Aeronautics

Volume 8 - No. 1 - 1911 January

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



F. Walsh, flying at Amateur Meet, held by Aero Club of California, Los Angeles Motordrome. Walsh won every event, using 3-cylinder "Featherweight" Elbridge engine.

.merican Amateur Aviators" is a pamphlet describing and illustrating the results attained by amateurs in the United States during 1909 and 1910. Worth keeping, and free for the asking.

LBRIDGE ENGINE CO., 10 Culver Road, Rochester, N. Y.

PARAGON PROPELLERS

+

*

-X +

-X

*

-X -X

Copyright, 1910, by Spencer Heath.

Quartered Wliite Oak with Spruce Interior. 8 ft. diam.,12 to 10 pounds.

I Paragon Propellers Satisfy. VS.^rtT^ 2££

ard designed. They are perfectly balanced, the two blades being exactly alike, even duplicating the grain and color of the wood. They give ample thrust but they are built to fly and they do fly. They keep right on pushing, and do not lose their thrust when they get up in the air.

We are furnishing such well known aviators as Glenn 11. Curtiss, Capt. Thos. Baldwin, Chas. V. Willard, Harry S. Harkness, and many others. Our propellers are also used and spoken of very highly by J. A. D. INIcCurdy and "Bud" Mars of the Curtiss aviators. Mr. Curtiss was so well pleased with the first we sent him that he ordered another immediately by wire for his Gordon-Bennett racer.

You cannot lose on PARAGON PKOPELLKKS. We could not afford to have a dissatisfied customer. Our guarantee of satisfaction is absolute. If you order elsewhere it will u be because you have not yet learned enough about us. Ask any of our customers. Our X prices are about the same as yon would pay for the other kind.

T Get a PAH AGON designed for you now and save time, money and disappointment.

Ask us for a printed blank on which to tell us your reiiuirements.

To OUr Customers* '-et;l,s,leaT noni 5'ou. We like your compliments hut we are more cou-

J

J AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY :: 616 G Street, N.W., Washington, D. C. {

cerned about your complaints, if yon have any. We are only human <o we suppose sometime we will make a miscalculation, and then we want to know about it. If any of you feel that you are not jrettius: full satisfaction in any particular, kindly notify us. We will do the rest.

See our exhibit at fhe office of AERONAUTICS

We WRIGHT FLYER

^TT The aeroplane that has proven itself to be safe, practical and always ready. The only machine built to accommodate two people comfortably. Holder of the World's Record for Slow Flying, Quick Turn and Accuracy of Landing; and American Record for Long Distance Cross Country Flights, Duration, Distance and Altitude.

At the recent Harvard-Boston Meet, at, Atlantic, the Wright Flyer, in competition with BlerioL, Farman, Curtiss and other machines, took first prize in duration, distance, altitude, accuracy of landing, slow flight, and the Hammond Cup for bomb throwing.

Planes, propellers and motors built entirely in our own factory. Write us for terms and delivery date.

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Chicago, 2420 Michigan Av. Kansas City, 1613 Grand Ave. San Francisco, 36-38Van Ness Cincinnati, 807 Main St. Los Angeles. 748 S. Olive St. Seattle, 61 1 E. Pike St. [Ave. Cleveland, 2062 Euclid Ave. New York. 1902 Broadway St. Louis. 3923 Olive St.

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ty..}^.|..|..|M|..]»lMi..i.*4»fr^*^

The FIRST INDUSTRIAL AERO SHOW f

in conjunction with %

11th International Automobile Show

DECEMBER 31st—JANUARY Ttii, 1911

Grand Central Palace, New York

CExhibits are solicited from every aeroplane and accessory manufacturer. Show your product where you get most results. 150,000 people attended last year's Automobile Show. Don't take in the side shows and miss the main show in the big tent. Write at once for particulars, time is very short.

Address, AERONAUTIC DIVISION

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International Automobile Show |

GRAND CENTRAL PALACE :: NEW YORK, N. Y. |

r J

New World's Height Record by Legagneux 10,499 feet\ made in a Bosch Equipped Bleriot. Tabuteau's Flight foi\ Michelin Cup, 290 miles in 6 hours, made in Bosch Equipped^ Farman.

^Aeronautics

NOTES ON THE AEROPLANE PROPELLER

A DISCUSSION OK TDK RESULTS OBTAINED BY M. RI AHOUl'H IVSK V

By Matthew B. Sellers

BY "standing thrust" I mean that obtained when a propeller rotates at a fixed point. A propeller advances when it moves forward while rotating. When the rotation of a propeller is kept constant while the advance accelerates, the thrust decreases. It might seem that this decrease would be in direct proportion to the slip ; but as the propeller moves into undisturbed air the thrust is greater than this.

The experiments made by M. Riabouchinsky at the Koutchino Institute enable us to determine approximately this relation between thrust and slip. Those experiments were

peller. To do this I found by these curves, and tabulated, the thrust for each propeller at each available even number of revolutions for the three wind speeds, then reduced the revolutions to pitch speed ; found the corresponding slip, and divided each thrust by the standing thrust at same speed, thus obtaining the ratio of thrust to slip at constant rotation for each propeller.

It is unnecessary to give these tables here, and I have not space to do so. In the figure, these values are plotted ; the abcissas giving the slip ratio, and the ordinates the thrust ratio, taking the standing thrust as one.

made with propellers one foot in diameter, the pitch being {, 1, 2 and 3 ft. respectively. He does not state the form of blade used, but from what is said elsewhere I infer that the central angle was 18 degrees; the blade segmental and without cambre. The wind tunnel was used with three speeds of air current, viz; 10, 15 and 20 ft. per second.

At each speed the thrust was determined for various speeds of rotation of propeller; and curves plotted, one for each wind speed giving the relation of thrust to revolutions, for uniform advance.

I wish to determine the relation between slip and thrust for a uniform rotation of pro-

Different marks are used to denote the propellers of different pitch and all values except those for the pitch ratio of group themselves along a curved path.

I have found that a curve whose equation is y 2x-x* nearly corresponds to this path (and agrees fairly with the results of my own experiments) . If, therefore, we use this equation, the thrust T| for any given slip S, will be T, = Ts (2S—S2) where T. is the standing thrust of the propeller under consideration, and where the number of revolutions is constant. This, of course, is true only for the form of propeller blade here considered; a curved blade (i. e. with cambre), or one with

a rounded back will give higher values throughout and will give a thrust at 0 slip.

In order to determine the increase in revolutions necessary to maintain a constant thrust while the advance accelerates, I found from the plotted curves, the revolutions producing a constant thrust for the speeds of advance given; then computed the corresponding pitch speeds, and then the slip ratio, and then divided each pitch speed bvthe standing pitch

X,

speed giving the same thrust (i.e. P Vt )■

In Fig. 2, the abscissas give the slip ratio and the ordinates the pitch speed ratio. The

curve there given has the equation y ^

and the revolutions at any given slip, to maintain the thrust constant would be

N,

N.

, where Ns is the standing re-

v 2x— S*

volutions and Ni those at the slip S.

It is seen that P does not occur in this equation, as the values show that the pitch has little (possibly negligible) influence on the rate of change of revolutions.

In applying this formula to practice, it must be remembered that owing to diminishing engine torque and increasing friction and edge resistance, the thrust does not remain constant, but diminishes.

2x-x*

Note:—For convenience, the origin is taken on the ripht. in plotting the curves.

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MY PARIS TO LONDON FLIGHT

By John B. Moisant.

MY Paris to London flight I start) d on my fifth flight in an aeroplane. The fourth lime 1 flew was over Paris with M. Garros.

I got up at ft o'clock and was told that Latham had started for London. My machine was not ready. By four o'clock it was half ivady. My mechanic had asked for a ride, and T told him that at some time 1 would take him up. And this was the time he went up. We left at 5:45 at Issy les Moulineaux and flew across the eity of Paris. Then 1 headed straight hy my compass north by east, one quarter north, and at 7:10 arrived at Amiens, about 90 miles. If a man, however, steered by compass all the time he would never reach his point. When T got my aeroplane exactly on the compass in the direction 1 wished to follow. I looked as far as I could, which was probably ten or fifteen miles. Then I did not use my compass any more but steered exactly for that point. Sometimes I probably went to the north, east or wist, but I made that point.

When I got to that point, which I knew was exactly In line with the city I was making for, then I took another point, fifteen or twenty miles off, until I arrived at Amiens and I was not over five hundred feet to the east,

The next morning 1 left at 7:30, fifteen minutes after Leblanc and Aubrun, for Calais, another 90 miles. There 1 had to steer by the map Leblanc had given me. At 'J:30 I arrived in Calais, and I had never been there before either.

There were many, many people around offering all kinds of assistance, but I told them that what 1 rt ally needid most was some castor oil. The motor will not go without castor oil. I got some gasoline and at 10:4.r> I was ready to make' the trip across the channel. They all tried to persuade me not to attempt it because there was a storm coming, and not to carry a passenger. I said if I never get to London 1 will carry a passenger if he will come with me.

So at 10:45 1 left for England, another place I had never been before, and I steered by com-'' pass. There was supposed to be a steamer to follow me, but remember the steamer makes about ten miles an hour and I made over forty. About five mill's from tho English coast J saw a port with steamers and I supposed it was Dover, the place I was making for. I was really making for Dover and I did not know there was such a place as Dean, so I got off my course ami made for Dean, about live miles off the course. About that time a rainstorm came up (Continued opposite page .M)

THE LIFE AND WORK

(To the majority of people the name Chanute has been associated only with aeronautics. Mr. Chanute was one of the foremost railroad builders of this country. The Kansas City bridge was declared impossible of construction. Mr. Chanute accomplished it. He built the Alton railroad. Following is a short sketch of his life, abridged from "Engineering Xews," X. Y., ISM— Editor.)

Octave Chanute was born in Paris, France, February IS, He was brought to this country in childhood, was educated chiefly in New York City and began the practice of his profession as civil, engineer at an early age.

After having done efficient work in railway construction in New York, Indiana, and Illinois, he became in 1S63 Chief Engineer of Maintenance of Way and Construction of the reorganized Chicago and Alton Railroad, remaining upon that line until 1867.

During this connection, having been invited to submit a design for the proposed Union Stock Yards of Chicago, his plan was selected in competition with a number of others and he built these yards as Chief Engineer. He was also awarded a premium for a competitive design for a bridge across the Missouri River at St. Charles. Missouri. In 1S67 Mr. Chanute went to Kansas City, Mo., as Chief Engineer of the bridge across .the Missouri River at that point. This was the pioneer bridge across the Missouri River, and as the river pilots and riparian dwellers had given this stream a bad reputation, the successful completion of this bridge across it in 1S6S attracted great attention and interest.

Later Mr. Chanute successively became Chief Engineer of the Kansas City, Fort Scott and Gulf, the Kansas City and Santa Fe, the Atchison and Xebraska and the Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston Railroads.

From 1S73 to 1SS3 he was in the service of the Erie Railway as Chief Engineer. During this connection he readjusted the motive power of the road and lessened the grades so that the through freight trains, which averaged eighteen cars when he first became connected with the line, had grown to thirty-five cars when he closed his connection with the road in ISS3, when he removed from New York to Kansas City, in order to look after his personal interests, and to open an otlice as Consulting Engineer.

In this latter capacity he took charge of the construction of the iron bridges during the building of the Chicago, Burlington & Northern Railroad between Chicago and St. Paul in 1SS5, and of those of the extension of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, from Kansas City to Chicago, in 18S7 and 1SSS; the latter involving, besides a number of minor streams, the Missouri Uiver bridge at Sibley, and the Mississippi River bridge at Fort Madison.

In ISS9 Mr. Chanute removed his office to Chi- cago,' where he engaged in promoting the. preservation of timber against decay, by chemical methods.

Mr. Chanute became a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, February 19, 18GS, and has contributed a goodly number of papers to its Transactions.

OCTAVK CIIANUTE'S WORK IX AVIATION By James Means

In October, 1891, there appeared in "The Railroad and Engineering Journal," of New York, the first of a series of articles on "Progress in Flying Machines," written by Mr. Chanute. The series was extended in the next two or three years and in 1894 was published in book form under the above title. It is a volume of over three hundred pages and it tells chiefly of failure. The author, bringing all of his resources as a skilled engineer to bear

OF OCTAVE CHANUTE

OCTAVE (IIAXITK

upon the unsuccessful experiments, analyzed the work done by scores of men and tried "to point out, as much as may be, the causes of failure."

In the preface to the book it is stated that one of the writer's objects in preparing the papers was "To satisfy himself whether, with our present knowledge and appliances, men might reasonably hope to tly through the air." He said that in his opinion "this question can be answered in the affirmative." It meant much to the believers in the possibility of mechanical flight to have the sanction of an engineer of the highest standing given to a discredited line of research.

In IS 1>2 Dr. A. F. Zahm of Notre Dame (Ind.) University, now of Washington, I). C, proposed the holding of an International Conference on Aerial Navigation in connection with the World's Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition of lSfl.l.

In this Dr. Zahm was heartily seconded by Mr. chanute. who was made Chairman of the committee, Dr. Zahm being chosen Secretary. The officers of the World's Congress Auxiliary, of which Mr. C. C. Bonney was president, gave cordial cooperation to the plan.

The Conference took place in the Memorial Art Palace, in Chicago, August 1, 2, 3 and 4, 1S93.

Mr. Chanute presided over the session upon the opening day, the topic for the day being "Scientific Principles."

In opening the Conference, he said:

"It is well to recognize from the beginning that we have met here for a conference upon an unusual subject; one in which commercial success is not yet to be discussed, and in which the general public, not knowing of the progress really accomplished, has little interest and still less confidence."

The paragraph just quoted well shows the status of interest in aerial navigation In 1S93.

(Conti)i ued on page SO)

By Wilbur Wright

BY the death of Mr. O. Chanute the world has lost one whose labors had to an unusual degree influenced the course of human progress. If he had not lived the entire history of progress in flying would have been other than it has been, for he encouraged not only the Wright brothers to persevere in their experiments, but it was due to his missionary trip to France in 1903 that the Voisins, Bleriot. Farman, Deha-grange and Archdeacon were led to undertake a revival of aviation studies in that country, after the failure of the efforts of Ader and the French government in 1S97 had left everyone in idle despair.

Mr. Chanute's own experiments have been quite fullv described in papers written by himself in "The Journal of the Western Society of Engineers." for 1S97, "The Aeronautical Annual," 1S97: "McOlure's Magazine" of June. 1900; "Cassier's Magazine," June, 1901; "Popular Science Monthly." March, 190-1, and in numerous other publications. The grand object of his experiments was the attainment of automatic stability, his belief being that human intelligence would be inadequate to cope with the difficulties encountered in the tumultous aerial seas. Every machine he built had this prime object in view. As he stated in the Cassier's article, referring to his own experiments, "He has confined his endeavors wholly to the evolution of automatic stability." In carrying out this purpose he not only constructed a vast number of small gliders, but also proceeded to the construction of four different types of man-carrying gliders, in addition to the full size Lilien-thai glider which he had constructed to begin with. In the "multiple wing" machine, the wings were mounted on vertical axes so as to swing backward at the tips when struck by a wind gust. The "double-decker" bad an elastically mounted tail which yielded under the pressure of the wind. These machines were built and operated by Messrs. Herring and Avery in 1897. A third type, in which the curvature of the wings from front to rear was automatically variable, was undertaken under, the superintendence of Mr. 10. C. Huffaker in 1901. and partially tested in a small model, but the large machine was never finished. The "multiple wing" machine was rebuilt and tried by Mr. Herring at Wright brothers' camp at Kitty Hawk in 1902, but the results were unsatisfactory. In the same year a fourth method of obtaining automatic stability was tested for him at the same place by Mr. Herring. This was the "oscillating wing" machine built under his instruction by Mr. Lamson. In It the "triple deck" wings were mounted on a horizontal axis and were intended to oscillate as the wind pressure and center of pressure varied. It also failed to give positive results.

On the whole, Mr. Chanute's experiments were rather disappointing to him so far as his main purpose was concerned. As he said in the McClure article: "In my judgment neither of the machines above described is as yet perfected, and I believe it is still premature to apply an artificial motor. This is sure to bring about complications which it is preferable to avoid until the equilibrium has been thoroughly evolved." This view he consistently maintained through all the years of his active work. When, after the experiments of 1S97, a wealthy gentleman of Chicago proposed to furnish the money necessary to construct a motor-driven flying machine, Mr. Chanute courteously but firmly declined the offer.

Mr. Chanute's active experiments closed with the trials of the two gliders above mentioned at Kitty Hawk in 1902. His increasing years, the dilflculty of obtaining satisfactory assistants, and the growing prospect that the efforts of the Wrights to obtain a sufficient control by human intelligence acting through adjustable wings and rudders were the main factors in bringing about this result. On his return from Furope in May, 19o:i. he made a Irin to Dayton and stated to niy brother and myself that after thinking over the flights of the 1902 Wright glider, which he had witnessed at Kitty Hawk, he had come to the conclusion that whatever the final merits of the two systems might be. the first success would bp obtained in all probability by our svstem, i. e human control, rather than i.v his own system! i.e.. automatic control. He then advised us to undertake the application of a motor and was much pleased as well as surprised when we told

him that the designs were already completed for such a machine, and the work of construction well under way.

Although his experiments in automatic stabilitv did not yield results which the world has yet been able to utilize, his labors had vast influence in bringing about the era of human flight. His "double deck" modification of the old Wenham and Stringfellow machines will influence flying machine design so long as flying machines are made. His writings were so lucid as to provide an intelligent understanding of the nature of the problems of flight to a vast number of persons who would probably never have given the matter study otherwise, and not only by published articles, but by personal correspondence and visitation, he inspired and encouraged to the limits of his ability all who were devoted to the work. His private correspondence with experimenters in all parts of the world was of great volume. No one was too humble to receive a share of his time. In patience and goodness of heart he has rarely been surpassed. Few men were more universally respected and loved.

At a general meeting of the Aeronautical Society, held December 1st, 1910, the following resolution was unanimously passed upon the notification of the death of Mr. Octave Chanute, an honored and honorary member of this Society:

"Resolved, that in the death of our esteemed honorary member, Mr. Octave Chanute, we, the members of the Aeronautical Society, as well as all Interested in the art of aviation, have met with a severe and irreparable loss. We recognize Mr. Chanute as practically the founder of the science of aviation who was many years in advance of others, having written and published in 1S94 the book 'Progress in Flying Machines,' which is to-day, after sixteen years, still a standard work of knowledge and information.

"Resolved, further, that this Society has lost one of its most earnest and sincere friends who honored us with many valuable trophies to be competed for under our auspices and favored us with instructive addresses which we shall always hold in grateful memory.

"Resolved further, that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the members of his bereaved family with the heartfelt sympathy of all the members as a slight mark of their respect and sincere gratitude."

Acknowledgment was made by Mr. C. D. Chanute, son of the deceased, and his letter follows:

O. CHANUTE & CO. Mt. Vernon, 111., December 5th, 1910.

"Mr. Hee S. Burridge, First Vice-President,

The Aeronautical Society, New York, N. Y.

My dear Mr. Burridge:

"Will you please accept the appreciation of my sisters and myself, for your kind words of sympathy in our hour of trouble and also for the kind expression of regard toward our father.

"Father passed peacefully away Wednesday morning, November 23d, just falling asleep and never waking up. He suffered absolutely no pain, and was conscious a few minutes before dissolution took place, but his poor body was so worn out that when he fell asleep the machinery simply ran down, and he left us.

"Will you kindly thank the members of The Aeronautical Society for their token of regard, and for their words of comfort to us, as we feel deeply touched for the esteem in which our father was held by the members of the Society.

"Thanking you again for your kindness, I am Yours very truly,

(Signed) C. D. Chanute."

The Aero Club of America appointed a committee to draft a set of resolutions, which will be suitably engrossed and forwarded to Mr. Chanute's family.

THE FALLACY OF THE SCREW PROPELLER

By C. Wesley Howell, Jr.

POSSIBLY the caption of this article may create adverse criticism, and it' so it will have accomplished its purpose, because the discussion which may arise will undoubtedly be of benefit to all interested in the aeronautic art.

The screw thread is essentially a mechanical device or expedient of fixed principle, standard and result, and any deviation or defect in its construction or effect makes it either useless when constructed of metal or other solid material of great resistibility, only partially efficient when employed in the heavier tluid mediums such as water, oil, etc., or of comparatively small efficiency when used in air, which medium has little resistibility, and in setting forth the reasons that have led to the conclusion that the screw propeller theory is not tenable, reference will be made to metallic mediums as the extreme in one case and to free air in the opposite case.

The cutting of correct or efficient screw threads is not a simple operation even when metallic bodies are employed, because the same tool will not cut the same thread in different metals, as is evidenced by the fact that when one desires to tap an internal thread in brass, the tapping size of the hole must be different than for steel, and when one desires to cut an external thread or screw the body or working diameter of the metal must be either larger or smaller for different metals, the reason being that the tool in either ease does not cut the metal cleanly but owing to the different ductile qualities of the metals sets up a distortion of the particles which must have an outlet, the result being that these distorted particles are forced or forged into tilling up the allotted clearance space between the bottom or top of the threading tool forming the "V" or knife edge of the thread.

It may seem absurd to state that with a thread die of given pitch, say ten to the inch, it is possible to cut anything hut that number of threads, but it is true that by canting the die double that number may be cut. but these threads are without character or strength and are incapable of performing useful work. Also under certain conditions, notably when a thread of great length is desired, unless great care is used there is a lack of pitch precision cna slightly more than ten threads per inch may result owing to lateral distortion of the metal and heating of the material which on cooling will contract, drawing the threads closer than the pitch distance.

If the body diameter is greater than the finished size of the thread, the die does not follow pitch lines but acts as a hollow mill and a stripped thread will result. If the body diameter is not large enough to allow for a proper amount of distortion the top of the thread will not form but will be flat with a consequent loss of outline and strength. If the die is not properly aligned in its holder a staggered or "drunken" thread sometimes will result. It will thus be seen that under several conditions a loss of efficiency will result in metallic threads which are analogous to the so-called "slipping" of an aerial propeller.

Therefore it is reasonable to assume that if distortion occurs when cutting a thread in a solid substance of great resistibility, there must be a very great increase of distortion when cutting a thread in such an elastic medium as air, which has little normal resistibility. and that this distortion is analogous to the disturbing of the air by a rotating propeller.

Host investigators of aerial propellers arrive at the conclusion that the less a propeller disturbs the air the greater its efficiency and that a theoretical propeller of infinitely minute thinness and weight would travel through the air without disturbing it, its exact pitch distance when rotated one revolution, if we disregard the fiictinnal surfaces of the blades, but as it is impossible to construct such a propeller or avoid frictional surfaces, the problem must be resolved with a propeller constructed for practical work which must necessarily have thickness, weight, area and frictional surfaces. Such a propeller will set up disturbances in the air which practically preclude it being considered as a screw because these disturbances influence or distort the air and it does not offer the necessary n sistibility for cutting a screw thread.

It is well known that aerial screws never travel their pitch distance during one revolution, which is easily determined by dividing the distance

traveled by the number of revolutions per minute and the loss in pitch distance is analogous to a stripped metallic thread.

Let us take for example a propeller of lit t't. diam. and 10 ft. pitch. Theoretically it will travel 10 ft. in one revolution and will aft on a column of air 10 ft. in diam. and 10 ft. long. In practice it will really travel i> ft., the loss being 40 per cent., and will therefore only act on a column of air 10 ft. diam. and 6 ft. long. Now the propeller blades, if the screw theory is correct, are cutting two threads or helices in this air column which, owing to the thickness of tin1 blades and stripping caused by tin ir not traveling on their pitch angle, are of greater width than the design of the blades calls for. Tin se helices represent displaced air which also disturb the surrounding air for a considerable distance, which we may safely assume to be at least S in. each side of the blade.

