Volume 8 - No. 3 - 1911 March
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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Patents applied lor.
Copyright, X910, by Spencer Heath.
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THE DUNNE AUTOMATIC STABILITY SYSTEM
By T. O'B. Hubbard.
SEC'v BRITISH AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY
MR. GRIFFITH BREWER and Mr. Orville Wright have jointly observed, on behalf of the British Aeronautical Society, the trials made by Mr. J. W. Dunne for the purpose of demonstrating the automatic stability of his biplane. The flights were made at P,astchureh. Isle of Sheppev, on December 20, 1910.
21st December, 1910. Yesterday afternoon we observed two flights by Mr. Dunne on his automatic stability machine, at the Royal Aero Club ground at East-church.
The first flight was over a distance of about :; miles (not timed), the machine being turned at a height of about 100 feet and making a good landing near the starting point. On the second flight of 2 minutes. 29 seconds, Mr. Dunne made notes on a piece of paper during the flight. On both flights the engine was cut off in the air before landing and the machine came down without materially altering its angle of incidence.
ORVILLE WRIGHT. GRIFFITH BREWER. Members of the Aeronautical Society.
20th December, 1910.
I handed this paper (reproduced in facsimile facing this page) to Mr. Dunne just before starting on his second flight, and he handed the paper back to me immediately on landing with the words written in pencil as shown. The paper was not stiff and necessitated the use of both hands in order to write these pencil notes, thus showing that both hands were off the levers for sufficient time to make these notes during the actual flight. In descending after having cut off the engine. Mr. Dunne held both arms up in the air and resumed hold of the handles just prior to making the actual landing. GRIFFITH BREWER.
The notes made in pencil by Mr. J. W. Dunne were as follows: "Engine revs. 1400: levers normal: strong wind in face; turning now; straight again."
ACCOUXT OF THE TRIALS. By J. W. Dunne.
The first thing to do was to show that the machine could fly as well and as directly as those of the ordinary T-shape. to exhibit the power of control and manrpuvre given by the two little steering flaps, and above all to show that with this type of machine good turns, with the correct amount of banking, and no slide-slipping, could be effected without resource to the complicated "three-rudder" system. I, therefore, contented myself with a closed circuit, allowing the machine to climb 100 feet on the turn, and as this was the first time I had turned at any height. I confined my attention to making a neat job of it, and made no particular attempt to show off the automatic stability of the machine, until It came to descending. It is a well-known rule of flying that, before throttling the engine, the machine's bow should be pointed slightly downwards to avoid the loss of speed that would otherwise ensue, and it is in the proper manipulation of the levers immediately afterwards,
to maintain speed and keep the machine under control, that the trained aviator has' to exercise his greatest skill. To throttle without first depressing the bow, and then leave the machine severely alone, is a stiff test of longitudinal automatic stability, though, of course, no test of lateral stability. So both in this flight and in the second. I first locked the levers in the central position in which they are left while flying, then throttled, and immediately threw up my arms and left the machine to come down from the flying tilt to the gliding tilt of its own accord, and thence find its way earthward. The steep slope of the ground at the point of landing rendered it unsafe to attempt the requisite flattening of the trajectory before touching earth by the use of the throttle alone, so at the last moment I utilized the flap-controls for this purpose.
The next point Mas to prove the safety of the machine. As we have no place for passengers in the present apparatus 1 suggested that T should go round the same short circuit and carry out the "writing test." I proposed this, as I know of nothing else which so thoroughly puts to the proof the aviator's real trust in his machine's fitness to look after itself, compelling, as it does, absolute detachment of the mind. One may eat, drink, smoke, click a camera, take off one's coat, or do a hundred other things, and all the time keep one eye ahead to see what the machine is really doing, and be ready to snatch at a lever if necessary. But when writing, provided one writes sense, one's attention is perforce completely drawn away from one's surroundings. I ran down across the wind, hopped off, touched again, and then began to rise steadily. As soon as I saw that I would clear the bushes on the boundary dyke. I locked the levers, and felt for the paper and pencil given me by Mr. Griffith Brewer. The paper was in one pocket and the pencil in another; by the time 1 had got them ready T must have flown a considerable way. I started to set down certain points I was anxious to observe and remember. First. I counted the divisions on the revolution indicator, which has no figures between the 1,000 and 1,500 marks. When T began to set them down I found to my annoyance that it was almost impossible to write on the thin paper with" only the fingers and palm of my hand as a backing thereto, and that a certain amount of excitement rendered the task still more difficult. T then observed the positions of the levers relatively to their toothed racks and made a note of'that. T next looked about inside the boat for something else to note, and while doing so became aware of the violent wind in my face, which curiously enougli I had entirely failed to notice on the previous flight. As I had been anxious to ascertain how far the front screen shielded the aviator 1 wrote this fact down. From the time I had first locked the levers, till now I had not paid the smallest attention to what the machine was doing or where it was going. I had been left to follow its own fancy, and might by this time be anvwhere or in any position for all I knew. However, looking up, I saw that it was still level, but had drifted down wind and was aiming to hit a wind-pump, so I decided to commence the turn,
I separated the levers, holding- them till the turn had started, noted its radius, which was shorter than I required, diminished the difference between the lever positions, locked them, waited a little time, hands off, until I was satisfied with the radius of the turn and with the rapidity with which the machine was mounting, got hold of my paper again and with some difficulty wrote "turning now." Looking over the port-bow I saw a farm house nearly beneath me, and realizing that the circle was now bigger than I had intended, and also that I was much higher than I had thought, I pushed each lever into the fourth notch, and, sitting with my hands in my lap, allowed the machine to swing itself sharply round. Then I locked the levers centrally and sat back, but did not continue writing, as I was puzzled by a momentary failure to recognize the ground below me. I am not a balloonist, and am unused to heights. After a moment I realized that a little dark green blob was the pond in the middle of the ground. So T headed the machine towards it, and then wrote "straight again." By the time I had got that down I saw I should have to descend at once if I meant to get back to my starting point, so I moved the machine's nose a degree or two round, aiming at the point in question, returned each lever carefully to its central notch, throttled the engine, and held up my arms. Instantly the machine's head drooped n little, and, without any abatement of forward speed, she began to sink towards the ground. I landed her as before described.
Lieut. Dunne was for sometime attached to 1 lie British government "balloon factory" at Karnborough. After flights of one of his biplanes in l'JOS and 1910, the machine was reconstructed and tried out again in May of 1910. The machine flew for about 2 miles with Lieut. Dunne's hands off the levers. During the flight the machine gradually rose.
During the whole of its free uncontrolled flight, the aeroplane remained absolutely stable. The wings project backwards from the central axis of the machine, and in plan have the shape of a V with the apex in the direction of flight; the wing-tips are actually situated in rear of the center of gravity of the machine. Their combined area is 560 sq. ft. The machine carries no tail nor steering or controlling surfaces of any kind with the exception of a flap hinged to the rear extremity of each wing for effecting horizontal and vertical steering. A 4-cylinder, 50-h.p. "Green" engine drives two propellers revolving at the rear of the surfaces. The wings have a positive angle of incidence near the center, the angle gradually decreasing towards the tips, where the angle is actually negative. The machine weighs 1,700 lbs.; the load therefore being about 3 lb. per sq. ft.
THE DUNNE PATENT.
A British patent was allowed April 5, 1910 (No. S11S), covering "curvature and shape of surfaces." An abstract of this follows:
The object of this invention is to obtain a form of aeroplane which shall possess, solely by the form and arrangement of the surfaces, automatic stability in still and agitated air and freedom from oscillation. The inventor has found that twisting the wings of an aeroplane involves the disadvantage that sections, either longitudinal or transverse, taken across the wing-tips, give curves that are more or less concave on their upper sides, thus failing to give large pressure reactions, and that when such wings are twisted the changes brought about in the pressures by the concave portions are so abrupt as to produce unsteadiness, and that the similar concavity on the transverse sections pi educes lateral instability. The two essential conditions to be observed arc to decrease gradually the angles of the fore and aft cross-sections of the wings from root to tip without producing points of inflexion in the surfaces, and, secondly,
to maintain considerable differences in the angles of the inner and outer portions without too much loss of pressure under the outer portions. The present invention consists in constructing each of the main surfaces as a rearwardly projecting wing, whose angle of incidence decreases from the root to the tip. and by shaping the wing so as to compress air between the positively inclined portion of the wing near the root to the negatively inclined portion near the tip. The wings must be so sloped backwards along their leading edges that the wing-tips lie behind the center of gravity of the whole aeroplane. Further, each wing is so constructed
through the rearwardly situated point X and travels along the guide curve E C so that it takes up the various positions X Y2. X Y"> ... X Y12; the surface thus swept out evidently being a portion of that of a cone. By selecting that portion of the conical surface indicated by the parallelogram A I! C D, the angles of incidence of the fore and aft sections of the wing gradually decrease and change sign toward the tip. Further, owing to the larger angle of incidence at the leading edge along the inner portion of the wing, the air is forced downward and outward, thus transmitting pressure to the underside of the wing
that its upper face is formed as a portion of a cone or a cylinder, the angle of incidence of the wings decreasing toward the tips, and in some cases changing sign. Figs. 1 and 2 show a plan and side elevation respectively of a form of wing in which the upper face forms part of a conical surface, with the apex at the rear, the left-hand wing only being shown, the center line of the machine being indicated by the arrow ; Fig. ?. shows a plan of a monoplane built according to this invention. In the form of constructing a wing surface according to this invention, shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the upper wing surface is swept out by the straight line X Yl, which always passes
near the negatively inclined tips, and is, in addition, compressed under the tips, which can consequently be inclined at a considerable negative angle without incurring loss of lifting power. The full-size machine shown in Fig. 3 illustrates a monoplane built according to this invention. The wings, V>. are connected to the body, and are sloped backward so that the wing tips lie behind the center of gravity, situated at or about the point 5. where are fixed the motor and pilot's seat. A pair of propellers are situated at 22 : the rear wing tips are fitted with Haps 2M for steering vertically and horizontally.
INSURANCE FOR AVIATORS
So far as known, there is not a single insurance company in this country writing life insurance for either aviators or aeronauts. Companies writing accident insurance in all cases where the applicant is known to be engaged in any way in aeronautical work, attach riders to policies limiting the deatli payment to but $250 in place of the $5,000 face value of the policy. The editor of this magazine even had to accept this fool regulation.
YVe have received requests from men in tIre aeronautical industry for the names of companies who will write life insurance on aviators and aeronauts, and also fire and other insurance on the machines themselves.
The Glasgow Assurance Corporation. Ltd., now advertises "aviators insured against accidents of all kinds at moderate rates," and
claims the honor of being "the first company in the world to undertake aerial insurance." This is an encouraging announcement and no doubt American companies wiil some time in the future follow suit.
"While no insurance is being written on lives of aviators. "Aeronautics" is informed by the Xew Y/ork Board of Fire Underwriters, "as a result of some correspondence, that there are a number of companies insuring aeroplanes and balloons. Those desiring fire insurance on aeroplanes or balloons should make application to the local agent.
H. J. French, 1300 E. Ocean avenue. Bong Beach, Calif., is building a monoplane of his own design, to be equipped with a 35-h.p. ilol-brook motor.
AERONAUTICS March> 1(>n
THE NEW SOUTHARD MONOPLANE
THE machine known as the "Southard 11" has been developed by W. Wilson Southard, 421 X. Fulton avenue, Baltimore, Md. The previous machine was destroyed, as mentioned in the previous issue. The number two machine is nearly completed and will shortly have its trials at College Park.
The appearance presents a cross between a Bleriot and an Antoinette. The former has been followed in the body, running gear and wings, while the spread of 34 feet approximates the Antoinette, and likewise the tail. It is desired to combine the simplicity, neat appearance and effectiveness of the Bleriot with the stateliness of flight of the Antoinette. The horizontal and vertical controls are similar to the Bleriot, but the stabilitv control is original.
The main spars (back) are hinged to the body, permitting a whole movement of the spar, with a solid joint. This system was illustrated in the February number. The upper bracing wires run through pulleys clear over to the other side, making one unbroken set of wires above from wing to wing. The same thing is followed below.
The front spars are trussed rigid, both above and below, to the triangular brace with snap-hooks and around the spring landing tube beneath the lower spar of the front frame, below.
The lever is simply connected up to independent wires running out to the wing tips, same as the warping wires on other machines, but are not to take any lift other than the warping strain. It is claimed questionable by
the builder whether these wires are needed, as it is expected the reaction of the wind pressure under one plane will automatically shift the other, giving a semblance to automatic stabilitv. The machine never has, however, been tried without the warping wires being-connected, but will be tried out cautiously in the future.
The engine is a 165-lb. Roberts 2-cycle, water cooled, of 40-50 h. p. Two El Arco radiators will do the cooling. It is figured that
Southard Stability System
the Paragon propeller will give about II lbs. thrust per horse power. Mea magneto is used, with Kingston carburetor.
Spruce, ash, Norway birch and poplar has been used. X'o. 27 ga. piano wire is used, witli turnbuckles. The wings are covered with Goodyear fabric. The weight is but SOS lbs. The main surface has 200 sip ft., the tail so, the elevators 20 and the tail 10 sq. ft.
A flight will be attempted from Baltimore to Washington. Mr. Southard is being assisted by Courtland Wrightson.
NATIONAL COUNCIL AND AERO CLUB
AT the meeting of the Executive Committee of the "Xational Council of the Aero Club of America," held February 7, the Sub-committee (Allan A. Ryan, A. T. Atherholt and James King Duffy) appointed at the last meeting of the X'ational Council to consider changes in the plan and scope of the Xational Council, reported progress, and asked that its functions be continued during the brief interval required to carry into effect the recommendations contained in its report.
The committee gave consideration to the relations which exist between the X'ational Council and the Aero Club of America, and, after an exhaustive comparison of the Constitution and By-Laws of each organization, came to the conclusion that it will be necessary to effect a new agreement between the Xational Council and the Aero Club of America. At the present time each of these bodies is exercising similar and conflicting powers.
The committee recommended that a conference committee of five be appointed to confer with a similar committee from the Aero Club of America to the end that a new basis of agreement between the two bodies may be arrived at.
XATIOXAL COUNCIL SUPREME—NEW NAME.
The "Conference Committee" was instructed to negotiate according to the following suggestions:
"I. The recognition of the X'ational Council as the body of paramount authority in national affairs and independent of the Aero Club of America, except in so far as the rules subsisting between the Aero Club and the International Federation make it necessary for the Xational Council to act with the club, in order to preserve adherence to such rules and to secure its rights thereunder.
"2. That the name of the Xational Council be changed from the 'Xational Council of the Aero Club of America' to 'Xational Council of the Aero Clubs of America.'
"3. That all committees of the Xational Council shall act in their own right and independently of the officers or committees of the Aero Club of America, except as to those committees, where it is necessary to obtain the sanction of the International Federation through co-operation with the Aero Club of America, and these shall be joint committees.
"4. That on the basis of recognition of their mutual relations, as herein outlined, the Aero Club of America shall extend its privileges to every member in good standing of clubs affiliated with the Xational Council, and that every club represented in the Xational Council shall extend similar privileges to each member of the Aero Club of America.
"5. That an agreement be reached between the Xational Council and the Aero Club of America whereby the conditions for affiliation shall be made the same for both organizations.
"6. That the Conference Committee be empowered to make such other and further agreements which may the better carry into effect the purposes of the conference, which should be declared to be the absolute and permanent harmonizing of interests between the body representing the clubs of the country at large and the Aero Club of America."
The Secretary was instructed to write to the Aero Club of America asking that a Conference Committee be appointed to confer with a similar committee appointed on behalf of the X'ational Council.
The report of such joint committee is to be submitted to the Chairman of the Xational Council at as early a time as possible, and not later than February 25, 1011, in order that the Executive Committee may be called together to pass upon the results of such conference and submit its conclusions to the members of the X'ational Council at least thirty days in advance of the stated meeting of the Council to be held April 4, 1911.
The Committee on Conference is as follows: Messrs. Robert ,1. Collier. James King Duffy, Jerome H. Joyce, Arthur T. Atherholt and John C. Eberhardt.
SINCE the first successful flights, rising from the water, made at the Curtiss winter camp at San Diego (Calif.) on January 26, an entirely new system for float-
ing the machine was put in use and the first (light with this was made February 1.
The new pontoon is a simple, compact affair. Instead of two separate floats, a water shield and small wooden hydrosurface with which the first successful water experiments were made, the apparatus used consists of a single pontoon fastened to the under supports of the ordinary Curtiss racing biplane.
Tt resembles a flat-bottomed boat covered with canvas to make it water proof. The pontoon is 12 ft. long, 2 ft. wide and 12 in. deep. At a distance of about 3 ft. from the front end the bottom breaks upward, forming a sharp bow the full width of the float and on a level with the top. The same distance from the rear end the top slopes downward, both ends being so near the same proportion that either could be used as the bow of the pontoon.
The float is fixed beneath the planes in such a manner that the weight of the engine and planes, with the aviator in his seat, is carried slightly in the rear of the middle of the pontoon, giving the bow an upward tilt, which materially assists the craft in rising from and alighting' on the water. The new apparatus weighs about half as much as the pontoons and other gear used in the experiments last week, and at full speed has much less surface in contact with the water.
The framework extending from the front elevator down to the water supporting the small hydrosurface and spray shield of the first device, shown in the photographs, is done away with.
Photos of this second apparatus have not yet been obtainable.
Both the Army and Navy were represented at both the experiments from the Curtiss
grounds, which are located on North Island, the former by Lt. John C. Walker and the latter by Lt. T. G. Ellyson, both especially detailed. Lt. Paul Beck of the Signal Corps and Lt. G. R at. Kelly of the Infantry have now attached themselves to the camp.
When Ely Hew from the deck of a battleship on the Atlantic Coast, and some weeks, later landed on the deck of a battleship in the bay of San Francisco, he accomplished a great deal to make the aeroplane a practical instrument of naval warfare; but when Glenn Curtiss arose from the quiet waters of San Diego Bay, and, after flying as much as he liked, settled upon the water as gracefully as a duck, a still greater step was taken in the same direction.
Curtiss had taken off the wheels and substituted floats in their stead. In order to support a machine of the Curtiss type it would require the displacement of considerable water.
The float itself is made of metal over a wood frame, and air tight. It has a very much flattened elliptical cross section from front to rear. This is placed in the center of the machine under the engine, down where the skids would be.
The length over all is 7 ft. 1 in. long, 6 ft. 1 in. wide. It is 10 in. deep in deepest part, tapering from that point 4 ft. 10 in. to the front edge and 27 in. to the back edge. Top about 3 in. above water when floating at rest.
Another float was used in place of the usual, front wheel. This is "V2 ft. long, G in. deep.' including flanges, or 1% in. deep without them; 16 in. wide. These measurements and diagrams were given me, with Curtiss' permission, by his chief mechanician, D. C. Merrill.
At the extreme front of the machine is a framework. Just touching the water is a small bydrocurve surface and a canvas spray shield, all of which were later discarded.
When placed in the water these pontoons float the machine. Upon starling the pro-
SUCCESS OF THE CURTISS HYDRO-AEROPLANE
By Prof. H. La V. Twining
Curtiss Hydro-Aeroplane Just About to Leave Water.
poller the machine moves over the water, developing great speed. As the elevators are tilted, the aeroplane gracefully rises from the water. Upon alighting- the floats cause it to skip, much as a flat stone skips when thrown along the water, until finally it settles and skids along like a duck that makes a quick descent into the water.
On January 26 he made three flights. He arose on his first flight at 1.15 p. m. and stayed up 1% minutes. On liis second flight he circled with as much' ease in the air as though he had no floats to carry, and flew for 2 miles over the bay, coming back and alighting within IOf) feet of his shed.
