Aeronautics

Volume 7 - No. 2 - 1910 August

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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Vol. VII

AUGUST, 1910

No. 2

THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

acts About "Elbridge" Engines

More actual power for weight than any other engines in the world! Only engines with unlimited guarantee based on actual performance!

|ss bulk for the Irer than any other lines in the world!

her parts (Work-lor otherwise) than I other engine in Iworld!

laranteed speed be 200 r. p. m. to !Q r. p. m.

Extra large bearings, —more than 15 in. in 4 cylinder engines.

A refinement of detail only possible in a light weight engine that has actually been on the market more than four '°°rs.

ELBRIDGE "FEATHERWEIG.

Elbridge rating, 40 h. p. A. L. A. M. rating 60 h. p. Weight 167 lbs. Also made in 2 cyl. 20 h. p.; 3 cyl. 30 h. p.; 6 cyl. 60 h. p. Air-cooled engines, I to 4 cyl. 5-20 h. p. at 1,000.

Particulars and prices on request

I BRIDGE ENGINE COM PA NY

),Culver Road :: :: :: :: :: :: Rochester, N. Y.

HF

WE MAKE YOU FLY

-Capt. Thomas Baldwin

HARRIMAN MOTOR WORKS, INC.

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|| "That engine will fly any properly built plane"

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J "I made a 25 mile flight (at Mineola) yesterday {July 12), the || engine not missing once "—George Russell

I The HF Flying Power Plant

$ Four cylinder, vertical, four cycle, water cooled engine, 30 H. P. and

| 50 H. P.; 100 H. P., 6 cylinder

t

| 1. Engine.

| 2. Oiling System, force feed.

J 3. Oil Tank, aluminum, integral with crank case.

% 4. Carbureter (aluminum), aviation type.

| 5. Water, circulating pump.

* 6. Radiator, special HF aviation type. % 7. Magneto, Bosch type or Eiseman Automatic advance. t 8. Copper Gasolene Tank.

* 9. Propeller, laminated mahogany. | 10. Steel hub and thrust bearing.

t 11. All necessary wiring; piping for gasolene, water and oil.

4*

* COMPLETE TOOL KIT—Water plug, wrench, socket wrench for plugs, J screw driver, wrenches for all nuts used, monkey wrench, pipe wrench.

| Price, 30 H. P. Power Plant, $1250.00

| 50 " " " 1675.00

% The customer has no further expense except gasolene and oil *___

| SOUTH GLASTONBURY, CONN. j

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Set {Ready to -

ONE thousand satisfied clients testify that the service, the stock, the painstaking attention of the

AERONAUTIC SUPPLY COMPANY

is invaluable to builder, novice, owner or aviator. ; C, In response to a persistent demand we have inaugurated a new department.

We will build complete machines in our own shops to your specifications. Full i size or models with or without our special advisory service.

===== FACTS -

C. The Aeronautic Supply Company, organized last year, is the first concern of the kind in all America.

C. Our catalog is now running in the third edition. Bulletin number three ; very complete and especially valuable, now off the press.

C If you are not already in correspondence with us, write now. We help.

A 1*0 General Office:

Aeronautic supply to. 302«. 12th street

SHOP: 3923 Olive Street, St. Louis, Mo. Long distance telephone connection

First in all America

= Glenn Curtiss flies from Albany ==

In a Bi-plane Equipped with tO Ne\V York City _PALMER AEROPLANE TIRES_

Hammondsport, N. Y., June 4, 11)10

THE B. F. GOODRICH COMPANY Akron, Ohio

Gentlemen:—I have your letter of June 1st and thank you for your complimentary expressions.

The Palmer Tires, with which I equip all of my aeroplanes give the best of satisfaction for the purpose. The light weight does not greatly impede the lifting po\ver% of the machine and the great resiliency enables me to land without shock on the hardest groundf and to pick up speed quickly in starting*. I am glad to credit a part of the success of my aeroplane to the Palmer tire.

Yours very truly, (Signed) G. H. Curtiss.

* "Curtiss-jerked a lever. The machine glided i" "Calm and cool, as unruffled as if stepping along the ground for perhaps fifty yards, and out of a street car. Luruss. as he landed, called then rose steadily, gracefully in the air."'—The out. "where's that oil and gasoline? — The Out-Outlook, June 25. look, June 25.

t "There was a sudden whir of the engine, a dash, across the field, and then like a huge bird Curtiss. in his aeroplane, rose gracefully in the air, circling about so as to come within the limits of Albany."— The Outlook, June 25.

