Aeronautics

Volume 8 - No. 2 - 1911 February

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



Vol. VIII, No. 2. FEBRUARY, 1911 Serial No 43

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

250 West 54th St., New York

Subscriptions in the U. S. A. and possessions, $3.00 Canada, $3.25 - Abroad, $3.50

single numbers, 25 cents

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAM

Los Angeles, Cal., Dec. 28, 1910.

"Of more than 30 California machines only novice to qualify to date is Glenn Martin, Santa Ana. Very fine flights to-day, around course and cross country, with 4-cylinder Elbridge. Roehrig will be ready to-morrow."

Is it only coincidence that Elbridge Engines were the only engines to fly all summer at Mineola and all winter in California?

Our new booklet "Amateur Aviation" is not a record of hops or grass-cutting but of real flights by novices and amateurs.

THIS IS THE TIME TO FILE YOUR ORDER IF YOU WANT A REASONABLY EARLY DELIVERY.

f ELBRIDGE ENGINE CO.

10 Culver Road

Rochester, N. Y.

Don't Be Disappointed

but get enough power to fly and not "cut grass "

#]T Profit by the experiences of others.

The Engine that stands up to the work and is the "last word" in engine building. :: :: :: :: :: ::

OVER 100 FLIGHTS BY

ANTONY JANNUS and REX SMITH at Washington, D. C, without a single accident. <lA record unequalled by" the best of flyers.

Be "Wise" and get our Information

The Emerson Engine Co., Inc.

ALEXANDRIA, VA., U.S.A. New York Office: 1737 Broadway

(Buick Building)

J. R. Westerfield Telephone 782 Columbus

The Cheapest Speed Indicator

Price is relative. First cost means little. It's the years of satisfactory service that determines real value. Here the Warner Auto-Meter stands supreme—without a rival. It is so refined in construction that it remains absolutely accurate, dependable and reliable for years under conditions which would ruin a §250 chronometer in an instant. Auto-Meters over 8 years old are as accurate-to-the-hair as when new. We never yet have seen a "worn-out" Auto-Meter. Other speed indicators become inaccurate in a short time, and must be replaced every year or 18 months, yet they cost almost as much at^ra^as

The

Warner

Quality has so much to do with satisfaction and the pleasure that goes with it that even the owner of a moderate priced car should afford a Warner Auto-Meter. It's good business judgment to use it.

Warner Instrument Company, 111B5EST,ewri^ve

BRANCHES:

Atlanta, 1 16 Edgewocd Ave. Detroit. 870 W-Hw—' A... Pi,ilaJelphia. 302 N. Broad St Boston, 925 Boylston St. Indianapolif. 330^ N. Illinoii Pittsburg 5940 Kirkwood St Buffalo, 720 Main St. Denver. 1518 Broadway 'St. Portland, Ore., 14N. 7lh St!

Chicago, 2420 Michigan Av. Kansas City, 1613 Grand Ave. San Francisco, 36-38 Van Ness Cincinnati, 807 Main St. Los Angeles. 748 S. Olive St. Seattle, 61 1 E. Pike St [Ave

Cleveland, 2062 Euclid Ave. New York, 1902 Broadway Si. Louis. 3923 Olive St. Other Models up to $145

Auto

PARAGON PROPELLERS

Patents applied for.

Copyright, 1910, by Spencer Heath.

Quartered White Oak with Spruce Interior. 8 ft. diam., 12 to 16 pounds.

Paragon Propellers Satisfy.

They are built to order, every one for its work, scientifically calculated and designed, and perfectly balanced, the two blades being exactly alike, even duplicating the grain and color of the wood. They give heavy thrust but they are built to fly and they do fly. They keep right on pushing, and do not lose their thrust when they get up in the air.

We .are furnishing such well known aviators as Glenn H. Curtiss, Chas. F. Willard, Capt. Thc/s. Baldwin, Harry S. Harkness, and many others. Our propellers are also used and spoken of very highly by J. A. D. McCurdy and "Bud" Mars, of the Curtiss aviators. Mr. Curtiss /was so well pleased with the first we sent him that he ordered another immediately by wire fqr his Gordon-Bennett racer.

Willard 's Gnome-driven biplane making great flights at Los Angeles is equipped with Paragon Propellers, also the Curtiss racing biplane, winner of the great speed event at Los^Angeles.

You cannot lose on PARAGON PROPELLKRS. We could not afford to have n dissatisfied customer. Our guarantee of satisfaction is absolute. Ask any of our customers.

Our prices are not more than you pay for the other kind.

Get a PARAGON designed for you now and save time, money and disappointment. Ask us for a printed blank on which to tell us your requirements.

Tn Olir relief omP>VC • Not one of you nas m;ulc "s an l">s;ltisf:1(-'tol'.v report. Your 1 U vUl \^U5lUllieiJ). compliments are pleasing, but we want your complaints, if

you have any. If any of you are not fully satisfied in every way, kindly notify us.

guarantee is good, and we mean it.

Our

See our Exhibit at "AERONAUTICS.'

AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY

616 G Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.

lvuruury, lyn

TABUTEAU, WINNER OF THE MICHELIN TROPHY

362 Miles in 7 hours, 45 minutes

C. He used a Bosch Equipped Maurice Farman Biplane, with 8 cylinder Renault Motor on this flight. Grahame- White, Winner of the Gordon Bennett Trophy, also used a Bosch.

C. 77ius the greatest aeroplane records of the year were won by Bosch Equipped machines, as were also all of the distance and speed records of 1910 which still stand.

Information on aeroplane ignition can be had by addressing any of the Bosch Magneto Company Offices.

BOSCH MAGNETO COMPANY

223-225 West 46th Street, New York

Chicago Branch : 119-121 East 24th Street

San Francisco Branch : 357 Van Ness Avenue

Detroit Branch: 878 Woodward Avenue

(through the courtesy of the editor of "american motorist" we are enabled to print the first practical treatise on the actual construction of cm aeroplane complete that has appeared in any aeronautical publication. mr. godley is an engineer on the staff of the above journal and is a member of the aeronautical society.—editor.)

CONTRARY, no doubt, to the common belief, aeroplane construction lias no very deep secrets, and the work is not difficult for a man who is fairly handy with carpenter's and machinist's tools. Doubtless there are thousands of amateur mechanics in this country who have both the skill and the tools, and with a capital of a few hundred dollars any one of them could build an aeroplane capable of making- satisfactory flights. The series of articles of which this is the first will give the instructions, illustrated with working drawings, for the construction of a Curtiss-type biplane of 30-foot wing spread.

The time necessary to build an aeroplane on these lines depends of course on the skill of the workman, the help he gets from others, if any, and also on the amount of his capital; for much time can be saved by buying from supply houses small parts which would otherwise have to be made by hand. Turnbuckles, for instance, can be made from bicycle spokes and nipples and strips of sheet steel, or they can be bought for 12 or 15 cents each. As a hundred or more of them will be needed, they make quite an item. The oval beams and struts may be bought ready shaped at a sawmill, or they may be shaved down by hand. It is safe to say, however, that a good man working two hours each evening with fair regularity can finish a machine during the winter. [Turnbuckles, guy wires and alt parts may be purchased all ready for use from any of the supply houses or builders advertising in "Aeronautics," saving considerable time and labor for the man to whom expense is not such an important item.]

First of all the prospective builder will want to know the cost. The best answer is that the machine will cost all the builder can afford, and probably a little more. As a matter of fact, it depends, as indicated above, largely on the amount of detail work which the builder chooses to do himself, and also on the quality of material which he uses. Quality should never be skimped in such a way as to make the machine unsafe; but there are many ways in which one can save money or

lavish it, according to his bank account. The surfaces may be covered with rubberized silk at a cost of $200, or with ordinary linen cloth coated with a home-made preparation at a cost of perhaps $30. The thousand feet of trussing necessary may be of piano wire at 4 feet for a cent, or steel cable at four cents a foot. The minimum figure for the complete machine, exclusive of the motive power and accessories, will be about $150; the maximum about $500.

The motor is another proposition entirely. A man who is acquainted in a number of garages and automobile repair shops may be able to pick up a second-hand motor which will do the work for a couple of hundred dollars. Any motor which will actually develop 30 h. p. at 1.000 revolutions will fly this machine. As to the weight, the lighter the better, but 400 pounds for the complete power plant is not excessive. Low power and considerable weight will naturally make a sluggish machine, but one all the better for the beginner, as he will not be tempted into rash feats.

On the other hand, if one is plentifully supplied with cash there are a number of special aeronautic motors of 25 to 50 h. p. costing from $500 to $3,000.

A workshop of considerable size will be necessary. To assemble the machine completely a clear space 40 feet square must be obtained. It is possible, however, to do most of the work in a smaller room, building the machine in sections, and assembling these only when all are completed. If the work is done in this way a space of 10 by 15 feet will serve. When the machine is ready to fly the budding aviator must of course find a suitable field, smooth and unobstructed and at least 10 acres in extent. If no building of sufficient size can bo had at the field for the assembling of the machine, the work may be done in the open air, the machine being covered at night and in stormy weather with a tarpaulin and securely anchored to stakes.

The great advantage of the Curtiss type of construction, and the principal reason why it was chosen for this article, is the division into small sections, which allows the machine to be taken apart and assembled with the greatest ease and to lie packed for shipment in a few comparatively small boxes. Glenn Curtiss' fame would he quite secure if it rested only on the invention of this construction; had he never llown a foot he would still be recognized as a designer and engineer of the first rank.

Model of a Curtiss Built by Cliurcli Aeroplane Co. 41

HOW TO BUILD A CURTISS-TYPE BIPLANE

By g. H. Godley.

The Strut Socket Bolt Passes Through the Main Rib and the Beam.

Jn the Curtiss type the main planes are divided into sections of a length equal to the distance between struts; the machine illustrated here has this distance equal to 0 feet. The struts can be taken out and the sections laid flat on each other. The framework lor the front and rear rudders can also be jointed if desired. The longest parts of (lie machine, when taken apart, are the two diagonal beams running from the front wheel back to the engine bed, and the skid. The horizontal front rudder is packed intact; the vertical rear rudder is unhung and laid flat on the tail. Two men can lake the machine apart in a few hours and can put it together in a day. Mr. Curtiss has so far refused to assert what rights he may have to the exclusive use of this construction.

The planes of the Ourtiss-type machine are covered with a single surface of cloth, stretched over the upper side of the ribs which give the curvature. The ribs are in (urn laid on top of the beams. Both ribs and beams are completely exposed beneath the planes. Although this probably increases the wind resistance, it makes a very light and simple construction.

LARGER 1UBS BETWEEN THE SECTIONS.

Two distinct types of ribs are used, main ribs and small ribs, both of the same curvature. The main ribs are used between pairs of struts, to hold apart the front and rear beams; they are heavy enough to be quile rigid. Three or four small ribs are laid across each section of the planes, between Hie pairs of main ribs, to keep the clotli surfaces in the proper shape. The main ribs are twice as thick as the small ribs, being built up of six 14-inch layers of wood instead of thn-e; they are %-inch wide and the small ribs v> inch. The cloth surface is stretched over tin; tops of the small ribs and laced through a row of holes along the center lines of the main ribs. The front edge of each section of the surface is tacked to the front beam and the rear edge is laced over a wire

stretched through holes in the tips of the ribs. After the cloth is stretched tight, it is tacked to the small ribs, a strip of tape being laid under the tack heads.

The upright struts which hold the two planes apart fit at each end into sockets, which are simply metal cups with bolts projecting through their ends. Those at the bottom of the front row of struts pass through the eyes of the turnbuckles and connections for the wire trussing, then through the flattened ferrules of the main ribs, and finally through the beam, all being clamped together with a nut; those at the top go through the turnbuckles first, then the beam, and finally the rib ferrule. The bolts at the back row of struts must go through the full thickness of the main ribs, and so must be longer. The drawings on this page show the method of attachment of both main and small ribs, it may be noted that in the drawing a neat method of attaching the turnbuckles is shown; instead of being strung on the socket bolt one after another they are riveted to the corners of a steel plate which alone is clamped under the socket.

The beams are jointed at each strut connection; the ends are cut square and united by a sheet steel sleeve, clamped on by two small bolts. The hole for the socket bolt is drilled half in each of the two abutting beams. As it is very difficult to get long pieces of wood sufficiently straight-grained and free from knots, this jointed system considerably cheapens the construction. Both beams and struts are spruce; but to give a litlle additional strength, the beams of the midddle section may be ash.

If the aeroplane is intended to be taken apart very often, the standard design, as shown in the large drawings, can be modified so as to make it unnecessary to unlace the clotli each time. This Is arranged by regarding the two outer sections at each end of the plane as one, and never separating them. Additional main ribs are then provided at the

from A Beom^W

Side View

The Small Ribs are Laid Over the Beams and Fastened with Screws.

The Rib Curve and the Press In Which the Rib Boards are Glued Together.

Showing the Way of Sawing Up the Rib Boards into the Individual Ribs.

45

inner ends of these sections, and are attached directly to the beams, instead of being clamped under the strut sockets. In taking the machine apart, the struts are pulled from the sockets, leaving the latter in place. It will then be of advantage to shorten the planes somewhat, say 3 inches on each section, so that the outer double sections will come under, the "12-foot rule" of the express companies.

Three wheels are provided for starting and landing. These are of the bicycle type, although with heavier spokes and wider hubs than usual. They are usually 20 inches in diameter and fitted with 2-inch single-tube tires, but larger ones can be used to advantage if the builder cares to pay the difference in price.

Two beams, preferably of ash about 1% by 2 inches, extend from the front wheel to the engine bed, and carry in addition the driver's seat. A third beam runs back horizontally from the front wheel, and on rough ground acts as a skid. The rest of the running gear is built up of steel tubing, mostly %-inch diameter. The pieces are joined together simply by being ilattened at the ends and bolted through; no sockets or special connections of any kind arc used. If desired, the wheels can be carried in bicycle forks, but two separate tubes, one on each side, will do just as well.

MANY BUILDERS DISLIKE BAMBOO. For the "outriggers," and the frames carrying the front horizontal rudder and the rear vertical rudder and tail, as usually called, either spruce or bamboo may be used. Bamboo will always be found on machines made in the Curtiss factory, and it is undoubtedly the lighter of the two. Spruce, however, is easier to obtain in good quality, and is by far the easier to work. At their ends the beams or bamboo are provided with ferrules of steel tubing, flattened out and drilled through.

The outriggers are attached to the main frame-work of the machine by slipping the ferrules over the socket bolts of the middle-section struts, above and below the beams. It is preferable, however, to attach at least the rear outriggers to extra bolts running through the beams (as shown in the large drawing); then, when the machine is to be housed, the tail and rudder can be unshipped and the triangular frames swung around against the main frame, considerably reducing the required space.

The tail, horizontal and vertical rudders, and the ailerons are light frame-works of wood, covered on both sides with cloth. The wood stick are put together with strips of tin folded over the joints; these are fastened with brads, the ends being clinched, and both heads and ends soldered fast to the tin. The frames are always braced with wire in such a way that no twisting strains can come on them. The front horizontal rudder, which is a biplane construction like the main planes, is built up with struts in much the same way. Instead of being fitted with sockets, however, the struts are held by long screws run through the planes and into their ends, and passing through the eyes of the turnbuckles.

Having given a general description of the aeroplane and an estimate of its cost, it is now possible to take up in detail the actual work of construction. First, however, it may be well to call attention to the photograph reproduced, which may make clear some points which did not appear in the mechanical drawings.

The builder usually begins with the main planes and their struts and truss-wires; it is desirable to get this box-like structure completed, except for the cloth covering, and in proper alignment, before leaving it for the running gear and controls.

Both large and small ribs are laminated, being built up of six or three strips, respectively, of 14-inch spruce, or spruce and ash, glued together in a press. This lamination is the quickest and easiest way of giving the ribs the proper curve, being much superior to

steaming. The laminated ribs are glued as illustrated; it is simply a log of wood about s inches square and 5 feet long, reasonably clear and straight-grained, which has J^een sawed down the cen'ter on the curve shown in the same drawing. The two halves of the log are clamped together •or^-tiie strips to be glued by a dozen bolts arrtt-" sleel straps.

The making of this press should be the first thing to receive the builder's attention. It is a valuable asset, as it. will last indefinitely and makes possible an unlimited supply of ribs of uniform curve. The curve may be drawn direct on the log with a soft pencil, the cord line being first ruled on and a length of 4 feet 6 inches marked off on it, with margins of 2 or 3 inches at each end. The cord is then divided into 6-inch sections, and perpendiculars erected, on which the distances which define the curve are marked off. Finally, draw a smooth curve through the locating points, continuing it at each end through the margin. Any saw-mill which has a band-saw will cut the log down the curve for 2C cents or so. It will pay the aeroplane builder to get acquainted with the nearest saw-mill, as its services will often be required.

The bolts should be %-inch in diameter and if) inches long. Eye-bolts are convenient, as they may be tightened up with one wrench and a bar. The steel straps should be :'s by IV2 inches, about 10 inches long, with %-inch holes drilled 9 inches apart on centers, for a log 8 inches wide.

PROCEDURE IN GLUEING LAMINATED RIBS.

Boards of reasonably clear spruce, ^-inch thick, G or 7 inches wide and about 4 feet It inches long, are used for rib material. These must be obtained from the saw-mill, as it is hopeless to attempt to make them by hand. Six boards are put in the press at each glueing; if the batch is intended for small ribs, the glue is omitted between the third and fourth boards. The glue used should be the kind which comes in sheets, and must be dissolved in boiling water; it may be applied quite thin with a good-sized paint brush. When the batch of six boards is put in the press, the end bolts should be tightened up first, as the upper part of the press is apt to be weak in the center if not liberally proportioned. The tightening up should be gradual, each bolt being taken up a little at a time, but should be continued until the glue oozes copiously from between the boards. Twenty-four hours should be allowed for drying. The glue-cracks in the finished ribs should be almost imperceptible.

The laminated boards taken from the press should be sawed up by a power rip-saw at the saw-mill, to the dimensions shown in the drawing. The saw usually takes a cut ^s-inch wide, and this should be allowed for in estimating the number of ribs which can be obtained from each board. A margin should be left at each side, as it is impossible to get all the thin boards squarely in line. Twelve main ribs will be required (or sixteen if the builder uses the quick-detachable plan described heretofore), and either thirty or forty small ribs, according to whether three or four are used in each section. It is advisable to make up a number of spare ones besides.

When the rough-sawed ribs are received from the saw-mill the sharp edges should be rounded off and they should be tapered down at the ends to fit the ferrules, with a small plane or a spoke-shave. In doing this it must be remembered that the upper surface of the small ribs gives the curve to the cloth surfaces, so that any tapering should be done on the lower side. The main ribs may be tapered from both sides, as it is the center line, the crack between the third and fourth laminations, that determines the curve. Small holes should be drilled an inch apart along this line for the lacing.

The ferrules for the front ends of the small ribs are %-inch sleel tubing, rather light; (Continued opp. p. 7s)

THE Aero Show held in conjunction with the independent Auto Show in Grand Central Palace, which closed January 7th. was a real success. Though not half the engine and other manufacturers were represented, the exhibits covered more than one entire floor and constituted the biggest indoor showing of aeronautic material yet held in this country. All exhibitors reported either actual cash business to a satisfactory amount, or plenty of good prospects.

AEROPLANES.