These hydroplanes are more or less similars to those of Henri Fabre. who, on the 2Sth of March, 1910, made a flight of 5 or 6 kilometers at Martiques, France, having risen from tlue_ water. In attempting to alight he met with an accident and was thrown into the water.
This accomplishment means that an aeroplane can be carried aboard ship disassembled. When occasion requires it can be assembled in a short time. It can then be set in the water from the deck and after making its flights it can settle near the ship and be hauled aboard. Under these circumstances it can at least become the eye of the fleet, and what other possibilities are in store for it yet remain to be developed.
STATE REGISTRATION OF AEROPLANES
CALIFORNIA and Connecticut both have had bills prepared, which are now before the legislatures, on the subject of registration and control of aeroplanes. California has even introduced the subject of lights. The automobile law has been followed fairly closely in this. Two years ago "Aeronautics" printed the first law in the United States on the subject—a series of municipal ordinances adopted by a town in Florida. The bill before the California legislature is as follows:
TEXT OF BILL.
Section 1.—The words and phrases used in this act shall, for the purposes of this act, unless the same be contrary to or inconsistent with the context, lie construed as follows: (1) The "motor vehicle" shall include all vehicles propelled by power, other than muscular power. (2) "Drivers"' shall include any person or persons in control of such vehicle, as owner.
Sec. 2, Sub. 1.—Every person hereafter owning and operating a motor vehicle which is designed to navigate above ground in the air, for every such vehicle owned by him shall cause to be filed in the office of the Secretary of State a statement of his name and address, wilh a brief description of the said vehicle or vehicles, to be registered, including the name of the maker, factory number, style of vehicle and motor power, on a blank to be prepared and furnished by such Secretary of State for that purpose. The filing fee shall be $2.
Sub. 2.—The Secretary of State shall thereupon file such statement in his office, register such motor vehicle in a book, or index, to be kept for tli at purpose, and assign it a distinctive number.
Sub. 3.—The Secretary of State shall forthwith, on such registration and without other
fee, issue and deliver to such owner of such motor car a seal of suitable metal, circular in form and not over two inches in diameter, and have stamped thereon the words: "Registered Air-Motor Vehicle No. —, State of California," with the registration number inserted therein, which seal shall thereafter at all times be conspicuously displayed on such motor vehicle to which such number has been assigned.
Sub. 4.—Every such motor vehicle shall also at all times have the number assigned to it displayed on the vehicle in numerals of over twelve inches in length, with an abbreviation of the name of the State in the following manner: "Cal."
Sub. 5.—The provisions of this act will not apply to owners of motor vehicles residing out of this State, temporarily using such motor vehicles within this State.
MUST DISPLAY LIGHTS.
Sec. 3, Sub. 1.—Every molor vehicle propelled by its own power in the air above ground shall, when being so propelled after darkness, display not less than four lights, one in the cenler of the vehicle in front of the driver, one at the extreme rear of such vehicle, and one at each end of the lifting planes of such vehicle, the last two to be, one red and one green, [he red light to be placed at the end of the right plane, and the green at Ihe end of the left plane. Such lights must be displayed at all times, after darkness, the said vehicle remains in the air above ground.
Sec. 4, Sub. 1. The violation of any of the provisions of Ibis act by any owner or driver or operator of any motor vehicle as hereinbefore described, shall be deemed a misdemeanor, punishable upon conviction thereof, by a tine not exceeding $100.
AERONAUTICS Mar\ch, 1911
NEW MODEL CURTISS BIPLA NXLE
ELY'S new Curtiss was an object of great interest, especially after bis cruiser flight at the San Francisco meet. A number <>f modifications and improvements are in evidence. Some of the most noticeable improvements are: The pivoting of the ailerons from the rear struts instead of the front oneTS*. This is a good feature, as the interference "of the ailerons when pivoted to the front struts and placed between the planes no doubt lessens the lift of the plane above.
Head resistance is cut down by double covering the planes enclosing the ribs and beams (of which latter there are three), and changing the double front elevator to a single surface, the axis of which is placed only 6 ft. 9 in. out in front and has but two short stays of bamboo between the wheel and elevator instead of the many pieces and elaborate structure heretofore used for staying. Two rear tail flaps work in conjunction with the front elevator, being pivoted at a point about 13 ft. back from the rear edge of main planes.
Two triangular stabilizing fins are used instead of the usual plane. Their angle of incidence is about 2 inches and can be easily changed by the removal of four cotter pins.
The rudder is placed between the two rear flaps and is pivoted C inches back from its front edge, being moved by a tiller post, or forward extension, to which the steering wires attach, instead of fastening wires directly to a rudder.
Strut sockets are of a new type. A steel clamp of IT section fits over the front of beam, tlie strut socket being integral with clamp. Two Vi inch steel bolts pass through clamp and beam on either side of socket, to which the steel loops holding the turnbuckle nipples are secured by a lock washer and nut. This seems a better method of strut attachment than the familiar single bolt socket, but, however, is not new with the Curtiss machines, having been in use for some time on the coast.
The rear beam is only 6 inches from rear edge of planes, thus making the rear portion of planes inflexible and, accordingly, more sensitive to wind gusts. This would appear to be a detrimental feature.
Spread, 30 feet; chord of planes, 1 feet 2 inches. Camber apparently unchanged from standard. Planes, 4 feet 5 inches apart.
Front elevator. 2 ft. by 0 ft. 3 V2 inches, has a small, vertical triangular section fixed above.
Weight stated 750 pounds. Regular Curtiss propeller and 8 cylinder Curtiss 50 h. p. motor.
Laminated engine base is supported in the
rear by steel tubing, which is also used to brace the entire rear center section. In front the base is bolted to two short laminated struts, the height of the base 14 inches. Above this a triangle of 1 inch oval steel tubing extends to the top plane, where it is secured by a bolt.
Engine is placed 9 inches rearward from rear beam and the canvas seat is out forward of front beam 8 inches.
Two torpedo gasoline tanks are attached under top plane. The El Arco radiator is in usual place.
One of the new type steering posts is used, with the rudder wires inside.
—CLEVK T. SHAFFEH
"MADE IN TACOMA" AEROPLANE MAKES PLIGHTS.
Nerved by eleven years' experience as a professional balloonist and parachute jumper, Harvey Crawford, twenty-two years of age, thrilled between 300 and 400 spectators at Lakeview, near Tacoma, Wash., on Jan. 21, with three successful flights in the first "made in Washington," also "made in Tacoma" aeroplane that has thus far been able to get off and stay off the ground.
Traveling at a speed he estimated at between forty and fifty miles an hour, young Crawford flew a mile and a half at an elevation of 100 feet on the first attempt; two miles at the same elevation on the second, attempt, and two miles and a half at an elevation of 200 feet on the third flight. He would probably have completed the five-mile lap of the aviation field at Lakeview had not a stiff wind been blowing and had he not promised before starting to refrain from taking any untoward chances.
They might never have achieved yesterday's success had it not been for W. E. Colvin, of (5727 South E Street, a retired and wealthy Texas cattleman, who also had become interested in the science of aviation. Colvin took a liking to the Crawfords and offered to furnish part of the "sinews of war."
The Crawford-Colvin biplane looks very much like a Curtiss biplane. The framework and ribs are of laminated spruce. The wings and planes are covered with Baldwin aeroplane clofh and have a total surface of 300 square feet. The engine is a 50-horsepower Call aviation motor, two cylinders, double opposed, and weighing 150 pounds. It is connected to a wooden propeller 6Vi feet in diameter and revolving 1,500 to 1,800 times a minute when the motor is running normally.
Two Aeroplane Safety Achievements
^^H^H|H /* Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric, a rubberized water-
proof cloth that is not affected by dampness, cold or heat, is the only SAFE material for aeroplane wings. Plain, varnished or "treated" fabric, when dampened, shrinks and relaxes, flaps on the wings, cuts down speed and is dangerous.
Goodyear fabric holds the wings rigid, regardless of aerial conditions, for it is rubberized. It is the lightest fabric for its purpose ever achieved. Its invention is the result of exhaustive investigations in France, Germany,
■England, Switzerland and America by six experts. Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric is the safest, LONGEST' LIVED aeroplone cloth known to science. The Wright Company experimented for months trying to get the proper covering for their planes. They bought various foreign and American fabrics, but none was successful until they found Goodyear Fabric. They found this wouldn't shrink and stretch. Now the Wright Company uses Goodyear Fabric exclusively. Burgess Company & Curtis, the Metz Co., the Lovelace-Thompson Co., the Detroit Aeroplane Co., Wilcox, and practically all the manufacturers of the country, as well as many of the most prominent aviators, use Goodyear Fabric. These pioneers know what covering is best. Another SAFETY achievement is the
World-famed aviators have equipped their machines with Goodyear Aeroplane Tires.
Charles J. Hamilton and all of Moisant's Crew of International Aviators, Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin. J. A. D. McCurdy, Clifford B. Harmon, Harkness, Wilcox and scores of other American and foreign aviators have adopted the Goodyear and conclusively proved to themselves its superiority over every other tire.
In the tape in the base of each tire are 42 wires—21 on each side—which hold it to the rim so firmly that, when landing, it cannot jerk loose. It has greatest possible resiliency and an extra-tough tread, hence is almost non-puncturable.
The extreme lightness of the tire is another point of vast superiority over every other tire.
Goodyear rubber shock absorbers are also being adopted by large numbers of American and foreign aviators.
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
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Branches and Agencies in All the Principal Cities (144)
Convertible Type for One or for Two Passengers
RELIABLE - FAST
Built to the exacting requirements
Mr. C. Grahame-White
Burgess Company and Curtis
(Licensed under the Wright patents)
Single-passenger models B and C. Two-passenger model D.
MODEL D IN FLIGHT
Two Striking Endorsements:
C,Mr. C. Grahame-White's first order was for SEVEN Biplanes designed and built by us.
CLThe Wright Company, on account of the excellence of our construction, invited us to become the first manufacturers in America licensed to build aeroplanes under their patents.
Burgess Company and Curtis maTaesse'
AERONAUTICS March, 1911
CONSTRUCTION AIDS XVII.
-TO FfTOffT LATERAL BE/J/<1
FLIGHTS ABOUT THE COUNTRY
Walter Johnson riying- the Thomas Machine.
JTcCUBDY MAKES LONGEST OVER-SEA FLIGHT.
May Be New American Record.
LONGEST AMERICAN CROSS-COUNTRY PLIGHTS.
Hoxsev (Wright), Springfield-Clayton, Mo...............S9.G miles
Brookins (Wright), one section
Chicago to Springfield flight. S6.5 miles
Hamilton (Curtiss"), New York-Philadelphia ...............74.3 miles
Curtiss (Curtiss), Albany-
Poughkeepsie ..............71.2 miles
Parmalee (Wright), Dayton-Columbus ".........................................GO.S miles
Curtiss (Curtiss), Cleveland-Cedar Point, over water.... GO.5 miles
After filing alio u l—**/miles and staying in the air 2 hours and fc^fuinutes in his Curtiss biplane (51-h.p. Curtiss S-cylinder motor), .1. A. 1>. McCurdy, the fifth man in the United States to tly, and who is now flying for the Curtiss Exhibition Co., was forced to land in tlie water about 10 miles from Havana on an attempted flight from Key West, Kla., to Havana, where Curtiss aviators were holding a meet. A leak in the oil reservoir caused the trouble. The exact distance, as kindly furnished AERONAUTICS by Mr. Williams Welch, of the U. S. Signal Corps, from the anchorage at Key West to the anchorage at Havana, is 103 statute miles. Assuming that McCurdy landed exactly G miles from shore and 10 miles from the center of Havana (as reported), his distance would be 99% miles if he landed west of Havana and 94% miles if he landed north-eact of the city. According to information, though not definite, the Navy Department sets he distance at atiout 90 railes.
After many days of waiting for good weather, the flight was started on January 30. Four torpedo boat destroyers were strung out over the course between Key West and Morro Castle.
Within sight of land poor McCurdy had to descend. The "Paulding," U. S. N., was close by, and the aviator and his machine were placed aboard and taken to Havana.
In spite of the accident, the Havana "Post" awarded its $5,000 prize, and the City of Havana lias done likewise with its $3,000 prize.
This flight is perhaps the longest crosscountry flight yet made in America and is a new world record for over-water flying. The previous record was that of the late Hoxsey, 89% miles. Accurate data on the exact spot of McCurdy's alighting is impossible of obtaining.
NEW THOMAS "HEADLESS" BIPLANE.
The illustration herewith shows the new "headless" biplane just finished by W. T. Thomas, of Bath, N. Y. Some very good flights have been made with it by Walter Johnson, who will do the flying for Mr. Thomas, the longest being ten circuits of the lake, which is 1VI miles around.
There are three superposed ailerons on each side, of the machine, the upper and lower hinging to the main lateral beams and the center one hinging on the rear strut. These move all together through the use of a light, vertical strut at the rear edges of these ailerons. For steering in a horizontal plane there are four small, independent rudders. Vertical steering is by the horizontal surface in the rear. The running gear steers in conjunction with the vertical rudders. The engine is a 4 cylinder Kirkham, driving direct. The machine weighs S50 pounds, and the supporting surface totals 320 square feet. A set of double surfaced extensions are being arranged to put on the extremities of the planes for the purpose of obtaining more surface for lifting at a slightly lower speed, and a new 6 cylinder Kirkham will be Installed shortly.
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COVE MACHINE KEEPS WINGS.
George H. Cove, of Bridgeton, N. J., has a good looking biplane, with novel stability features, or "balancing wing tips." When one of these is opened out the other closes up, and vice versa. The part of the tip next to the main plane is braced and does not move. The outer part is hinged and worked either by the seat oi- by a lever. Opening the wing on one
tors," as the correct title now is, as chief engineer. A plant has been put in operation in New York City.
R W. STEWART BIPLANE,
The II. \V. Stewart (Oakland, Cal.), biplane possesses several distinctive features from the ordinary biplane, being of the headless type.
Side View of the Thomas Machine.
side of the machine increases the supporting surface on that side. Patents are now pending.
The power plant consists of an Elbridge 40-GO motor, twin El Arco radiators, and Gibson propeller. The weight of the machine is about 600 lbs. Steering right and left and up and down is accomplished by the wheel.
NEW MOISANT MONOPLANE.
The Moisant aviation school on Hempstead J'lains, it is very probable, may be .started going in April. Two brand new types of monoplanes are being worked out, a cross between a Demoiselle and the all-metal machine designed and built by the late John B. Moisant. This will be known as the "Baby Moisant." T. T. Bovelace is now associated with A. J. Moisant and the "Moisant International Avia-
The arrangement of the planes, the center section being advanced forward of the end sections, is claimed by the inventor to give a certain amount of automatic stability.
Voisin type vertical partitions will be placed between end struts. Curtiss type ailerons are operated by a control lever, which also operates elevator.
Spread, 35 feet, 6V2 inches; chord, 6V2 feet; camber, 4 Inches; planes are double surfaced; total surface, 470 square feet; weight complete with aviator, 940 pounds; Farman type wheels will be attached to skids.
A double runner in the rear controls direction. The elevator is placed over rudder, while underneath is a stabilizing surface of same size. Power plant is placed in front. A CO H. P. (claimed) of local manufacture, weighing 325 pounds, drives direct an 8 foot, diameter 4 feet, Paragon propeller.
No trials have as yet been made.
Cove Biplane Showing- Balancing- Teature,
WRIGHT PUPIL PLIES HOUR.
W. Starling Burgess, of the Burgess Co. & Curtis, Marblehead, Mass., made his first hour night at the "Wright camp, Augusta, Ga., on February 7, handling the machine entirely himself.
PIRST WAR PLIGHT.
On February 10 and 12, Charles K. Hamilton, of the Moisant International Aviators, giving exhibitions at El Paso, Tex., flew across the Rio Grande River at Juarez, Mexico, which is now in a more or less stage of siege by the rebel army in the opera bouffe war now being conducted on the Mexican border.
Threats to fire on aviators reconnoitering over Juarez were received by Mexican officers. Permission was obtained from Pascual Orozsco, the insurrecto leader, for aviators to recon-noiter over his camp, subject only to the danger that his own men might think the aeroplanes were from Mexican government forces at Juarez. Garros also flew over the Rio Grande River in his American Bleriot, built for the late John B. Moisant. Hamilton used his new Gnome engine in the flight.
The story to the effect that Lieut. B. D. Foulois, of the U. S. Signal Corps, has received orders to proceed to San Antonio with the Wright aeroplane offered by Robt. J. Collier to the War Department and accepted by the same, seems to be without foundation in fact. Collier recently obtained delivery of the new Wright biplane, the first Wright machine sold in this country to an individual for pleasure use, and offered the use of it to the Government in case it should care to employ it in experiments during the present Mexican disturbance.
HARKNESS FLIES NEARLY AN HOUR.
Harry S. Harkness, who took his two Antoinette machines to California this winter, flew on February 7 from the furtiss aviation camp on North Island, opposite Fort Rosecrans, at San Diego, Calif., to the encampment of the U. S. troops on the Mexican border, near Tial-fuana, a distance of 21 miles from Fort Rosecrans, carrying a message from Major Mc-Manus, commanding Fort Rosecrans, to his subordinate, Lieut. Rublin. The flight was eminently successful, Harkness being in the air 56 minutes. The message was delivered to the officer 25 minutes after receipt by Harkness.
This is the first real flight made by Harkness in this country. When he first came to Mineola, a few short flights were made. At the Belmont meet his machine was only outside of its shed once and then no flight was attempted.
STEVENS PLIES BLERIOT.
A. Leo Stevens made his first flight alone on February 13, but it was not on a Friday. It was in the Bleriot XI (Clemen't-Bavard motor), which was brought to this countrv last fall by Greely S. Curtis, of the Burgess-'Co. & Curtis. The machine had been previously flown once by Garros while he was at the Belmont meet. No other flights have been made in it until the above, which was at the Mineola field. It has been taken to Boston by S. A. Reid, who is said to have acquired the monoplane. Mr. Stevens has left for Boston and • will no doubt try the machine out again while there.
The Elbridge Company's Brochure.
It is not until after reading "American Amateur Aviation," a twenty-page booklet distributed hf the Elbridge Engine Company, that one realizes how prominent a part these engines have played in the development of American novices during the past year. While the booklet mentions many men who have made flights with other power plants, it still furnishes plenty of evidence that most novice events and records were made last year with the "Featherweight" output. Of course, if this were not the case, it is unlikely that the company would have spent the time and money required to publish the record, but np matter what the
SPECIAL OFFER WARNING!!!
SECOND NOTICE In order to reduce the strain on the bookkeeping department of "Aeronautics" and to secure an increase in the monthly bundle of good stuff, this extraordinary offer is made:
For Ten Dollars in coin of the realm, we will enter your subscription to the One and Only Real Aeronautical Magazine in America for life, or as much longer as may be desired.
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motive of its production, the little book contains a great deal of interesting matter well worth preserving.
Nearly half the space is given up to illustrations, some of them very good ones. William Evans is shown in flight over the city of Kendale, Kans.; B. F. Roehrig, starting for the novice altitude record at Los Angeles, Cal.. where he flew three times as high as any of the amateurs at the later meet in San Francisco; C. F. Walsh, winner of all prizes at the October meet in Los Angeles; Glenn L. Martin, only California prize winner at the Los Angeles meet in December. Of the Eastern men developed during 1910 there are pictures of J. .1. Frisbie, now with the International Aviators, and of Charles Morok, who, after three days of practice, safely flew over Newark, N. .1. A photographic reproduction records the first flight of a single-propeller machine at Denver. Colo., which performance came too late for record in type matter.
