs.; motor, Curtiss, S-cylinder water-cooled, 4 by 4, 51.2 h.p.; Bosch magneto. Schelder carburettor, El Arco radiator, Pennsylvania 20 by 4 wheels.

NATIONAL GUARD OP CALIFORNIA HAS AERONAUTICAL SQUAD.

An Aeronautical Squad, in the Coast Artil-lerv Corps, National Guard of California, was organized February 20, 1911, by Lieut. .J. Mc-Ilenrv, ,lr., under Col. Geo. A. Schastey, Chief of Artillery, X. G. C.

A detachment of thirty-two men and two officers are to be enlisted, all being expert men in their various branches, such as mechanics, wireless operators, engineers, photographers, topographers, etc. They are receiving the personal support of Glenn H. Curtiss, Lieut. Walker, Robinson and Willard of the Curtiss camp and other well-known aeronautical and army men. Eugene B. Ely was first man to enlist. They have already purchased one Curtiss machine and expect to have a second within a month. Mr. Curtiss has undertaken to train two of the men detailed for actual flying.

It is intended to carry on experiments in wireless telegraphy, bomb dropping, aerial photography, and in fact all branches of aero scouting.

Col. George A. Schastey is lending every assistance to" the organization and it has been heartily indorsed by the Governor and Adjutant-General.

Flving practice will not be attempted at first," the squad will take up the theory of aeroplanes, gas engines, etc.. and their management at the San Francisco Armory, where the lirst machine will be assembled, before out of door practice and demonstration. Drills and flying practice will take place in the vicinity of San Francisco, and it is certain that by the time of tlie summer maneuvers the squad will be drilled, equipped and in every way a most important branch of the National Guard.

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THE AVIATION DIRECTORY Aviators and Aeroplane Builders!!

The Directory contains the Information you want

Conveniently classified Addresses of Manufacturers and Dealers in Aeroplanes, Motors, Propellers, Magnetos, Radiators, Carburetors, Fabric Wheels, Tires, Blueprints, Models, Castings, Woodwork, Tubing, Bamboo, Wire, Turnbucklcs, Sockets, Steering and Alighting Gears, Struts, Knockdown Frames, Etc.

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IN LOS ANGELES' VICINITY. By Prof. H. La V. Twining-.

GLENN CURTISS has improved upon his pupil Ely's flight to and from a prepared platform on a government war vessel, looking at the feat from a naval standpoint, by rising from the water, landing alongside the vessel, being hoisted aboard without damage and then, after being lowered to the sea again, flying back to his starting point, North Island, in San Diego (Cal.) Bay. This was accomplished on February 17th, while the last issue was on the press. —

The test was made to demonstrate that his "hydro-aeroplane" does not make necessary any structure upon a ship's deck.

In this flight the front elevator was discarded, the engine reversed so as to put the propeller in front of the biplane, and Curtiss sat back of the planes. The blast of air from the propeller interfered with vision and in later flights a return was made with the usual arrangement.

Since the first details were published in the last issue of AERONAUTICS, Curtiss has made many flights and experiments with the water and air craft. In one, he flew the machine with a third surface added.

ALIGHTS ON LAND AND SEA.

A flight of several miles was made the end of February, starting from the water, alighting on land, starting on land and alighting again in water. Wheels have been added to the apparatus so that Curtiss can start from either land or water, if the latter is smooth.

These wheels can be drawn up out of the water when starting from the water. It is apparent that the ability to do this would be desirable. Curtiss has worked out some devices which may be patentable and he is desirous that no details be given out.

The figures in the March number on Curtiss' pontoons are correct. The latest one shown in the picture is his latest. It is the same shape, but is narrower. His last one is 2 ft. wide, about 12 ft. long and 13 in. deep at its thickest point.

I was at San Diego and saw Curtiss fly off the water. The machine rests gracefully on the water on an even keel. When the propeller is started it skims rapidly along the surface of the water, throwing'a slight spray as the pontoon cuts through the water. When sufficient speed is attained, it rises as easily from the water as it does from the land.

HUNTING VIA AEROPLANE.

Harkness, on February 17, pounced down on a jackrabbit with his Antoinette and cut him in two with the propeller. This is a new kind of a hawk. Harkness intended to fly that afternoon, but the encounter with the rabbit smashed his propeller and put him out of commission. This is the second time an aeroplane has been used here for running down game, although in this case it was accidental. Latham, before the meet last December, went duck hunting at the Bolsa Chica Gun Club grounds. He left Lominguez and flew to the grounds. Here he chased the ducks and shot one from his aeroplane.

WALSH TAKES UP FAMILY.

C. F. Walsh, who has won several trophies as a novice flyer, has recently changed engines in his Curtiss-type, installing the new Macom-ber 7-cylinder rotary engine, and on February 19 took up his wife and his two children at one and the same time for a mile straightaway flight at the Dominguez field. Harry Harkness is reported to have purchased a machine from Walsh.

With the Paragon propeller the Macomber power plant gives 340 lbs. standing thrust. The total weight of Walsh and family is 419 lbs.

FLIGHT PROGRESS ABOUT THE COUNTRY

The third (upper) surface is an attachment to the regular Curtiss aeroplane, and enables the carrying- of 200 lbs. additional weig-ht with the same motor.

Walsh is now carrying passengers on short flights.

Earle Remington and William Stevens have pooled their interest and they purchased the Radlcy-Bleriot machine used at the Dominguez meet, together with the Gnome engine with which it was equipped. They took it to Dominguez field and Remington mounted the machine and shot it off the ground. He managed to keep in the air down a quarter leg of the course, where at an altitude of GO feet he shut off his engine. The machine pitched nose first for the ground and was smashed, Jlr. Remington escaping unhurt. The engine was not damaged and they are repairing the machine. air. Stevens intends to put the engine in his monoplane to try it out later.

The Cannon brothers have been making mile ilights in a Curtiss-type biplane of their own construction, equipped with a Cord automobile engine weighing 150 lbs. They have tuned the engine up to a notch where they are getting 30 h.p. out of it.

American Altitude Record.

The Aero Club of California lias just completed its official work on the results of the Dos Angeles meet. The altitude of 10,575 feet, as given out at the time, made by the late Hoxsey on December 30, has been reduced to 10,-1 lis feet. As we have printed before, the 11,474 altitude was not official, as the barograph had not been calibrated. This falls just short of beating the previous world's altitude record.

WISEMAN MAKES FAST SPEED.

Fred. .!. Wiseman, of San Prancisco, made a cross-country llight from Petaluma, Pal., to Santa Rosa, a distance of about 1 2 miles, in fast time, using his big Farman-type with Hall-Scott engine.

The flight included the delivery of a newspaper, which he threw off at farm houses, lie also carried orders from Petaluma firms to Santa Rosa business houses and letters from Postmaster Olmstead, of Petaluma, to Postmaster Tripp, of Santa Rosa.

Wiseman is an amateur who built his own 'plane and who lias made some very good (lights. The details and pictures of liis machine were published in A lOROXA FT ICS when he made his first flights.

CREVE T. SHAFF10U.

HARROUN MAKING AEROPLANES.

Ray Harroun has quit the auto racing game since he drove the Marmon in the Vanderbilt and has started the Ray Harroun Co., of Indianapolis, Ind., which has completed one monoplane and lias five others under construction.

The photograph shows No. 1, equipped with a 2-cylinder opposed air-cooled motor of lS-h.p. rating, cylinders 4x6 in. It is said to develop 22 h.p. at 1S00 r.p.m. The engine weight is 95 lbs. The framework is entirely of steel tubing. The body is covered with aluminum sheeting. Each wing measures 0 ft. by 14% ft. The control is similar to the Antoinette. The whole machine weighs 400 lbs.

NOVICE FLIES AT MINEOLA.

August Inmel, Jr., of Detroit, recently bought a Curtiss-type machine from Henry C. Cook, who has made a number of these machines for various purchasers, on March 11 made his first llight at the Mineola field. Instead of being content to run along the ground as directed, Inmel got immediately tired of this and shot into the air, with the Elbridge "Featherweight" wide open. The front wheel threw mud in the novice's face after landing once and getting off again, and lie had to get down with both eyes closed, feeling for the throttle lever. He escaped accident.

REX SMITH PLYING AGAIN.

After attendance at the shows, which took valuable time from legitimate work. Antony H. Jiinnus took out the Rex Smith headless biplane, with Emerson engine, again at College Park on March 5. Going up to 700 ft., he started for Washington, but bad winds made it dangerous, and after going 1V2 miles, landing was made in a little clearing.

ACTIVITY IN THE SOUTHERN STATES,

New Orleans has a large number of "Aero-nuts," and six or seven machines under construction. P. A. Rahn. 220 Decatur St.. has a Pleriot XI, equipped with a 10-60-h.p. Elbridge motor. A man by the name of Troxey has a novel biplane, equipped with a Detroit aero-n'iiiie motor, and claims to have made several jumps. A Mr. Summergill is working out a self-balancing monoplane to be, equipped with two revolving motors running in opposite directions. The National Aviation Co., composed

The Wilcox White Ghost "one of the many successful planes using R/NEH ENGINES

Successful Flight

At first attempt has been Invariably Achieved by all users of

RINEK

ENGINES

It's the THRUST per H. P. that COUNTS!

THRUST stands for a definite factor, in other words it's the actual force which drives your plane in the air. When you buy H. P. you are investing in an unknown quantity,— it has yet to be applied — utilized. When you buy THRUST you are getting a definite amount of PROPULSIVE FORCE. DFATITlf engines produce a greater actual THRUST per H.P. than any \HiI\. other engines, Foreign or American, on the market to-day, and are unsurpassed for reliability and durability.

- Catalogue and prices on application

RINEK AERO MFG. CO. Easton, Pa.

c&a wittemann i

Aeronautical ngineers

LEADING AEROPLANE MANUFACTURERS OF THE UNITED STATES

Aeroplanes Gliders—Supplies

C The Wiltemann Biplane buill for safety and reliability, equipped with double controls, strongest spring landing chassis. Construction embodies the best design, and a desirable factor of safety allowed for all material used in our machine.

CWe carry a large stock of steel fittings, laminated ribs and struts of all sizes and designs, also all other materials which are used in standard makes of machines. Complete sets of Biplane parts knocked down and accurately fitted. Send for list. :: :: :: :: :: ::

CATALOGUE ON REQUEST

Works: OCEAN TERRACE and LITTLE CLOVE RD., Staten Island, N. Y. City

Telephone: 112 W. West Brighton, Post Office, Stapleton

BLERIOT

XI MONOPLANE CROSS-CHANNEL TYPE Assembled Machine (for 50-100 h.p. Motor) Less Power Plant, $1,000.00 Assembled Machine (for 25-50 h. p. Motor) Less Power Plant, 850.00 Machines not Assembled, but all Parts Shaped and Cut to Size with Complete Set of Working Drawings for Assembling, Less Power Plant 600.00

PRICES OF PARTS

Main Planes, assembled, uncovered $125.00, covered $200.00

Vertical Rudder " " 20.00, " 28.00

Stabilizer and Elevating Planes " 50.00, " 72.00

Fuselage and Chassis assembled...... 200.00

<fc1*>K fkfl Steering wheel, seat, foot yoke and device operating warping of main planes, elevating V^OnilOl <pl£3.UU planes and vertical rudder.

Alighting Gear $200.00 3 wheels, tires, castings, etc., all brazed and assembled.

Working Drawings of Complete Machine, 3 sheets, Price $10.00 All assembled machines guaranteed to fly. Let us know your wants.

FOR PARTICULARS ADDRESS

Antniran Amiplane j^upphj S|nuH?

Garden City, L. I., N. Y. P. O. Box 160

Telephone 213 Garden City

To Meet The Tremendous Demand

for information as to where to obtain Flying Machines, the parts and materials of which they are made, and all kinds of accessories and supplies for Aviation, we will issue on March 1st, next,

the chilton

AERO DIRECTORY

Price, $1.00 Per Copy

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION

It will contain the most valuable and authentic list of makers of Aeronautical Supplies, properly classified, and other valuable information.

If you are supplying anything for the manufacture of Flying Machines or the use of Aviators, write us full particulars at once, so that you will be correctly listed.

CHILTON COMPANY

MARKET & 49TH STS., :: PHILADELPHIA

of six or eight mechanics, have co-operated and are building a Bleriot Xf, and seem to have the right dope in construction. Other machines are under construction.

Birmingham will be heard from when J. L. Morris finishes a Bleriot XI. His machine is the nearest duplicate to a genuine Bleriot I have seen. Mr. Morris is in the auto business and had the machine constructed near his garage and will attempt to fly it with a 110-1 h. Buick auto motor, but intends purchasing a standard aeronautical motor, .lames Odom built a biplane several years ago and has succeeded in making short jumps, but lacks the nerve to fly a machine.

R. O. RUB EL, JR. PLIGHTS BY NOVICES IN DENVER.

The Mathewson biplane has made thus far exhibition flights at Pueblo and Trinidad, Colo., and Albuquerque, N. M. At Pueblo the machine had a smash-up with the fence, on account of the poor landing place and the wind. The wind was bad, but flights were made only to fulfill the contracts. The machine was then taken to Trinidad, and there, preliminary to the flights, the tent was blown over. The damage was soon repaired and flights were made as scheduled. While flying. Aviator Thompson got into an air hole and the machine fell about 100 feet. Albuquerque was the next and last place, and there things went off smoothly. .Aviator Thompson and his helper, Georgie Van Ars-dale, have returned to Denver to attend to the arrangements for the Mathewson Aero School, which is to be started within thirty days. They are also busy starting four-men machines. Articles of incorporation have been drawn up for the Mathewson .Aeroplane Co. E. Linn Math-

ewson and George Thompson are the main principals, but Georgie Van Arsdale also comes in for a little. Mr. Mathewson says he has enough pupils booked for his aviation school to till two terms.

The first photographs of the Mathewson machine were published in AERONAUT ICS. Thompson was a novice when he made his first exhibition flight. Elbridge engine and Gibson propellers are used.

GEXTZLER MAKES ATTEMPT TO ELY.

Louis D. Gentzler in his own machine, motored by a home-made engine built by Guy C. Walters, a Denver mechanic, recently made an attempt to fly it in this city at Berkeley Park.

Mr. Gentzler has a peculiar wheel arrangement on his machine, having one large wheel under the front plane, a tail wheel and two outrider wheels on the wings, which do not touch the ground. Mr. Gentzler hopes to be able to run along on this one wheel and keep his stability by means of his own automatic device. In the trial, Mr. Gentzler was not expert enough in handling the machine, and it tipped over on one wing, caving the wheel in. This delayed further trials until Mr. Gentzler made repairs.

A. BBOTT GETTING NEW ENGINE OUT.

Andrew Brott, a local engine builder, is getting three new water-cooled aero engines out, which he expects to place on the market. Mr. Brott has formerly built an {(-cylinder air-cooled engine, one of which he used on his biplane, which did not prove up. though the engine showed fine work. Mr. Brott says he will have details out later on.

ROBERT A. DONALDSON.

NEW BOOKS.

MOEDEBECKS HANDBOOK, cloth, small S vo., !>20 pp., illustrated, with many tables, edited and enlarged by Prof. Dr. R. Suring. published at 1<> marks by M. Krayn, Kurfur-stenstrasse II, Berlin W. 57, Germany.

This is the largest edition (third) yet published of Major Moedebeck's work, which ranks in aeronautics with Kent in engineering. It is printed wholly in German. The book is a complete compendium of aeronautical knowledge. The results of all experimentors are tabulated and all known data are given in concise form.

The principal subjects are: Physikalischen Eigensehaften und Technologie der Gase— Physics of the Atmosphere—Aerology—Drach-en und Fallschirme—Photo^rapbie—Militar-Luftschiffahrt—Die Ballon tech nik—Das Ballon-fahren—Entwicklungsgesehieht Ent wicklungs-geschichte d. Luftschiffs—Luftschiffbau—Navigation von Luftfahrzqugen—Der Tierflug—Der Gleitflug — Flugteehnik — Verbrennungskraf t-niaschinen fur Luftschiffe und Flugzeuge— Lu ft propeller—Yereinsnaeh rich ten—Tabellen.

DEB MASCHLXEN-UND VOGELFLUG, Bine h istorisch-kritische flugtechnisehe Untersueh-ung, von Josef Popper-Lynkeus, S vo., paper,

103 pp., published at ?, marks by M. Krayn, Berlin W. 57. Germany.

Contents include: Ueber theoretische und praktische Leistungen um Gebiete der Flugteehnik—Ueber die Frage: Kami der Menscli ohne Hilfsmotor fliegen?—Ceber den Segel-llug und das Kreisen der Vogel—Das erste freitliegende Modell eines Drachenfliegers von Penaud—Ueber die Formeln fur den Luft-widerstand—Das Gleitproblem — Ueber die Grosse der Flugarbeit der Vogel—Yerschiedene Vorsehlage Penauds—Kraft der tliegende Tiere —Detaillierte Beschreibung eines Flugmasch-inenprojekts von Penaud und Gauchot—Die Personlichkeit Penauds.

THE AEKOPLANK. an Elementary Text Bonk on the Principles of Dynamic Flight, by T. O. B. Hubbard, secretary Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, joint editor "Aeronautical .Journal"; J. H. Ledeboer, B. A., scholar, Cains College, Cambridge, editor AERONAUTICS, joint editor "Aeronautical Journal," and C. C. Turner, author of "Aerial Navigation of To-Bay," Cantor, lecturer on Aeronautics. 1909. Small S vo., cloth, 127 pages with many diagrams and plates. Published by Longmans (Continued on Page 131)

WITHIN a period of thirty days no less than four rotary, air-cooled, American-made motors have been placed on the market. One of these is a two-cycle. The Macomber has already been in the air in the Walsh biplane, and the Avis is to be tried out on the Longfellow monoplane so soon as the ground is dry enough to permit flights.

Rotary Indian.

To the casual observer the beautifully finished rotary Indian engine, made by the Hen-dee Mfg. Co., of Springfield, Mass., which was first seen by the public at the Boston Show, closely follows the Gnome.

To the apparent objection raised that oil would naturally be thrown by rotation onto the spark plugs and quickly foul them the makers answered as follows:

"As to the question of oil forced to the heads of the cylinders and fouling the plugs, it can be said that this only occurred in the earlier types of the Gnome motor, in which machine the plugs were in the head of the cylinder, and the induction valves were of the automatic type, placed in the piston itself. This permitted large quantities of oil to pass from the crank case to the head of the cylinder, and directly to the plugs. With the improved construction the induction valve is pla.ced in the head of the cylinder, and is mechanically operated. This does away with the greater portion of the difficulty; and such oil as gains access above the piston is thrown out of the exhaust valve, thus keeping the head clear; and as the plug is now placed in the side of the head it is in a position where no difficulty is experienced from fouling or sooting."