This may be demonstrated iliagranimatioa My as in Pig. 1. The shaded portions represent Undisturbed air, the two central lines indicating tin-area disturbed by the thickness of the propeller blades, plus the loss of pitch efficiency. Tin-shaded portion in front of this area is the disturbed area caused by air banking and the ana in back is a partial vacuum caused by the forward travel of the propeller, and as we cannot reasonably assume that there is a sharp line of demarcation between the undisturbed and disturbed

rm, l,

air such as the drawing shows wi must assume that even the area shown us undisturbed is permeated with and subject to eddy currents ami is more or less attenuated.

A column of air 10 ft. diam. and i! ft. long-will contain 451.24 cu. ft. of air weighing SK.O'.i lbs. Now, owing to thickness of propeller blade, loss in angular efficiency (slipping), banking of the air in front and partial vacuum in the rear about two-thirds of the air is disturbed, b-avinu one-third, or 12.0.'l lbs., to force the propelh ;• to follow pitch lines. Since the propeller is gi\-ing a forward thrust of say but 24 n lbs., it is not reasonable to assume that 12.03 lbs. will uffi r any resistance whatever to such a thrust, but oi the contrary whatever resistance it has is brokt i up and the air itself carried away with the air expelled by the propeller. Even if we assume that the entire contents of the column of aii-is acted upon we cannot consider that its 3(i.o:i

lbs. of weight will offer resistance enough to the propeller to enable it to force an aeroplane weighing from 500 lbs. and upward through the air, by a threading or screw thrust.

It is obvious that the smali amount of air space left undisturbed offers little resisting medium to the propeller and that being so attenuated it is analogous to a stripped metallic thread. The density of a metallic body offers sufficient resistance to compel the tool to travel its pitch distance thus forming a useful thread or screw, while such an elastic medium as air when attenuated as shown cannot compei a propelier to follow "its pitch lines, and the screw theory is not therefore tenable.

But a propeller having angular formation of blade surfaces does form a dynamic air structure which may be developed in theory and directly compared with practice.

by reason of the propeller forces and then provide means for directing the whole over a given course.

In Fig. 2 is shown a sectional view of such a mechanically created cyclonic air cone. The propeller is traveling in the direction of the large! arrow. In its forward movement it is drawins in or absorbing air from the area before it anc^ at its periphery, and, having condensed such air it expels it in the form of a cone. Now, in absorbing the air from the area about its periphery, a partial vacuum is created and the air loss is immediately replaced by new air through atmospheric pressure, shown by the vertical lines with curved ends, thus creating a substantially right angled opposing force to the air cone and offers an abutment of great value. The force ofi the cone current being greater than this opposing force, finally overcomes it, and absorbs it thus

The action of a propeller on the air is analogous to an auger bit entering wood, in that it cuts into the medium, displaces it by its angular formation and gives direction to the displaced medium. In the case of the propeller, the displaced medium (air) is caused to impinge substantially inert air with resultant reactionary propulsion and thus perform useful work, while the auger bit displaces the medium (wood), in the form of chips which represent the useful work. Good design of the tool in either case is essential.

The efficiency of a propeller is due to its ability to grip the air, condense it, form it into an air cone and give to it volume, weight and velocity, the sum of these being a mechanically created, cyclonic force, which projected against substantially inert air propels the aeroplane at the necessary speed to exert elevating and sustaining power.

Smoke and vapor experiments tend to prove that a propeller draws or absorbs air from a space around it substantially as shown in Fig. 2. This air is condensed and takes the form of a truncated cone with a siightly rotating movement and is really a modified cyclone as the action and effect are almost identical. A natural cyclone takes the form of a rapidly moving, swirling, rone shaped air current and has sufficient dynamic force to disturb or set in motion bodies of greater weight than itself, and, substituting the aeroplane for such a body we may set it in motion by mechanically creating a cyclone

adding to the density of the air cone and increasing its efficiency when it impinges the substantially inert air.

Such a cyclonic air cone must not be interfered with in performing its function or its efficiency wiil be affected. This may be demonstrated by the fact that (as many aviators state), it requires more power or thrust to get an aeropiane off the ground than to sustain it when once in the air and the reason is that when an aeroplane is at a reasonable height the cyclonic air cone is free from surface interference while when it is on the ground the lower portion of the cone strikes the surface and the forces are diverted, partiaily destroying its cyclonic action and setting up negative conditions. It is also true that when two aeroplanes are traveling in close proximity, one above the other, there is great danger to the aeroplanes when their cyclonic air cones comes into contact with each other. This< condition has been termed "propeller wash" and' in several instances has resulted in fatalities.

The cyclonic air cone theory may be demonstrated with reasonable accuracy if we take known conditions of aeroplane travel and compare them with known data of air currents (wind) and such data may be found in the admirable lecture on air currents and winds given before the Aeronautical Society by Mr. James Scarr, district fore-, caster of the New York Weather Bureau, andi published in the society's Bulletin No. 1. This'

of course is a secondary standard and is employed because of the apparent impossibility of securing a direct standard owing to propeller action not being visible, but it would seem to be safe in assuming that if we know the actual pressure of an air current traveling at a known speed, on a known area we have perhaps the best comparable standard or constant obtainable, because the two problems are so closely allied.

In the formation of the cyclonic air cone the area described by the rotating propeller will give a disc pressure of unvarying size and the area of this disc through its square feet supplies a true constant from which we may measure the propeller efficiency in pounds pressure. It is obvious that if a propeller exerts a thrust or pressure per square foot of its disc constant the effect is identical with the thrust or pressure of a wind current on a disc area of corresponding size.

For comparison let us assume an aeroplane traveling with a speed of 39 miles per hour driven by a propeller having a diameter of 7 ft. which gives a thrust of 210 lbs. These figures are averages which exist in aeroplanes now flying and will serve to exemplify the theory of cyclonic air cone propulsion.

Now the disc area of a 7-ft. rotating propeller is 38.4S5 sq. ft. and is giving a thrust of 240 lbs. Referring to known data of wind pressures we

FOREIGN H

LONGEST 2-MAN CROSS-COUNTKY FLIGHT

ETAMPES, France, Nov. 2 6.^-fci^ut. Delage and Lieut. Maillols (Farman) flewf 125'/j miles in 3 h.

min., from here, around * JBleris, dropping «, letter, and return, without a stop. Competing for Weiller prize for French officers.

BUC, Nov. 27.—Aviator Laurens, with his wife as passenger in his R. E. P. made new passenger speed-records for distances up to 80 kil., and covering 79 kil. in the hour. A list of all records w'ill be published in the nextisswer^/e*^-"'/ TWO KILLED IN ONE-MACHINE

ROME, Dec. 3.—Engineer^Cammarota, an Italian army officer, and his passenger, a private, were killed at the CeiUocelleiniTitany field in a Farman biplane.

GERMAN AVIATOR CARRIES FOUR PASSENGERS ,1OHANNISTHAL, Germany, Dec. 7.—Aviator Brunsuber circled the field here twice to-day, carrying four passengers with him, in a Farman biplane.

Dec. 5.—Mdlle. Dutrieu (Farman) now holds the female record, having beaten the 53-minute flight recently made by Mdlle. Marvingt. She was up 1 hr. 9 min., officially, covering 60.S kil. Mdlle. Jane Herven (Bleriot) is another woman holding pilot license, the fifth on record. s1

PAU, France, Dec. 9.—Legagneux (Blepfot) mad« a new world's altitude record of 10,49*' feet.

PARIS, France, Dec. 10.—Capt. Bellertger, French army aviator, broke all speed records, flying from Vinccnnes, 100 miles, in 70 minutes, an average speed of SO.5 miles an hour. The flight was made at an altitude of 4,000 feet. This is, a* yet, unofficial, and seems almost improbable.

FARMAN MAKES LONGEST FLIGHT / '*V ETAMPES, France, Dec. IS.—Henry Erfrman, competing for the Michelin cup, made a/remarkable flight of eight hours and tjiirteuti minutes. Owing to a fierce north wind, however, his progress was slow, and he covered only 4££ kilometres (2S7 miles against 465»^kilometres. made by Mauric* Tabuteau on October 2S, in a %mNar competition.

Farman deceived by the applftuse1 of the spectators, believed that he had beaten the distance record, and descended. He was greatly, disappointed to find that he had not equalled the former record.

DOVER. England, Dec. IS.—C. G. White, who won the International race at Belmont, wrecked his machine in a trial flight for the Baron de Forest $20,000 prize for the longest flight across the Channel in 1910, by an Englishman, in an English-built machine.

A second competitor for the prize, Thomas Sop-with, fared better than White. He left East-church, Sheppey Island, at 8:15 o'clock in the morning, crossed from Dover to Calais and de-

find that air currents having a speed of 39 miles per hour will exert 6.18 lbs. pressure per square foot. Taking an area of 38.485 sq. ft. the pressure exerted will be 237.84 lbs., which while not balancing exactly the thrust of the propeller giving 240 lbs. is near enough to indicate a very close relation between the two, the discrepancy being less than 1 per cent. (Pitch or angular conformation of the propeller blades is disregarded, it being assumed that the pitch of angle is properly designed for the motive power to which it is more closely related.)

Power or motor speed is necessary to. rotate the propeller at the required speed for a given number of pounds thrust or pressure and the angular formation of the blades requires a nicety of design that so far has only heen attained by cut and try method, there being no reliable data to assist, but the disc constant offers a starting-point of great accuracy inasmuch as it is the real source of thrust. It is reasonable to assume therefore that when used in combination with known data even of a secondary standard, a careful, systematic application of deduction or cut and try method will result in increased efficiency until a true constant is found. The writer holds no brief for the cut and try method but believes it to be the short cut to practical perfection, and when all is said and done the wrorld's inventions have been developed in this way.

APPENINGS

first time that a British made aeroplane has crossed the Channel, and, in addition, it is a record flight for distance under the conditions provided.

On November 26 he made the best distance yet for the British Michelin $2,500 prize, 107% miles, time up 3h. 12 min., the English duration record.

The Farman biplane purchased by the British War Office, has successfully passed the tests imposed. The second British army machine, a Paul-han, also made successful flights.

The Austrian government has -decided to order 3 Austrian-built machines. They will be required to fly 2 hours at an average speed of 44 m.p.h., and be capable of being taken down and packed on a motor-wagon within 1 hour, and re-erected in less than 2 hours.

In the course of a lecture in Paris the other day M. Soreau said that taking all countries the number of licensed pilots was about 500; the A. C. of France alone has issued 271 certificates, and the percentage of persons killed while engaged in flying was only six. M. Soreau pointed out that in order to estimate the risks the distances covered must be taken into account, and taking the reasonable aggregate of 125,000 miles for all the aeroplanes in the world, it worked out to one fatal accident for 4,375 miles.. This figure included accidents with experimental machines.—"Flight."

scended at Beaumont, B Wright biplane.

Sopwith completed hi under three and one

lm. He used a Hpward \

miles i just lis is\the

The French Aerotechnical Institute at St. Cyr, founded by Henry Deutsch. which he has endowed with $100,000, is finished. The site covers an area of 73,000 square yards with level ground on all sides. _

In fitting a Gnome engine to a Bleriot XI, but little change is made. It is simply an enlargement of the head end to take the spider which holds the engine. The engine shaft is set at the same angle. In the passenger carrying Bleriots, with the fan tails, the engine shaft is tilted slightly downward. In this case there is an extra framework out beyond the usual head of the machine, which incloses the motor. When machines are set up again after coming from the factory there is the balancing to be done. Oftentimes it i* necessary to remove the tail wheel and substitute a curved skid to lighten the rear end. It will b« noticed that some Bleriots, in pictures, fly with the elevator at a slight angle to keep the tail up. -

To those who seem to think an aeronautic magazine is an hitherto undiscovered gold mine, it may be of interest to learn from a letter of Mr. O. Chanute's that Nadar, a famous Frenchman who recently died, started an aero publication and issued 100,000 copies, obtaining 43 paying subscribers. This was "going some." Some other and more recent aero publications have done almost as well.

Harry M. Horton

IN equipping an aeroplane with wireless apparatus one is immediately confronted by the problem of constructing a light, yet powerful transmitter and of so arranging the circuits that the vibrations of this miniature apparatus may be of sufficient strength to be of service. The entire "Aviation" set weighs but thirty pounds, and consists of: First, the power plant, a small compact storage battery that has an actual ampere hour capacity of sixty and a voltage of six; a high frequency coil that weighs but 12 pounds; a helix with two small condenser tubes mounted in parallel and the transmitting key.

In our first trial at Sheepshead, the key was mounted upon the steering wheel in such manner that Mr. McCurdy did not have to move his hand from the wheel in order to transmit a message. The instruments Were connected in such manner as is best known to those practiced in the wireless art, but much to our chagrin and disappointment we received no inelligenee from our "air" station whatever. After using many different forms of "hook ups" it oeeurred to us that the wire guys or stays were preventing the transmitter from oscillating truly; so in our next attempt we tried using the machine itself, disconnecting the one side of the main circuit and connecting the stays instead and in letting the other side fall below the machine. Success was immediate. Although this arrangement was successful from a wireless standpoint, we were brought up standing on account of the aviator receiving severe shocks eaeli time the transmitter was operated if, by chance, he came in contact with any metal parts of the machine. A way was finally worked out, however, to make all of the stays on the machine, the engine, tanks, in fact all metal parts, act as part of the oscillating system. The aviator's levers being connected thereto and uninsulated, and being firmly grasped in his hands, the oscillations were actually passing through his body each time the transmitter was operated, but inasmuch as I he other side of the oscillating system was carefully insulated, he experienced no ill effects.

During our 1 lanimonilsport series of experiments we used three tiny steel cables, heavily galvanized, fastened lo the top of the shed and fastened out-

ward by small liner guys. The height is about .10 ft., though each wire on account of its horizontal "V" shape was GO ft. in length.

Our new receiver, (specially constructed by tin' Wireless Specialtii s Company of New York," consists of a very small loose couple, a set of head telephones and the "l'ericon," all nested in such manner that the entire set is but 4x4 in. and weighs but three pounds. In testing the new receiver the first morning it arrived, we were not a little pleased in being able to pick up Buffalo station, 142 miles distant, and with high mountains surrounding us on all sides.

The only change we made in our transmitter, from that used at Sheepshead, was a new helix giving us a greater range and a longer steel cable similar to the one described for receiving was tripped or thrown overboard after the machine took the air.

AVe have been "playing" in I-lammondsport that we were working in war limes, and that we were actually out in the held confronted by hostile forces. Our receiving wires have been kept at such height as is easily thrown up by the use of small masts, such as our Signal Corps are now using for their portable sets. The aeroplane shed is "headquarters," and the biplane is sent out from there to make observations of the enemy's fortifications and report the while.

So far our tests have been successful beyond our own expectations, clear and loud signals coming in from the "air" station no matter where she has gone, and because of the strength of the signals that have been received from our air station over the distances which we have now tried, we are led to believe that a proper war machine with the wireless apparatus built therein as an integral part will be able to transmit to and receive intelligences from headquarter stations any distance the aeroplane scout would be liable to be sent in times of war.

The writer wishes to thank Mr. Curtiss, who gave us one of his newest biplanes for these experiments. Much praise is due Mr. J. A. D. Mc-Curdy, who made many hazardous and difficult flights under the most adverse conditions, solely in the furtherance of this new phase of the wireless art.

Wright Altitude Kule

Along with the aeroplane "level" designed, but unpatented by the Wright brothers, is the yardstick altitude rule. This is not exactly accurate, but close enough for general purposes for fair altitudes.

An ordinary yard-stick is taken and on it is attached a slide having two pointers, the latter set just an inch apart. The end of the rule is placed to the eye when the machine is directly overhead, and the slide moved up or down until the wings can be sighted just within the two points. The planes are. approximately. 10 feet wide, and if one

^.....- i

multiplies this constant by the number of inches the pointer is away from the eye. it will give the altitude in feet. The accuracy of the measurement depends entirely upon sighting properly and having the machine directly over head. For very high altitudes, the slide is also used with the pointers a half-inch apart, instead of 1 inch, in which case one multiplies by !>0 in measuring a Wright machine.

EXPERIMENTS WITH AEROPLANE WIRELESS

By Harry M. Horton.

ADEVICE for measuring the thrust of a screw propeller has been designed and patented by A. Clement. In this, the measuring instrument Is connected with the propeller shaft by means of a rod arranged inside the driving shaft and the propeller shaft. The shaft A of the propeller 15 is hollow and rotates in ball-bearings constituted by a grooved inner ring a and an outer ring c which is plane so that the balls li do not resist movement in a direction parallel with the shaft A. The shaft A is connected to a hollow shaft li driven from the driving shaft O by pinion F and gear-wheel G. The connection between the shafts A and I) is by means of the two sleeves H, keyed on the shaft A, and 1 keyed on the shaft li, which sleeves are provided with a number of arms d between which, in longitudinal grooves c, are interposed balls f which transmit the motor couple, but are unable to retain the shaft in the longitudinal direction. The rod J, extending through the shafts D and A, rests at one end In a ball-bearing secured to the shaft A and at the other is attached to the liquid dynamometer K communicating with a pressure gauge 31.

In America, the simple method is to tie the aeroplane to a tree or post with a "spring balance," introduced between the machine and the post, reading direct in pounds.

speed of the whirling maintained constant. The speed of rotation of the propeller shaft is then gradually increased by the regulator at the observing table until the thrust of the propeller Is sufficient to balance the pull of the spring. When this condition is reached, the propeller shaft moves back on the link motion through a small distance, which is recorded by an axial movement of the pencil on the drum. On removing the paper from the drum, the circumferential motion of the pencil is measured, and the torque corresponding to the given thrust deduced. For convenience in showing when the desired thrust has been reached, the lever of the link motion is provided with stops, which, by making the necessary contacts, light a red or green lamp mounted on the whirling table.

In the National Physical Laboratory of the British Government, the propeller-testing device is mounted on the arm of a "whirling table," 60 feet diameter. This table can be run at any speed corresponding to a speed of the propeller-testing mechanism of 10 to 60 miles an hour. Power is transmitted through wires along the rotating arm to tiie propeller-testing motor.

The propeller mechanism, which is shown in the second illustration, is designed so that the torque on the propeller shaft, due to a given thrust, is recorded on a drum. For this purpose the ball bearings which carry the propeller shaft are supported by a link motion which allows a small horizontal movement of the shaft, the motion of which is controlled by the spring Si. The pulley P which drives the shaft is mounted on the bracket B, and transmits motion to the shaft through the outer easing of the oil dashpot D P, and the coiled spring S2. On the circumference of the dashpot casing is mounted a small lever, at the extremity of which is fixed a peneil which is in contact with the paper on the drum fixed to the propeller shaft. The extremity of the propeller shaft is fitted to the armature of a small generator G, so that the speed of rotation can be deduced from the indications of a voltmeter on the observing table. In an actual test the tension of the spring Si is set t" a given value, and the

IN view of the absence of precise data regarding the efficiency of various propellers for airships and aeroplanes, it is gratifying to learn that the Vickers Company have erected at their works at liarrow-in-Furnoss (England), a special apparatus for making practical tests of such propellers. The well-known attitude of the flrtn towards experimental research gives every retison for expecting that the experiments will be interesting in their scientific aspect, and profitable from a national standpoint, since 1hey will afford data of importance in connection with the design of such airships as the firm build for the British Navy. It is further important to note that with characteristic solicitude for the advancement of science generally. Messrs. Vickers will place the apparatus at the disposal of investigators, so that any type of propellers may lie tested. Briefly

MEASURING PROPELLER THRUST

stated, the apparatus consists of a double canti^ lever. 1G6 ft. in length from end to end, the longer arm of the cantilever being 110 ft. The cantilever is mounted at the center on a ballbearing in a cast-iron column, and the propeller, which is fitted at one end and driven from a 100 h. p. electric motor, revolves the cantilever arm at any predetermined speed, ranging mi to 70 miles an hour at the outer extremity. In the center of the arm there is a recording station, where all the results are carefully recorded, and the efficiency of any given type of propeller accurately deduced.

The cantilever is of steel construction, accurately balanced and suspended in such a manner that there is the minimum of friction or vibration. The point to which the suspension-rods converge is a steel bracket, to which is fastened a steel tube constructed of rolled-steel plates, butt-jointed and riveted. At the head of this tube is a ball bearing which supports the entire weight of the moving portion of the structure, a guide for the bottom end being supplied by four horizontal rollers carried on cast-iron brackets bolted to the lower end of the steel tube, and rolling ou a turned belt on the column. The cantilever arm

is mechanically recorded in the observation station, it has been found from experience that the thrust can be accurately measured to within one per cent of a total thrust of 50U pounds. The gear is made reversible, so that the efficiency of the propellers can be tested for going astern.

Provision has also been made for attaching a gondola to the platform ahead of the propeller, so that the results obtained from the machine may be relied upon as being exactly similar to those which will prevail when the propeller is placed on an airship astern of the gondola. P>y this means the exact position in the ship is closely imitated.— Engineering, London.

Safety in Aeroplanes

To the Editor :—

So many aviators are meeting death or serious injury by falls in aeroplanes that 1 venture to suggest this possible remedy : Let the aviator always sit on top of the biplane or monoplane, so that in case of accident no part of the machine will fall on top of him, but rather act as a cushion

plan

is itself built up of steel angles, and at the center there is a covered-in observation station which contains the 100 h. p. motor as well as the recording instruments. At the extreme end of the longer arm, 110 ft., from the center, there is a steel platform carrying a bracket and bevel-gear for driving the propeller, the power being transmitted from the motor to this gear to a line of shafting. The opposite end of Ihe arm has a sheet-iron ballast tank at a radius of r>G ft, by means of which it is possible lo accurately balance the whole structure.

All the conditions are exactly similar to those of a ship running in a straight line through the air, there being, we are informed, a method of compensating for the circular motion of the propeller, so that the proportion of t he propeller blade nearest the pivot or center column is prevented from traveling less rapidly than the outer portion. The propelling power is arranged so that the reyolulions of the propeller may lie carried from r>0O to over 1,000' revolutions' per minute, and the speed of the propeller through the air can be regulated by means of resistance screens to conform to the conditions for which il may have been designed, which speed may reach, if necessary, 70 miles per hour.

It will be recognized that as the propeller traverses a circular course, the wind and other causes of resistance counterbalance each other. A system of accurately measuring the thrust of the propeller is included in the design of the bracket and gear, the propeller shaft being allowed lo move forward against a spring, a movement which

to help break his fall, and so that he will not become entangled in the wreckage and drowned when the machine "lands" on the water. By placing the engine and other weight a little lower the effect of the aviator being on top of the machine would be easily counteracted. Then I would arrange a parachute somewhat like a folded umbrella, only larger and with the hole in Ihe center required to keep the device from swaying, with a pole extending up a few feet above the aviator's head, being attached to a brace under his shoulders, and Ihe bare framework consisting of a hexagonal frame with braces, all extending around the pole above his head; the fabric to be in eight V-shaped strips, say of silk, wrapped around or roiled up inside the hexagonal sections of ihe frame tubing, the whole being arranged to open—or, ralher, close up instantly with springs drawing the fabric from the rolls at the rim to the iiole in the center, where there would lie a very small rim, and the pressing of a button by the aviator being sutlieient lo release every spring at once instantly. This parachute would break the fall, and except for Ihe slight danger of becoming entangled in his aeroplane, it would generally save the aviator's life, even though the machine were smashed, which would occur anyway. A parachute could also doubtless be made dirigible, and the aeronaut Nadal claimed that it is possible to steer a parachute by pulling down the cords on the side in Hie direction it is desired lo go.

Livormore, Cnl. LXmiou (..'. Srn.i..

AERONAUTICS January, wn

24-HOUR NON-STOP AERO ENGINE RUN

THE recent 24-hour run of an English aeroplane engine, under rigid rules, in competition tor the Alexander prize, ought to be a great inspiration to American engine builders.

Not a single American aeroplane engine concern has ever had a test made by any official body in competition. The Automobile Club of America, some time ago, announced a thousand dollar prize and, we are informed now, that three entries have been received, but whether or not from aero engine makers we do not know.

A duplication of this 24-hour run in America would be of the utmost value to aeroplane builders and users as well as to the makers of engines, whether winners in the competition or not. Aeronautics would like to see a series of competitions of this kind; or, if not competitions, similar tests of the various engines made in this country.