Mention is made of the first successful flights in each section of the country—in each individual State and city wherever possible. Many unusual types of machines are shown, some of which never have flown, and others, such as the machines of M. B. Sellers and D. H. Gordon, which have flown with less than 10 h. p.
Almost every machine mentioned is a distinctly local product, made by the man who also taught himself to fly it. Most of the men whose names and whose records are contained in it will preserve "American Amateur Aviation" as a cherished possession. Sketchy as it is, it is the first attempt to publish in collected form the results of the first popular fever for aviation.
FAIRCHILD MONOPLANE WRECKED.
THK all-steel monoplane of W. L. Fair-child, which is the only one of its kind in all the world, was unfortunately wrecked on February 11 while making a turn, with Frank Schumacher pilot. The machine had left the ground and was turning in a fresh wind. One wing seemed to turn suddenly to a vertical position.
The monoplane designed by W. L. Fairchild was built last summer at Mineola, and a month ago made its first flights, it is unique by reason of its employment of two chain-driven propellers at the forward edge of the main planes, which are set at a slight dihedral angle. This angle had been frequently adjusted, as well as the angle of incidence. The changing of the former seemed to have a very direct effect on the speed of the machine.
Very good stability was one marked feature, laid by Mr. Fairchild at the door of the low center of gravity. The entire framework is of steel, in the use of which Mr. Fairchild claims great advantages. in practicing over the frozen fields no breakages have occurred, save a bolt in the spring shock absorbers.
The 6-cylinder, 100-125-h. p., 2-cycle Emerson engine drives in opposite directions by Diamond chains through tubes two big Gibson propellers.
During the past two months the machine has been out every day that the wind permitted, and even on the days of flying, the Wind was quite strong.
The Burgess machine met with a mishap the same day while Hllliard was flying, the chassis giving way at a bad place In the grounds,
A double set of controls will be fitted for .Miss Draper to use in Iter flying lessons.
The Payne Curtiss-copy has been out making its trials.
It is possible that both the Aeronautical Po-eiety and the Aero Club of America will abandon present quarters and move their sheds to a location further to the east, as the improvements of the local land company are beginning to interfere.
In this issue will be found the first published photograph of the Walden-Dyott monoplane in flight, it is a bona fide picture, however poor.
HILLIARD FLYING AT MINEOLA.
\Villiam Hilliard, who took the Burgess-Curtis Model D to Mineola after the Palace Show, lias been doing fine flying every day the wind permitted, except for a couple of accidents to his Indian motor, when the crank case was blown out by a backfire and one cylinder cracked. These were fixed promptly, as the factory expressed parts at once. Several passengers have been carried, among them Miss Catherine Draper and A. Leo Stevens.
On Feb. 7 Mr, Hilliard took up at one time as passengers Miss Catherine Draper, of 42 West Sixty-eighth street, New York, and A. Leo Stevens. On the same day Mr. Hilliard took up his mechanic, Frank Lawson, and his baby. This was with heavy snow on the ground.
Mr. Hilliard is desirous of getting his pilot license before he takes the machine to the Boston Show,
WINTERj FLYING AT M I N E O L A
The Wright Company has licensed the Burgess Company & Curtis, of Marblehead, Mass., to build aeroplanes under the Wright patents for sporting purposes only. The purchaser using this machine for exhibition work, like those who use Wright machines for like purpose, can secure a license for the use of the machine as a means of profit from the Wright Company.
This defines the policy of the Wright Company as not endeavoring to restrict the manufacture or use of aeroplanes, but rather the encouragement of their manufacture under a fair recognition of the patents.
W. Starling Burgess and a friend have been at Augusta, Ga., the Wright training camp, learning to fly. The training is done at the risk of the Wright Company, which assumes all breakage, and the pupil can take as many lessons as he likes.
The Burgess Company & Curtis is the first company in this country licensed lo build under the Wright patents. This special privilege is due, according to Wilbur Wright, to the excellence of Burgess-Curtis construction and the reputation of Mr. Burgess in the yacht industry.
Pupils will now be accepted by the Burgess Company for instruction in flying as soon as the field at Squantum, Mass., is put in proper order for the purpose. Indications promise a very busy season both for instruction and building aeroplanes.
Upward of 100 Wright biplanes are listed as put out by the Wright Company, or licensed foreign concerns, in Fred T. Jane's "Flying Annual."
Thirty-seven owners of Curtiss machines are given, among which one notes with interest the names of C. F. Bishop, Col. E. H. R. Green. Clifford B. Harmon and J. H. McAlman. A. C. Triaca. more or less known to fame, has no less than four. How sad this all is—and to think that the unfortunate Triaca has yet to have his first aeroplane ride!
FABWELL GETS RADICAL PROPELLER RESULTS.
F. O. Fat-well, of the Adams-Farwell Company, has been conducting a series of experiments of some months' duration, testing the comparative efficiency of single high-speed propellers of various shapes, pitches and diameters; two propellers at slower speed side by side, Wright fashion; and two propellers on same axis run in opposite direction.
An electric motor was used and the power in current consumption was accurately tabulated. The propellers were journaled at the end of a long arm or whirling table similar to that used by Eangley and Maxim. The thrust, propeller speed, power consumption, were taken with the propellers held stationary, then the arm was allowed to whirl and speed and pull were taken.
These experiments, together with numerous photographs, will be put in shape for publication in the near future.
Mr. Farwell only hoped the arrangement of two propellers on the same axis would approximate in efficiency the two propellers side by side. "The tests proved the new arrangement innni efficient than the side by side arrangement, not taking into consideration the transmission losses of tliis system, and as the new system lias no more transmission loss than (lie single direct-connected propeller, the efficiency is greatly in favor of the new system.
"This efficiency was not what was expected or sought after, however. Our association with revolving cylinder motor for twelve years lias shown us the limitations of this type of motor wilh stationary crank shaft very clearly. At moderate cylinder revolution speed, it is unquestionably tlx- most efficient and best cooled motor in existence.
"We are building a much larger motor, embodying several novel features which we are
Walden-Dyott Monoplane in Flig-ht.
not quite ready to make public in detail. This motor will retain the revolving cylinder air cooled features which we originated and have used in automobiles since 1898.
"The greatest departure from revolving cylinder motor practice which has now ceased to be considered freakish is the feature of revolving the crank shaft as well as the cylinder, in the opposite direction, of course.
"In use in air crafts and motor boats, one propeller will be connected direct to the sleeve extending from the revolving cylinders, and another propeller will be connected direct to the crank shaft and revolve in the opposite direction.
"The cylinders will revolve at about S00 r. p. m. and will drive a 9-ft. 6-in. to 10-ft. direct-connected propeller. The crank shaft will revolve in the opposite direction at about 1.000 r. p. m. and will drive a 7-ft. 6-in. to S-ft. direct-connected propeller. The piston speed will be equivalent to that of an ordinary motor at 1,800 r. p. m. A 36 and 30-in. propeller will be used in motor boats.
"The turning torque is completely absorbed by the oppositely revolving propellers. As no turning torque is communicated to the craft, it may be made lighter and the ill effect of this reacting torque on light crafts bavins large power and large propellers is entirely eliminated. The power of this new motor will be considerable above 100 h.p.
"The ignition system, three independent means, valve mechanism and fuel injection system (no carburetor is used) are subjects of pending patents and will be described in detail at ihe proper time. A motor embodying all these new features has been in operation and under test for several months. There will be no motors offered for sale for some time."
Please allow'me to express my appreciation of your valuable paper,!evciy issue of which I carefully read from cover to cover. I have in more than one instance fniniil single articles worth lo me many times the amount of I yearns subscription, h*. J. DIXON.
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At the recent Harvard-Boston Meet* at* Atlantic, the Wright. Flyer, in competition with Bleriot*, Farman, Curtiss and other machines, took first* prize in duration, distance, altitude, accuracy of landing, slow flight* and the Hammond Cup for bomb throwing.
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This pieture shows part of the factory of the Cireene Company. Rochester, N. Y., and some of the
3-inch Palmer Tires used on the Greene Aeroplanes.
-feAdmJt, THE B. F. GOODRICH COMPANY
Ely Landing* on the Battleship.
By Cleve T. Shaffer
S101,FRIDGE FIELD, San Francisco, so named by the Board of Judges in honor of Lieut. Selfridge, the first army officer to be killed in an aeroplane accident, was the scene of considerable aerial activity from Jan. 7 to 25, inclusive, it being the first glimpse of flying the San Francisco populace had seen since Paulhan made several short flights last year. Radley, Brookins, Latham, Parmalee. Willard and Luailiimi^participated in the ten days of actual flying.
The second day was the banker day in attendance, it being estimated that over 100,000 people were present, and considering the poor flights made on that day it is a credit to San Francisco's interest in aeronautics that the attendance was good the rest of the meet.
Aside from the military aspect given by Ely's flight to the cruiser and return, the participation of United States troops in various manoeuvres, the meet was, with the exception of cross-country flights by Latham and Radley, and Parmalee's new American duration record, a number of short exhibition flights. Hie contest element still being missing. The flights were, with the above exceptions, unspectacular, due to several causes.
No doubt the recent death of Hoxey had its psychological effect upon the aviators and tempered their usual performances. Then, too, the exceeding parsimony shown, among other things, in the construction of the flimsy •'shelters," with open sides and ends, and roof of light canvas or sheeting, which allowed the rain to saturate the machines, ruining their finish and making them unsafe, had its effect also on the aviators.
Much fault was also found with the field selected. The course, laid off in a 2Vz kilometer oval, was very bad, in fact was claimed by the aviators to be the worst they had ever flown over. Several deep gullies which transversed the grounds were popularly and appropriately named, "Calamity Gulch" being one that did not belie its name. "Radley's Bog" claimed several, while one of the fences
which bisected the lower field and had been unaccountably left standing, put an end to Latham's machine after a wreck In almost the same place the day before. Two or three small lakes added to the interest, one unfortunate novice landing in cold water up to hit. waist. When such premier aviators as Latham, Radley and Ely came to grief it is certainly not strange that most of the novices met with disaster.
With Latham disposed of, Ely was easily the star, his remarkable flight to the cruiser being the event of the meet. Parmalee's breaking of the American endurance record and the entry of Latham through the Golden Gate were the other prominent features.
Inclement weather after the first few days was rsponsible for some postponements.
The grandstand and hangars were placed at right angles to each other at one end of the field, the announcing board being placed opposite and forming the end pylon around which 1 lie circuit was made. Events were not run off in accordance with the programme. Tn fact,, flying was done whenever machines were ready and aviators so minded. Therefore, no daily record will be given.
No attempt was made for altitude, though the barographs were hung on the machines several times. There was a noticeable absence of the celebrated Wright "spiral; Brookins did it but once. Another missing Wright feature was the "Baby Wright," which was on exhibition in the hangar but did not go out more than once.
Military uniforms were very much in evidence, the second battalion of the 30th Infantry being encamped on the field. Results gained, viewed from a military standpoint, while more or less instructive to the officers and men, were of small actual value and proved but little that had not been done before, despite the newspaper gush, excepting, of course, Ely's flight to the cruiser and some wireless telegraphy while in flight.
FEATURES SAN_ FRANCISCO MEET.
P. O. Parmalee (Wright) makes new American endurance record—3 h., 39 m., 49^8.
Eugene Ely (Curtiss) lands on deck of
battleship and departs again. Wireless tests.
PRIZES WON BY AMATEUR AVIATORS AT SELFRIDGE.
H. A. Robinson, in standard Curtiss machine, $1,333.33.
Fred. J. Wiseman, in original biplane, $1,283.33.
Lincoln Beachey, in standard Curtiss machine, $858.33.
Clarence H. Walker, in standard Curtiss machine, $250.
THE USE OF WIRELESS.
The wireless set weighed 3 2 pounds. it consisted of a small spark-gap and interrupter, an ordinary telegraph key, a small storage cell and a shunt to prevent overcharging the coil. All of these were combined in a box which was carried by Lieut. Paul Beck upon his lap. For an aerial 120 feet of stranded phosphor-bronze wire was used, pendant from the tail of Parmalee's Wright aeroplane and connected with the sending apparatus by a No. 16 copper insulated wire. For inductive ground the other side of the sending apparatus was connected to the guy wires. The wave length measured by the wave meter of the receiving station was 525 meters in length.
Willard also had a small set installed, and in one test he received successfully, while in flight, instructions to turn and land.
Pou&le ff/fM£ w/ch C/?y&/r B* TWO TTie
How Ely Was Stopped by the Sand Bags.
BOMB DROPPING TESTS.
The bomb dropping experiments were productive of no really important information, except to arouse the public to its possibilities, tests being made at altitudes where ground Are would annihilate the aviators.
Two classes of bombs were used (both the invention of Lieut. M. S. Crissy), one a percussion shell which explodes on contact with the ground, and one which can be timed to explode at any height. The former consisted of a pear shaped iron casting filled with a light charge of*black powder and shrapnel bullets, an ordinary .3S caliber, blank cartridge setting-off the charge. The latter shell had a combination of time and percussion fuse, the construction of which was not explained, his intention being to offer it to the War Department.
LARGE NUMBER OF NOVICES.
The large entry of novices was one of the features of the meet. Twenty in all were entered and nine of them flew, that is, across "Calamity Gulch" at last. This ravine, a little past the starting line, had sufficient slope
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(WON THRICE AND FINALLY BY GLENN H. CURTISS)
WAS THE FIRST AVIATION TROPHY
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to get most of the machines off the ground, in the majority of eases to be completely wrecked coming to earth on the opposite side.
The "novice" class comprised really truly novices, near novices, and alleged professionals. The latter were allowed to compete over the protest of the Pacific Aero Club and genuine novices, despite the fact, it is claimed, that their professionalism is a matter of public knowledge and record. It is rumored that the high handed action of those in charge, as representatives of the National Council, will have its effect at the council's next meeting. The sanction for the meet was secured by the Pacific Aero Club. The members, however, received but scant consideration, being denied any privileges.
^ B° ft£/-ff£lEr?TOA
Fred Wiseman (Wiseman biplane witli Hall-Scptt motor), and Clarence Walker (Curtiss). were the novice stars. Wiseman made several very good flights, his turns being taken without trouble. Wiseman was the star of the novice class, though Robinson stands first in the list of prize winners. Robinson was trained for professional work at the Curtiss camp at San Diego before being entered in the novice class at San Francisco. Wiseman built his own machine last year and has had to dig out all his information for himself. A complete description of the Wiseman machine appeared in the September, 1'JlU. number. Walker with a brand new machine was a clever beginner and promises to be a brilliant flyer.
T. S. Kerns (Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller) of Chico, Cal., in a Curtiss-type machine, of crude construction, liew acmss "Calamity Gulch" several times, the last time wrecking the machine beyond repair.
Giselman, in a composite type machine, Hew across several times also, with the same result upon landing.
George H. Loose piloted the Farman type machine of Sheaf & He Berrie within a few feet of the half mile line, when the crowd upon the unpoliced course caused him to swerve and strike a bank, the result being as usual. When the ciowd had left a microscope was needed to find what remained of the machine. Mr. Loose had a narrow escape, as the heavy engine crashed down upon the seat from which he had been thrown out.
Lincoln Beach y (Curtiss), and Robinson (Curtiss). with their experience naturally flew very well.
Rex Young (Curtiss-type). in making his initial attempt, lost his lateral equilibrium and came down on one end with slight damage.
Louis Fortney. in a large Antoinette-type machine, got over the first gulch twice. On his second Might he crashed into the side fence with results the same as that of the oilier novices.
O. M eye lh offer in his triplane got off the ground for a short distance.
W. c. Wheeler ( Hit riot-type), and the Brewer Bros, (composite), were under-powered and unable to rise. With sufficient power both should be successful.
C. E. Lambmth, with a multiplane, popularly known as the "Cathedral." ran about over tlx ground.
ELY LANDS OX WARSHIP.
(>:i .1 miliary IS Ely. for the first time in the history of aviation, landed his aeroplane cm (lie deck of a vessel. He left tin- field in his new Curtiss ill at 10:45 a. m. and at 11:01 landed on an inclined platform erected on the stern of a cruiser anchored in San Francisco Bay. Sand bags were at either ends of a series of ropes placed one after the other on (lie platform. Two wooden rails extended longitudinally, which raised the ropes several inches above the hoards. On each side of the platform were tarpaulins, witli sailois spread about, to catch the aviator in case lie fell or missed the platform.
.As the machine struck, the hooks usually employed for digging in the groun 1 to stop (he aeroplane (when the elevator is pushed far for-word. as shown in the photograph), caught up these ropes and the weight of the sand bags quickly retarded tiie speed of the machine. The illustration shows the machine at the moment of landing, before the hooks started their work.
Three-quarters of an hour, later, the machine having been turned around. Ely left the war \essel and returned to the Held, where he was given an ovation.
NEW ENDURANCE RECORD PRODUCED.
San Francisco's aviation meet produced a new American endurance record on January 22, when Philip O. Parmalee, piloting a Wright biplane, remained aloft for 3 hours, 39 minutes and id 1-5 seconds.
At Los Angeles Arch Hoxsey, who later was killed, was credited with a record of 3 hours, 16 minutes, 50 seconds.
"1 could have remained up longer." said Parmalee. "but my seat grew so hard and my hands and feet so numbed with the cold that T decided to come down after clinching the American record."
The long Might was uneventful.
AERO CALENDAR TOR THE TJ. S.
Feb. 11-13—Salt Lake City. I'lah, Curtiss
aviators and novices.
-------Baton Rouge, La.
Feb. 9-13—El Paso, Tex.. International Aviators.
F< b. 1S-26—Tampa. Fla.. Curtiss aviators (Beachey and Ward).
Pel). 20-25—Be ston. Mass.. 2d annual show.
Oct. fi—International Balloon Race. Place lo be named later.
March 6-11—Aeroplane flights looked for al San Bernardino, Cal.
A St. Louis lawmaker has introduced a bill in the State Legislature prohibiting aeroplane ascents to a height exceeding 1,000 feet, and aviators are required to file a $10,(100 bond that they observe the law. Penalty is a 5-v< ar piison sentence and failing to file the bond' the crime is classed as attempted suicide.
This progressive solon must think that a fall if 1.000 feet is not necessarily an inconvenience. It is hoped that this foolish bill will meet its just reward.
The town of Modesto. Calif., has inserted a clause in its charter providing for erection and ina'ntenance of municipal aeroplane landings when needed.
THE SAN DIEGO MEET.
SAN DIEGO, Cal., Jan. 27-28.—On the day scheduled for the first meet to be held by the Aero Club of San Diego, Jan. 27-28, 1911, the weather was threatening. It rained all of Friday night and continued to rain until about 1 o'clock Saturday. At this time the rain ceased, although the sky remained cloudy. Those conducting the meet decided to have it rain or shine, and promptly at 2 o'clock Curtiss was seen approaching from North Island, at a height of about 200 feet. He followed the beach line to the end of the island, crossed the channel between that and Coronado Island, and entered the field at its sotithern end. After circling a few times, he alighted gracefully on the sod in front of the grand stand. He was rapidly followed by Ely and Robinson, his two aviators.
On account of the unsettled weather the crowds were small, but enthusiastic and appreciative. The flight made by Curtiss and his aviators developed features new to these machines in Southern California. Curtiss had earned the title of cautious because of his carefulness, but at this meet he showed that the Curtiss machine was certainly capable of all of the air gymnastics that the Wright machines had been executing.
Ely especially developed a desire to out-do Brookins or Hoxey in the ocean wave and the spiral dip. The exhibitions given here were certainly a credit to the Curtiss flyers. A race was arranged between Robinson and Ely, which aroused great enthusiasm amongst the spectators. They left the grounds together and circled the course several times with Ely above and Robinson below. At 4 o'clock the machines left for North Island, and after another hour the crowds dispersed.