Its claims for superiority over other motors of its type are first, its simplicity. By the construction of the Indian motor it is possible to remove a cylinder head for cleaning, or a cylinder for examination of a piston, or replacement of a ring, without disturbing any of the mechanism except the induction pipe on that particular cylinder. This cannot be done in any other motor without removing portions of the crank case and valve gear.

The' valve gear of the new Indian motor is of an original design, which is believed to be simpler and more efficient than any that have heretofore been produced.

This motor, four cycle in principle, has seven cylinders, 4S'S in. bore by i% in. stroke, which represents 53% horse-power by the A. L. A.M. rating. The motor complete does not exceed an extreme diameter of 36 inches, and the frame is about 26 in. wide.

The crank case and cylinders are machined out of nickel steel forgings, each part in a single piece, producing not only a very compact, but an extremely strong, construction.

Both valves are mechanically operated by improved mechanism. This is a departure from the usual practice of employing an automatic inlet valve; and while the mechanical type of valve produces better results, the method of construction employed in this motor is actually simpler than the automatic valves in many motors of its class. Annular bail bearings throughout.

Simplicity of construction has been carefully preserved throughout the design, and is well illustrated by the method employed to secure the cylinders to the crank case. Each cylinder is secured by a single castellated screw ring, and a cylinder may be removed in a very few

Indian Rotary Aero Motor

FOUR ROTARY ENGINES ON AMERICAN MARKET

minutes by simply removing this single ring without disturbing any of the portions of the crank case or its fittings. The cylinder head is secured in a similar manner, and affords equal facility for cleaning the head or inspecting the valves.

The lubrication is by a positive oil pump feeding to a sight feed gravity lubricator, which is always within view of the operator.

The ignition is by the well-known high tension Bosch Magneto and special distributer.

It is priced at $2,000.

GYRO MOTOR.

The Gyro four cycle motor has had its first run and photos were taken which are reproduced in this issue. Propeller and power tests have not been made as yet. There is to be noticed an absence of vibration with the engine running.

Another noticeable fact was the absence of great noise, even when running at very high speed. No mufflers are used yet it is possible to have conversation in the shop while the motor is running. About one-half pint of mineral oil is used per gallon of gasoline. The pistons never stick or run the least dry. The oil hoods on the cylinders are a striking success. "When we took the motor apart there was a heavy film of oil on each of these hoods, showing how it had ben caught by the hood and was sliding down to the cylinder walls and piston rings."

Several new motors are under way and deliveries can be made in about sixty days. The price will be $2,500, and the company is accepting a 30 per cent, deposit under the following test guarantee, the test to be carried out in the presence of the purchaser or his representative:

1. The engine shall run continuously and without stop under full load for five hours.

2. The engine shall develop a standing thrust if 400 pounds with an S-ft. Paragon Propeller

3. In case of failure to meet the above test requirements the purchaser may cancel the contract and the money will be refunded.

The New "Gyro" Motor.

In addition to the points brought out in the article published in the March issue, the motor can be run at low power, half power and full power, all under control of the aviator during flight, by changing the amount of compression in the cylinders, as is the system employed in the Adams-Farwell. It is therefore never

necessary to stop the motor entirely for gliding, and it can be changed from one power stage to another at will. In starting, the aviator can readily crank his own engine on low compression and while the engine is running slowlv, mount his machine and turn on full power.

Start Trom Seat.

If it is preferred to do the cranking from the seat a simple lever connection can be made to

Motor Running-, Shows Absence of Vibration.

a ratchet device which is furnished when requested and with this arrangement the aviator can always start his engine alone and without assistance when rising from either land or water.

The motor is made by the Gyro Motor Co., 774 Girard St., Washington, D. C, and listed at $2,500.

AVIS ENGINE

The makers of the Avis engines, selling at $750, have apparently reached a low limit (79 lbs.) for their 30 H. P. (3» H. P, A. L. A. M.) engine, which was first shown at the Boston Show. Although this seems too light for the power developed, still the makers claim it will stand the wear and tear of actual service.

The engine is of the two cycle revolving type, and contains many novel features, chief of which is the cooling device consisting of two deflecting plates to each cylinder that catch the air and convey it around the cylinder. It is claimed the engine will run cool under all conditions; and that it is not necessary to have it in an aeroplane going at a high rate of speed to accomplish this fact. Another feature is the winding of the cylinders with steel piano wire, allowing the use of grey iron in the construction ami still getting the strength of steel. It is also a great factor in the radiation of the heat from the cylinders.

The crank double-throw shaft, weighing but 7 lbs., is made of the best chrome nickel steel, bored hollow for lightness, and to admit the gas and oil. It runs in the R. I. V. imported annular ball-bearings. The connecting rods are made of oval steel tubing, with the ends, which are made of high carbon steel, electrically welded, to the tube, and are also ball-bearing on the crank shaft.

The top end of the connecting rod is fastened to a phosphor bronze bracket, with a light hollow pin, that simply holds it in place. All the thrusts come directly on the head of

the connecting rod itself, and not on the pin as in the ordinary system. The bronze bracket is made with two studs turned on itself, threaded and fastened to the head of the piston with nuts on the top, which same studs and nuts hold the baffle plate.

The crank case is of aluminum and is closed on one end with a flange cast on to which to bolt the propeller. The other end where the shaft protrudes is fitted with a stuffing box to keep the compression in the crank case.

   

jr-i

 
 

The cylinders, 5 x 5V2, are made from a hard, close-grained grey iron that is equal to the best French cylinder castings for tensile strength, and will run with the minimum amount of lubrication. They are finished all over so that the expansion and contraction is equal on all parts.

The gas is carried from the crank case up around the lower half of the cylinder by an aluminum jacket, to the intake ports, which are at an angle of 4 5 deg.

The exhaust ports are on the back side of the cylinder so that as it revolves the vacuum formed helps to clean out the burnt charge. The piston opens and closes the ports, and the only valve to be looked after is the check valve between the engine and the carbureter. The pistons are cast of the same material as the cylinder, and owing to the fact of not using a wrist pin, and therefore having no bosses cast on the inside, it is machined all over, outside and in.

They are fitted with four rings, also semi-steel. Every part of this engine is ground to a perfect fit for the work it has to do, and all parts are made interchangeable. The cylinder heads are of aluminum, and the whole is fastened together with four tension bars or bolts, being amply large to take care of all strains due to centrifugal and other forces. The lubrication is taken care of by mixing the cylinder oil direct with the gasoline.

A thrust of 325 lbs. with a Paragon propeller is claimed.

The makers, Avis Engine Co., are located at Allston, Mass.

THE MACOMBER ROTARY ENGINE.

An entirely new type of gasoline engine is being built by the Macomber Rotary Engine Company, of Los Angeles, California, for aeroplane use. This motor is radically different from all others in theory, design and operation, there being no crank shaft, and yet having a similar cylinder and piston construction to the ordinary vertical engine, but a mechanically variable piston stroke.

The attached photograph shows the Model 'A" 50-GO II. P. motor. It has seven cylinders, 7 x -\y4, placed around and parallel to a central straight shaft. The standard valve in the head four cycle action is used, all valves being operated from one four-point cam placed on the central shaft and running in the same direction. Tn operation the entire motor revolves with the exception of the small case at either end. From these cases the supports run, the one at the head also forming the holder for the magneto and carburetor.

Inside of the large case at the propeller end is placed a "stroke-plate" which is attached to the shaft in such a manner that

while it must rotate in the direction of the engine, it is perfectly free to he tipped at any desired angle. To this is attached the connecting rods and by tipping tiie stroke-plate at various angles the. traveling distance of the piston can be varied. This allows the use of a very high compression for operating, which can be reduced to any desired point for cranking purposes.

.Several different forms of levers are supplied to operate the change of stroke, any of which can be operated both when the engine is at rest or running.

The motor is air-cooled, does all its own oi'.-ing by centrifugal force, and runs without vibration on light wood supports one inch wide by three inches deep. Ail bearings are large diameter Hess-Bright and New Departure ball bearings with the exception of the coiuiecting rods, which have full ball and socket bearings.

A wonderful compactness has been secured ■—the greatest diameter being only nineteen inches and the length twenty-eight inches. The weight complete is two hundred and thirty pounds.

Ignition is extremely simple, a Bosch magneto is operated by the cam gears directly connected, the current taken by six inches of wire to a stationary electrode on the top of the front bearing case. Spark plugs in the cylinder heads pass within a sixteenth of an

Valve End of Macomber Rotary Motor.

inch to this electrode to which the spark jumps.

Any standard carburetor can be used. A straight fuel injection system is also installed when desired. The range of speed is from 150 to 1,500 revolutions per minute, although the average operating speed is about one thousand revolutions, at which it is claimed to develop a full fifty horse power. The weight is given as 190 lbs.

The motor is being placed on the market by Godsmark, Curtis & Co., of Los Angeles, Cal., at $2,000.

The McCurdy flight from Key West has been figured out by Lt.-Commander Yates Stirling, Jr., as S9.7S statute miles. The Hying time was 1 hour, 59 minutes, and 12 minutes were consumed in circling around before starting, making the total duration 2 hours, 11 minutes. A mean speed of about 4 5 m. p. h. was maintained.

The 1911 Gordon Bennett will be down over the British Aero Club's grounds at Eastchureh. It is quite a good open ground and not too much broken up by ditches. It is, however, on a small slope and lakes 1 Vs hours from London.

THE Xational Council has sent out a bulletin urging the organization of meets throughout the country. Quoting from the bulletin: "It is necessary for the aero clubs throughout the United States to immediately arrange a series of aviation meets. The experience of the aero clubs of Europe has shown that there is no more effective way of popularizing the art of aviation and stirring up public interest than by holding a series of well arranged and closely contested competitions at different points. * * * * In this country, where the interest in aviation is far less than it is on the other side of the Atlantic, it is the more necessary that an extended series of aviation meets should be held. Every aero club in the National Council should hold at least one meet during this season, and no time should be lost in making the necessary arrangements."

It is urged that grounds be selected and the business men be organized to finance the affairs. It is even suggested that participants in these fly from one meeting place to the next on the list.

The question of meets is one which requires rather more thought than has been given in the past. A real "meet," where all contestants pay entrance fees, compete solely for prizes, with no guarantees to cover "expenses," conducted on the general lines of other purely sporting events, mentioning automobile races and horse races as examples, seems to be still in the future. A meet strictly on these lines would be a novelty in the States. A purely-sporting event a meet eventually must be, but to date it has been an impossibility—and it looks as though it would so remain for at least another year.

One can venture the assertion that by summer there will not be three standard machines which would be entered by owners on a sporting basis. There will not be more than a half-dozen owners in a position to enter into contests that would be willing so to do. The majority of machines now in existence will devote 'all energies to giving exhibitions for pay.

The exhibitions that have been given during the past year have proven of wonderful benefit in arousing interest. Greater work will be done this year in the same way. But it seems out of the question to attempt to arrange a purely sporting event.

The attempts to combine competition with paid performances, or with allowance of considerable sums for "expenses," to state examples, the last Eos Angeles meeting and the Belmont meeting, have proven detrimental to the pocketbooks of the backers. It is reported that the meets that have been held all over Europe, and in other parts of the world, on the same basis, have resulted in losses. < >n the other hand, the exhibitions, pure and simple, have, so far as known, generally proved successful from a financial standpoint.

In time it will be the purely sporting competitions which will prove of the greatest interest. There is no element of contest in the 150 exhibitions that have been given during 1910 all over the United States, yet the majority of all these paid profits to the promoters in one way or another. The larger portion of the people attending had never before seen an aeroplane in flight, and interest and curiosity brought results.

While the latter is true also of the affairs in which there have been contests, mentioning Eos Angeles and Belmont again, the abnormal expense of administration attendant upon the arranging of actual contests and the securing of certain entries-has brought losses to the promoters. The Wright Company and the Curtiss Exhibition Company have worked on an economical basis. They have no "pylons" to erect, or sheds to construct, and their administration cost is low.

The promoters of flights seem to have but two courses open: to run a purely sporting event at a loss, or conduct a purely exhibition affair and meet expenses or make a profit.

It is a case where adherence to the principle of sport means financial loss and, with a decreasing number of affairs, the falling short of all opportunities to advance general interest: and where the money question is paramount and the stirring up of sentiment to a greater extent.

Which is to he—principle or policy?

AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY RUNS BIG BANQUET

IX America the science of aeronautics has never been more signally recognized than it was on Thursday, March 23, when the President of the United States, at the White House in Washington, received by appointment the committee from the Aeronautical Society which invited the Chief Executive to be its guest at a banquet to be given at the Hotel Astor, Xew York City, on Thursday, April 27.

The committee consisted of Hudson Maxim, president of the Aeronautical Society; Lee S. Burridge, vice-president; William J. Hammer, Louis R. Adams and Thomas A. Hill, directors; and Arnold Kruckman. The distinction accorded the Aeronautical Society by President Taft is indicative of the large importance of the dinner.

Among other distinguished guests there are expected to be present Gov. Woodrow Wilson of Xew Jersey, Gov. F. L. Baldwin of Connecticut, Gov. Judson Harmon of Ohio, Thomas A. Edison, President Butler of Columbia University, President McCracken of Xew York University, Wilbur and Orville Wright. Glenn II. Curtiss, Eugene Ely, Walter Hrookins, Gen. James Allen, head of the U. S. Signal Corps; Augustus Thomas, the playwright; Arthur Brisbane, the noted editor; John Temple Graves, formerly the famous editor of the Atlanta Constitution; Emil Boas, resident head of the Hamburg-American Steamship Company; Prof. Herschel Parker, the noted ex-

plorer; representatives of the various foreign aeronautic associations, as well as delegates from the many notable clubs in America. Science, journalism, statesmanship, commerce, finance, diplomacy, exploration, land and marine military will all be represented at the dinner. So far as this publication is aware, it is the first time that the subject of flight will be discussed from £0 many opposed angles.

In addition to the feast of reason and wit which the society has prepared, surprisingly unique features will be introduced for pure entertainment which will make this banquet notable among all banquets for many months to come.

The banquet committee has its headquarters at the Hotel Astor, New York City, where communications should be addressed. The price per cover will be $3.00.

your journal opens a neir 'field for i lie a ma teur, as it pruritics erer.u opporlunit// for dcrclopintj ideas by placinp it prison in touch irilli manufacturers of supplies und material of ercry conccir-able kind. this feature alone is well uortli tlx snbscrijition price. to this is added the news from home and abroad, the valuable aids of const ruction and many other </ood thinys. t hare read your journal irith profound!st interest and irould tin-hesitatinyly recommend it to any person interested in aeronautics. W. It. McOill.

NATIONAL COUNCIL WANTS MEETS

CURTISS PINEHUEST SCHOOL.

On March IS Beachey opened the Pinehurst (N. C.) school of the Curtiss Aeroplane Co., with Roland B. Middleton, a New York man, as student. On the 25th McCurdy will make a series of exhibition flights. This school, which is intended to be an annual feature at this resort, will close May 1.

Permanent grounds are being arranged for at Palm Beach, Fla., and an annual winter school is intended to be conducted at this resort.

Pupils will be taken at a tuition fee of $500, which will be allowed on purchase of a machine, if the student decides he likes flying. A deposit of $500 is required to cover damages in learning, any surplus remaining to be returned. At San Diego, Cal., three army officers and a naval officer are already learning, as are several civilians.

C. Grahame-White & Co. charges $500 for tuition on either Bleriot or Farman machines, or $750 on both. A deposit of $250 had to be made to cover damages and the pupil had to take out insurance to cover third party risk.

One may learn to fly the Breguet machine, which has been breaking passenger records of late at Brayelle, for $400, the student standing breakages, depositing $300 with Breguet as security. If the student is reckless or is deemed a dangerous pupil, Breguet reserves the right to restore to him his tuition fee, less $100. In beginning the lessons the apprentice agrees to assume all risks. This is true of the other schools.

Henry Farman will make one a pilot for the sum of $500, payable in advance. The student assumes risks of breakage and deposits another $500 to cover damages. Three weeks at the outside are deemed sufficient to make one a pilot. Sheds for aeroplanes, which can be rented at Mineola or Belmont for $10 a month, cost $100 monthly at the Farman school, or $S00 by the year.

LATEST BURGESS-WRIGHT AEROPLANE.

By the first of April W. Starling Burgess, of the Burgess Co. & Curtis. Marblehead, Mass., will be at the Mineola (k. Y.) grounds training several pupils in the use of the Burgess company's "Model F." This will be a new machine to the American public and is called the "Burgess-Wright." This will be the same size (39 ft. spread) as the Wright machine, with Wright engine and propellers, but embodying Burgess constructional features.

Mr. Burgess was the first civilian pupil of the Wright company, other than their own aviators, and, as announced in AERONAUTICS, last month, completed his training under Frank Coffyn at the Augusta (Ga.) Wright camp, where he made 26 flights in all, 14 of which counted as lessons.

The Burgess-Curtis Company is the first concern to recognize the Wright patent by obtaining a manufacturing license.

FRED SHNEIDER STARTS SCHOOL

By the middle of March Fred. Shneider, 1020 E. 17Sth St., New York, will have started his school at the Belmont race track, where he now has his shed. Joseph Richter will be taught to fly and he will act as instructor. Two or three pupils will start in under direction of Mr. Shneider as soon as the school opens.

WRIGHT COMPANY WILL CONTINUE EXHIBITIONS

The Wright Company has not gone out of the exhibition business—in fact, 1911 will see more of this than the year past.

What is more hopeful for advancement of

aviation is the fact that aeroplanes are being purchased now for sporting purposes only. W. C. Beers and several friends of New Haven, Conn., belonging to the new Aero Club of Connecticut, have Wright machines ordered for delivery on May 1. Robert J. Collier has one already; Russell A. Alger will have one, and T. B. Funk, of Dallas, Tex., is another purchaser. Several Curtiss machines are in the hands of "outsiders," and the Burgess Co. & Curtis have several on order.

During the last month Coffyn made some 60 flights at Augusta, staying in the air over 18 hours, despite almost continually unpleasant weather. These were nearly all two-man flights. No one has broken a stick or had any difficulties. The actual cost of maintaining and operating aeroplanes does not seem to run into such excessive figures as has been given in a recent article, and the degree of success attained by the pupils at Augusta shows it is quite a simple matter to learn to fly.

On some of the new Wright machines is being used a special fabric prepared by the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., of Akron, Ohio, which they call their "Wing Aeroplane Fabric." The Wright Company was largely responsible for its construction.

THE FIRST AERO CHAUFFEUR

Russell Alger, of Detroit, has a man at Augusta learning to fly. Another pupil is George Manor, a friend of Mr. Burgess, who has bought a Model F.

COMBINATION AIRSHIP AND AEROPLANE.