A most complete set of rules and conditions were devised by the committee in charge of this test and a synopsis was printed in American Aeronautics of February, 1910. The full text was published in British •'Aeronautics" of January, 1910.

AWARD IX ALEXANDER MOTOR COMPETITION

The prize in the Alexander motor competition, in England, as the tests were not complied with, was not awarded, but Mr. P. Y. Alexander, the donor, gave the Green engine concern $500, as a prize for the engine's good showing, and the Aerial League is giving a silver medal. The rules were drawn up by the English governmental body, "Advisory Committee for Aeronautics," in conjunction with the Aerial League and Mr. Alexander, whose financial aid in behalf of the art has been extended in America as well as England, her colonies and other countries.

Six engines originally entered, but only three were delivered by the date named—October 1S-19 —the Wolseley, Humber and Green. Two of the engines failed to complete the 24-hours' run, and were not subjected to the further tests. The third engine, the Green, maintained a mean power of 31.5 h.p. Further tests were made with this engine. The tests of this engine, when tilted, were made at IS h.p., instead of at full load.

DESCRIPTION OF ENGINE General.—This engine has four separately mounted cast-steel cylinders, machined inside and out, of 105mm. bore, with a stroke of 120 mm. The water jacket consists of a thin copper helmet, the joint with the cylinder at its lowest end being by a rubber ring fitting into a groove in the cylinder, so that the expansions of cylinder and helmet are indeprn lent. The cylinders are mounted on an aluminum crank case, the holding-down bolts being carried through to serve as supports for the crank-shaft bearings.

Valves.—The valves are of the mushroom spring closed type, in detachable cases. Each valve is enclosed within a small dome, having an orifice through which the valve is actuated by the end of a short tappet pin.

The cam shaft is carried in bearings in a small oil-tight horizontal casing, divided into halves, and is rotated by an encased vertical spindle situated in front of the engine. This spindle is driven by a pair of worm-wheels from the crankshaft. The rocking levers are pivoted in extensions of the cam-shaft case, their striking ends being provided with adjusting screws, and the end3 operated by the cams with rollers.

Carburetor,—This has no float chamber, and Its action is independent of the inclination of the engine. It is of the single jet type, and has automatic air control. - Ignition.—High tension magneto.

Cooling.—The engine is water cooled, circulation by gear pump.

Lubrication.—Main oil channel is cast solid with the crank case and, from this, oil is forced by a small gear pump through leads at right angles communicating directly with each of the hollow columns through which the holding-down bolts pass, and thence to the main bearings and crank shaft, the latter being hollow. By this system, the use of separate pins is dispensed with.

Bearings.—Crank shaft is provided with bearings between each throw, and is slightly offset from the center line of the cylinders. The ball-race is designed to be used with either a propeller or a tractor.

Weight of engine alone, 219 pounds.

RESULTS OF TRIALS

After an hour's run, with ignition trouble, the test was actually started, and continued making approximately 31.5 b.h.p., at 1,213 r.p.m. The only attention to the engine during this period was the addition of 42 pints of oil, 17 hours after the commencement of the trial, and an additional 21 pints 22 hours after commencement.

In other tests, the maximum h.p. which could be maintained for 7 minutes was determined after the completion of the 24-hour run, without any overhauling, except grinding the valves. The h.p. obtained was 36.4 at 1,390 r.p.m.

To test the effect of the gyroscopic action of the propeller, a couple of 50 foot-pounds in a vertical plane were applied to the motor shaft for three minutes, while the engine was running, but no effect on the speed and torque could be detected.

To determine whether the engine would work satisfactorily when tilted about an axis transverse to the shaft, two runs of an hour each were made on the engine when tilted at an angle of 15 degrees, first one end, and then the other end, being uppermost. The competitors did not wish to run their engines at full load during this test, and maintained the b.h.p. at approximately IS throughout both trials. The engine ran steadily in both cases, but it was noticed that the exhaust was decidedly smoky, apparently indicating over-lubrication.

The general steadiness and freedom from vibration of the engine when running, were so marked that it was not considered necessary to test It when running and placed on elastic supports.

On the completion of the trials, the engine was dismantled, and the working parts thoroughly examined. Very little wear could be detected in the crank shaft and connecting-rod bearings, and the state of the cylinders and valves appeared to be quite satisfactory. The ball races of the thrust bearing at the propeller end of the crank shaft were, however, considerably worn. In the crank-shaft bearings one of the aluminum caps was cracked right through for about one-third of its length. It was not certain that this crack had originated during the National Physical Laboratory tests, as there was some evidence that It existed before these trials began, but it appeared probable that the crack had become larger during the tests. In the case of one of the connecting rods, it was found that the sleeve inside the small end of the rod had rotated, so that the oil-way to the pin was blocked up and, further, the gudgeon pin had moved sideways and was rubbing against the sides of the cylinder.

The Green engine made a gross run of 24 hours, stopping once for 10 minutes, making net run of 23 hours 50 minutes. Weight of engine alone, 219 pounds. Moment of inertia of flywheel in footpound units, 0.26. Mean speed. 1,212 r.p.m. Mean b.h.p., 31.5. Water carried, 3S pounds. Water evaporated, 3 pounds. Gasoline per h.h.p. per hour, 0.503 pounds. Oil per b.h.p. per hour 0.2S2 pounds. Gross weight engine with oil. fuel, cooling water and containing vessels for a 6-hour run, 431.6 pounds. Weight of engine alone per mean b.h.p., 6.96 pounds. Gross weight per b.h.p. for 6-hour run, 13.71 pounds. The highest b.h.p. reading was 37.1 h.p. at 1,470 r.p.m. In the test of the engine with moment of 50 foot-pounds applied to crank shaft in a vertical place to represent gyroscopic action of the propeller In steering, lasting 3 minute*, no apparent effect on speed or torque was recorded.

No starling devices were supplied to any of the engines, so that for the purpose of starting the dynamo was connected to the Laboratory mains and used as a motor. No difficulty was experienced in starting.

The Wolseley engines made net runs of 3 hours 2 minutes, and 15 hours 23 minutes, respectively, maintaining mean speeds of 1,445 and 1,420, delivering mean b.h.p 36.2 and 34.S. Total weight of power plant, 453.2 and 457.2 pounds. Neither Wolseley nor Humber took part in the special tests.

The Humber made a net run of llVa hours, maintained mean speed of 1,230 r.p.m., delivering mean b.h.p. 37.S, total weight power plant, 472.9 pounds. This engine is a 4 cylinder, water cooled, cast-iron cylinders, 110 mm. by 120 mm. The Wolseley has 1 cast-iron cylinders 95 mm. by 140 mm., water cooled.

AERONAUTICS AND WAR

By Lieut.-Col. W. A. Glassford.

{Continued from the December number)

It may be observed that the spherical balloon still remains, in spite of all recent progress in aeronautics, the most appropriate machine for reaching high altitudes in the atmosphere, and furthermore, there are as yet no indications of any developments in this line which will enable us to replace the spherical balloon for this purpose. The spherical balloon, so far as we are able to judge at present, will keep its place undisturbed in aerial navigation. It is already capable of rising to heights far beyond that in which man can live, even with the aid of oxygen carried along in a sack for the purpose of supplementing respiration.

Although the spherical balloon is capable of reaching great altitudes, its movements can be governed only in a vertical direction. It was early sought to remedy this limitation in the control of the movements of the balloon. In order to accomplish this, balloons were provided with sails and with screw propellers, even with oars. The shape of the gas bag was changed from a spherical one to the elongated variety which we now see used in the dirigible balloon. Mechanical motive power of a kind available for this purpose, however, was absolutely wanting in that epoch. It was only possible to turn the propellers by hand; and, as this did not furnish sufficient power, one ingenious inventor proposed to bring down electricity from the upper stratum of the atmosphere by means of a wire attached to a smaller balloon, and through this electricity he proposed to derive in some way the power necessary to turn his propellers. Many were result. The invention of the steam engine did not bring the solution of the question, principally on account of the great weight of the boiler. Nevertheless with improvements in this mechanism and with a special construction for the purpose, we find Giffard in 1852 attempting to direct an elongated balloon by means of a propeller worked by a 3 h. p. steam engine, using coke as a fuel. On the advent of the gas engine, we find attempts to use it as a motive power, deriving the gas used as a fuel from the balloon itself. But the earlier forms of the explosion engine were developed on the principle of having capacious cylinders with pistons connected directly to the driving shaft. Such a system requires great weight for a given horse power and the experiment did not prove a success. The development of the dynamo immediately suggested its use as a motive power in the direction of balloons. But in this new engine as in the preceding, we find the apparatus encumbered with too much weight, as it was necessary to carry with it a very heavy storage battery. In spite of this, some encouraging work was accomplished by its use; balloons were directed

by this means to a limited extent in calm weather in short voyages.

We now come to the most recent accomplishments in the endeavor to solve the great question of control over the horizontal movements of balloons. Recent advances in this direction are due to the development of the light explosion motor used in the automobile. This more modern explosion engine differs from the gas engine, its predecessor, in the very important particular so necessary for balloon work; that is, in its being many times lighter for a given horse power than its predecessors. This engine is constructed with small cylinders and works at great speed, which speed is geared down before the power is transmitted to the driving shaft. Its mode of action would be more or less aptly illustrated by conceiving the motive power to start at the spindle of a spinning wheel and working in the opposite direction, transmitting the power to the big wheel. Working in this way but little power is required for each turn of the spindle, but the sum total of the power in this case depends on the speed with which the spindle is turned. The speed is attained by small explosions rapidly succeeding each other. An engine working on this principle is very much lighter for a given horse power than any yet produced, and recent advances in the development of aeronautics have been directly due to this gain in power for a given weight of mechanism. Further advances in the development of the motor will certainly produce corresponding advances in the evolution of aeronautics.

One of the most important features of the dirigible balloon is its shape. It is constructed in an elongated form, pointed at the ends in order to diminish head resistance to the wind. Such a shape is obtained at the expense of buoyancy and of course has its limits. The elongation of the envelope is also limited by the difficulty of giving to such a shape proper rigidity. Dirigible balloons as they exist today may be divided into three types: the flexible, the semi-rigid and the rigid. The first is represented by the American "Baldwin," the semi-rigid by the French "La Patrie," and the rigid by the German, Zeppelin. The stiffening of the envelope in the "La Patrie'' type of balloon is obtained by means of a horizontal framework covered with canvas and suspended immediately under the balloon. In the Zeppelin type we have a cylindrical framework, pointed at the ends and divided into compartments throughout its entire length and covered with canvas. Within the compartments of this framework are housed a number of spherical balloons. Balloons of the Baldwin type must necessarily be small; those of the French semi-rigid type can be made much larger, and those of the Zeppelin type can

assume very large dimensions, and are capable of developing great carrying capacity. Each of these types has its own particular advantages. The small non-rigid type can be transported and housed with facility, and can make landings with greater ease than the larger types, but cannot, so far, make long voyages. This type and the semi-rigid have the disadvantage of being composed of a single gas bag, which, if injured, incapacitates the balloon immediately. In the Zeppelin type we have as many as 17 separate balloons and an injury to one or two of these does not necessarily incapacitate the airship, but such a combination requires a length of more than 400 feet, and this great length makes landings much more difficult than in the case of the single gas bag variety. Moreover, the Zeppelin type cannot well be dismantled and packed. All these air craft are more or less troublesome to anchor on the ground, even in a moderate wind, and the longer they are the more the difficulty.

As to the speed attained by the dirigible balloons, through their own efforts, this has not yet been determined with precision. It will be noted that during a calm on the ground there is always air in motion at very little distance above it, so that what with being assisted or impeded, it is somewhat difficult to distinguish the speed of the balloon itself, or what this speed would be were the air entirely at rest. However, records made by dirigible balloons in traveling from place to place, either assisted or otherwise by the wind, are available in sufficient number in order to determine this question for practical purposes. The highest speeds actually attained range between 18 and 32 miles per hour. Much has been said in regard to the possible speed that may be attained in the future by this kind of air craft, but it should be noted that an increase of speed brings with it a growing increase of head resistance which will soon arrive at a point where considerable strengthening of the envelope would be required, and the additional weight of this would soon lead to a limit.

At the present speed of dirigible balloons such craft can generally be used only in some directions, as winds of 18 to 32 miles an hour are very frequent, especially high above the surface of the ground. There are also many days of the year on which balloons of this class would only be partially available.

Let us now consider for a moment the aeroplane or heavier than air flying machine. A characteristic of this mechanism, which it is very necessary to bear in mind, is the speed with which it is required to travel, in order to fly. It should be remarked that speed is not an essential element in the operation of balloons, whatever may be their form, while in the aeroplane, as at present developed, speed is an absolute necessity. In seeking for improvement in the dirigible balloon we endeavor to obtain greater speed, while improvement in the aeroplane may signify less speed. The success of the heavier than air Hying machine, as in the case of the dirigible bal-

loon, is due to the light explosion motor such as is used in the automobile.

The winged portion of this machine has been slowly evolved from the experiments of a number of men. Passing over legends, stories and suggestions, and also the experiments of Wenham in 1867 (which latter contained valuable information), we arrive at the work of Lilienthal, in 1889, who considered the subject of artificial flight in a thoroughly scientific manner, and who communicated data concerning his experiments, which have been of the greatest importance in the evolution of the aeroplane. Lilienthal practised gliding; starting from heights of about 100 ft., he was able to sail over a distance of 600 to 1,000 ft., and he became quite an expert in giving direction to his flights. He made innumerable experiments of this kind and was about to apply a light motor of his own construction to his aeroplane when the fatal accident, Aug. 9, 1896, put a stop to further experiment. While these experiments were going on, Professor Langley was likewise accumulating fundamental data which have also had their effect in the subsequent development of the heavier than air flying machine. At the same time Maxim in England built a flying machine at the cost of $100,000 which was provided with a steam engine of extraordinary lightness for the power developed, which flying machine on trial, rose from the ground with considerable force, but it lacked stability. This experimen* was, nevertheless, of great utility, as it demonstrated the fact that even a steam motor could be made of sufficient power for the limited weight required in this kind of craft.

A short time previous to the death of Lilienthal, in 1896, Chanute began to make experiments in gliding with aeroplanes, of which he constructed six of five different types with which several thousand glides were made. In these experiments it was sought to so cot • struct the planes that they might automatically have a perfect balance in the air, and also in directing them it was sought to produce the turning movement by means of a rear rudder instead of shifting of the weight of the man. Also the effect of superposing planes was especially studied. The result of these experiments was finally communicated to the public and the data concerning them were of much use to the subsequent experiments of the Wrights, who continued them along the same lines, hut with improvements by flexing and increasing the size of the wings to about double those that had been previously used. In the meantime the light explosion motor was developing into a suitable engine for use in such an air craft: and after much practice in gliding, in which the Wrights became very skilful, they fitted a motor of this class on one of their machines and succeeded in flying with it. Dec. 17, 1903. The speed of the aeroplanes is now from 38 to 55 miles per hour, and approximately this speed must be maintained at all times while the machine is flying.

The question of directing balloons and of navigating aeroplanes as at present practiced

is one which depends upon the development of mechanical energy in great proportion to the weight of the material used in the mechanism to such a degree as we have no example of in history. But the development of energy in proportion to the weight of the engine employed has not yet progressed to a point which may be compared to that displayed by the bird. Of course, an engine of sufficient power is not all that will be needed. Many improvements in detail will no doubt be necessary before the power, once it is attained, may be applied for the purpose. But such is the scientific interest that has been awakened in the problem of aerial navigation that future progress in the development of the power and of better designs will be almost simultaneous.

The success of the heavier than air flying machine, and the greatly increased speed of the dirigible balloon, have awakened in the public mind widespread speculation as to the uses that may be made of these craft in war. The comparatively sudden attainment of what had been looked upon in all ages as impossible has produced exaggeration in the estimation of the importance of those developments as a source of military power. To begin with, it might as well be stated that as an offensive weapon of war, all air craft as they exist today may be eliminated from consideration. The most that has ever been claimed for them in this respect, by those competent in military affairs, has been the possibility of their scattering firebrands. As a means of reconnaissance and in sieges, air craft of all descriptions will, under some circumstances, be of use, but even for these purposes their power and usefulness has generally been very much exaggerated. The most conspicuous example in war in which balloons have been of service was in the siege of Paris. During this siege, which lasted about five months, many balloons were sent out bearing dispatches, private correspondence, newspapers, etc., and also carrier pigeons, which birds afterwards came back bearing news from the outside. By means of the balloons and carrier pigeons a postal connection with the outside world was regularly maintained throughout the entire duration of the siege. The principal benefit derived from these communications, however, was the encouragement which they gave to the population, which under the then existing political situation was of prime importance. The great revival of interest in aeronautics which has taken place since then has been largely due to the achievements of the balloons in that siege.

For the purpose of reconnaissance the balloon has always been more or less useful and will now become much more so, as the means for directing its horizontal movements are improved, and the same reasoning may be applied to the aeroplane. But the value of air craft for reconnaissance in war will depend upon the value of reconnaissance itself in any particular case. The general movements of forces in war, for the most part, are determined by fixed conditions which are quite well understood beforehand by the strategist of either side. It is only the movements of forces of minor importance that might escape observation

of an opposing commander. Of course, these J movements of minor importance in appearance I might be indications of a movement in mass,! but they could not proceed very far, in any I event, without becoming known. Where a I military situation presents an alternative the! probabilities of a general movement in a par-' ticular direction will generally be indicated] by considerations of a general character, which I considerations would not be determined by information derived from a reconnaissance.

Air craft, then, may be of use in war as a| means of reconnaissance and in sieges, but even were their uses confined solely to these j and the encouragement which they might give to the population this alone would be of sufficient reason for their adoption by the army.

A discourse on the general subject of aeronautics would be incomplete without some consideration of the manner in which thel general public views this question. We arel now passing through an epoch of enthusiasm] somewhat similar to that which followed the] first balloon ascension in Paris in 1783. Specu-' lation as to the growing capabilities in the near future of air craft seems to be running riot. Already we have them pictured as competing with the common carriers of the land and of the sea. This exaggerated enthusiasm is being made use of in Europe in order to stimulate a war spirit, thereby facilitating appropriations for military purposes. In our own country, however, exaggeration as to the future capabilities of the flying machine has proceeded to such an extent as to picture the! possibility, through their great powers of de-l struction, of their doing away with war alto-J gether, and instead of facilitating appropriations for defense it impedes them.

Present enthusiasm is certain to lead to reaction and loss of interest when the capabilities of the recent improvements in aeronautics become better understood. In dealing with a subject so complex and difficult as aeronautics, continued effort is necessary, and the men who may be detailed in the army to utilize air craft in war should have had a long previous training in this branch. How this can be obtained under our present organization is not very clear. What is really needed is an independent establishment, or school for aeronautics, in which officers may be trained not only in the manipulation of the air craft itself but also in the all important art of reading the landscape from an elevated position. Such an establishment should be organized witl^ the object not only for the purpose of utilizing the present capabilities of air craft in war but also with a view towards extending them.

Natural Gas Ballooning.

Despite the assurance of "experts" that natural gas is unsuitable for balloons, H. K. Honeywell proved that It was very proper stuff indeed. An aero club was formed at TopeUa, Kan., which bought a Honeywell balloon. E. S. Oolc is president. A 40,000 cu. ft. balloon easily carries three people, and the expenses of shipping hack, gas and everything does not run over $30, as the gas costs but 10 cents a thousand feet. The very first trip made was one of more than a hundred miles. If natural gas of such quality, even after being piped for two hundred miles, and containing more or less air, could be had in the East a balloon ascent might be made once In a while by some of the least inactive members of the indoor aero club.

aeronautics

January, 1911

WRIGHTS' IMPROVED ANEMOMETER

(Patents not applied for.)

By John W. Mitchell.

THIS is the story of a rag but there is no bone and hank of hair connected with it, but it is regarded as interesting, none the less, as throwing a side light on the Wrights and their way of doing business. Everyone who has closely examined the aeroplane that was at College Park probably noticed a rag that hung from the front rudder'. It was hardly more than a strip of tape, a fraction < f an inch wide, and might have been torn off the edge of a good-sized handkerchief. One of the visitors who was looking at the machine asked what the rag was for, and the correspondent who was asked replied : "Don't know. But knowdng Wilbur as well as I do, I guess it has some reason."

That is perfectly true, and the rag plays quite an important part in managing the machine. It is nothing more nor less than an indicator as to whether the machine is going up or down, or whether she is keeping an even keel sidewise. Almost any one would think that with a thirty-thousaud-dollar machine there would be some reasonably expensive delicate instrument for keeping track of the balance. But there is not, and as the rag serve the purpose well enough they let it stay.

Wilbur has been asked several times whether some apparatus in the way of a pendulum or a spirit level or something of the sort would not be useful on the machine, or whether something of that sort had not been tried. He replied indifferently "not so far as he knew," and at the same time the rag was hanging on the front rudder and was being used every day. That is about as far as Wilbur goes in disbursing information.

orville's explanation.

When Orville was over at Fort Myer the same inquiry was made of him, and he replied at greater length, but not more enlight-

For Coating Planes.

A preparation, suitable for use on cotton fabric v covering of planes may be made of fish glue, to which is added enough water while warming to form a thick soup. Then add enough alum solution to keep the glue from rotting. This preservative when applied to the cloth after it. has been stretched on the plane will make it tight, arid give it a semi-glossy finish. If by reason of moisture, or rain, the cloth becomes sagged', another application can be made, bringing it back to original form. This solntion is generally applied once a month when machines are having constant service.—AeromoHon Co., St. Louis.

Horsepower Rating

The formula used by the automobile department of New York State in licensing- cars, known as the A. L. A. M. rating, being that adopted by the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, is as follows: The bore squared, times the number of cylinders, divided by 2V2.

Another rating, which considers the stroke, is diameter squared, times number, times stroke, divided by 12. For 2-cycle engines the result should be multiplied by 1 5-8 or 1 3-4. The A. L. A. M. table follows:

eningly, saying that a pendulum was more misleading than it was reliable, because after "w had started swinging it kept on swinging and did not indicate the true direction of the aeroplane at all.

'1 he rag, however, answers the purpose. If it points up the operator knows that the machine is going down, and if it points downward he knows that he is going up. If it flutters out straight behind the operator knows that all is going well and that she is keeping an even keel, but if it points to the side lie knows that he is skidding, and the machine must be brought back to balance by the use of the wing tips. In fact, the soaked and grimy piece of rag is as effective a tell-tale as the mist expensive instrument that could be designed.

There may be other features about the Wright machine quite as simple and effective as the rag on the rudder, hut if there are they will never get out to the public through the Wrights' loquacity. But it shows how the Wright mind works and how the remarkable brothers take the shortest and simplest cut to whatever they are after.

orville's quick calculation.

The rag indicator is something in the same line as the story they tell about Orville and the expansion of the brass ring. There was a manufacturing concern in Dayton that wanted to know how much a brass ring they were making for some steam pipes would expand under the heat of the steam. They had a high-grade mathematician figuring on the problem for two days, and after he had obtained the answer Orville made the calculation in five minutes, using merely the circumference of the pipe and the coefficient of expansion of brass, both of which were perfectly well known. He told the story himself to ex-olain how there was a short way and an involved way of making nearly all calculations

Bore

 

Horsepower

 

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2-Cyl.

4-Cyl.

6-Cyl.

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5.0

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5.5

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6.6

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7.2

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15.6

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S.4

16.9

25.3

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27.3

 

11. S

19.6

29.4

%

10.5

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31.5

%

11.2

22.5

33.7

%

12.0

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25.6

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13.6

27.2

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14.4

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15.3

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1G.2

32.4

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17.1

34.2

51.4

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1S.0

36.1

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%

19.0

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57.0

5—

20.0

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21.0

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22.0

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6 9.3

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27.6

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86.4

AERONAUTICS January, 191 f

WINTER BALLOONING NEW SPORll

By A. Passenger

ABALLOON trip made from St. Louis on November 22, in the "Centennial," a balloon of 7S.000 cubic feet capacity, stands as a record flight for number of passengers carried from this point with the use of a coal-water gas.