Sunday, the second day of the meet, was fine. Not a breath of air stirred the whole day. A large crowd of people, numbering probably ten thousand, gathered at the Country Club grounds to see the flying. The flights of Saturday were repeated, and both Ely and Curtiss did some skillful manoeuvring, showing that the Curtiss machine could be handled with certainty. The turns were made abruptly and at a steep angle, and on one occasion Curtiss out-did Ely in the execution of air stunts by chasing a toy balloon, turning first one way and then another, then upward and then downward, with ease and quickness in order to catch the balloon.
An interesting feature of the meet in the afternoon was an attempt to fly made by Lieut. Ellyson of the United States Navy. He was attending the meet at the instance of the government of the United States, Curtiss having agreed to teach a naval officer and an army officer to fly. Lieut. Ellyson drove the machine straight down the field without leaving the ground. He then turned the machine toward the starting point and started back. About a third of the distance from the start he left the ground abruptly and rose to a height of twenty-five feet. His machine swayed from side to side, and darted toward the ground, and as he neared it one side tilted to a sharp angle and struck on one corner, smashing the ribs on that end, but otherwise not damaging the machine. After that the machine ran forward on its wheels and came to a stop without further damage.
This was Ellyson's first flight, and the young lieutenant kept his head and controlled his machine in such a way as to demonstrate the fact that a little practice would make him a skilled aviator.
This meet certainly showed that rain storms are more favorable to flying than dry, hot weather. The wind is even and more steady, and flying less dangerous. The San Diego meet was a success, scientifically, financially and practically, and demonstrated the suitability of this locality for meets of this kind.
H. LA V. TWINING.
FORT WORTH FLIGHTS.
FORT WORTH, Tex., Jan. 12-13.—January 12, the opening day of the meet of the International Aviators, was characterized by a high southerly wind, varying from twenty to thirty-five miles per hour. At 1 p. m. Frisble had his man-lifting kites flying over the field, and the aviators and one or two of the spectators allowed themselves to be carried a hundred or more feet off the ground. Fully seventeen thousand people witnessed this exhibition, and when later in the afternoon some signs of impatience were manifest, Roland Garros, despite the remonstrances of Simon and Barrier, climbed into his 50-H. P. Bleriot and was off. When about two hundred feet in the air and directly above the grand stand, a sudden puff of wind caught his machine and a quaver of the wings showed the danger of his position. With the same ease and skill displayed in all his work, however, he righted himself and made a spectacular flight to the north, over North Fort AVorth, thence east and south in return to the aviation field. Great fears for his safety were entertained when he attempted to land in the face of the wind, but again he showed his superior mastery. This was the only flight of the day, Audemars having given up all attempts to fly the "Demoiselle."
It was well after 5 o'clock of the second, another windy day, when Rene Simon pointed the nose of his machine toward the clouds and followed very much the same course as Garros on the preceding clay. Audemars showed great skill with his little "Demoiselle," although the wind overturned the machine when he made his last flight. The machine was slightly damaged, but the aviator was uninjured.
It was to be regretted that the wind interfered so seriously with the flights of the aviators, but the general feeling was one of satisfaction, and the men who are thus furthering the science of aviation stand high in the estimation of the citizens of Fort Worth.
HOMER H. MARTIN. HAVANA MEET.
Havana, Cuba, Jan. 29-Feb 5.—At the Havana meet of the Curtiss aviators, McCurdy, Beachey, Ward and Russell made a good exhibition of flights, often in strong winds. On the closing day, J. A. D. McCurdy flew from Camp Columbia, over sea and land, to Morro Castle and back, a distance of about 1G miles, thereby winning the $3,000 prize. He circled Morro Castle twice. In the evening the newspapers entertained the aviators and presented each one with a cup. President Gome/ was at a luncheon given in honor of the aviators, and $6,000 was subscribed for the encouragement of aviation in Cuba.
Beachey flew the Albany-New York machine, and Ward flew his new 8-cylinder machine for the first time.
FOUR TYPES OF CURTISS MACHINES.
There are now four types of Curtiss machines. One is known as the "Rheims racer" type (I) and is sold with either four or eight-cylinder engines. As will be remembered, this is a duplicate of the first machine which was purchased by the Aeronautical Society. The second edition of the Curtiss type, known as the "Belmont," is the same as the previous one in essential details. The planes are, however, double covered, and there are minor changes in the engine bed. The planes are in sections and each section is interchangeable. This Is the Curtiss IT. This is true also of all the later types. The new Curtiss III. machine, flown first at Los Angeles, was developed at the San Diego winter experimental grounds. A full description of this new type is given elsewhere in this Issue. The fourth model, designed for passenger carrying and military work, is about the size of the large Curtiss machine built by Willard last summer, of which full details and drawings were published in the September number of AERONAUTICS, with the exception that the alterations adopted for the No. TIL machine are also carried out in the No. IV.
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San Antonio, Tex., Feb. 2-6.—Moisant International Aviators. Hamilton flew in old-time form. Owing to the nearness of Fort Sam Houston, a military aspect was given the show. The details of the experiments will be found elsewhere in this issue.
TRINIDAD, Colo., Jan. 22-23.—The Mathew-son machine (with Elbridge engine and Gibson
propeller) succeeded in flying short distances after a half day was lost in preparation. The high altitude of Trinidad (6,000 feet), made flying difficult.
KEY WEST, Fla., Jan. 2.S-30.—McCurdy tlew gratuitously before trying the Havana Might.
SEATTLE, Wash., Feb. 4.—"Willard and Ely made exhibition flights.
DURING the meet of the Moisant International Aviators in San Antonio. Feb. 2-6. some experiments were made by Brigadier-General Hoyt, in command of Fort Sam Houston, First Lieutenant B. D. Foulois being directly in charge.
Three problems were arranged, as follows:
PROBLEM I. General Situation:
Hostile artillery is located on the high ground in vicinity of the Insane Asylum, south of Fair Grounds. Required:
1. Exact location of guns.
2. Number of guns.
3. Supporting troops, if any.
4. Location of supporting troops.
* * *
This problem will be divided into two phases: (1) The artillery will take up a position, assimilating service conditions, and will endeavor to conceal its position from aerial reconnaissance. The aeroplane will be sent out to locate and report upon the location, number and disposition of guns and troops. In this phase of the problem there will be no firing, as it is simply desired to test the visual qualities of the pilots or observers. (2) Upon the return of the aeroplanes, the pilots or observers will render their reports. They will then be required to make a second reconnaissance to verify their reports.
Upon the second appearance of the aeroplanes the artillery will open fire with blank ammunition. There was an umpire for artillery, to report upon position of guns, use of artificial cover, methods of securing ranges, kind of fire employed, disposition of caissons.
A second umpire was appointed for aeroplanes, to note altitude of machines while making reconnaissance, methods of approaching enemy's position, qualifications of non-military observers for military scouting.
PROBLEM II.—ARTILLERY ATTACK.
Aeroplanes will be sent out from Fair Grounds until they have gained a sufficient distance (approximately 2 miles) and altitude (1.000 ft. or higher) to give the service field guns an opportunity to fire upin the machines.
The artillery will then enter the Fair Grounds enclosure at a gallop and go into action in front of the grand stand.
Umpire for Artillery:
To report upon methods of securing ranges: artificial means used to aid firing: kinds of fire employed.
Umpire for Aeroplanes:
To report upon altitudes of machines, with reference to safety; movements of machines after firing commences.
PROBLEM III.—AEROPLANE ATTACK.
The field pieces used in Problem No. 2 will be left in position and a normal danger zone will be drawn around them. Men and horses to be removed a safe distance. The aeroplanes will then be sent up, pilots or observers being armed with dummy bombs.
All aeroplanes must operate at an altitude of 1,000 ft. or more.
Umpires to report upon altitude, hits, etc.
Material to be furnished and work to be done by Aviation Committee.
50 bombs, plaster Paris,
5 canvas bagfs,
Bombs to be at least 3 in. in diameter and have a weight of I lb.
Each bag to be made of canvas, or other strong material, and large enough to carry 10 bombs.
In addition to the above material, it will he necessary to have several semi-circular mounds thrown up in the Fair Grounds enclosure for the use of the artillery in Problem No. 2.
Detailed information as to dimensions of mounds will be furnished later.
In Problem No. 1, Simon and Garros, in Bleriot monoplanes, were sent out to solve the first phase of this problem. Simon maintained an altitude of approximately 500 ft. during the entire reconnaissance. His information was very accurate, but under active service conditions he would have been shot to pieces Hying directly toward the field guns at such a low altitude.
Garros conducted his reconnaissance at an altitude of approximately 2,000 ft., and approached the enemy's position by the (lank, which required very rapid changes in the position of the guns, and consequently gave the enemy very little opportunity for firing upon him. His information, however, was very inaccurate. He reported a small body of cavalry, and no guns.
The only troops taking part in the problem were three gun sections of field artillery. In the second phase of the problem Barrier was sent out to verify the reports of Simon and Garros. He conducted his reconnaissance at an altitude of approximately 600 ft., and approached the enemy's position by the left flank.
In less than one minute after he arose in the ail- the enemy's artillery opened Are, and continued to fire upon him during his entire reconnaissance. He passed so close to the guns that the concussion, during the firing, disturbed the equilibrium of his machine. He secured accurate data of the enemy's strength and dispositions, but he probably would have been put out of action, due to venturing so close to the enemy's guns.
PROBLEM NO. 2.
Simon and Garros were again employed in this problem. They were sent into the air, and as soon as they were clear of the aviation field a battery of artillery entered the field and opened fire on them.
Simon circled around the field at an altitude of approximately 500 ft., whereas Garros speedily climbed to an altitude of approximately 3,000 ft. Simon was ruled out of action, but Garros was considered to have gotten away safely.
PROBLEM No. 3.
Barrier was sent up to try his skill in this problem. A stiff breeze was blowing, which made it extremely difficult to control the monoplane and drop bombs at the same time. He only tried one shot at the target, at an altitude of approximately 300 ft., and missed the right end of the target by 75 ft.
These problems were worked out February i. 1011. Lieut. E. St. .1. Greble. Jr.. 3d Field Artillery, commanded the artillery. Lieut. W. I. Holliday, 3d Field Artillery, was the umpire for artillerv. Lieut. B. D. Foulois, Signal Corps, and Lieut. J. R. Lynch, 3d Field Artillery, were umpires for aeroplanes.
S E F
The respect and good-will of our patrons is our most valued ass We try to deserve this regard by telling the truth in selling <
product and in giving every possible assistance after we have mad«
Four members of the Elbridge Engine Company reported 1< week from four widely separated parts of the country. One 1( visited patrons West of Denver; another,, the vicinity of St. EouiH third returned from Boston and Xew York; a fourth from Florida.
Each man brought back the story of confidence in the comp;< supported by "repeat"" orders from previous purchasers. W
was most appreciated was the company's willingness to more tl(
£T .1. X. Sparling, in ordering his third Elbridge Engine sa ^■U "Besides your engine I have purchased three other makes. J Elbridge was the only real flier, and yours the only company fm which I received fair and courteous treatment after 1 had bought fr< them."
c c c
E. L. Mathewson, purchasing his second Elbridge Engine, win "Congratulations on the superb new engine.''
T. \Y Benoist, with a new order for the Aeronautical Su}^ Company of St. Louis, remarked:
"I'm afraid the time may soon be here when we shall be abl^ sell nothing but Elbridge Engines. Afraid, for fear when j J get so busy you will not take such good care of your customers."
ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPAN
During the past two years we have corresponded with nearly \» fifteen thousand men interested in aviation in all parts of the id. We have had men on every flying Held in the country. We ^v first-hand much of what has been tried, what has failed, what has reeded.
What Elbridge Engines accomplished in aviation during 1010
• is a matter of record. When we say that our ]91] Elbridge ^ro Special'" is the finest aviation engine on the market the state-it is based on experience and investigation. If we knew anything er we should build it. because we have every facility for doing so.
We have in stock at this writing engines and parts valued at up-
• wards of Fifty Thousand Dollars. We can duplicate your engine my part of it on short notice. Between two and three hundred i-idge "Featherweights" were sold last year, but no one ever paid i. penny for the replacement of a broken part.
| Our prices are the same to you as to your neighbor. Try to buy I* a second-hand Elbridge Engine and you will find the price asked ist about what we ask for a new one. We give our agents a small ■mission, not so they will sell more engines, but because we want a •esentative to help you after you buy. Our line for 1911 includes:
Hinder "Featherweight.'* 30 h. p., $ 750.00
Hinder "Featherweight," 40 h. p., -$1050.00
Hinder "Featherweight."' GO h. p.. -$1850.00
rlinder "Aero Special.'' 4-0-60 h.p., $1,350.00. complete fittings.
Hinder tkAero Special," GO-90 h.p., $"2150.00,
CULVER ROAD, ROCHESTER, N. Y.
HOW TO BUILD A CURTISS-TYPE BIPLANE^
By G. H. Godley
The main beams offer no especial difficulties. They are ovals, 1*4 by 1% inches, all 6 feet long except the eight end ones, which are 6 feet 2 inches. The beams of the central section should be of ash, or else should be thicker than the others. In the latter case they must be tapered at the ends so that the clamping sleeves will fit, and the additional wood must all be on the lower side so that the ribs will not be thrown out of alignment. The spruce used for the other beams should be reasonably clear and straight-grained, but a small knot or two does not matter provided it comes near the end of the beam. The beams may be cut to the oval shape by the saw-mill or planed down by hand.
"Fish-shaped" or "stream-line" section, as it is variously known, is used for the struts. It is questionable whether this makes any great difference in the wind resistance, but it seems to be the fashion. It is more important that the struts be larger in the middle than at the ends, as this strengthens them considerably. At their ends the struts have ferrules of thin 1-inch brass or steel tubing, and fit into the sockets which clamp the ribs and beams together. The material is spruce, but the four central struts which carry the engine bed should either be ash or else of larger size, say I1/! by 3 inches.
CARE NECESSARY TO GET PLANES PARALLEL.
The front struts must be longer than the rear ones by the thickness of a main rib at the point where the rear strut bolt passes through it, less the thickness of the rib ferrule through which the bolt of the front strut must pass. However, the first distance is not really the actual thickness of the rib, but the distance between the top of the rear beam and the bottom of the strut socket. In the drawings the difference in length between the front and rear struts is given as 2 inches, but it would be better for the builder to leave the rear struts rather long and then measure the actual distance when assembling, making the struts to fit. The ends of the struts should also be countersunk enough to clear the head of the socket bolt.
One of the things which the builder cannot well escape buying outright are the strut sockets. These are cup-shaped affairs of pressed steel, which sell at 20 cents each. Thirty-two of them will be required for the main frame, and a dozen more can advantageously be used in the front and rear controls, although for this purpose they are not absolutely necessary. These can be had in a larger oval size suitable for the four central struts that carry the engine bed. as well as in the standard 1-inch size. The bolts which project through the bottoms of the sockets are ordinary %-inch stove bolts, with their heads brazed to the sockets.
For the rear struts, where the bolt must pass through the slanting main rib, it is advisable to make angle washers to put under the socket and also between the beam and the rib. These washers are made by sawing up a piece of heavy brass tubing, or a bar with a Vi-inch hole drilled into its center, the saw cuts being taken alternately at right angles and at 60 degrees to the axis of the tube.
The sleeves which clamp together the ends of the beams are made of sheet steel about 20 gauge. The steel is cut out on the pattern given in the drawing, and the 3/16-inch bolt holes drilled in the flanges. The tlanges are bent over by clamping the sheet in a vise along the bending line, and then beating it down with a hammer. Then the sleeves can be bent into shape around a stray end of beam wood. The holes for the strut socket bolts should not be drilled until ready to
assemble. ordinarily 3/16-inch stove bolts will do to clamp the flanges together.
Having reached this stage, the builder must now supply himself with turnbuckles. As stated above, these may either be purchased or made by hand. It is possible to use either one or two turnbuckles on each wire. One is really sufficient, but two, one at each end, add but little weight and give greater leeway in making adjustments. As there are about
Strut Socket Attached to Lower Bear Beam. This System Is Employed by H. C. Cook, of New York, in His Curtiss-Type Biplane.
115 wires in the machine which need turnbuckles. the number required will be either 115 or 230, depending on which of these plans is followed. Those of the turnbuckles to be used on the front and rear controls and the ailerons, about one-fifth of the total number, may be of lighter stock than those used on wires which carry part of the weight of the machine.
MAKING TURNBUCKLES FOR THE TRUSS WIRES.
On the supposition that the builder will make his own turnbuckles this process will now be described. As will be seen from the illustrations, the turnbuckles are simply bicycle spokes, with the nipple caught in a loop of sheet steel, and the end of the spoke itself twisted into an eye to which the truss-wire can be fastened. The sheet steel used should be 16 or IS gauge, and may be cut with a heavy pair of tinsnips to the pattern. The spokes should be 3/3 2-inch diameter over the threaded part. The eye should be twisted up tight and brazed so that it cannot come apart. The hole in the middle of each strip is of course drilled the same size as the spoke nipple: the holes in the ends are 3/16-inch.
In the original Curtiss machines the turnbuckles were strung on the socket bolts one after another, sometimes making a pack of them half an inch thick. A much neater construction is the one shown in the drawings, in which the bolt pierces a single plate with lugs to which the turnbuckles are riveted. These plates are of different shapes, with two. three or four lugs, according to the places where they are to be used. They are cut from steel stock 3/32-inch thick, with Vi-inch holes for the socket bolts and 3/16-inch, or other convenient size, for the rivets that fasten on the turnbuckles.
* Begun in the T->t>ruarn t^»-t/xbe)\
" HOW 5MALL
\ ribs mm
front lateral beam rfbstem-
AILER0N5 AND edtiLbent BVDDERS
join at'YL '
i, detail or
/ FRONT WEEL
at cornep, reinforced v/th wood and tm.Mtertacked.
ATTACHMENT 5NALLSI33T0 BEAR BE ATI
E/y.rorm- bound' wt/iv/re Uireibri/
Mnlei back to seat, moved left or rigk by operator leaning ^L
Some More Details Useful in Building the Curtiss-Type Biplane
-30 to 75 H. P.
4 and 6 cylinders—
^TTThe most compact aero engine built—Special construction throughout—One piece aluminum crank case—Cylinders cast en block integral with intake manifold—Extra large valves —Hollow bored crank shaft, cut out of solid bar —Extra large BALL BEARINGS—Dual lubrica-cation system—Rotary oil and water pumps— Auxiliary exhaust—No vibration—Perfectly balanced— Mea (easy start) magneto — Sehebler carburetoi—Detroit radiator—Differential pitch propellei—1000 to 1500 r. p. m. — 300 to 500 lbs. thrust.
no extras-guaranteed deliveries
MADE IN DETROIT
For printed matter and other particulars, address
DETROIT AERONAUTIC CONSTRUCTION CO.
70 Crane Avenue Detroit, Michigan, U. S. A.
ready to run
"THE PROOF OF THE
20-24 Agnes Ave., Kansas City, Mo.
January 25th, 191 1
Mr. E. W. Bonson,
806 1 I th Ave., New York City. Dear Sir :-
1 feel that 1 would like to let you know that since 1 received your 7ft. diameter by 4ft. pitch propeller for my biplane, which was built by Dr. W. Green, equipped with Elbridge 4-cylinder engine, 1 have done some highly satisfactory work, including 8Hj miles cross country, and over a city, 1,000 ft. altitude, and exceptionally short turns. You will appreciate from this, that every component of my machine is well proportioned, and suited to its work.