Lieut. H. E. Honeywell, of 4460 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo., not long ago completed a series of tests with what he calls a diroplane. The appearance is that of a rather short Per-fecto cigar cut through the middle longitudinally. The bottom, therefore, is a plane surface. The gas bag is built round a framework. The volume of gas is barely great enough to lift the airship with two passengers. The engine can be started or stopped in the air without the operator leaving his seat. The engine and seats for the two men are located about the center of the. apparatus from end to end and suspended below the envelope by a frame triangular and cross section.

Mr. Honeywell declines to give out much information about the new apparatus, but it is said to have increased speed over the other type of airship.

CONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY WANTS BACK NUMBERS.

The Librarian of Congress is anxious to secure the following issues of AERONAUTICS which cannot be supplied by the publishers: All numbers July to December, 1907; all numbers January to June, 190S; July to October, 190S. The National Library will appreciate receiving these copies. Address Librarian of Congress, Periodical Division, Washington, D. C.

$1,000 MOTOR PRIZE.

The closing of entries for the Automobile Club of America's $1,000 motor prize competition has been set forward to July 1. The conditions are still being prepared and it is expected that by the middle of March they will be in shape for publication.

NOTE ON SELLERS AEROPLANE.

The Aero Club of America, in a recent bulletin, stated that the Breguet machine, which recently broke passenger speed records, was the first to carry a weight greater than its own. The club has overlooked the fact that one of

its own members is flying almost daily in a machine which, in every flight, carries 2Y2 times its own weight—but then these flights of Mr. M. B. Sellers, the member referred to, have not been "officially observed" and therefore "do not count." The fact remains, nevertheless. Coming down to figures, Mr. Sellers' machine (of which full details and description have been printed in AERONAUTICS on several occasions), which flies with an engine rated at but 10 h.p., weighs 110 lbs. readv for flight. Mr. Sellers himself weighs 140 lbs., a total of 250 lbs. for a 110-lb. machine, with 6 actual h.p.; over 41 lbs. being carried for each horsepower.

INCORPORATIONS.

Baltimore Monoplane Co.,, Baltimore, Md., $300,000. D. J. Carter, 2009 Boone St.; J. B. Sebastian, 204 X. Liberty St. Manufacture and conduct school.

Marquette Aeroplane Co., Indianapolis, Ind., aeroplanes.

The Standard Airship Co. has been incorporated at Columbus, Ohio, to build and sell aeroplanes. The capital stock is $50,000. The incorporators of the company are: T. P. Horrell, C. A. Picks, A. Y. Gowen, W. C. Saeger and G. B. Collins, of Cleveland, Ohio. The aeroplanes will be manufactured under patents held by H. J. Sharp.

Penn Aero Construction Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Capital, $125,000. Incorporators: Kenneth Robertson, E. X. Johnson and Frank A. Kuntz.

Ellithorpe Aerial Co., Marblehead, Ohio. George H. Ellithorpe and others; $12,000.

Lamson Aeroplane Co., Los Angeles, Cal., $100,000. Incorporators are: Charles H. Lamson, H. A. Linthwaite, O. C. Linthwaite, R. I. Blakeslee and Buel H. Green. H. A. Linthwaite is said to be the financial backer. lie is an architect of Columbus, Ohio, and has accumulated a considerable fortune. The concern will build aeroplanes, employing wing warping under the patent of C. H. Lamson. About a year ago suit was filed by Lamson against the Wrights, in which Lamson alleged that he had invented and patented the warping device several years before the Wrights experimented with it.

Johnson Aeroplane Co., Brooklyn, X. Y., $50,000. Directors: Ernest A. Johnson, Brooklyn, and Edward A. Johnson and Simon A. Frace, of Middletown, Conn.

Alleas Aviation Co., Boston, Mass., $50,000. Jean M. Alleas, Joseph Brettler, Emile F. Con-Ion.

Siedlinger Aeroplane Co., Wilmington, Del., $100,000.

United States Aero Publicitv Co., Columbia, S. C. (in process of formation), $500,000. Victor Jossenberger, E. S. Ward, W. G. Howard.

Aeroplane Amusement Co., 75 Westminster St., Providence. R. I. Capital, $100,000. Gardner C. Luther, J. Elmer Payne, John S. White-house, David G. Edwards. Aeroplane amusement device for parks.

The International Airship Co.. 15 Ramapo Ave., Paterson, X. J., $250,000. Incorporators: Victor L. Ochoa, Ed. Van Winkle and Wm. S. Martin. Promoting "Ochoaplane."

BRITISH GOVERNMENT AERO COMMITTEE

The British War Office are forming a Technical Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, and have invited representatives from the Aeronautical Society, the Royal Aero Club and the Ad-vistory Committee on Aeronautics, commonly known as Lord Rayleigh's Committee, to serve thereon. This is the first move in the formation of a Technical Aeronautical Reserve which is about to be formed as an adjunct to the armv. What it will be, what it will consist of, and what it will do, the War Office themselves do not yet know.

WEIGHT-CURTISS SUIT.

The Wright Company finished taking testimony in a suit which began last summer against the Herring-Curtiss Company and Glenn H. Curtiss a few weeks ago and every effort is being made by them to bring the case into court before the summer recess. The Wright Company's suit against Grahame White for infringement in Earman and Bleriot ma-

chines is progressing rapidly. The Wright Company's testimony is entirely in and it is expected that the case will be disposed of some time during the spring.

In the former case, Curtiss has four months to reply, in the latter, the law limits the case to three months.

WHAT HAS BECOME Or—

The Wright aeroplane to have been purchased by the Aero Club of America last spring for the use use of members?

Charles J. Glidden's Xew York-Boston aerial line?

Albert C. Triaca's fine aeroplane? The American Aeronaut?

The Prof. Todd-Stevens altitude balloon excursion?

Joseph Brucker's transatlantic balloon voyage?

The Baldwin dirigible that went to Germany?

Amherst's aerial signs for balloonists?

The aeroplanes all over the country that were all going to fly in the "next few days," or weeks?

The great aero park at Springfield?

Many of the aero clubs which have been formed the past year, of which nothing more has been heard?

Tillinghast? —Reurinted from the April (1910) AEROXAU-TICS.

INTERNATIONAL BALLOON RACE NOT AT ST. LOUIS.

Tt is probable that the International balloon race of 1911 will be held at some other place than St. Louis. Cincinnati, Omaha, Indianapolis, San Francisco and Kansas City have all made applications to the Xational Council. A. B. Lambert has stated that St. Louis is not a candidate. The selection of the place has been referred to a committee of three, of which Clifford B. Harmon is chairman. This committee will report to the Executive Committee of the Xational Council at a meeting to be held prior to the April 4th general meeting.

The Pacific Aero Club, in San Francisco, points with pride to its October climate and the prevailing winds at that .season. All these cities are making strong efforts to obtain the race.

At the last meeting of the Executive Committee, held March 7, the Milwaukee Aeronautic Club, the president of which is Sherman Brown, manager of the Davidson Theatre, Milwaukee, was admitted to membership.

The report of the Conference Committee was made, adopted and the secretary instructed to send a copy of the form of working agreement, arrived at between the Aero Club and the Council, with the amended by-laws to meet the conditions created by the working agreement, to the various clubs comprising the Council.

The meeting was attended by Messrs. Collier, Atherholt, Myers, Duffy, Harmon and Bishop. J. H. Joyce and John C. Hberhardt were represented by proxies.

NEW BOOKS

(Continued from page 115)

Green & Co., 443 Fourth Avenue, Xew York, at $1.00. The authors have put in simple language the principal laws governing aviation. It is a most suitable book indeed for the hundreds of experimenters now building machines of their own design or copying well known aeroplanes and without any fundamental knowledge of the laws of aero-dynamics. The contents of the book are divided into nine chapters which are again split up into many sub-divisions. The main divisions are as follows: Properties of the Air: The Resistance of the Air: The Inclined Plane; Flow of the Air—The Curve—Lift and Drift; Gilding, and the Theory of the Aeroplane; Stability and Steering: Propulsion; The Aeroplane; Xavi-gation and Motors.

t~\ OSTON had its second aero show, under l-< the efficient management of Chester I. LJ Campbell, during the week of Feb. 20-25, at the Mechanics' Building. While it was the best show that has yet been held, probably, it was far from what a national aero show, should be ,and, as usual, a financial loss, which Mr. Campbell, who was not over-sanguine of its being a bonanza, stood like the good soldier he is. The show was not held "under the auspices" of some irresponsible club.

Full Sized Machines.

THE WRIGHT COMPANY, Dayton, <>., showed their Model B two-man machine, finely finished like the New York Show machine 'sold Collier. This spreads 39 ft., planes 6 ft. 3 in. fore and aft, propellers sy2 ft. diam.

The entire machine is governed by two levers, the first of which, when moved forward or backward, warps the wings and at the same time turns the rear vertical rudders, permitting the operator to maintain his balance without cliangin'g his course, regardless of the direction of the wind. The vertical rudders can also be operated independently to turn to the right or left by simply twisting the end of the lever with a wrist motion. The second lever controls the real horizontal rudder by which the direction of llight upwards or downwards

Left Side of Wright Engine.

may be governed. The speed of the engine is controlled by a foot pedal and the power can be shut off instantly at any time by pulling a cord within easy reach, which releases the compression. The propellers keep the engine turning over, and by pushing in a rod on the side of the engine compression is on again and the engine will again deliver power. The control is entirely by steel cables with nickel steel chain sections wherever they pass through pulleys. The entire mechanism is exposed so that even a casual inspection suffices to ascertain the condition of all working parts.

The biplane type permits of double trussing throughout, offering a strength obtainable in no other design, and the efficiency of the planes and propellers is so high that there is no need to sacrifice strength for lightness.

All machines are equipped with shock absorbing wheels for starting and landing. This aeroplane carries two persons comfortably, and the levers are duplicated so either person can operate the machine. It is a refined type of The Wright Flyer used by the exhibition department. The total weight of the machine is S00 lbs.

The wood used is the very best West Virginia and the cloth is a new Goodyear fabric, non-shrinkable.

The Wright Motor, I cylinders, 4%-in. bore by I-in. stroke, 30-35 h. p., weight ISO pounds,

like the aeroplane and propellers, is a development of years of experimentation by the Wright Brothers, while the rest of the world was busy with a motor for automobiles. No effort has been made to reduce weight at the expense of safety, and a feature is its extreme simplicity. There probably has never been built a practical four-cylinder motor with fewer parts. The body is cast in aluminum and the cylinders are cast individually of gray iron. The nickel steel crank shaft is'cut from the block, as is also the cam shaft, which operates the exhaust valves. The intake valves are automatic. Ample lubrication of bearings and cylinders is obtained by a positively operated pump. The cylinders are water-jacketed with aluminum and a centrifugal pump furnishes effective circulation. As this motor must operate in constantly varying altitudes, the gasoline is supplied directly to a mixing chamber without a carburetor, by means of a gear pump and injector which controls the amount of gasoline supplied to each cylinder in direct ratio with the speed of the engine. Ignition is provided by the Mea high tension magneto, offering an exceedingly wide range of control.

The power is transmitted to the twin propellers by means of nickel steel roller chains and the propeller shafts are of chrome nickel steel. Hess-Bright ball bearings are used. The price is $5,000.

BURGESS CO & CURTIS, Wright licenses, of Marblehead, Mass., exhibited several machines. The Model E, termed the "Grahame-White Biplane" ('Baby Farman"), is the fourth machine this company has built on the order from White for seven machines. This type is not being built simply for White, but is one of the styles the Burgess Co. is putting on the market. This is priced at $7,500, with a Gnome 50 h. p. engine as regular equipment.. "Prof." J. v. Martin, formerly of the Harvard Aeronautical Society, has been flying the "Baby" in England at the'White school.

This machine is almost an exact copy of the "Farman" used by Paulhan in this country, but is quite a little smaller, though almost exactly the same proportions, and several improvements. The spread is 27 ft. without extensions, and 3G ft. 10 in. with them. The weight, less the engine, is 318 lbs. There is a little less curve than the old "Farman."

The fuel is carried in four tanks, two on the lower plane, on either side of the engine-bed, and the other two suspended from the top plane. Gravity feed to the engine from the top tanks, which in turn are fed by force-pump from the lower ones.

The regular Burgess gate control is used in place of the "Farman" single lever. For passenger earrving, extra detachable extensions are added to the top plane. Greclv S. Curtis "deflectors" are used in connection with the regular Farman-type- ailerons, to equalize the resistance.

The fittings are all rolled cold steel, nickeled, in place of the old aluminum fittings. These are lighter, stronger and neater. Most of the well-finished machines on the market to-day are using cold rolled steel fittings, either oxidized, nickeled or enamelled.

The planes are covered with a very fine qualitv of sail-cloth made by Wilson & Silsby of Boston. This firm makes a specialty of aeroplane fabrics, and several of the machines in the show were covered by this company, and users praise it highly.

The "Flving Fish," another Burgess-Curtis, was the original one down last season at Plum Island. It has been equipped with wheels and the fins on the top plane have been removed and in their stead there are regular Farman flaps. The Curtiss l-cylinder motor is installed. This costs $4,500.

There was also another model, "13," shown, which was an exact duplicate of the "Flying Fish," except that it was mounted on the

BOSTON'S SECOND tiERO SHOW

single skid (with two small skids on either side), tlie same as the original.

Type "C" is also similar to the "Flying Fish," except that it has two skids, and is equipped either with or without wheels. The under-body is much heavier than the other types, the machine being designed for beginners. Equipped with 30 h. p. Clement-Bayard l-cylinder opposed motor. Price $4,500. A very beautifully finished glider was also shown. This was built for Mr. A. A. Merrill.

Mr. Burgess states that the next machine which they build for Grahame-White will have a torpedo body, with all the controls, seat, etc., inside. The finish will be as fine as the most beautiful yacht—entire inside of torpedo body will be upholstered.

The Burgess Company & Curtis also showed their well-known model "D" and the "Cross-Channel" Bleriot brought over to this country by Greely S. Curtis.

The Model I) is the one Hilliard has been flying, as accurately recorded in previous issues. This lists at $5,500, with the Indian S-cylinder motor. All the Burgess Curtis have Bosch magnetos. El Arco radiators are standard equipment.

THE METZ COMPANY, of Waltham, Mass. —This company showed their 7-cylinder revolving type motor, which they are putting out in three sizes, 35-60-125 h. p.

They also had a full tine of Goodyear I ires turnbuckles, hubs, aluminum fittings, also Bleriot-type rubber shock absorbers.

A small biplane with a 35 h. p. motor (4-cyl-inder, water-cooled), with Bosch magneto, was exhibited. This was built to order for a St. Louis man. Ailerons were hinged to rear beams by crossed leather straps.

Although this company showed several Ble-i riot-type fittings, and is making a specialty of Bleriot-copy monoplanes, they did not have their product on exhibition. The Bleriot machine which they showed at Belmont Park 'during the meet is now in Georgia, where Joe Downev is giving exhibition flights.

The MINEOLA SPECIALTY COMPANY, Mineola, L. I., showed a Curtiss-type biplane complete, but without power-plant. This had a single surface front elevator, Farman type ailerons, double surface planes, and all metal parts and fittings were finished in oxidized copper and lacquered.

Every detail of construction was carefully executed, and the general finish of this machine was equally as fine as any on the floor.

The steering-post was rather a novelty, being built entirely of steel, the cable, running inside of the Shelby steel post. The front control, rear stabilizer and rudder are arranged to knock down readily, as well as all the plane sections.

BUTLER & SAUNDERS, of 341 Newbury St., Boston.—This monoplane was a rather close copy of the Bleriot cross-Channel type, with a 3-cycle Anzani motor, with the exception of the alighting gear, which was built somewhat along the lines of the "Farman." with the exception of there being two wheels in place of four. Naiad cloth was used to cover the planes, and, considering that the machine was built in a barn, with the door open to let in a little daylight, which at the same time let in plenty of winter atmosphere, and with very few tools at hand, it certainly was a most creditable piece of work.

Nat Butler, who is well known as an ex-bicvcl'e rider, did most of the work on the machine. He intends to start work very shortly on a new Bleriot-type racing machine, which will be equipped with either a Gnome or an Indian revolving motor. The main frame or fuselage will be constructed in such a manner that there will be no holes bored through it, and the alighting gear will be similar to the one they are using on their present machine.

THE BOSTON AERO CO., 410 Newbury St., Boston, Mass.—Their "Pigeon Monoplane" faced the entrance to the hall, and was one of the most novel machines shown. The workmanship was tine. It was considerably larger than anv of the other monoplanes, spreading 36 ft., and nearly as big as the Antoinette.

The framework (fuselage) was built of hollow spars, as well as the entire edge of the wings. The wings were pivoted in such a manner that when one was raised the other was automatically lowered, within a range of 4 to IS degrees. The whole wing surface's angle of incidence could also be altered during flight.

The operating of the wings in this manner was designed to be automatic, but can also be controlled by the aviator from a wheel.

A 6-cylinder motor, i% by 5 in. b. and s., of the revolving type, similar in appearance to the Gnome, was installed, for which great power and reliability are claimed. The correct timing of a 6-cylinder rotary motor would seem to offer some difficulty.

This was designed and built by Albert A. Gouldhart.

The LONGFELLOW MONOPLANE CO., of Allston, Mass., exhibited their first monoplane, Bleriot type with a very nice looking running gear. This was fitted with a new engine, an "Avis," 30 h. p., 2 cylinders, 2-cycle, revolving.

Business End of Butler-Saunders.

This machine spreads 24 ft, covered with Naiad cloth. The vertical struts in the body framing are of oval steel tubing.

HARVARD AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY.— This society showed the H. V. Roe triplane which Roe brought over for the Boston aviation meet.

HUBBARD MONOPLANE.—See elsewhere, this issue.

Engines and Accessories.

ELBRIDGE ENGINE CO., 10 Culver Rd., Rochester. N. Y., had four engines on exhibition: one 3-cyl., two 4-cyl. and one 6-cyl. The 4 and 6-cylinder motors were the new "Aero Special." One was shown mounted in a seel ion of a Wittemanii 'plane, with twin Kl Arco radiators, Bosch magneto and Gibson propeller. Another engine was fitted with a "Paragon." Of course, the G. & A. carburetor was shown as standard equipment.

HENDEE MFG. CO., Springfield, Mass. First showing of their new 7-cyl. rotary "Indian." The "Model D" Burgess had the S-cyl. "V" Indian.

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO.. 616 G St.. Washington, had a comprehensive exhibit of their well and favorably known "Paragon" propellers.

MARBURG BROS., 1771 Broadway, New York. American agents for the Mea, had an exhibit of their own as well.

GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER CO.. Akron, O. This company had a large exhibit—showing a complete line of detachable aeroplane tires and several grades of fabrics. Of special interest was the new "Wing" fabric which the Wright Company is now using on its machines, as well as the Burgess Co. & Curtis. This fabric is not affected by either heat, cold or moisture, and was only accepted by the Wright people after strenuous tests. This costs from $1.00 to $1.50 a yard, according to width and weight. Goodyear tires can be had now in a great variety of sizes. The new 20x1 is perhaps the best size for aeroplane work. There is a decided advantage in tires of large cross-section.

PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO., Jeannette, Pa. Their yellow fabric, "Penacloth," of a weight of but 6% oz. to the yard, and the big 4x20 in. tires, the first of the size on the market, were handled by the Post & Lester Co., of Boston.

B. P. GOODRICH CO., Akron, O., exhibitors of "Palmer" tires and rubber shock absorbers for Wright and Farman-type running gear. Palmer tires are all single tube and, of course, lighter than casings and inner tubes.

One tire shown had Chrome leather vulcanized on the tread. The arrangement of the fabric, the threads in each layer being at an angle of 45 degrees to the other, makes the tire cling closely to the rim and avoids the use of clincher rims. These can now be had in the 20x3 size.

Supply Houses.

CHURCH AEROPLANE COMPANY', 123 Smith Street, Brooklyn, N. y. This company, which is one of the oldest in the business, showed a very complete line of supplies and fittings. Some of the finished spruce parts,

such as ribs, struts and main spars, were well designed and beautifully finished.

They had intended to have their supply catalog ready some time ago, but, before going to press, decided to add several of their new fittings, as well as model sundries, and so have held this back until cuts can be made. This catalog is promised for the very near future.

They also exhibited a Bleriot-type monoplane in the course of construction. This was made almost entirely of spruce, being designed particularly light to accommodate the "Avis" motor which the Longfellow Aeroplane Company is putting on the market.

The monoplane showed good workmanship. The wings, which were shown uncovered, were perfectly lined up, and the novel feature of these was the front entering edge, which was of half-round, hollow spruce, instead of the sheet aluminum as is generally used, and which gets quickly dented and twisted out of shape in handling.

This company also had a very fine display of "Paragon" propellers, for which they are the Brooklyn agents. In fact, theirs was the only real display of propellers in the show. Several sales on these were reported, one of their customers being Victor Lougheed, author of "Vehicles of the Air."

E. J. WILLIS CO., S5 Chambers St., New York. The Willis exhibit was as complete as usual. In addition to the hundred or more various fittings the company showed Naiad cloth, Hartford tires and Weaver wheels, Gibson propellers, ribs, struts, G. & A. carburetor, Pennsylvania wheels and tires and El Arco radiators. A duplicate "Aeromotor" of that on the Yamada Japanese airship attracted attention. This was shown with a Mea magneto.

THE AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY' HOUSE, of Garden City. N. Y'., had an extensive exhibit of well-made parts for Bleriot-type machines. One whole wing was shown, with rudder and elevator, uncovered. This

Bleriot Front Wheel of Am. Aeroplane Supply House.

concern has prepared a complete set of scale and full size drawings of every part of the cross-Channel Bleriot, as well as being in a position to sell all parts ready for assembling at a low price.

E. L. LENNOX & CO.'S booth showed Wilson & Silsby cloth, the Custer statoscope, Goodyear rubber shock absorbers, and claimed to handle Gnome engines and Chauviere propellers. Some samples of Bleriot turnbuckles were shown. These were novel, in that the threaded ends of the sleeve were split to keep the threads on the eyebolts from stripping. The Custer statoscope is very simple and sells for $25. A full description was published in AERONAUTICS.

X. Y. AERONAUTICAL SUPPLY CO., 50 Broadway, Xew York City. This company showed a line of supplies of every description. They have just issued a 20-page catalog, which shows many standard fittings. They also showed one of the new 50 "Aerometers" for which they are the Xew York agents. Their exhibit was most complete and included, among other things, Gibson propellers, Curtis and Farman running gear, Curtiss seats, Bleriot fittings, Xaiad cloth, "Carrath" oval tubing, El Arco radiators, square tubing, made-up ailerons, etc. This concern has been started by Walter Shulman, formerly with the E. J. Willis.

Models and Miscellaneous.

WHITE AEROPLANE CO., 15 Myrtle Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., showed a big line of models and model supplies.

ROYAL AERIAL MFG CO., West New York, N. J., was another exhibitor of flying models.

A. C. MARQUIS, of Rochester, N. Y., showed a compass particularly adapted for flying. A mirror showed the direction being flown on a vertical dial. Another feature is that, to the operator of the aeroplane, the needle points in the direction in which the machine is flying, instead of continually pointing to the north as usual. The dial apparently moves instead of the needle.

THE SCIENTIFIC AEROPLANE CO., 125 East 23d St., New York, exhibited the Sperry gyroscope, intended for use in aeroplanes to preserve lateral stability. Mobiloil was handled by a local automobile firm, as was Pan-O-Lite oils and grease.

The Tufts Aero Club showed a member's glider. Cole & Co., Asbury Park, photographs. Pittsfleld Aero Club, balloon basket. C. J. Seamon, flying novelties. Magazines, AERONAUTICS, Aviation Topics, Aircraft, Fly, Aero.

The U. S. Aeronautical Reserve had a booth for their organ, Airscout. The Boston Globe was an exhibitor of models. The Aeronautical Society had a booth, and L. E. Dare filled the space with an interesting collection of models and photographs. The Aero Club of New England was represented.

Exhibitors of models were: International Airship Co., 50 Congress St., Boston; A. L. de Dryver and Edw. Huber; Harriman Aero-mobile Co., 53 State St., Boston.

Bleriot Tail Wheel Made fcy Am. Aeroplane Supply House.

Each dav during the week of the show lectures were given, free to the spectators at the hall. These talks were given by Augustus Post, J. Emory Harriman, Prof. H. H. Clayton and Albert A. Merrill.

Samuel F Perkins, who has been flying his man-lifting kites all across the continent and from the deck of U. S. warships on the Pacific coast, flew kites from the roof of the building during the show.

In a second attempt to make a trans-Hudson flight from Guttenberg race track in New Jersey to Central Park in New York City, on February 24, Chas. B. Morak alighted in the middle of the Hudson River and was carried down into the water with the machine. He caught his shoe somewhere on the machine and tore it off in getting loose. The Sheider aeroplane immediately sunk and was never found. It was fitted with a new S-cylinder engine loaned for the occasion by Frank Boland, of Rahwav, N. J.

The previous flight ended after flying a mile or so from the grounds.

THE HUBBARD MONOPLANE

GGARDNER HUBBARD and F. Tracy Hubbard, of Ipswich, Mass., are new , makers of aeroplanes, putting on the market a monoplane, type "Hubbard IV." A special feature is its ease of assembling and taking down. It can be put up in two hours and disassembled in a half-hour less. It is a sturdy looking machine, combining prominent features of several well-known machines.

The wings resemble those of the Bleriot. and the same for the body framing. The alumi-

num-covered nose and placing of the engine is that of the Tellier, the running gear looks like the Hanriot, and the horizontal tail and elevator takes after the Antoinette. The skid under the tail is like that under the Farman. The two-wheeled arrangement will probably be replaced by a four-wheeled truck, with the wheels arranged similar to the Farman.

Of its predecessors, one of which had a Gnome engine. No. 1 and No. 3 flew. The other was smashed in a trial and was not rebuilt on the same plan. The first machine was

Hubbard Monoplane

built in 1909 by F. W. Baldwin and J. A. D. McCurdy at Baddeck, Dr. Bell's summer place.

Planes are covered with either Naiad cloth or Wilson & Silsby fabric. Spread 3 4 ft. and are S ft. fore and aft at greatest dimension. These are guyed to the running gear by double Roebling cables adjusted by turnbuckles of fine design. There is a slight dihedral angle to the wings, 1.5 cm. to the meter. The fabric, where necessary, is laced; not through eyelets, but around hooks.

Stability is secured through ailerons hinged at the outer rear beam of the wings. These are operated by cable over pulleys and are interconnected so that when one is pulled down the other is pulled up, as in the Curtiss.

Power Plant. Elbridge "Featherweight" engines of 40 h. p. and El Arco radiator. Gibson propeller. Mr. Hubbard is enthusiastic about his engine, which he bought second-hand and was tested on the block for an hour and gave 4S.7 h. p. average.

Control. This is by means of a post mounted on a unique universal joint with wheel at the top. This is used for the elevator and for the ailerons. The rudder is operated by the feet. The post is swung from side to side for the ailerons; in fact, it acts exactly as the Bleriot control.

Running Gear. The wheels are Goodrich, 2(>x2l/2 in., with Goodyear Farman-type shock rubbers.

The total weight is about 700 lbs.

The Voisin "Tailless" Biplane

AERONAUTICS April, ipn

NOTES FROM c_A B Rj!_0 A D

New Bleriot XIII Carries 8 People

RENAUX WINS $20,000 PRIZE.

Eugene Kenaux, on March 7, won the $20,000 Michelin prize offered three years ago for a passenger llight from Paris to the top of Puy de 1 >ome, near Ciermont-Ferrant, France. This mountain lias an altitude of over 4.S00 feet and the onlv available landing space is a small plateau about 360 feet by 131 feet. He used a Maurice Farman biplane with a 60-b.p. Renault L S-cylinder air-cooled motor of the same type as now holds the Michelin Cup for distance.

The distance from the starting point to the landing point is 350 kilometers (217 miles). The total time consumed in making the flight was 5 hours. 10 minutes, 46 seconds; maximum time allowed under the regulations being 6 hours. He made one stop at Nevers for the purpose of replenishing oil and gas. Two previous attempts have been made to win this prize, one by Weymann, who lost his way, anil the other by Morane, who met with an accident.

THE BLERIOT XIII.

Prom long distance flying to weight carrying is the step recently taken abroad, following the wonderful cross-country llight of Capl. Georges Bellenger (Bleriot 50 h.p.) from Paris to Pan, in the Pyrenees, 680 kilometers (421 miles), in the flying time of 714 hours.

Cody, in England, has carried three passengers, one of whom stood up and clung to a strut; Busson has carried three passengers in his 100-h.p. Deperdussin; Weymann and H. Farman have both made flights with live passengers.

Lemarlin, with a new Bleriot monoplane, Type XIII, lias down for S minutes with seven passengers, and it is claimed the machine can carry 10 people.

The photograph shows this new machine.

Note the elevator is in front and the motor and propeller at the rear of the main plane.

The plane spreads 42 Vz ft., and has 430 sq. ft. The engine is a 100-h.p. Gnome. The weight of the machine itself is 1,323 lbs. The weight of the eight people was 1,102 lbs., so that the weight per square foot was over 5V2 lbs., and the weight per horsepower over 24 lbs. For lack of space we are compelled to omit details.

Sommer has also carried great weight, in the shape of six passengers, with 602 sq. ft. of surface in his biplane, which is perhaps at this moment the most attractive in France.

THE TAILLESS VOISIN.

The new Voisin machine, which looks as though it were dying backwards, is indeed a curiosity. First, we have headless aeroplanes, and now tailless, and next we will have neither head nor tail—maybe.

One first thinks of the first aeroplane that Santos Dumont flew, his "14-bis."' Note the elevator in two parts, the rudder above. Forward and back movement of the steering wheel post operates elevator, and turning the wheel operates the rudder, while the feel command the ailerons. The motor is a 50-h.p. Gnome, driving a metal propeller.

140-MILE SEA PLIGHT.

On March 5 Lieut. Hague established a ne\.' water record, and it was unadverlised and no boats were strung along the route. He had to fly by compass from Nice to the Island of Gorgonn, between Corsica and Italy. He intended to land in Corsica, but lost his bearings. A (loser figuring by Mr. Williams Welch puts the distance at I3S miles. Hague used a Bleriot 50.

IS

THE first annual aeroplane and motor truck exhibit was held in Exhibition Hall under the auspices of the Xational Aviation Co., during- the entire week of March 5-12. While probably not one of the largest shows, and exhibits did not arrive on time, it was instructive to the uneducated mind in the highest degree. Most of the aeroplanes were biplanes, but of quite a varied and interesting assortment.

The Xational Aviation Co. showed standard Curtiss biplane, of the "Type 1," equipped with the 4-cylinder motor. This machine is to be used in teaching at the company's aero school. It was recently purchased from Glenn H. Curtiss for this purpose.

Harry A. Orme had a beautiful looking biplane which is more of a pocket edition than the "Baby Wright" at the Belmont meet. Is a locally constructed machine, with single elevator in front. Its peculiarity consists in an umbrella-shaped plane over the center of the two planes and intended to preserve equilibrium. The ends of this are to be warped clown to preserve lateral stability, but as the plane above named is small, it is questionable if the leverage obtained will cause sufficient reaction to do any balancing at all, and is perhaps the weakest feature about the machine. Vertical fins, instead of being in front as in the Wright machines, are placed on the back ends of the skids. The rest of the machine is typical of the older Wright machines, with two propellers and two seats left of the motor.

A tiny motor of about 10 h.p., probably placed in it for exhibition purposes, will, it is reported, be replaced by one capable of 30 h.p., and the machine tried out in the near future.

The Wright Co. exhibited one of their standard headless big machines and attracted quite a little attention, probably because of the recent record cross-country flight of Parmalee. This was the same handsome machine seen at the Boston show.

The Hubbard monoplane Model 4 was shown. This machine, while it has not yet been tried out, is patterned after its predecessors, which have and is only awaiting one of the Hubbards' return from Europe for its trials. The wings of the old machine were recovered and while a landing chassis of the Farman type is adopted, the machine is a combination of the Bleriot, Antoinette and Hanriot.

A standard 4-cylinder Elbridge engine was shown, with a Gibson propeller.

The Rooney triplane proved quite original and appears practical if it were not underpowered—a frequent mistake. It resembles two triplanes in tandem with the motor between mounted near the middle on the chassis which is supported on four wheels. An engine of about 15 h.p. is used, but will be substituted by a larger one later. It has made several jumps, but has not achieved a practical success yet.

The plane construction of the Rooney machine is unique and is the subject of one of

their patents. They only exhibited this old machine under protest, but they have some sample constructional details of the new Rooney which indicate that Xo. 2 will be a wonder in structure and performance.

The Rex Smith Aeroplane Co. had a complete machine exhibited and showed their second in the course of construction. This machine has been making a series of successful flights at College Park lately, piloted by Antony Jannus. Readers of AERONAUTICS are already familiar with it.

The power plant consists of a 100-h.p., 300-lb., 2-cycle Emerson motor in conjunction with a 9-ft. Paragon propeller. Mea magneto and Hopkins electric tachometer..

Running the big Emerson six in the Rex Smith machine proved quite an attraction, as it nearly blew everything out of the building and people were forced to stand in front of the machine to get out of the dust. As the hall is cement floor and steel construction, there has been no objection to running around with autos or running aero motors.

Only two makes of motors were shown, the Fox de luxe and the Emerson, both of which attracted considerable notice.

The Selby Co., the local agents for the Fox motor in Washington, D. O, exhibited several sizes of Fox motors, comprising the 2-cycle, 30-h.p. aero motor, weighing 130 lbs.; the 2-cycle, S0-h.p., weighing 250 lbs., and two sizes of marine motors. Mr. Selby reports the sale of a ♦> cylinder, I9li, p., aero motor to A. K. Bar-nett, of Providence, R. 1., to be used in a Farman type biplane.

Two aero motors were shown by the Emerson Engine Co., of Alexandria, Va., ton li. p. and 70 h.p. The 100 h.p. weighs 300 lbs., and the 70 h.p., 196 lbs. These motors are 2-cycle, 5-in. x 5-in., and are 6 and 4 cylinders, respectively.

The model booths were quite an attraction and it was deemed quite commonplace to see a man or woman make a quick duck to escape figuring in an aeroplane accident at the hands of some enthusiastic juvenile aviator.

The Mineola Aero Specialty Co. had their Curtiss type. This is a beautiful machine with oxidized metal fittings and neat double-surfaced planes. The Aeronautical Reserve recruiting tent came next, with the Paragon exhibit beyond.

The American Propeller Co. had an even more impressive display of Paragon propellers than was shown at Boston. Of special interest was a 3-blade Paragon of original structural design for which great strength is claimed.

The motor truck show attracted equally as much attention as the aeroplanes, and a varied, up-to-date assortment was shown by the leading motor truck firms.

Financially the show was not as successful as was anticipated, but a fair attendance attested to the interest in aeronautics of the Washington populace and their visiting friends.

Spectators at the Boston-Harvard meet will be interested to learn that Prof. Jimmy V. Martin, formerly of the Harvard Aeronautical Societv, has secured his pilot license at the C. G. White school in England, Hying a Far-man. The perfectly good Roe triplane, purchased by the Harvard Society and heretofore apparently beneath the professor's notice, may now receive even more consideration than was bestowed upon the "Harvard 1," alias "the groundhog." All this by way of airyness.

Three senior University of Minnesota men are working on a monoplane which is under construction in the mechanical engineering building at Minneapolis.

W. S. Romme, who has been building a unique monoplane during the winter and gave

it some initial trials at Belmont Park on the snow with a small motor, has removed it to San Antonio, Tex. He is a member of the Aeronautical Society and his first small model attracted great attention by its stable and slow flying at the Automobile Club. The model was nicknamed the "Merry Widow," for it resembled greatly the hat of that name. Imagine a shallow pan with the bottom knocked out. put a propeller on one side and a rudder at the other, running gear—and there you are!

Experience costs a heap more than book learning, but it sticks in the head longer.

Some men lly high for years and now an old busted glider makes them Gun-Shy.

—Automobile Training School.

WASHINGTON AEROPLANE SHOW

By W. Wilson Southard and Antony Jannus.

J. C. Mars Flying" in Honolulu.

MEXICO CITY, Feb. 23-Mareh 8.—The Moisant Internationa] Aviators gave a very successful series of flights. The army was very much interested and March 3d was devoted to the use of the aeroplane in connection with army maneuvers, a sham battle being one of the attractions offered.

On the opening day, Simon flew for half an hour at an altitude of 3,000 feet above the field. Garros, the same afternoon, flew around Chapultepee Castle, remaining in the air 4S minutes and reaching an altitude of 4,000 feet above the field. Barrier flew 25 miles across country around a point 12% miles from the starting line. Alberto Braniff, the son of a banker, who has been making short flights in a Farman for the past two years in Mexico City, also flew during the visit of the Moisant aviators. The Demoiselles were not able to do much in the way of flights at the high altitude. The silver trophy, offered by the Mexican "Herald," was given to Garros for his flight of March 2, when he attained an altitude of 4,S79 feet above the aviation field.

HIGHEST ALTITUDE EVER REACHED BY AEROPLAXE.

Adding this to the altitude of the aviation field, 7,861 feet, makes the height reached above sea level 12,740 feet, which is the highest point yet reached by an aeroplane. The measurement of the altitude was made by a barograph. This is unofficial, but the figures are those sent to New York by A. J. Moisant. These are being verified.