The six passengers who enjoyed this trip, laughed at the crowd of anxious spectators who tried to persuade them to forego their trip, owing to a break in the bottom of the basket, and rose at 11:15 a. m., from the Aero Club of St. Louis grounds, Chouteau and Newstead avenues.

Those in the party, besides Captain H. Eugene Honeywell, pilot and manager of the French-American Balloon Company, of St. Louis, were: .1. Cowan Hulbert, sales manager of the Aero-motion Company of America, with offices in St. Louis; Marc Seguin, secretary and treasurer of the same company; O. L. Mote, of the Mineola Aero Supply Company; Max Dingfelder, of Detroit, and John Seliwister, of Minneapolis. The total weight of the six passengers was !t45 pounds, and the start was made with but 8 y2 bags of ballast.

The balloon rose from the Club Grounds at 11:15 a.m., under ideal conditions, and drifted n.w., striking an equilibrum at 1,300 feet. At 11:35 it bad reached an altitude of 1,500 feet, drifting in approximately the same direction. At noon 1,900 feet had been reached, and we had sighted the Missouri River. At 12:20 we crossed the Missouri Hiver about two miles west of the Burlington R.R. bridge at an altitude of 1.000 feet. At 12:45 the course bad changed to due north and we crossed the Mississippi River at a point about eight miles north of Alton. 111. Altitude 1,'JSO feet.

The weather was clear, as we had passed away from the smoke clouds of St. Louis, anil a very enjoyable trip was made over the farm-lands of Illinois. This being the first balloon trip of several of the party, much amusement was afforded them by the fright shown by horses, cows, ehickenft and even the pigs, as they rushed under cover, endeavoring to get away from the moving shadow east upon the ground by the huge balloon. Some short time later, the balloon was allowed to come near the earth so communication could be had

with the occasional farmers, and this afforded till interested "Novice" the sport of endeavoring to ascertain their location. "Hello, there," would bl called by the "Novice," and when the farmer'! attention would be attracted, the "Novice" would! ask, "Where are we?" The answer would eoml back, "Where are you going?" or "Where are yoil from," or some such other question, and rarely] would they be able to get any information as tol our whereabouts. However, one farmer, wheil asked. "Where are we?" replied, "Up in the airl you d--f-."

This section of the country had rarely beeil eovered by a balloon and our landing point. Rood-I house. 111., was honored by its first sight of al balloon landing.

The landing was made at 2:30 p. m., and this.l in itself, afforded interesting experiences to thel "Novice." who had enjoyed the trip so muchl

The landing point was selected and, as thJ valve cord was pulled, the balloon descended al great speed and headed for a patch of tree! which was just on this side of our selected landinJ place. Immediately the drag rope was dropped! stringing itself on the tops of the trees for about! 200 feet. This reduction in weight carried by thel balloon cheeked its descent and we drifted along iii a 15-mile wind, approaching our landing point at a slight descent, which gradually increased to a considerable speed. The descent was checked by throwing over one bag of ballast, and Immediately after the basket had struck the ground, the balloon rose to a height of about 150 feet. The drag rope had been made fast by some farmers who had come to our assistance, and shortly thereafter, by use of the valve, the balloon settled to the ground and was deflated, the rip cord not beingi used.

The farmers and "town folks" were muen in-i terested and assisted us in packing the equipment,, and the party of six was taken to the railroadj station by the "town automobile agent," where, we were honored by "hard drinks" in a "soft-drink town." and the party departed for St. Louis.J reaching their destination in ample time to tel( of their experiences and give thanks for theirj safe and enjoyable trip.

Balloon Up in Snowstorm

IX a snowstorm which had twice delayed the trip, Leroy M. Taylor piloted Miles M. Morris, S. F. Beekwith and Aeronaut Leo Stevens in the balloon "Cleveland," in an endeavor to reach New York, the wind being favoring, but the balloon landed at Amenia, N. Y. The distance of the voyage was about forty-five miles from Pitts-field, the starting point.

A new winter sport was inaugurated with this trip, for it is the intention of Mr. Taylor and New York men to make winter ballooning popular and to have semi-monthly ascents. It was Mr. Taylor'* ninth flight.

While many were sitting close to the fireside in their homes, waiting for the storm to cease, the Taylor party was sailing through the upper air in the big balloon, of a capacity of SO,000 cu. ft., looking like a great aerial snowball. It was snow and ice from the basket to the valve, and with thd ice hanging from the suspension ropes made a sight not to be forgotten.

Mr. Taylor is always ready to tell of the joys of ballooning. "No day is too cold for the man whfj has the spirit," be says, "to appreciate the grand! scenery, the magnificent colors, the illumination of the sky, silvery threads of rivers far below. House* look like dog kennels, people like ants, the barkinf of a dog can be heard from an altitude of two miles and the toot-toot of a locomotive from a still greater altitude."

The startling incident of the trip in the great "Cleveland" as it was sailing along in the falling snow squall was a collision with a flock of wild geese. The geese, caught in the blinding sno\t' storm and the winds over the "Raggy Mountains," bumped against the gas bag. and for a moment the aeronauts were just a little excited, as the Impact with the iee-eovered bag made a sharp crackle as though something had snapped.

The party drifted south, along the New York and Connecticut boundary line and for a while

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the holder of all the world's aviation records—28 F. & S. Ball bearings are used in the Gnome Motor, including the crank shaft and connecting rods—which will be shown separately.

II

&

The

Master

As used on the 8-eylinder Hendee Motor in the new Curtiss Biplane, the self-starting magneto, witli

Made in j^^clPf IietO ^ ^'16 ^;ls^er Interrupter, and the

° double, two-in-one racing magneto

which sparks two plugs simultaneously in one cylinder.

i

SPACE 586, BASEMENT |

| Madison Sq. Garden Show

Part I. January 7th -14th Part II. January 16th-21st

OF INTEREST TO AVIATORS, DESIGNERS AND CONSTRUCTORS

Our Exhibit of

The English Bowden Patent Wire Mechanism for all Controls; used on all Bleriot Monoplanes

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY Sole Importers f MOTOR HALL 250 West 54th St. NEW YORK

sailed gently in the great clouds of velvety soft snow, but as they got over Duchess County the winds caught the "Cleveland" and steered it into all sorts of crazr currents. Mr. Taylor tried several times to bring the balonn chise to earth but on each occasion found the outlines of a mountain, warning him to ascend again.

Heroy Taylor, who has founded "The Fliers' t'lub," has climbed the mountains of Switzerland, on two occasions in 1S90 successfully reaching the highest point of Mt. Blanc. His name is in the Gold Book of Switzerland, which adds to his honor. Mr. Taylor was born in Washington, D. C,

The Start of the Taylor Trip

Night was rapidly approaching and the range of mountains made it difficult for one to land. Time and time again he tried for a landing but the snow was so dense that it was a difficult proposition and to make a landing in a snow squall of this kind required good judgment. The party finally landed safely on the outskirts of Amenia and at 9 o'clock arrived in the town none the worse for their great voyage.

in ]si;ii. His first balloon voyage was in the "All America." in company with Pilot Stevens, J. D. Barkin. ,lr., of Buffalo; G. H. White, Kokomo; .1. H. Wade, Jr.. of Cleveland; A. H. Morgan, of Cleveland; and Mr. Moulton, of Nashville. He became so enthused after his first trip that he continued ballooning. The following year he went abroad and made two ascents in Germany.

Sky Scrapings

Harry S. Harkness is leaving in a few days for I.os Angeles with his Emerson-engined "Antoinette" and two new Antoinettes coming from Europe, for which he has ordered six Paragon propellers.

Clifford B. Harmon has announced his intention of flying across the Tsthmus of Panama in March. He has sold his Farman biplane to the "International Aviation Co.," of Chicago.

fi feet (i inches deep and spread 3fi feet with S inch deep ailerons hinged on the rear beam. Cloth is on both sides. Ribs laminated spruce and oak and the struts are of oak almost rectangular in cross section, with the edges slightly rounded off. The planes are fi feet apart. The ribs fasten flush with the front beam, but go on top of the rear. Sections of main lateral beams are joined by planes top and bottom, screwed. Curve, 1 in 12; angles, 2'i or 3 inches. A double plane elevator is in the rear, flat, controlled by wires to steering lever. Two vertical rudders, with wires to lever. The ailerons are worked by shoulder

■I. C. McCoy has resigned as first vice-president of the A. C. A.

Frank Adams, of the Elbridge Engine Company, Rochester, N. Y., is building a Curtiss-typo machine, with a Farman style chassis.

Samuel F. Perkins, 110 Tremont street. Boston, Mass.. was left shy of funds when the St. Bonis show petered out. He arranged to make a number of demonstrations with his man-carrying kites and besides going up himself more than a hundred feet on a seat slung from the kite rope, he sent ni) prominent men in St. Bonis. From there be went to Kansas City to give further exhibitions. Here the highest kites collapsed and he was let suddenly down, but escaped without injury.

Albert G. Beavers, of the Standard Motor Car Co., Scranton, Pa., has completed a nice-looking machine of the headless biplane type, with Curtiss style ailerons and running gear. The planes are

STee/ fi/be

A. G. BEAVER CONTROL

Pit'.

\-Pi-toton drd^e

E lei's tor n,f<\}

brace. The engine is a Rutenber automobile motor, lightened up. giving about 40 h.p. at 1,200. The engine weighs complete, including radiator, gas. oil, etc., 375 pounds. The propeller is 7 feet by 7 feet and is said to give 300- .pounds at 1,2.00 r.p.m.—Geo. II. Seragg.

*****

A Significant Fact

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COLLEGE PARK FLYING GROUNDS By Antony Jannus

COLLEGE Park has been associated in the minds of many with the Wright machines purchased by the government. It has been just a year last November when Wilbur Wright was instructing Lieutenants Humphreys and Lalim, since there has been any real flying here. College Park is the most promising aviation field near Washington and now boasts two hangars, a small grand stand and no fences. One can easily make a circle of two miles with fairly good alighting grounds always beneath. The recent completion of Rexford M. Smith's biplane has brought many Washingtonians to the field to witness the trials.

Mr. Smith is a successful patent attorney of Washington and one who has always been identified with bicycles, boats and automobiles and it would have been a great disappointment to his

in order not to rise, depressing the tail (this causing the backs of the skids to drag) was all that was necessary, as the forward speed was therefore greatly retarded. Mr. Fox evidently argued the converse of this theorem and by peeping the skids parallel to the ground for about ■' 10 \ irds, made two tottering flights with the machine traveling about 20 miles an hour into a six-mile breeze. After that IS short straight fligl ts were made before darkness closed the day. An examination of the machine revealed no trouble jf any character—all the guy wires taut as before md everything ship-shape. The altitude record went to Mr. Smith with 15 ft., duration and distance to Mr. Fox, 200 yards. All of these flights svcre made with the engine throttled to 550 r.p.m. DETAILS OF MACHINE The main planes of the machine are single surface and may be spoken of as of the Curtiss type although the joint for the struts is superior to those the writer has seen on any of Curtiss' ma-

N/Jt

The Rexford Smith Machine

friends had he been slighted by the aeroplane "bug." His active interest In aeroplanes, like that of most of the local "aero-scientists." dates from Orville Wright's first appearance at Fort Myer, two years ago. The Rex Smith biplane, now at College Fark is number two, number one never having an engine or a trial. Number one would probably have been a success but just about the time he should have had received his motor, his deposit was returned owing to the firm's inability to make delivery. Thus Mr. Smith turned to the nearby town of Alexandria. Va., and ordered an Emerson engine, six months ahead of time, and designed his machine accordingly. Number two is a record breaker for a second machine, as you shall see

FIRST FLIGHTS OF SMITH MACHINE On Monday. Nov. 14th, the machine was taken out. for its first trials. The wind was only about six miles, but enough to disconcert three rank beginners at flying. Mr. Smith, as designer and owner, took the first try at "grass cutting." the ^engine being throttled to less than half speed. Even at that the machine had a decided tendency Ito rise, and Mr. Smith cautioned Fred Fox. assistant designer and constructor,' not to put the |machine into (he air. Mr. Fox had a successful run and after Mr. Smith and Mr. Jannus finished their "post mortem" of the second "grass cut," Mr. Jannus. engineer, tried his hand with equal success. Mr. Smith again took the helm and used the rudder successfully, running In circles or .straight, as he desired. He also discovered that

chines and the guys are all 2100 pounds Roebling plated wire, fastened with a twist at each end and are without turnbuckles or solder. A tail only is used for elevation and depression with steadying fins in the front giving the appearance of the headless Wright machines. The engine is the Emerson -six-cylinder. 60-120 h.p.. 105 h.p. El Arco radiator and 9-inch diameter, G-feet Paragon propeller in rear direct to motor. The main plants are 32 feet by 6 feet, and, with clearance for the propeller, amount to 3G0 square feet. Th* total weight, as flown, with small tank was 1050 pounds.

The pitch speed of the propeller, turned at 550 r.p.m. is just 396 miles per hour and it speaks well for the efficiency of the machine and propeller that it should fly so slowly. The engine has all its controls calibrated to function with one foot lever, which has stops for both maximum and minimum speeds and the maximum stop was so set as to prohibit acceleration of the motor other than that resulting from the difference in load on the propeller standing and in flight. The motor has turned this propeller 1100 r.p.m. and the flying speed with full power could be very fast, possibly sixty-two or sixty-three miles per hour. The pitch speed of the propeller at 1100 r.p.m. is 112.6 m.p.h. and the thrust 540 lbs. It would be of great Interest if from this data any should care to furnish Mr. Smith with the theoretical speed in flight at 1100 r.p.m.

In subsequent practice flights, slight damage was done to the right skid by a rough landing shearing a bolt. This resulted In a broken propeller, On,

FLIGHT PROGRESS ABOUT THE COUNTRY

The Walden-Dyctt-Monoplane

Sunday, to please his friends, Mr. Smith put on an old S-foot propeller, which was given him, and by turning this stiek of firewood about 1,000 r.p.m., it was just possible to handle the machine, After a few straight flights of about .TOO yards at 20 to 30 feet. Mr. Jannus essayed a. turn and flew a mile and a half, making one and a half complete circles of the field and lit without mishap. Thus tin-machine has performed all its functions successfully and may be heard from again with good weather and the. new Paragon propeller turning at 1100 r.p.m.

Everyone remarks at the fine workmanship of Mi. Smith and Mr Fox. and all arc filled with as-'onishment at the great strength of the machine. College Park residents boast that they have as line an aeroplane as there is in the country and defy criticism of any detail of the structure for strength and simplicity. Mr. Smith's idea was to build a simple {Iyer first and try his ideas for stability, efficiency, passenger-carrying, etc., on a machine that should be a definite constant from which to figure. There seems to be nothing to retard him in fulfilling his modest desires.

To those familiar with the usual hazards to machine and operator in learning to tly. Mr. Smith's experience becomes nothing short of miraculous. By alternating with the three men. he tripled the chances for a smash. As has been stid, there were three rank amateurs, neither of whom had ever operated a glider or a "motor bird" before. The breakage of the propeller was the result of a shock that would have wrecked most machines and occurred during trials on Thursday in a ten-mile cross wind. Another thing of gnat interest is that the first turns made in Mr. .lannus' circuit and a half of the field, were made to the left. As the propeller turns to the right the torque of the engine was favorably disposed to accentuate the banking to the danger point should the ailerons prove insufficiently effective, (furthermore, this torque was very noticeable with the inefficient, propeller and the speed of (lie machine very slow, thus making a maximum of disadvantageous conditions on the machine In several weeks of watching both Harmon and Oraliaitie-While in their Farman machines, it bn"

been their invariable custom to turn the machine to the left, as they use left-hand propellers.

Mr. Smith states that the skids and wheels now on the machine are only temporary and will be replaced before the new propeller is used. It had been Mr. Smith's Intention to make a few trials during the Indian summer weather, then lock up until spring, but his signal success has broken down this resolution and more flights with the new skids and Farman type of double wheels, will be forthcoming.

The cloth is on the upper side only of the planes. Ailerons between the planes, in principle like the Curtiss. These, as well as tho front and rear controls, are double covered with cloth. The horizontal surface in the rear has a movable rear portion for up-and-down steering. There is the usual vertical rudder for right and left steering. Short] skids of white oak and spruce are combined with wheels in pairs, similar to the Farman arrangement. The rubber bands, however, are callable, of being stretched by a lever device so that the tension can be increased or decreased to suit the load on the machine.

Flying at Mineola

The Walden-Dyott monoplane has been doing about all the Hying at Mineola of late, with Mr Dyott as pilot. Even passengers have been carried on straight Mights. Two other machines are build-iig. w'llch will be shown at the Palace Show

DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE The machine spreads 2U feet, with plane 7 feet, fore and aft. a total supporting surface in the main plane of 1H2 square feet. In the rear is * horizontal lifting tail, r> feet spread by " feet fore and aft. On top of this is the vertical rudder. 2',2 feet square. A single surface front control measures '< feet spread by 2'i feet fore and aft Above the main plane, at each extremity, is a fixed dart-shaped surface, each set at an angle to the horizontal, designed to impart natural stability. This system is plainly seen in the illustration Set in the main plane and hinged to the rear lateral beam are ailerons, which normally hang down, and lifting and following in the stream lines ('rring flight.

AERONAUTICS January 1911

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All controls are in the steering column. Pushing forward or pulling back on the wheel steers down and up respectively, while turning the wheel to the right or left turns the vertical rudder sccordingly by means of cables. Rocking the whole steering column left or right operates the ailerons.

A 25-30 h.p. Anzani, 3-cylinder, air-cooled motor, battery ignition, drives a Requa-Gibson propeller 6 feet 10 inches diameter by 3 feet pitch, which gives 260 pounds standing thrust. This does not mean that so much thrust standing is best, for the finest results have been obtained with but 230 pounds.

The whole machine is admirably mounted upon a 3-wheeled steel tube chassis supported by 20-inch by 4-inch Pennsylvania wheels. These tires being of such large size, not a single wheel has buckled nor punctured during the experiments. The main plane is so rigid that the whole machine, with aviator in seat, may be lifted by the tips of the wings without straining them or making the plane sag. The gas and oil feeds by gravity from the same tank. Gauges are fitted, showing oil and gas levels at all times. The framing is ash and spruce.

Messrs. Peets and Teetor, of the Hudson-Fulton Automobile Company, smashed up their Cur-tiss-type biplane on the first trial, in a 15-mile breeze. This was a finely constructed machine, with running gear similar to the Wright and the controls working a la Farman. Bowden wire was used for throttle control and the steel wire stays were made heavier at the ends where they screwed into the nipples. The turnbuckles were especially made and heavy at the part where they usually break.

A Japanese, H. Edano Eno, has finished a tandem monoplane, of very light construction, bamboo and spruce. The engine and propeller is between the two planes. The elevating plane is at the tail end. Lateral stability to be secured by small biplane cells underneath the forward main plane. Each tilts in an opposite direction to the other.

Marcel Penot has been making some flights in the Mohawk Aviation Company's Curtiss-copy. one cross-country of about 30 minutes with a new model 50 h.p. Harriman engine fitted. He is about to start on a southern exhibition trip.

At Belmont Tark

There are a number of machines, some of curious construction, occupying the sheds at Belmont racetrack. Long Island, since the owners gave permission for flights by experimentors. C. W. Geddes has been making short flights with his Bleriot type, fitted with a 3-cylinder Humber engine. He wants to sell this and get a larger machine.

At the St. Louis Aero Fields

At East St. Louis, 111., Aviators J. J. De Praslin. Ernest Swift. J. N. Sparling, C. W. Curzon and members of the Siegfried-Frank Company, with six aeroplanes, arc camped at Washington Park for the winter.

De Praslin and Sparling have both made flights recently. Sparling has just purchased enough materials and a new motor for building a second biplane.

T. W. Benoist, of the Aeronautic Supply Co., of St. Louis, has been flying his Curtiss type at Kin-loch Park, and on Dec. 10 did some great work. He has recovered from his recent accident during exhibition flights at Amarillo, Texas. In his last flight there he saw a couple of uprights in the elevator drop out, and he quickly decided to get down instanter. The front wheel hit with great force, due to miscalculation, and he was thrown out. The aeroplane passed on over him and the propeller severed his big toe, as well as cutting most of the skin off his face and head.

Ballard M. French has a tandem monoplane and H. C. Sweinhardt a biplane, with a "Detroit Aero-motor" power plant.

Curtiss Starts Training School

Mr. Curtiss arrived in Los Angeles on December 9, bringing with him a carload of experimental stuff and new parts of machine. He expects to open a large school and training grounds there. Of course, there is quite a bit of detail work to do before this will be under operation.

Mr. Curtiss has personally offered to train and instruct an officer of the army and an officer of the navy in the manipulation of Curtiss machines, giving them opportunity to take part in the experiments and observe the experiments which he will conduct this winter. The offer has been accepted by the Secretary of the Navy and one officer will be ordered to remain during the winter. Since the battleship flight, Ely has been invited by the Navy Department to try a flight from one battleship, landing on another. This invitation came from the Secretary of the Navy, and in his report the Secretary spoke of Ely's flight from the cruiser "Birmingham," and the future probability of aerial development. A number of army and navy officers who have heard of Mr. Curtiss' offer have made application to be detailed to take part in the experiments at Los Angeles and to learn to fly. It has aroused quite a bit of interest in the army and navy.

Los Angeles Meet — Gnome Engine on Curtiss

Los Angeles is a very busy place with the aviators nowadays. Curtiss is here, Captain Baldwin, Shriver, Latham, some of the Wright fliers. Willard, who has a new biplane along the lines of the Curtiss of his own design, with a Gnome engine installed, and W. C. Addosides, who made his first appearance at Mineola. These mentioned are only the Easterners. San Francisco has signed a number of aviators, three Wright machines, several Curtiss machines, Captain Baldwin, and possibly Latham.

The meet is now assured for December 24-January 3, and a contract has been signed with the Wright Company.

John Kowalsky. of Verona, Pa., is building an aeroplane of the general Curtiss type, except that he uses a central chassis or frame, triangular in shape, this containing the entire power plant. This frame is without wires and relieves the whole structure of the machine from engine vibration. Ribs are of aluminum, %-inch square, and hollow. These weigh 1 ounce per lineal foot.

The Fred Shneider Biplane—Note Skids

Willa.nl Flies Over Los Angeles

On December 10, Chas. Willard flew from Los Angeles to Pasadena and return at a height of 3,000 feet. A prize was offered for this feat, but the amount is not known. Willard has fitted a Gnome engine to his Curtiss, with a 7-foot 9-inch by 5.S-foot Paragon oak with spruce center propeller, and this was used in the flight.

Willard's flight stands as one of the most daring of cross-city flights. He started at a point west of the city of Los Angeles at 10:36 a. m., flew directly over the business district, on to Pasadena's commercial center and back, again over the center of Los Angeles and around the office of the newspaper, "Express," which promoted the flight. The trip lasted I hour, 10 minutes and the distance was about 55 miles. The flight was officially observed by the Aero Club of California. The Gnome engine was mounted on the same engine bed as usual in Curtiss machines, in a direct line with the front and rear control pivots.

Drexel's first figure for his flight at Philadelphia on November 23, was announced as 9,970. The barograph was tested by weather bureau officials, who set the mark at 9,897 feet. Up to date of going to press, the National Council has not received official report from its representatives, and no report has been made to the Aero Club of America.

J. A. Drexel's resignation from the Aero Club of America, has been accepted by the board of directors, and the charges under preparation by the club are withdrawn, as Drexel withdrew his letter of protest.

Aeroplanes En Tour

RALEIGH, W. VA., Nov. 16-17.—About half a dozen flights were made eaeh day by Ely and McCurdy. On the first day McCurdy made a bad landing, smashing his machine, but this was repaired in time to make flights the next day.

NEW ORLEANS, LA., Dec. 1-2.—No flights were I made on the first day on account of wind. On the second day, McCurdy, Ely, Post and Ward flew. Mr. Post made several flights, but his machine

A. M. Williams Monoplane

Monoplane Flies in Arizona

A. M. Williams, of 1019 Eighth street, Douglas, Ariz., has been making short flights with a monoplane. The illustrations show the two machines he has built, No. 2 being the later one. His 3-cylinder Elbridge is being changed for a 4-cyllnder one, of the same make with which he hopes to make sustained flights. Douglas has an altitude of about 4,000 feet. Following are some details of the machine:

Spread.—32 V2 feet, each wing being 6% feet by 15 feet. Double ribbed. Total supporting surface, 180 square feet. Continental eloth.