The Palmer Aeroplane Tire

Manufactured by

The B. F. Goodrich Company ... - Akron, Ohio

PROPELLERS

IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT

AUR true pitch, laminated ash and mahogany propellers combine all the most valued and proven features of foreign and home practice.

THEY are built in large quantities on the inter ' changeable plan.

lAfE specialize. You get the benefit of our ex perience.

VOU know the value of buying a stock article, one ■ which is past the experimental stage.

WRITE FOR CATALOG. TERRITORY OPEN FOR AGENTS.

6 ft. dia. for 20-30 H. P. $50.00 at our Works .

(Thrust 200 ibs. @ 1,200 r. p. m.) Larger

7 ft. dia. for 25-40 H. P. $60.00 at our Works SJZeS

(Thrust 250 Ibs. @ 1,200 R. P. M.) ^Q

8 ft. dia. for 30-60 H. P. $70.00 at our Works .

(Thrust 300 Ibs. (« 1,200 R. P. M.) I oraep

TESTIMONIAL

New York, July 9th, 1010. THIi KKQUA-GIBSOM COMPANY, No. 215 West -19th St., New York.

(rentleinen:—It gives me pleasure to be able to tell you that your propeller has given me entire satisfaction. 1 think the silk reinforcement on the tips is a great improvement, as 1 have had broken wires, etc., get caught in the propeller without doing serious damage to same.

Whenever 1 can say a word for the RKQUA-GIBSON propeller you may rest assured that 1 will do so. Very truly yours,

(Signed), THOMAS S. BALDWIN.

Small propellers for Models 10-16" dia., $5.00 Mail or telegraph 10. of amount and we will ship C.O.D. for balance, plus cratage.

When ordering state the direction of rotation of propeller when you stand facing the breeze made by the propeller, clockwise or anticlockwise?

If uncertain as to the size you require, state the horsepower of your engine and its speed.

The Requa-Gibson Co.

225 West 49th Street, - New York, IM. Y.

Phone 7200 Col. 50th Street Subway Sta.

ERONAUTICS

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

AT MONEY SAVING PRICES

Elbridge Special Feather-weight, 2-CycIe Aero Motors (water cooled):

3 Cylinder, 30-45 H. P., 138 1-2 lbs. . $750.00

4 Cylinder, 40-60 H. P., 1 78 lbs. . . . 1050.00

Cylinders 4 5-8 x 4 1 -2, copper jackets,

aluminum bases, hollow crank shaft. 4 Cylinder. 20-24 H. P.. 150 lbs. (air cooled) 610.00 Cylinders 3 1-2x3 1-2, flanges 1 5-8 in. deep.

20 x 2 Aeroplane Wheels with tires built with steel

rims and special hub, very strong, price, . . 9.50

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hubs turned from solid bar of

steel, drilled 36 holes, well-nickeled, . . . 4.00

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hub Brakes, enables aviator to stop his plane beforeor after alightingon ground, length 8 ins., outside cones 5 3-4 ins., bored 36 holes....._.......10.50

Requa-Gibson Propellers, laminated wood, perfect screw:

6 ft., 6 1 -2 lbs...........50.00

7 ft., 9 lbs............60.00

8 ft., 12 lbs....._.......70.00

The 6 ft. propeller gives 200 lbs. thrust at 1200 R. P. M. Model Propellers, laminated wood, 10 in. to 15 in.

perfect screw, . . 5.00

Galvanized Steel Cable for " Guying

1-32 in., 200 breaking strength, price per ft. .03 1-16 in., 500 breaking strength, piice per ft. .03*3 3-32 in., 800 breaking strength, price per ft. .04 1-8 in., 2300 breaking strength, price per ft. .06 Rubber Bands for models, 15 ft. lengths, 1-8 in.

square, each, ,.......... 1.00

Complete catalogue af supplies, motors, gliders, and light metal castings mailed free, upon request

E. J. WILLIS CO., Dept. "F"

67 Reade St. and 85 Chambers St., New York

August, tqio

I NAIAD I

Aeronautical Cloth

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Manufactured Especially for Aeroplanes

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

Samples, Data and Prices on Request

The C. E. Conover Co.