The Burgess Company & Curtis, of Mar-blehead, Mass., showed two of their standard biplanes, model D and model B. Model D, a two-passenger machine, is about the size of a Farman. resembling it closely, except that the front outriggers combine the oblique struts of the Wright machine. These brace the front structure and ward off many damages in landing. The planes spread 36 ft. by 6 ft. fore and aft. spaced 6 ft. apart. The total supporting surface is 536 sq. ft. The total length is 42 ft. Stability is by Farman type ailerons, with the addition of "Greely Curtis non-infringing deflectors" at the front edge, on top, of the upper plane. The motor is an S-cyl-inder 50 h. p. Indian driving a Burgess S ft. diameter 56-in. pitch propeller. The cylinders are 4x4. which figure A. L. A. M. 51 h. p. It is said to give 60 b. h. p. The standing thrust obtained is 462 lbs. at 1,240 r. p. m. The wings, front and rear surfaces and power

plant_are so arranged that they may be

easily taken apart for shipment. The central portion then occupies a space 10 ft. by 7 ft, by 7 ft. This model is listed at $6,500.

The model B resembles the Glenn Curtiss machine, except for the controls and running gear. The planes spread 26 ft. by -iys ft. fore

and aft, separated by 4y2 ft. Total area 2S6 sq. ft. The elevator is a double-plane box type; the rear single plane is fixed. The vertical rudder is operated by the foot. Curtiss 4 cylinder 25 h. p. engines are supplied with this model, and El Arco radiator Bosch magneto, and Goodyear tires complete the equipment. This lists at $4,500. The plane shown had a Clement Bayard engine fitted. A full description with scale drawings of the model D machine will appear in the next issue.

The Wright Company, Dayton, Ohio, showed the "baby" 30 h. p. used by Johnstone in making the world height record at Belmont and a "bran" new one, finished in natural wood, of the two-man size. This was the one later delivered to Robert J. Collier. It was beautifully finished throughout and is the first one put out by the Wright Company thus far to the general public of this country. The Wright exhibit, in charge of aviator J. C. Turpin, attracted great attention—everyone wanted to see the "baby." Some good prospects appeared as a result of the exhibition.

Glenn H. Curtiss, 1737 Broadway, New York, showed a one-man machine of his standard construction and a Curtiss S-cylinder engine with propeller mounted. A section of the main planes was shown separately. In this, the construction was a still further refinement of that heretofore employed. The ribs ended flush with the lateral beams in front and were flush with the top of the rear beams, making a smooth outline. A strip of wood ran along the rear ends of the ribs. Each plane was covered top and bottom with Naiad No. 6 cloth. A piece of tin is used between the cloth and any metal plate or sleeve to prevent the cloth's tearing. Where strut sockets come at joints of lateral beams, the socket and sleeve for joint are one piece.

The Walden-Dyott Company. 50 Church street. New York, showed their monoplane with which both members of the firm have been making flights at Mineola. A descrip-

New Curtiss Features.

tion of this machine appeared in a recent issue. An instrument, about the size pf a big watch, has been designed by this company, which they call a "levelometer." It is fastened to outrigger in sight of the driver. A swinging hand denotes at once whether the machine is flying up or down hill and at what degree. This will be put on the market. The entire control of this machine is in the steering wheel and column, which latter is mounted on a universal joint. The wings can be quickly taken off, leaving the bare chassis for transportation. A school will be started at Mineola where men can learn to fly at an expense of but $150 for the course, including actual shop work in making own repairs. Gibson propellers, Anzani engines and Pennsylvania tires are standard equipment on the Y\r-D machines.

C. & A. Wittemann, 17 Ocean Terrace, Staten Island, N. Y., exhibited one of their finely fin-

ished gliders and a power machine. In the glider the planes are now set at a slight dihedral angle. One of these was sold at the show. The power machine, for two people, had many novel features. The running gear is wholly new, each of the three wheels being equipped with spring shock absorbers and the two rear wheels have springs to take up side th rusts.

The steering arrangement is novel. The front outriggers consist of but a single spruce spar on each side, which is stayed with cables to top of lower planes with bridge trussing to maintain rigidity. The planes are in three sections, the outer ones set at a dihedral angle of 3 degrees.

Two Willis Strut Sockets.

The power plant is an Elbridge 4-40 "Special" driving a Gibson propeller 7 by 6 ft. pitch. The standard equipment includes El Arco radiator, Bosch magneto, G. & A. carburetor, Naiad cloth, Roebling cable, and Hartford tires. A scale drawing, with all de-

tails will appear in an early issue. Four of these machines were sold at the show.

The Volanaut Construction Company, Flushing', L. I., showed the skeleton frame of a Curtiss type, with all metal parts nickeled. This exhibited fine workmanship and care throughout, though for that matter, so did all the machines. In this machine the ailerons are hinged on the rear beam and move both up and down. All nipples were full threaded, of the special cable used in guying; the 3/32 in. stands a strain of 1,132 lbs., and the 1/1G in. 750 lbs. A feature of this machine is the hollow woodwork throughout except struts.

The standard equipment consists of an "Aeromotor" power plant, Mea magneto, Hartford tires.

Frank Van Anden showed his Baldwin style machine with a wooden engine, in the inside

and propeller, \vith which a speed of 40 m. p. h. on the ice is claimed.

John H. Davis, 25 Broad street, New York, agent for the Hall-Scott engines, showed their 8-cylinder 4 in. by 4 in. A-2, with the H-S propeller. This is intended to give 60 b. h. p. at 1,200 r. p. m. and 70 b. h. p. at 1.500 r. p. m. Purchasers have the privilege of seeing the 9%-hour test run which each engine gets before leaving the factory. This engine is used among others by Hamilton, Masson, and Captain Baldwin has placed his order for two. It is said that the 00 h. p. motor has even developed 80 h. p. on spurts up to 1,000 r. p. m. Mea magneto and Schebler carburetors are standard equipment. The 1911 -motor has some slight refinements over the' 1910 model and a full description will be given in a subsequent issue.

Control System of the Wrigrht.

of which was an electric motor which turned the propeller. This had an El Arco radiator and both Pennsylvania 4-in., and Hartford tires.

Through Captain Lovelace, the director of the aero show, were shown Moisant's Paris-London Bleriot and Garros' Demoiselle. The Lovelace-Thompson Company exhibited a-Bleriot type framework sold to the Aeroplane Sales Company, 1777 Broadway, New York. MOTORS AND ACCESSORIES.

Ten motors were shown: the Fox "De Luxe," Hall-Scott, Indian. Curtiss, Anzani, Aeromotor, Elbridge, Clement-Bayard, Metz, and Kirk-ham.

The Aerial Equipment Company. 735 Seventh avenue, New York, showed a 3-cylinder and a 5-cylinder Anzani; also "Normale" propellers, such as used by Latham and Le-blanc at Belmont, for which this company is agent. One of the 5-cvlinder motors was sold to B. T. Babbitt Hyde. The new Anzani motors are being equipped with magneto ignition, instead of batterv as heretofore.

The 1911" Elbridge "Special" is fully described elsewhere in this issue.

The American Safety Aerocar Corporation, of Richmond Hill, L. I., agents for the Fox motors showed the 30 h. p." Fox "De Luxe" 4-cylinder 2-cycle 3 Ms in. by 3% in. This was the identical engine flown with by Mrs. Raiche at Mineola. The weight of 150 lbs. includes two Schebler carburetors, Bosch LI. T. magneto. A fidl description of the Fox motor was given in the January issue.

The Metz Company, Waltham, Mass., showed their 5-cylinder 100-125 h. p. The cylinders are 0% in. by 6% in. A small sleigh was shown driven by the 2-cylinder Metz engine

Two "Aeromotors" of the Detroit Aeronautic Construction Company, Detroit, Mich., were shown by the E. T. Willis Company, 85 Reade street, New York. Three sizes of these: 30-40 h. p. 4-cylinder iV2 in. by 4y2 in.; the 40-50, 4-cylinder 5 in. by 5 in., and a 6-cylinder 5 in. by 5 in. Five of these motors were sold during the show. A detailed description was printed in a previoiis issue.

The exhibit of the Willis Company was a whole show in itself. The concern showed a full line, of wheels, ribs and struts, turnbuckles, sockets: Gibson, Harris-Gassner and Brauner propellers: oil and gas tanks. El Arco radiators, Curtiss-type ailerons, and even non-skid chains for starting on the ice. The Harris-Gassner propellers are stocked by both Willis and the Mineola Specialty Company.

The new Willis strut fastening allows for quick take down. To take machine apart, loosen only the turnbueklc. lift bottom of ferrule up flush with bottom of the fitting on the strut and slide the strut off. Note the socket on the strut is concave and fitting on cluster is convex, and furnished with 2, 3, or 4-way terminals brazed on. The 2, 3 or 4-way terminals at bottom are loose. Bolts used are 5/16 in. diameter, 2 in, 2Ys in., or 3 in. long.

The Kirkham-Eells Company, of Bath, X. Y.. showed their 4-cylinder motor, which has been flying their aeroplane for the past six months, and parts of a new f—cylinder 50 h. p., with which they will guarantee 50 h. p. for 5 hours at 1.300 r. p. m. The cylinders will be 4^ in. by I "q in. The weight will be 235 lbs. complete with magneto, water and oil pumps. This will sell around $1.2Si). One of the new concentric valves was shown.

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Some Features of Wittemann Biplane.

The IX & F. Radiator Company, 506 West I'Mity-third street, New York, is a new concern to enter aeroplane radiator field. This concern makes, also, combination copper gas and oil tanks in torpedo, round and fiat heads at prices from $3.65 to $14.70. Two brands of radiators were shown: "Light Weight," and "Feather Weight;" the 35 h. p. sizes in each weighing respectively. 32 and 24 lbs. Prices range: $45, $55, $70, and $S0, less 40 per cent on the "Light Weight," and 20 per cent on the "Feather Weight."

The American Metal Fusing & Cutting Company, 407 East Thirty-first street, New York, was an exhibitor of their process of autogenous welding, and cutting. A liberal offer is made of rental of machines at $50 for six months. By use of an oxy-acetylene flame, broken crank-cases, cracked cylinders, welding water jackets, cutting plates and holes, making intake and exhaust manifolds, are easily handled. A sight of this apparatus at work ought to make any aero motor builder dig in his jeans at once.

The Scientific Aeroplane Company, Room 51. Beach Building, 125 East Twenty-third street, New York, showed a Sperry gyroscope in action, taken from one of this concern's aeroplanes. The weight complete is 30 lbs.; resisting force nearly 1,000 lbs.; the wheel

makes 10.000 r. p. m. in a vacuum with 1/5 h. p. and will run for 1 % hours after engine stops. It is run by a belt from the engine. This is the sole case known where a gyroscope has been applied to an aeroplane for transverse stability.

The U. S. McAdamite Metal Company, 18-2S Rapel ye street, Brooklyn, New York., had a most comprehensive exhibit of "strong as bronze and one-third the weight," McAdamite pistons, gears. Curtiss and Kirkham crank-cases. Hundreds of castings showed the diversity of application.

The Acme Oil Engine Company, Bridgeport, Conn., showed a line of laminated stained ash propellers. The maker of these made all the propellers for the Kimball helicopter and biplane, and for A. M. Herring for several years past. These Acme propellers were of good workmanship, of both uniform and variable pitch. A specialty will be made of stocked monoplane parts.

The Gibson propeller exhibit was very complete, the biggest at the show. All sizes were shown and those designed for particular makes of machines were plainly labeled for the benefit of visitors. These propellers, in a less highly finished state, are being offered at lower prices as "practice propellers."

Some Parts Shown by E. J. Willis Co.

51

Collier's Wright.

The Paragon propellers made a handsome showing and good business was reported. These attracted attention because of the beauty and- manner of employment of the woods used in their construction.

Both the Gibson and the Paragon propellers are shown at the permanent exhibition room of "Aeronautics."

The Aeronautical Society, Aeronautical Reserve and Flyers Club had spaces. The New York "World" had a big exhibit of models in charge of Edward Durant. W. H. Aitken did a big business in selling flying toys. A beautiful model of the Pfitzner monoplane was shown by C. G. Halpine, of 226S Aqueduct avenue, Bronx, New York, and the Church Aeroplane Company, had a 5-ft. model of ' a Curtiss. The Louis L. Crane Manufacturing Company, 259 Ninth street, Brooklyn, N. Y., sold their "Yankee Flyer," a dying model monoplane.

The American Aeroplane Supply House, Garden City, L. I., had for sale complete scale,

and full size drawings of parts, of the Bleriot XI monoplane, together with a collection of well made Bleriot ribs and parts. This concern is to keep in stock a complete set of all parts for Bleriot type machines.

A new aero school had space, the Aeronautic School of Engineers, West Fiftv-second street, New York. Cole & Company, of Asburv Park, N. J., had a big line of photographs taken at various meets.

A. J. Myers had a big display of G. & A. carburetors, which are standard equipment with Anzani and Elbridge engines.

George Bold had at the Aeronautical Society's spaces, a device for automatic stability, which could be manually operated as well. Front and rear controls were mounted on the same' shaft, in the center of which was a universal, joint from which a pendulum hung. A weight was employed on this pendulum, which could be moved up or down to secure more or less movement of the pendulum. The pendulum could be moved by hand, as.well as by gravity.

The J. S. Bretz Company exhibited at the Garden Show F. & S. imported ball bearings, made by Fichtel & Sachs, Schweinfurt, Germany. U. & H. master magnetos, the English Bowden wire mechanism, of which they are the sole importers, and German steel 'balls.

The feature of the display was a Gnome motor, which was used to display the application of twenty-eight F. & S. annular ball bearings in its construction. Among the ball bearing parts shown, is the ball bearing crankshaft of the Gnome,motor, and the ball bearing connecting rods of the motor.

All the different models of the well-known U. & H. "Master" magnetos, made by Messrs. Unterberg & Helmle, Durlach, Germany, are shown. They are all of the true high tension type, equipped with ball bearings, and ihe U. & H. interrupter; the interrupter itself being a one-piece construction, and one of the most simple ever made.

The feature of the magneto display was the new low priced self-starting magneto, enabling any one to start even the largest motoi-, without the use of batteries, and the duplex racing magneto, in which two armatures are employed, mounted tandem, and running in the same armature tunnels on one shaft.

The operation of the Bowden Wire Mechanism is clearly shown by being fitted to - a handle bar of a motor-cycle, and to the steering wheel and pillar of an automobile; the wire, in both cases, operating an auxiliary air shutter on a carburetor.

A. A. Ryan, president of the Aero Club •of America, and Robert J. Collier, head of the National Council, have resigned as directors in the Wright company.

GLUE

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Sample and i A Description ' vyC.

These two wonderful products are absolutely indispensable for making or repairing a first-class Aeroplane. Weather and rough handling do not affect them.

WEST MANUFACTURING CO., Dept. F

350 Broadway, New York City

VARNISH

Most wonderful varnish ever heard of! Absolutely weather proof, oil 01 gasoline proof. Will never dry out or crystalize. You can not scratch it. Makes the ideal smooth surface. Flexible.

Write Dept. F.

THE LOS ANGELES MEET

By Prof. H. La V. Twining

Ely Plying the New Curtiss.

PROGRESS OP AVIATION AS SHOWN BY THE SECOND MEET IN LOS ANGELES.

OXE year has passed since the first aviation meet ever held on the American continent took place in Los Angeles, and it is over a year since the first international meet at Rheims. The second meet held in Los Angeles, December 24 to January 2, which has just passed into history, might be expected to show what progress had been made in one year in the science and art of flying.

LITTLE PROGRESS IX SCIEXCE.

So far as the science is concerned, very little progress has been made. In principle, the machines that flew this year are the same as those that flew last year. The only marked change is found in the removal of the front horizontal rudders in the Wright machines. Curtiss also removed his front horizontal rudders on one of his machines, and, so far as the onlookers were concerned, he seemed to fly just as well without them as with them.

The principles of flight as embodied in the biplane and the monoplane are well understood today, and any advance in principle must come from a study of the bird.

The art, however, has made wonderful strides. The careful flying in still air of a year ago has given place to safe flying in comparatively strong winds. The cross-country flights in Europe, the flight of Hoxsey above Alt. Wilson, the flight of Willard over the cities of Los Angeles and Pasadena?" and the flight of Masson in a mail carrying attempt between Los Angeles and San Bernardino, all mark a long step forward in the art of aviation. The flight of Hoxsey, when he encircled Mt. Wilson at an altitude of 10,005 ft. (official), it seems to me, is more remarkable than the flight of Chavez over the Simplon pass.

HOXSEY'S FLIGHT GREATER THAX CHAVEZ'S.

The Simplon pass has an altitude of 4,470 ft., while the peaks of the San Gabriel Mountains rise to an altitude of from 6,000 in Mt. Wilson to 10,000 in Old Baldy. With the exception of Baldy, Hoxsey was high enough to clear the whole range by 1,000 ft. It took '( him 2 hours and 7 minutes to climb from the s Dominguez field, a distance of 27 miles, to about 4.000 ft. above Mt. Wilson. From this point he could have crossed the San Gabriel range into the desert 20 miles away with perfect ease. He had gasoline enough to last him 5 hours. This demonstrated clearly the possibility of a flight by aeroplane across the mountain ranges, across the desert, and across the western plains to the Atlantic seaboard. From the top of the mountain he returned to the Dominguez field in 19 minutes, which would give him a speed of S5 miles per hour on his return.

The flying of the Wright machines brought out the wonderful skill which bad been developed by the aviators, demonstrating the fine point to which the art of balancing had been carried. The spiral dips, the ocean wave, and the steep glide, made by Hoxsey as he dropped out of the sky, showed the almost perfect control that the aviators had over their machines.

In these exhibitions Walter Brookins is a past master, and while Hoxsey was away on altitude flights Brookins demonstrated his wonderful control of the biplane.

But the flying machine is not perfect any more than are other machines made by human hands. They break at times, with disastrous results to the aviator.

ARCH HOXSEY'S LAST FLIGHT.

On the 31st of December, Hoxsey left Dominguez field at one o'clock for an altitude flight. The barograph shows that he ascended about 7,200 ft. in 50 minutes. Xot a breath of air had been stirring up to this time. The

THE LOS ANCrELES MEET. RESULTS OE MEET.

Records for Meet.

Altitude—A roll Iloxsey, 10,575 fet. New American record).

Speed—James Radley, 1 minute and 50 seconds (1 % miles).

Speed, five laps (S.75 miles)—.James Radley, 9:13 1-5.

Total duration for the meet—Arch Iloxsey, 17:17:27 1-5 (New American record).

Endurance—Arch Hoxsey, 3:16:50 (New American record).

Bomb-throwing—Willard, 12 points out of possible 25.

Quick start—Parmalee, 55 ft.

Accurate landing—Brookins, 9 ft. from center of square.

Local amateur record—Glenn Martin, three laps, 12:36; one lap, 3:5S 3-5-

Carrying passenger—Parmalee and Knabenshue, in the air 30:30; altitude, 1,500, Brookins and Knabenshue. Total Endurance.

Iloxsey (Wright).......... 17:17:27 4-5

Latham (Antoinette)....... 1 1:1 6:33 4-5

Parmalee (Wright)......... 10:50:25

Willard (Curtiss).......... 7:10:09

Ely (Curtiss).............. 6:20:25 1-5

Brookins (Wright)......... 5:06:25

Bad ley (Bleriot)........... 3:33:27 3-5

Curtiss (Curtiss).......... 1:05:50

Beachey (Curtiss)......... 54:45

___Martin (Martin)........... 24:25

Robinson (Robinson)...... 18:25

Prize Winning's.

Hoxsey (Wright)................ $3,200

Parmalee (Wright).............. 1,925

Latham (Antoinette)............ 1,450

Willard (Curtiss)............... 1,100

Radley ( Bleriot)................ 925

Ely (Curtiss).................... S00

Martin (Martin)................. 450

"Brookins (Wright).............. 425

Curtiss (Curtiss)................ 250

Total ......................$10,525

These prizes are in addition to heavy guarantees paid aviators.

H LA V. TWINING.