Power Plant.—Elbridge engine, cooled by vertical tube radiator of own make. Paragon propeller.

Running Gear.—Three-wheeled, Hartford tires and wheels.

Body of spruce, cedar and aluminum castings, stayed with turnbuckles and piano wire.

Weight.—500-550 pounds, complete with aviator. Length over all, about 22 Ms feet.

Drexel Fails of Altitude Hecord

According to a recent ruling of the International Aeronautic Federation, the existing height record must be exceeded by at least 300 meters (32S feet), before a new reeord may bo claimed. This is made necessary by the inexactness of recording instruments.

was caught in a strong wind and was turned completely over, landing upside down. He was only slightly hurt. It was impossible for the machine to be repaired in time for him to make any more flights at that meet. On Nov, 30th, the day before the opening, Jas. .1. Ward assembled his machine before any of the others and flew six miles across country at a height of 1,000 feet. This was made in a 4-cylinder Curtiss. Ward is a new Curtiss aviator, though he has been flying the Curtiss machine of James E. Plew, of Chicago.

COLUMBIA, S. C, Dec. 7-8.—Ely and McCurdy flew both days.

JACKSON, MISS., Nov. 28-29.—McCurdy, Ely and Post flew. The crowd was very small and the flights were made at Mississippi's first meet.

NEWARK, N. J., Nov. 24.—('has. Morok. who Is flying for Fred Shneider, made an exhibition flight on Thanksgiving Day, circling the grounds at good speed and doing extremely well. Hemmed in by trees and buildings, over which he had to fly, he had to land outside the park and smashed his machine. A short time ago he got his Shneider biplane with a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and completed a circle of the Mineola held at the second try. The third was over the buildings there and the fourth several miles across country.

The Hloriot of S. Y. Reach was flown at Newark by Stratton, but he made only a jump. A couple of days later he ma^le two more jumps and landed in a lake.

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AERONAUTICS

OMAHA, NEB., Nov. 22.—Charles Bayersdorfer, 25S2 Harney St., made a number of nights in his Curtlss-type.

BIRMINGHAM, ALA., Nov. 21-22.—Ely and Ward flew at "Jubilee" celebration. Ely carried a woman passenger, to the disgust of Mrs. Ely.

STOCKTON, CAL., Nov. 24-26.—Mars, Willard, Hall and James Radley.

HAVANA, Feb. 4-12.—Arrangements have been made with G. H. Curtiss for a meet under auspices Havana Post, endorsed by Cuban Government, at Camp Columbia, the government maneouvering grounds. The army will police the field. Eugene Ely has entered for the flight from Havana to Key West, about 90 miles over water.

RICHMOND, VA., Nov. 23-26.—The "International Aviators" (Moisant, Garros, Simon, Barrier, Hamilton, Frisbie), opened their first engagement here. Hamilton, Simon and Barrier flew over the city. Moisant circled the whole city. There was good flying but poor attendance. Seven cross-city flights were made, four in one day, by Moisant, Garros, Barrier and Simon.

CHATTANOOGA, TENN., Nov. 2S.—Moisant aero meet petered out. Weather is very bad, wind high and gusty. Simon made the only real flight, which was sensational.

MEMPHIS, TENN., Dec. 1-17.—Though nothing of unusual interest occurred until the last day of the meet given by Moisant and his flyers, save the cross-city flight for $5,000 offered by the "Commercial-Appeal," which was won by Barrier, there was good flying. Nobody was seriously injured in the three bad falls that happened. The reported speed record by Hamilton was unofficial.

9,364 FEET BY MOISANT

On the I7th Moisant flew up to a height of 9,364 feet, according to his barograph. The company flies at New Orleans on the 24th.

Two Unique Fliers (?)

COOLEY'S MONSTER MONOPLANE J. F. Cooley, at Rochester, N. Y., has built a curious machine, SI feet in length, spreading 42 feet and weighing 2,S00 pounds. The supporting surface is 1500 square feet. The car designed for passengers is 37 feet long by 2y2 feet wide. The main supporting surface is diamond-shaped, of Naiad linen, without ribs, guy wires keeping the cloth from blowing upward. Two propellers are fitted, each driven by a separate 6-cylinder, 90-h.p. Elbridge engine. All controls operate by compressed air and even electric signals are installed between the pilot and the engineer.

The whole machine is mounted on a 4-wheeled chassis, using Goodrich and Hartford tires.

GARY'S FLYING MACHINE

William Gary, of Paterson, New Jersey, after years of experimentation with kites and models of various types, has built an aeroplane which he claims will maintain its stability without special devices. The machine is fitted with a tail of the Antoinette type, and the machine might be called a "barrel monoplane." Its action in leaving the ground and in flight is said to be similar to that of the monoplanes now in use, the only difference being the absence of stabilizing planes on the Gary machine. The finished product, while of unique design, Impresses one with its perfect detail, finish, and general workmanlike appearance. Mr. Gary's faith in this machine is based upon successful towed by auto flights. In these flights, besides himself, the Gary machine carried 250 pounds of sand, and rose from the ground at a pull of 220 pounds, to a height of 20 feet.

In his second flight, under the same conditions, he required a full of 240 pounds to rise, the higher necessary pull being accounted for by the lowered efficiency of the plane being caused by the looseness of the cloth, which had been exposed to rain during the interim between two experiments.

Mr. Gary has installed a 50-h.p. Harriman power plant, which delivers a pull of 350 pounds, and intends to try out the machine on the ice of the Passaic River, as soon as weather conditions permit.

Death of Jacques Faure

Quebec, Dec. 2.—Jacques Faure, the famous French balloonist, who represented France during the Belmont meet, died from pneumonia after a hunting trip in Canada. He has made as many as, if not more, balloon ascents than any other man in the -world.

Aero Calendar for the U. S.

Dec. 15-17—Atlanta, McCurdy, Ely, Post, Ward.

Dec. 24-Jan. 3—Los Angeles, Cab, big meet.

Dec. 31--Jan. 7—New York Aero Show, Grand

Central Palace.

Jan 7-17—San Francisco, Cal., meet.

Feb. 4-12—Havana, Cuba, meet; Curtiss and other aviators.

Feb. 20-25—Boston, Mass., second annual aero show.

March 6-13—Chicago, 111., aero show.

The Cooley and the Gary Constructions

NATIONAL COUNCIL CONVENTION

DESPITE the fact that the Aero Club of America made a fine altitude flight and landed smiling right side up, as usual, the December 6th meeting of the "National Council of the Aero Club of America," the first since its organization, and still dominates in the Council, things look much brighter for national aeronautics. The Club saw the handwriting on the wall once more and made public concessions without losing much of private control.

IMPORTANT FEATURES

The Resolutions Committee named at the meeting reported certain suggested changes, which were either adopted at once by the convention or left for the Executive Committee to consider and take action. These were made possible by tbe convention's accepting the Committee's report.

One change made it possible for this convention, and those in the future, to elect its own chairman of the Executive Committee, instead of having that chairman appointed by the Aero Club < f America. Of course, the Club saw to it that the chairman named was one to their liking.

A paragraph was added to the agreement between the A. C. A. and the N. C setting forth the objects of the Council to be the bringing into harmonious co-operation all properly organized clubs for the purpose of fostering and advancing the art of aviation (aerostation not considered, apparently), preparing proper regulations and furnishing supervision for contests, determination and classification of records, sanctions for meets, making decisions, encouraging research, awarding of honors for meritorious contributions to the art.

The present by-laws remain in force, except that recommendation is made that the newly-elected Executive Committee consider any changes which may be suggested and report, which report must be made to the members of the Council within sixty days. Suggestions were made by the Resolution Committee that the Executive Committee consider the incorporating of the Council, the changing of its name, the titles of its officers and the question of the. basis on which chilis are to have representation in the Council.

Clause also added providing that the Constitution may be amended by a two-third vote of all members present in person or by proxy at a meeting of the N. C, provided that notice of such amendment be stated in the call for such meeting, at least thirty days prior to said meeting, and provided further that any such amendment shall not affect international relations or the obligations of the Aero Club of America in that respect.

THE JOKERS

The privilege of naming its own head is, for the Council, rather a forlorn one, inasmuch as the Aero Club of America did and will see that it controls the convention through its own and politically allied delegates and sweet promises to any others who may appear to be of an independent turn of mind. The name and form of the body may be changed ad infinitum but the A. C. A. will always hold the whip hand so long as the N. C. depends upon it for the obtaining of international recognition for any records which may be made. Of course, the Aero Club will retain this international relationship if it can for the sake of having this club over the heads of all the other organizations of the country. It is not likely that the A. C. A. will lose this foreign agreement until there is some other body in this country deemed by the International Aeronautic Federation fit for the making of a new international agreement. And the present outlook does not give any hope for any other body being capable of accepting such foreign agreement unless the N. C. takes the chance and breaks away from the A. C. A. and goes after the foreign affiliation for itself. And the N. C. will not break away so long as delegates to its conventions are persuaded by the A. C. A. people's outward offerings and inward takings.

CURIOUS REVERSALS 13 Y A. C. A.

When the report of the Resolutions Committee was presented for approval, comprising the items mentioned above, it was sought by the delegates present for the purpose of reducing the Aero Club of America to the level of the other clubs, to table it and pass a resolution then and there taking from the A. C. A. the naming of the N. C. head, depriving the A. C. A. of one of its two

votes and making of the N.» C. a truly democratic national organization.

This was sternly opposed by the Aero Club delegate, a lawyer, and others, the chairman even arguing for the adoption of the report, which is against parliamentary rules. Their point was that it ought to be left for the Executive Committee to deliberate on and that the N. C, as it was to elect its own head and its own Executive Committee (previously slated in nice alphabetical order by the Aero Club) could and should instruct said Executive Committee in any way it chose, tell it just what the delegates wanted done, etc. These argumentative pills were so nicely sugar-coated that enough dissenters were won over to pass the adoption of the report.

Just as soon, however, as the Executive Committee and its head were "elected" by the delegates according to their choice, as foreseen by the thoughtful A. C. A., the independents again moved to instruct the newly-elected Executive Committee to the effect that it was desired that the National Council should be an independent body, truly democratic in character, with the Aero Club of America an integral part on the same basis as any other club. The same ones, who, a few moments before, were so free with their advice to instruct the Executive Committee now were highly wrought up at the insult to the Executive Committee, that instructions were the height of insubordination. This august committee which the delegates had the sole power of electing (?) should be unhampered by the wishes of the delegates. The motion was changed merely to put on record an expression of the feeling of the delegates as to what their idea of a National Council was but it was defeated, notwithstanding that several motions, quite conciliatory in terms, were offered by several "moderates" to satisfy the independents and bring harmony, in view of the fact that some delegates were instructed by their respective clubs to insist upon complete independence, for failure of which they might withdraw.

HOW THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE WAS "ELECTED"

During the first session the chairman was about to appoint a nominating committee when Harvard's insurgent delegate moved the anarchistic resolution that nominations for the Ex-ecutive Committee be made from the floor by the delegates. It was carefully explained that this would be very cumbersome, that it would be so much simpler to let a committee do all the work. If the delegates didn't like the ticket they could make another themselves afterward. Swell chance! The vote of the delegates on the motion stood half for and half against, one delegate at first not voting. As the chairman announced that silence was considered for the motion, this delegate, who had telegraphic instructions in his pocket that he was to be on the side of fairness, democracy and equal rights, decided he would cast his vote for a nominating committee.

This nominating committee, consisting of Russell Alger, Jr., Dr. A. F. Zahm, A. A. Ryan, Dr. J. C. Eberhardt and Geo. M. Myers, met between sessions, with the soothing influence of dinner to aid their deliberations.

CLUBS REPRESENTED

The clubs represented, with their voting delegates, are as follows: A. C. of America, two votes (Wm. W. Miller and Dave H. Morris), Buffalo (J. M. Satterfield), Baltimore (J. II. Joyce), Pittsfleld (C, F. Bishop), New England (C. F. Bishop), Milwaukee (C. F. Bishop), St. Louis (A. A. Ryan), Kansas State (W. B. Strang), Pennsylvania (A. T. Atherholt), Michigan (Russell Alger), Pasadena (XV. K. Searritt), Illinois (Victor Lougheed). Saratoga (G. A. Farnham). New Jersey (J. K. Duffy), Washington (Dr. A. F. Zahm), Intercollegiate (G. A. Richardson), Los Angeles (Ernest L. Jones), Harvard (.1. V. Martin). Dayton A. C. (J. C. Eber-l-arcR). Dayton Aeroplane Club (J. C. Eberhardt), Western Aero Ass'n (B. Sweet), Pittsburg (.1, K Duffy), Rochester (F. .1. Dollinger). Ohio (R. H. rpsoni. Kansas City (Geo. M. Myers), Pacific (Israel Ludlow).

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND HEAD

The Nominating Committee of the convention brought in the following list of names for the Executive Committee, which were pronounced to be

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elected by a vote for the adoption of the committee's report and which some delegates did not understand constituted a vote for the election of the nominees.: Robert J. Collier. Chairman; A. T. Atherholt, C. F. Bishop, J. K. Duffy, J. C. Eber-hardt, J. H. Joyce, A. B. Lambert, Geo. M. Myers, James E. Plew, G. A. Richardson, A. A. Ryan, J. M. Satterfield, Dr. A. F. Zahm, George B. Harrison, C. B. Harmon.

After the close of the Convention, the new Executive Committee met and elected J. H. Joyce, treasurer, and J. K. Duffy, secretary.

Contrary to the fate of most of the progressive motions, the one requiring the new Executive Committee to report to the various clubs comprising the Council its plans and changes in the constitution and by-laws, if any, and name, within sixty days from the date of the meeting, was passed.

SOME OF THE REMARKS

At the opening of the second session. Mr. Havens, a whole-hearted gentleman from Missouri, got the floor and sairl he had travelled 9,000 miles in connection with a national organization and wanted to get started right this time. He wanted to have a platform first and then elect officers afterward. He wanted to know if the X. C. was to be dominated by the A. C. A. He wanted to declare independence, reducing the A. C. A., etc. "I want this institution divorced from the A. C. A. If we are not to stand on our own bottom, with no individual or club having us to refer to them, then we had better go out of business and I so move. . . . Let's get a platform and then take up the election of officers, if 1 can get a seconder to it, organize, change our name as some individual organization, but let's get an organization that is independent and free and do what we want. As soon as you get a platform, get down to business and elect officers."

Ludlow wanted to know where the X. C. was tied to the A. C. A. and Havens referred him to the agreement of the X. C. with the A. C. A., which says:

"Whereas, in accordance with the constitution of the Aero Club of America providing for the organization of a National Council of representatives of clubs affiliated with the Aero Club of America, the Aero Club of America has called this meeting of representatives of such affiliated clubs for the purpose of organizing such National Council.

"Now, therefore, this agreement is hereby adopted as the agreement of organization of such National Council.

"The Aero Club of America hereby authorizes the organization of the National Council of the Aero Club of America. The Aero Club of America is confirmed as the representative of the International Aeronautic Federation."

W. W. Miller, attorney of the A. C. A., spoke, saying the A. C. A. had never interfered with the N. C. and wanted any changes in name, etc., to be entrusted to the Executive Committee about to be elected.

Havens said: "That is the very reason I am raising this question of having matters referred here and there when we can settle this proposition now, change the name and organize an independent institution and we won't have to refer to any committee."

This caused great discussion. The chairman made a long speech on the "great work the A. C. A. had done," its strength, that the "X. C. needed its help and must keep in accord with it."

A. T. Atherolt read a resolution, that whereas, "by reason of the fact that the X. C. has been placed in such a position that many actions are hampered, and in the opinion of many, that the X. C. is_ under the restraining influence of the A. C. A.," he asked the convention to renounce the A. C. A. and put it on the same footing with others.

Atherholt tried to tell of the failings of the A. C. A. but was prevented by the chairman from saying anything unpleasant about the A. C. A.

Miller spoke strongly of the kind feelings the A. C. A. had for the X. C, what it wanted to do for the X. C, how much the A. C. A. had given up, etc.

Lee S. Burridge, who was present holding an alternate's proxy and, therefore, not voting, moved a conciliatory measure, that "the executive committee be instructed that the sense of this meeting is that in its deliberations it should consider that no club should have more votes or more privileges than another, and that all clubs should be on the same basis, no matter what method of representation might be adopted.''

Miller considered It an insult to the Executive Committee to restrict their free deliberations on the subject, and others spoke, so Burridge, finding that the object sought, namely, harmony, was not to be attained, withdrew the motion.

J. K. Duffy offered a resolution that " as it is the purpose of the X. C. that it shall be in fact an absolutely independent national body, upon democratic lines, that will represent all properly organized aero clubs that may seek membership In it; and whereas, we are now on the threshold of a reorganization of the body; resolved, that the members of the X. C. declare it to be their purpose to effect an independent body representative of all aeronautic interests throughout the U. S. and to that purpose the delegates of the clubs here assembled pledge themselves." This was offered by Mr. Duffy as another conciliatory measure to satisfy all, but was strenuously opposed by the Aero Club people. Joyce said: "As a member of the Aero Club of Baltimore, I cannot subscribe." Miller, a co-member on the resolutions committee, said that since Mr. Duffy had not had time to properly prepare his resolution, it should be left to the Executive Committee to take the subject up untrammelled by any hasty instructions. Finally the resolution was withdrawn.

A motion was made and carried to the effect that the Executive Committee be authorized and instructed to make special inducements for a period of six months to attract all clubs to join.

Resolutions were passed on the deaths of Jacques Faure. Ralph Johnstone and Octave Chanute. A plan was started to have a Chanute Trophy.

EXTENSION OF DEWEY DECIMAL SYSTEM TO COVER

AERONAUTICS

By L. I'. Brode

ALE knowledge gained by a man may be classified by the Dewey Decimal System, devised some years ago by Mr. Melvil Dewey, of the Xew York State Library. As many of the modern arts and sciences were at that time-in their infancy, or even unknown, no provision, or an inadequate one, was made for them. Engineering and allied subjects have been provided for in "An extension of the Dewey Decimal System of Classification Applied tn the Engineering Industries," Bulletin Xo. 9 of the Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Illinois, Crbana, 111. The writer lias arranged a further extension, to cover the subject of Aeronautics, Dewey System number 533.6. 533. 6 Aeronautics. .61 Aerostation. ,811 Free spherical balloons. .612 Dirigible balloons.

.62 Aviation (Heavier-than-air machines.) .621 Monoplanes. .622 Biplanes. .623 Multiplanes.

.624 Tetrahedral machines. .625 Helicopters. .626 Ornithopters. In connection with this may be used the Hewey "form divisions" as follows:

01 Philosophy or theory

02 Compends, text-books, etc.

03 Cyclopedias, dictionaries 0 I Essays, addresses

05 Periodicals

06 Societies

07 Education, teaching. Schools, colleges, uni-

versities

OS Tables, calculations. Miscellanies 09 History. Progress and development To illustrate: Articles in the March Aeronautics may be indexed as follows:

Center of pressure on arched surfaces.. 533.62(0S)

Model flying, the new sport............ 533.62

The Los Angeles Aero meet............. 533.6(09)

Four new world records............... 533.62C09)

The Pfitzner monoplane................ 533.621

etc.

Belmont Promoters Enjoined

On December 6, a temporary injunction was granted the Wright Company, in an action to compel payment of $ir>,000, restraining the Aero Corporation, Ltd., from paying out any more money until the terms of the alleged agreement with the company were complied with.

According to an affidavit submitted by the complainant, the Aero Corporation paid $10,000 in cash for the participation of the Wright machines, and agreed to pay further the surplus of the gross receipts over $125,000 up to the sum of $15,000, making $25,000 in all. Grahame-White got $13,600 for himself alone, according to the prize list, while the Wright Company had Brookins, Parmalee, Hoxsey and Johnstone flying.

It is said in the affidavit that the gross receipts of the meet were over $200,000, while at the time the agreement with the Wright Company was executed. $125,000 was subscribed to conduct the affair. Prior to the execution of the agreement, complainant states, the Aero Corporation offered to pay the full $25,000 in cash, but that thereafter some of the subscriptions were said to have been withdrawn, and it was finally agreed that the complainant company would take its chances on remuneration beyond the $10,000.

The affidavit charges that sums are being paid out from the receipts, and it is possible that unless protected by the court, such distribution of funds will be made that the defendant may be left wholly without money to pay the Wright Company. It is also alleged that payment has been repeatedly asked, but that deponent lias been informed by defendant, "payment will be held up until after all other indebtedness of the defendant has been discharged and that they doubted whether funds to satisfy the claim would then remain." Further, the Aero Corporation has a capital stock of but $500, and "such corporation defendant is an organization incorporated chiefly for the purpose of conducting the aforesaid meet, and Is wholly without assets or prospect of assets, except those derived from such meet, and was formed at the instance of the Aero Club of America for thtf temporary purpose of running this meet, which was really being held under the auspices of such Aero Club, and to assume the liabilities thereof."

Allan A. Ryan, president of the Aero Club of America, general manager of the meet and, at one time, at least, a stockholder of the Wright Company, is reported in the New York Times as calling the action of the Wright Company, "A disgraceful attempt to force the corporation Into giving up $15,000, after it had lived up to all its obligations and fulfilled its contract with the Wright Company to the" letter.

"While the Aero Corporation is trying to advance the science and art of aviation, the Wrights are imbued only with the spirit of commercialism, and have little or no interest in the real science.

"The Wrights may be assured, the .aero Corporation will not repudiate any just debt or obligation, but the officers of the corporation will not submit to any attempt to collect money that Is not owed."

tors, etc., and space is being rapidly taken in this line.

A partial list of exhibits already contracted for

has been given out.

Among the prominent aeroplanes to be shown are:

A Wright machine, which has been built for Russell A. Alger, of Detroit, and the "Baby Wright" that Johnstone used in making his world record altitude flight: the Bleriot in which John B. Moisant flew from Paris to London, making his famous channel flight carrying a passenger with him. This machine is now at the Lovelace-Thompson aeroplane works being repaired. Another Moisant machine of all steel construction, which it is expected will successfully resist heavy strains in flying against sudden "pockets" of wind and shocks in alighting; a third machine of Moisant's, in which he made his famous flight across Brooklyn and around the Statue of Liberty; a Santos-Dumont "Demoiselle," which has been brought over from France for the exhibition; two machines built by Burgess Company and Curtiss. one of which is a large passenger-carrying biplane, and the other being a smaller biplane; a Lovelace-Thompson passenger-carrying aeroplane, and a racing machine built by the same company; Glenn H. Curtiss's famous machine in which be made his remarkable flight from Albany to New York, winning the $10,000 prize giv?n by the New York World; a Bleriot type monoplane, built by the Scientific Aeroplane Company of New York, in which a gyroscope lias been installed to demon-si rate the balancing and stabilizing power of this invention as applied to aeronautics; a Bleriot type of monoplane made by the Matz Company, of Waltham, Mass.: a monoplane of original type manufactured by the Walden-Dyott Company of New York; a biplane built by C. & A. Wittemann. of Staten Island; a dozen other machines of types not so well known, several of them of odd and novel construction.

The Aeronautical Society will display models in a special exhibition booth, which is to he devoted to the interests of that organization. In another booth the Aeronautic Reserve will have an exhibit which will be of great interest. The Reserve was organized to excite public interest in aeronautics and for the purpose of aiding the army and navy in lime of need. Two tents, such as the one which was erected at the Belmont Park Meet, are to be set up in the exhibition space and numerous persons prominent in aeronautics, are to be in daily attendance.

The Fliers' Club, an organization composed mainly of theatrical folk, including a number of high-fliers, is to have a section in the aeronautical division. The Junior Aern Club, under the direction of Edward Durant, is also to be represented at the show.

Exhibitions of special attractiveness in the Aviation Division will be the showing of aeroplane accessories, consisting of engines, parts, ailerons and other sections of machines which may now be ordered and supplied upon a few hours' notice in case of accident.