Braniff was able during the meet to fly 6 kilometers from aviation field when he was forced to alight and was unable to return. On this occasion he had with him as passenger Capt. Salvador Vravo, an army officer. joe Seymour is flying with the Moisant aviators now, and Frisbie, who could not fly at this altitude, sent up a chain of man-lifting kites.

E. L. RAMSEY.

MONTEREY, Mexico, Feb. 20-21.—The first flights in this city were made by the Moisant aviators, Simon, Garros, Frisbie and Barrier.

A. .1. Moisant keeps up a most creditable system of records of all flights made by his aviators. Adding up the flights made at Mexico City, the total Is more than 9 hours.

PL PASO, Tex., Feb. 10-15.—Two days- high winds prevented flying by the Moisant Inter-

national Aviators. Good flying was done by Garros, Hamilton, Simon, Barrier. Frisbie failed to get off and Audemars smashed his Demoiselle. On the 14th, Simon flew for 29 minutes across the border to Juarez and back over the battle lines of the Federal and Insurgent armies. He was closely followed by Hamilton in his Curtiss-copy biplane, in a flight of 21 minutes.

VERA CRUZ, Mexico, March 11-13.—It has been impossible to obtain reports in time for this issue. From here the Moisant aviators go to Havana, March 18-26, following which is a tour of four weeks in Cuba.

TAMPA, Fla., Feb. 19-March 1.—McCurdy and Beachey gave exhibition flights at the Census Celebration. Several flights were made by Beachey at night with the aid of searchlights and bonfires, and on one occasion he carried an acetylene light on the biplane itself. Beachey also flew over the city.

ORLANDO, Fla., March 2.—Beachey flew.

OCALA, Fla., March 4.—Beachey made flights.

RECEIVES WIRELESS MESSAGES.

PALM" BEACH, Fla., Feb. 24-March 6.—J. A. 1). McCurdy devoted a week of flying for the enjoyment of Palm Beach's fashionable guests. Several flights were made over the pier and the hotels. Percy G. B. Morriss, a Marconi engineer, made a flight with McCurdy and was able to receive messages from Key West and from a steamer off the coast. This is the first time that wireless messages have been received on an aeroplane, in this country at least. William F. Whitehouse was a passenger on one occasion and Capt. Hugh L. Willoughby, who has his winter home at Sewalls Point, was present.

WILMINGTON, N. G, March 9-11.—McCurdy and Beachey gave exhibition, Beachey flying over the city.

FLORENCE, S. C, March 16—Beachey flew.

CUBAN TOUR—After the close of the Havana meet by Curtiss aviators, McCurdy (lew one day at Colon before leaving for Florida. Ward then made a tour of several Cuban towns, Oienfuegos, Caibarien, Santa Clara. Santiago, Oaimanera, Chaparra, Camagua, closing March 22 at Manzanillo. As Oaimanera is near Guanlanamo, where the American fleet is stationed, Ward flew for the benefit of the sailors at the latter place.

ACCIDENT AT SHOW.

VALDOSTA, Ga., March 2-4.—William Mattery, a former airship showman, attempted to give exhibition flights here. On the first dav he was able to fly his biplane but 100 yards, and on the second day the wind caught him and the machine was wrecked and Mattery went to the hospital. Joe Downey, in a Bleriot, with Anzani motor, did not do as well as the biplane. Ray Harroun was also there with his new monoplane.

AVIATOR PAINE INJURED.

BRIDGEPORT, Ct., March 3.—Frank Paine, a Bridgeport man, fell in his Curtiss-copy biplane and was sent to the hospital.

After learning to fly- at Mineola, with an Elbridge engine which he hired from "Pete" McLaughlin, a local hotel keeper, in whose charge the engine had been left, Paine went to Bridgeport to show his fellow citizens how it was done. The city granted the use of the Seaside Park and a purse was raised for the "made-in-Bridgeport" aeroplane. He had been there a week or more trying to get off the safe turf, in which the wheels sank heavily. On one occasion he did get off, but hit a tree.

An experienced aviator would not think of trying a flight in the space this young hopeful selected, nor would he start till his engine was right. Little items like this did not bother Paine. He did not take the trouble to clean a missing plug. The crowd assembled laughed at his efforts, which might have been crowned with success through his sheer foolhardiness had he used enough judgment to get his engine hitting all around.

And now he's in the hospital. This is a shining example of the beginner who cannot wait to become proficient before beginning sensational flights, as he was promising to fly across Bridgeport liarbor.

LOGAN. Utah, Feb. 27.—Clarence Walker, with his true Curtiss, was forced down by the wind, damaging his machine, in an exhibition flight which covered but a few feet.

BATON ROUGE, La., March 5.—William G. Purvis, of Chicago, unknown to aero fame, after making one successful flight, caught his wheels in a wire fence and was injured. It looks like another example of the inexperienced attempting exhibitions.

SALT LAKE C1TV, Utah, Feb. 10-16.—Wil-lard, Ely and Walker, all Curtiss flyers, made

flights, despite exceedingly windy weather and snow flurries. Salt Lake City is 4.000 feet above sea level, but no trouble was had in flying, except by Clarence Walker, a local aviator, who recently bought one of the 25-h.p. Curtiss machines and learned to fly in California.

Wind blew a hurricane on the 10th. Postponed till Sunday, the 11th. Sunday tire attendance was 8,000; weather was cold, and tho'se attending were rewarded with good flights. Ely flying out to the Great Salt Lake, YVillard flying closer with curves and glides. Lack of wind prevented Perkins flying his kites. Total time in air for Ely and Willard, 30 minutes.

Snow storin Monday, no flights. Tuesday, postponed. Wednesday, good flights by Willard and Ely, Ely flying through snow flurry north of aviation field. Walker got off ground for a few yards the first two attempts. The third attempt flew for y2 mile, turned, but was forced to land after turn. This, I believe, is a record for a 25-h. p. engine at this altitude.

Attendance about 3,000 Thursday. Ely flew but a short distance when he had to descend, running into a post and breaking front elevator. Willard remained in air 4 7 minutes, giving the best flight of meet, with spectators fully satisfied.

The weather was so cold the oil froze in the sights and actually broke the glass on Wil-lard's machine. The oil had to be thawed out before starting.

On this, the last day, Clarence Walker flew for about V2 mile, but was forced to descend for lack of power. Mr. Walker will remain here for a while, and is now trying an Elbridge 40-60 and has purchased a Curtiss 8-cvlinder engine. J. M. THOMAS.

MANILA, P. I., Feb. 21.—Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, .1. C. Mars and Tod Shriver arrived in Yokohama on .lanuary 21 on an aeroplane exhibition tour of the world. This is the first time that Capt. Baldwin has been in Japan since 1SS9, when he was there making parachute drops. After giving flights at Yokohama they went to Manila, where they flew on February 21. The tour has covered thus far flights in Honolulu and places in China.

On March 12 Mars and Baldwin flew at Osaka, Japan, in the presence of members of the imperial family and representatives of the government.

ASCENSIONS

CONTEST OVER LAHM CUP.

SAN ANTONIO, Tex., Feb. 24.— W. F. Ass-mann and J. M. O'Reilly, in an 80,000-ft. Honeywell balloon, "Miss Sophia," left San Antonio at 6:17 p. m. in an effort to break the 1.17 2-mile U. S. distance record made in the last Gordon Bennett by Hawley and Post, and win the Lalim cup. landing the next evening at 5:15 p. m. at Gowers, Mo., a distance of 732 miles, as measured by Mr. Williams Welch of the U. S. Signal Corps office.

This beats the distance made by Forbes and Fleischman, the second holders of the cup.

Entry was duly made by Assmann for the trial, but the Aero Club claims that the present holder is Alan R. Hawley, who competed for it at the same time he competed for the Gordon Bennett.

It is claimed by St. Louis aeronauts that there is an unwritten rule that competitors in the international event should not at the same time compete for the Lahm cup.

There is nothing in the Lahm cup rules to prevent competing for both at the same time.

It is a fact, however, if memory serves well, that it was announced by the Contest Committee of the A. C. A., just previous to the 1907 Gordon Bennett, that entrants could not com-

pete for both: and Chandler and McCoy made a special ascent previous to the international event for the Lahm cup and won it. as noted below. At any rate, Chandler and McCoy retained the cup, though their distance was beaten by all the American balloons in the Gordon Bennett. If the Lahm cup could have been competed for simultaneously, it is most likely that someone would have entered for it.

WINNERS OF THE LAHM CUP.

Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler and J. C. McCoy, in Signal Corps balloon No. 10, St. Louis. Mo., to Walton. W. Va., Oct. 17-18. 1907, 475 miles, duration 20 hrs. 15 min.

A. H. Forbes and Max C. Fleischman in the "Conqueror," a Baldwin balloon, St. Louis, Mo., to near Richmond, Ya., Oct. 12, 1909. 697 miles in 19 hrs. 15 min.

Alan 11. Hawley and Augustus Post, in "America II," a French balloon sold through Stevens to J. C. McCoy, St. Louis to near Lake St. John, Que., Oct. 17-19, 1910, 1.172.9 miles, winning at the same time the Gordon Bennett cup and prize.

Ogdensburg, N. Y., Feb. 20, Mr. and Mrs. Barlatier in the "Lapresse," landing at Sum-merstown, Ont., in the attempt to reach Montreal.

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MANY SHOWS MENACE AERONAUTIC INDUSTRY

TRADE BODY NEEDED.

AT the present stage of the aeronautic industry not more than one show a year can be supported by manufacturers of aeroplanes, motors and accessories. In the highly developed automobile industry, at the present time, there are but three shows recognized by the national body of manufacturers,—New York, Boston and Chicago. Local dealers in their own cities have shows, of course, at their own expense, and do not draw at all on the manufacturers at large.

The automobile industry considers shows in excess of the above number too great a burden. The national association safeguards its members against unnecessary expense of this kind, and against waste of time and money which should be employed for the legitimate upbuilding of business.

The aero manufacturers have already complained of the drain upon their meagre resources caused by the shows which have been held within a year—Boston, New York, St. Louis, Philadelphia, San Francisco and Washington.

Not a single one of these shows has been anything like complete.

Chicago has had the foresight to profit at St. Louis' expense and is holding no show.

These indoor exhibitions, perhaps, do stimulate a little interest on the part of the public —but no maker can say that he made sales

at these shows which he would not have made without them. Those we have asked report the shows to be non-productive when the expense is considered.

It is hut natural that various clubs want to have shows held in their cities—and the desire is laudable but for the mistake in policy.

Why not profit by the experience of automobile and allied manufacturers? At least, limit the national shows to, say, Xew York, Chicago and San Francisco or Los Angeles.

And then, too, have the local club or clubs conduct these three exhibitions in the absence of a local trade organization. At any rate, it must be insisted upon that any show held be under such auspices as are financially responsible for all indebtedness.

NATIONAL TRADE BODY.

No national control of shows can be had until there is an organization of manufacturers. Now is none too early to begin the formation of a national trade body, "free and independent."

A national body could grant a sanction to a club or individual to hold a show, upon such conditions as will insure its success from the exhibitors' point of view, upon terms which will guarantee the absence of a trail of creditors. There will not be the spectacle of a show "under the auspices" of some local club with the club getting out from under when pay time comes.

On the'other hand, national support would do much to guarantee the manager or promoter of the show from loss. Each individual member of the body should agree to exhibit. This would result in a truly representative exhibition. A large part of tne expense would he covered before the doors opened by the sale of floor space. This would mean an exhibition worth the name.

It would be desirable that the national body of makers participate in the net profits, divided on the basis of floor space bought.

The membership in this national body should be limited to bona fide makers, jobbers and dealers. The questionable concern should be left on the outside. The purveyor of misrepresentations and the out-and-out fake would be put beyond the pale.

This national organization would benefit the reputable member, reassure the public, and eliminate the undesirable. A returning visitor to that dear France says: x'nere are legions of blackguards in France. There they do give something (for the money) but in America—no." How true this is, none but those who have been bitten can say—and they won't.

PLAN UNDER WAY.

With this idea in mind, AERONAUTICS has been instrumental in arousing interest among several members of the trade and a movement for an organization of a national character along lines which will benefit and protect the legitimate trade has already been started.

Before the next issue, which will contain full details of the plan, those interested will materially assist by communicating with AERONAUTICS, at 250 West 54th St., Xew York.

BANQUET OF NEW ENGLAND CLUB.

The Aero Club of New England held its first dinner of the year on February 25 at the Boston City Club, Boston. There was a large attendance of its members and many invited guests, among whom were E. If. Dandurand, Acting Mayor of Montreal and a great enthusiast in aerial navigation. lie extended a cordial invitation to the members to visit his home city during this summer. Augustus Post related his interesting experiences in the Canadian wilderness during the last International balloon race. He was given a great ovation by the members of the club. Eugene Tane, the editor of "La Patrie," was also present and donated to the club a handsome trophy, the same to be awarded to the pilot of a spherical balloon who lands nearest to the city of Montreal. Greeley S. Curtis and W. -Starling Burgess made many interesting predictions regarding the development of aeroplanes.

Among the other guests of the club were representatives from all the college aero clubs in New England, Dartmouth College being represented by John W. Peason, Brown by Prof. .1. Ansel Brooks, Yale by Edward B. Hine and Williams by H. P. Shearman.

Manv interesting speeches were made also by Leo Stevens. Charles J. Glidden. H. H. Clayton, president of the club, and by William II. Hilliard.

The club is in a most flourishing.condition, with a large waiting list. The officers of the organization are: 11. Helm Clayton, President; Nathan L. Amster, First Yice-President: J. Walter Flagg, Second Vice-President: Harry G. Pollard, Treasurer; Alfred It. Shrigley, Secretary.

MEMBERS CAN LEARN TO FLY.

The committee on contests of the A. C. of New England is announcing flight lessons may be taken at the Squantum field on Burgess-Curtis machines at $500 for 20 lessons.

The balloon season will open at Lowell about April 25. Five trophies have been offered through the club as follows: To the member making the greatest number of flights; member making the longest flight in a balloon not exceeding 40,000 cubic feet capacity; member maintaining the longest equilibrium in a balloon; member making the greatest number of landings in the Province of Quebec; member landing in Canada nearest to the city of Montreal.

All to be completed for during the year 1911. These trophies may lie competed for by any college aero club in the New England States.

ALFRED R. SHRIGLEY.

The Texas Junior Aeronautical Association

has been formed at Fort Worth. Tex., with Hugh Dumas, president; Walter Truax, vice-president, and Robert E. Abey, secretary-treasurer.

BANQUET OF NORTH ADAMS CLUB.

The North Adams Aero Club had an enthusiastic banquet on March 10, attended by 30 members, all of whom have made balloon ascents. There were visitors from out of town, among whom were Wilbur R. Kimball, A. Leo Stevens, of New York; W. IT. Richardson, of Brattle-boro, Yt.; II. P. Shearman, of Williams College, and others. It was decided at the banquet to organize a national organization composed only of men who have been in the air. The decorations included the Bishop Oup. awarded Leo Stevens for the longest ascent made from New England, and small balloons labeled "Conqueror," "All America." "Cleveland," etc., to show the number of different balloons which have made ascents from North Adams.

An arrangement has been made between the North Adams and the Pittsfield clubs so that ascents may be made from either place on short notice. W. R. KIMBALL.

The Aero Club of Mexico was formed in Mexico City during the aviation meet by prominent capitalists, with Gen. Porfirio Diaz honorary president; honorary vice-president. Gen. Gonzalez Cosio, Minister of War; Alberto Braniff, president; Fernando Teresa, first vice-president; Ignacio de la Torre, second vice-president; Alyrtill Schwartz, secretary; Edmundo Schwob, sub-secretary; Manuel Buch, treasurer, and the following vocales: Tomas Braniff, Garcia M. Tornel, Juan de Lara, Carlos Muller, Enrique Fernandez Castellot, J. Lopez Negrete, Luis Reyes Spindola, Paul Hudson, Ernesto T. Si-mondetti, J. J. Mendez, H. G. Gerber and Miguel Lebrija.

The club will be composed of two kinds of members, proprietary and ordinary members. Membership of the first class will be limited to 50 and will cost $500 entrance fee. For ordinary membership $100 entrance fee will be charged and monthly dues to the amount of $15 per month. Applications for membership must be indorsed by two or more prominent citizens of the city and forwarded with the entrance fee to the secretary, at 6a. Calle del General Prim, No. 12S, Mexico, D. F.

E. L. RAMSEY.

The Milwaukee Aeronautic Club has been formed with Sherman Brown, manager Davidson Theatre, president. It is composed of about 60 of the representative citizens of that city. This is the second club in Milwaukee.

J. K. D.

The Rhode Island Aeronautical Society, Providence, R. 1., lias been formed by about 40 in the Engineering building of Brown University. The officers are: President, Prof. J. Ansel Brooks, of Brown University; secretary, John J. Long, an instructor in the engineering department of the college; treasurer, Victor W. Page, mechanical expert for the "New England Automobile Journal." Directors: the officers and Ernest B. Farnham, William J. Rice, Geo. W. Prowse and Ernest Whittaker.

It was voted after considerable discussion that the society should be independent of any other aeronautical organization and should be composed of men from all parts of the State who are interested in air navigation.

As soon as the Aero Club of America was spoken of someone suggested that that was mainly a sporting organization, and that it would be expensive to join it. "I think an independent organization would be far more beneficial to us." JOHN J. LONG. FIRST BANQUET, CONNECTICUT CLUB.

The Aero Club of Connecticut's club book is now on the press. The list of members totals already 139. comprising the most representative men in Connecticut. Four members have bought Wright machines and one of these is now abroad acquiring knowledge of aviation. The first dinner of the club will be held at the Stratfleld Hotel, in Bridgeport, on April 20. As soon as the season is favorable, it is planned that every member shall actually get in the air, either in his own machine or as a passenger.

The Aero Club of America's annual banquet will lie held Wednesday. .March 29, at the St. Regis hotel:

AERONAUTIC SOCIETY'S MONUMENT AND M EDAL.

The Aeronautical Society's regular meeting hold February 23, adopted unanimously three

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important resolutions, moved by Thomas A. Hill: The Directors were authorized to prepare a gold medal for presentation for the most notable achievement in aeronautics. The second motion eulogized Mi-. Glenn H. Curtiss for his achievement with hydro-aeroplane by rising from and alighting on the water at San Diego, Cal., and putting him in the list for the Society Medal to be awarded for notable achievements in 1911. The third resolution authorized the appointment of a committee of notable citizens throughout the country to accept funds for a monument to be erected at Washington, D. C, to the notable martyrs in the conquest of the air. Lieut. Selfridge, Ralph Johnstone, J. D. Moisant and Arch Hoxsey, and to make this recognition a national movement of sympathy to appeal to all sections of the country to join in the movement.