Chairman of Judges. ('HAS. E. RILL1ET,

Chairman Contest Com. W. H. LEONARD,

Clerk of Course.

thermometer stood at 66 degrees and the barometer at 29.85 in. The air was dry and electric Suddenly a puff of wind came from the north. The aviators had been complaining all the morning of pockets in the air, of eddies, of downward currents and of upward currents. The flying was dangerous and difficult. The barograph record shows that Hoxsey was undecided as to whether to come down or not. from the 7,200 ft. level he descended to 6,300 ft. and then ascended again to 6,700. consuming about 20 minutes in this part of the flight. At this point he made up his mind to come down. Iloxsey had felt the breath of the north wind, and knowing its import, he was hurrying to the ground, lie made two wide circles as he descended. As he made his last circle, finishing at about 550 ft. from the ground, he turned toward the grandstand, banking his planes steeply against the north wind. This seemed to check his speed, and be consequently lost all pressure under his planes, thus rendering his controls useless.

The testimony is conflicting, but the concensus of opinion seems to indicate clearly that he tried to start his motor. The propellers revolved swiftly a few times, then the engine stopped. A puff of the north wind

caught him and turned him over laterally twice. He was headed steeply for the ground and after turning over, the machine plunged head on at a very steep angle for the ground. This plunge was made from a height of some 120 ft., as near as different observers could estimate.

The impact with the ground smashed the central part of the machine completely, throwing Hoxsey violently to the ground, killing him instantly, the planes settling down over him. As. near as can be ascertained from witnesses, the engine did not fall on him. The propellers were not broken but stuck up in the air over the machine. Just as Hoxsey was coming down, Latham brought out his Antoinette to make a flight in the wind which was blowing at least 20 miles per hour. Tne wind was puffy, varying from 10 miles per hour to 20, 25, and more per hour. Latham arose, flew out over the field, and, just as Tloxsey was making his fatal plunge, he was heading toward him. He crossed in front' of the hangars and alighted in the ..field some distance from where Hoxsey fell. This ended all flying for the day. The death of Hoxsey cast a gloom over the following days of the meet. The flying lacked the enthusiasm of the first days, but it was excellent in character. It was made dangerous by the condition of the atmosphere. Not because any heavy wind was blowing, but because' the atmosphere seemed to be full of holes. -Upward currents and downward currents in different parts of the field, eddies and Whirlwinds made it difficulty to keep one's balance.

Radley in his Bleriot was a synonym f6r speed. "Curtiss with his speedy biplane came next. Latham with-his big Antoinette stood for grace and stability, while the Wright machine came the nearest to real flying of any of them. The Wright and the Antoinette fought for endurance, the Wright machine finally winning.

Or. L. Martin at Los Ang-eles.

LOCAL AVIATORS.

The local machines were a disappointment. C. 1\ Walsh swapped his engine for a Ma-comher, and while he could stay in the air half an hour with the Elbridge, he couhl make but a small flight with the Macomber. The Cannon boys Hew considerable distance's in a straight line with their biplane equipped with a 1'ord automobile engine. Edgar Smith with his little Demoiselle succeeded in flying some 250 ft., a short distance above the ground. This was accomplished in the face of a pretty stiff breeze, and it was a remarkable performance considering the fact that he could pick his machine up, engine and all and run around with it.

5-1

Upper Left: Parmalee in "Baby Wright."—Upper Right: Latham's Antoinette.—Lower Left: New Curtiss—Note Shortened Pront Outriggers, Single Plane Elevator and Pan Tail.—Lower Right: Willard's Gnome-Engined Curtiss.

G. L. Martin, his old 3-cylintler Elbridge having been changed for a 4-cylinder, was the only one to qualify. He flew around the course on three different days, qualifying each day. On one occasion he was carried behind the grandstand and he made a cross-country flight of considerable duration, finally returning to the course, alighting before the grandstand. Ingoing so, however, he swung around into the fence and damaged his machine.

MEET FINANCIAL LOSS.

The meet was a grand success from the standpoint of flying, but it was marred by the accident to Hoxsey. The attendance was not more than half of what it was last year. The people of Los Angeles did not seem to appreciate the magnificent spectacle which the committee, headed by W. M. Garland had prepared for them at great expense and risk to themselves. They gave their time and money and the result was a magnificent display, the like of which Los Angeles will probably never again see. The public spirit displayed by these gentlemen is deserving of great commendation. At a large financial loss to themselves, they conducted a meet that advertised Los Angeles to the ends of the earth. The affair was arranged in the interests of charity, but the people of Los Angeles did not rise to the occasion. If the meet was a failure in any respect that failure is to be laid at the door of the mass of the people of this city, who by their failure to see the treat prepared for them, rendered a Christmas contribution to charity impossible, and made it necessary for the few who furnished the required guarantees to dig down in their pockets to make them good. Never again will a guaranteed meet be held in Los Angeles. Aviators will have to fly at their own risk for prizes that will be small or for a percentage of gate receipts.

11,474 HEIGHT RECORD UNOFFICIAL.

A local instrument maker failed to calibrate the barograph so the chairman of the contest committee calibrated it under the air pump to a standard aneroid. The 11,474 ft. record on December 20 was estimated from the uncali-

brated charts, as cross section paper was used in the barograph the first three days instead of the regulation charts which were mislaid. After calibrating the instrument the regular charts were found and put on. Under these conditions on December 30 Hoxsey climbed 10,575 ft. above the field, all corrections having been applied. He also circled Mt. Wilson at an altitude of 10,005 ft. as shown by the calibrated barograph.

Before we could calibrate the chart making 11,474 ft. Hoxsey met with his fatal accident, and the barograph was taken out of the wreck somewhat damaged. We found that the case only was smashed and the brass post carrying the clock work was bent. After straightening that, the instrument was practically uninjured. Upon testing its calibration, however, we found it to be radically changed. This renders it impossible for us to calibrate the altitude curve of 11,474 ft. and this number must remain unofficial. Any attempt to read it or to calibrate it on another barograph would amount to guess work. So this record will have to stand as unofficial. However, the record of 10,575 ft. is official and was made on the calibrated chart. This height is not enough higher than the 10,499 ft. of Legagneux to constitute an official world record.

KITES AS WIRELESS STATIONS.

In future wars, or war manoeuvres in times of peace, the man-carrying kite is likely to play an important. part, owing to its serviceability as a wireless telegraphy station. The experiment arranged by S. F. Perkins of Boston, inventor of the man-carrying kite, whereby a one-wire aerial was carried aloft and proved a most successful medium for the receiving and sending messages, has proved successful at the Los Angeles meet. In the wireless experiment the aerial was carried aloft several hundred feet, and it was a revelation to know how easily and quickly an emergency wireless station could be established in time of war. Messages were sent to the office of the Los Angeles Examiner and stations such as those at San Diego, Catalina and San Pedro wondered what station was interfering with their calls.

IF you perceive endeavoring to navigate Broadway, a huge paper package of indescribable shape, nondescript color, sex, age and previous condition of servitude unknown, mounted upon a pair of lees which seem to be afflicted with sudden darts, side jumps and shrinkings, as though a host of ants were laying out bunkers for a golf course thereon, do not be alarmed—it is "only a bug" going to a West Side Y. M. C. A. model contest.

Staid business men, physicians said to be otherwise sane, typewriter manufacturers, electrical engineers, candy magnates, some cranks and a few women attend these orgies of flying and often put into the arena as many as twenty-five gladiatorial representatives, there to perhaps dash out upon the barren soil of an

These contests will be continued during 1911 by the West Side Y. M. C. A., 318 West Fifty-seventh street. New York, for which two cups have been offered. One is a second cup by Leo Stevens to be competed for under similar rules as in 1910. Charles Ragot, a sculptor, has also presented a bronze placque to be awarded the machine exhibiting the best lifting power in any official flight in 1911.

THE PERCY PIERCE FLYER.'

Percy Pierce's model monoplane is 21 Vz inches long overall. The longitudinal members are spaced S'/L> inches apart. The front surface is 22 inches spread by 5 inches in depth, while the rear one is 30 by 7 inches. The small rudder is 2 by 7 inches. The main sticks are

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The Winning Pierce Model.

army drill hall their last drop of rubber blood.

For the "Stevens' Cup" have been fought the greatest battles of all. This was offered by Aeronaut Leo Stevens for the longest flight by a practical model at any official contest in 1910, and was officially awarded to Percy Pierce, of 100 East Morningside avenue, New York, at the last contest of the season held under the direction of the West Side Y. M. C. A. on December 31. The flight which won the cup was actually made on December 3, when the model flew 222 feet 7 inches, which may be considered the official American record distance. This same model is said to have made an official flight in the open air of 295 feet and an unofficial one of even 340 feet.

Percy Pierce is but sixteen years of age, but has built up a considerable business making models. One of his types is very well known and is called the "Percy Pierce Flyer."

Frederic Watkins and Frank Schrober were very close up, their models doing 221 and 215 feet respectively.

F. L. Herreshoff, who is not a boy "by a long shot," had a beautifully constructed model whose flight was unofficially observed and measured as 2,*j4 feet 0 inches.

% by 5/16 inches, cross section, 37% inches long. The 8% inches diameter propellers are mounted on steel shafts which run through the bearing blocks (1 inch bv 5/16 inch by % inch).

Rubber strands %-inch square are obtained from the E. J. Willis Company in 35 feet lengths. Each power plant consists of a length of rubber 24 feet long ("two pieces tied together), wound around the hooks at each end and tied.

The propeller end stands 5 inches off the ground while the other stands 11 inches high. The back skids are 15 inches long and the front ones 13 inches long.

.1. C. Mars is no longer with the Curtiss aviators. At last reports he was in Hawaii. Lincoln Beach y started with Curtiss at the Los Angeles meet, flying the regular S-cylinder machine.

Edward E. Harbert, president of the Illinois Aeroplane Club, of Chicago, has offered $1,000 to any aviator who will carry him the 60 miles from Chicago to St. .Joseph or Michigan City. Open for 30 days,

95�302

LONG MODEL FLIGHT WINS STEVENS' CUP

AhKUMAUllLS

February, ipn

FLIGHTS ABOUT THE COUNTRY

TVTTT

Geo. Thompson Making- First Flight, Matliewson Machine.

PIRST COLORADO PLANE PLIES. By Robert A. Donaldson.

THE flights at Denver's mile-high Speedway of the Thompson-Van Arsdale biplane seem to be the first by any home-built aeroplane in the State of Colorado. J. C. Mars had trouble on account of the altitude here and so did Paulham.

January 4th George Thompson (not Van Arsdale, as elsewhere reported) cleared off the snow for starting and landing. He made a circuit and came back to the start all right. In the afternoon he circled the whole motordrome in a flight lasting four minutes.

The Thompson-Van Arsdale machine was constructed for E. Linn Mathewson, a local auto dealer and an ex-race driver, who has ordered four more machines like this one. Mathewson first became an aero enthusiast in the fall of 1 909 when, with E. M. Marr, he constructed his first machine. This failed, partly on account of the inexperience of the builders, and partly on account of engine and propeller inefficiency. They sold that machine to L. E. Pine, who is now having success with it. In November of 1910. Mathewson contracted with the Thompson-Van Arsdale Company for the construction of this machine. The machine has already been flown in private, to the entire satisfaction of the builders, but on account of the adverse weather conditions lately, they have not been able to give it a public trial.

The machine is built somewhat on the order of the Curtiss. A 1911 Elbridge engine is used. This is of the 40 h. p. type. It is mounted directly behind the aviator, as in the Curtiss. El Arco twin radiators are mounted on each side of the aviator's shoulders, the lower part of the radiator being about even with tne aviators head.

A Gibson G-foot propeller is used. This is built specially for high altitude, and is guaranteed to give 300 pounds thrust at 1,200 r. p. m. It lias a 4-foot pitch. Naiad cloth is used in a single layer for the surfaces. The machine has about 400 square feet of surface, and weighs, with aviator, about 550 pounds.

The ailerons are of the Farman type. These are fastened on by means of head screws and a rod running through, and have two braces between. Both sides work together.

The main pieces are of sugar pine. The small ribs are of three laminations, and large ones six laminations. These are made of two strips of sugar pine, with one of ash between.

The engine base is of ash (2 by 4's). The running gear is the same as Curtiss's except that the front wheel is further forward than on the Curtfss.

The control is by a single wheel, which moves forward and rear, and left to right, the same as in the Curtiss. This controls the elevator, and the turning. A shoulder fork controls the ailerons. This is one of their own design. A quadrant mounted near the wheel, which moves front and back with it but not right and left, controls the spark and throttle. A kick switch is used to shut off the engine.

The Thompson-Van Arsdale Company is located at 1640 Broadway. Denver, and is to build machines for the market.

Several other machines are under construction in Denver, one of which is ready for flight. There are also many persons, enthused by the "Wrights' exhibition, who are thinking of building.

THE MATHEWSON BIPLANE HAS SMASH

The Mathewson biplane which had its trial flights about two weeks ago, on January 11. fell from about 100 feet, completely demolishing the machine, but did not hurt the aviator or the engine. Their Requa-Gibson propeller was broken to bits.

The machine was rolled out of the shed about 2 o'clock. The machine rose for its first flight about 2:15, and circled the course once. The course is about 3 1/3 miles in circuit. Upon returning from this fight, in a few minutes the machine rose for another flight. This time it circled the course twice, nearly 7 miles. The machine got off the ground very quickly, and flew at great speed. On these flights the machine flew faster than

it ever has before, the speed being estimated at 58 m. p. h. The third time the aviator, Mr. Thompson, went up, he circled the course five times, about 16 miles. He was flying at about 150 feet above the ground. He started to come down in a figure S.

All of a sudden, one of the front supports gave way, and the machine turned and dashed toward the ground. The machine hit the ground with a crash, throwing the aviator out of nis seat. The impact tore the engine loose and it crashed forward just over the aviator's head. Mr. Thompson considers himself lucky to escape with his life.

What was left of the machine was packed up and taken to Pueblo Colo., where exhibition flights were given Sunday.

The company had on hand at the time of the accident, enough spare parts to replace the old ones.

MORE PLYING AT COLLEGE PARK.

Since November 14th, the last account published in the January issue, the Rex Smith Aeroplane Company has been very active. In spite of a foot of snow and much severe weather operations have been continued with the result .that the headless biplane has made 137 flights, each one better than the first.

Antony Jannus, engineer and aviator for the Rex Smith Company, has made three notable flights in the snowy weather. On December 15 lie flew during a blinding fall of snow and was so handicapped that the landing, although at the starting point, was made in a heavy drift of snow which resulted in a cracked propeller.

Four days later, the weather having moderated, Jannus made a speed lap of a mile and

a quarter in one minute ten seconds, which is pretty fast for a small circle. This was with a new oak, 5.92-foot pitch, 9-foot diameter propeller.

The third interesting performance was when Jannus alighted in some deep snow across the field from the shed and let the motor stop in order to assure himself that the propeller had clearance, then got out and cranked up again unaided and flew out of the snow, and around the field, although the propeller used was 8 feet 6 inches, instead of 9 feet and of white oak, the experiments in the snow-have worn the ends badly.

The Rex Smith machine usually uses a 9-foot Paragon propeller, 5.92 pitch, which the six-cylinder Emerson has no trouble turning 1,100 to 1,150 r. p. m., giving from 500 to 560 pounds thrust. The continuous torque of the engine and the 22 pound propeller are very free from vibration, although the whole machine weighs but 875 pounds ready for fuel and operator. In a twenty-eight minute run at full speed with this propeller the fuel consumption was 2.75 gallons of mixed oil and gasoline.

In subsequent flights on balmy days of the first week in January, Jannus cut a figure S in a very short distance, ascended to about 200 to 250 feet and flew across country toward Riverdale for a mile or more. He also tried skimming his wheels on the thin ice covering the ponds about the field and only went through for a slight splash on one occasion.

Rex Smith and F. L. Fox are getting out two new designs which are to embody some of the new features which have been studied on the present machine.

Rex Smith Machine in Plight—Parker Biplane. 58

Aeroplane Protection on

Landing!

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MASSON FLIES 60 MILES CROSS COUNTRY.

Pidier Masson, who just flew various Curtiss type machines at Mineola, flew the N. C. Addosides machine (Curtiss type*, purchased by Addosides at Mineola and taken to Los Angeles, from Los Angeles to San Bernardino, 60 miles as the crow flies, with a Hall-Scott 60 h. p. motor, 5 hours 40 minutes after leaving Los Angeles on January 7. His actual flying time was 1 hour 20 minutes. He became lost and had to land 12 miles from the finish. After repairing a slight damage lie finished his journey, begun with a bundle of "Los Angeles Times" as freight. A regular schedule was laid out to stop at Pomona on the way, leaving some of his papers, then go on to San Bernardino, give exhibitions and return to Pomona, giving an exhibition there. When he became lost he gave up trying to get to Pomona. In San Bernardino he gave an exhibition.

On January 1 and 2, he made exhibition flights at Santa Barbara. These were the first ones since receiving the new engine. He flew high, off out of sight along the mountain range, and back, circling at a height of 3,000 ft., then gliding to earth. On one flight he landed in the garden of a hotel. Xo time was lost after leaving here in preparing for the newspaper delivery flight for the Los Angeles "Times."

Starting (on skids) from the ice of a lake, a flight of a mile and return was made. Later wheels will be attached. The motor is a four-cylinder, two-cycle, air-cooled, 5x5, of his own make, weighing 196 pounds and has no aluminum parts. This drives an S-foot by 4-foot propeller which gives 350 pounds push at 1,050 r. p. m.

J. J. Parker Aileron Control.

The entire 'plane is of ash, 2S feet spread bv 6y2 feet; box tail, 6 by 6 feet; horizontal rudder, 3 by 12 feet. All surfaces are covered both sides. Ailerons, 14 inches by 5 feet; rear rudder, 4 feet by 5 feet.

NOVICE PLIES IN PHILADELPHIA

Harry Parkin, with a biplane of the Curtiss type, equipped with an engine of his own construction, succeeded in getting off of the ground, on January 6. and made a flight of about 150 feet, at the Point Breeze race track. A gust of wind brought him down, damaging

Wm. Hilliard Flying New Burgess Model " D."

EVANS FALLS 400 FEET.

After making some beautiful eross-countrv flights at Larned, Kan., in December, William Evans, of 142S Charlotte street, Kansas Citv, dropped from a height of 400 ft., when a battery wire gave way, and escaped unhurt. He started from the fair grounds and flew east about a mile, then turned and flew west for three miles. Turning again he started back for the starting point. He was traveling fast at a great height when the machine fell. Evans kept his presence of mind and managed to control the machine until he was within 75 ft. of the ground, when the wind caused it to plunge head-first into a wheat field. The Greene machine was badly smashed but Evans escaped with a few bruises. The Elbridge engine was not injured.

NOVICE BUILDS 'PLANE, MOTOR AND FLIES.

James J. Parker, of Fulton, N. Y.. has made his first trial and successful flight with a machine completely of his own construction.

his machine, but Parkin escaped injury. He will rush repairs on the aeroplane and expects to try it out again in a few days.

Charles Dorian, in a biplane of his own make, the property of J. Fred Betz, 3rd., made a short flight the same day and landed safely.

JOHN TREVOR CUSTIS.

HILLIARD FLYING NEW BURGESS MODEL.

William M. Hilliard has made the first flights with the new model D biplane of the Burgess Company & Curtis and on the second day took up passengers. The load in some of the passenger trips approximated 400 pounds and on two occasions more than that. Hilliard, who is a very prudent operator, took the machine to Ipswich. Mass., where the ground is poorly adapted to practice flights of a greater extent than straight-aways. The photographs show some of the obstructions but the grounds are cut up into small fields, (Continued on p. 74)

AEROPLANES EN TOUR

Evans in his Greene Biplane over Kansas Town

Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 15-17.—A very successful aviation meet was given here three days beginning December 15 under the auspices of the Atlanta "Journal" and under the management of the Curtiss Exhibition Company. J. A. D. McCurdy, Eugene Ely and James J. Ward were the competing aviators. Ward surprised the crowd by his high flights in his 4-cylinder Curtiss, while Ely and McCurdy raced each other and conducted bomb dropping tests. Races with automobiles driven by local men were features of the meet.