SUIT AGAINST WHITE

Just before. Grahame-White left for dear old Lunnon. papers were served upon him in an action brought by the Wright Company, alleging infringement. No injunction was taken, and the suit Is more or less one for an accounting and for damages sustained by the complainants.

No action has been taken as yet against the Moisant group.

New York Aero Show JliggeM Yel

Another floor lias been added to that set apart previously for the. aeronautic show in connection with the International Automobile Show in Grand Central Palace, Dec 31-Jan. 7. All the space available for full-sized machines has been about taken up Special provisions have been made for the allowing of accegsorles, such as propellers, mo-

Boston Aero Show

Boston Is to have another indoor aerial show. It will be held in the Mechanics' Building, as was the one last year, and will run one week, from February 20 to 25. It will be managed by Chester I. Campbell who, last year, with the material available, certainly made a most creditable showing. That this year should mark, not only an increase in interest, but an improvement in the nature of exhibits is assured.

The Harvard-Boston meet was a very successful event, and stirred the interest of even thos* who, up to that time, were skeptical of the future of aviation, and since then, many have had the desire to see the. celebrated types of aircraft at close range, with the result that Manager Camp-hell has received many communications requesting him to repeat last year's show,

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While the exposition of last year presented no less than IS full sized machines, as could not be otherwise than expected at that stage of affairs, most of them were in the experimental stage, but this year's exhibits will be an improvement, inasmuch as several of the actual machines, as well as types that have broken records, will be shown.

A number of indoor exhibitions of aeroplanes have been held throughout the country since the first show given in Boston, but it has been generally conceded by those who have witnessed them all. that the Boston Show took first rank and, as in the. past year, such marvellous strides have been made in the science-sport, every indication points to a great success in the coming exposition. Special prizes will also be offered for flying models, and as the price of exhibiting space for accessories has been put to the lowest possible figure, it is expected that all the adjuncts will be shown.

Manager Campbell is certainly to be congratulated for his efforts to stimulate interest in aviation in the East, and should have the support of everyone interested in aeronautics. All communications regarding space or other matters connected with the exposition, should be addressed to Chester I. Campbell, general manager Second National Exhibition Aerial Craft, 5 Park Square, Boston, Mass.

Book Keviews

KQl'IhlBltK, CENTR AGE ET CLASSIFICATION DBS AEROPLANES, par R. Saulnier, ingeenieur E. C. P.—Un volume in Smo. Prix: 3 francs.— Librarie Acronautique. Editeurs. 32. rue Madame, Paris.

Cet ouvrage offre un interet particulier par le fait qu'il resume les observations et les travaux sur l'aviation d'un veritable specialiste. son auteur ayant en effet line longue pratique de la construction et ilu pilotage (les biplans et des monoplans.

On y trouvera l'expose des considerations qui regissent la construction d'un appareil aerien et l'analyse des qualites particulieres que presentent les types les plus connus.

L'ouvrage commence par line etude mecanique du vol d'ou 1'auteur deduit la classification des planeurs et aeroplanes, puis suivent des chap-itres ahsolument inedits sur le "virage", la "tenue dans le vent" et le "vol plane".

Johnstone's Death

The opinion of an expert on the sad accident, at Denver, in which .Johnstone lost his life, is of interest to those who have tripd to figure out the direct cause of the fall. One observer is said to have noticed Johnstone fold up his glasses and put them in his pocket, drop bis cap and goggles to the ground, and then get out of his seat and crawl to the back of the plane. No aviator would leave his seat at such a height, surely. His action of putting his glasses away during the drop is one inexplainable.

The opinion first mentioned is as follows: "Johnstone had no difficulty flying his machine the first day, and nothing happened to his running gear. On landing in the narrow race-track, his left wing ran against the fence, splitting a bow. Rather than repair it, they simply took it off and put on a new wing. From everything that can be learned, it now appears that nothing whatever was the matter with the machine, but that he banked too steeply, reached the vertical and then warped his wings as far as they could go. to try and recover his balance. This would give the appearance, from the ground, of the wings on one side being bent down, and on the other side, being bent upward, and to the uninitiated this would look as though the wings were out of control or broken. It is evident that after the machine toppled over, he lost his seat and the control of the levers, and even after the machine had righted itself on the way down, he was unable to get hold of the levers and continue the balance. The breaking strain of the wires used tn the warping levers is about 2,401 pounds, and it would' be impossible to even approach this strain as long as this machine is in the air."

Incorporations

The Carter Aeroplane Co., St. Louis, Mo. Capital stock, fully paid, $7,000. Incorporators—D. B. Hyde, Beaer. Pa., 20 shares; O. H. Hvde, 19 shares; L. A. Carter, 20 shares; C. G. Andrews. 10 shares; Joseph Tremayne, 1 share. To manufacture and deal in toys, etc.

Duquet Aeroplane Co., Manhattan; construct aeroplanes, etc. Capital stock, $1,000. Incorporators: Louis G. Duquet. Chas. W. Reynolds, Rene Duquet, No. 107 West 36th street. New York city.

The Curtiss Aeroplane Co. of Hammondsport has been incorporated with a capital of $20,000. The directors are Glenn H. Curtiss, Lena Curtiss and G. Ray Hall.

The Fischer Aero Craft Construction Co., capital stock $100,000. Directors: P. J. Fischer, E. C. Cusaek, F. C. I. Barlow, C. W. Pinney, T. C. Van Epps, Los Angeles, Cal.

Western Aviation Co., Oroville, Cal. Orvar Meyerhoffer, Laurence Gardelia. C. E. Howard. J, M. Chubbuek and M. Schubener. The capital stock is $75,01)0.

Baltimore, Md.—E. R. Brown, 3s IS Roland avenue, is reported organizing Brown Aeroplane Works with $50,000 capital stock to establish plant to manufacture aeroplanes.

Bridgeton, N. J.—The George E. Cove Biplane Co.. of Bridgeton, N. J., will be incorporated; capital stock, $100,000. The purpose of the company is to manufacture flying machines, one of which is now nearing completion.

Birmingham, Ala.—The Birmingham Aeroplane Co.; capital stock. $5,000. Incorporators are: .lesse W. Alexander. R. B. Alexander, Hugh A. Locke. Edgar P. Self.

International Aviation Co., Chicago, 111.. $5,000; manufacturing and dealing in flying machines, appliances, etc.; George A. Haskell, Harvey G. Badgerow, William .1. Doyle.

Wadsworth Airship Co., Pittsburg. Pa.; capital stock of $20,000. The incorporators are John W. Wadsworth, Frank J. Schellman, E. E. Cranmer, Alexander W. Henry and John F. Millikon.

One of the best known French propellers, supposedly a true screw, of the usual size, supplied to Bleriot machines, 2.5 m. (S.2 feet) by 1.6 m. (5.2 feet) pitch, was found by a curious individual (who had the peculiar idea that both blades of a propeller should be somewhat similar) to be slightly at variance with the figures stamped on the hub as above noted.

 

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The propeller actually measured close to S.5 feet, and neither blade had the marked pitch of 5.2 feet. One had a pitch at 3.5 feet from thr axis of but S.'.i feet, while the other blade at the same point had a pitch of 3.15 feet. The highest pitch found was but 3.05 feet at the point from which measurements were begun, i. e., 2 feet out from the axis.

If says somewhere in the Bible that the lion and the lamb shall lie down together. The Aero Club of America is to have a meeting on January 6th in memory of Mr. Chanute. The president of the Aeronautical Society, Hudson Maxim, is to be asked to address the meeting and the members of the Society are to be invited.

AERONAUTICS

Januar^ 1011

"The Flyers" is the latest club in New York, the ambition of which is to have no members but those who actually get in the air literally. Sixty founders met at a banquet at Delmonico's on December 4, and pledged their intentions to depart from established parlor lines and make good on the name.

The club was organized by Leroy M. Taylor, a prominent New York sportsman in ballooning and yatcliting and club man, who drew liberally on the New York Yacht Club and the Lambs for enthusiasts. Joseph R. Grismer, who presided at the banquet, is Shepherd of The Lambs, and other members of this unique club are: George Broadhurst. George Ade, George V. Hobart. Augustus Barratt, Ernest Smillie, Robert Milliard, Col. James Elverson, Jr., Mason Peters, Clarence Harvey, Louis Sanger, who has bought a Curtiss and a Bleriot-type; Booth Tarkington. A. Leo Stevens, Geo. W. Gregory, N. H. Baruch, Harry T. Eschwege, Col. Jacob Ruppert, Mortimer "W. Smith and William L. Stowe.

Mr. Taylor has offered a cup to the member making the longest trip from North Adams or Pitts-field.

An Aero Club is being formed in Bristol, Tenn.-Va., and a preliminary meeting has been held at the Y. M. C. A. All men interested are asked to send their names to C. W. Morey at the Y. M. C. A.

The Aero Club of New England has elected the following officers: H. Helm Clayton, president; Nathan L. Armster, first vice-president; J. Walter Flagg, second vice-president; A. R. Shrigley, secretary; Harry G. Pollard,- treasurer; Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, Wl. H. Pickering, Charles J. Glid-den, Timothy E. Byrnes, Jay B. Benton and Harry Howard, directors.

The Aeronautical Keserve announces a $1,000 prize to the first member who succeeds in flying from the deck of a vessel one mile or more at sea, and landing on the same ship.

'I lie Ae:o Club of New Jersey has been incorporated with headquarters in Hackensack. The inc irporatoi-s named are Messrs. Harry P. Ward. William M. Jacobs, James K. Duffy, Augustus Post, W. R. Prinkman, Theodore Borttger, William P. Eager, Alfred Morrell and W. J. Wright.

'Hie New York Model Aero Club has been organized in New York city to popularize and study the science of aviation through models. The directors of the club are as follows: Edward Du-rant, honorary president; W. X. Picella, president; C. L. Ragot, F. Shoeber, vice-presidents; H. W. A Maass, secretary-treasurer; L. F. Ragot, Leo Stevens, A. Lacroix, G. Carisi, J. Roche, R. S. Bar-r.aby and H. E. Ragot.

The club meets weekly on Saturday evenings.

Tlie Dartmouth Aero Club has been organized with John W. Pearson, president; Louis P. Hall, vice-president; Richard F. Paul, secretary; James M. Mathes, treasurer.

The club intends to purchase a glider at once, adding more if success crowns the efforts. The club already has a small but good library, consisting of Aeronautics and other periodicals and several books. From time to time lectures will he given by experts and readings by members of the club. Here's success'.

The Aeronautical Society is desirous of learning the present address of the following members. Those who know their latest address, please advise at 1999 Broadway, New York: Mr. Chas. H. Deacon, Mr. Walter J. Plunkett,

Mr. Ernest Stahl, Mr. C. C. Lundin, Mr. F. Langi, Mr. Geo. A. Brown, Mr. L. A. Hunton, Mr. J. C. Stevens, Mr. F. Braudner. Mr. Percival G. Doty, Mr. P. F. Mattelay, Mr. Morris Bokor, Harsfa Utca, Mr. Jos. W. Ball,

Mr. R. E. Ernst, Mr. H. A. Bussing Mr. Allen E. Dickerman, Mr. L. S. Hebbard, Mr. J. C. Kirkner, Mr. Earl Kaake, Mr. G. R. Loveday, Mr. L. G. W. Schroeder, Mr. Francis Von Stern, Mr. Reinard Sturm, Mr. Francis de Sasso, Mr. Lewis Vitoch.

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MY PARIS TO LONDON FLIGHT

(Continued from page 2) and wind, and really it was all I eould do to keep in the machine. I was cold and had cramps in my hands. From 800 feet I dropped to 300 feet and landed in a wheat field near a brick yard at Tilmanstone. The next morning- we started for London. Everything went well until I got near London when one of my connecting rods broke. I repaired the rod in a few hours and was off again, but I diet not notice the rod had played a little mischief with one of the magneto gear wheels and it was almost broken. In five minutes the wheel broke and there t was over a forest and a chalkpit. I saw ahead a little spot where they had dug out to make bricks, about seven hundred feet long by three nundred feet wide. "If I ean only make that spot," I thought. "I'm all right." The half hour's ride to London took me two weeks to accomplish. Automobiles were offered me to go over the route to London but I deeided I would not take an automobile if I never got to London. I started in an aeroplane, and in an aeroplane I must get to London. And eventually I got to London.

PATENTS

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You get it here at Minimum Cost. Also Working Drawings and Reliable Data for Flying Machines. AUG. P. JURGENSEN, M. E. _170 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY

PATENTS—A Talk to the Inventor

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PRIZE NEEDED FOR EXPERIMENTS In the course of some correspondence with Mr. W. R. Turnbull, of Rothesay. N. B., Canada, who is known all over the world for his work in aeronautics, the matter of prizes for experimental work was discussed and we have taken the liberty of printing below a portion of Mr. Turnbull's letter:

"The popular opinion. notwithstanding. the science of aeronautics is in its infancy and should be encouraged, as we cannot hope, for a satisfactory solution lo the problem of aeri-.il navigation until we have more scientific knowledge. If the money that is at present spent in aviation meets, the big prizes meaning simply a disproportionately large loss of life in accidents, were applied to solving the many problems that are presented to the thoughtful designer, the advancement of the science would undoubtedly be more rapid "

HELICOPTER PATENT FOR SALE W. E. Colyer. Box 391, Saranac Lake, N. Y., has patent 897.73S. Sept. 1. 190S, to dispose of. The machine covered therein is of the helicopter type, comprising two superposed screws or discs on concentric upright shafts driven by bevel gears, and rotating in opposite directions. There is a framework upon which is mounted the engine, drivers' seat, etc.. with means for shifting the center of gravity by a lever in order to tilt the lifting screws and give the whole apparatus a forward movement. Steering right and left is effected by a vertical rudder at the rear of the frame.

There, are two claims in the patent, abstracted as follows:

A flying machine comprising a main frame, oppositely rotating propellers carried thereby, a supplemental frame suspended from the main frame, said supplemental frame comprising hangers pivotally connected with the main frame, a bottom bar pivotally connected with the hangers, and a link joining the hangers above the bottom bar, drive gearing supported by the main and supplemental frames fcr driving the propellers, and adjusting means connected or associated with the bottom bar and link of the supplemental frame to change the center of gravity of machine

CENTER OF LIFT

Question.—I am building a monoplane something on the order of the Bleriot. and would like to know just where the center of lift of my plane will be when in flight, which 1 judge will be ap proximately 40 miles an hour. Curve of plane ribs to radius of 2s feet, true circle. 7 feet in depth (chord), 0 degrees angle of incidence. L. G.

Answer.—Radius of 2S feet gives curvature about 1 in 2S. Eiffel figures for 1 in 14 at t; degrees give 43 per cent from front; M. B. Sellers, for I in 24, 6 degrees. 42 per cent from front. In present case the e. of p. would be about 40 per cent from front, or 2.S feet. For TO degrees angle c. of p. would be about one-third back.

BISSELL HAS NEW MOTOR

Pittsburg. Pa.. Dec. 3. £910. To the Editor of Aeronautics,

New York City: I am sending under separate cover tracing of a new 2-cycle gasoline motor, which please return at your earliest convenience. It's an Ocean Crosser!

As a whole magazine full of words would be required were one compelled to drag out all the reasons in detail why this arrangement actually will perform its functions as claimed, it seems reasonable to assume your readers are more or less familiar with the theory of heat engines—so if we "fire her off" by bawling out both long and loud the fact that a foreign government, well up in such matters, actually did request not only complete details but the eostivity thereof in face of recent motor improvements. Certainly a- club, this, well calculated to mash fiat the empty skulls of prejudice—good enough for a world power, good enough for aeropower—how's that?

It's a fact gas engines inhale a lot more fumes than can be economically assimilated. They are fed like the old style steam engines which were controlled by governors only, before cut offs came into vogue. This enormous waste not only costs like sin. but aeroplanes can't travel nearly so far as they should were the defect remedied, and worse still, they're obliged to grind over two extra cycles solely for scavenging purposes. As I recall the actual figures, out of a possible SO per cent, at least 30 per cent is sacrificed, through conduction—12 in premature exhaust and 10 by muffler, or its alternative, a deafening roar. And as 10 per cent goes to friction, only a meagre 20 per cent remains for work, and that with but one efficient speed. Then consider induced friction, particularly in air-cooled motors, otherwise rivers of "castor"—and nearly every quart costs a whole H. P. to keep aloft? Water cooling adds both weight and complication—just think of it?

Now whet up your wits for a round with the graphic analysis—nothing but a cylinder, piston and big goose neck plus a small valve or so and car-

buretor. Were 1 to itemize what there is not it might become tedious. Only one quarter the amount of gas dine used here in comparison with other engines per II. P.. mind you. How? Well, as stated above, water cooling or its equivalent absorbs over 30 per cent, premature exhaust 10 per cent, and muffler 10 per cent. Total 52 per cent. My engine hasn't any of these vampires to contend with—it doesn't need them—it expands the charge, as in a good steam engine, nearly to atmosphere and is only expected to cram the cylinder on special occasions, hence, there is no need for a muffler, for there is no noise to muffle? All the heat generated in combustion either drives the piston forward by expansion, or is sucked around the goose neck to keep the cylinder walls at the proper temperature. 300 degrees F., and is thereby practically exhausted.

Lubrication is easy because the working members are remote from excessive temperatures.

Hut here is another superb feature: i.e.. the working charge can be varied at will without altering compression a single ounce, and owing to construction of combustion tube will remain segregated from the inert gases.

Any good heat conducting metal will serve for the "goose's neck"—aluminum for example—however, copper seems more appropriate for terrestrial applications.

With best wishes for the coming season, am Yours very truly, Box 795, Pittsburg. Pa. Jos. E. Bissell.

EXCHANGE AND FORUM

Aeronautics January, mi

AERONAUTICAL PATENTS

Harry C. Gammeter, CoIIinwood. O. 9GS.931, Aug. 30, 1910. Bailed Oct. 9, 1907. FLYING MACHINE of the orthopter type, the main characteristics of which are that the wings are provided with a stiffening bar at the front while the outer and rear edges are free from rigid restraint. Radiating ribs are covered with fabric iu strips secured at their upper edges and forming valves.

John M. Biggs, Dayton, O. 96S.S34, Aug. 30, 1910. Filed June 28, 1909. A Kit UI'LANE FLYING MACHINE. A series of planes have a car suspended therefrom, means being provided to tilt the pianos from the car. Wheels and skids are provided, the former normally below and under stress of increased pressure or "undue weight" to move upwardly and bring the skids into operative position.

Gardner C. Luther, Providence, K. I. !><J9.G4:>, Sept. G, 1910^. Piled June 14, 1910. CABLE PROPELLED AEROPLANE. An amusement device consisting of a supported aerial cable, power driven and endless, with means for securing gliders thereto.

Andrew A. Heil, St. Louis, Mo. 969,S65. Sept. 13, 1910. Filed Oct. 5, 1909. AEROPLANE, the novelty of which resides in a box like frame containing the propelling means consisting of a spiral propeller encircling its shaft several times and increasing in diameter from its ends to the center. Wings or planes are pivotally mounted at the sides of the frame with means provided to adjust their inclination, and directing members are universally pivoted on the front and back sides.

Angust von Parsefal, Charlottenburg, Germany. 970,262. Sept. 13, 1910. Filed April 6, 190S. CONTROLLING DEVICE FOR AIRSHIP. This invention consists of a system of inlet and outlet valves with two or more airbags and an air chamber, to which they are connected by tubes that as air is supplied to one bag, the air contained in the other is permitted to escape.

Richard P. Marable, Yuma, Ariz. 970,S42. Sept. 20, 1910. Filed Aug. 30, 1909. AERIAL NAVIGATION. A combined balloon and aeroplane. The cigar-shaped aluminum body is divided into separate gas compartments by bulkheads. Annular engine chambers are also provided for several engines acting independently on propellers arranged at different points around the body. A plurality of aerial planes extend longitudinally on each side of the body, and means are provided for independently adjusting the planes.

T. A. Edison, 970,016. Sept. 20, 1910. FLYING MACHINE. Already noticed in November Aeronautics.

John W. Wilson, Boston, Mass. 970,771. Sept. 20, 1910. Filed Jan. 2. 190S. FLYING MACHINE, more specifically an aeroplane. Two frames one above the other bear respectively the seat and driving wheels below and a plurality of planes above. These frames are flexibly connected to allow longitudinal movement of the upper frame as well as a tilting movement. The propellers are mounted above the planes and are connected to the driving power with the wheels on the lower frame, so as to be rotated jointly.

Peter Robert Torbrand, Denver, Colo. 970,974. Sept. 20, 1910. Filed Feb. 25, 1910. FLYING MACHINE. Stabilizing device for aeroplanes by means of pendulum. The frame structure is provided fore and aft with horizontal and vertical rudders respectively, and at the sides are lateral balancing planes. The pendulum is operatively connected to all indirectly in such manner that any motion of the pendulum will impart motion to one or more of these devices according to the direction of swing or lilt.

Wm. H. Fauber, Nanterre, France. 971,030. Sept. 27, 1910. Filed Oct. 24. 190S. AEROPLANE, consisting of a central longitudinal arched plane member with lateral plane members extending at the sides, one at the rear of the other, with the forward edges above the level of their rear edges, and having the rear portions downwardly curved. The planes are collapsible.

Maurice Ackerman, Washington, D. C. 971,235. Sept. 27. 1910. Filed Sept. 21, 1909. FLYING MACHINE, more specifically an aeroplane. Construction embodies two superposed planes movable in parallelism with relation to each other. A rear-

wardly extending cage containing the motor and propeller mechanism is mounted on the planes through a universal joint connection, and at the front a frame similarly mounted carries rudder mechanism. Means are provided for turning the rear cage and forward frame simultaneously in opposite directions.

Leonard E. Clawson, San Francisco, Cal. 971,35S. Sept. 27, 1910. Filed Nov. 5, 1908. AERIAL MACHINE, the characteristic features of which consist of oscillating wings, propeller and guiding rudders operated by oscillating liquid containing transmitters actuated by motors which in turn are set in motion by hand and foot operated levers. The several motors are capable of operation by the weight and manual power of a single person.

Hermann Hartmann and Wilhelm Klehe, New York, N. Y. 971,535. Oct. 4, 1910. Filed Dec. 4. 1909. AEROPLANE, comprising a single plane at the front and a pair of biplanes at the rear extending at the sides of a central frame to which they are so mounted that they may be tilted. The biplanes converge at the rear, while at their forward edges they extend to the same width with the rigid single plane.

John Emery Harriman, Jr.., Brookline, Mass. 972,448. Oct. 11, 1910. Filed Feb. S, 1904. FLYING MACHINE of the aeroplane type. A plurality of wings composed of superposed planes are secured together at their inner and outer extremities, and made collapsible at will of the operator. The wings are pivoted together and a support for the operator is suspended therefrom.

Sylvanus S. Morrison, Newport, Ky., assignor of 9-20ths to Walter I. Buckman, Covington, Ky. 972,395. Oct. 11, 1910. Filed April 6, 1910. AUTOMATIC BALANCING MECHANISM in flying machines. A supporting surface sueh as a plane is

provided with an operating mast extending down to the suspended car. A propeller is mounted on a turn table so connected to the mast that upon a certain extent of swing the turn table is swung bv the mast and the thrust of the propeller will right the apparatus.

Rocko T. Savino, New York, N. Y. 973.3S9. Oct. IS, 1910. Filed Feb. 5, 1910. FLYING MACHINE, more specifically an airship or dirigible balloon, the characteristic construction of which resides in the suspended frame being slidably connected with the bag so as to be adjustable at different elevations therefrom. The frame is provided with lifting and propelling screws and also with oscillating wings.

Vincent C. De Yharrondo. Los Angeles, Cal. 973.39S. Oct. IS, 19t0. Fib d June 14, 1909. CAPTIVE AIRSHIP MECHANISM. An airship carousel driven by screws mounted on the ships. Means of the nature of planes are provided for varying the course of travel, which, however, is limited, since the ships are suspended from cross bars as usual in carousels.