101 Franklin St., New York

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STEEL TUBING

diameters and es carried in stock

Hickel Steel Tubing (Propeller Shafts

[NEW YORK 132 Worth Street

PETER A. FRASSE & COMPANY

PHILADELPHIA 408 Commerce Street

Importers of Piano Wire, specially up-set for use in Aeroplanes

BUFFALO 50-52 Exchange Street

MOTORS TESTED

Dynamometer tests of aeronautic motors made for inventors, manufacturers and experimenters.

Any size—Any speed Reliable, conclusive and confidential reports.

JOSEPH TRACY

Consulting Engineer

116 West 39th St. :: :: ::

New York

G. L. BUMBAUGH

p N. Illinois St. :: :: Indianapolis. Ind.

Designer, Contractor, Operator Constructor

Irships and Balloons

Builder of the Balloon "Chicago" the largest in the world; the " Indiana, which holds the endurance record of the U.S.

For Sale—Four new spherical balloons, four new dirigible balloons, just finished. Will sell at reasonable prices.

^Aeronautics

A IR currents and the effect of moving t-\ bodies in the air have been a source of baffling mystery to even some of le most scientific minds, and how true this ; may be determined by a few interesting x-periments, easily made by anyone without ^cpeuse.

Most everyone has seen the so-called ball ozzle in which a stream of water moving

ith considerable force is caused to form a dIIow cone by means of a loosely mounted - free ball directly in the path of the water.

0 matter what force the stream of water has cannot dislodge the ball. This is purely

1 air current phenomenon and may be con-dered a physical paradox.

Paradoxes of The

Air * * By c- w- Howell, Jr.

'* Director, The Aeronautical Society

If we take an ordinary lightweight visiting card and stick a pin through the exact center of it ("which may be determined by drawing lines diagonally from each corner) as shown in Fig. i and then place the pointed end of the pin into the hole of a thread spool, allowing the card to rest upon the head of the spool, and then blow through the other end,

The miniature whirlwinds one often sees the street and roads are true air cones fcause they develop force enough at their |ex sufficient to pick up dust, small sticks, while at their frustrum for a considerable lace about their axes there is little or no rce except that caused by atmospheric pres-re supplying the losses caused by friction of fe inner wall of the air cones.

it will be found impossible to blow the card away from the spool, in fact, the harder one blows the more impossible it is to dislodge the card. Even though one blows and then points the whole apparatus toward the ground, allowing gravity to assist, the card cannot be dislodged.

If now we take a card about 2*4 in. square (Fig. 2) and find the center by means of the

60

diagonal lines and then strike a circle about the center, having a diameter twice that of the hole in the spool and then cut along the diagonal lines from the circle to the corners and then bend the four corners BBBB upward at the dotted lines CCCC a pin-wheel or air vane will be formed which, when inserted in the spool in the same manner as the previous card experiment, will rotate with great rapidity as long as one blows through the hole in the spool. Care must be taken to only bend the corners BBBB upward and the pin must be inserted as shown in Fig. 3. If the corners DDDD are bent downwardly or if the pin is inserted any other way the experiment fails owing to there being an air space between the card and the spool.

Another interesting but not so easily performed experiment is to place a lightweight visiting card lengthwise on the under side of one's fingers when extended and held closely together, holding it against the fingers lightly with the other hand. Xow blow on the back of the fingers between the second and third and midway between the joint and knuckle— the other hand may then be removed and the card will adhere to the fingers as long as you

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! A New Control ! + *

THE method of aeroplane control illustrated has been designed by James S. Stephens, 7321 Bond Ave., Chicago. The upper plane or deck of a biplane is made to project at each end beyond the lower. This in itself is claimed to add to the stability of the machine "by presenting a more efficient lifting surface to the air on the side tending to dip, and at the same time compensating for the deficient lifting power of the upper plane due to the resistance and disturbance of the air currents by the lower plane."

blow. It takes a little practice to accomplish! this, but it is worth the trouble.

The most interesting of all is the experiment! performed with a funnel and candle. If a! lighted candle is held so that the flame is posi-l tioned at about the center of the large end of" the funnel as shown in Fig. 4, not only is it impossible to put the flame out when one blows! through the small end of the funnel, but the! flame will be drawn into the funnel toward! the mouth, and no heat effect will be felt at all.!