I feel perfectly satisfied with the propeller, which is of characteristic Gibson quality, and 1 shall certainly send further orders, when 1 require more.
Yours very truly,
4044 West Belle Place, St. Louis, Mo.
Mr. E. W. Bonson,
806 11th Ave., New York City. Dear Sir: -
1 want to thank you for the fair trealment you gave me in my propeller misfortunes, and to say a good word for the " Requa-Gibson Propeller." ^ The first propeller you shipped me got broken before 1 tried it, so 1 do not know the exact amount of thrust it delivered; but after I glued it together found it gave me from 365 lbs. thrust to 385 lbs. thrust at 1,000 R. P. M. more than 1 needed. «J The one you shipped me a few days ago 1 tried out to-day and found that it gave me from 385 lbs. to 400 lbs. thrust. I made two successful flights with it, and hope to make some more in the near future, if not, it will not be the propeller's fault. Thanking you again, I am.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) JOHN. J. dePRASLIN
(Signed) WILLIAM EVANS
PLENTY MORE IF UNCONVINCED
Quality? Yes. :: Price? Commensurate with good work. :: Helpful Treatment ? Ask any user. C.THE RESULT IS that about 90% of American Flyers are using these propellers. C,When I state that prominent aviators have bought, paid for, and are satisfied with my propellers, 1 can prove it. built to the design and under the personal supervision of
E. W. BONSON
HUGO C. GIBSON
806 11th Ave., N. Y. City
I'hone 3G7'2 Columbus See exhibit at "Aeronautics"
In anszvering advertisements please menticn this magazine.
TURNBUCKLE and pattern
O : 0
SLEEVE and pattern
i i j
Small Parts, Mostly of Sheet Steel, Used to Joint Together the Beams and Struts.
-_11° r —«-»
MAIN RIB (finished)
* * * /* V • i
SMALL RIB (finished) FRONT STRUT
Section of 5ection of STRUT BEAM
The Wooden Parts Necessary In Building up the Main Planes of the Biplane.
The relative merits of cable and piano wire for trussing have not yet been thoroughly thrashed out. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Most of the well-known builders use cable; yet if the difference between 1,000 feet of cable at 2y4 cents a foot (the price for 500-foot spools) and 8 pounds of piano wire at 70 cents a pound looks considerable to the amateur builder, let him by all means use the wire. The cable, if used, should be the 3/32-inch size, which will stand a load of 800 pounds; piano wire should be 24 gauge, tested to 745 pounds. It should be noted that there is a special series of gauges for piano wire—"music-wire gauge," it is called—in which the wire gets larger with the larger gauge numbers.
One by no means unimportant advantage of the piano wire is that it is easier to fasten into the turnbuckles. A small sleeve or ferrule, a %-inch length of %-inch tubing, is first strung on the wire. The end of the wire is then passed through the turnbuckle eye, bent up, thrust through the sleeve, and again bent down. When the machine is taken apart, the wire is not disconnected from the eye, but instead the turnbuckle spoke is unscrewed from the nipple. The shape of the sheet-steel loop should be such as to hold the latter in place. Cable, on the other hand, must be cut with about 2 inches to spare. After being threaded through the turnbuckle eye, the end is wound back tightly on itself and then soldered, to make certain that it cannot come undone.
Assembling the machine completely requires more space than is available in the average workshop. However, it is possible to assemble the sections of the planes in a comparatively small room, carrying the work far enough to make sure that everything will go together properly when the time comes for complete assembly at the testing ground. In this case, it is preferable to assemble the end sections first, stowing them away when complete to make room for the central section, on which the running gear and outriggers are to be built up.
TWO SECTIONS TO BE ASSEMBLED AT ONCE.
Either way, it is desirable to be able to assemble two sections at once, and this should be possible anywhere, as it only requires a space of about 6 by 13 feet. Two wood 2 by 4's about 12 feet long should be nailed down on blocks on the floor to make beds level, parallel to each other at a distance of 3 feet 6 inches on centers, and one 3 inches higher than the other. Strips of wood should be nailed on them so as to hold the main beams of the frame in place while assembling.
The two front and two rear beam sections are laid in place and joined with the sheet-steel sleeves; the flanges of the sleeves go on the inner sides of the beams. Then through the sleeves in the front beams, which are, of course, those on the higher bed, drill the holes for the strut socket bolts inch).
The holes for the outer ones go through the projecting ends of the beams; those for the inner ones are half in each of the abutting beams. At the end where the central section joins on, a short length of wood of the same shape as the beams may be inserted in the sleeve while drilling the hole. An assistant should hold the beams firmly together while the holes are being drilled.
Now lay in place the three main ribs belonging to the two sections under construction, and fasten them at the front ends by putting in place the strut socket. (See drawing.) The bed on which the assembling is being done should be cut away sufficiently under the joints to leave room for the projecting bolt ends. Set the ribs square with the front beams, and then arrange the rear beams so that their joints come exactly under the ribs; clamp the ribs down and drill a true vertical
hole through rib and beam, holding the two sections of the beam together as before. Then put the rear strut sockets in place, using angle washers (described previously) above and below the rib.
When the quick-detachable plan is used, the ribs at the inner ends of the double sections, where they join the central section, should be bolted on one inch from the ends of the beam, using i/i-inch stove bolts instead of socket bolts. The sleeves should be slotted so that they can slide off without removing these bolts, as the sleeves and the ribs which occupy the regular position over the joints of the beams belong to the central section.
The sections should now be strung up with the diagonal truss-wires, which will make them rigid enough to stand handling. The wires are attached at each end to the flange-bolts of the sleeves. Either one or two turn-buckles may be used on each wire, as explained before; if but one turnbuckle is used, the other end of the wire may conveniently be attached to a slip of sheet steel bent double and drilled for the bolt, like the sheet-steel loop of a turnbuckle.
The attachment, of whatever nature, should be put between the nut and the flange of the sleeve, not between the two flanges. Three or four small ribs go on each section; four are preferable on sections of full 6-foot length. They are, of course, evenly spaced on centers. At the front ends they are attached to the beam by wood screws through their flattened ferrules. The attachment to the rear beam is made with a slip of sheet steel % by 3 inches, bent over the rib and fastened to the beam at each side with a wood screw. A long wire nail is driven through the rib itself into the beam.
FIRST HAVE THE TWO WINGS COMPLETED.
Four double sections should be built up in this manner; the right and left upper and the right and left lower sections. Uppers and lowers are alike except for the inversion of the sockets in the upper sections. Rights and lefts differ in that the outer beams are long enough to All up the sleeves, not leaving room for another beam to join on.
Inserting the struts in their sockets between upper and lower sections of the same side will now form either of the two sides Of the machine complete. Care should be taken to get the rear struts the proper length with respect to the front ones to bring the upper and lower planes parallel. The distance from the top of the lower front beam to the top of the upper front beam should be the same as the distance between the rows of lacing holes in the upper and lower main ribs just above and below the rear struts—about 4 feet 6 inches. It should not be necessary to mention that the thick edges of the struts go to the front—they are "fish-shaped," and a fish is thicker at the head than at the tail.
The truss-wires may now be strung on in each square formed by struts, beams and main ribs, using turnbuckles as previously described. The wires should be taut enough to sing a low note when plucked between the thumb and finger; if the construction is accurate the frame-work will stand square and true with an even tension on all wires. It is permissible for the struts to slant backward a little, as seen from the side, but all should be perfectly in line.
For adjusting the turnbuckles the builder should make himself a handy little tool usually called a nipple wrench. It is simply a strip of steel about iy2 by y2 by 3/3 2 inches, with a notch cut in the middle of one of the long sides to fit the flattened ends of the turnbuckle nipples. This is much handier than the pliers, and does not burr up the nipples.
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More Power Less Gasoline—No Adjusting—No Priming—No Float Leveling No Springs
AUXILIARY AIR THROUGH A SERIES OF BRONZE-BALLS IN A CAGE SPRAY NOZZLE: Automatically atomizing the proportions of gasoline for high and low speed BALL CAGE : Automatically controlling the openings of auxiliary air for high and low apeeds ———————— Write for Booklet on Carburetion
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THAT WILL FLY
Knocked Down Two-Foot Models—Not An Every Day Toy But are reproductions of the larger machines, endorsed by the Leading Aviators Complete instructions sent with each machine for assembling. Send to-day, money refunded if not satisfactory.
Curtiss J( Wright * Farnian /
Assembled Models Bleriot, Antoinette and Demoiselle, $5. Curtiss, Farman and Wright, $8. Express Paid to any part of the United States. All Assembled Models are securely boxed.
REID-WHITE Aeroplane Manufacturers 1966 BROADWAY, N EW YORK, N . Y.
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VICTOR J. EVANS &, COMPANY
Main Offices - 724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. - WASHINGTON, D. C.
Our Sfceeter has a new propeller; You ought to sec it fly, it goes like a streak. The Jersey Skeeter Aeroplane is 8 ins. long, weighs 1-6 ounce, flies 30 feet. Send prepaid 25 cents.
Lincoln Square Novelty Works, 1939 Broadway, N. Y.
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CHICAGO AERONAUTIC SUPPLY C9
<| Room 16, 6030 South Park Ave., Chicago, III.
WRINJCI F'S PRESERVATIVE VV IXllNIVJ^L J BALLOON VARNISH
An Elastic Non-Porous Varnish for Silk, Linen, Muslin and other Fabrics used in manufacturing of
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P E R F E C T
CSantos Dumont type aeroplanes
Improved, $1000 C.A11 kinds of aeroplane parts in stock
and made to order. Cf'xl" oval steel tubing in stock, price 25c. per foot, cut to measure.
Mpmim a n 9626 Erie Avenue, So. . STUPAR Chicago, Ills.
Chicago Aero Works I i LEARN TO FLY
-H. S. RENTON, Prop.-
AEROPLANES MOTORS ACCESSORIES
Plans and Experimental Work. Best Experts Employed.
J 49 WABASH AVENUE - CHICAGO, ILL. J * *
t The National Aviation School
£ Washington, D. C.
rse begins March 1. Spend * two weeks at Nation's capital.
* Address *
* The National Aviation Company *
* 412 Union Trust Building J
* Washington, D. C. *
In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.
siUKUl\ siU 1 1L^>
MIDDLE SECTION TAKEN LT AFTER WINGS.
It has been assumed in this description that the builder is working in a limited space; if, on the contrary, he has room enough to set up the whole frame at once, the work will be much simpler. The construction bed should in this case be the full 30 feet in length. First build up the upper plane complete, standing it against the wall when finished; then build up the lower plane, put the struts in their sockets, and lay on the upper plane complete.
Returning to the plan of assembly by sections; after the side sections or wings of the machine have been completed, the struts may be taken out and the sections laid aside. The middle section, to which the running gear and outriggers will be attached, is now to be built up in the same way. If the builder is using the plan in which there is one main rib between each section, it will be necessary to take off the four inner main ribs from the sections already completed, to be used at the ends of the central sections.
The plan drawing of the complete machine shows that the ribs of the central section are cut off just back of the rear beam to make room for the propeller. This is necessary in order to set the motor far enough forward to balance the machine properly. The small ribs in this section have the same curve, but are cut off 10 inches shorter at their rear ends, and the stumps are smoothed down for ferrules like those of the other small ribs. In the plan which has one main rib between each section, the main rib on each side of the central section must be left full length; in the quick-detachable plan, with two main ribs on each side of the central section, the inner ones, which really belong to this section, are cut off short like the small ribs.
In one large drawing the distance between the struts which carry the engine bed was shown as 2 feet. This was only approximate; the distance may be varied to suit the engine to be used. The builder should by this time have decided what engine he wants (or can get), and should drill the holes for the sockets of these struts with due respect to the width of the engine's supporting feet or lugs, remembering that the engine bed beams go on the inner sides of the struts. In the drawing of the running gear the distance between the engine-bed struts has been designated A; the distances BB on each side are of course % (6 feet—A), whatever A may be.
The running gear of the machine is built of seamless steel tubing. Those parts which carry directly the weight of the machine are 34-inch outside diameter and 16 gauge; others are % O. D. by IN or 20 gauge. About 25 feet of the heavy and 45 feet of the light tubing will be required, in lengths as follows: heavy, four 3-foot, three 4-foot; light, one 6-foot, two 4-foot 0 inches, seven 4-foot. Referring to the drawing, the two diagonal braces from the rear beam to the engine bed, the V-shaped piece under the front engine-bed struts, and all of the rear frame except the horizontal piece from wheel to wheel, are of heavy tubing. The horizontal in the rear frame, the diagonals from the rear wheels and the rear end of the skid to the front beam, the two horizontals between the front and rear beam, and the forward "V" are of light tubing.
Three ash beams are used in the running gear. Two of these run diagonally from the rear end of the engine bed to the front wheel; these are about 10 feet long and 1 by inches in section. The third, which on rough ground acts as a skid, is i>ys feet long and about 2 inches square. Between the points where tubing frames are attached to it, the upper corners may be beveled off with a spoke-shave an inch or more down each side. The beams are attached to the front wheel with strips of steel stock 1% inches wide and ys inch thick. The engine-bed beams are also ash about 1 by l3i inches. Their rear ends are bolted to the middle of the rear engine-bed struts, and the front ends may be half an inch higher.
Wheels are usually 20 by 2 inches, of the bicycle type but heavier and wider in the hub; the tires are single-tube. These wheels with tires complete cost about $10 each. This is the size used on standard Curtiss machines, but novice operators, whose landings are not quite as gentle as they might be, find them quite easily broken. Therefore, it may in the end be more economical to pay a little more and get larger tires, at least to start with.
(To be continued)
RUNNING GEAR of CURTI55 BIPLANE
r-er»peollxe Dranlnc Stanwlac the Running Cf
« oniplele, and Rear Frame Id Detail.
aerunau11ls march, igil
CURTISS PLANT SOLD.
On February 10 the Herring-Curtiss motorcycle engine and aeroplane plant at Hammonds-port, N. Y., was sold by the Receiver back to Glenn H. Curtiss, the original owner (before the incorporation of the defunct Herring-Cur-tiss Company), who bid it in for $18,418.75. Mr. Curtiss has been using the plant under lease from the Receiver for some time. The idea of locating permanently in California will now be abandoned.
ARMY APPROPRIATION PASSES.
The Senate has passed Ihe bill containing an appropriation of $125,000 for army aeronautics, previously passed by the House, on Feb. 7, and made $25,000 immediately available.
The navy, which is interesting itself prac-ticallv, 'will not receive any of this, but has asked for $25,000 for itself and intends to keep well to the front in aeroplane matters.
ANOTHER STABILITY DEVICE.
A Portland (Ore.) man, Henry B. Blomgren, of S50 East Ash Street, believes he has invented a device which will act as a counterbalance to an aeroplane when it is making quick turns in the air. The invention is what has been called an "automatic stabilizer," and it is intended to act automatically to preserve the balance of an aeroplane. According to the inventor, the device prevents any aeroplane from turning turtle. It consists of a counterweight attached to the aeroplane in sucli a way that it traverses an aluminum track at the wings of the aeroplane dip to either side. When the list is to the left, the counterbalance runs up the track to the right, serving as a balancer. The greater the list, the greater the weight of the counterbalance on the upper side.
Within a few weeks it is intended to make a practical demonstration of the stabilizer, and as soon as this takes place the inventor expects to take the device East and try to have some prominent manufacturer give it a trial. The stabilizer is now on exhibition at a local store.
AERO SCHOOL IN KANSAS CITY.
Rahe & Bennett, of 1108 Locust Street, Kansas City, Mo., are establishing an aeronautic school "under the name "Aviation Training School of Kansas City," with offices at the above address. Sheds are now being built at Overland Park, in the State of Kansas, where the flying will be done, and at the city office two machines are now under way which the promoters think "will revolutionize the flying game."
Each student will have four weeks on motors before taking up flying. The school states that it will not cater to students who want to do exhibition work.
BIG AIRSHIP IN CALIFORNIA.
When completed, the largest airship in America will be that of the Toliver Aerial Navigation Company, temporarily located at San Diego, Calif. The ship is to be "launched" within the next two or three months.
This rigid airship differs from all others, as it has no pendent baskets or rudders. Passengers and crew are to be comfortably housed in conveniently and ingeniously arranged cabins and conning towers, all of which are contained within the main circle of the ship, which is of cigar shape. At least, that's what the builders promise. The ship will be steered and its elevation controlled entirely by propellers, of which there are six, two at either side and one at each end. mounted on flexible shafts, working through ball and socket joints so as to be turned to push or pull in any desired direction in rapid succession.
The length is 250 ft. and 40 ft. diameter, and is said to be capable of carrying forty passengers of average weight.
Aero School in New York.
An indoor aeronautic school has been established more than a month now at 312 West 52d street. New York, under the title Aeronautic School of Engineers. H. J. Winter is general manager, and W. G. Scott, chief engineer. A flight course is scheduled to start on the Hempstead Plains, near Mineola, April 15.
Toliver Airship Shed—Bow of Airship in Background,
The Wilcox White Ghost "one of the many successful planes using R/NEK ENGINES
At first attempt has been Invariably Achieved by all users of
It's the THRUST per H. P. that COUNTS!
thrust stands for a definite factor, in other words it's the actual force which drives your plane in the air. When you buy H. P. you are investing in an unknown quantity,—it has yet to be applied—utilized. When vou buy thrust you are getting a definite amount of propulsive force. d tatftlf engines produce a greater actual thrust per II. P. than any /Wi VxL/V. other engines, Foreign or American, on the market to-day, and are unsurpassed for reliability and durability.
— Catalogue and prices on application —
RINEK AERO MFG. CO. Easton, Pa.
C. <®, A.
Constructors, Developers of Aeroplanes, Machines, Models, Separate Parts
m II Our Illustrated Catalogue of all materials for the construction of any ^1 type of aeroplane free. Write for it. Estimates promptly given on -ll any type of machine or parts thereof.
Our works are devoted exclusively to the building of Aeroplanes. Thus we can devote our entire productive capacity toward building and constantly improving this one line. We are not mixed up in the manufacture of other work which might tend to divert our efforts and attention. We can deliver machines on two weeks' notice.
GLIDERS IN STOCK
Works: OCEAN TERRACE and LITTLE CLOVE RD., Staten Island, N. Y. City
Telephone: 112 W. West Brighton, Post Office, Stapleton See our exhibit at "aeronautics"
AIRSHIPS, BALLOONS, AEROPLANES
4. Lahm Balloon Cup—697 Miles. Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"
jjj Best Duration Indianapolis Balloon Race—35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon 4. "New York"
J U. S. Balloon Duration Record 48 Hrs , 26 Mins. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," 4. St. Louis Centennial
* U. S. Balloon Altitude Record 24,200 Ft. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis 4. Centennial
^ Gordon Bennett Aviation Prize
+ 30-Kilom. Aeroplane Speed Prize
4. Grand Prize of Brescia for Aeroplanes
J Quick Starting Event at Brescia
4* 2nd, 10-Kilom. Aeroplane Speed Prize
% 2nd, Brescia Height Prize—Glenn H. Curtiss
\ AlKSriIr-5, BALLUUIN5, AtKUfLAJNtS £
! VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL J
J Aeroplane Fabric a Specialty *
I All Curtiss, Mars, Willard, Hamilton, Shriver, Russell, Seymour, Burgess t
J Co. & Curtis, Frisbie, and all the best fliers have their Aeroplanes Covered f
J with Vulcanized Proof Material. :: Use Vulcanized Proof Material and Win J
New York World Prize, $10,000—Albany to New York. Glenn H. Curtiss New York Times Prize, $10,000—New York to Philadelphia and return. Charles K.Hamilton +
BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL $
USED IN THE U. S. GOVERNMENT DIRIGIBLE AND SPHERICAL BALLOONS *
LL last from five to six times as long- as a varnished balloon. The weight is always +
111 int. \J. J. UUVCRlllVlLill U1R1UIDLL A.1NU SmtRIUAL DALLUU1W
T \\ 71 LL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always
T *ue same' as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect jjj
♦ on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. 4> J The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a + J varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten J «fr times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as 4. + it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking + 4! strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very clastic. Any weight, width or color. Will not J + crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coining balloon material, 4. J and which, through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder, is bound to + ? take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon 1*
* must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS. |
J Prices and samples on application ♦
I Captain Thomas S. Baldwin J
^^^^^^^ Box 78, Madison Square .^^flMH^^.