Among the speakers of the evening Dr. Thaddeus P. Hyatt related "Aerial Reminiscences of the Art of Flight." His father offered in 1S57 $1,000 as a prize for any heavier than air machine that could stay off the ground for one minute. He built -various apparatus in the form of surfaces attached to his body on the style of Lilienthal but did not meet with the same degree of success.

Henry J. Winter described methods of making aeroplane accessories and detailed construction illustrated by samples of wooden struts and ribs, also steel sockets and other details in a very interesting manner after which there was a debate and discussion regarding experiences by different members.

At the meeting of the Aeronautical Society held March 9. Mr. George R Gifford, one of the chemists of the Standard Oil Company, gave a most enlightening address on gasoline and lubricating oils, beginning with the early stages of the oil industry thirty years ago and referring1 to to the difference in quality of the crude oil in the various fields of Pennsylvania, Texas, Oklahoma. California and Borneo. The particularly useful information imparted was how to select proper gasoline and lubricating oils, or rather how to make sure that suitable materials were obtained for internal combustion motors. As for gasoline, the

specific gravity is immaterial while the flash point should be at 125 deg. and if a little is poured in a saucer it should burn up without residue. This would insure determination whether the gasoline was adulterated or not. As for lubricating oils, the lighter coloied oils, not too heavy, are the best because they would not clog up or produce carbon from the heat in the cylinders and valves. The flash point should be about 400.

Mr. George Bradt, the treasurer of the Society, addressed the meeting about motors in general and gave useful suggestions how to select a motor based on a long experience with automobiles and the constructions that do give the best results. Dual systems of lubrication and ignition were recommended and the positioning of the carburetor close to the manifold so as to maintain heat to some extent and assist in vaporizing the mixture.

The Club Rooms Committee reported on several new rooms which were discussed but not decided upon and a new committee was appointed to consider plans for providing a work shop for experimental work.

The Minneapolis Junior Aero Club has been formed in Minneapolis. Minn., by seven boys for the purpose of gaining knowledge and experimenting with small models. Merrill W. Seymour is president, Stillman C. Chase, secretary and Maurice Conn, treasurer. Mr. Chase's address is 3047 Fifth Avenue South.

The Aeronautic League of New Jersey at its next four meetings will hold discussions on the subject of "Ignition for Gas Engines." Correspondence and catalogues from manufacturers of any appliances relating to the above subject is solicited.

The League is further contemplating an open air model contest to be held during May or June at its aviation field at the Guttenberg Race Track. All correspondence for the League is to be addressed to William A. Kraus, Aeronautic League of Xew Jersey, 116 Third Street, Union Hill, X. J.

THE MISSOURI SIGNAL CORPS IN AERONAUTICS

By Andrew Drew.

THE Signal Corps of the Xational Guard of Missouri, which was the first of the American militia organizations to take up aeronautics, has ambitious plans for the coming season. Two aviators, Thomas Benoist and 11. F. Kearney, have been enrolled as members of the corps and have sent their machines to Kinloch Field, near St. Louis, where the Aero Club of St. Louis has allotted space for the work of the Signal Corps men. The two aviators will teach the other members of the Corps to fly and the plan is to have each of the thirty men the holders of aeroplane pilot licenses within the year.

officials of the War Department have expressed themselves as favoring the equipment of militia corps which have become inter-tested in aviation with aeroplanes. First Lieutenant John P. Hart, commanding officer of the Aero Wireless Company Signal Corps, X. G. M., says that correspondence with army officials has given him good reason to believe that the war department is already making plans along this line.

The members of the Signal Corps of Missouri expect to be the first to receive whatever the government gives in the way of aeronautic equipment. They base their expectations on the fact that the corps was the first in the field and also because of the aeronautic work members of the corps have already done. For this reason the history of the corps is interesting.

The idea of the Signal Corps of Missouri devoting itself to aeronautics was conceived as long ago as 1907 when the International Balloon Race was held from St. Louis. Col. Roosevelt, at that time President, had given instructions that the balloons should be sent away by the U. S. Army Sisrnal Corps, assisted by a regiment of regulars from Jefferson Barracks.

Lieutenant Hart at that time was in charge of one of the squads and became enthusiastic over the idea that a military corps could do much more satisfactory work in balloon races than any civilian squad. The following year Adjutant General Rumbold of Missouri officially instructed the formation of an aeronautic squad in the Signal Corps.

This squad had charge of the field at the first aeroplane meet held in this country in St. Louis, October, 1909, and of the balloon race held the same month from the same city. The work of the Signal Corps men was so satisfactory that the Aero Club of St. Louis sent several of the corps on balloon trips and the pilots of the Club instructed the corps in the science of navigating the air.

During the following winter the Corps devoted itself to the study of aeronautic principles and also to preparation for handling the great 1910 International and the aeroplane exhibitions in St. Louis. It was during these exhibitions and at the race that the work

of the corns began attracting attention throughout the country.

Among other things the corps was drilled in what to do in case of an accident. On the lhird day of the exhibitions at Kinloch Field the unfortunate Johnstone, who was afterwards killed at Denver, slipped on a spiral and his machine struck the ground, and crumpled up like an envelope.

The Signal Corps men had been told that in the event an aviator is not killed by his fall he may be killed by fire or by the engine crushing him. So the members of the Corps raced across the field, half of them formed a line around the wreckage to keep away anyone with a cigarette or cigar, and the rest lifted the engine, which was sagging over the aviator, and pulled Johnstone out. The officials of the meet said that it was the best organized bit of rescue work they had ever witnessed.

It was during this meet that Col. Roosevelt made his historic ride with Hoxsey. Be-

fore the flight the Colonel, who, being a great military enthusiast, had become much interested in the work of the Signal Corps, said that he would go up as a representative of the Corps.

So after his landing Lieutenant Hart, in order to return the compliment, ascended with Walter Brookins and made the first military reconnoitre in America from an aeroplane. He ascended to a height of 3,000 feet, passed over the Missouri River, flew over the Florissant Valley, taking military sketches, which, on his return to the field, he presented to the delighted Rough Rider with military formality.

Other members of the Corns were also taken up by the Wright aviators to throw bombs at a mimic battleship and a telephone, wire laid in rapid, order a mile across the field by the Signal Corps men enabled the officials of the meet to get the correct time of the great speed test of Leblanc when he traveled at the rate of G7 miles an hour.

HOW TO BUILD A CURTISS-TYPE BIPLANE

By G. H. Godley

(Continued from March number)

THE USE OF TUBING.

For working the tubing into shape a plumber's blow-torch is almost indispensable. Many automobilists will already possess one of these. The fiat oval variety, holding one pint of gasoline, is convenient because it packs away easily, but on steady work needs to be refilled rather too frequently. With a dozen bricks a shield can be built in front of the torch to protect it from drafts and concentrate the heat.

Wherever it is to be flattened and bent the tubing should be brought to a bright red or yellow heat. Screwing the vise down on it will then flatten it quickly and without hammer-marks. Where the bend is to be in the middle of the piece it may be necessary to use hammer and anvil.

It is convenient to start with the framework under the rear beam. This may be < drawn ■ accurately, full size, on the workshop Hoor, and the tubes bent to fit the drawing. With this frame-work once in place one has ; a definite starting point for the rest of the : running gear. Here, and in all other places when bolting through wood, the holes should ' be drilled out full, and large washers should be 1 placed under bolt-head and nut. All nuts should have some sort of a locking device. < The perspective drawing herewith should show i the general arrangement clearly enough to : enable the builder to finish the running gear. < In the next article the outriggers and controls will be discussed.

Both the front and rear control members ! or "outriggers." as they are usually called. j may conveniently be built up on the central ! section of the main frame, which, it is assumed, has been fitted with the running gear ' described. The horizontal rudder, or "elevator," is a biplane structure like the main frame of ' the machine, but with fewer struts; it is ' carried in front of the main planes on two A-shaped frames. The vertical rudder, at the ! rear, is split along the middle and straddles a ! fixed horizontal plane or "tail." This also is carried on two A-shaped frames. Lateral 1 stability is controlled by two auxiliary planes 1 or "ailerons," one at each side of the machine. ] and carried on the two outer front struts of i each side. These three control units—elevator. ! tail and rudder, and ailerons—will now be i taken up separately, and their construction. : location on the machine, and operation will s be described. <

11(1

THE HORIZONTAL RUDDER OR ELEVATOR

The two planes of the elevator are each 2 feet wide by 5 feet 8 inches long, and are spaced 2 feet apart, being held in this position by ten struts. The frames of the planes are built of spruce sticks by 1 inch, each plane having two sticks the full length and five evenly spaced cross-pieces or ribs. These are joined together with squares of "X" sheet tin, as shown in the detail sheet drawing. With a little experimenting, paper patterns can be made, from which the tin pieces can be cut out. The sticks are then nailed through the tin with %-inch brads.

It is convenient to draw the frames out accurately on a smooth wood floor, and then work over this drawing. The first few brads will hold the sticks in place. When all the brads have been driven in, a little drop of solder should be run in around the head of each one. This is a tedious job; one must be careful to use no more solder than necessary, as it increases the weight very rapidly. Two pounds of wire solder should be sufficient for all the control members which are built in this way. When the top side is soldered up, pry the frame loose from the door with a screw-driver and turn it over. Then the projecting points of the brads must be knocked over and the soldering repeated.

At this stage the two frames should be covered on both sides with the prepared cloth used for covering the main planes. For the sake of brevity, the cloth will be discussed elsewhere in this article.

The struts, so called to continue the analogy with the main planes, are turned sticks of spruce 36-inch in diameter. They are fitted at each end with ferrules of thin brass or steel tubing driven on tightly. Instead of using sockets, the struts are held at each end simply by a long wood screw driven through the tin and wood of the plane frame and into the strut. These screws also hold the lurnbuckles for the truss wires. For trussing purposes the elevator is regarded as consisting of two sections only, the intermediate struts being disregarded.

The turnbuckles and wire used here and in the other control members may well be of lighter stock than those used in the main planes. No. is piano wire or 1/lfi-ineh cable is amply strong; the sheet steel may be about 22 gauge instead of 10, and (he bicycle spokes smaller in proportion. No turnlrnckle plates are necessary; the screws running into the struts may be passed directly through the eyes of the turnbuckles. where they would

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Front Outriggers and Elevator, as Seen from the Driver's Seat.

have been attached to the turnbuckle plate. In order to secure a square and neat structure, those struts which have turnbuckles at their ends should be made a trifle shorter than the others.

At each end the elevator has an X-shaped frame of J/4-inch steel tubing; at the intersection of X's are the pivots on which the elevator is supported. Each X is made of two tubes bent into a V and flattened and brazed together at the points. The ends of the X's are flattened and bent over so that the screws which hold the struts in place may pass through them.

To the front middle strut is attached an extension which acts as a lever for operating the elevator. This is a stick of spruce %-inch in diameter and 3 feet 3 inches long; at its upper end it has a ferrule of steel tubing, flattened at the end. The lower part of the stick may be fastened to the strut by wrapping the two with friction tape or by improvising a couple of sheet-steel clamps. The upper end of the stick is braced by a 14-inch steel tube extending to the top of the rear middle strut, and held by the same screw as the strut.

This extension lever is connected to the steering column by a bamboo rod 1 inch in diameter and about 10 feet long, provided with flattened ferrules of steel tubing at each end. Each ferrule should be held on by a %-inch stove bolt passing through it.

FRONT AND REAR OUTRIGGER FRAMES.

Both the front elevator and the tail and rudder at the rear are carried, as mentioned above, each on a pair of A-shaped frames, similar to each other except that those in the rear are longer than those in the front. Both are made of spruce of about the same section as used for the struts of the main frame. These pieces may either be full length, or they may be jointed at the intersection of the cross-pieces, the ends being clamped in a sheet-steel sleeve just like that used on the beams of the main frame. In this case it is advisable to run a %-inch stove bolt through each of the ends.

The cross-pieces of the A-frames are spruce of the same section or a little smaller. At their ends may be used strut sockets like those of the main frame; or, if it is desired to save this expense, they may be fastened by strips of 1/16-inch steel stock with through bolts.

The front outrigger has, besides the two A-frames, a rather complicated arrangement of struts designed to brace the front wheel against the shocks of landing. This arrangement does not appear very plainly on a mechanical drawing, and may best be understood by reference to the photograph and the perspective drawing. This drawing is a view from the driver's seat; the elevator is seen in front the A-frames at each side, and at the bottom the two diagonal beams to the engine bed and the skid.

(To he continued)

Mertram George Cooper. Surbiton, England, 977,06S, Nov. 29, 1910. Filer! Jan. 30, 1909. I'ROPELLER FDR UPKRATLVG OX FLUIDS. Propeller and mechanism reciprocating and turning- movement changing the pitch to obtain a resistance or thrust at only one portion of a stroke.

Reuben R. Eubank, Jr., and Judson C. Eubank, of Kansas City, Mo., said Reuben R. Eubank, Jr., assignor to Mary E. Eubank, of Kansas Citv, Mo.. 977.517. Dec. fi, 1910. Filed Oct. 15, 190S. FLYIXG MACHINE. Helicopter combination, parachutes, and propellers.

Victor G. Gustafson, Joliet, 111., 977.523, Dec. G, 1910. Filed July 28, 1 909. AUTOMATIC BALANCING DEVICE. Liquid in vessel makes electrical contact when equilibrium is disturbed, operating controlling mechanism.

Augustus F. W. MacManus, San Antonio, Tex., 977,52S, Dec. 6, 1910. Filed Oct. 19, 1909. "AEROPLANE." A system of ailerons between main surfaces actuated by a combination of bell-crank and swinging levers, and cables attached to a steering column and pulley, and which also operate the elevator; means for flexing ailerons and elevator.

dihedral angle, long diamond-shaped surfaces in the direction of llight.

Roscoe C. Gore, Tecumseh, Neb., 979,286. Dec. 20, 1910. Filed Dec. 29, 1908. "AERIAL NAVIGATOR." A reciprocating movement is communicated to six vibrating wings.

Mortimer YV Sargeant, East Orange, N. J., 979,341, Dec. 20, 1910. Filed July 15, 1909. "FLYING MACHINE." Aeroplane, with part of center hollowed like a soup plate, with a propeller in a vertical plane at rear end of hollowed portion.

Fred Goehner, Buffalo, X. Y., 979,472, Dec. 27, 1910. Filed Sept. 27, 1 909. "FLYIXG MACHINE." Rotating wings or propeller blades I like the paddlewheels of a boat] reefing or folding a portion of each revolution.

Johannes Massohn, Hamburg, Germany, 979,979, Dec. 27, 1910. Filed Feb. 1, 1910. "AIRSHIP OF THE RIGID TYPE." Dirigible balloon of the rigid type construction, with engine and propeller raised to approximately centre of figure.

Paul Daniel, Perth Amboy, X. J., assignor to Adams C. King, Xew York, X. Y„ 980,073, Dec. 27, 1910. Filed April 12, 1910. "CON-

Reinhold Schmiechen, Ledyard, Iowa, 977,555, Dec. 0. 1910. Filed Aug. 12, 1909. "OCEAN AIRSHIP." Gas envelope of semi-circular cross-section inclosing series of cells; hinged head; gas-filled aeroplane projecting from under side; vertically lighting propellers.

Reinhold Schmiechen, Ledyard, Iowa, 977,556, Dec. 6, 1910. Filed "Sept. 1 3, 1909. "MEANS FOR MAINTAINING THE EQUILIBRIUM OF AIRSHIPS AND OTHER FLYING MACHINES." Equilibrium device for aeroplanes and dirigible baloons, utilizing the pendulum system for automatically adjusting stabilising mechanism.

Edward Bertholf, Watkins, N. Y., 977,997, Dec. 6. 1910. Filed July 6, 1909. "FLYING MACHINE." Helicopter with parachute attachment.

Horace G. Hill, Youngs, Miss.. 978,375, Dec. 13, 1910. Filed Aug. 13, 1 909. "FLYING .MACHINE." Helicopter with vertical and horizontal propeller, mounted on a frame carrying a movable sustaining surface for determining direction of flight.

William Wallace Gibson, Victoria, B. C, Canada, assignor of one-hall' to David W. Han-burv, Victoria, P.. C, Canada, 978,732,, Dec. 13, 1910. Filed March 11, 1910. "FLiING MA-CH1XE." Tandem monoplane, wings set at

TROLLING MEAXS FUR AEROPLANES." Aeroplane control by means of a single universal device. Claims cover vertical balancing planes above and below main planes, with means for operating them simultaneously in either the same or opposite directions: operating elevator and vertical rudder with same mechanism.

Carl lluber, Berlin, Germany, 980,267, Jan. 3. 1911. Filed Sept. 13, 1909. "b RAMEWORK STRUCTURE FOR BALLOONS." Framework consisting of a series of longitudinal girders, the whole built of corrugated or triangular sections to make a rigid structure.

Henrv J. Casanova, Chicago, 111., 980,189, Jan. 3, J 911. Filed Oct. 9, 1900. "FLYIXG MACHINE." Ornithopter with vibrating wings, furnished with valves or shutters, opening on the up stroke, propellers front and rear.

James M. Chritton, Rocky Ford, Col., 9S0.599. Jan. 3. 1911. .Filed Jan. 28, 1910. "AERODROME." Vibrating or Happing wing machine, designed to propel and both up and down stroke, tilting fore and aft to maintain equilibrium; combined with rear propeller.

William J. D. Bradford, Killeen, Tex., 980,753. Jan. 3, 1911. Filed Aug. 7, 1 909. "AIRSHIP." A number of cylindrical containers with means for maintaining equal pressure in

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ROPELLER

A "$15.00" Argument

In fairness I must acknowledge tlie makers of the Requa-Gibson Propeller. They know tlieir business. They taught me. That's why F know my business.

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MOTORS TESTED

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Any size—Any speed Reliable, conclusive and confidential reports.

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all. to be driven with propellers on the forward end.

Matthew Rozboril and Peter Bursky, Bing-hamton, N. Y., 9S0,S40, Jan. 3, 1911. Filed April 9, 1909. "AIRSHIP." Utilizes a gas envelope and flapping wings for sustaining weight and a propeller for driving. Exhaust gases fed into gas envelopes.

Thomas Fahey, Spokane, Wash., 980,935, Jan. 10, 1911. Filed June 29, 1910. "AERIAL PROPELLER." Provides a specially constructed propeller, capable of adjustment at any point from the horizontal to the perpendicular, or to a position anywhere within 90 degrees of a circle.

John W. Currell, Youngstown, Ohio, 9S1.06S. Jan. 10, 1911. Filed Pec. 2, 190S. "DIRIGIBLE AERIAL TORPEDO." Designed to be discharged from air craft, with means for steering the torpedo.

G. M. Fowler, San Francisco, Cal., 981,1 So, Jan. 10, 1911. Filed Nov. 3, 1909. "AERIAL APPARATUS." Closed body shown as cigar-shaped, two propellers at bow end, planes running lengthwise the body, but curved transversely and having flexible tips and automatic means for flexing, etc. Twenty-four claims in all.