John M. Davis. McGraw. N. Y., assignor of one-half to Clarence II. Motzler, Binghamton, N. Y. 973,632. Oct. 25. 1910. Filed Jan. 31, 1910. AEROPLANE of the biplane type with rdanes having forwardly convergent sides, flat front ends and gradually increasing cross-sectional curvature towards rear ends. A tilt plane Is provided at front end of upper plane, while at rear a rudder is mounted and on its top a shield is provided curved transversely to correspond with the rear end portion of upper plane.

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THIS practical book shows how to build and operate Flying Machines. The book is known as the "Aeronautical Bible." Pocket size,250 pages, fully illustrated, bound in cloth. Piice $1.00 postpaid. Sold by booksellers generally.

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Manufactured Especially for — Aeroplanes-

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

j» Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request

I The C. E. Conover Co.

jj MANUFACTURERS

I 101 Franklin St., New York ■++++++++++++++++•<

Smalley-Aero

The & Aluminum

1

| With its great power and never failing reliability 2 makes it the motor "Par Excellence1' for aviation.

The great fame of our " SMALLEY" Marine Motors for winning more races, each season, than any other motor, will be exceeded by the power, performance, and satisfaction given aviators by our "SMALLEY-AERO."

It is a motor that can be depended on to stay up and keep going as long as the fuel lasts.

Two cycle; 4}" bore and stroke; 2, 3, 4, or (> cylindered.

Made completely of Aluminum. Our own exclusively devised Aluminum Cylinders with Cast Iron liners where pistons travel. (Patent applied for.)

Handsome beyond expression, resembling solid silver. Stronger than Iron or Steel alone. Very light, being Aluminum, and no factor of safety slighted. Gives more pounds pull per pound in weight than any other motor in the world.

A reliable, dependable, powerful motor made by responsible people, and fully guaranteed. Prompt deliveries, and prices right. Write us for particulars.

General Machinery Co., Bay City, Mich., U.S.A.

>

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t t

California Aero.

Mfg. & Supply Co. I t The Wanzer Monoplane j

-; 441 -443 Golden Gate Av., San Francisco - ► J We carry in stock—immediate delivery: j

Motors from 20-SO II. P. up to 60 II. I*.

Monoplanes, $200.00, $350.00, $500.00, without power.

Biplanes, $51)0.00, without power.

2 Biplane* (fine fljers) in good condition with power. Prices on application.

"Camasco" Knock Down Planes from $150.00 up. Aero Wheels $4.50 up. Unbreakable $6.25.

Naiad Cloth and Rcqun-Gibsoi) propellers in slock. Genuine, Imported, Farman tnrnbiickles and eye holts.

T Agents:—Elbridge Motors, Parabolel Propellers, T Naiad Cloth, nil makes of Aero Tires, Uctioit Motors.

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j 1911 i

Long-distance will be the demand from this time on; the spectacular will give place to a more utilitarian view of Aeronautics

The Wanzer 1!)I1 model monoplane conies forward with the following claims:

That it is steel framed—twin screw— gravity ^i, and thrust balanced—pneumatic folding, s arling and stopping device, carries a car for the protection of crew and passengers and tlrs car is warmed by aluminum tubes which cool the engines by the circulation of water.

Power is furnished by two or more engines ^L, so attached to the drive shaft that the stoppage of one does not interfere with the work of the other. A start can he made from any surface that will permit the car lo stand upright, and which is not obstructed by buildings or trees.

Built in two sizes, two and live thousand s<j. ^i, ft., surface measure.

This Craft is not an Infringement and is fully Protected by Patents

kui.i. pakticti.ahs on* application

Orders for next season will now be accepted

| \ CM.WANZER, Urbana,0hio j

Patents

STEERING MECHANISM FOR FLYING MACHINES, 974,229, Nov. 1, 1910, filed May 1, 1909, Carl Bostel, Cleveland, O. Combination of a frame, a shaft rotatably mounted therein, steering planes hinged at each end of shafts, arms pivotally secured to free ends of planes, sliding blocks arranged within said shaft, means connecting arms and blocks, bars connected to blocks and provided at free ends with racks, a gear wheel mounted in shaft and adapted to mesh with racks on rods and means for rotating gear wheel,

PROPELLER WHEEL, 974,344, Nov. 1, 1910, filed Jan. 5, 1909, James Bennett, San Francisco, Cal. Revolving wheel with vanes mounted on what might be termed spokes of the wheel, said spokes, or spindles revolving independently, allowing vanes to turn through one-fourth revolution, so that they present maximum resistance to wind at one portion of revolution of wheel and least at another.

SKELETON FOR BALLOON OR AIRSHIP COVERINGS, 974,434, Nov. 1, 1910, filed Aug. 14, 1909, Wilhelm Rettig, Berlin. Germany. Wooden skeleton frame inclosing gas bags, so arranged and connected that they form a continuous reticulated convex body with intervening triangular meshes.

BLADE FEATH ERIXG MECHANISM, 974.490, Nov. 1, 191(1, filed Feb. 21, 190S, Hugo Huckel, Neutitschein, Austria-Hungary.

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FLYING MACHINE, 974,554, Nov. 1, 1910, filed Dec. 10, 1909, Louis L. Crane, of New York. Similar to a box kite, having one of the sections thereof pivotal while the other section is provided with rudders or steering wings, and with a motor and propeller.

TOY PARACHUTE, 974,733, Nov. 1, 1910, filed Nov. 6, 190S, Maurice E. Wright, San Diego, Cal. Monoplane type, three following main planes, with a pair of feathering multiple bladed propellers on each side rotating in a vertical plane.

GEARING FOR PROPELLERS, 974,961, Nov. 8, 1910, filed Mar. 29, 1909, William A. Hall, Los Angeles, Cal. Propeller gearing to provide means for adjusting propeller so that it will rotate in any plane above or below the center line of drive while the propeller is in motion.

AERIAL TOY, 975,182, Nov. 8, 1910, filed July 29, 1909, Zoe D. Underbill, Bedford Station, New York.

APPARATUS FOR TESTING FLYING MACHINES AND LEARNING ART OF AVIATION, 975,196, Nov. s, 1910, filed Oct. 11, 1909, Richard Alexander-Katz, Berlin, Germany. Provides a traveling, suspensory support for aviator and his machine, comprising an aerial track from which flying machine is rotatably suspended from one end of a rope, the other end of which is attached to a suitable counterweight.

FLYING MACHINE. 975,229. Nov. S, 1910, filed Nov. 22, 1909, Roscoe C. Gore, Tecumseh, Neb. Flapping wing device.

INFLATED AEROPLANE, Nov. S, 1910, filed Aug. 7, 1 909. Arthur E. Maiden. Fort Lee. X. J. Aeroplane with hollow wings to be filled with hydrogen gas.

975,403.

LIFE SAVING DEVICE, 975,281, Nov. S, 1910, filed Apr. 29, 1910, John J. Rectenwald, Mt. Oliver Borough, Pa. Parachute device with means for propulsion if landing made in water and means for carrying supplies in floating medium.

TOY, 975,291, Nov. S, 1910, filed Dec. 2S, 1909, John Schramm, Chicago, 111.

CAR SUSPENSION FOR AIRSHIPS, 975,330, Nov. S, 1910, G. A. Crocco and O. Ricaldoni, Rome, Italy, filed Mar. 27, 1!»09. Device for the suspension of short cars to long gas bags. Suspension of car to longitudinal beam in interior of bag. Beam rests freely on bottom of same so that the tissue is not hindered from contracting or expanding.

SHOCK ABSORBING DEVICE FOR AEROPLANES, 975,403, Nov. 15, 1910, filed June 20, 1910, J. W. Dunne, London, England, assignor to Blair Atholl Aeroplane Syndicate, Ltd. Single or double system of supporting rods and springs or other shock absorbers, each system comprising, when viewed in side elevation, radius rods pivoted

to the body of aeroplane at points fore and aft and to the lower and upper ends respectively of a rod or frame carrying the wheels or other support together with a spring connection between the upper end of said rod or frame and a central support on the body of the aeroplane; also, comprising a double system under frame, with a pair of wheels or other supports as above having universally jointed rods and spring cross connections connecting the right band and left hand systems.

AERIAL PROJECTING APPARATUS, 975,953, Nov. 15, 1910, filed March 5, 1910, Iskander Hour-wich, Washington, D. C. Collapsible or knockdown device for launching at varied and controlled speeds.

FLYING MACHINE, 976,161 Nov. 22, 1910, filed Aug. 4, 1909, Silas H. French, Oberlin, O. Propeller adapted to co-operate with planes to combine advantages of both the aeroplane and helicopter, with means for controlling direction of flight and maintaining equilibrium by means of feathering propeller blades.

MILITARY AERONAUTICS IN AMERICA

THE report of Brigadier General James Allen, chief signal officer of the army, to the secretary of war, dated 1910, contains a short resume of progress in aviation and aerostatics during the past year and considers the importance of aeronautics in connection with the United States Army.

From United States Consular reports and other available sources of information, it is estimated that Germany at present possesses 14 military dirigible airships and five aeroplanes; France, seven military dirigible and 29 aeroplanes, and these numbers are being rapidly increased by liberal appropriations.

MILITARY AIRMANSHIP "The Signal Corps at present has but one lieutenant and nine enlisted men on duty in connection with aeronautics, and until the Signal Corps is increased by suitable legislation it will be impossible to furnish more officers and men for the absolutely necessary training demanded in airmanship. There is now but one officer of the Signal Corps who is a licensed pilot for free balloons. At a low estimate, it is believed that at least twenty aeroplanes should be in the service of the United States on regular practice at different points of the country throughout the year and present at the camps of instruction for regular troops and organized militia. This estimate is considered extremely low and would provide but two aeroplanes for each camp of instruction. To operate this number of aeroplanes would require at least 20 specially trained officers as pilots. In addition lo this, each machine must carry at least one observer, which, experience has shown, will require much training and actual practice before the usefulness of the aeroplane is attained. The new Field Service Regulations, 1910, provide for aeronautical companies of the Signal Corps fully equipped with suitable aeronautical devices for service witli the mobile forces. At present not even a model of such a company could possibly be organized, nor will it be possible to do so until the Signal Corps is increased by suitable legislation.

AERONAUTICAL TESTS AND RESEARCH "Realizing the importance of aeronautics. Great Britain has recently appointed an advisory committee for aeronautics, with the Right Honorable

Lord Rayleigh as president and nine other gentlemen eminent in the military, naval, and physical sciences as associates. This committee has submitted an interim report, which has been printed for Parliament and outlines a thorough and systematic programme for the theoretical and experimental investigations in aerostatics and aerodynamics as bearing on the important problems constantly arising in aerial navigation. The National Physical Laboratory, which corresponds to the United States Bureau of Standards, has been provided with special buildings and apparatus suitable for undertaking various kinds of aeronautical experiments and tests under the direction of the Government to encourage in every possible way the advance of this new science in Great Britain.

"In Germany the University of Gottingen has for a number of years given special attention to aerodynamical experiments in a specially constructed and well-endowed laboratory, and it is understood that in the latest designs of dirigible airships for the German Government valuable assistance has been received from the study of models in this laboratory.

"in France the University of Paris has recently been richly endowed and provisions made for carrying forward similar experimental work for the citizens of the French Republic.

"In Russia one of the best equipped aerodynamical laboratories in the world has been founded near Moscow.

"In addition to this, aerial navigation has become the subject of special instruction at various universities in Europe.

"It is evident that the United States should, without delay, make due provision for carrying on similar work for the various government departments interested, and to assist the large number of American inventors and manufacturers at present devoting themselves to the problems of aerial navigation.

"Aerial navigation has taken hold of the entire civilized world as no other subject in recent times, and represents a movement that no forces can possibly check.

"In its military aspects it is a subject which we must seriously consider, whether we wish to or not, and the sooner this fact is acknowledged and measures taken to put us abreast with other nations the better it will be for our national defense."

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

-IN STOCK OR TO ORDER-

EL ARCO RADIATOR CO. 6EASw™rtkreet

34

THE LIFE AND WORK OF CCTAVE CHANUTE

(Continued from page 3)

The papers read at and contributed to the Conference iill a volume of more than four hundred pages. The authors were men of acknowledged merit in various parts of the world. The attendance averaged about one hundred at eacli session.

In the summer of 1S96 Mr. Chanute began his now well-known experiments on the sand-dunes with man-carrying gliders. These were continued in the following year. The accounts of this very important part of his work have been fully given in various magazines and pamphlets.

Beginning with the glider of the form which had been used by the German Lilienthal, two years of study and experiment enabled him to produce a type having great superiority in the matter of stability and efficiency.

For many years Mr. Chanute was in regular communication, personally and by correspondence. with all the men he could find who were intelligently trying to do research work in aviation. The help which he gave to such men can never be fully known or measured.

The counsel and encouragement which lie gave to Wilbur and Orville Wright have been gratefully and gracefully acknowledged by them. It is all a matter of history. It came to them at the time when it was most needed, when they were at the foot of the steepest part of the unblazed trail. It gave them the courage and confidence which were essential to enable them to keep on alone and to emerge at last at the summit, triumphant.

Mr. Chanute died in Chicago on the 23d of November. Three, daughters and one son survive him.

Those who knew him will always remember his lovable character and will think of the oft-repeated saying, "He was more willing to give credit to others than to claim any for himself."

We may well believe that whenever in the future the history of aviation shall be reviewed, the name Chanute will stand forth as that of one of the few great founders.

i

* Secured or Fee returned *

patents

Send sketch for free search of Patent Office Records How to obtain a Patent, and what to invent, with List of inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for Inventions sent free. Patents advertised free.

We are experts in AIRSHIPS and patents and technical matters relating to AERIAL NAVIGATION

4

| VICTOR J. EVANS & CO. J

* WASHINGTON, D. C. J

the roberts aeroplane motor

4-CYLINDER 40-H.P. 165-POUNDS

Designed by E. W. Roberts, M. E., America's Leading Gas-Engine Expert, and formerly Chief Assistant and designer on Sir Hiram S. Maxim's aeroplane in England.

T

everything shown, except the propeller. Propeller and radiator furnished with motor. This is a motor absolutely free from freak ideas and gives its rated H.P. at 1,000 r.p.m. The only two-cycle guaranteed free from base explosions. Long bearings, large crankshaft, Bosch magneto, free from vibration, and a motor that will run for any length of time without missing or overheating of bearings.

Write For Catalogue Today.

The ROBERTS MOTOR CO.

1430 Columbus Avenue - Sandusky, Ohio

AEROPLANES

with and without Power

Expanding type Propellers $75 to $100

Illustrated Catalogue

-OF-

Aeronautical Building Material

AVIATOR WITH A GENUINE IMPORTED DEMOISELLE FURNISHED FOR EXHIBITIONS Enclose eight cents in stamps R. O. RUBEL, Jr. & CO., 132 4th St.

WE SERVE YOU The Aero Supply House of America

promptly LOUISVILLE, KY.

Large

WEIGHT

6-Jj oz. per square yard

STRENGTH 130 lbs. per square inch

A perfect material for covering planes. Is thoroughly water-proofed on both sides by a rubber-coating. It will not stretch or absorb moisture.

It is at least three times as strong as any other fabric on the market, with only a slightly additional weight.

A covering of Penacloth gives added strength to the whole structure.

PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO., Jeannette, Pa.

MAKERS OF AEROPLANE TIRES IN ALL SIZES.

BRANCHES

Pittsburgh, 505 Liberty Ave. :: :: Chicago, 1241 Michigan Ave. :: :: Detroit, 882 Woodward Ave PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO. OF NEW YORK, New York City, 1741 Broadway

PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER CO. OF CALIFORNIA | S"A^geli«"930 S. mS°S?'

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We manufacture RIBS, SKIDS, PROPELLERS, HOLLOW WING BARS, Etc. Our equipment is perfect and we are prepared to execute any special work.

DEALERS SUPPLIED

Chicago Embossed Mldg. Co., 1

339-1349 CLYBOURN PLACE CHICAGO, ILL.

IN THE cJERIAL MARKET PLACE

TO OUR FRIENDS—11"e would appreciate it very much if you would specify in writing advertisers that you saw the ad. in AKKOXACTICS. This irilt help ms, and eventually be of eipial service tu yoursetves.

The Sellers Aernplsme

It is likely that R. O. Ruliel. Jr., & Co.. of Louisville. Ky.. will shortly arrange with M. B. Sellers to market his quadroplane. The last month four Detroit Aeroplane Co. motors were sold to: Chas. Wiekliffe, of Louisville: W. W. Tranah, Shawnee, Okla.; W. F. Morehead, Guerdon, Ark.: Frank Bean, Sacramento. Cal. A biplane is being delivered to the editor of the •"Daily Telegram," of Temple, Tex.

Simms .Motor Starter

A novelty placed upon the market this year by the Simms Magneto Co. is the Simms motor starter. This entirely new device has been exhibited for the first time at the last (Jlymphi Show in London, and has attracted everybody's attention. This system consists of the usual high tension magneto and of a neat brass switch mounted convenient for the user. When the switch is in the "on" position, a small trembler begins to operate and allows the battery current to flow through the primary winding of the magneto. The high tension current generated in the secondary winding of the magneto armature is then distributed in the usual way to the cylinder, which is filled with explosive mixture. As soon as the motor has reached a certain speed the battery circuit is interrupted and the magneto comes into operation. This system is remarkable for its great simplicity. It has the advantage of the so-called dual ignition system, namely, starting the motor from the seat, but none of the disadvantages, such as high tension connections, high tension switch or separate coil. Only one set of sparking plugs is used. This will be shown at the Madison Square Garden, January 7-21. and in Chicago, January 2S-February 11, shows.

The Simms distributors for 2-S cylinder motors will also be displayed. They may be used either in conjunction with a magneto or batteries. They are designed and made on magneto lines. The vita! parts of Simms distributors, such as contact breaker and high tension distributor arm, are actually standard magneto parts. They, therefore, embody all the advantages of the construction of the magneto.

There will also be shown various special Simms magnetos for aeroplane motors

1 !> 1 I Elbridge .Motors

The Elbridge Company, at Rochester, expects to double its business the coming vear. The new I-cylinder engine weighs 1 r»4 pounds, without magneto, but otherwise complete. It maintained on the block 57.S h.p. for half an hour, under the servation of Arthur P. Homer, a naval architect of Boston, who has taken the Xew England agency. Since then, the company states, it has run a l-eylinder engine for 10 hours at 1.200 r.p.m. under full load, throttle wide open, spark fully advanced, and not the slightest adjustment was made from the time the engine was put on the block until it was taken off. We only made the. run to satisfy ourselves that a man could reasonably expect to meet every existing duration record with one of these stock engines. There was not the slighest deterioration in power nor the least sign of wear in bearings or any other part of engine.

Longfellow Monoplane

A Bleriot type monoplane is being put on the market by the Longfellow Monoplane Co., of Boston, Mass. Following are the details:

The machine has a sustaining surface of 160 square feet: fusilage. oval steel tubing, selected hickory and spruce: lateral stabilizer and interchangeable parts. The lenstli over all is 24 feet, and spreads 2fi feet. Control is universal with horizontal wheel for warping and elevating. A 7-foot laminated propeller with 2f>0 pounds thrust is used. The running gear is of Shelby steel tub-

ing, bridge construction. The wings of the machine are made of spruce, laminated trussing, quick detachable. A 30-h.p., 2-cylinder opposed. 2-cycle revolving motor with a Bosch high tension magneto has been installed. A speed of 50 miles an hour is claimed. Net weight is 450 pounds. Price complete, $I,S00 f.o.b. Boston.

Rations for lialloouists

In connection with the recent trying experiences of Hawley and Post in getting to civilization after landing with the balloon "America II.", and the other aeronauts who had exciting experiences without adequate rations for a prolonged march, the chocolate preparation devised by Powell's, 415 Canal St., Xew York, ought to come in for a share of attention.

A composition of chocolate, sugar, egg and malted milk, not in the least too sweet, is incased in a sealed tin packet weighing just 11 oz. This contains enough nourishment to sustain in perfect physical condition an average man for 24 hours. It is the same as is now being manufactured for the U. S. Army and can be supplied to the public as well. The ration itself weighs S oz. and can be eaten either dry or made into a beverage. A half dozen of these, which can easily be carried in one's pockets, would last a week and the danger of succumbing to extreme hunger be avoided. A sample can be had by addressing as above.

The exact composition of the Powell ration on which General Fred Grant. Commander of the Army of the East, lived for three days, is as follows: Chocolate liquor, 47.17 per cent; nucleo-casein, fi.SS: malted milk. S.SS; dessicated eggs, 20.64: sugar, 13.76: cocoa butter, 3.66; moisture (not over), 3.62 per cent.

Fox De Luxe Motors

The Dean Mfg. Co., of Newport, Ky.. has issued its 1911 catalogue of Fox De Luxe two-cycle engines. Five different aero motors are priced, as follows: 24-36 h.p.. 4-cyl.; 36-48 h.p., 6-cyl.; 60-S0 h.p., 4-cyl.; 90-120 h.p. 6-cyl.; and 80-100 h.p., 4-cyl. The first two have cylinders 3\i x 3V2. the next two, 4% x 4U. and the other 51;. x 5. with weights running 150. 200. 300, 450 and 400 pounds respectively. Prices are: $1,000, $1,500. $2,000, $3,400 and $3,000. These include radiator, tan. water pump and Bosch high tension magneto, gear driven.

DETAILS OF PARTS

In all sizes and types of Fox Motors there are certain general features that are similar. The distinctive features of each type are described later.

The Cylinder and Cylinder Head are cast together, in one piece, of semi-steel, machined inside and out. with ample water jackets of spun brass held in place by a steel ring at base.

The spark plug is on top of the cylinder, where it is well cooled by water circulation. This insures long life to the spark plug. On the side of the cylinder are two cocks, the lower one to draw off the water from the water jacket in cold weather; the upper one is a compression relief eook to relieve half of the compression in the cylinder, so that the engine can be started under half compression, making it easier to turn over.

The Crank Shafts used in Fox Motors are of special design, with long main bearings and exceptionally long wrists and connecting rod bearings. All bearings are ground and have liberal fillets in the corners.

The Crank Case of all Fox Motors is a single aluminum casting, reinforced with steel rods. The upper half of the crank case is made separate of aluminum. These parts are cast in our own shops, for we operate our own foundry for close gray iron castings and semi-steel. We also have our own brass foundry and make our own aluminum castings.

The Piston is cast with a deflector plate attached. It is accurately machined and fitted with elliptical ground rings which retain the compression.

The Connecting Hod is also designed with long bearings, which are scraped to a perfect fit. This is one of the most important parts of any motor and only the best material and workmanship will insure a connecting rod that will not wear in the bearings. Our wrist bearings are large and the company guarantees they will not need readjustment for at least a year.

The Shaft Hearing* are long, babbitted with high-grade babbitt metal and reamed and scraped to a perfect surface.

Pump and Water Circulation.—The pump is of the plunger type, direct acting, with the check valves a part of the pump casting; it is driven by an eccentric on the crank shaft. The plunger is long, so as to provide ample bearing, insuring long life. It throws a heavy stream of water, which is piped first to the exhaust manifold and thence carefully distributed to all of the cylinders, so as to maintain an equal temperature.

Lubrication.—Thorough oiling is essential to the satisfactory operation of any motor, and each and every working surface must have its proper supply. To provide for this, Fox motors are variously equipped, depending upon the class of work and the conditions under which the motor will be operated.

The Carburetor is especially adapted to two-cycle motors. By allowing the amount of air passing the needle valve to remain constant at all times and throttling the charge after it is mixed, it is claimed practically impassible to make Fox motors back-fire and they guarantee more variation in speeds, greater economy and efficiency with the Fox carburetor on any two-cycle motor than is possible from any other carburetor on the market.

New Goodyear Aero Department

After a year's deliberation and scientific experiments extending over the same period of time, the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., in Akron, O., have constructed an immense addition to their gigantic plant for the purpose of manufacturing a hundred or more different articles for use during the impending aerial age.

One department alone has been established simply for the marketing of aeroplane and balloon materials. Another is devoted solely to experiments.

For the past six months four Goodyear experts have been scouring Europe for new aviation knowledge and their findings are echoed in the new industry.