^| NEW YORK ^| W
W -5EiJ^l=lsJfc««^| ^22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.4.4.4,4.4^1. * If I J-1-
WASHINGTON AERONAUTICAL SHOW MARCH 5 TO 12.
Washington will have its first national aeronautical exposition on March 5 to 12, inclusive. The exhibit will be held in Exposition Hall, one of the largest buildings in the country, which has just been completed at M and North Capitol streets. At least ten machines, representing various types of monoplanes and biplanes, will be on exhibit for eight days.
In addition to aeroplanes, models, gliders, aerial motors, propellers and hangars, aeronautical supplies of all kinds will be shown. Automobiles and motor trucks also will be exhibited. The floor space in Exposition Hall amounts to nearly 2 acres. On one side of the building it is planned to have large passenger-carrying machines in actual operation. With the engine throttled down, the machine will be run around the hall, and a ride in an aeroplane will be one of the features of the exposition.
The exposition will be held under the auspices of the National Aviation Company, and many of the largest manufacturers of aeroplanes and aeronautical supplies have signified their intention to participate in the exposition. The date for the exhibit was selected just after the adjournment of Congress to give the members of the House and Senate, as well as the officials of the Government, a practical demonstration of what has been accomplished during the past year.
ALL THE WORLD'S AIRSHIPS. By Fred T. Jane. Cloth, 438 pp.. glossary and index, fully illustrated. Published at 21 shillings ($5.25), by Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Ltd., Overy House, 100 Southwark Street, London, S. E.. England.
This is the second year of issue of the "Flying Annual," by the same author. In 1910 the first number appeared. This has been revised and added to and covers, as near as the author could secure information, every aeroplane and dirigible flying or under construction in the principal countries of the globe, with dimensions, half tones and drawings. The work is divided in three parts: (1) Aeroplanes and dirigibles of the world; (2) the world's aerial engines; (3) aerial directory and "Who's Who." A glossary of technical terms will be found of value, with their equivalents in French, German and Italian. There Is a list of clubs, flying grounds, journals, etc., and a world-wide directory of aeroplane, dirigible and accessory manufacturers.
Many an American inventor, unknown to the aero world here, will find his device illustrated and described, while many well known will be found duly designated.
The work is well worth a place in every library. The aero clubs should make a point of furnishing corrections, so that future editions will still more deserve widespread recognition.
AEROPLANE PATENTS. By Robert M. Neilson. Svo., cloth, 91 pp., illustrated. Published bv D. Van Nostrand & Co.. 23 Murray Street, New York, at $2.00.
The book contains a list of all patents relating to aviation granted in England from 1S60-1910, inclusive, and in the United States from 1S96-1909, inclusive. These are arranged both alphabetically and numerically. The greater portion of the book is devoted to clear, concise abstracts in very readable form, with many drawings, of the principal British patents. Another very complete section covers advice of all kinds on the obtaining and exploiting- of patents. The British Chanute, Wright, Herring and other American patents are very well described. One of the Herring patents employs gyroscopic action of propellers, through propeller shafts movable in a horizontal plane, to actuate fore and aft rudders for longitudinal stability, etc.
GLIDING. By Percy S. Pilcher, to which is added the aeronautical work of John String-fellow, is the fifth of the "aeronautical class-
ics" being published by the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. This is a little booklet of absorbing interest of some 40 pages. The contents include an account of Mr. Stringfel-low's work, in addition to many details of the Pilcher glider. The booklet is illustrated with drawings and half tones. This can be obtained from King, Sell & Olding, 27 Chancery Lane, London, W. C, at 25 cents.
PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN OF AEROPLANES. By Herbert Chatley, B. Sc., A. M. I. O. E. I., 12 mo., cloth. 110 pp., .10 cents D Van Nostrand & Co, 23 Murray Street. New York.
Contents: The Aeroplane. Aid Pressure, Weight and Power, Propellers and Motors, Balancing, Construction, Difficulties, Future Development. Cost, Other Flying Machines. This little book ought to prove of interest to all starting a course of reading. Tt covers in a general way, and concisely, the principles of aeronautics and outlines the work to be done in gaining a fair technical knowledge of the science.
JAHRBUCH UBER DIE FORTSOHRTTTE ATTF ALLEN GEBTETEN DER LUFTSCHIF-FAHRT. By Ansbert Vorreiter. S vo.. cloth. 500 pp., 641 pictures with many tables and large inserted drawings. Published by J. F. Lehmann's Verlag, Munclien, German v. Price 10 M.
Contents include: I. Die Iiiiftflotten der Knl-termaclite: Der gegenwartige Bestand an Luft-schiff—Leistungen der Luftschiffe im J ah re 1909—Die deutschen Luf tschiffsysteme—Die osterreichischen Luftschiffe—Die franzosisch-en Luftschiffe—Die englischen Luftschiffe, etc. II. Die erfolgreichsten Plugmaschinen der Ge-geuwart. Allgemeines—Deutsche Fluganparate —Frnnzosische Flugapparate, etc. ITT. Motoren fur Luftschiffe und Tlugapuarate. 1Y. Gleitflie-ger und Drachen. V. Der Preiballoon mid Pes-selballoon, with Records. VI. Luftschiffliallen und Luftschiffhafen. Luftschiffliallen und Luftschiffwerften in Deutschland, etc. Y1T. Tortschritte in der erzengung von Ballonaas. VIII. Waffen zur Bekampfnng von Lnftschiffen. TX. Flugplatze und Plugfelder. X. Portschritte der wissenschaftliclien Porschunsr auf dem Ge-biet der Luftschiffahrt und Plu<rteclvnik. An-hang zum wissenschaftliclien Teil. XI. Die bedeutendsten deutschen Patente auf dem Ge-biete der Luftschiffahrt. XIT. Der Plug-snort., with records, etc. XTIT. Vereinswesen. XIV. Bezugsauelleii-Verseichnis. This book has a wonderful store of reliable information. It is certainly one of the very best books in recent years.
Piceller Aeroplane &■ Sunplv Co., $10,500. Incorporators: Harold AY. Krausman, N. Y.: Charles Meissner and Rudolph Jung, Brooklyn, N. Y.
American Aeroplane Co.. Los Angeles. Cal.. S500.000. A. W. Kellogg. M. C. Tunison and W. B. Kibbey.
International Aviation Co.. Detroit, Mich , J100.000. Stockholders: Harold Mclntvre, Charles J Strobel, Stanley Vaughn.
Dyker Aeroplane Co.. Yonkers. X. Y.. $30,000. Incorporators: T. Windel, W. Krahe. G. Guh-mann.
Franco-American Aviation Co.. Chicago. $2.500. Incorporators: Walter R. Sollitt. Otto W. Brodie, Joseph W. Latimer.
Xational Aero Co.. Xew York, $5,000. Directors: Ohilde Harold. 14 Irving Place. Xew York: W. B. Gasman. 39 Franklin Avenue, Xew Rochelle, X. Y.: Jacob Friedman, 1930 Madison \venue. New York.
Myers Plane Co.. Buffalo. N. Y.. $25,000. Directors: Charles Gary, 3 40 Delaware Avenue; Bronson Rumsey. 13 2 W. Tupper Street; IT. M. Gerrnns. 513 Delaware Avenue.
Brown Aeroplane Co., 3R13 Roland avenue, Baltimore. Md., $5,000.
U. S. Aeronautic Co., Hartford. Conn.. $100,000.
Harriman Aeromobile Co., Boston, Mass., $1,000,000.
digest of american motors
In the succeeding issue there iriU he a table gicing the main details of all ^linerican-inade aero engines. This will he a most complete affair and will show at a glance the entire motor field in this country.—Editor.
The New Model "Kirkham" Aeroplane Motor.
The latest production of Charles B. Kirkham. of Bath, N. Y., who for several years has been well known as the designer and builder of the well known line of automobile motors that bear his name and who recently resigned his position as general manager and designer of the Kirkham Motor Manufacturing Company to take up the manufacture of aeroplane motors as a specialty, is illustrated in the line drawings shown herewith. This motor is designed along lines closely following high class automobile practice, so far as general arrangement of cylinders, etc.. are concerned, as it was thought better to sacrifice whatever saving in weight may be gained by the various freak arrangements of cylinders, with then-attendant difficulties in the matter of lubrication, etc., for the well tried out in every day automobile practice type of motor, but, however, with numerous detail improvements in valve systems, lubrication systems, etc., together with a very clever design which results in a motor having to the greatest possible degree durability and reliability, and at the same time being reasonably light in weight.
Before deciding on the design of this motor every possible type of motor was thoroughly investigated with a view of determining the advantages and disadvantages of the various types, and it was finally decided that for medium' powers the six cylinder vertical four cycle type, properly designed for the particular service in view, was to be preferred, as this type has been found to offer the greatest number of advantages with the least number of working parts, meaning light weight without unduly cutting down the weight of individual parts.
The six cylinder vertical type of motor, properly built, has been found to be almost perfectly balanced, both when under load or running idle, as the motor being described will run at over 2,000 r. p. m. without being in any way fastened down and not show any signs of distress.
Among the advantages of the six cylinder vertical type motor is the greatly reduced end area exposed, thus reducing head resistance, which is equal to a gain in power, also the ease with which a motor of this type can be enclosed and protected from the weather in a compact, efficient cover, which is bound to be one of the near future improvements in aeroplane construction.
This type of motor has also been found to be exceptionally desirable for continuous high speed running im account of the almost entire absence of vibration, and the ease of uniform and economical lubrication, also on account of the high thermal efficiency, especially of the motor under consideration, owing to the new system of inlet and exhaust valves.
The new "Kirkham" aeroplane motor shows evidence of considerable experience on the part of the designer, as can be seen by referring to the line drawings accompanying this article. The crank cases are made in two parts, joined on the horizontal center line. The upper half carrying all the bearings, cylinders, etc., while the lower half serves as an oil supply tank and splash basin. The upper half is made of McAdamite alloy, while the lower half is a very light aluminum alloy. The rear end of the case is extended several im-he* more than usual so as to receive a ball
thrust bearing and also to get propeller as far away from cylinders as possible, which is an advantage, especially for monoplane use, where a propeller is ahead of an engine.
The six throw crank shaft is cut from a solid billet of Krupp's chrome nickel steel, grade E-F-60-0, and has the flange for propeller forged solid on rear end. All journals are made hollow for lightness. The weight of complete shaft is 23 pounds. It is 1V2 inches in diameter and is supported in seven high grade babbitt bearings, also one large annular ball bearing at rear end next to propeller, which takes the thrust, or pull, and at the same time steadies the shaft close to the propeller.
The piston pins are made from 2V2 per cent, nickel steel seamless tube, casehardened and ground, and are % inch in diameter. The bearing for this pin being in the bosses of the piston, while pin is fastened tight in top end of connecting rod.
The piston rings, two to each piston, are made of special mixture of cast iron, eccentric turned, and ground on sides and outside diameter. They also have fine oil grooves in center. These rings are carefully lapped to fit cylinders before assembling.
The pistons are made from a fine grade of cast iron, and are very light, but well ribbed for strength. Weight of iy8 inch piston, 33 ounces.
The cylinders are made from a special grade of cast iron which has been found hy past experience to be best adapted to this particular purpose. These cylinders, with their integral jackets, are so shaped that they may be finished all over, inside and out, being ground on the inside, and turned and nickeled on the outside. The combustion chamber is of spherical shape and machined.
The connecting rods are nickel steel drop forgings of I section, carefully finished and made as light as consistent, with ample factor of safety. The lower end bearing is 1 7-16 inches diameter. 2% inches long, removable, special babbitt bearings.
The cam shaft is machined from nickel steel, bored, casehardened and ground, standard of accuracy being within .0005.
The main bearing lubrication is effected through the camshaft in a very ingenious manner. The oil is pumped under pressure from the oil reservoir, which is integral with the lower half of the crank case to the end of the cam shaft, by means of a small geared pump, which is shown in section in the drawing. From the cam shaft the oil is distributed to the cam shaft bearing through holes suitably drilled so as to supply oil to these bearings. The large end bearings on the connecting rods are lubricated in a similar way from the cam shaft, oil holes being drilled in the latter in such a position that at every second revolution of the crank shaft the hole in the cam shaft is just opposite the large end bearing, and a stream of oil is thrown onto it, a suitable hole being arranged in the large end bearing to convey the oil to the oil grooves in the bearing on the crank pin. This same oil, after working through the large end bearing, is thrown in all directions by centrifugal force, and as ample quantity is thrown up onto the piston and cylinder walls the advantages of this system are at once obvious.
First, the quantity of oil pumped to various parts of the motor varies almost directly with the speed of the motor, thus, before starting a flight, when the motor is throttled down, less oil is pumped onto the cylinder walls anil consequently the engine does not get over-lubricated. When, however, the throttle is open and the motor speeded up. considerable more nil is pumped and ample lubrication is supplied for a long continued, full load run. The rocker arms on top of the cylinders are lubricated through the central pin. on which they oscillate, this pin being drilled and filled with
AERO MOTORS IN AMERICA
Complete Set of Working Drawings Full Size Drawings of All Parts For
Complete set, 4 sheets, $10.00 Complete knocked-down Bleriot No. XI monoplane (Cross-channel Type) with working drawings and instructions for assembling. $600.00
FINISHED MACHINES OR PARTS OF SAME A SPECIALTY
Let Us Know Your Wants
Auurtran Armjilaur ^up^tlg i^nusr
Garden City, L. I., N. Y. P. O. Box 160
Telephone 213 Garden City
To Meet The Tremendous Demand
for information as to where to obtain Flying Machines, the parts and materials of which they are made, and all kinds of accessories and supplies for Aviation, we will issue on March 1st, next,
Price, $1.00 Per Copy
ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION
It will contain the most valuable and authentic list of makers of Aeronautical Supplies, properly classified, and other valuable information.
If you are supplying anything for the manufacture of Flying Machines or the use of Aviators, write us full particulars at once, so that you will be correctly listed.
MARKET & 49TH STS., :: PHILADELPHIA
Irease, an adjusting plug being fitted in the Inds by means of which the grease can be forced through a hole in the pin onto the bear-ng surfaces.
I The valve gear of the 1911 "Kirkham" differs from common practice very greatly, as may |>e seen from the cuts of the valve mechanism, this valve arrangement forming the subject of L patent. This type is what might be said to |>e a combination of a poppet valve and a sliding sleeve or piston valve. Referring to the l:ut of the valve unit, it will be seen that both I he poppet and piston valves are concentric [ind are operated by rocker arms, pivoted on [:op of the cylinders. It will also be noticed ;hat with this system of valve gear it is possible to get a very desirable, shape of combustion chamber, and that there is only one |/alve seat subjected to the pressure of the explosion.
The Simms high tension magneto, type S-6, s fitted as standard, with Bosch or Mea magnetos optional. High grade imported spark blugs are fitted.
The weight of this motor complete with car-puretor, magneto, and all other accessories, is 935 pounds; extra weight for radiator, 31 rounds; for propeller, about 10 pounds.
This motor, 4% inch bore, 4% inch stroke, levelops 50 brake horsepower at 1,300 r. p. m., and 60 brake horsepower at 1,600 r. p. m.
America Sells Aero Motors Abroad.
The Detroit Aeroplane Company, of Detroit. Mich., which is engaged in the manufacture of the Detroit Aero, have recently moved to their own new factory, corner Champlain and Mel-drum, facing the second railroad belt line of the city of Detroit. Encouraged by a larger order from their representative in Paris in November, 1910, they started to build a series of 1,000 engines of their 1911 model, which are pushed through in batches of 100 at a time at the Detroit plant.
The present capacity of their factory is six complete power plants per day, without additional night shift. The picture shows the assembling room and the power plant complete.
It is a fact worth noting that the engine parts are built interchangeable, and the smaller picture shows a crank case drilled and tapped in a jig, which has a capacity of fifty-four complete crank cases in ten hours. This jig work reduces the manufacture cost just 80 per cent., in return for which the company can sell the complete power plants for a very low price and still make a fair profit. Only complete power plants are sold, and they guarantee the same to weigh 150 lbs. and to deliver a minimum thrust of 200 lbs., the average thrust is 225 lbs. and the best maximum thrust so far obtained was 255 lbs. Experiments are still made to increase the thrust.
Berliner Will Euilfl a New Aeronautical Motor.
It is probably but little known that Mr. Emile Berliner, well known as the inventor of the telephone transmitter and the Victor talking machine, has given his attention for several years to the improvement of light gasoline motors of the revolving-cylinder type. Mr. Berliner was one of the very few scientific men who many years ago looked forward with perfect assurance to the achievement of practical and successful flight, and it was always his belief that the greatest problem lay in the development of light-weight engines of high power. Accordingly, when in the year 1905 he wished to carry out some experiments with aeronautical apparatus devised by him, he found it necessary either to build his own motors outright or to adapt such motors as he could obtain and modify them to suit his special purposes. About that time Mr. Berliner sent Mr. R. P. Moore, the chief assistant in his laboratory, to look into the merits of a revolving-cylinder motor then being made by the Adams-Farwell Company at Dubuque. Iowa, for automobile service. It was desired to have one or two of these motors put up in specially light form and construction, but it was only with difficulty and by paying the fti'l purchase price entirely in advance that the manufacturers were persuaded to build two specially light motors for Mr. Berliner's particular use.
Upon receiving these two motors and testing them at Mr. Berliner's private laboratory in Washington., it was decided to rebuild them throughout. The cylinders were rebored and fitted with new pistons and all the other parts of the two engines were gone over in a similar manner to bring them up to the highest excellence of workmanship.
The results obtained with these two motors when rebuilt were so very encouraging that several entirely new revolving engines were built, embodying many new and valuable improvements that were suggested to Mr. Berliner and his associates by careful study and patient experiment. The excellent results obtained from these new motors finally induced Mr. Berliner to consider the formation of a company to manufacture motors for the aeronautical trade.
Accordingly, last fall the Gyro Motor Company was incorporated with a capital of $100,-"00. Mr. Berliner being president of the new-company, and having associated with him Mr. R. S. Moore, already mentioned, and Mr. Lee Simmons, both men of genius and long experience in gas-engine construction and design.
Up to this time the work had been carried on entirely in Mr. Berliner's private laboratory, but in November of last year plans were Prepared and ground broken for a new factory building at 774 Girard street. Washington, D. C.
For its general manager and consulting engineer the company has secured the services of Mr. Spencer Heath, a mechanical engineer and former patent attorney, who is also prominently connected with the American Propeller Company, making the well-known Paragon aeronautical propellers in Washington, D. C. The company considers itself well favored in having close relations with the designers of these propellers and has obtained a selling ■igeney for the same.
The motor now being manufactured is a -even-cylinder. Gnome type, constructed of the highest grade of nickel and vanadium steels throughout. While the motor follows the general lines and appearance of the Gnome, there are a number of simplifications and radical improvements.