Dillon, S. C, Dec. 21.—J. A. D. McCurdy, with his Curtiss racing machine, gave a number of exhibition flights here with an audience which outnumbered the town's entire population Although the last census gave the town but 1,019 souls, McCurdy received his usual rate of $1,000 for the day's flights.

Norfolk, Va., Dec. 23.—Under arrangement with the "Ledger-Dispatch" of Norfolk, J. A. D. McCurdy, using Glenn H. Curtiss's Hudson Flyer, made a picturesque flight over the city and water front here remaining in the air more than 20 minutes.

Charleston, S. C, Jan. 3-6.—"Jimmie" Ward was the hero of the Charleston aviation meet as a result of his 40-minute flight over Forts Moultrie and Sumter in his 4-cylinder Curtiss biplane. He landed on the beach in front of Fort Moultrie and delivered a message to Col. Marsh, the commander. Returning, he flew over the Island of Palms. Castle Pinck-ney, Sumter and the village of Mount Pleasant, besides going about a mile and a half out to sea. He crossed the Cooper and Eando rivers, and attained an altitude of 5,300 feet according to his barograph. McCurdy, who took part in this meet, gave his attention to exhibition flights, spiral glides, and racing, with automobiles as his opponents.

Fresno, Cal., Dec. 16-18.—G. H. Curtiss, Charles F. Willard and .1. C. Mars flew.

Shreveport, La., Jan. 14-15.—Two-day meet with McCurdy and Ward with their Curtiss machines participating.

Tupelo, Miss., Dec. 19-20.—International aviators gave a two-day meet. Moisant flew in a snowstorm and gale.

New Orleans, Dec. 24-30.—The death of Moi-

sant closed the meet given by the International Aviators the morning of the 31st.

SIMON MAKES MILE RECORD.

On December 23 Rene Simon flew around the New Orleans mile track in 57 sec, which is 03.16 m. p. h., a record for a mile track. This was timed by the New Orleans Aero Club.

Moisant flew for 46 min. 10 sec, minoeuver-ing over the heart of the city of New Orleans, on December 24, the longest over-city flight ever made, and the first over-city aeroplane trip on record where the aviator did not fly as quickly as possible from or across the built-up sections. He flew in a, 60-mile wind on December 29 at New Orleans ,.for 26 min. 22 sec, his machine at one tinie,)standing stock still for six minutes, and at ' another period of this^.flight being blown backward for three minutes, despite the' fact tha.t his normal speed is fifty miles an hour.

In thirty flying days, ending Dec. 31, the six aviators, Moisant, Simon, Barrier, Garros, Frisbie, Audemars and Hamilton, flew a total of 64 hrs. IS min., and not a wind check was given out. At 50 m. p. h. the distance flown was more than 3,200 miles, equal to a transcontinental flight in length.

Five cities, Richmond, Chattanooga, Memphis, Tupelo, New Orleans, have been covered since the start. From Dallas they go to Ft. Worth, Oklahoma City, Waco, Austin, Houston, Galveston, Havana and Santiago. The problematical route is then Matanzas, San Juan (Porto Rico), Nassau, Jacksonville and Mobile. A meet in New York is promised for the spring.

BARRIER UP 6,000 FEET.

Dallas, Jan. 4-9.—-Simon and Barrier were the stars of this meet, which had one day of no flying. Barrier flew over the city one day, and on another flew up more than 6,000 feet.

Pueblo, Colo., Jan. 15.—Three short exhibition flights were made by George Thompson in the Mathewson biplane, but these were not very long on account of the poor grounds. On one of the flights the machine rose in 110 ft. of start. Exhibitions are to be given at Trinidad and Grand Junction, as these are booked for flights during the weeks of the 15th and 20th.

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AERONAUTICS February, ipu

LAST DAY OF 1910 CLAIMS TWO VICTIMS

Death of Arch. Hoxsey.

On coming down after reaching an altitude of 7,200 feet, on December 31, at Los Angeles, Arch. Hoxsey, one of the very best flyers of the entire world, lust control of his machine, possibly through heart trouble, or some other physical ailment, and was killed. In the account of the Los Angeles meet elsewhere in this number more details are given.

"From everything that can be learned concerning Mr. Hoxsey's accident, it would seem," said a competent expert who is conversant with the Wright machine, "that it was caused by a lapse in his physical condition, caused by his continuous altitude work. This seems to be the opinion of those who witnessed the accident. He was descending at a very steep angle when he first came in sight. This angle increased to an abnormal degree when less than 1,000 feet from the ground. The machine then wavered sideways slightly, which would appear that it was not being operated."

Archie Hoxsey.

Arch. Hoxsey was born at Staunton, 111., October 27, 1SS4, and at the time of his death was 26 years old. He was the son of Archibald Iloxsey, a native of Illinois, and Minnie Eckles, a native of Pennsylvania. At the age of 7 years his father died, since that time and until liis death he lived alone with his mother. When he was 9 years old he and his mother came to Los Angeles County, living for three years at Glendora. afterward moving to Pasadena. He attended the Garfield school until he was old enough to work. When but a small boy be worked at odd jobs, and was well known to a large number of people. Later he became a machinist and chauffeur, which gave him still further acquaintance. In the spring of 1910 he joined with the Wright Co.

He was fifth at Belmont in amount won, $6,90S. His altitude flights at Belmont were 5.796 ft., 4,882 ft., 6.233 ft., 6,903 ft., 5,146 ft. Here, with Johnstone, he flew in a wind that drove him backward, landing 25 miles behind. The wind was estimated, at the altitude of 7,000 ft., at SO miles an hour. At Baltimore meet he glided down in the little Wright from 5,330 ft. with engine stopped. Here he did

wonderful flying daily in heavy winds, when no one else would fly. He held the American cross-country record of SO-^ miles, from Springfield, 111., to Clayton, Mo., and made a new American duration record of 3 hrs. 16 min. 50 sec. at Los Angeles meet.

Arch. Hoxsey's body was taken to Pasadena, the home of his mother, and cremated.

The funeral services were conducted in a little mortuary chapel on a foothill overlooked by the peak of Mount Wilson, which Hoxsey surmounted when he attempted to beat his own altitude record of 11,471 ft. While the service proper was attended by only a few friends, thousands stood about outside. It required more than an hour for the crowd to file by the casket.

Moisant Palls from Machine.

John B. Moisant, American aviator, head of the group now touring under the name "International Aviators," was filling an engagement at New Orleans. On December 31 he flew from the exhibition grounds to another field a few miles away in order to compete for the Michelin prize and.trophy for the greatest distance flown in 1910, there being on hand for the purpose an official observer.

He was making a preliminary flight and was attempting to land with the wind with the motor dead. A sudden puff of wind lifted the tail up and threw Moisant out thirty-two feet ahead of the machine, breaking his neck. The machine then toppled over.

A thorough examination was made of the machine which Moisant used, and all witnesses were asked to describe just what they saw the monoplane do. Every statement agreed upon two points: First, that Moisant attempted to land when apparently no necessity arose for his landing at that particular moment or at that particular point; second, that when he started to land he was flying with the wind.

The inevitable conclusion is that something went wrong inside of the Bleriot, something of importance, that resardless of the clanger of a landing, Moisant was compelled to seek the ground.

The funeral was held January 2, and the body dpposited in a vault for future transportation to the Moisant home. His estate,

estimated at more than $100,000, will be held in trust for his son. who is now at school.

John B. Moisant, who was universally conceded at the time of his death at Xew Orleans on December 31 last to be one of the greatest monoplane fliers in the world, was born in Chicago, 111., on April 25, 1S73. He spent the first fifteen years of his life in and around Chicago, completing a high school course there, and then with his brother, Alfred J. Moisant, and his three sisters, moved to Alameda, Cal., where the family made its home for the next eight years.

John Moisant and Alfred Moisant then went to Central America, where they commenced to establish large business interests, particularly in San Salvador, the capital of Salvador. They worked hard and prospered greatly, and inside of ten years had acquired 40,000 acres of fine sugar and farm land, had organized and successfully operated the three strongest banks in Central America, and had acquired many other valuable possessions in Mexico, Nicaragua and Honduras.

Despite the many stories that have been circulated relative to the "filibustering" career of John Moisant, there is not one word of truth in any of them. The only time that he ever engaged in so-called "revolutionary" exploits was in order to liberate his brothers, George and Edward, who had been imprisoned by President Figueroa, of Salvador, who coveted the Santa Emelia and Santa Ana ranches and other Moisant properties. Finding, it is said, that the United States government would not protect American citizens residing in Central America against the outrages of some of the local politicians, John Moisant organized and headed a small army of 500 poorly clad and poorly armed natives, and with this small force marched against the capital of Salvador, in order to liberate his imprisoned brothers. He captured the port of Acajutla and the city of Sonsonate without losing a man. although he inflicted terrific losses upon the 6,000 government troops drawn up to oppose him.

Shortly a£.ter capturing Sansonate his untrained troops became suddenly, and for some still unknown reason, panic-stricken, and refused to proceed further, so that John Moisant was compelled to abandon this attempt to free his brothers. He persisted, however, for the ensuing two years, and finally became strong enough to compel Figueroa to liberate the two innocent men after they had languished in the Salvador jail for two years. But there was not, and never had been, any idea in John Moisant's mind, or in the minds of any of his three brothers, to upset any of the established governments for personal gain, or for any other reason than above.

John B. Moisant and his brother Alfred had been accustomed, during their residence in California and Central America, to watch the great soaring birds, like the gulls, hawks, buzzards, vultures, and even the albatross.

Before John Moisant had ever seen an aeroplane he had planned and had under way the metal monoplane, which will now be manufactured by his brother. Shortly after completing the plans for this metal machine Moisant went to France and visited every aviation meet held in Europe in 100S and 1909. He was the first man who argued for a rotary motor on a monoplane, although Bleriot himself said that to attempt to put a rotary motor on a monoplane would be to invite instant destruction. He bought the first Gnome engine ever turned out by the Gnome factory, and immediately installed it on the metal machine which he had by this time completed except for its power plant. The machine was finished and the engine installed in a factory at Etampes.

lie found that, his machine not only came up to his expectations, but exceeded them. He had always been a believer that in speed lay safety, that the faster one Hew the safer one was. ITis machine developed a speed of SO miles an hour instead of only the 60 that lie had liaured on, and Moisant found out within a few seconds after he had left the

ground for the first time that he was entirely incompetent to handle his aeroplane.

Having attained a height of 100 ft. from the ground, and being still bent heavenward with apparently no chance of changing the course of the machine, Moisant deliberately cut off his engine and allowed his machine to fall to the earth.

As a result of the fall only the metal tail of the machine was broken, and Moisant himself escaped without a scratch. He determined then that it would be necessary for him to learn in a slow machine.

After making three short flights in the 50 H. P. Bleriot passenger-carrying machine which he then bought, he immediately won his pilot's license from the Aero Club of Prance the second day he had this monoplane in his possession. On August 17. 1910, he flew from Etampes to lssy les Moulineux, a distance of 37y2 miles, straight above the heart of Paris, carrying as passenger Roland G. Garros, who later became a team mate of John B. Moisant with tne International Aviators. This was only the fourth time that Moisant had flown.

A few days later Moisant started late in the afternoon from Paris for London, carrying a lS5-pound passenger, besides 300 pounds of gasoline, lubricating oil and tools. Flying over country that he had never before visited, and guided solely by his glycerine-floated compass, Moisant reached Amiens the first day and remained there over night. He then flew to Calais, where he again landed.

From here, in a bad wind, he flew across the Channel to Dover, but was blown eastward to Deal, at which place he landed, having arrived on English soil the second day out from Paris, with only two landings intervening between the French capital and Deal. Then the machine which had carried him so far developed one flaw after another, and Moisant was two weeks completing his journey to the English capital, which lay only 30 miles from Deal.

He was the first man ever to fly from the French to the English capital; he was the first man to carry a passenger from Paris to London; he was the first man to carry a passenger across the Channel; and he was the first man who had ever, in all the history of the world, readied London in the same vehicle as that in which he left Paris.

At the last moment, as a substitute in the American defending team, he jumped into the race for the international trophy at Belmont Park on October 29 last, and won second place for the United States. In a 50 H. P. Bleriot. in which he had never sat until he started out in that race, he won over Grahame-White in a 100 H. P. Bleriot, the $10,000 Statue of Liberty prize on the following day.

Dover, Eng.,

>eath of Cecil Grace.

uuvbi-, -ejus-, Dec 22.—Cecil Grace (Short biplane) left Dover in competition for the Baron de Forest prize. He landed in France at Las Baraques, near Calais. The wind being bad, he decided to fly back to Dover and wait for a better opportunity. lie left ahead of the boat that was to follow and became lost in a heavy fog. Several vessels reported seeing the machine or hearing the engine. Xo word has since been received nor has the machine In en found. A cap and goggles were found many days later on the Belgian coast. These were identified as belonging to the unfortunate aviator.

C ratal Accul

'dent to Laffont and Pola.

Shortly after leaving the ground, in making a preliminary flight in his Antoinette before attempting the flight to Brussels, at Mour-nielon, on December 2S, Alexandre Lnffont and his pupil, Mario Poki. in a bail wind, one of the wings was wrenched entirely loose from the machine and both men were killed. An eyewitness reports that a gust of wind got under the wing and the aviator was trying to right the machine and was making a sharp turn. The pressure was too great for the structure.

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Aviator Xoses His Life in Brazil.

San Paulo, Brazil. Dec. 2^.—Picollo was killed by being thrown from his monoplane when it suddenly pitched fosward at a heiarht of 400 feet.

ly pitched fosw:

ready proficient in Farman. Summer and Bleriot machines, met his death in a final flistLt before competing for a two-man speed prtze. His accident was ascribed to trouble with the steering. He attempted to glide down, but was thrown out.

Military Aviator Has ratal Pall.

Versailles, France, Dec. 30.—Lieut. Caumont. French army aviator, who had just taken up the Nieuport machine, after having been al-'Ihe L»eatn oi ncuao.

Further particulars regarding the death of Picollo at San. Paulo, Brazil, are now to hand from his mechanician, Paul Rugere. It appears that the aerodrome wis a very small one indeed, and, on landing from one of his nights, Picollo vaulted out of the machine,, intending to hang on and so bring it to rest in the manner adopted by L<-blanc. Unfortunately he stumbled and fell under the machine and his head was caught by the lower end of the mast to which stay, wires were attached. The injuries sustained were so serious that Picollo died within a short ime.

Aviator Is Killed, ervia. Jan. 9.—Roussijan. a CroaU^ ri

Crcatian

Belgrade

tian aviator, was killed after makins a flight across the River .Save.

iver Si

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-I I G H FLYING

Monoplane Mail?

_ _~ ^uafly new

^irysluiogical effects upon the sterns to have attracted little notice. »-> Vapid ascent to great altitudes exposes the body to conditions different from any terrestrial ones. Mountain climbing offers some analogy, but it differs in the fact that the transition from the high atmospheric pressure of the sea level to a low pressure takes place much more slowly.

"In the 'Gazette Hebdomadaire des Sciences Medicales de Bordeaux' of September 25th Professor R. Moulinier has reported some interesting observations on the blood pressure of aviators who have ascended to high altitudes. On alighting after ascending to a height of 1,200 to 2,000 metres the aviator presents cyanosis of the extremities, probably from the low temperature of the high regions of the atmosphere. Often there is congestion of the conjunctivae. The pulse is slightly accelerated, but there is no palpitation, arrhythmia, or epis-taxis. There is often slight and transient headache and tinnitus aurium. Sometimes there is a tendency to sleep, and this may be felt even during flight. After the flight the blood pressure is always increased.

"In one aviator at 5.30 p. m.. before flight, the constant blood pressure in the radial artery was found with Pachon's sphygmometer to be 9 centimeters of mercury and the maximum

>e IS centimeters: the pulse was 70. .fter a flight of 25 minutes, during .3 twentieth minute he reached the 100 meters, the constant pressure imeters of mercury and the maxi-ure 19 centimeters; the pulse was SO. l'tns increase in pressure is all the more remarkable as the aviitors were athletes in full training. The rise was less marked in aviators who were fatigued. These showed palpitation of the heart and marked acceleration of the pulse (10S). In one case troublesome tachycardia, symptomatic of functional insufficiency i>f the heart, and vertiginous movements, were observed in an aviator who. after a flight of an hour, had reached the height of 1.000 meters. No rise in blood pressure was found in aviators who flew at low altitudes, such as 100 to 150 meters.

"As to the cause of the rise in blood pressure. Professor Moulinier puts forward the hypothesis that it is due to the sudden descent to the earth in four or five minutes from a height of 1.000 to 2.000 meters, which was attained in 20 to 25 minutes. At a height of 2.000 meters the atmospheric pressure is 591 millimeters of mercury, at the sea level 760 milimeters. In the short time of the descent the circulatory system had not time to become adapted to the change of pressure. He therefore advises aviators to descend more slowly. He also points out the dangerous fatigue to which flight at high altitudes exposes the circulatory apparatus by provoking increased and irregular activity of the heart and vessels. A sound heart and supple arteries are absolutely necessary to an aviator."

W. Wilson Southard, of 421 North Fulton avenue, Baltimore, Md., is in hard luck. After finishing his monoplane and getting the first flights out of it, smashing it, he loaned his motor to another novice flyer just before the latter's shed burned up, or down; anyway. Mr. Southard knows he can fly and he is building his second machine. The late lamented

y

ff/G*0 rts-*T -f/WY

-—s

 

-J

j—1

 

Southard Automatic Stability.

aeroplane is a big one, the wings being 34 Yz ft., spread bv 6 ft. 5 in. fore and aft. curve 1 in IS. The tail was like that of the Antoinette and it seemed to give added stability to the machine. The motor was a 40-50 motor of the Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co., turning a 7-ft. by 4Y2 ft. pitch propeller. The weight complete was, with aviator, 635 pounds for 200 sq. ft. in main surface: tail had 7: sq. ft. and movable tail elevator tips 20 sq. ft. For equilibrium he employed a design of his own which consists mainly in the movability

of the rear main spars. The front spars are rigidly trussed top and bottom, while the back spar guys pass through pulleys at top and bottom. When th wind raises one wing the other one lowers' nd "the extra pressure of the top wing a 's automatically helps to shift the press ljformly." He has. how-

ever, a lever ou.. 'ing the warping which he uses "constantly, a's I have no faith in automatic devices of >itlv kind."

i_ J.

A fine and more eomi te tabulation of the principal events in aeron 'tics for 1910. compiled by William J. H& mer and Hudson Maxim, with a list of w ' i and American records and other valuab information, is printed in the 1911 WORLD ALMANAC. Be sure to get the "Second Editi

TOO LATE TO CLASSItV.

PA TEXT PENDING on an AEROPLANE capable qf ASCENDING and DESCENDING VERTICALLY, and of remaining stationary over, or moving- with (battleship), any object. Has all t e speed, strergtli, lightness and simplicity of a standard aeroplane. The inventor is a well known engineer, for many years employed as designer by some of the largest automobile companies. Liberal terms will be made te capitalists.

Address, PRACTICAL MAN. care of AEROX U'TICS.