Frederick Brackett, Washington, D. C, 981.367, Jan. 10, 1911. Filed Nov. 17, 1909. "AIR CRAFT." Gasless machine having the supporting surfaces composed of a plurality of hollow cones, point forward, with means for changing their position by turning on a pivotal bar.

Joseph A. Goodwin, Berkley, Ya., 981,410, Jan. 10, 1911. Filed March 25, 1910. "AEROPLANE." Covers an "improved arrangement of wings, framework and automatic balance." Flexible wing sections automatically controlled to maintain equilibrium.

F. Milligan, 981.714, Jan. 17, 1911. Filed Dec. 24. 1909. "AEROPLANE FLYING MACHINE." Folding wings for an aeroplane.

Edwin Lyman Madden, Ingersoll, Okla., 981,-7S8, Jan. 17. 1911. Filed Feb. 13, 1909. "AIRSHIP." Windmill wheels in a horizontal plane; also in vertical plane for forward uiree-tion; all arranged about a vertical mast, which latter is fitted with a parachute.

Robert A. Moore, Chicago, 111., 9S2.290, Jan. 24. 1911. Filed Jan. 5, 1910. "FLYING MACHINE." Monoplane with wings made of de-tachably connected triangular sections covered on both sides with fabric. Wings contain airtight compartments for holding of buoyant gas. The upper side of each wing is laterally convex, for the most part, turning up at the extremities.

Louis Valentin Feuillet, Paris, France, 982,356, Jan. 24, 1911. Filed Oct. IS. 1909. "DIRIGIBLE BALLOON." Cigar-shaped envelope with triangular cross-section keel, parachute fitted over central portion, enclosed car with searchlight, cannon, rudders at rear of keel, as well as car, propellers at rear of car on concentric, shaft.

C. L. Anway, Parsons, Kan., 9S2.561, Jan. 24, 1911. Filed Oct. 27, 1909. "AIRSHIP." Cigar-shaped, compartments for gas, hollow core through longitudinal center with propellers located in this air passage. Compartments in middle of the envelope or body for passengers and engines. Horizontal and vertical rudders and small planes on sides.

Melvin Vaniman, Gennevilliers, France, 982,647. Jan. 24, 1911. Filed Mav 3, 1909. "PROPELLING MECHANISM FOR AIRSHIPS." The single claim reads: "Mechanism for causing the elevation and depression of propelling screws for dirigible balloons and aeroplanes,

982,647.

M. VANIMAN. J-"^^^1

PROPELLING MECHANISM FOR AIRSHIPS. J j j

\r$£i/EL Gem 1

j a D/TTO £^ $EflrT CF15E

James M. Keller, Detroit. Mich., assignor to Keller Monoplane Airship Co., of Dallas, Tex., 981,655, Jan. 17, 1911. Filed Nov. 13, 1905. "AIRSHIP." Dirigible balloon with a parachute, which, normally, completely covers the upper half of the gas bag and extends horizontally all the way around at the meridian by means of a frame. A cord releases the retaining device and allows the parachute to fill out above the gas bag.

Walter A. Suman and George W. Reichard, Portland, Ind., assigners of one-third to Wm.

said mechanism comprising a tubular crank case having open ends, tubular members rota-tably mounted on the ends of the crank case and aligned therewith, a crank shaft extending longitudinally through the crank case and tubular members, a plurality of engine cylinders supported directly on the crank case, pistons operating them, pitmen connecting the pistons and cranks of the crank shaft, and propellers mounted on the ends of the tubular members and geared directly to the ends of the crank shaft."

The device is mounted on the car at right angles to the nedian plane of the balloon. A rotary movement is given the arms ' ee," which changes the plane of rotation of the propellers. Either arm may be operated independently or simultaneously in the same or opposite directions for the guidin<? of the airship in horizontal or vertical planes.

William S. Matthews, Big Stone Gap, Va., 982,653, Jan. 24, 1911. Filed Sept. 2, 1910. "TOY FLYIXG MACHINE."

Elisha I). Appley, Liberty, X. Y., 982,700, Jan. 24, 1911. Filed June 7, 1909. "FLYIXG MACHINE."

A. C. Ulmer, Pascagoula, Miss., 982,907, Jan. 31, 1911. Filed Sept. 14. 1910. "LIFE PRESERVER FOR AVIATORS." Parachute contained in a cap or other head covering, with belt and tshoulder straps around body of aviator.

Jerome Knowles, Newport Xews, Va., 9S3,-147, Jan. 31, 1911. Filed Aug. 10, 1910. "AERIAL TOY."

Samuel S. Yarrington, Wilmington, Del., 983,192, Jan. 31, I9II. Filed Jan. 14, 1910. "AEROPLANE." Combined aeroplane and helicopter.

983.243, Jan. 31, 1911. Filed March 23, 1910. "AIRSHIP." Combination monoplane and biplane, one main wing surface and two superposed wing surfaces. Planes and rudders arrow-shaped.

Cassius E. Lamburth, San Francisco, Cal.,

983.244, Jan. 31, 1911. Filed June 21, 1910. "AIRSHIP." Both of these too complicated to describe.

Robert G. Rettinger, Sunbury, Pa., assignor of one-half to William H. Greenough, 983,459, Feb. 7, 1911. Filed Feb. 7, 1910. "AIRSHIP." Combination of dirigible balloon and planes. Semi-circular plane on frame surrounding upper half of envelope.

Tgo Etrich, Vienna, Austria-Hungary, 9S3,-697. Feb. 7, 1911. Filed Aug. 12, 1910. "SUPPORTING SURFACE FOR FLYIXG MA-CIIIXES." In simple language, the patent is intended to cover the flattening of the curvature toward the lateral extremities of the wings, possibly flying with a slight negative pressure at the extremities, accompanied by a backward sweep, helping to maintain a straight course, accompanied by the familiar wing warping. The Etrich aeroplane has made many flights in Austria.

James Humphris, .Johannesburg, Transvaal, 983,233, Jan. 31, 1911. Filed Aug. 26, 1910. "AERIAL MACHINE." Propeller mounted on vertical shaft in combination with beating wings.

Cassius E. Lamburth, San Francisco, Cal.,

The central portion is, as usual, uniformly curved, which merges gradually into the rear approximately plane part of the end portions.

Fig. 4 shows one-half the supporting surface with the sections on the lines T, I; IT, 11; III, III; etc. Fig. 5 shows the sections on

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«• 441 -443 Golden Gate Av., San Francisco - -% We carry in stock—immediate delivery: 1

Motors from 20-50 II. P. up to 60 II. F.

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2 Biplanes (fine flyers) in good condition with power. Prices on application.

"Camasco" Knoek Down Planes from $150.00 up. Aero Wheels $4.50 up. Unbreakable $6.25.

Naiad Cloth and Requa-Gibson propellers in stock. Genuine, Imported, Farman turiibuckles and eye bolts.

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J in the past by being unable to ob* tain supplies for your aeroplane ?

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* Bleriot Type Turnbuckles, $ .45 -K 2, 3 or 4-way Terminals, each .10 -fc

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* 7 ft. Laminated Propellers, 50.00 *

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Suite 414-15. 225 Dearborn Street, CHICAGO, ILL.

NEW EDITION

Gas Engine Troubles and Installation

By J. B. RATHBUN, B.S.C. E.

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We furnish you this biplane in 28-foot size complete in every detail except the motor, in the knocked down style ready to assemble.

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2230-38 Cottage Grove Ave., Dept. C, Chicago, 111.

IT

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<lWe teach you to design, build and fly aeroplanes. Special course to out-of-town students. We need competent aviators in our exhibition department. Can place you with exhibitors and manufacturers. Write for booklet.

Chicago School of Aviation, (Dept. C) Chicago, III.

the lines a, a; b, b; c, c and d, d, of Fig. 4. Claim 1 reads:

"In a supporting surface for flying machines the combination of a central portion, the sections of which in planes parallel to the vertical plane of symmetry are concave downward throughout, the front edge of such central portion being at a higher level than its rear edge but at a lower level than the ridge line while the sections of such central portion in vertical planes perpendicular to the said plane of symmetry are substantially straight lines, and of end portions the sections of whicn in planes parallel to the vertical plane of symmetry of the supporting frame are substantially straight and horizontal in the extreme ends of the said end portions in substantially the level of the ridge line, while such sections nearer to the said central portion are concave downward in their front part and gradually mer»e into substantially straight and horizontal lines to the rear, the sections of the said end portions in vertical planes perpendicular to the vertical plane of symmetry of the supporting surface being convex downward rising from the central portion outward, substantially as and for the purpose described."

John W. L. Harrell and John Dailey, Argos, Ind., 9S3.707, Feb. 7, 1911. Filed July 30, 1909. "AEROPLANE." Combination of aeroplane and helicopter.

Frederic Mylius, Atlanta, Ga., 983,750, Feb. 7, 1911. Filed Sept. 2S, 1910. "AIRSHIP." Monoplane whose plane is concavo-convex in cross-sections, with inwardly extending flanges which overlap and make possible adjustment of curvature.

John E. Kaupke, New York, 9S3.S26. Feb. 7, 1911. Filed Aug. 27, 1910. "FLYING MACHINE."

William R. Bellville, Wyandotte, Mich., and Lloyd L. Bellville, Detroit, Mich., 983,SGS, Feb. 14, 1911. Filed Sept. 30, 1910. "AEROPLANE." Biplane wedge-shaped plan view, two propellers at rear, horizontal rudders in front.

Joseph B. Shainline, Norristown, Pa., 9S3,940, Feb. 14, 1911. Filed March 2S, 1910. "FLYING MACHINE." Patent relates to the provision of automatic stability by ailerons, operated by wires over a drum; the drum being fitted with a gear which intermeshes with continuously turning pinions, either when a pendulum brings one or the other of the pinions into contact with the gear, or caused

manually. The pinions are constantly in motion through a flexible shaft driven from the motor.

The operation is as follows: When the machine tilts to one side, the movement of pendulum 25 at an angle to its normal position, through the medium of link 24, crank arm 23, shaft 22, and frame 21, moves one of the pinions 27 into mesh- with gear 16, to turn drum 15, as the pinions 27 are being continu-

ously turned by shaft 2S, the pinion 27, gear 16 and drum 15, will move wires 17 and 19, to change the angles of planes 10 and 11, and compel the machine to automatically right itself. The direction of movement of the planes depends on which pinion 27 is moved into mesh with gear 16, and this is controlled automatically by pendulum 25.

Joseph E. Cooper, Cripple Creek, Col., 9S4,-076, Feb. 14, 1911. Filed April 7, 1910. "MILITARY AIRSHIP." Dirigible balloon with gas compartments in envelope, propellers inside open-ended tubes mounted on each side of cabin at rear of gas vessel; propellers on each side to rotate in opposite directions.

James Means, Boston, Mass., 984,147, Feb. 14, 1911. Filed April 6, 1910. "AERIAL NAVIGATION." System for turning in a substantially horizontal plane a machine to port or starboard in a "more positive and more effective" manner than by the usual vertical rudder. The drawing shows one method which might be used. Any shape of braking device or control thereof might be used.

The one claim reads as follows:

7^

-2£A Mecr>o* of futt/r^

/PVfrl 5Tf£fc 1NG DEUCE

<)S 1,1 1.7.

JAMES MEANS,

"In a flying machine, a pair of normally inoperative brakes or speed-retarding devices arranged symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal axis of the machine, said devices each comprising a stationary rod, a barrel surrounding said rod and movable thereon, a fabric-covered framework, and ribs connecting said framework to said barrel; a lever under the control of the operator, and cords connecting said barrels respectively with said lever, whereby the operator may bring either member of said pair into operative or braking position."

John Anderson, West Mount Vernon, Me., 9S4.255, Feb. 14, 1911. Filed Dec. 31, 1909. "FLYING MACHINE." Aeroplane in general aspect of a bird. Claims cover ribs of wings, extending laterally from the body, horizontal rudder capable of being flexed, a longitudinal beam connecting the ribs and braces and means for tilting the wings in unison for the purpose of steering right and left.

Adelard J. Beauregard, Woonsocket, R. 1., 984,258, Feb. 14, 1911. Filed Sept. 30, 1910. "FLYING MACHINE." Combination of beating wings with valves therein, horizontal and vertical propellers.

Albert H. Friedel, Baltimore, Md., 9S4.269, Feb. 14, 1911. Filed Oct. 13, 190S. "FLYING MACHINE." Claims cover the use of multiple screws in a horizontal plane driven by compressed air through tubes. Gravity controlled valves for automatic control of power transmitted to each individual screw, etc. Helicopter type.

63

Test of the Roberts Aeronautical Motor.

The first of the new "Roberts aeronautical motors was given a test at the factory in Sandusky, Ohio, on March 7. Flying conditions were similated as much as possible by mounting the motor on a special testing stand with a rolling frame carrying the motor. A spring was employed to get the thrust and a standard tachometer, carefully calibrated, gave the speed in r.p.m. An automobile radiator with 102 sq. ft. of cooling surface was placed in the path of the air current from the propeller, and the gasoline tank was placed at one side to be out of the way of the air stream.

After three short preliminary runs of about 20 minutes each, the motor was started on an endurance test. Home warming of the bearing nearest the propeller showed during the first test run, but this soon disappeared, and during the endurance test of 5 hours' duration neither the bearings of the cylinders warmed perceptibly. The radiator at no time was so warm that the bare hand could not be held against it without discomfort. The run was stopped because it was necessary to ship the motor without further delay to the' Brooks Aeroplane Co., of Saginaw, Mich. So far as the performance of the motor was concerned and its condition after the test, it showed that the run could have been continued for many times 5 hours.

The motor starts very easily and shows no tendency to kick back, because the spark advance is secured by sliding a spiral drive gear instead of rocking the circuit breaker. In this way the maximum density of the spark is secured at any advance. The mechanism for sliding the magneto drive gear consists of a nut and worm, which is irreversible, and a light touch of the finger suffices to advance the maaneto.

The crankshaft is very large, 2 V2 in. in diameter, and the bearings very long. The bearing nearest the propeller is 6% in. long. The entire length of the shaft is 40 in. The weight of the shaft with the stop plugs is 1SU" lbs. The weight of the finished forging is 17% lbs. It is interesting to note that the weight of the rough-turned forging for this shaft is over 80 lbs.

The Roberts Motor Company has produced a new light alloy suitable for cylinders, which is claimed to give results fully equal to cast iron and weighs no more than aluminum, although' very dense and strong. The cylinders are waterjacketed all about the exhaust ports and quite a distance below these ports. This prevents cylinder distortion and overheating. Backfiring is overcome by the "cellular bypass" used on the Roberts marine motors for the past three years.

The distributing valve on the side of the crankcase is one secret of the great power of the motor, and explains the great power of the motor, which showed 312 lbs. thrust at 700 r.p.m. and 400 lbs. at 900 r.p.m. on a Paragon propeller 8 ft. diameter by 5 ft. pitch.

It is a tribute to the excellence of the design and workmanship to find that the motor was rushed through the factory, put at once on the endurance run and accepted by an exacting customer without a single alteration being made in any part.

The aeronautical engineer of the Brooks Aeroplane Co., E. R. Armstrong, is well known in St. Louis aviation circles and was engaged bv this concern to design aeroplanes on tiie well-known Brooks 'knock-down" principle. Mr. Armstrong was given carte blanc in the selection of a motor and finallv chose the Roberts.

The Walters engine, which was built in Denver by Guy C. Walters, has been purchased by E. Linn Mathewson for his next machine (No. :i). It is an air-cooled 40-h.p., 160-lb. motor, which is said to really cool. Full details will be given later.

The first real aviation corporation in Denver is the Mathewson Aeroplane Co. Mr. Mathewson holds controlling interest. George Thompson and Georgie Van Arsdale are the other stockholders.

ROBERT A. DONALDSON.

The dirigible of Isabura Yamada, whose experiments with airships has extended over a number of years, during all of which time he has been a subscriber to AERONAUTICS, recently made a trip over Tokio with a crew of five men. In landing, however, it met with a

The Roberts Engine Being" Tested.

IN THE AERIAL

MARKET PLACE

pat e nts SECURED OR FEE RETURNED

%

^TT Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books ^jj and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes.

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS

^TT We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed.

VICTOR J. EVANS &, COMPANY

Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.

PROPELLERS FOR MODELS; "f'1/;

smooth, a In min n m blailes; variable pitch, steel shaft accurately and seen rely attached; 3% in. 15c, 5 in. 20c, G in. 25c., § in. 35c, 10 in. 50c' Post-paid. Low quantity prices. Jersey Skeeter Aeroplanes 25c.Flying Squirrel Aeroplanes 15c LINCOLN SQUARE NOVELTY WORKS, 1939 Broadway, New York

SCALE MODEL AEROPLANES :: :: That Fly! :: ::

FLYING MODELS EXHIBITION MODELS Complete or in the rough Propellers, Motors and Other Supplies

Blueprints and Directions for Building Models:

3-Foot Antoinette Monoplane . . $1.00 3-Foot Bleriot Monoplane . . . 1.00 :?-Foot Wright Biplane .... 1.00 20-Foot Man-Carrying Glider . . 1.00

CHICAGO AERONAUTIC SUPPLY C9

Room 16, 6030 South Park Ave., Chicago, 111.

<SxS*S>3><S>^<3xS^<S^

WRIN1CT F'^ PRESERVATIVE YV IMlTirwL.il. O BALLOON VARNISH

An Elastic Non-Porous Varnish for Silk, Linen. Muslin and other Fabrics used in manufacturing cf

BALLOONS, DIRIGIBLES, AEROPLANES, TENTS, etc.

More Balloon Varnish sold than all other Manufacturers combined. Sample Can Free. WRINKLE PAINT MFG. CO., COLUMBUS, OHIO

SANTOS DUMONT TYPE AEROPLANES, IMPROVED

=$1000.00 =

\

Write for prices of material for Bleriot and Curtiss-type aeroplanes.

Get our prices on complete machines, Turnbuckles, "U" bolts. Sockets, Wheels, Steering gear, Landing gear, made in our own factory.

Craftsman perfect propellers, $40.00.

Oval seamless steel tubing, 25c. per foot.

9626 ERIE AVENUE j CHICAGO, ILL.

M. STUPAR

+

+ +

+ + +

Chicago Aero Works

-H. S. RENTON, Prop.-

AEROPLANES

MOTORS

ACCESSORIES

Plans and Experimental Work. The Best Experts Employed.

*

t 49 WABASH AVENUE - CHICAGO, ILL. %

LEARN TO FLY.

National Aviation School

COLLEGE PARK, Md.

--—■ Curtiss machines: Curtiss Aviators as instructors. Course of Instruction that adopted hy GLENN H. CURTISS.