The fuel and oil are both fed through the shaft into the crankcase, whence the centrifugal action hurls them towards the inner ends of the cylinders. Here the vaporized fuel passes through a special intake valve in the center of the piston. Unlike the valve in the Gnome piston, this valve is operated by a simple and most ingenious mechanical device which utilizes the strong centrifugal force for both opening and closing the valve, the timing
of the motion of the valve being controlled b; the angular movement of the connecting roi about the wrist pin in the piston. This devie' eliminates a considerable number of smal parts and insures a positive mechanical move ment of the valve under all conditions, regard less of any suction or partial vacuum in th cylinder. In fact, no suction whatever nee be required, since the centrifugal action whirl the charge through the open valve and into th cylinder.
The large exhaust valve is central in th cylinder head and is operated by a four-stag cam device which regulates the opening an closing of the valves so as to give a variabl compression, at all times under control of th operator. This enables an aviator to start hi engine running slowly on low compression, an after taking his seat and being all ready, h turns on the high compression, bringing th engine up to full power, and speeds off.
The elimination of the so-called spider fo joining the connecting rods about the crank pin is another valuable feature.
It is perhaps not sufficiently well know that the spider connection used on other sever cylinder motors necessarily causes a differer length of stroke and "throw" in the differer cylinders and the different pistons reach th extreme of their compression strokes at irreg ular intervals. With the ignition occurring ? regular intervals three and one-half times pe revolution, if the explosion is properly time for one cylinder there will be others in whie the explosions occur very prematurely on th compression stroke, and still others in whic they occur very late in the expansion strok' This, of course, means a very inefficient an irregular running of the different cyiindei and accounts for the jerky running of nearl all revolving motors at low speed. The Gyr Motor Company obviates all this irregularit by centering every connecting rod directly o the crankpin. The thrust and pull of the rod however, is not taken by the direct connec tion on the pin, this merely serving to kee the rod properly centered, while the thrust i taken directly upon the outer rings of tw heavy ball bearings mounted on the pin s sufficient distance apart to accommodate b« tween them the seven thin terminal ends c the connecting rods by which the rods ar held in proper alignment with the crankpl With this arrangement there is absolute regt larity and uniformity of action in every on of the cylinders, and they can be timed an set so that each develops its maximum powe in a perfectly steady manner.
A still further improvement relates to th oiling of the cylinders. The lubricant is. o course, introduced mixed with the fuel, bul the ordinary consumption of one gallon ol castor oil for every two gallons of gasolin has been enormously reduced. Special pre vision has been made for carrying practical! all of the oil to the cylinder walls instead o blowing it through the valve in the center o the piston and straight out the exhaust as i usually the case.
The inner portion of each piston is provide-with a thin sheet metal hood of conical fonr with just sufficient opening at the center U accommodate the swing of the connecting rcc1 The centrifugal action throws the globules o oil outwardly with such force that they ar not readily deflected, hut practically all o them land on thp slanting surface of the colli cal hood, whence they slide down to the ex tenia] poripherv of the piston and to the cyl inder walls. The light vaporized fuel, how ever, readily passes through the opening at tin center of the conical hood, through the posi lively opened valve at the center of the pis ton. and finally, after explosion, through tin exhaust valve in the center of the' cylinde: bead, having the full effect of centrifugal forct urging it directly forward at all times an< being followed up in its final exit by the fresl1 charge flowing freely in behind it.
With these numerous improvements, com prising the mci hank ally operated intake valves in the pistons, the variable; Qoui.nressi.QVA undei
6- \ oz. per square
yard STRENGTH 130 lbs. per square inch
A perfect material for covering planes. Is thoroughly water-proofed on both sides by a rubber-coating. It will not stretch or absorb moisture.
It is at least three times as strong as any other fabric on the market, with only a slightly additional weight.
A covering of Penacloth gives added strength to the whole structure.
PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO., Jeannette, Pa. aeroplane* TiREff in*7all sizes.
Pittsburgh, 505 Liberty Ave. :: :: Chicago, 1241 Michigan Ave. :: :: Detroit, 882 Woodward Ave. PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO. OF NEW YORK, New York City, 1741 Broadway
PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO. OF CALIFORNIA j ^Ingd^^OS. Ss?-
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ROWE'S WHARF, BOSTON, MASS.
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control of the operator, the elimination of the "spider," with resulting uniformity of timing and stroke in all the cylinders, and, finally, the adequate means for conserving the lubricant wholly to the cylinder walls, it is but little to presume that the new motor will yield practical results surpassing anything that has yet been achieved by any motor of the same class.
The first of these engines to appear on the market will have a bore of 4 V-t in. by a stroke of 4% in. The rated horse power is 60 at 1.200 revolutions per minute, but it is thought that the actual power will exceed this.
The company expects to place a line of these motors on the market in a very few weeks, not soliciting orders, however, until after a full and complete demonstration of their power and endurance in actual flight. It is understood that the price, including mountings and Paragon propeller, will he about $2,500.
Concerning Eight-Cylinder Engines.
The consensus to-day among many who are in a position to know, is that the eight-cylinder "V" is the most efficient and reliable engine available. ''It is the only legitimate aviation engine," is the way a prominent aviator recently expressed it.
Grahame-White has only just recently taken over the eight-cylinder, equipping several of his latest planes with engines of this type. Although White has heretofore been using the Gnome exclusively, his change from the notary to the "V" type would clearly indicate that even with a Gnome there are things yet to be desired.
P.y the use of eight cylinders continuous power can be arrived at, reducing to a minmum that vibration which causes molecular changes in the materials of which it is built, thus insuring longer life to every portion of the engine, more especially the most important portion of the engine, viz., the crank shaft.
In addition to Grahame-White. the latest recruit to the ranks of the eight-cylinder users, many of the most important and notable aerial trips have recently been effected by this design of engine. Curtiss on his flight from Albany to New York, Captain Baldwin in his exhibition work, and Hamilton, the hero of the New York-Philadelphia flight, are among the few on this side who acknowledge the eight-cylinder as superior to all other types.
Tom Sopwith, winner of the de-Forest cross channel flight, also used an eight. The British & Colonial Aeroplane Company of England is another concern who evidently found this type superior even to the Gnome, as they are equip-
ping most of their latest planes with the eight-cylinder type.
In addition to the above famous aviators who arc using this design of engine, one notes the successful achievements of such well-known amateurs as Wilcox, Miss Todd and others.
Even to the uninitiated in the art of mechanical design, the new eight-cylinder Rinek engines appear a beautiful piece of mechanism, the weight especially having been reduced to a point where they feel it would not be safe to go any lower. The Rinek Company are fortunate in occupying a unique position as engine builders at the present time, inasmuch as the experience they have gained through their exhaustive experimenting and refining has enabled them to produce a type of engine which America should well be proud of. Outside of the Curtiss Manufacturing Company, located at Hammondsport, the Rinek Company, we believe, was the first to go into the building of light-weight engines for aviation purposes, so one can see they have been in the field for an appreciable amount of time.
The new engines are all fitted with larger bearings throughout, which in itself increases the wearing life enormously. The new water jackets have been dubbed by the Rinek Company as being of a floating type, i. e., the jacket is not fastened permanently to the cylinder, but by an ingenious process is constructed in such a manner that it is at once easily accessible and at the same time entirely eliminates the possibility of leaking through the expansion of the cylinder being greater than that of the jacket.
By this design of jacket it is possible at any time to get at the cylinder proper, as it is only a couple minutes' work to detach the jacket from the said cylinder. Lubrication is now taken care of by both force feed and splash, insuring at all times a positive amount of oil to all working parts. Outside of the above refinements, the general excellence of detail of these engines, we believe, is too well known to permit of further description.
"Our prospects for the coming year," said a representative of the Rinek Company recently, "would indicate sales to a surprisingly large number of professional aviators as well as amateurs, who have heretofore been flying with other makes of engines.
"Their adoption of the eight-cylinder 'V as developed by the Rinek Company convincingly proves their acknowledgment of the superiority of these engines over all other types. Ultimately a llinek is the invariable enthusiastic teport of all Rinek users."
The New 8-Cylinder 55-60-H.P. Rinek.
A Model Aeroplane Club is being organized in Chicago by D. J. Goff, 4156 Calumet Avenue. He is anxious to hear from all those in Chicago who are interested in order that an organization meeting may be held and officers elected. This note is printed in order to bring the matter to the attention of those enthusiasts residing in Chicago and surrounding neighborhood. Mr. Goff requests that those interested communicate with him.
The Aero Club of Dayton and the International Aeroplane Club of Dayton are moving toward consolidation. The Aero Club of Dayton will have an exhibit at the local automobile show February 13-18, amongst which will he one of the new model Wright machines. Headquarters will be maintained during the show and a membership campaign inaugurated. Aviation grounds and sheds have been obtained near the city and monthly balloon and aeroplane meetings are anticipated during the summer.
The Aeronautic Alumni Association has taken in a number of new members, comprising the men who have completed the 1910 course in aeronautics at the West Side Y. M. C. A. (New York). The association is now composed of graduates of the 1909 and 1910 classes. The following officers were elected: President, E. P. Hopkins; vice-president, O. J. Peterson; secretary, M. W. Ehriich, and treasurer, Joseph A. L'Ibal. The association meets once a month at the Y. M. C. A., on West 57th Street.
The San Diego Aero Club was formed on Friday, January 13. The progressive citizens of San Diego were preparing for a two-day meet. D. C. Collier was arranging for Curtiss with two aviators to appear on the 28th and 29th of January.
The Aero Club of California had one of its members in San Diego in the person of Frank T. Searight. Mr. Searight and Mr. Collier conceived the idea of an aero club for San Diego. With characteristic energy Mr. Collier went to work and by the time the meet took place he had 155 members. On the day of the meet the membership of the club increased to 300.
This club aims to fit up the whole upper floor of a large office building for its home. D. C. Collier was elected president and L. G. Monroe secretary. H. LA V. TWINING.
The Santa Clara Valley Aero Club, San Jose, Cal., has been formed by a few practical aviators and enthusiasts.
They appealed to Joseph T. Brooks, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, and found him enthusiastic on the subject, and through his efforts was organized a membership of fifty within a month. Nor were the members idle. Negotiations were immediately opened with the aviators in San Francisco at the time, and contracts were made with the birdmen for a Saturday and Sunday meet for San Jose. Mr. Radley proposed to fly to Mt. Hamilton and back, and also to run a five-mile race with a racing automobile as some of the special features. He reported the driving park the best he had seen, and the light, steady trade winds of this valley were most favorable for successful flights. Santa Clara Valley is practically free from high winds, and is attracting unusual attention from professional aviators on this account.
The club further proposes to give shows and promote meets, both amateur and professional, whenever possible. They are also going to try and get some balloon men there to make ascensions and hold balloon races. They have some enterprising men on the membership list, and the business men of San Jose have said they will stand by the club.
Santa Clara Valley has a first place in aviation, as Prof. J. J. Montgomery, the first vice-president, built the first heavier-than-air machine here and made his successful flights in San Joe about five years ago. The Schubert Aeroplane Manufacturing Company is building a new machine of an ingenious type to enter the trans-continental race. The directors are San Jose business men and they are figuring on building a factory in the near future.
The present headquarters of the club is in the Chamber of Commerce. The club has a file of aviation journals for the members and their friends. KATHERINE MAGNESON,
The Aeronautical Society of the University of Illinois, Urbana, 111., is carrying on active work in the form of lectures and experiments. Several good lectures have been heard from university professors, and one on "European Dirigibles," by Mr. Banck, of Chicago. Several talks have been given by students who have had practical experience with aeroplanes and light gas engines.
Two gliders have been designed and built and tests are being made of the materials and methods of construction. A number of experiments in aerodynamics are being started by the society. The shops and laboratories of the Engineering School offer excellent advantages for this work and some interesting results are hoped for. Those interested should address the secretary, Mr. R. Watts, 507 E. John Street, Champaign, 111.
Williams Aeronautical Society, of Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., listened to an eloquent address by Hudson Maxim, delivered before that society on January 19th.
The Boys High School Aero Club, of the Boys High School, Brooklyn, N. Y., has been formed to promote interest in aviation in the high schools of Brooklyn and to develop models. At the first meeting of the club Alfred Hanson was elected president and Henry S. Piebes, S15 Avenue J, Brooklyn, secretary. At the first call over a hundred applications for membership were received. The members have arranged to give a course of lectures and to have in addition prominent men address the club.
A Boys' Aero Club has been formed in Minneapolis, Minn. The officers are: Merrill W. Seymour, president; Morris Kahn, treasurer; Filman Chase, secretary, 3047 Fifth Ave., S.
The newly formed Aero Club of Connecticut is going famously. A score of members are being taken in at every meeting. A bill is before the legislature on the subject of registration of aeroplanes in the state, and the club expects that every man jack will have been in the air literally, either by aeroplane or balloon, before the summer is over. This is the only club thus far that has even expressed such a praiseworthy ambition.
The New York Model Aero Club at the January election named the following' Board of Governors for this rapidly growing organization: Hon. President—Edward Durant, President—Adrien Lacroix, First Vice-President—Louis F. Ragot, Second Vice-President—Ralph Barnaby, Secretary-Treasurer— A. Maas, Chairman of the Patent Bureau— Charles L. Ragot, Chairman of the Contest Committee—Edw. Durant.
A handsome silver plaquette, presented by Louis F. Ragot, First Vice-President, as a Lifting Power Trophy for models, will be contested for under the club auspices in a series of competitions during the year I9II.
The rules governing these contests have been formulated and published, and a public demonstration of the manner of conducting a
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Lifting Power competition under these rules will be given by members of the New York Model Aero Club at the Greek-American Athletic Club games at the 22d Regiment Armory, February 18, 1911.
The Aero Club of Cuba, Havana, was formed during the recent meet of the Curtiss aviators there.
The Aeronautical Society, at its regular semi-monthly meeting held January 26, continued its resume of the accomplishments of 1910, with a view to determining the most hopeful directions to incite development and improvement, and Mr. G. F. Campbell Wood, Secretary of the Aero Club of America, gave a most able address, illustrated by stereopticon views. Mr. Wood's knowledge and experience was devoted to referring mainly to the unusual achievements which have not been noticed generally in the press of this country.
Dr. Julian P. Thomas advanced a novel and interesting theory to account for the recent accidents on the ground of momentary unconsciousness. He claims that our brain is divided in pairs through the center of the cranium and as an idea of thought moves from one side to the other a slight instant of time is occupied during which there is what he calls the momentary unconsciousness, and it is during this moment that the fatal move can be made which results in an accident causing death. To apply a remedy, he recommends that aeroplanes should be so constructed that they will maintain the momentary equilibrium in all directions long enough for the mind to resume normal power over the members, both hands and feet, and does not believe automatic stability is advisable, because that is bound to eliminate the manual control, but momentary stability will accomplish the desired end in so far as his theory is concerned. He added, however, that the deaths of Johnson and Hoxsey, as well as Chavez, which occurred upon the descent from great altitudes, may have been occasioned by mountain sickness which unfitted these martyrs to the cause, and was not due to the theory of momentary unconsciousness.
Mr. C. H. Godley took the view that we should not try to seek radically new devices, as some people hold, but should be amply satisfied with the progress made during the past year with the present style of aeroplanes and should endeavor to perfect what we have without departing from the general construction. He felt that speed being a great desideratum during flight, but not during starting or landing, that an effort should be made to perfect methods of reefing surfaces so as to have a greater surface when starting and landing than when in full flight.
Leo Stevens and Aviator Hilliard were present. Mr. Stevens spoke of his flights he had made with Mr. Hilliard and discussed Dr. Thomas' theory with reference to ballooning.
At the meeting February 9 President Hudson Maxim very lucidly described the effect of high explosives in view of the Communipaw disaster of the week prior, which was produced by 10,000 pounds of gun powder and an equal amount of dynamite blowing up and sinking a tugboat. The newspaper comments and legislation to prevent such a recurrence made this a very timely address, particularly in its relation to aeroplanes. The expansion of high explosives is approximately 2,500 times its volume and travels at the rate of 1,100 feet per second, losing force in the ratio of the square of the distance. An aeroplane more than 100 feet away from such an explosion would probably not be effected, and Mr. Maxim gave as his opinion that to effectually attack flying machines shrapnel fired at the rate of eight per minute in automatically range finding guns would have more effect than the firing of high explosives in the expectation of injury to the aeroplane from the concussion of explosions.
Mr. James H. Hare, correspondent and photographer for "Collier's Weekly," gave an interesting account, illustrated by stereopticon views, of his experiences in the Russo-Japanese war, showing where flying machines would have been of immense benefit. And upon his return from this war he was sent to
Kitty Hawk, N. C, to determine, if possible, whether the Wright Brothers were actually making practical flights, which was somewhat doubted by the press in the North owing to the secrecy. His illustrations showed the difficulties of reaching the lonely spot the Wright Brothers had selected, requiring a walk of C miles in the sand dunes, where mosquitoes and ticks are rife, and hiding under the cover of trees to obtain a view of the flying operations without being seen, as the aeroplane was not brought out when any strangers were about. Mr. Hare succeeded in obtaining three photographs showing flights conclusively, one of which was with a passenger.
Senator James F. Duhamel described an entirely new construction of motor with no reciprocating parts, the piston consisting of a rotating body with flange against which the pressure acts, and the inlet and outlet is performed by valves of rotary construction, geared by ingenious means to the main rotary piston. The casing is all stationary and the model of the construction was demonstrated by compressed air, as it was not practical in the meeting rooms to have gasoline or steam, the invention being applicable to either power. The inventor is Mr. John Norin, 695 Franklin avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., and it is thought that this motor will he heard from when developed commercially.
The Aeronautic Leagaie of New Jersey, Union Hill, N. J., held its annual meeting on February 7 in Gathmann's Hall, Union Hill, when the following officers were elected: Cornelius De Bernardi, president; Charles Remond, vice-president; W. A. Kraus, secretary; L. Liverani, financial secretary, and John E. Ring, treasurer. The above officers were appointed as a technical committee.
Models of various kinds of flying machines were exhibited and their good and bad points were discussed at considerable length. Most of the officers and many of the members have had practical experience as birdmen, and at the present time three of the members have almost completed the construction of machines of their own. They stated that just as soon as the weather permits two of them expect to be ready to fly.
The next meeting of the league is scheduled for Feb. 21, when the special feature will be a review of aviation from the inception of the science up to the present time.
After the meeting adjourned the members enjoved a supper, after which pleasant things were said as to the outlook for the coming season, when several of the members expect to leave this earth, for a short time at least. Seven members are building machines.
Waco, Tex., Jan. 21-23.—The Moisant International Aviators flew. High wind prevented flying the first day, although Audemars and Hamilton both prepared to fly, and desisted only when it was seen that to leave the ground meant practically certain death. On Jan. 22, with a wind said to be 45 miles an hour, Simon made a 24-minute flight, the only one of the day. On the following afternoon Simon made two flights, and Garros, Barrier, Audemars and Hamilton one each.
Oklahoma City, Okla., Jan. 14-1S.—Moisant International Aviators. Barrier, Simon and Garros stars, Barrier flying cross-country twice in a 15-minute flight.
Temple, Tex., Jan. 25-26.—The International Aviators gave a successful two-day show. Hamilton was one of the features here, and Garros' three flights being particular remarkable for their daring. Barrier flew across the city for IS minutes in a 35-mile wind.
Houston, Tex., Jan. 27-31.—Moisant International Aviators. Simon and Garros astonished Houston with their manoeuvers, both swooping and curving, narrowly grazing automobiles, people and buildings, until the spectators were afraid he would strike them. Waving his hand, they would dart away again. Simon chased a herd of cattle in a nearby field and created a roar of laughter. Both flew over the city, a distance of almost six miles from the field. Barrier flew to an altitude of 5,600 ft. Garros', Simon's and Barrier's flights lasted from 10 to 24 minutes.