CONGRESS $125,000 AERO APPROPRIATION.

the house of representatives passed, on january is, an appropriation of $125,000 for army aeronautics. hurrah!

it was a complete surprise, worked neatly as an amendment at the last moment by mann of illinois. he is not a member of the military committee at all, but he was loaded with a lot of good aeronautic dope and put the thing through just right in the face of some small opposition from fitzgerald of new york and helm of tennessee, neither of whom knew a flying machine from a threshing machine. they were naturally all at sea and mann was there with the goods. this means, of course, that the signal corps will be able to do something during the coming summer. they have not yet picked out the machines they will get oV where they will put them.

BRITISH SOCIETY SENDS REGRETS.

the aeronautical society of great britain cabled the aeronautical society, at new york, as follows, on learning of the accidents to moisant and hoxey:

"british aeronautical society deplores loss of two gallant men."

WRIGHT TRAINING SCHOOL STARTS.

frank coflyn opened the wright training school at monte sano hill, augusta, ga., on january lgth. this camp will be equipped for the training of purchasers of wright machines, with the exception of a few men for the exhibition department. no men will be trained excepting those who actually purchase machines or their employees. this training will consist in flying a machine accompanied by the teacher who gradually transfers the control of one lever after the other to the pupil. the wright company believes this is a practical way to learn to fly and much more effective than the ground training and special device training used by some of the french schools.

robert j. collier has purchased a machine and it has been delivered to him. a number of other orders will be filled during january.

CURTISS SCHOOL OPENS.

glenn h. curtiss, accompanied by charles f. willard, eugene b. ely and lincoln beachy, formally opened the new aviation grounds at san diego, cal., where mr. curtiss will carry on experiments, on january 21 with a two-day meet, all four aviators taking part.

following the "meet, mr. curtiss took up in earnest his winter work in experimenting and instruction. the school opened with two pupils, lieutenant theodore ellyson, of the united states navy, who is detailed to the curtiss camp for this work, and c. c. witmer, of chicago, 111., who is negotiating the purchase of a curtiss machine for his own use.

lieutenant ellyson was detailed by secretary of the navy myer to receive instruction in the manipulation of the curtiss biplane and to work with mr. curtiss in his experiments. he is one of the younger naval officers, and has been for the past three years in the submarine boat service at newport news. he says that there is only one thing better than submarine work, and that is aviation.

MOISANT SCHOOL ON LONG ISLAND.

the plans which john and alfred moisant had formulated for their future careers in aviation, will be carried on now by alfred moisant alone. the metal monoplane which

john moisant, in collaboration with his brother, had designed and built, will be manufactured in or near new york city. several aviation schools will be opened by alfred moisant and competent instructors and various types of aeroplanes installed. the first of these will be at garden city, long island, where 1,600 acres, absolutely unobstructed by a tree or house, have been secured for school purposes. in the very near future 100 hangars will be constructed there, and a grandstand will also be erected, so that tournaments may be held at this point. other schools will be established at new orleans and on the pacific coast. there will also very likely be one in the central west.

LEGAL AERONAUTICS.

the breach of contract suit brought by glenn h. curtiss against chas. k. hamilton, who was under contract to fly for him, has been decided in favor of mr. curtiss, who was awarded $6,200 and costs, on january 10, at bath, n. y. no appeal has been taken as yet from this decision.

dr. william green has obtained a judgment in a hartford, conn., court for $575 against the harriman engine co., the defendant company filing a $1,000 bond.

the wright co. was denied, on technical grounds, a temporary injunction to restrain the aero corporation, ltd., from disbursing funds until $15,000, alleged due the complainant, were paid. this does not reflect on the merits of the case, which will proceed to a trial. the details of this action against the promoters of the belmont meet were printed in the january number.

LAST CALL FOR MOTOR PRIZE.

entries close march 31 for the automobile club of america's $1,000 motor prize. the conditions are very mild compared with the 24-hour run in the alexander motor competition in england. an a. c. a. certificate would be a big asset to any motor builder. write at once for rules and blanks to 249 west 54th street, new york.

DINNER TO WILBUR WRIGHT.

wilbur wright was the guest of honor at the annual banquet of the national geographic society, of washington, on january 15.

gen. leonard wood, chief of staff, u. s. a., spoke of the use of the aeroplane in the army. he said that no military man could fail to appreciate that it was a great addition to army equipment, and that as a means of reconnois-sance it was destined to play an important part in the next war. he said that unfortunately the american army was at present equipped with but a single aeroplane, and that of ancient type. it would take $75 or $s0 to get this machine in shape to fly, but the officer who is in charge of it had assured him recently he hoped to be able to raise this amount by private subscription.

a warm tribute to the work of prof. lang-ley, who had risked his scientific reputation in the development of aviation, was paid by gen. greely, under whom the money for prof. lang-ley's man-carrying aerodrome was expended.

the ices were served grouped around the base of a miniature aeroplane, carried by each waiter. marching at the head of the procession there was an aviator in full costume with a three-foot model of an aeroplane with a doll

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? ? DO YOU KNOW ? ?

THAT BOSTON'S

2nd National Exhibition of Aerial Craft

will be held in

Mechanics Building, Boston, Feb. 20-25th, 1911

ALSO

1st. That it is generally acknowledged by those who have attended all the indoor aerial exhibitions in America that last year's Boston Exhibition of Aerial Craft was the Biggest and Best.

'2nd. That any Exhibitor of last year's show will tell you it was of Financial Benefit to them.

AND ALL THIS ONE YEAR AGO WHEN THE GENERAL INTEREST IN AVIATION WAS ONLY SLUMBERING

3rd. That this year will far surpass anything heretofore held, and have you an aeroplane, an accessory, a model or an idea, it will pay you to exhibit and attend this exhibition.

WATCH THIS YEAR'S SHOW-DONT FAIL TO BE THERE

~~—^——^——^ for all particular* addrtss ™1—■~—

I Chester I. Campbell, General Manager 5 Park Sq^refBostonJVIass.

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It is probable that out of such a large stock a propeller may be found which just meets the requirements of any specially designed aeroplane; but even in such a case, in order that a correct choice can be made it is advisable that enquiries should clearly state all particulars of the:

1. Plane $urface and head resistance.

2. Horsepower and speed of engine.

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4. The number of propellers to be used and their greatest possible diameter.

5. The direction of rotation, clockwise, or anti-clockwise, when standing in the breeze made by the propeller.

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The "REGULAR" line now embraces 29 distinct designs, which number will be added to as time and endeavor evolve new combinations of air-vessel features.

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for operator and the propellers moving:. The aeroplane, by the way, was the old Wright model with the front control. This was a technical defect that doubtless grieved Wilbur, but that the diners did not seem to notice.

NO SHOW FOR CHICAGO.

Profiting by the example of the recent St. Louis aero show, held under the auspices of the Aero Club of St. Louis, and which failed to pay all its obligations, the Aero Club of Illinois has decided to give up the idea of a show in March. It is possible one may be held in connection with an aero meet which may be conducted during the summer. The Chicago club is averse to recording failures, and feels the time is not ripe for paying indoor exhibitions.

BOSTON SHOW ONLY MONTH OFF.

As the time approaches for the "Second National Exhibition" of aerial craft in Boston, February 20th to 25th, the interest in this event becomes more pronounced. Manager Campbell is personally deeply interested in aeronautics, so to a great extent the show is a labor of love with him. In fact, last year, in the face of almost unsurmountable difficulties and at great expense gave to the public the biggest indoor show ever held in America, and at the close gave out an interview that while he had expended a number of thousand dollars more than the receipts, still each year he would show to the people of New England the strides that had been made in aviation, with the result that in February the Mechanics Building will again be open, this time with practically all the well known makes of machines that have done such wonderful things to date.

Last year's show was acknowledged by all those who attended as a forerunner of the great strides made and the interest now so plainly manifested in aeronautics, and from all indications, with the interest of the public in the bird-men and their craft and the fine support promised by the manufacturers and accessory dealers. Boston will again see a show that will keep her in the front rank.

Many novelties will be introduced, unique advertising, prizes for model flying, lectures, appropriate decorations and as well a number of the machines that have made records during the past year. A full list of these will shortly be published. In fact everything is being done both in the interest of the exhibitor and the spectator and Manager Campbell is to be congratulated in his endeavors. Models, machines and accessories are solicited and as the building is very large any one who has anything of merit can be accommodated.

For all information address Chester I. Campbell, 5 Park Square. Boston. Mass., and the same will have prompt attention.

W. P. EDGAR.

INCORPORATIONS.

American Safety Aerocar Corp., $1,500,000. Incorporators: W. E. Dennis. Mollis Court, L. I.; C. N. Piatt, Astoria, L. 1.; II. Kays, Yonkers, N. Y.

Wadsworth Airship Co, Pittsburg, Pa. Cap. $20,000. J. W. Wadsworth. F. J. Schellman, A. \Y Henry, E. E. Cramer, J. F. Milliken.

Chicago Aeroplane Mfg. Co., $2,500. .Mark E. Grable. Willard D. Hammond, Bruce E. Adams.

Converse Automatic Aeroplane Co.. $50,000, Fiske Bldg., Fresno. Oal. Directors are H. H. Darling, F. W. Cameron, J. M. Ash, A. D. Newlin and N. B. Converse.

Southern California Aviation Association, Los Angeles. $75,000. Directors: W. M Garland, Wm. G. Kerckhoff, Fred L. Baker. John B. Miller, Howard Huntington, Eugene E. Hewlett. Isaac Millbank, Motley 11. Flint. Frank A. Garbutt, Perry W. Weidner. and Martin C. Neuner.

Aero Club of Delaware, Wilmington, Del.

Aeroplane Co. of America, Boston, $100,000.

A. C. Triaca, W. Mason Turner. John F. Queen. Ovington Aero Co.. Boston, $10,000. George

B. Robotham. John F. Dickinson, Frank W. Cartel", Henry P. Ayer.

Birmingham Aeroplane Co., Birmingham, Ala., $5,000. Jesse W. Alexander, R. B. Alexander, Hugh A. Locke and Edgar P. Pelf.

Utah Aerial Navigation & Power Co., Spring-ville, Utah. $100,0(10. A. D. Flanigan, J. D. Bagley, W. B. McPherson, Milan It. Straw and Wm. Whitney.

NEW BOOKS.

THE AVIATION DIRECTORY, published bv L. M. Allison, Lawrence, Kan., at 25c. is the first directory of aeronautical manufacturers yet published in America. Judging from this list there are one or two concerns not advertising in "Aeronautics." This must be looked after, surely. A second edition is now ready, still more complete. This list is invaluable to advertisers and purchasers alike. It is time now for such a work, and the author has only forestalled "Aeronautics" in this work.

LEITFADEN DER LUFTSCH1FFA HRT U. FLUG TECHN1K. von Dr. Raimund Nimfiir, 8 vo.. cloth, 33X illustrations, with large size plates: price 13 M. 50 Pf., from A. Hartleben's Verlag, Seilerstlitte 19, Wien I., Austria.

Principal chapters: Zur Physik der atmo-suhiirischen Luft.—Stromungsgesetze def At-mosphiire.—Tiertlug, insbesondere der Vogel-flug.—Das allgemeine Problem der Ortsveriin-derung von Korpen, fiber den festen Boden, durch das Wasser und die Liift.—Grundtypen von Yorriehtungen zur Fortbewegung durch die Luft.—I. Teil. Der aerostatische Flug. Der gewohnliehe Kugelballon. Gesehichtliches.— Technik des Kugelballons.—Gleichgewich ts und Bewegungsgesetze aerostatischer Flug-korper.—Der lenkbare Ballon. Gesehichtliches. —Moderne Typen von Lenkballons.—Technik des Lenkballons.—II. II. Teil. Der aerody-namische Flug. Gleit- und Segeflieger, Gesehichtliches.—Die Schraubenfiieger. Gesehichtliches.—Die Sen wingenflieger. Gesehichtliches.—Die Dracvhenflieger, Gaschichtliches.— Die ersten Projekte von Drachenfliegern und die ersten Versuche mit Modellen.—Die neueren Studien mit groben Drachenfliegern.—Moderne Drachenfliegertypen.—Technik der Drachen-flieger. — Kombinierte Typen.—III. Teil. Theoretische Flugtechnik. Zur experimentellen Aerodynamik (Luftwiderstand u. Winddruck). Der Luf twiderstand.—Der Winddruck.—Lo-trechter and schriiger Fall durch die Luft.— Schwebe- und Translationsarbeit. — Einige spezielle Theoreme fiber Drachenund Gleit-flieger.— Zur Theorie der aerodynamischn Schweber und Flieger. — Luf t widerstands-theorien auf empiriseher Basis.—Einige wich-tige physikalische Siitze.—Allgemeine Hydro-dynamik in ihrer Beziehung zur Flugtechnik und Aeronautik.—Zur Statik and Dvnamik des Ballons. Praller Ballon.—Scblaffer Ballon.— Zur Theorie des Lenkballons.—IV. Teil. Praktische und konstruktive Flugtechnik. Der Kugelballon. — 1 >er Lenkballon. — Die Flug-machine.—Nachtrage and Zuiitze.—Namen- und Sach register.

KONSTRUKTIONSBLATTER FUR FLUG-

TEOHN1KEK, by Dr. Wegner von Dallwitz. paper. 1S3 pages, with S7 pictures, 4 scale drawings and many tables. Published by ('. J. E. Yolckmann Nachf. (E. Wette), Rostock i. M.. Germany, at 7 marks.

Contents include: Die iheorie der Schraub-en. Versehiedene Typen der Fahrzeug?Vort-rieber, Das Wesen der Sclirauben und der Grad ihrer Arbeitsausnutzuns'; Analogien zur Schraubenarbeit. zur Verdeutlich ung des Yer-haltens der Sclirauben; Die j_>erechnung der Triebkraft der Sclirauben. Der Motorleistungs-(Kraft) Bedorf der Sclirauben. Der Dynamisehe Wirtungsgrad der Sclirauben: Bestimmung der rot wen dig en Sclirauben I eist ung. Wid erst and s-Berech nungen; Die Ausfiih runs' vnn Sclirauben fliigeln, Beanspruch urg der Schraubenfliigel. Die Herstellung der Sclirauben. Das Auspro-bieren von Luft sclirauben. Kiiulliche Sclirauben: Logarithmentafeln, Tafeln fiir Sinus un<! Kosinus, Tangcns und Cotangens, etc,

THE SAN FRANCISCO MEET.

While there are fewer aviators entered than at Belmont, and the added stimulus of the Gordon Bennett race is missing-, the meet from January 7 to 16th will in all probability be the greatest of 1911. Aside from the purely contest feature is the spectacular military aspect lent to the meet by the participation of U. S. troops. The Government has detailed four companies of infantry and a troop of cavalry to patrol the ground and guard the danger zone where the military and naval target practice will be carried on with real explosives. A machine gun platoon is also detailed and experiments will be made at firing on captive balloons. The troops will camp on the field during the entire period of the meet.

Bomb throwing with actual explosive shells (no oranges), released from heights where the aviator and assistant would have some measure of safety from ground fire should be productive of much valuable information.

The following aviators will appear: Latham, Brookins, Radley, Curtiss, Parmelee, Willard, Ely and probably others. Prizes and conditions have not as yet been announced.

The novice class is receiving a large entry. IVovice prizes are as follows:

First event—A prize of $1,000 is to be divided into as many equal parts as there are novice aviators who fly and make a successful landing one-half mile straight-away.

Second event—A prize of $1,000 is to be divided into as many equal prizes as there are novice aviators who fly and make a successful landing around a 214-kilometer course.

Third event—A first prize of $250; a second prize of $125, and a third prize of $75 for the best speed over a 5-kilometer standard course.

Fourth event—First, second and third prizes, respectively, of $250, $125 and $75, for altitude during the meet. To qualify, machine must go higher than 50 feet.

Fifth event—First, second and third prizes of $250, $125 and $75, respectively, for the longest time in the air made by any novice aviator during the meet.

Sixth event—First, second and third prizes, of $250, $125 and $75, respectively, for the novice machine making the best distance record during the meet.

For the purposes of the meet, a novice is defined as an aviator, and a "novice machine" as the machine of an aviator, who has never taken a cash prize or flown for a cash guarantee in any previous meet or exhibition.

Among the novices who have made successful flights are Orvar Meyerhoffer, who has a unique triplane with a 60-90 h. p. engine (de-tailea drawing and description of which will appear in next issue of "Aeronautics") and T. S. Kern, with a Curtiss-type biplane.

W. C. Wheeler, secretary of the Pacific Aero Club, has a well built Bleriot type monoplane entered in this class.

A. L. Smith, of Stockton, Cal., a novice flyer will have his Loose monoplane at the meet. He has been making daily flights in this little mach ine.

GERMAN PROTEST OVERRULED

Under date of January 9, the Aero Club of America issued the following statement in regard to the special meeting of Federation Aeronautique Internationale at Paris, January 10th, 1911:—"The protest of the German Club against the award of the Gordon Bennet International Balloon Trophy to Mr. Alan R. Hawley was thrown out on the ground that it should have first been presented to the Aero Club of America. The protest of the Swiss Club against the organization of the same race at the start in St. Louis was not pressed.

"The protest of the Royal Aero Club of tha United Kingdom against the award of the

Statue of Liberty Prize to John B. Moisant was not definitely decided. The federation held that the record of the course as presented, did not show on its face that Article 29 of the Constitution of the Federation had been complied with. This article requires the consent of the Contest Committee of the Aero Club itself to any change in the conditions of a contest that may be made by the Committee in Charge, after the regulations are once published. We are advised by our representative that the question has been referred back to the Aero Club of America for further action, on the lines of this decision.

"Mr. Claude Grahame-White has cabled the Aero Club of America, protesting against his disqualification for fouling pylon No. 5 in the contest for the Statue of Liberty Prize. Mr. White claims that he was not aware until recently that he had fouled the pylon and had been disqualified."

WHITE UNSPORTSMAN-LIKE? Mr. Claude Grahamp-White seems to have queer ideas of sport where he is a losing competitor.

To a mere novice it looks this way: the Statue of Liberty race was set for a Sunday. White started off and came back. Moisant, with half the horsepower, also rounded the statue and returned in less time. Evidently, he found a more direct route.

If Moisant had more nerve than White, and took greater chances, by flying over more of Brooklyn, had White any sporting reason for wanting another try? No doubt he would win on a second try for he would then take the direct route.

No one has yet questioned the veracity of the judges in stating the time consumed by Moisant. Does Mr. White desire to put on trial the timers? Opinion is quite general that White has "no kick coming."

STEVENS TAKES UP AEROPLANE,

New York, Jan. 23.—The poor old balloon has been given the "go by" by Aeronaut Leo Stevens, or at least temporarily. To the utter distraction of Mrs. S.. Leo has donned his aviation costume and is rapidly growing a pair of wings. He is stopping at Mineola these days taking Hying lessons from William Hilliard in the new Burgess model D. To-day some fine flights were made "steady as a clock," as Stevens says, the machine varying to no noticeable extent from the even keel maintained by the aviator. He will stick around for a few days, he says, and keep his weather eye open. Those who have the pleasure of acquaintance will know that concealed about his person is the ever-present vaseline tube, though where such material could be used 011 an aeroplane is not quite apparent— oh, yes, almost forgot—the bearings of the wheels are filled with vaseline.

FAIRCHILD MONOPLANE FLIES.

Frank Schumaker has flown the AY. L. Fair-child monoplane across the Mineola field since Christmas some dozen times, making a good landing each time. These are the first flights made with the big monoplane, which has been at the Mineola grounds since last spring. Few ever expected the machine to get off the ground and these flights, therefor, vindicate Mr. Fairchild and earn praise for the 6-cylinder Emerson engine.

AERO CALENDAR FOR THE U. S.

Jan. 14-1S—Oklahoma City, Okla., International Aviators.

Jan. 12-13—Ft. Worth, Tex., International Aviators.