Now hold the candle and flame in the rela-l tive position shown in Fig. 5 and the flame! can be readily extinguished by blowing through! the small end of the funnel.

To my mind this experiment clearly illustrates the theory of vortex rings or morel truly vortex currents or better yet cone cur-1 rents, and I firmly believe that exploration! in this field will bring forth new ideas and! new principles will be discovered that will leadl to the perfection of air devices in general audi the propeller in particular, because I do notl think that the real effect of moving structures! in or through the air is understood in spite! of the fact that flying machines are no longer! a novelty, and I hope that a general discus-J sion will arise through the presentation of tht! experiments outlined here.

of this arm up or down will rotate the shafts! A, tilting one of the circular planes and the other down, giving a lifting effect 011 one s\dm and depression on the other, the rocking of th« arm G being a natural movement in oppo! sition to the tilt of the machine.

In the adjustment of angles of these in clined shafts, they may be made to inclin!

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An inclined shaft A is journaled in ball bearings on the ends of each plane; midway between the planes on this shaft a circular plane B is attached and supported in a normally horizontal position by suitable wire guys. An arm, C, projecting at a right angle from the lower end of each shaft, has a flexible wire connection, D, from one to the other on one side, while the connection on the other side, E, passes up through pulleys, F, to a rocking arm, G. Any movements of the ends

rearward or forward to such an extent as d present dihedral angles to the main plane.' when turned on their axes, thus giving a mon positive lifting effect opposed to end tilting j downwardly.

These planes are of circular form and ii section as shown at H this form and sectioi presenting a sharp edge to the air as it meet:] and leaves the surface and at the same tim< providing a concave surface on either side, thu.'j greatly adding to their efficiency.

Can a Man Fly With Wings?

Br H. La V. Twining

[Continued from the July Xumbrr] ■

Some experiments performed by myself in 1895 have a bearing upon this. 1 f a silk cloth be hung up and a turkey wing be spread open, it can be vibrated in various positions in front of the cloth, and the action of the wing on the air can be easily demonstrated.

If this be done the following results are obtained: When the front edge of the extended wing is presented to the cloth, and the wing is vibrated in imitation of the flapping wing, the cloth is sucked in all along the front of the wing. This shows that the air is moving bodily from the front toward the wing. If the rear edge of the wing be presented, the air is sucked in along the rear edge. If the top of the wing be presented, and be vibrated to and fro toward it and away from it, the cloth is again sucked toward the wing. In fact, it clings to the wing as though it were glued there. If the bottom of the wing be presented the same thing takes place. This shows that when the wing is struck toward the cloth, the cloth is not driven away, but, on the contrary, it rushes to meet it.

If now the rear tip of the wing be presented, the cloth will be blown violently to the rear, downward and rearward. This simple experiment reveals at once how the wing is acting on the air.

As the wing beats, the air rushes in toward it from all directions except one, and here it is blown violently away. From this we are entitled to draw certain conclusions. The wing in beating creates an area of low pressure, and the air rushes in from all points toward this area, except the point where it is blown away. Now the more air the wing displaces the stronger the air rushes in.

When we remember that the air produces a pressure of 15 lbs. to the square inch, we can see the enormous possibilities here. Pressure on the wing is produced then in proportion to the displacement of the air. If the air were all displaced, then the incoming air would press against the wing with a force of 15 times 144 or 2,160 lbs. per sq. ft. This pressure, of course, can not be realized in practice, but the possibility for enormous reactions lie here. The pressure of the incoming air is all utilized in giving lift on the under side of the wing. When the wing strikes down it meets air coming toward it. When it strikes up, the upper surface meets the same condition. Here is the rock upon which all ornithopters built up to the present time have split. The up stroke throws them to the

ground with as much force as the down stroke throws them up.

Evidently this is not the case with the flying birds, because they fly, and if their up stroke threw them down, this could not happen.

What then is the peculiar structure of the bird machine that prevents this? Much speculation has been indulged in as to the feathers opening on the up stroke to let the air through.