TWO MORE AIRMEN KILLED.
DOUAL, Feb. 9.—Two more names were added to the death roll of the aeroplane.
The aviators Noel and Delatorre were killed while conducting a trial of a military aeroplane before experts from the War Department, previous to its delivery to the army. Noel was the pilot and Delatorre a passenger.
According: to the requirements of the department, Noel tested the machine for an hour, and the trial, which was considered in every way successful, was practically at aa end. The aviators were gliding down from a height of about 250 feet, when suddenly the wings folded up and the machine fell headlong to the earth.
This makes the present death roll of the power machine number thirty-five, not forty-two. as reported elsewhere.
GERMAN AIRMAN KILLED.
BERLIN, Feb. 6.—Lieut. Stein of the German Military Aviation Service was instantly killed while making a flight over the military aviation field at Doberitz to day.
The aeroplane dropped from a height of 65 feet. The Lieutenant's skull^frTtTcrushed.
Please continue my subscription. 1 would not be without it for three times whit it costs—U. SORENSON.
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Received sample copy and like your magazine very much. Inclosed find M.O. for a year's subscription.
—W. W. SWAN
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-EUGENE G. RJGGS
William F. Sullivan. Mt. Vernon. Ohio. 976.312. Nov. 22. 1910. Filed Sept. 13, 1909. AUTOMATIC BALANCING MECHANISM FOR FLYING MACHINES. Pendulum system, weighted swinging frame, actuates valves admitting compressed air or similar agency to move piston and levers controlling aeroplane surfaces.
Francois Lebreil, Yilleurbanne. and Raoul Desgeorge, Lvon, France, 976.5S2. Nov. 22, 1910. Filed Nov. 17, 1909. AEROPLANE. Improved monoplane, bicycle chassis, low center of gravity for lateral stability, shifting seat, fore and aft control, concave sustaining surfaces curved downward, with greatest dimension of plane in longitudinal direction.
Herman Thaden, Atlanta, Ga., 976.709, Nov. 22. 1910. Filed Nov. 20, 1909. AIRSHIP. Multiple following surface monoplane, with feathering movement of propellers tending to propel and lift.
John Holmes "Wilson. Middlesex Township, Cumberland Co., Pa., 976,765. Nov. 22. 1910. Filed May 26. 1909. FLYING MACHINE. Double monoplane, diamond frame, vertical rudders, fore and aft, produce twisting effect in connection with control mechanism.
Thaddeus S. Harris, Modesto, 111.. 976.873, Nov. 29, 1910. Filed March 30, 1909. AIRSHIP. Helicopter. Shifting weight of passengers to control direction.
Louis Adolphe Hayot. Beauvais, France, 976,S76, Nov. 29, 1910. Filed Aug. 31, 1909. AEROPLANE. Automatic equilibrium by dihedral wings jointed at the shoulder, moving forward and back in a horizontal plane.
TURNBUCKLE—For sale, new lever turn-buckle rights. Give offer. J. W. McDonald, Point Prim, P. E. Island.
BACK NUMBERS OF AERONAUTICS are wanted. Anyone having a complete file of AERONAUTICS will please communicate with A. S. Le Yino, Times Building, New York, care of Moisant International Aviators. (C)
EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, well educated, good business training in office, experienced in shop work, four seasons operating own automobiles, wishes to associate with manufacturer to give flying exhibitions, train others and prosecute business generally. Excellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care AERONAUTICS. (C)
AVIATION MEETS—An expert in arranging and managing aviation meets, having the widest experience and best connections, is in a position to promote and conduct aeroplane contests for aero clubs and others. Address Aviation Manager, care AERONAUTICS.
FOR SALE—50-horsepower "HF," or Harri-man, aviation engine, new, $700. This is the same size engine that the Harriman Motor Works are charging $1,675 for. Address Box 3, Girard, Kan.
AVIATORS WANTED—First-class mechanics, engine men, aeroplanes and motors. Best terms offered. References required. Aero Clearing House, 299 Broadway, New York.
PARTNER WANTED, by aviator just arrived, licensed pilot of the Aero Club of France, long experienced in Hying, to SELL TWO NEW WONDERFUL FRENCH MADE MOTORS 30 35 HP. and 50-tiu UP. air-ccoled. Run as long as they have a drop of gasolene. Will sell delivered in New York for $1250 and S1750. Am sole agent for U. S. and Canada. Using same on my Bleriot. Onlv parties meaning business need apply. AVIATOR, 51 West 84th St., New York.
15c. a line. 7 words to a line. Payable in advance.
FOR SALE—50-H.P. Harriman motor, complete, Schebler carburettor, $100 high-tension magneto. Everything new. Has been run only once this month. Is being sold by the Harriman people for $1,675. My price $900 cash. Address Harriman, care AERONAUTICS. (P)
AVIATOR, licensed pilot Aero Club of France, long experienced in fl>ing, jnst arrived from Paris with his genuine Bleriot monoplane, wants Flying Kxhibition contracts. Don't reply unless vou have something real good. AVIATOR, 51 West 84th St., New York.
MOTOR FOR SALE—100-horsepower Emerson aero motor. Has not been run 4 hours. In perfect condition. Price, si,000. Address Motor, care AERONAUTICS. (C)
AMBITIOUS YOUNG MAN, American, with several years' experience in both the construction and operation of gasoline engines and aeroplanes, and capable of designing, constructing and flying a complete outfit, is willing to connect with some party who wishes to enter the aeronautical game as a business venture. H. I>. Webster, 27 Jefferson Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. (C)
WILL PAY GOOD PRICE for a copy of the August. 1!»09. number of AERONAUTICS. Address G. F. Campbell Wood. Secretary, Aero Club of America, 29 West 39th street, New York. (C)
AEllt >NAUT1CAL business making indispensable aeroplane part 'needs moderate capital for expansion. Business established and well known: already profitable. Big season ahead. Address 11. S., care of AERONAUTICS. (C)
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Planes, 20 x 4, 4 feet apart, fish-shaped tapered struts, laminated ribs, specially prepared "IMP" covering, waterproof and light. Weight, complete, about 54 lbs.
Price, f.o.b. Boston, $50.00 We have tested over 200 propellers on a whirling table and can guarantee our propellers to give results in the air. We do not rate our prices on diameters, but on output. Give the facts about your plane and we will give you the propeller which will use all your power and give you the greatest speed.
NATIONAL AVIATION AND CONSTRUCTION COMPANY
32 Hamden Circle Wollaston, Mass.
WOOD for AEROPLANES
We manufacture RIBS, SKIDS, PROPELLERS, HOLLOW WING BARS, Etc. Our equipment is perfect and we are prepared to execute any special work.
Chicago Embossed Mldg. Co.,
1339-1349 CLYBOURN PLACE CHICAGO, ILL.
SPECIAL ATTENTION TO AERIAL NAVIGATION
20 Years Experience
Send for book telling how to obtain Patents and Illustrating 100 Mechanical Movement* - BOOK MAILED FREE TO ANY ADDRESS -
CHAS. E. BROCK, patent attorney
913 F STREET, WASHINGTON, D. C. 256 BROADWAY, N EW YORK CITY |
+ I HAVE IN MY OFFICE COPIES OF ALL PATENTS GRANTED FOR AEROPLANES +
PATENTS T $35
Remainder payable when patent is granted. Send sketch of your invention for advice as to patentability, &c. Books "Successful Patents" and "Stepping Stones" free. Latter contains over 200 hints of inventions wanted. Patent obtained or fee returned. Clients' patents sold free.
RICHARD B. OWEN, Department 5, Washington, D. C.
HAVE YOU AN IDEA?
IF SO, WRITE FOR OUR BOOKS: "Why Patents Pay,'' "I00 Mechanical Movements" and a Treatise on Perpetual Motions—50 Illustrations - ALL MAILED FREE -
F. G. DIETER1CH & CO. patent lawyers 803 Ouray Building. Washington, D. C.
Carath Oval Tubing
For DEMOISELLES and other Aeroplanes CARRAN & HATHAWAY
Worcester, Mass., Sta. A Price : 25c per Ft. Sample on request Section Full Size, No. 22 and 24 Gauge
Our Books for Inventors Free
Send sketch for opinion as to patentability. Specialists in Aeronautics.
BEELER & ROBB
87-90 McGill Bldg. Washington, D.C.
C. L. PARKER
L.te Ex.miner U. S. Patent Office
Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents
American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the complete legal protection of the invention. 1 landbook for inventors sent upon request 30 McGill Bldg. WASHINGTON, D. C*.
WHAT VOU INVENT!!
AERONAUTICS A SPECIALTY
CImprovements in Aerostructurei should be protected without delay. Thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by others. A seemingiv unimportant point to-dav, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future as the belden Patents control the Automobile. Do not give your ideas away ; protect them with solid patents.
We render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention without charge. Send us a sketch and description, photographs or a model for immediate report. .
Booklets giving full information in Patent Matters, a list of needed inventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. Write for them.
HW11* /""l 11 O /~1 PROMPT AND PROPER SERVICE
. Ellis thandlee & Company
PROMPT AND PROPER _
1247 F Street, WashlnQton, D. C.
vice and hook sent free. TERMS LOW.
GEO. C. SHOEMAKER, Patent Atty., 929 FSt., Washington, D. C-
In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine.
Rex Smith Aeroplanes Made Commercially.
The recent issues of "Aeronautics" have contained interesting- accounts of the flights of the Rex Smith aeroplane.
Hitherto unheard of as a designer of aeroplanes, Mr. Smith and his assistants have quietly pursued their work of developing the commercial aeroplane. Freedom from accident and great facility of control have been marked evidences of the success of these early performances. Three novices have flown the machine with perfect ease and demonstrated the value of the strength and simplicity of the apparatus.
The company claims for the machine a range of flying speed between 25 and 65 m. p. h. This machine is only an experiment and in no way comparable with the next development, which embodies the results of the valuable data obtained from the months of actual flying with the number two machine. The policy of the company is to establish a permanent business of a high character and nothing has moved Mr. Smith to abandon his original decision, i. e., develop a machine which no competition can embarrass.
This farsighted policy is obviously a good one, and no phase of the business future has been overlooked. The offices of the company are in Washington, D. C. in a modern office building, owned by the president of the firm. College Park, Washington's best flying grounds, is but a few minutes distant either by train or trolley. The coming activity of the government, the Aeronautical Reserve, and the National Aviation Co., all located at College Park, made it of additional advantage. The company is in possession of the famous charter rights granted by act of the Maryland legislature to the American Aero Exhibition Co.. of College Park, Md., which charter gives the company control of all flying exhibitions and contest privileges. This charter is very valuable, as College Park is a tremendous flying ground with every advantage to the national capital.
Mr. Smith, vice-president of the company, is a patent lawyer of twenty-nine years' practice, and Victor J. Evans, the president, is the head of one of the largest firms of patent attorneys in the country. Associated with these gentlemen is a strong coterie of patent experts. Xo phase of the patent end of Mr. Smith's machine has been overlooked, and applications have already been allowed that will prove of great value to the company.
The company is incorporated with a capitalization of $500,000.
Goodrich Window Display.
A window display that is proving very interesting to the public has just been installed at the headquarters of the P>. P. Goodrich Company, in Xew Y/ork City, at 17S0-17S2 Broadway. It represents the tapping of rubber trees in the Para regions of South America and making the crude into biscuits at a natives' camp.
The transcontinental trip of A. 1.. West-gard recently, covering 4.600 miles over the deserts and mountains of the western country, is a monument to the rubber tire industry and the Goodrich in particular. Two of the tires of a 4,400 pound car bad Xew York air in them when San Francisco was reached.
We have received from T. W. K. Clarke & Co., High Street, Kingston-on-Thames, England, two sample models and their catalogue of materials for model making. England has thousands of boys and men dying models in competition, and in this respect, at least, are "way ahead" of America. Gears, thrust bearings, stmts, air-cooled engines, strut connections, gold heaters' skin, bearings, and a hundred other supplies, all in miniature for models, are listed.
One model of which a feature is made lias flown 900 feet.
New Detachable Tire.
The danger of losing tires has been reduced to almost nothing by the recent perfection of the Goodyear wing detachable aeroplane tire. It is absolutely impossible for a Goodyear tire to be torn from the rim. They are held to the rim in the vise-like grip of piano wire tape which is imbedded in the base of the tire. Xo matter at what angle the wheel strikes the ground it is impossible for the tire to come off so firmly it is held to the rim.
There is also little danger of puncturing these tires when they abruptly strike the ground. They are made with an extra tough tread that prevents punctures. They have the greatest possible resiliency, which makes landing a comparatively easy matter.
These tires are used and indorsed by the best aviators of the day, including Capt. Thomas Baldwin, Clifford B. Harmon, Charles K. Hamilton. J. J. Frisbie, Harkness, Wilcox and other American and foreign aviators.
The Goodyear tires are made to fit the rims on Farman and Bleriot and other foreign and American-made machines.
Goodrich shock absorbers, of high-grade Para rubber, can now be had in both the Far-man and Bleriot types. These are not carried in stock, but are made to order, because of the great variety of sizes. Goodrich shock absorbers are being used by the Wright Company, the Burgess Company and Curtiss, 1 >r. William Greene and the United States Signal Corps.
The Church Aeroplane Company's new Curtiss type 'plane will be at the Boston Show, fitted with the new 6-cylinder Kirkham motor.
Hempstead Plains Aviation Co.. Garden City, L. ].. $50,000. Incorporators: Alfred .1. Moisant, A. E. Wupperman, Gage E. Tarbell. Allen W. Evarts and Chas. S. Butler Tarbell and Evarts are officers of a local land company which owns some of the Hempstead Plains.
Brooks Aeroplane Co., Saginaw, Mich., $5,000.
Rex Smith Aeroplane Co., Washington, 1). C, $500,000.
Meteoric Aeroplane Co.. of Xew York Citv, with a capital of $10,000. There are nine directors, among whom is Eouis A. Leavelle, 213 West 5:id street. Xew York City.
Kansas Citv Aviation Training School, Kansas City. Mo., $2,000. Henry .1. Rahe. G. S. Bennett, C. H. Rahe and M. C. Bennett.
Andrew Smith, of Traverse City, Mich., is to form an engine com pan*0 "'on.ooo stock to build engines of his i» q jj
Chicago Aeroplane Co. and W. II.
Harrows and W. L. Wilson.
The W. T. Swain Shows, of Xew Orleans, are gathering together a group of aviators to be known as the "Xational Aviators." Among those alreadv signed is .1. .J. Frisbie. It. O. Rubel. Jr., & Co., of Louisville. Ky., are sup-plving a "Gray Eagle" Curtiss-type biplane equipped with an "Aeromotor," made by the lietroit Aeronautic Construction Co. Perhaps Forepaugh and the other big circuses will be the next in line.
SERIAL MARKET PLACE
We Always! fSaid So, but! Some Didn't! Believe It
C." I would rather have a page in your large publication than some space with you and some in two or three other publications. I sincerely believe that you have the only real publication in the field. For solid editorial matter and for worth-while circulation and advertising return, I am sure you don't have to take your hat off to anybody— and this statement is based on results we have received.1'
—Advertising Manager of one of the largest advertisers in the automobile accessory field and, of course, an advertiser in "AERONAUTICS."
Feb. 7, 1911.
'^/e had my adver-for some time and find that I get more replies from 'Aeronautics i than from any other two magazines."
—Another Advertiser, Feb. 11, 1911.
250 West 54th Street New York City
Cable: Aeronautic. New York •Phone 4833 Columbus published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. A. V. JONES, Pres't - - E. L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y
subscription rates United States. $3.00 Foreign, $3.50 advertising representatives : e. f. ingraham adv. co., 116 nassau st., new york Gil Rankin. 5 park Square, boston. Mass.
MARCH, 1911 Vol. 8, No. 3
COPYRIGHT, 1S10, AERONAUTICS PRESS, INC.
Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at Ihe Postofflee
New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. £\ AERONAUTICS is issued on the 20th of each month ^» All copy must be received by the 10th. Advertising pages close on the 15th. :: :: :: :: :: :: £\ Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::
WHAT THE AERO CLUB MIGHT DO.
In a recent issue of "The Philadelphia Inquirer," Birdman, the aeronautic expert of that newspaper, whose editorial comments are closely scanned by aeroists all over the country, made some pointed suggestions to the Aero Club of America. Brief excerpts from Birdman's article follows:
"As the Aero Club of America is showing signs of increasing activity, it may be in order to suggest that it shall organize competitions for the purpose of encouraging inventors and for a study of mechanical possibilities. Take, for instance, the matter of aeroplane engines. No official body has ever made a test of aeroplane engines in competition in this country.
"Why not duplicate here the Alexander prize contest that was held in England recently? As the engine is the heart of the aeroplane problem it would be a valuable project to organize various competitions in this country, in order to bring out new ideas and stimulate the activity of the aeroplane engine producers.
"Competitive prize contests for automatic stabilizing devices would be another very desirable project for the Aero Club to take hold of.
"New ideas! That is the slogan that should be adopted by the Aero Club of America. Organize contests, offer prizes, get ingenious minds together in competition! Throw open the doors wide enough to let the delegates from the foolish ward come in, rather than keep out a single man who has the merest germ of a practical idea. Don't be afraid of the cranks. Lilienthal. Langley and Chanute were cranks in their time, and Chanute was the only one of the three who lasted long enough to live down the reputation and hear the knockers change their tune.
"All of which (to turn off the steam heat right here, before we get too warm), is respectfully submitted to that coterie of gentlemen in little old New York, the Aero Club leaders, who are giving freely of their time and money for the advancement of aeronautics, and who may—mind you, I say 'may'—know as much about it all as does Birdman."
>jd .Si->MKis Company
September 20, 1910 Manufacturers of
Complete Aviation Power Plants
Hall-Scott Motor Car Company, San Franci3C0, California.
C Motors, propellers and radiators built within our own factory, allowing of correct balancing of eom-tlament- ponent parts, and a corresponding
After a thorough inspection and test of one of maximum degree of reliability and r 8-cylinder V-ehape aviation motors at your factory, I efficiency. d.An American-built convinced that you have the beet aviation dotor built motor, used and endorsed by pi'O-
toerioa- fessional aviators as well as novices.
Kindly expreee the motor I ordered to Sacramento eoon ae poeeible. CHAS. K. HAMILTON
Aviators of America
Tours very truly,
J. J. FRISBIE
Aviators of America DIDIER MASSON
Los Angeles Times flight, 80 miles cross country and directly over Los Angeles.
Capt. THOS. S. BALDWIN
Baldwin Aviation Co. Motor shipped to Hong Kong, China. FRED. J. WIS EM ANN
Most successful novice at San Francisco Meet.
New York Representative
JOHN H. DAVIS
25 Broad Street
Catalogues on request.
Type A - 2 60 H.P., Motor and Propeller
HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO., San Francisco, Cal.
Our Balloons Made Good
National Race, Indianapolis, Sept. 17th, 1910
RESULT: Two Balloons in the International Race, St. Louis, ^-L October 17th, 1910. The Only American Made Balloons in this Contest—which proves that we are the Leading Balloon Manufacturers in America—look at our past records.
Largest in America—testing with Air
CHICAGO—9 Competitors—Won both Distance and Endurance
trophies by a big margin. INDIANAPOLIS—6 Competitors, 1st and 3rd prizes. PEORIA—3 Competitors, 1st Prize.
ST. LOUIS—9 Competitors, 1st, 2nd and 4th Money.
CAN YOU BEAT THAT!
How we do it: by using the very best material in the country; building on safe, practical lines, with good workmanship.
FRENCH AMERICAN BALLOON CO.
II. E. HONEYWELL, Director
4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. Al