Jan. 26-Feb. 7—Havana, Cuba, Curtiss and other aviators.

Feb. 20-25—Boston, Mass., 2nd annual show.

it

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(Scientific American Trophy, Offered in 1907

The Scientific American Trophy

(WON THRICE AND FINALLY BY GLENN H. CURTISS)

WAS THE FIRST AVIATION TROPHY

offered in America. Likewise, the Scientific American was the first weekly in the United States to treat of Aeronautics. All important advances in this engrossing science have been chronicled in the pages of the Scientific American during the past 65 years, and the huge strides now being made so rapidly are reported from week to week. Only by reading the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

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PRINCIPAL ONE-MAN WORLD RECORDS.

Duration—S hours 12 minutes; distance made, 463.6 kils. (288.06 miles); H. Farman, Etampes, Fr., Dec. 18, 1910.

Distance—584.9*6 kils. (363.♦6-miles); time, 7 hours 48 minutes 31 3-5 seconds; Maurice Tabuteau (M. Farman machine), Buc. Fr., Dec. 30, 1910.

Altitude—3,180 meters (10,430 feet); G. Legagneux (Bleriot machine), Pau, Dec. 9, 1910.

Speed—109.23 k. p. h. (67.S7 m. p. h.), Belmont, Oct. 29, 1910.

Note.—The official figures in kilometers and meters are obtained whenever possible and the distances in miles are figured out to the last decimal, which frequently makes our figures vary from less accurate ones published elsewhere. Where cabled figures are used, corrections are made on the office files and the proper figures used later in any tabulations or lists of records. For instance, Leblanc's speed is usually given as 5 kils. in 2 m. 45 3-5 s., while as a matter of fact his time was 2 m. 44.78 s. for his fastest 5 kils. It is indeed difficult to get official figures quickly; even the most reliable French organ frequently has different figures in the same issue for the same flight.

-v UENOS AYKES, Brazil. Dec. 16. Cattaneo (Bleriot) flew from Palermo, near Buenos _J Ayres across the Rio de la Plata to . . .Rio .San Juan, a distance of 58 kil. From here,, after landing, he continued to Colonia, I'TJruguay, another 32 kilometers, making 90 \ the flight. Here he flew over the Plaza de 'oros before alighting. On January 4 Pallette ew for more than an hour over the city of :uenos Ayres.

Legagneux Breaks List of World Records.

Pau, France, Dec. 21.—Georges Legagneux, in a Bleriot, established a new record in the '.TTjMichelin cup competition to-day, remaining in '•^the air 5 hours 59 minutes, covering a distance of 515.9 kilometers, or 320.56 miles.

During the flight he established the following new records:

2 hours ...........................171 kil.

3 hours ...........................258.5 kil.

4 hours ...........................345.5 kil.

5 hours ...........................432.2 kil.

300 kil....................3 hours 28 minutes

400 kil....................4 hours 38 minutes

500 kil....................5 hours 48 minutes

World Two-Man Duration and Distance Records.

Bouy, Fr., Dec. 21.—Bieut. Cammerman (H. Farinan) has been awarded the $5,000 Weiller prize for cross-country flying by military' aviators carrying a passenger for his flight from Bouv to Montigny-sur-Aube and return to Bouy on Dec. 21, a distance of 232 kils, in 4:3:3. Bieut. Delage and passenger flew from Etampes to Orchaise on Dec. 29, a distance of 106 kil.. 3:31:00. The H. Farman machine was covered with ice and snow and the carburetor finallv froze. On Nov. 26 the same officer made a (light of 204 kils. in 3:15:00.

Other Two-Man Records.

Buc, Fr., Dec. 21.—In winning the Deper-dussin $5,000 prize for the fastest two-man 100-kil. flight. Laurens (R. E. P.) and passenger covered 100 kil. in I hour 16 minutes 50.S seconds and made the following new records:

10 kil.................7 minutes 31.2 seconds

20 kil................15 minutes 14.4 seconds

30 kil................22 minutes 56.6 seconds

40 kil................30 minutes 3S.6 seconds

50 kil................3S minutes 19.4 seconds

100 kil.........1 hour 16 minutes 50.S seconds

Woman Wins Endurance £rize.

Dec. 28.-—Mile. Helene Dutriei/ (H. Farman) won the Coupe Femina offered gov the longest flight made by a woman before sunset. Dec. 31. She flew 187.2 kil. (103.S rAiles) in 2 hours 35 minutes. Th<- previous re/ord was held by Mile. Marvingt (Antoinette),/who flew 53 minutes. Mile. Dutrieu bettere/i this by doing 60 kil. in 1 hour 9 minutes Ml/e. Herveu (Bleriot) flew for 1 hour 15 minutes/and 2 hours 2 minutes /

New World Endurance and Distance Records in nights for Michelin Prizes.

Buc, Fiance. Dec. 70.—Maurice Tabuteau, contesting for the Michelin Cup in a Maurice Farman biplane with h Renault engine, broke the world's aviation record for distance, covering 5S4.\U(5 kil. (Se^/s.S miles) in a continuous flight of 7 hours 48 minutes 31 seconds.

Tabuteau had before made the best mark in this year's competition for the Michelin Cup. having on October 2S made a flight of 289.36 miles. The cup is awarded annually, along with a cash premium of $4,000, to the aviator making the longest sustained flight within the twelve months.

The trophy and prize was won for 1908 by Wilbur Wright in France on Dec. 31, flying 124.7 kil. (77.48 miles); time, 2 hours 20 minutes 31 seconds. World distance and duration record.

On November 3. 1909, H. Farman won it, making new world distance and duration record by flying 234.2 kil. (145.52 miles); time, 4 hours 17 minutes 32 seconds.

Farman now holds the world duration record and Tabuteau the world distance record. Far-man made his world duration record December 18, flying 8 hours 12 minutes, covering but 463.6 kil., as compared with Tabuteau's 465.7, on October 28, when he flew for 6 hours 1 minute 35 seconds.

On the 29th Tabuteau started out to beat Legagneux's record, but came down on account of mist after covering 400 kils. His time for 390 kil. was 5 hours 12 minutes 49 1-5 seconds. At Etampes, H. Farman was also flying, but came down on account of the rain freezing on his planes, after covering 150 kil.

While Tabuteau was flying, on the 30th, Renaux started but at last came down after making 350 kil. in 4 hours 56 minutes 43 seconds.

Thomas (Antoinette) was another competitor at Mourmelon. One of his wings touched in

making a turn, thus officially terminating the flight, after being up 3 hours 5 minutes 4 seconds, covering 262 kils.

OTHER NEW RECORDS.

Tabuteau established a new record for 7 hours of 522.935 kil.

On Dec. 31, five aviators were flying for the Michelin prize. At Etampes Henry Farman flew for 7 hours 11 minutes, covering 487 kil. At Buc, Pierre Marie (It. E. P.) flew for 6 hours 29 minutes 19 1-5 seconds, covering 530 kil. and establishing the following new records:

250 kil...........3 hours 4 minutes 28 second*

300 kil.......3 hours 40 minutes 55 2-5 secondl

350 kil.......4 hours 17 minutes 26 1-5 secondl

400 kil.......4 hours 54 minutes 6 4-5 secondl

450 kil......5 hours 30 minutes 35 3-5 secondl

500 kil.........6 hours 7 minutes 7 4-5 secondl

At Douai. Louis Breguet (Breguet) covered 390.42 kil. in 5 hours 2 minutes 41 seconds. Sommer (Sommer) had to land after 2 hours 40 minutes. At Pau, Legagneux (Bleriot) quit after 2 hours 20 minutes, flying nearly 300 kil. At Mulhouse, Germany, Amerigo (Aviatik) started out for the prize and flew 3 hours 7 minutes.

A.. C. P. $20,000 Goes to Wymnalen.

Paris, Dec. 31.—No other aviator with passenger having completed the course from Paris to Brussels and return for the Auto Club's $20,000 prize, the same was awarded to Henry Wynmalen, Dutch aviator, who, accompanied by Louis Dufour, accomplished the wonderful flight on October 16-17. Two intermediate stops were made going and four on the return. Total duration of the flight, 28:36:43. while the actual flying time was 13:12:28. The machine used Was an H. Farman.

Legagneux and Martinet made the trip one way on November 13, with one stop, and got partially on the way back when the H. Far-man was damaged. Mahieu (H. Farman) and passenger made the trip to Brussels, but the return was abandoned. Several other aviators tried, some of them twice, unsuccessfully. Legagneux twice reached Brussels; the second time he was detained over the time limit by weather. On December 29 a Belgian aviator, Lanser (H. Farman), got almost there but was held by fog at the second stop. The time limit having been reached after delay on account of weather, he had to withdraw, but continued to Brussels on the 31st.

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Sopwith Wins $20,000 Prize.

London, Dec. 31.—Thomas Sopwith (Howard Wright) has been awarded the Baron de Forest $20,000 prize for the longest flight across the Channel by an Englishman in an all-British machine. His flight was made, as before recorded, on December IS. from East-church across the Channel to Beaumont, in Belgium, a distance of 169 miles, in 3 hours 40 minutes.

Cody Wins British Michelin.

Dec. 31.—Capt. S. F. Cody won the British Michelin $2,500 prize for British built machines by flying, December 31, 1910, over Laffan's Plain, 185.46 miles, in 4 hours 47 minutes, using his big biplane, which has flown, it has

been figured, 1,230 miles in the two and one-half months up to the end of December.

Previous to this Thomas Sopwith made several tries. On the same day he flew at Brook-lands, for 4:7:17, covering just over 150 miles. Alec Ogilvie flew his lOnglish-built new tvpe Wright on the 28th 140 miles in 3:55:00' in competition for the same prize. This was, of course, fitted with a British engine.

1911 International Race.

Paris, Jan. 10.—The F. A. I. set the distance for the international race, to be held in England this year, at 150 kil. (93.20 miles) over a course of not less than 5 kil. In 1910 it was 100 kil. (62.137 miles).

Bosch Magnetos were used by Tabutean, Le-gagneux, Farman, Cody and Sopwith in their lecord flights.

HOW ALTITUDE RECORDS ARE MADE

THE same instrument which has served bal-loonists for testifying to altitudes reached now does duty for the aviator in the same capacity. A short description of the operation of one of these instruments, called a recording barometer, or "barograph," is given following:

This instrument, illustrated herewith, has graduations marked in meters or feet of elevation. At the sea level an-.ordinary barometer would show 7fi0 mm. or 30 inches of mercury, whereas in the

In making an official record the instrument is hung from some part of the aeroplane and stayed with a couple of cords or tapes to keep it from swinging. The official observer attends to the adjusting and the instalment in the machine. After the flight he takes the instrument to the judges who determine the actual height made by taking out the strip of paper on which a graphic representation oj the flight has been made.

The aviator himself may, perhaps, carry a

tiki

If

The Mechanism of a Richard Barograph.

altitude barometer this graduation would be marked O.

As the aeroplane ascends, the atmospheric pressure decreases and the pen of the instrument, instead of recording inches of mercury, records the height in meters, or feet, as above stated.

The instrument consists of a wooden or aluminum case, with one glass side, and contains a cylinder making one revolution in a given time, usually 6 hours. The differences in barometric pressure or height are communicated to a series of vacuum chambers shown in the cut. As these chambers rise or fall, this movement is transmitted to a series of appropriate levers which communicate their displacements to a pen-arm at the end of which is the recording pen. In starting from a given point, it is necessary that the instrument be adjusted for the height of that place above the sea level. This is done with a key through an opening in the bottom of the case.

pocket barometer of his own which shows him approximately what height he has reached, as usually he cannot see the other instrument. This apparatus is inclosed in a case about the size of a watch. The dial is in two parts, one within the other. The one is set to zero at whatever height the start is made from. A long hand then moves around as greater height is attained and points directly to the altitude figure on the circular scale which takes the place of the hours and minutes on a watch face. This pocket affair does not make any graphic record and the aviator has to consult it as he would a watch.

A considerable industry has been built up in these instruments for balloonlsts and aviators. Jules Richard is probably the foremost and best known and it is his barograph which we have described above.

EXCHANGE AND SUBSCRIBERS' FORUM

Level for Aeroplanes.

To the Editor:

An idea occurs to me for an inexpensive device to attach to an aeroplane to take the place of the "rag indicator" described in Jan. "Aeronautics"; something a trirte more genteel and also offering a little something in the way of a quantitative reading.

My device, like the Wright indicator, is intended to be located in front of the aviator.

In place of the rag I use the arrow A, with four vanes B, supported by the stud E. The arrow is attached to the stud E by the universal joint F. The arrow in normal flight stands straight out behind the point P, and in the center of the index ring C. The ring C is supported as shown by the three supports D. The whole thing is fastened to the wooden strut G.

First, I reason that there is, with every revolution of the propeller a slice of air driven backward, which of itself would give the aeroplane a forward impetus, but this is all the force that I can account for that is derived from the condensed air. Reaction from the slightly condensed air impinging on inert air seems to me negligible, and in fact, I sincerely doubt if we get any lieln at all from reaction supposed to be produced by mechanical compression in open space. Such reaction should be rather in evidence when the exhaust on an automobile engine is turned rearward or when so powerful an engine as the locomotive ejects its steam through the funnel into space and inert air. The commotion is all at the other end, in the Are box. The work of the propeller is similar, as it acts upon air within its radius, fanning it backward anil thereby causing a terrible commo-

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Both the ring and the end of the arrow are painted black. The' arrow of course does all the rag does, except it won't flutter so much, and the ring serves as an index to show how far the arrow is away from normal. The .rag indicator undoubtedly is the best thing extant for the purpose, but this refinement thereof is offered as a possible betterment. Not patented. Respectfully yours,

.Minneapolis, Minn. C. II. CHARMERS. Who Will Try a Wireless Set?

A very light wireless receiving outfit has been built by a young man, Samuel Wein, who is anxious to have his system tried on an aeroplane in flight. There is no necessity for ground or other wires hanging from the aeroplane. Mr. Wein will attend to the installation of the outfit. Anyone desirous of trying the experiment may address him, care of the Brooklyn ^Vireless <Sr Electrical Novelty Co., 706 Broadway, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Criticism of Howell Theory.

To the Editor:

In an article in the January issue of "Aeronautics" Mr. Wesley Howell claims that the force necessary to drive an aeroplane is derived from condensation and reaction of the condensed air driven backward by the propeller. As I differ with him and am very much interested in aeronautics, seeking for more light, kindly permit me, as a student, to explain my position,—why 1 differ with Mr. Howell.

tion in front, from whence the air rushes with the. speed of the propeller toward it, to get in touch with the most rarified stratum of air, which is found in touch with the front edge of th"e propeller. Thus it is that the densest part of air is at the back and the most rarified at the' front of the propeller.

The real work of the propeller, as I reason it out, is to divide the air into portions of unequal density and to create a third very rarified portion immediately in front into which the propeller itself is continually drawn. It is obvious then, that here there is another source of power that moves the aeroplane—a pull rather than a thrust. The thrust derived from the condensation depends upon the speed of the propeller, but after the first revolution, all succeeding slices of air only replace one another and then vanish in space and reestablish equilibrium, tin account of disturbance in equilibrium, we are cognizant of those tremendous evidences of power, such as we see in storm and cyclone, and we always find a rarefied stratum of partial vacuum, the forerunner of a storm. A mechanically produced storm is identical with that which the storm nature produces, in that there is a rarefied stratum of air and a denser stratum rushing to come in touch with it, or in other words, a want of equilibrium.

I am of the opinion that we should study thoroughly how to produce and maintain rarefaction in the construction of aeroplanes.

II. THADEX.

38 West Alabama street, Atlanta, Ga.

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Hoxsey and Johnstone Accidents.

Gerard Hotel, New York,

January 5, 1911.

To the Editor:

The recent sad fatalities to mv friends. Mr. Arch. Hoxsey and Mr. Ralph Johnstone, prompt me to address you in view of giving my opinion as to the cause, especially in view of the fact no theory has been advanced upon which deductions could be made or propounded among those skilled in the science of aerodynamics that could be attributed to the direct cause of the recent disasters referred to, including that which befell Mr. Moisant and some others before him.

An aeroplane in flight with its nose dipped towards the earth at a degree wherewith it no longer retains an angle of incidence towards the line of descent, and wherein the center of pressure is entirely gone from under the main plane eventually, by gravity, develops such terrific speed that it becomes impossible to again right the machine; the small area of surface on the horizontal control becomes inadequate to counteract the tremendous pressure now exerting its full force upon greater area of exposed surface, namely, that running along the main plane on top, near its leading edge.

I am of the opinion the extremely daring-aviator desiring to execute a sensational rapid glide towards the earth while in flight, or while performing a spiral dip, likewise the aviator who makes too quick a landing, unconsciously allows the center of pressure under the plane to remain at zero for far too long a period, for after executing either of the above mentioned performances gravity has already begun to play an all-important part, causing him to travel towards the earth with an ever-increasing speed of lightning-like rapidity; he has already dipped the nose of his machine towards the earth, the aeroplane no longer retaining an angle of incidence towards the line of descent, the tremendous power of head-on pressure caused from the terrific speed the force of gravity have brought about, is now directed against, and on top of the forward end of the main plane. This volume of air pressure becomes almost as a solid, offering a resistance, likened to a stone wall exerting its tremendous force against and on top of the parabola of the curved surfaces of the plane situated immediately back of the leading edge. The pilot eventually pulls at his levers in an endeavor to bring the machine to an even keel towards a horizontal line of flight only to find the area of surface on the horizontal control is now insufficient to counteract the head-on pressure directed against the top from edge of the main plane. The latter offers an area of surface to this head-on pressure many times in excess of that possessed by the horizontal control, and so the aviator is entrapped to his doom.

As it is not considered practical by many, to increase the surface of the horizontal control, then may 1 suggest the advisability of encouraging inventors to produce a safetv stop, to be put in use on the control levers of aeroplanes that will prevent flying up or down beyond a certain safe angle.

Hoping my conclusions will be of some benefit to aviation, sincerely yours,

JOSEPH AY. CURZOX.

(A flyer with experience gained with a standard-made aeroplane, but who up to now has been compelled to be content with making straight away flights over a course free from obstructions on account of an obstacle, namely, second-hand heavy auto engine, which has been the source of more study to him than flying at meets.)

SKYSCRAPINGS.

Instead of erecting a small 2x4 monument for each aviator in the city in which he was killed, would it not be better to erect one large one in New York or Washington on the style of the Soldiers' Monument, with the names of the different aviators that have been killed inscribed thereon?—A. Deo. Stevens.

Propeller Testing- Device.

For ascertaining the thrust of small screws an arrangement might be made, to consist of an electric motor R, mounted on a framework consisting of four straight pieces of metal on each side of the motor. The metal pieces are pivoted at A, B, O and D, the bottom piece being fixed to the wooden support, E, secured to the base F, in such a manner that the motor can swing from right to left, and vice versa, but the frame is normally kept in position by one of the side pieces G, being extended downwards, and provided with a counterweight which can he slid up or down. When at rest the centre mark H, at the bottom extremity of G, coincides with the pointer, J. Different propellers which it is desired to test can be mounted on the motor shaft K. When the propeller is fixed in position and the motor started, the thrust will cause G to swing into a position out of the vertical, as indicated by the dotted line, L. When the motor has reached the correct speed, the weight M, is slipped down until H again coincides with the pointer J. The part of G, below the pivot C, is marked with divisions so that the exact position of the weight, M, necessary to bring G back to the vertical under the influence of the thrust can be noted.

If an ammeter is fixed in the motor-circuit, it will indicate the proportionate power required by different propellers to produce the thrust indicated by the position of the weight M, at any given speed. An electric motor takes current exactly in proportion to the power absorbed (the current required to run the motor light should be deducted from each reading). The divisions on G can be arranged to indicate the thrust in pounds or other suitable unit.