One discovery, the importance of which will be felt generally within a year or so, is that of a new fabric for covering aeroplanes and aerial vehicles. This is a rubber coated cloth, permanently waterproof. Aviators have complained of the fact that plain fabrics, dampened by contact with the clouds, ended the rigidity of the wings and consequently placed the occupant of the machine in danger from the possible collapse of the frame work.

Tires are now being manufactured in large quantities, their construction being similar to the famous Goodyear automobile tires. Piano wire tape in the base makes it impossible for the tire to tear loose when" the aeroplane lands. The new tire is of the detachable type.

WiUis Co. Will Exhibit at Boston

The E. J. Willis Co.. S5 Chambers St., New York, who were pioneers in the bicycle, automobile and motor boat supply business, and who have been carrying a full line of aeronautical supplies for the past year and a half, will exhibit a full line of motors, propellers, radiators and fittings at the Boston Aero Show, February 20-25. Their exhibit will be in charge of Mr. Walter Shulman, who is an enthusiast in the sport-sclenci of aviation.

The Willis Co.. being manufacturers, are in a position to cater to the wants of the aviator, and during the last year have introduced many fittings absolutely necessary in the construction of aerial craft. The Willis Co. have been doing an extensive business in this line throughout the United States. Canada and Mf-xico. but have not halted there, but have sold trade in foreign countries, and report that the results have surpassed their expectations. A new catalogue has just been edited which will be sent free to anyone interested

Th" Kirkham-LVlls Co. of Bath, X Y . is building a new 6 cylinder 4 eye].- aero engine i',Jx(!,. to weight 225 pounds, and give approximately 50 h.p. at 1.350 rpm. Another higher powered engine will also be built.

INDEX TO VOLUME VII

Note.—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July 1907. Volume II started with the issue of January, 1D0S. Volume III started with the July, 190S issue. Volume XV started with the January 1909 number, and Volume V with the July, 1909 number. Volume VI started with the January, 1910 issue, and Volume VII started with the July, 1910 number.

Owing to a lack of space, it is absolutely impossible to index all the flights of aeroplanes, the balloon ascensions, news and trade items, the

monthly review of affairs abroad, etc. The following list barely covers the principles articles.

JULY, 1910

Page

Gliding as a Sport, by Hiram Percy Maxim. . 1 Can a Man Fly with Wings, by Prof. H. LaV.

Twining ................................ 2

New Prizes (World-Post Dispatch, N. Y. Times-Chicago Post, Edwin Gould, Evening

World. Scientific American) ............. 4

How to Make a Propeller.................... 5

Curtiss Wins $10,000 Prize in Albany-New York

Flight ................................. 7

Hamilton Flies to Philadelphia.............. 10

Wright .Students Complete Training........... 11

Mineola Flights ............................. 12

The Loose Monoplane, by Cleve T. Shaffer.... 16

Flying in Mexico, by E. L. Ramsey........... 17

Affiliated Clubs Revolt; New National Body

Organizes ............................. 20

Wright Injunction Vacated................... 21

Lamson vs. Wright Suit...................... 21

Record Kite Flight........................... 22

Army News ................................ 22

Foreign Letter, by Greely S. Curtis.......... 23

Club News .................................. 25

Exchanges and "Forum....................... 26

The Buyers' Guide (Detroit Aeroplane Co. motor and the Whitehead motor)........... 28

Patent List ................................. 30

Ascensions ................................... 33

J. W. Dunne's Automatic Stability Device---- 36

AUGUST, 1910

Paradoxes of the Air, by C. W. Howell, Jr---- 37

Stephens Stability Control.................... 3S

Can a Man Fly with Wings, by Prof. H. La V.

Twining ............................... 39

The World's Record Altitude Flight, by W. R.

Brookins .............................. 41

Humidity and Flight, by Dr. A. F. Zahm---- 41

Brookins' World Altitude Record at Indianapolis ................................... 42

Brookins' World Altitude Record at Atlantic

City .................................... 4 4

Montreal Meet ............................... 45

Army News ................................ 4S

Harmon Sets New U. S. Record, Flying at

Mineola ............................... 50

Construction Aids—XIV ..................... 51

National Council of the Aero Club of America

Formed .............................. 52

Second Annual Aero Show of the Pacific Aero

Club, by Cleve T. Shaffer................ 53

Foreign Happenings ......................... 55

The Xew Farman Monoplane................. 57

Aviation Treaty Between Mexico and the

United States ............................ 5<?

Rul>-s for Chicago-New York Flight ........ 5S

Rules for Gould $15,000 Prize............... 59

The Wright Suits ........................... 60

The Buyers' Guide (Call Engine, U. & H.

Magneto ................................. 62

Club News .................................. 69

Exchange and Forum ........................ 70

Ascensions ................................... 73

SEPTEMBER, 1910

Proving Horsepower by Reaction, by C. H. In-

man ..................................... 77

Consi ruction Aids XV ...................... 81

Aeroplanes and Balloons in M'-xico, by E. L.

Kamsey ................................. S3

Tl.e Wiseman-l'.-ters Biplane, by Cleve T.

Shaffer .................................. 84

The Stevens Monoplane, by Chas. E. Schmerber S6 At the Los Angeles Aerodrome, by Prof. H.

La V. Twining ........................... S7

Meets—Asbury Park. Omaha. Toronto. St.

Louis, etc............................... SS

Xew Curtiss and Baldwin Aeroplanes......92-9r,

Walden Aeroplane .......................... 91

i EQUIP YOUR AEROPLANE

FOR SALE

WITH

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+ Tell us what you need, and let J us explain the superiorities of % GOODYEAR Materials. I ~

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See description in Exchange Department, this issue. Write for copy of patent and fall information

W. E. Colyer, Box 391, Saranac Lake, N. Y.

Scientific American Trophy, Offered in 1907

The Scientific American Trophy

WAS THE FIRST AVIATION TROPHY

offered in America. Likewise, the Scientific American was the first weekly in the United States to treat of Aeronautics. All important advances in this engrossing science have been chronicled in the pages of the Scientific American during the past 6.5 years, and the huge strides now being made so rapidly are reported from week to week. Only bv reading the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

regularly can you keep up-to-date in Aeronautic matters. CSend us S3.00 at once and we will place your name on our mailing list for the year 1911 and send you besides all the issues of Nov." and Dec. 1910. including our Special Aviation Number describing all the leading aeroplanes. :: :: :: ::

MUNN & CO., Inc.

361 Broadway :: ::

Publishers of the Scientific American

New York

HUGO C. GIBSON

presents; fjis compliments anb best toisfjes for tJje season to all present anb future frtenbs :: ::

jfflap toe all be ffiropelleb raptblp

to participation in tfje goob toe Seek

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IN AN AEROPLANE I

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I ^TT SPEED, CONTROL, STRONG CONSTRUCTION t

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* Its record is its recommendation *

* ADDRESS £

j aviators GLENN H. CURTISS meets i

J TRAINED JEROME S. FANCIULLI, Bus. Rep. ARRANGED |

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* Factory: Training Grounds: -fc

* HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y. LOS ANGELES, CAL., MOTORDROME { J {

Patents .................................... »»

Burgess Aeroplane ........................... ■'•>

In the Aerial Market Place (Detroit Aero Construction Co. Engine, the Hall-Scott

and Detroit Rotary) ..................... 100

Subscribers' Exchange and Forum........... 104

Foreign Letter (Le Blanc Wins 485 Mile Race) 107

Ascensions ................................... 1°9

Club News ................................. 109

OCTOBER, 1910

An American Balloon Trip Over Rome, by Ru-

fus G. Wells ........................... HI

Propeller Design and Construction, by Spencer

Heath ................................... U2

The Make-up of a Bird's Wing, by Dr. A. S.

Rowe ................................... 113

Harvard-Boston Meeting, by Greely S. Curtis. . 115

Perkins' Man-Carrying Kite .................. 118

Curtiss Flies 129»i Miles Over Water........ 119

Harmon Crosses Sound ...................... 119

hate Wright Model.......................... 120

Selfridge Monument Erected ................. 121

Xew Greene Biplane ....................... 121

At the Mineola Aviation Grounds (Frisbie Machine) ................................... 122

Flying Out on the Pacific Coast, by Cleve T.

Shaffer (D. H. Gordon Machine).......... 125

Flying at Los Angeles, by Prof. H. La V.

,Twining ................................ 126

Incorporations ............................... 126

Asbjury Park Meet Concluded ................. 127

Sheepshead Bay Meet ....................... 128

Wireless on Aeroplane, by Capt. Geo. A. Wiec-

zorek. U.S. A............................. 129

Chicago-New York Race ................... 130

Lamson Suit ................................ 132

National Council of A. C. A. Issues By-Laws.. 132

The Latest Gill Biplane ..................... 133

Wellman Airship ........................... 134

Patents ..................................... 134

Trade Notes (Anzani Motor) '................ 136

A Simple Way to Draw a Parabolic Curve.... 138

Subscribers' Exchange and Forum............ 139

Foreign Letter .............................. 141

Thrilling Night Balloon Trip, by Dr. Thomas

E. Eldridge ............................. 143

Ascensions .................................. 144

Club News .................................. 14 4

NOVEMBER, 1910

Aeronautics and War, by Lieut.-Col. W. A.

Glassford ............................... 145

Aeronautics In the Argentine, by Henry Helm

Clayton ................................. 147

Aeroplanes Flying in Mexico, by E. L. Ramsey 14S

Wing Sections, Principal Aeroplanes.......... 149

Notes on Framing of Aeroplanes, by O. Ur-

sinus, C.E............................... 150

The Eteve Automatic Stabilizer, by D. R.

Hobart .................................. 151

The Pressey Automatic Control.............. 152

Letter to Aero Club Members................-153^,

Construction Aids—XVI .................... 154

The Missing Link in Aeronautics, by John

D. Pursell .............................. 155

Belmont International Meet ................ 158

Exhibition Flights Over the Country.......... 159

Hoxsey and Brookins Set New Marks........ 161

Stebbins-Geynet Aeroplane .................. 162

Hugh L. Willoughby Flights................. 163

Hamilton Aeroplane and Engine............ 164

H. W. Gill Biplane ........................ 165

M. B. Sellers Quadroplane ................ 1 65-166_

Orville Wright Flies Over Dayton............ 166

William E. Somerville Aeroplane............. 166

Gordon Bennett Balloon Race ............... 168

Elimination Balloon Race .................. 168

The Weather Map, by Dr. A. J. Henry........ 170

British Fabric Testing Device, by T. O'B.

Hubbard ................................ 170

Flying on the Coast, by Cleve T. Shaffer (DeBerry, Ivy Baldwin. Roehrig. Loose

Machines) ............................171-172

Flights at Los Angeles, by Prof. H. La V.

Twining ................................. 173

Mineola Aviation Grounds Fb ing ............ 174

Hearst Prize ................................ 175

Roberts, Fox, Herman and Smalley Motors.. I 76-177

Patents ..................................... 178

Foreign Letter ............................ ISO

Trade Notes ................................. 181

Simms MAGNETOS

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the Simms Motor Starter the motor can easily be started on the switch.

THE dangerous turn* ing of the propeller by hand is done away with.

Write for Booklet D containing full details

The SIMMS MAGNETO c».

1780 Broadway :: New York City

London Representative: Pari* Representative: Simmi Magneto Co., Ltd. Cie del Magneto* Simmi

DECEMBER, 1910

Aeronautics and War, by Lieut.-Col. W A.

.Glassford .............................. 1S9

The Aeroplane Engine for 1911, by Antony H.

Jannus .............•.................... 190

N'otes on New Wright Machines.............. 192

Parmalee Flies Dayton to Columbus and Hoxsey Flight ............................... 193

Elv Flies from Warship...................... 195

At" the Mineola Field, by J. Suche.......... 197

News on the Pacific Coast, by Cleve T. Shaffer

(Wlsemann-Peters II Machine) ........... 19S

The Voyage of the "America," by Melvin

Vaniman ............................... 199

Belmont Aviation Meet ................200-207

Curtiss Monoplane .......................... 206

Baltimore Aviation Meet .................... 20S

Los Angeles Novice Meet (Walsh, Slavin,

Roehrig), by Prof. H. La V. Twining.... 209

Death of Ralph Johnstone .................. 210

Minor Meets and Exhibitions ................ 210

Death of O. Chanute ....................... 211

List of Fatalities with Power Machines...... 213

Gordon Bennett Balloon Race Results........ 216

Ascensions .................................. 21S

Philadelphia Aero Show ("Miss Detroit" Mono-Diane, Call Engine) ..................... 219

Exhibits at Belmont ........................ 220

St. Louis Aero Show ........................ 221

German Wright Patents Upheld............... 222

Wellman Transatlantic Trip.................. 223

Aero Club of America Annual Meeting........ 224

Club News ................................ 224

Foreign News .............................. 226

Trade Notes (Details Rinek Engine) .......... 227

Communications and Exchange .............. 230

The Aero Show at Grand Central Palace set aside a special room for the use of the Aero Club of America and its members, without any charge, and so advised the Club. The president of the Club. Mr. A. A. Ryan, replied to the effect that as it was the Club's intention to give a show devoted exclusively to aeronautics to be held at a later date, it did not feel that it was in a position to take part in or "sanction" the aeronautical exhibition to be given in conjunction with the International Automobile Show.

Cable: Aeronautic. New York •Phone 4833 Columbus

published by .

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. k A. V. JONES. Pres't — — E. L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y

subscription rates United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

advertising representatives: e. f. ingraham adv. co. 116 Nassau Street New York City

No. 42 JANUARY, 1911 Vol. 8, No. 1

copyright, isio, aeronautics press, inc.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

CAERONAUTICS is issued on the 20th of each month All copy must be received by the 10th. Advertising; pages close on the I5th. :: :: :: :: :: #T Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

Next Bennett Bare May Be Truly International

Following out the suggestions of Aeronautics, In the October number, the Aero Club of America,

in sending its challenge for the 1911 Gordon Bennett, lias asked the donor of the prize If It would lie possible to restrict each club entering to the use of home-made machines. All the Bennett balloon races, have been won by foreign-made balloons, and the I91U Bennett aviation contest by a machine constructed elsewhere than in the country of its owner.

This is a step in the right direction and the club must be congratulateu on realizing the importance of this matter, even at such a late date. For a long time Aeronautics has persistently urged this very thing in connection with the balloon race.

Ascensions <■

PITTSF1ELD, MASS., Nov. 20.—J. J. Van Sleet, pilot; J. J. Van Valkenburgh, and Jay B. Benton, in the "Pittsfield," to Windsor Locks, Conn. Dur., 2 hrs.; Dist., about 50. miles. The start and landing was made at night. >

St. Louis.—See special story.

Pittsfield.—See special story.

St. Louis Show Bankrupt

G. L. Holton, holding the title of "manager" of the recent St. Louis Aero Show, has filed a petition in bankruptcy, his assets being $7.54 and his clothes.

This show was held "under the auspices of the Aero Club of St. Louis," so advertised, and J~»eld, and a circular letter to members of the club was sent out to this effect. Whether the club was to participate in the expected profits is not known, but it is now announced in plain black typewriting, on one side of a sheet of paper, by A. B. Lambert, the club's president, the "Aero Club of St. Loui» bad nothing to do with the indoor show at the Coliseum, other than to reserve space which we paid for."

The impression was given out that the club wa» running the show; certainly no attempt was ever made to disabuse the minds of those in aeronautic industries of such an idea. The club had ample time to disown any connection with the affair after the first published announcement of the show.undo its auspices.

The

Aeronautical Society

All interested in the Art of Aviation should join the Aeronautical Society. Being the first organized body of its kind, and having accomplished more than any other association, it offers real benefits to its members. What was done from the day of its formation in July, 1908, to December,! 909, is described in a booklet which will be sent upon request. It is practically a history of aviation in the U. S. during that period. In the last year 50 machines have been built in the Society's shops at Garden City, L. I. Of these, 26 have actually flown over the Society's grounds. For further information and booklet address the Secretary, P. O. Box No. 28, Station D, New York City, or else No. 1999 Broadway, where weekly meetings are held.

Harriman 1911 model 50 H. P. aeroplane engine

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4. Lahm Balloon Cup—697 Miles. Forbes and Fleischman. Balloon "New York"

J Beat Duration Indianapolis Balloon Race—35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon

* "New York"

J U. S. Balloon Duration Record—48 Hrs, 26 Mins. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York,"

•{• St. Louis Centennial

+ U. S. Balloon Altitude Record—24,200 Ft. Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis

4. Centennial

jl Gordon Bennett Aviation Prize

+ 30-Kilom. Aeroplane Speed Prize

•}j Grand Prize of Brescia for Aeroplanes

jjj Quick Starting Event at Brescia

+ 2nd, 10-Kilom. Aeroplane Speed Prize

£ 2nd, Brescia Height Prize—Glenn H. Curtiss +

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* The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a % varnished material. Silk donble-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten + times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as J it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking X strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width or color. Will not + crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coining balloon material, + and which, through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder, is bound to a, take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon J must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U.S. SIGNAL CORPS.

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Captain Thomas S. Baldwin

Box 78, Madison Square NEW YORK

Classified ^Advertisements

, SEVERAL BALLOONS AND AIRSHIPS for sal** at bargains. Address A. Leo Stevens, Box 1st, kladison Square, New York.

FOR SALE—Genuine Curtiss aeroplane made by G. H. Curtiss at Hammondsport factory. Complete with 30-h.p. water-cooled Curtiss motor, including packing boxes and extra parts. Immediate delivery. Flights guaranteed. Price .$3,000.00. X. care of Aeronautics.

EMPLOYMENT WANTED by a young man whose ambition is to fly. Has made several models, studied the aeroplane, assembled working parts of motors at Buick automobile plant. Ernest F. Sitts. S65 Patterson St.. Flint. Mich.

POSITION WANTED by young man, steady, sober, industrious, as aviator's assistant. Has bad 3 years' experience driving and repairing autos. Will take low wages to start with. Will go anywhere. Can furnish good reference. Pierce, 31 N. Florida Ave.. Atlantic City. N. J.

. FOR SALE.—Complete Anzani 30-h.p.. 3-cylinder cross-channel type motor in perfect condition. Address Rene Le Lnomier. 20 St. Germain St., Boston, Mass.

AVIATION DIRECTORY'. ( Just out. The place to look for the addresses of all manufacturers of aeroplanes, aviation motors, propellers, and supplies in America. Classified and complete. Information could not be obtained elsewhere in a year. You don't need to write a letter. Just enclose your address and 25 cents. I'll know you want the Directory, and you'll get it by return mail. Send now. Your money back if you're not delighted. L. M. Allison, Lawrence, Kansas. P. S.—Price 50 cents after February 20.

Are You Interested In

Manufacturing Processes Manufacturing Appliances Light-weight Power Plants Aeroplane Motors Industrial Development

Engineering In Any Branch?

THEN YOU SHOULD READ

Cassier's Magazine

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Sample copy free on request

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FOR SALE.—Bleriot type monoplane, three-cylinder Humber motor, 25-30 h.p. Machine has been flown but six or eight times. ('an be seen by appointment. Price, $2,500. Will demonstrate in flight. C. W. G.. care of Aeronautics.

TYPEWRITERS—All makes. Caligraphs. .$6; Hammond, Densmore, $10: Remington, $12: Oliver. $24: T'nderwood. $30. 15 days' free trial and year's sruarantee. Harlem Typewriter Exchange. Dept. FIN, 217 W. I25th St.. New York City.

. FOR SALE—50-h.p. "HF." or Harriman. aviation engine, new. $700. This is the same size engine that the Harriman Motor Works are charging $I.H"r> for. Address Box 3, Girard. Kan.

FOR SALE—Harriman engine: 30-h.p.; 1911 model; brand new. Harriman, care of Aeronautics.

ENGINEER, having a profitable aeronautical plant, desires to have same extended and financed by contributions to capital stock of a proposed corporation to be capitalized at half a million dollars. Investigation invited. Aviator, care of Aeronautics.

aero

Edited by E. PERCY NOEL

Published Weekly

Every Saturday

Two Dollars a Year

The First Weekly Aeronautic Publication in America

Every week AERO brings to its subscribers, first and above all. the news, written and illustrated with a regard for detail.

Every week a corps of expert aeronautic writers from the big cities of the United States and the capitals of foreign countries send the news to AERO.

The mechanics of aeroplane i misl ruction are taken up at length. Descriptions arc i.In-hated with line drawings and photographs, and are a regular feature.

Signed articles by aeroplane, diiig.blo and spherical pilots appear from time to time.

People having things for sale, such as second hand motors, aeroplanes, as well as those wishing to buy a h irgiin; men wanting positions, employers seeking men and a dozen other wants are included in the Classified Want Section each week.

AERO is endorsed by leading aviators and aeronauts, club* societies and manufacturers in this country and abroad, and those who are now reading it wonder how they ev^r got along without it. You cannot afford to miss it another week. The next issue mny to..tain just the information yon want now.

Fill out this blank and mail with $2 bill to Publishers cf AERO ——— Ninth and Walnut Su., St. Louis ——— Publishers of Af.ro :

Please find enclosed $ 2 for ichkh send AKKO every tueek for one year to

(writk plainly)

aeronautics . January, 1911

I The Compliments of the Season

t From "Aeronautics"

t

+

MOTORS TESTED

Dynamometer tests of aeronautic motors made for inventors, manufacturers and experimenters.

Any size—Any speed Reliable, conclusive and confidential reports.

JOSEPH TRACY

Consulting Engineer

116 West 39th St. :: New York

Avail Yourself of Our FREE 30 Day Trial

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AUXILIARY AIR THROUGH A SERIES OF BRONZE-BALLS IN A CAGE SPRAY NOZZLE : Automatically atomizing the proportions of gasoline for high and low speeds. BALL CAGE: Automatically controlling the openings of auxiliary air for high and low speeds, —————— Write for Booklet on Carburution '—-■"—-

All persons are cautioned against infringing on the ball cage for the intake of auxiliary air

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Aeronautical Engineers |

Designers, Constructors, Developers of Aeroplanes, Gliding *

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-GLIDERS IN STOCK- ±

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? ? DO YOU KNOW ? ?

THAT BOSTON'S

2nd National Exhibition of Aerial Craft

will be held in

Mechanics Building, Boston, Feb. 20-25th, 1911

ALSO

1st. That it is generally acknowledged by those who have attended all the indoor aerial exhibitions in America that last year's Boston Exhibition of Aerial Craft was the Biggest and Best.

*~ "2nd. That any Exhibitor of last year's show will tell yon it was of Financial Benefit to them.

AND ALL THIS ONE YEAR AGO WHEN THE GENERAL INTEREST IN AVIATION WAS ONLY SLUMBERING

:?rd. That this year will far surpass anything heretofore held, and have yon an aeroplane, an accessory, a model or an idea, it will pay you to exhibit and attend this exhibition.

WATCH THIS YEAR'S SHOW DON'T FAIL TO BE THERE

————————For all particulars address

Chestei* I. Campbell, General Manager 5 Park Sq^ie^B^stonfMass.

C. C& A.

I Our Balloons Made Good

J ~IN THE =

| National Race, Indianapolis, Sept. 17th, 1910

J £T RESULT: Two Balloons in the International Race, St. Louis,

* ^i. October 17th, 1910. The Only American Made Balloons in % this Contest—which proves that we are the Leading Balloon Manu-

* facturers in America—look at our past records.

<J« Largest in America—testing with Air

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* CHICAGO—9 Competitors—Won both Distance and Endurance

* trophies by a big margin.

* INDIANAPOLIS—6 Competitors, 1st and 3rd prizes.

* PEORIA—3 Competitors, 1st Prize.

% ST. LOUIS—9 Competitors, 1st, 2nd and 4th Money.

* CAN YOU BEAT THAT!

How we do it: by using the very best material in the country; building on safe, practical lines, with good workmanship.

AIRSHIPS—AEROPLANES—INSTRUMENTS

% FRENCH AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

% H. E. HONEYWELL, Director 4.

% 4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A. +

* ±

Printed in Bank Street, Number Fifty-nine, on the Presses of Eaton Gettinger.


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