Take a short vacation at the Nation's Capital where Hying weather is exceptionally good.

Address :

The National Aviation Company, Inc.

412 Union Trust Building

Washington, D. C.

Sole agents tor the Curtiss liiplane in the District of COLUMBIA, vicinity and VIKCUXIA.

Located at the Nation's Capital with aviation grounds adjacent to the aerodrome of the V. S. Army, the Xational Aviation School offers exceptional opportunities to those wishing to learn to operate a machine. Records show the Curtiss biplane to be the safest of all air craft.

Makes Flying Easy As Lying

it Can Be Proved

From thousands of standard technical books her engines are vastly superior to anything —that ever drove a piston.—

SIMPLE—RELIABLE- EFFICIENT—PERFECT !—and

her MAGNIFICIENT SUPERSTRUCTURE, in harmony with natural laws, literally WHIZZES through the atmosphere like a meteor, annihilating both time and distance.

Jos. E. Bissell (Box 795) Pittsburg, Pa.

ERO CLEARING HOUSEjl

For Everything Aeronautical. New and used Machines, Motors and Accessories' bought, sold and exchanged. Booking House for Aviators. Tentative arrange-* ments with Foreign and American Aviators of Reputation.

RATES EXTREMELY REASONABLE

299 Broad way, New York. Cable Address,"Clerohouse''(

i LEARN TO FLY I

The National Aviation School

Washington, D. C.

C Course begins March 1. Spend weeks at Nation's capital.

two

* Address *

* The National Aviation Company $

* 412 Union Trust Building *

* Washington, D. C. J

E. B. Heath Aerial Vehicle Co.

Makers of Everything for

AIRCRAFT

Let na proportion a propeller for your craft Aeroplane hardware Aeroplane woodware

3403 Southport, Chicago

Send Six Cents in stamps for illustrated catalogue

john o. seifert

= SOLICITOR OF =

American and Foreign Patents

:: :: Aeronautical Work a Specialty :: ::

500 Fifth Avenue, New York City

5

MAGNETOS

FOR AERO ENGINES THE SIMMS MAGNETO CO.

1780 BROADWAY NEW YORK CITY

London New York Porta

THE MASTER MAGNETO--F. & S. BEARINGS

BOWDEN WIRE. J. S. BRETZ CO.

250 West 54lh St. Phone, Columbus 8758

PROPELLERS

Buy a pair of propellers for your aeroplane model direct from the manufacturer at the lowest cost.

We are making for models a type of wooden propellers plain and laminated from four inches up lo four feet in size.

Our propellers represent the latest accomplishment and are made by skilled mechanics.

We are selling propellers at extremely reasonable prices and will allow a special discount on large orders.

We are the manufacturers of a Standard type, full sized "M. A. P.Monoplanes" with a perfect automatic stability and a most powerful and speedy machine.

Our "M. A. P. Monoplanes" are patented in the U. S. A. and Great Britain.

Write to-day for price list. Invented, designed and built by the

M. A. P. Monoplane Mfg. Co.

P.O. Station D, Box 66

NEW YORK

W. H. AITKEN K£

Willard type ribs, uprights and main beams, only $75. Small set Curtiss Ribs, uprights and main beams, $50.

Standard Turnbuckles, $.10 each. Sample Rib, $1.00

Address: STRATFORD, CONN.

BLUE PRINTS AND$1.00 WORKING DRAWINGS l~£aT

We furnish you full size working drawings of the Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot aeroplanes. Also, blue prints of model Wright, Curtiss, Kteriot and Antoinette aeroplanes at the same price. Address department R

CHICAGO AEROPLANE MFG. CO.

2230-38 Cottage Grove Ave. :: :: Chicago

CLARKE'S FLYERS —Best and Go Furthest

;*4-oz. tol>4 lbs. Latter has Mown (500 ft. 37 cts. to §5.28. postpaid. RACING MODEL D, 1-oz., RECORD OVER 900 FT., $1.08 POSTPAID. Send for Big Catalogue Models and Supplies T. W. K. CLARKE & CO., High St., Kingston-on-Thames, England

mishap. It is of interest to note that the engine is an American one, made by the Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co. This is an example of the widespread circulation of AERONAUTICS and proof that the magazine is not alone a journal for the builder, but for the purchaser as well.

The French-American Balloon Co.. 4460 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo., has gotten out a new catalogue of balloons and airships. Balloons cost from $625 for one man to $1,000 for an S0,0o0-cubic-foot balloon to hold seven people. Hydrogen gas plants are also listed.

"World Progress" is the name of a new magazine which has just made its appearance, published by E. F. Ingraham, 116 Nassau St., New

York. Illustrated news items of interest, including aviation, from all over the world are given with short and concise text. Good luck!

Hugo C. Gibson is about to distribute a new booklet on propellers, entitled "The Little Red Book on Propellers," which contains various valuable and interesting information on propellers, and, of course, particularly with regard to Gibson "wheels." Gibson propellers are standard equipment now, with El Arco radiators, on Elbridge engines.

Geo. Wallace, of 103 Royal St., New Orleans, La., has gotten out some postcards, in four colors, of the most sensational flight at New Orleans of the late John B. Moisant, with a picture of Moisant inserted in the corner.

CLASSIFIED cADV:

WILL any company take up my headless cylinder engine on following terms: 50 per cent, of earnings; also my automatic gustproof monoplane. If you mean business, write John Mac-Donald, Jr., Point Prim, P. E. Island, Que.

FOR SALE—A Curtiss 8-cylinder air-cooled engine, Al condition. Price low. Would exchange for 4-cylinder, good make, smaller size. Christopher J. Lake, Bridgeport, Conn.

PROPELLERS—Guaranteed. G to 8 ft. diameter and pitch, laminated. 200 to 500 lbs. thrust. Introduction price $16.50. Favne & Neighbors, G04 South Ohio St., Sedalia, Mo.

BACK AND CURRENT NUMBERS of any magazine supplied at moderate rates. Magazines bought. Clippings furnished. A. W. Cas-tellanos, 263 Armstrong Ave., Jersey City, N. J.

FOR SALE—Aeronautical motor 4% by 4%. develops 15 h.p., weight 100 lbs., 2-cylinder. horizontal type, all bearings new and engine in first-class shape. Engine and carburettor $S0. With new 6-ft. laminated true screw propeller, 4 V2 pitch, spruce $100. Address I. L. Bishop, 13 Florence Court S. E., Minneapolis, Minn.

EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, experienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer to give flying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care

FOR SALE—50-horsepower "HF," or Harri-man, aviation engine, new $700. This is the same size engine that the Harriman Motor Works are charging $1,G75 for. Address Box 3, Girard, Kan.

LEARN AT HOME, in a few evenings, how to construct, operate and repair Flying Machines, Commercial Trucks, Automobiles, Motorcycles, Motor Boats, Gasoline Engines, Electric Motors. Big demand, with good pay for competent men. Thousands of positions open. Let us help you in place and pay. A postal card will do. Address EXTENSION DEPARTMENT, The Charles C. Thompson Co., 54 9 Wabash Avenue. Chicago.

SITUATION WANTED—Active and clean-cut young man, ex-observer of U. S. Weather Bureau and Meteorological expert, desires affiliations with aeroplane manufacturing company, with object of being instructed in practical flying, for which tuition will be paid. Proficiency acquired, position of demonstrator and salesman for company would be expected. A-l references given and required. Address, Harry T. Johnson, 1213 Emerald Ave., Chicago Heights. 111.

D'pTCT TVJ" 15c. a line. 7 words to a

XV J. 1 O 1 IN VJT ,ine Payable in advance,

AVIATION MEETS—An expert in arranging and managing aviation meets, having the widest experience and best connections, is in a position to promote and conduct aeroplane contests for aero clubs and others. Address Avia-Manager, care AERONAUTICS.

A BEAUTIFUL, four-colored postcard of the late John B. Moisant flving at New Orleans, December 27, 1910. 2 for 5c; 25c per doz. Geo. Wallace, 103 Royal St., New Orleans, La.

WANTED—To fly aeroplane on percentage basis. Would prefer party putting up money to act as business manager. Am mechanic and understand gasoline engines. Big money in making small cities on guarantee. No proposition considered unless it is a proven plane. G. A. Bellinger, 62% Richard St., Salt Lake City, Utah.

WANTED—A man who can help develop a new featured glider—"New Invention." For particulars apply A. L. S., care of AERONAUTICS.

AERO CALENDAR FOR TJ. S.

March 18-25—Pittsburg (Pa.) aero show and flights.

March 18-26—Havana (Cuba), Moisant aviators.

March 2S-30—Daytona (Fla.), McCurdy.

March —.. —San Jose and Oakland (Cal.), Curtiss aviators.

April 2—St. Augustine, McCurdy and Ward.

April 6-12—Salt Lake City (Utah), flights.

June 28—Gordon Bennett aviation race, England.

October 9—Gordon Bennett balloon race, place not fixed.

April 10—Knoxville, Tenn., Curtiss aviators.

The famous "June Bug," the first aeroplane to make an officially observed flight in this country, has been presented to the Smithsonian Institution at Washington.

The "June Bug" is the third flying machine built by the Aerial Experiment Association, which was composed of Dr. Alexander Graham' Bell, Glenn H. Curtiss, F. W. Baldwin. .1. A. 1>. McCurdy and the late Lieut. T. S. Selfridge. It was an improvement on the "Red Wing" and the "White Wing," the first machines built by the association.

Earle L. Ovington, formerly president Federation American Motorcyclists, and who handled the FN motorcycle in New York, is now a full-Hedged Bleriot driver. He is bringing to America a racing Bleriot. after receiving pilot license at the Pan school on the eighth lesson.

Patrick Y. Alexander, of the entire world, sincere patron of the science of aeronautics, has offered another $5,000 motor prize. The engine must average 40 b.h.p. throughout two 12-hour tests.

MODEL AEROPLANE SUPPLIES

f Engines, U H-P-. Weight, 1*2lbs.—1 H.P.(i'»ll)s. Very strong, powerful and efficient. Complete line of acc< s-sories, ball-bearing propeller shafts. Miniature pneumatic tire wheels, made in six sizes. Turnhuckles, metal fittings, propellers, rattan, bamboo.all six sizes of selected woods, finest grade English Rubber strand, etc.

CORRKCT PK1CF.S, COMPLETE CATAl.OOIK SF.NT ON HEQUF.ST

THE WHITE AEROPLANE COMPANY, Brooklyn, N.Y. Office and Salesroom: 337 ADAMS STREET Telephone, 3878 Main

EMERGENCY RATION

prepared as per formula of U. S. Army Emergency Ration. This ration weighs 8 oz. net and will sustain the average U. S. Soldier for a period of 24 hours in perfect physical condition. —Prepared by " 1"

POWELL'S, Canal and Sullivan Sts., New York

WIRE Aviator wire of high strength—Plated finish—Easy to solder —Aviator cord of twisted wire.

John A. Roebling's Sons Co.,

TRENTON, N. J.

Special grades of bamboo for aeronautic work. Reed, Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. All Grades In Stock.

J. DELTOUR, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York

TELEPHONE 5565 SPRING

AEROPLANE WHEELS

/HI C* built to order on extremely

C^/Lll OlZeS short notice. CWe do experimental work of all kinds. C,We are specialists in light, tubular, frame construction work :: :: :: :: :: ::

782 Eighth Ave., N. Y. Phone, Bryant, 1268

Tiger Cycles & Aeroplane Go.

FOR AEROPLANE MOTORS USE

PEDERSEN LUBRICATORS

C The P pump is the smallest practical rotary pump and can be regulated. Write for circulars.

644 FIRST AVENUE, NEW YORK, U.S.A.

EDWIN LEVICK

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

Photographers

Telephone 108 FULTON STREET Cable

100 John NEW YORK Photonevrs, N.Y.

Photographs of Practically every Aeroplane aod Airship in the World

Lantern Slides and Enlargements our Specialty Write for Catalogue Agents Throughout Europe

What Our AeropI ane Builders Need

(Continued from page 110)

will but wait. "Would it not be a material help to the substantial growth of the aeroplane industry if those who offer the money prizes for daring nights would instead offer prizes to engine builders for engines of extreme power, strength, lightness and reliability?

The only competitive aero engine test on record was held in England, and of the entrants, only one engine was able to run twenty-four hours without a stop. The data gathered in this test was extremely valuable, both to the purchasing public and to the manufacturers of the motor. England has purchased practically all the reliable data on aero engine tests for the past year. Properly conducted competitive motor tests would be very valuable to the aeroplane builder of America. He is only limited by his motor and reliability. Power and fuel consumption must be known to insure a successful machine. Nearly every builder has to experiment at his own expense, often wrecking several aeroplanes in order to determine facts about the motor which should be furnished him by any honest manufacturer. Some aero engine builders are themselves poorly equipped with testing apparatus.

Let us offer the prizes for endurance, altitude, distance and speed flights, as a stimulus to the manufacturer, and not the operator. Let the builder operate if he likes or let him hire an aviator, but a distinctive benefit would result if the prize could reach those worthy of it; those whose efforts are the most expensive and the most intelligent. "We see then the aeroplane dependent on the motor and the motor dependent on the manufacturer whose object is profit. There is no authority for gas engine rating and there is no goal save gain for which to strive. Many examples of the present aeroplane are inferior in engineering and workmanship to products of analagous industries, and prizes are being won by daring individuals who are able to amass fortunes and retire from the field never to yield in return one thing that is of lasting value. Let us, by our demands as purchasers and by our prize offers as philanthropists, endeavor to create a higher standard for aeroplanes in America than in any country in the world.

Since last fall Peru has been aiding certain young Peruvians to carry to completion studies and work they had already undertaken and a special department has been instituted in the School of Arts and Crafts at Lima. The Chavez monument fund started in Lima has reached more than $35,000.

AD A MS-FAR WELL

THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST

THE

MOTOR

Less than 3 lbs. per H. P. A. L. A. M. rating

Self cooled by its own revolution

COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of the World

VULCANIZED RUBBER MATERIAL

of the Leading Makers, Germany, France and America

Rubber Fabrics for

Balloons,

Aeroplanes

and

Airships

§

Passenger

Aeroplanes

and

Flying

Models

One to Fifty Passengers

Contractor to the United States Government

AND

Ninety-five per cent, of the Clubs in this Country

GIBSON PROPELLERS

American Representative tor Balloons, Airships and Aeroplanes

of the Foremost Makers Abroad

Address : Box 181

Madison Square

N.Y., U.S.A.

4ER0NAUTICS

April, ipii

* *

t t t

+

CALL AVIATION ENGINE

Model E-la Two Cylinder 50 Horsepower Weight 175 lbs. Price $1,000

Prices include complete equipment

Model E-2a Four Cylinder 100 Horsepower Weight 32 5 lbs. Price $2,000

TACOMAN FLIES IN OWN AIRSHIP.

(From Tacoma "Sunrtay Ledger," January 22, 1911.)

"Nerved by 11 years' experience as a professional balloonist and parachute juniper, Harvey Crawford. 22 years of age, thrilled between 300 and 400 spectators at Lakeview yesterday morning with three successful flights in the first "Made in Washington," also "Made in Tacoma." aeroplane that has thus far been able to get off and stay off the ground.

Traveling at a speed he estimated at between 40 and 50 miles an hour, young Crawford flew a mile and a half at an elevation of 100 feet on the first attempt; two miles at the same elevation on the second attempt; and two miles and a half at an elevation of 200 feet on the third flight. He would probably have completed the five-mile lap of the aviation field at Lakeview had not a stiff wind been blowing and hid he not promised before starting to refrain from taking any untoward chances.

His flights proved beyond a doubt that still another type has been added to the several biplanes already in successful use and revealed a story of resolve to conquer the air that was carried out only after a solid year of hardest work and study.

The engine is a 59 horsepower Call aviation motor, two cylinders, double opposed, and weighing 200 pounds. It is connected to a wooden propeller 6' 2 feet in diameter and revolving 1,500 to 1,800 tim :s a minute when the motor is running normally. The gasoline tank has a capacity of 10 gallons."

THE NORTHWESTERN AVIATION COMPANY

TACOMA, WASHINGTON

The Aerial Navigation Co. of America, January 22nd, 1911.

Girard, Kansas.

Gentlemen:—We send by mail today papers with an account of the first flights of the aeroplane in which the motor we bought from you is installed. The motor is working very satisfactory, and we are very much pleased with the way it is turning up. We thank you for the extra effort made by you on the engine, and will gladly answer any inquiry on behalf of the Call Motor. Yours very truly,

THE NORTHWESTERN AVIATION CO. Per Guy B. Colvin.

SEND FOR CATALOG C3

We employ no agents; we cannot afford agents' commissions at these prices.

The Aerial Navigation Company of America

J ——— GIRARD, KANSAS--

C.Our four cylinder, 40 IT. P., Type A-l power plant will handle your Curtiss Type Plane in excellent shape.

C,Our eight cylinder, 60 II. P., Type A-2 power plant will drive you much faster, and is the accepted type as used by Baldwin, Mars, Shriver, Masson, Frisbie, and many others.

C,Our eight cylinder, 80 II. P., Type A-tf power plant is especially designed lor professional high speed work, and for heavier planes, and is used by Hamilton and Wisemann.

C.Any of these types can be safely used by beginners, as the flexibility of the motors allows a wonderful power control.

Cl^et us file your order for one of these types, and save experience cost on an inferior, and possibljT lower first cost motor.

CATALOGUES AND ASSEMBLY BLUE PRINTS ON REQUEST

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO. """oHNa'DAvis

San Francisco, Cal. 25 Broad Street

HALL-SCOTT

Aeronautical Power Plants I

ENTHUSIASTIC OWNERS ARE THEIR STRONGEST ENDORSEMENT |

Can't Keep Our Balloons Down

PILOT ASSMAN TAKES LAHM CUP FROM FORBES, SAN ANTONIO TO GOWER, MO., FEB. 24, 1911,-715 MILES

t

* t

("AUR Balloons Won National Contest 1 909, also Made Good in National Elimination Races 1 9 1 0— Result: The only Two American-made Balloons in the International Contest, St. Louis, Oct. 17, 1910.

gUILT thirty-tour (34) Gas Bags in a Single Year More thaiMll Other American Manufacturers Combined.

A*

Can't We Build Yours?

Our Records:

"Miss Sophia," winner of the Lahm Cup—Feb. 24, 1911.

CHICAGO—9 Competitors—Won both Distance fand Endurance

trophies by a big margin.—Water Record of the World—350 miles INDIANAPOLIS—6 Competitors, 1st and 3rd prizes. PEORIA—3 Competitors, 1st Prize. ST. LOUIS—9 Competitors, 1st, 2nd and 4th Money.

CAN YOU BEAT IT?

How we do it: By using the very best material in the country; building on safe, practical lines, with good workmanship.

AIRSHIPS—AEROPLANES—INSTRUMENTS

FRENCH AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.


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