By noting the speed, current, and position of M, and tabulating these results, a good deal of • information as to the merits of different propellers could be obtained.

Holland l'ark. A Oorkesi'oxdext in Fliyht.

250 West 54th Street New York City

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E. F. INGRAHAM ADV CO.. 116 NASSAU ST.. NEW YORK GIL RANKIN. 5 PARK SQUARE BOSTON. MASS.

NO. 43

FEBRUARY, 1911 Vol. 8, No. 2

COPYRIGHT. 1S10. AERONAUTICS PRESS. INC.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice

New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. fT AERONAUTICS is issued on the 20th of each month ^> All copy must be received by the 10th. Advertising pages close on the 15th. :: :: :: :: :: :: rfT Make all checks or money orders free of exchange ^ and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

ELIMINATION RACE FOR AMERICAN TEAM.

In line with the arguments of "Aeronautics." the Aero Club of America has announced the holding of an elimination race for the selection of the American team to go to England to bring back the international trophy. Robert .1. (''oilier has offered a cup for the winner in this elimination race.

CREDIT FOR BLERIOT DRAWING.

In the drawing of the Bleriot XI, published in the January number, we neglected to give credit for the design to Mr. R. H. Beaumont, Philadelphia, through whose kindness we were enabled to publish this drawing.

"AERONAUTICS' " NEW ENGLAND AGENT.

'"Aeronautics" has secured Mr. Gil Rankin of Boston for New England agent, and it is expected that the campaign of publicity which is now being started in that territory will shortly show results in an increased number of advertisers and subscribers to "Aeronautics" from that section.

Mr. Rankin has been connected with the office of Chester I. Campbell, the Boston show manager, and has a large acquaintance in the automobile, motor boat, and aerial lines of trade. He assisted Mr. Campbell in 1010 with the first national exhibition of aerial craft in Boston, and has been keenly interested in aeronautics and aviation for several years. M>-. Rankin is now negotiating with the Longfellow Monoplane Co. of Allston, Mass., for lessons in aviation, and he will probably be that company's first student. His success as an aviator is considered assured by his Boston friends, and he will use such knowledge fcr further advertising "Aeronautics"—both the magazine and the science. Address communications and submit New England advertisements to Gil Rankin, X. E. Agent, "Aeronautics." f> Park Square, Boston. See him at the Boston Aero Show at Mechanics building, February 20-25.

INSPECTION OE AEROPLANES.

The idea of an official inspection of all machines entered at meets seems to have been met with derision by the men best qualified to speak, the men who fiy the machines to be inspected.

Certainly no one could or would be more careful of his machine than the operator himself. Every aviator of consequence goes over every part of his machine before making a flight, or has his mechanics do so. How would it be possible for an official of any club or meet to closely inspect every machine every time a flight was attempted? Inspection at the beginning of a meet would mean nothing for a wire or fastening might give way at any time, and be fixed by the mechanics without the supervision of an inspector. Even admitting official inspection would amount to anything1, where can any one man capable of the job be found available to-day? No deaths so far as known, have been the result of any defect which could have been located before hand by an army of inspectors. James Radle^' says: "When we finish going over the machine we do not need an inspector, who knows mucin less about it than we do, to tell us what to dp. The idea is impracticable." I

According to the Press Agent of the U. S. Aeronautical Reserves, of 53 Fifth Avenue, New York, its official organ is "peculiar in its field; its sole purpose is to create interest in aviation. . . It is perhaps the only

magazine of its kind in existence to-day, published solely in the interests of the science; there is not a salary of any kind paid to any member of its staff."

Sample copies of "Aeronautics," "Aircraft," "Aero," and "Fly," are being sent to the P. A. for his perusal. There are about two dozen other aeronautical journals, periodicals published in various countries. As the U. S. A. R. official organ industriously solicits advertising from manufacturing firms in the aeronautic field, its claim of uniqueness is not valid— save for its non-salaried P. A.

Notes on the Aeroplane Propeller.

In the valuable article by Mr. Matthew B. Sellers on pages 1 and 2 of the January number there occurred a misprint, owing to the fact that corrected proof did not arrive until after the issue was on the press.

Kindly correct the equation in the third line of the right" hand column on page 2 to read as follows —

N.

Ni M

N 2 S—S2

HILLIARD PLYING.

(Continued from p. 59)

with farmhouses, stone walls and trees plentifully dispersed.

It will be noticed that the machine is an improvement over the Farman, in view of the extensions of the skids forward and upward to support the front elevator. These skids will rise over any obstructions in landing and save the machine from injury. On one occasion the machine even smashed a wooden fence without hurting the aeroplane.

Of the seven aeroplanes ordered by White, of Fngland, from the Burgess Company & Curtis, of Marblehead. Mass., one has already been shipped, a model E. Of two more well under way is a large two-passenger machine similar to the Burgess model D. "White lias asked the company to design a new type of biplane along entirely novel lines, but no de-taiJs are available.

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A. J. Cronkhite, of 1403 Ellis boulevard, 'edar Rapids, la., is building his third mono-lane, for two persons. Xo turnbuckles are eing used, all wire being tightened by one 3ver. Stability is by warping. .loint's are trapped and bolted together, without any holes l the beams. Perpendicular truss rods are eld to lateral beams by friction.

Robert ,T. Collier received delivery of his /right biplane on January 17, at Belmont ark, where it will be stored. J. C. Turpin, ' the Wrieht company, is setting up the machine.

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TO OUR FRIENDS—We would appreciate it very much if you would specify in writing advertisers that you saw the ad, in AERONAUTICS. This will help us, and eventually be of equal service to yourselves.

Hefty Mfgr. Co., New Concern.

John C. Burkhardt, of Portland. Ore., has formed the Hefty Manufacturing Co., to market aeroplanes, engines and propellers. Mr. Burkhardt is very favorably known to those interested in aeronautics. His first machine was of novel construction and flew successfully. After later experience and study he has gotten up a machine of good construction and simple, to sell at a moderate price. Purchasers can depend on efficient workmanship.

latest Rinek News.

With the view of being in a position to successfully cope with their increasing business, and to be able to meet in a measure the anticipated enormous demand for aviation engines of proven merit during the coming year, the Rinek Aero Manufacturing Co. have, within the past few months, wisely augmented their manufacturing end by the addition of many new machines, the most prominent of which is a new external grinder for use in connection with the grinding of pistons, and an internal grinder for the finishing of cylinders.

Although the Rinek company have been making prompt two-week deliveries on their large size engine, the 60-horsepower, 8-cylinder, they are still further desirous of increasing; their facilities to such extent that they will be in a position to make prompt deliveries, even during the rush season, on both size engines.

The policy of this company in selling their engines on a rating of thrust power cannot be too highly commended, inasmuch as the purchaser under these conditions knows exactly what he is getting in the way of actual propulsive force. Horsepower rating is all very well in the motor boat or automobile field, but is becoming entirely too vague in connection with the rating of aviation engines, inasmuch as when taken alone, the purchaser is still in the dark in regard to his real Hying power. Probabh" in nine cases out of ten, a propeller of the most efficient design for his plane, when fitted to the engine, will pull its speed down to such a point that the horsepower developed is hardly worth considering.

Under the circumstances, there can be no come-back at the manufacturer, as the engine is supposed to develop so much horsepower at some certain speed. The purchaser, who, after having boi ght his engine, has in a measure to yet procure the other half of his power plant, i. e., the propeller, and not until he has actually fitted the propeller to his engine and made a test of same, does he know what he is getting in the way of real push or force.

Another six months will probably see a number of the other engine manufacturers falling in line with regards to this idea, as a large majority of aviators and experimenters are beginning to realize that horsepower alone will not drive their machines into the air. Experience has taught them that it is the amnun' of thrust of pronulsive force, irrespective of horsepower developed, that does the trick.

The Rinek company claim greater thrust per horsepower for their engines than any other makes, foreign or American, on the market at the present time, and their claim is more than substantiated by the results which their eneines have produced.

Tracy Exhibits New Dynamometer.

Joseph Tracy's dynamometer was exhibited at the recent A. L. A. M. auto show, where it attracted marked attention on the part of automobile engineers because of its rugged simplicity, and the wide range of service of which it is capable. Referring to the illustration, the motor Ml undergoing test rests upon adjustable pedestals and the crankshaft of the motor is connected to the dynamometer through the tumble-shaft T2 requiring the use of universal joints Jl and J 2, leading to an outboard bearing which carries the fanshaft and the arm Fl to which is adjustably attached the veins VI and V2. The tachometer Tl is belted to a pulley on the fanshaft, and this instrument, instead of being graduated in revolutions per minute, is calibrated to read in horsepower, there being one scale on the dial of the tachometer for each of the positions to which the veins VI and V2 ma'- be adjusted on me arm Fl. Adjusting the veins outward in the radial plane increases

the power required to propel the fan at any given speed, and it has been found in practice that this form of dynamometer offers a wide range of testing opportunities, so that the various types and sizes of motors may be quicklv tested, and one of the points which should not be overlooked in the discussion of this dynamometer lies in the utility of the same for continuous loading of tne motor, undergoing test. In discussing the details of the dynamometer with Mr. Tracy, lie pointed out that the tachometer is calibrated at each of the allowable speeds, under the several loading conditions by means of an electrical equipment, and that the result obtained in this way reduces the possible error to that of the tachometer which Js guaranteed to work with an error limit which is considerably less than 1 per cent, 'the equipment rests upon a heavy cast-iron nlaten so that an unbalanced motor running at a high speed is held down, and the operator is enabled to do his work under favorable conditions.

Gibson Propellers.

Hugo C. Gibson was the pioneer in commercializing the propeller for aeronautic purposes in the United States, having built up the business in propellers carried on by the Itequa-Gibson Co. Mr. Gibson lias transferred his affections to the factory where his famous propeii°-~ were made—the works of E. W. Uonsuii, S06 11th avenue, Xew York City, where in the capacity of consulting engineer, he may be found, ready to help solve the intricate problems of the air vessels, engines and propellers. Mr. Bonson is supplying those propellers direct where formerly he manufactured them for the Requa-Gibson Co.

IN THE cAERIAL MARKET PLACE

The 1911 Elbridge Engine.

Some one officer, at least, of the Elbridge Engine Co., if not all of them, have attended every aviation meet or convention of any importance held in America; they have personally inspected and attended the trial flights of almost every amateur machine built; have had two machines of their own devoted to experimental work; and have devoted both time and money to the problems of propeller efficiency, methods of installation, lubrication, fuel, econ-omv, radiation, and all of the incidentals of flight.

The results of this observation, study and experiment are embodied in the 4-cylinder model of the 1911 "Aero Special" shown at the Grand Central Palace Aero Show during the first week in January. It is a more handsome piece of machinery, for the engine shines from the bottom of the aluminum crank-case to the top of the polished brass water-jackets.

To begin with the question of power for weight, the four cylinder 1911 "Aero Special" weighs without magneto less than 150 lbs., and it developed and maintained on a recent demonstration, the company states, more than 57.S net brake horse powey at 1500 r. p. m. At as low a speed as 600 V. p. m. the engine gave better than 28 b. h. p. and 40 b. h. p. at about 1050 r p. m. The engine will be

of the Babbitt, without risking the cutting of the shaft. Adjustments to the connecting-rod bearings, should any be required, are easily made by removing crank-case bolts, which permits the removal of the lower half of the case.

Several of the external details are new since last year. Ignition is by high-tension magneto, the plate for which is cast integral with the crank-case. There are ball-thrust bearings on both ends of the crank-case so the engines may be used in monoplanes or biplanes without any alteration. New automatic carburetors which are adjusted for good and all before leaving the factory will prove acceptable to those who have had trouble making delicate adjustments. The new intake manifolds with their easy curves permit faster gas travel than last year's model, and the water intake and overflow manifolds, if not more efficient, add to the highly finished appearance. Lubrication is by the simple system of adding a pint of good gas-engine oil to each five gallons of gasoline.

Bore and stroke remain the same as last year, 4 by 4% inches. The Elbridge Engine Co. has patterns for a larger cylinder, one with five-inch bore and five and a half inch stroke, but believes there is no type of aeroplane on the market to-day which can use either safely or advantageously more power than is pro-

1911 Elbridge "Aero Special."

rated at 40-00 h. p. and guaranteed to maintain more than 10 h. p. for an all-day run. In order to prove that the engine will run as long as may be required, a recent ten-hour test is reported by the Elbridge Company. The engine was started at 10.10 a. m. with dynamometer fan absorbing 43 b. h. p. at 1100 and ran with throttle wide open, spark fully advanced, until S.10 p. m. It was stopped at that time because of the objection of the neighbors to the roar of the exhaust. During all of the ten hours not an adjustment of any kind was made to any part of the engine, and it was running as strong and smooth after ten hours as when it was started in the morning. The engine was one taken at random from stock, with usual fittings.

The materials and finish of the new engines are of the finest throughout. Cylinders are of a special combination of steel and fine grey iron, bored, reamed and ground to perfect size. Kach set of pistons is finished to exactly fit its corresponding set of cylinders. The cranks are tinned from hammered forged billets and finished by grinding every part, to secure accurate balance. Connecting rods are of special steel, die-forged, with a large margin of strength beyond normal requirements.

Connecting-rod bearings are bronze, boxes deeply lined with Babbitt metal, the bronze affording insurance against the pounding out

vided by the six-cvlinder "Aero Special" rate! at 60-90 h. p.

"Amateur Aviation in America" gives a sketchy record of most of the llights made hi novices in America during 1910. It was compiled and is distributed gratis by the Elbridge Engine Company.

In the new catalog which is now on the press not only the regular line of "Featherweight" and "Aero Special" engines is listed, but as well there are three smaller engines, of two, three and four cylinders respectively, with bore and stroke of 3 ?i by Sy2 inches, designed for light machines, where from ten to twenty-five horse power is required. The first of the new "Bain* Featherweights" is being built for JU. B. Sellers' 10 h. p. multiplane. Copies of the catalog will be sent on request addressed to the Elbridge Engine Company, at 10 Culver Load, Koch ester, X. Y.

The Elbridge Engine Company was much pleased with the receipt of the following telegram from the Matliewson Automobile Company, of Denver, Colo., which company bought the first 1910 "Featherweight" 4-cylinder engine, and by chance also received the first 19 11 model Elbridge "Aero Special."

The telegram, dated January 1, says: "Eh bridge Fngine Company, Rochester, N. I Jhitliewson biplane equipped with Elbridge motor, George Thomson, aviator, flew four

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Tox House Organ.

"Fox Facts" is the name of the house publication of the Dean Manufacturing Co., of Xewport, Ky., makers of Fox aero and marine motors. In this edition space has been given to aero motors and news items. This publication will be sent free to all inquirers.

Goodyear Rubber Fabrics.

Aeroplane manufacturers all over the country have been examining the new Goodyear "Wing" rubber-coated aeroplane fabrics and many have placed large orders. The Wright brothers' chemists have reported so favorably on the new fabric that it is expected it will be used on Wright machines in the future.

It is reported that orders also have been received from the Burgess Co. and Curtis, the Metz Co., the Lovelace-Thompson Co. and several other manufacturers. Among the leading aviators who have ordered rubber-coated fabric, are Charles K. Hamilton and all members of Moisanl's Crew of International Aviators.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. is the first in America to produce a full line of rubber-coated fabrics, tires and rubber springs.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.. of Akron, Ohio, has been working on the substitution of rubber-coated fabric for silk and canvas for planes for over a year, and the product they are now putting on the market is called perfect by aeroplane manufacturers.

of flying in France, ilolland, Hungary, etc., is coming back soon to give exhibitions with a fast Bleriot and also start a factory to build aeroplanes.

E. I). Moore, formerly night manager of the Associated Press, in Xew York, has attached himself to the Curtiss Exhibition Co., as publicity man on the Pacific Coast.

St. Louis, Jan. S.—J. C. Hulbert, of the Aero-motion Co., and Paul McCullough left in the "St. Louis IV" with the fond hope of descending somewhere near the Atlantic coast. Boreas, not consulted, resented the independence of the lialloonists, and drove them south, to a town in Mississippi bearing the euphonious name of Scooba, so it is plainly seen the scoop did not pan out. Facetious Kentuckians shot at the high ball, and one of the bullets could even be beard by the aeronauts whizzing past them. What an awful commentary on the marksmanship of the l'.lne Crass State! No doubt the marksmen were young and inexperienced at balloon-hunting or they would have done belter.

Landing would not have been made at Scooba but for the fact that the intrepid voyagers had not made proper arrangements with the press for an ocean trip starting from the

Willard's Gnome-Ensjined Curtiss.

Goodyear rubber-coated fabric has been found to be absolutely moisture proof. it gives less resistance to the air and the speed of the machine is actually increased as much as 10 per cent. This fabric is far stronger than silk and will not stretch or shrink.

Three "Gray Eagle" biplanes have been sold by R. O. Rubel, ,lr., & Co., of Louisville, since Christmas.

A. Hendrian, of Decatur, 111., is the purchaser of a Detroit Aeroplane Co. motor for his "Demoiselle."

The "Gray Eagle" machines are the standard type.

Ladis Lewkowicz, who financed Ihe bringing of the first Bleriot to this country last spring and which never flew, after a summer

Gulf. They landed the following day, after being in the air 22 hrs. 40 min., which is going some for novices at ballooning, for neither man is a licensed pilot: though this only proves that the Aero Club of America has unintentionally passed by two first rate balloon-ists without honoring them with certificates of capability. The distance in an airline is approximately 420 miles.

San Antonio. Tex Dr. <;. X Edward

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SI. Louis, Jan. 6.—s. l>. \ on fnui tocTK up Marion Lambert, landing at Greenville, 111., distance of 45 miles; duration, 2 hrs.

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IN January 6, at the invitation of the Aero Club of America, many members of the Aeronautical Society, American Society Civil Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Society of Electrical Engineers and the New York Electrical Society, assembled in the auditorium of the Engineering Society Building, 29 West Thirty-ninth street, New York, to listen to various addresses and to see for the first time moving pictures of the Belmont meet.

The auditorium was fairly well filled and many ladies were present.

Robert J. Collier, head of the National Council, read some poetry in memory of the victims of aviation from the death of Dela-grange. In a short speech he told what he wanted to do in the National Council, that he desired to make it a democratic body in policy. He had bought an aeroplane and was going to know more about the practical side of it.

Resolutions of regret and sympathy were passed and ordered transmitted to the families of Messrs. Chanute, Johnstone, Faure, Hoxsey and Moisant.

Hudson Maxim, president of the Aeronautical Society, made a most eloquent address in memory of Mr. Chanute. In conclusion he said:

"Always it has been a devoted few who have stood in the vanguard and fought the hard fight of progress.

"One of such few was Octave Chanute. He belonged to the true nobility of brains. lie was a man to make the constellated eyes of heaven look our way and honor us, and the gods to boast of kinship."

Major Samuel Reber illustrated his talk on the Belmont meet with a series of lantern slides, followed by moving pictures of principal events of the tournament.

Allan A. Ryan, president of the Aero Club of America, delivered the following address:

By Allan A. Ryan.

THE astonishing progress in aeronautic achievement of the last two years and the even greater advancement that is bound to come, places at this time a certain burden of responsibility upon the Aero Club of America, and if we are to do our patriotic part in aiding this country to reach and to maintain the position it should have in this great enterprise, there is an immediate necessity for energetic and concerted work from now on.

If my interpretation of the purposes and scope of this club are correct, it is our duty to develop and advance in every legitimate manner, the science and the sport of aeronautics and to make these things the first and paramount business of the organization, and in that connection it is very gratifying to know that every requisite facility and resource for the accomplishment of this work is within the reach of the club, it being necessary now merely to enlarge and extend the institution already well established.

This is the Aero Club of "America." It is, or it should be, exactly what its name implies. Not simply the Aero Club of New York CiLy, or New York State, or any other one section of country or one group of men, but an organization as broad as the country itself and an organization that shall embody and give representation and expression to every affiliated aero club on this continent.

The science and sport of aeronautics, in this county, as elsewhere in the world, have developed with a magic-like rapidity that has defied thus far all effort at organization and systematic control. The whole business seems to be up in the air higher even than the aviators themselves and the work before this

club, is to do its part in getting things down to earth where we can begin to establish some sort of system and control.

To accomplish satisfactory results along these lines we must have cordial and permanent co-operation of all interests concerned. The affiliated clubs of the entire country must work together and the first thing to do is to find some substantial basis upon which that policy can be carried into effect. To be more specific, it is my notion that every club and every active locality in America should be fully represented in the organization. I don't care whether each affiliated club is represented by one or by forty governors on the board, so long as we can establish a harmonious and effective organization that shall represent the aeronautic interests of the whole country, in fact, as well as in name. What we are after is results. We are all striving for the same tning, substantially, the upbuilding and systematizing of the science and sport in this country and we should waste no more time in petty differences and trivial details in getting on the main job.

This business of aeronautics is no longer the special field of cranks and idlers. It is a game that men are going to play with from now on and we might as well understand, too, that it is a game that no one section of the country is going to monopolize. New York, Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, San Francisco and every other center in the United States is going to have its strong aero club, its aviators, its aviation fields, its special interests and enterprises and the question now is whether we are all going to work together as one happy family of the air, or continue to work apart with more or less waste of energy and opportunity, as has been done in the past.

It is my own belief that the future supremacy of this country in the aeronautic field is going to depend very largely upon the harmonious co-operation of the institutions and individuals interested in the great science and it seems to me that the time has arrived for us to decide upon that course and get to work. Naturally, the Aero Club of America should stand as the nominal head of the great national federation of clubs. It was the beginning of the aeronautic movement in this country; it is the natural representative of the International Federation and the natural parent body in the great group of American clubs. While I believe that the Aero Club of America should remain as the central and nominal head of aeronautics in this country, I believe that it should be so organized or reorganized as to give the fullest representation to every section of the country in the control of all national policies and affairs.

It is also very important in the future that we give every possible aid and encouragement to worthy inventors and to every branch of scientific development in this country and to that end we should call into association and co-operation with us all those who are seriously working, or interested in the field of American aeronautics.

A very casual survey of the world at large shows that there is much to be done in America to bring us abreast of many other countries and the only way to achieve that result is through wise and effective co-operation. Organization and effort are alone necessary. The natural resources we have in abundance.

.1. A. D. McCurdy will be at Key West January 21, waiting for a favorable moment to llv to Havana, where Curtiss aviators are to hold a meet, January 2S to February 7. The Navy Department has issued orders to the commander of the torpedo flotilla at Key West to hold himself in readiness to assist in any way.

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HOW TO BUILD A CURTISS-TYPE.

(Continued from p. 40)

they may be flattened in a vise without heating, and drilled with a %-inch hole. They are driven tightly on the tapered ends of the ribs, and fastened with a small screw or brad. The rear-end ferrules are %-inch lengths of %-inch tubing, driven on and drilled with a 3/32-inch hole for the rear edge wire. The rear ferrules of the main ribs may be the same %-inch tubing used for the front ferrules of the small ribs; they should be cut off so that their ends will come in the same line

as the holes in the ends of the small ribs. If the quick-detachable section plan is used, the second main rib from each end may be left long and drilled with a hole like the small ribs. The front ferrules of the main ribs should be %-inch tubing of a heavier gauge, and drilled with a a/4-inch hole.

The finished ribs are sandpapered smooth and coated with shellac or spar varnish. The latter is more expensive and slower drying, but has the advantage of giving the glue-cracks perfect protection from moisture. The ferrules may be painted with black enamel. (To b« continued)

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aviation directory

C. February, Second Number. C/The addresses of manufacturers and other members of the industry. C. Seven (7) divisions, Forty (40) classifications; e. g.: Aeroplanes, Motors, Propellers, Parts, Accessories, Supplies, etc. C. Complete Encyclopedia of the Industry. CL Send 25 cents in envelope bearing your address. C. You'll get the Directory by return mail. C. Your money back if you're not delighted. C. Act now. --Twenty-five Cents -

L. M. ALLISON :: :: :: Lawrence, Kansas

The Aero Club of America is desirous of adding- to the number of life members, the cost of life membership being very low, namely $500, considering1 the many advantages attached to the honor.

O. F. Bishop has been appointed first vice-president, and Robert J. Collier, head of the National Council of the Aero Club of America, has been given the post of governor, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of .1. C. McCoy. Mr. Collier has also been named as one of' the club's two renresentatives to the National Council, in place of Dave H. Morris, resigned. The club at the present time has 353 resident members, and 151 non-resident members. It has licensed 26 aviators, 2 dirigible balloon pilots and 37 spherical balloon pilots.

At a meeting of the board of governors of the Aero Club of America, held January 3, the following resolutions were adopted: Whereas, in view of recent accidents to pilots of aeroplanes it seems expedient to the board of governors of the Aero Club of America to take necessary steps to secure as far as practicable proper conditions of safety, be it Resolved, that the technical committee be instructed to recommend suitable regulations covering the inspection by proner delegates of the condition of all aeronautical material before contestants in any event, will he permitted to leave the ground, and further, Resolved, that the committee on aerodynamics be instructed to report the conditions of the air at the time of the accidents and the probable cause of the accidents.

At the meeting of the executive committee, held January L0, George F. C. Wood was appointed secretary of the club, and the resignation of the assistant secretary, Mr. Charles H. lleitman. was received. Also the Pacific Aero Club, the Aero Club of Rochester and the Aero Club of Connecticut became affiliated with the Aero Club of America. CURTISS HOLDS SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN TROPHY.

At a meeting of the board of governors of the Aero Club of America, held January 3. the Scientific American trophy was awarded to Mr. Glenn 11. Curtiss for the year of 1910. Mr. Curtiss having traveled the greatest distance while competing for this trophy during the vear in his flight from Alhanv to Pough-keep'sie. on May 29, 1910, a distance of 65.40S miles. The trophy thus became Mr. Curtiss' own -roperty, having won it for three consecutive years. So far as known, no other entries were ever made to compete for this cup.

The Aero Club of Long- Island at its first annual meeting, held in December, elected the following officers for the ensuing year: William Newell, president: Frederick Rock-stroh, vice-president; Joseoh K. Post, secretary; Henry I. Newell, Jr., treasurer: board of directors. Charles TVald, chairman; John Herbert Lisle, Francis C. Wilson. Henry I. Newell, Jr., and Howard C. Brown.

The Aero Club of the University of Illinois has built two gliders since its organization in 1909. The first was demolished in flights. The second was on original lines in const ruction and principle, and made for towed flights. This machine will be tried as soon as there is favorable weather. Experiments will be conducted upon the properties of planes in air currents and the testing of propi 'ers. Photographs will be taken of these air currents, using the oxcellenl equipment of the Engineering Department of the University.

The Aeronautical Society postponed its semimonthly meeting, which came due the end of November, till December 1, when Mr. Charles D. Gibson, of the Vortex Vaporizer Co., gave n lpcid and useful address pn cai'buratJon and

vaporization generally. He brought forward the information that while the crudest carburetors were efficient at the outset of the gasoline motor science, the same carburetors would not prove serviceable to-day, because of the great change in the gasoline procurable. The specific gravity was originally around 52 while now it averages 60 to OS, and has a sprinkling of kerosene, duo to the fact that at first gasoline was a waste product, while now the Standard Oil Co. has difficulty in supplying it in the quantities required. He claimed that good vaporizers properly applied were more efficient than the best carburetors because they provide a dry mixture.

At the next regular meeting held December S, Capt. T. T. Lovelace gave an interesting talk on his experiences in aviation in the last two years, beginning with Wilbur Wright at Pan and then going to England and finally with John B. Moisant when he came to this country and started to manufacture. B. M. Carmina gave the first essay of the seven on the complete subject of aeronautics for which his nrize of a gold medal was presented to the society to be awarded to the winner. Tehnieal information brought out was extremely useful and caused many questions to be asked by members.

On December 22, Messrs. Hugo Gibson, Wilbur R. Kimball and Robert Hanau took the subject of propellers for their addresses for the Carmina medal and attacked the subject from different standpoints as well as the air pressures resulting from rotating screws.

On January 12. a rehearsal of the advancement in 1910 was had, and Mr. Henry M. Neely. of Philadelphia, addressed the members with a most interesting talk, illustrated with a hundred lantern slides taken by him at the different meets in this country. This was followed by remarks from Mr. Wilbur R. Kimball, likewise illustrated with lantern slides of his own. Capt. .lames Prentice. 1T. S. A., now stationed at Fort Hancock, N. .1.. gave the result of his researches, which is spoken of as one of the most scientific addresses the society has been favored with, being the result of 'many years' experiments on living birds, mainly sea gulls. He found that he could cut away feathers from a living bird to leave hardly anv surface, and yet the bird would fly quite naiurally, and even when this was done on one wing only the bird had no trouble in maintaining stability, but just as soon as the shape of the wing was changed by tying with string without injuring the bird then it could not fly at all. lie also added to the weight of birds as much as 30 per cent, of their own weight, which would not prevent them from dying just as readily as before. These researches led him to determining that the true shape is a parabolic curve in all directions, and he was able, with very delicate anemometers, to determine where the pressures and currents exist under the wing. He took such careful measurements from living birds in llight that lie was able to duplicate a bird structure artificially by means of moulds and proved the correctness of his researches bv a forward flight of one of these artificial birds in a 25-nii:e wind blowing against it.

The full texts of these lectures are published in hnlleun form and can be obtained by those interested by addressing Aeronautical Society. P. O. Box -JN, Station D, New York City.

Intercollegiate Aeronautical Association. Swarthmore College Aero Club is building a glider and will construct a power machine. Dartmouth is to purchase a glider. President George A. Richardson, of the I. A. A. is to offer a trophv to flic clubs in the association. 1o bo awarded to the club securing the highest number of points on. (lie following basis;

(1) Certain number of points allowed according to the club's activities and accomplishments along lines of research; (2) certain points on gliding; (3) power machines; (4) general activity.

STEVENS AWARDED CUP

The New England Aero Club will give a dinner on January 31, at Boston, on which occasion the C. F. Bishop cup will be presented to A. Leo. Stevens for the longest flight made from a New England point. This trip was made on May 19, from North Adams, Mass., a landing being made on May 20 at St. Dominique, Quebec, accompanied by Prof. David Todd, Percy Shearman and Charles Som-ervillc. Tbe distance is 219 miles; duration II hours, 52 minutes.

The Aero Club of Connecticut was formed on December 2S in New Haven with a membership of 32. The officers elected are as follows: President, A. If. Forbes (Fairfield, Conn.); vice-presidents, W. 0. Beers (New Haven), Alton Farrell (Ansonia), Clarence E. Whitney (Hartford); secretary, Gregory S. Bryan (Bridgeport); treasurer, Arthur H. Day (New Haven).

The Pawtucket Aero Club (It. I.) is another new club in process of formation.

The Aero Club of Dallas (Tex.) was formed January 8 for the purpose of making a study of the science of aviation and of promoting aviation meets in Dallas. A permanent organization will be effected later. Among the charter members are Edgar L. Pike, Henry D. Lindslev, Tom L. Monagan, M. N. Baker, Mur-rell L. Buckner, E. J. Keist, E. H. R. Green, Clarence Linz, John V. Hughes, J. E. Farns-worth, J. R. Babcock, E. L. Scott, Emil Fretz, Elihu Sanger, E. Sanger, L. O. Daniel, W. G. Crush, and a representative of each of the local newspapers.

The TJ. S. Aeronautical Reserve held its first meeting on January 9. The principal speakers were Hudson Maxim, Prof. Hallock of Colum-

bia and James H. Hare, the veteran war photographer, who told of the difficulties in photographing the Wright 1908 Kitty Hawk flights.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania held its election of officers January 20, and the following were chosen: President, Arthur T. Atherholt (re-elected); first vice-president, Clarence P. Wynne; second vice-president, W. D. Harris; secretary, Rev. Geo. S. Gassner; treasurer, Laurence Maresch. Lieut. Jac. O. Sickel, of the United States Army, lectured to the club that same evening on "Military Aviation," showing the changes in military tactics that will be made by the flying machine.

The Dartmouth Aero Club is actively at work, and this spring should find its members up in the air. It has been decided not to purchase a new glider immediately, but to use one that has been loaned by C. A. Edison '14, and to begin construction on one for the club. Edison's glider is already here, and is being set up, and the material for the new one has been purchased. It will be started upon the close of the mid-year exams. The construction committee consists of C. A. Edison, '14, G. O. Wright, '14, and A. E. Wyman, '13.

The club has been purchasing much reading matter upon this subject, and a thorough study is being made of the problems. The officers have arranged for several authorities on aerial matters to address the club, and earlv in March W. C. Hill, '02, of Boston, a member of the New England Aero Club, will speak to the members. J. B. Benton. '90, of Boston, has offered to take up members of the club in his balloon early in the spring. The start will probably be made at Burlington, and they will endeavor to come towards Hanover.

The club has voted to offer a cup to the member making the best model aeroplane, and already several members have started on this work. The officers believe that in this way a practical knowledge of aeroplane styles can be learned.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING

AVIATION MEETS—An expert in arranging and managing aviation meets, having the wiliest experience and best connections, is in a position to promote and conduct aeroplane contests for aero clubs and others. Address Aviation Manager, care AERONAUTICS.

WANTED—Some one with capital to finance the building of a monoplane of my invention. Weight complete 250 lbs. Patent on safety device by which when in the air, in case of accident, can come down from any height without hurting aviator. Patent on lateral balancing device which is automatic. Both very simple. Can be built complete ready to fly, with engine, for $500. Can do mechanical drawing, gasoline motor designin— water coloring, pattern making, etc. Only two wires on above. Would consider position as an aviator. Weight 100 lbs. References. Address, J. P., care AERONAUTICS.

FLYING MACHINE PATENTS FOR SALE — Not having the facilities to manufacture these machines on a large scale, and as all my time is taken experimenting on a new type of Internal Combustion Engine and other inventions, 1 will sell outright mv three valuable IT. S. patents, Nos. S59.274, 926,159 and 976,765. If you mean business, write me for prices, etc. .1. Holmes Wilson, Carlisle, Penn.

TYPEWRITERS—All makes. Caligraphs, $6; Hammond, Densmore, $10; Remington, $12; Oliver, $24; Underwood, $30. 15 days' free trial and year's guarantee. Harlem Typewriter Exchange, Dept. FI8, 217 W. 125th St., New York City.

FOR SALE—Bleriot, genuine French manufacture, latest cross-Channel type; condition good as new; $500 worth of spare parts; must sell; offers. "Bleriot," 75 Union Ave., Montreal, Can.

FOR SALE—Ten shaves National Aviation & Construction Co., of Mass. Price, $50. Capital stock, $50,000; shares, $10 par. Address. W. McCall, Gen. Del., Boston, Mass.

SITUATION WANTED—Active and clean-cut young man, ex-observer of U. S. Weather Bureau and Meteorological expert, desires affiliations with aeroplane manufacturing company, with object of being instructed in practical flying, for which tuition will be paid. Proficiency acquired, position of demonstrator and salesman for company would be expected. A-l references given and required. Address, Harry T. Johnson, 1213 Emerald Ave., Chicago Heights, 111.

MOTOR FOR SALE—100-horsepower Emerson aero motor. Has not been run 4 hours. In perfect condition. Price. $1,300. Address, Motor, care AERONAUTICS.

FOR SALE—50-horsepower "HF," or Harri-raan, aviation engine, new. $700. This is the same size engine that tbe Harriman Motor Works are charging $1,675 for. Address Box 3. Girard, Kan.

ENGINE FOR SALE—Elbridge water cooled, 22-30 h. p. motor. 9S lbs., new. Address El-bridge, care "Aeronautics."_

"AVIATORS."—No limit to salary: best paid profession to-day; home course by correspondence; trial flights at our aviation Held: employment secured competent aviators; special course to those who do not wish to become aviators.—Dept. B., Chicago School of Aviation, Chicago.

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The Curtiss motor developed from the famous Curtiss motorcycle motor. The most efficient and reliable winter cooled motor for aviation purposes. Terms and particulars on application. All Curtiss aeroplanes equipped with Curtiss power plants.

The Curtiss chassis. Recognized as the strongest, shock-absorbing landing gear for aeroplanes.

The Curtiss control. The famous shoulder eontrol for balancing aileronsand steering wheel for elevator and rudder. The Curtiss control has been widely imitated by leading aero manufacturers testifying to its superiority.

The Curtiss propeller, made in the Curtiss factory. It has stood the test of efficiency.

The Curtiss planes, built in sections, covered on both sides with the finest aeroplane fabric. The Curtiss aeroplane can be assembled by two persons in two hours.

The Curtiss construction,embodies the best workmanship, the frame being made of the finest Oregon spruce laminated for strength. Every wire and turnbuckle is thoroughly tested.

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COTT

AERONAUTICAL

MOTORS

THE ONLY AMERICAN-BUILT MOTOR USED AND ENDORSED BY FOREMOST AVIATORS SUCH AS: CHAS. K. HAMILTON, J. J. FRISBIE, CAPT. THOS. S. BALDWIN, D. MASSON, AND MANY OTHERS.

Represented at International Meet, Belmont Park

MIGHT LETTER

THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY

»n-»..ref«2n?.?reu'"sS'<N 'J""''* . ' C*PLE SERVICE T° THE WORLD

ion.

cceivcd at io:4pm.

18 SF e 21 k. l. via Berkeley

Depot , Santa Barbara Calif Jany let 1910 lall Scott Motor Co.,

Weat Berkeley Calif, lode 25 mlnutea at 3000 feet altitude. Beet congratulatlc ixeellent work of motor, radiator and propeller.

taaeon.

The following telegrams show the excellent results obtained through use of our Type A-2 power plant.

LEGRAPH 1

HT LE ERGRAM

rtlnarporattd) transmits and dilivn this nljht lttt»fnm si

Cor. Market ana Battery

158 OS. AD. KT. 25 night letter 8:14pm SftratfiBarhara, Calif., Jan'y 2nd 1911 Hall Scott Motor Car Co.,

Weat Berkeley, SanFrBnclco, Calif. Kade croae country flight, three thousand feet high, and came down in front Potter Hotel. Everybody piaaaed and many thanks for good »ork on motor.

Complete power plants consisting of motors, radiators and propellers built in our factory. Special attention given to propeller design.

If you are not getting results from the propeller you are using let us figure on one for you.

Catalogue of our motors and accessories sent on request.

Address all communications to

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR COMPANY

818 Crocker Building

San Francisco, California

IN THE

i Our Balloons Made Good

*

*

National Race, Indianapolis, Sept. 17th, 1910

CRESULT: Two Balloons in the International Race, St. Louis, October 17th, 1910. The Only American Made Balloons in this Contest—which proves that we are the Leading Balloon Manufacturers in America—look at our past records.

Largest in America—testing with Air

CHICAGO—9 Competitors—Won both Distance and Endurance

trophies by a big margin. INDIANAPOLIS—6 Competitors, 1st and 3rd prizes. PEORIA—3 Competitors, 1st Prize.

ST. LOUIS—9 Competitors, 1st, 2nd and 4th Money.

CAN YOU BEAT THAT!

How we do it: by using the very best material in the country; building on safe, practical lines, with good workmanship.

AIRSHIPS—AEROPLANES—INSTRUMENTS

FRENCH AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

h. E. honeywell, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.


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