Just a little intelligent observation of an extended wing will show how utterly fallacious this assumption is. The feathers overlap so that they shingle on top from the part near the body to the tip. On the under side they shingle the other way. In either case, as the air strikes the surface, the feathers bind together and present a solid surface to the air. The direction in which they shingle cannot make any difference in this respect. If we take up the wing and blow violently on top of it, holding the hand on the other side, no air will be felt coming through. If we blow against the under side the same result is obtained. Some have argued that the bird turns the feathers edgewise by means of muscles in the wing, but I have dissected many wings, and have looked in vain for any such muscles. If we get hold of the tendons of the muscles and pull them, we can see what they will do. There are no muscles singly or in sets that perform any such function that I can discover.

Furthermore, if one observes large birds, such as the pelicans, turkey buzzards, sea gulls, etc., as they go overhead, one would be able to see the blue sky through them if they turned on edge.

In soaring, the turkey buzzard spreads out its feathers at the tip of the wing more or less like the spreading out of the fingers, but this is a disadvantage, rather than an advantage as it lets air through from below.

Then again, birds in flying throw the wing open strongly on striking down with it, and fold the outer joint considerably upon the up stroke. This accomplishes just the opposite result from what those who advance the above theory are looking for. It closes the feathers together in a tighter mass than on the down stroke. It, of course, presents less surface to the air on the up stroke, but it serves a very important purpose as wc shall soon see.

The reason why the up stroke of the wing does not throw the bird down lies in the peculiar structure of the machine as a whole.

The fact that the front edge of the wing is attached to the shoulder, forward and above the center of gravity is a fundamental princi pie in bird flight. Under these conditions the up stroke develops a pressure on the upper surface of the wing, which rotates the whole machine around the front edge of the wing as an axis or fulcrum, and thrusts the bird forward, in the plane of the wing. If the wing is pitched upward, then the resultant motion is forward and upward. If the wing is pitched downward, then it will be thrust forward and downward. Whether the wing be pitched upward or downward depends on the will of the

3W

Aeronautics

August, i'qio

bird. By raising its abdomen or lowering it, it can go up or down as it chooses. When it wishes to fly down, it contracts a set of muscles that raises the abdomen relative to the plane of the wings. This raising of the center of gravity also brings it farther to the front, and as a consequence, the bird pitches forward. If it desires to go upward, it lowers the rear of the body, thus depressing the center of gravity and drawing it backward. This displacement of the center of gravity with reference to the center of pressure controls the fore and aft stability of the bird. The fact that this center of gravity is below and to the rear of the front edge of the wing is of vital importance in the maintaining of fore and aft stability. The tail is also used in maintaining fore and aft stability.

The center of gravity acting downward vertically is pitted against the center of pressure on the wings acting upward. The center of gravity acts over a lever arm with the front edge of the wing as a fulcrum, the feathers being the lever arm over which the center of pressure acts. These two lever arms are practically equal, and the weight and center of pressure take no mechanical advantage of each other.

Because of this the body of the bird rotates downward when the wing is struck up. and upward when the wing is struck down, thus alternately rotating upward and downward, around the front edge of the wing, wedging itself through the air, always moving along the line of least resistance, which is in the plane of the wing, forward. This can be easily seen in large birds like the pelican and the sea gull. As the pelican rises from the water, if one says up. up, etc., as the wing goes up, at the same time watching the abdomen, one can see plainly that the abdomen goes down. If on the other hand one says down, down, etc., as the wing beats down, one can easily see that the abdomen rises. Furthermore, by watching the head, one can see that it goes down while the abdomen goes up and vice versa.

This can be seen in the pigeon as it is about to alight. When the sea gull is coming directly toward one, the motion of the head, as it bobs up and down, can be easily seen. F. J. Alarey demonstrated the same thing with his tambours, but he misinterpreted the curves which he obtained. He interpreted his curve to mean that the bird was driven backward on the up stroke. Such a result would be impossible. A careful perusal of his book, and an inspection of his curve will show that instead of being driven backward, what happened was this: the abdomen was rotated downward, on the up stroke, thus giving the tambour between the shoulders of the bird a backward movement. This registered a backward movement but it was not a backward movement of the bird, but a backward movement of the tambour, which was located above and on a line with the front edge of the wing.

The inertia of the weight caused it to press on the drum of the tambour, thus recording

a curve on the kymograph, which he interpreted erroneously.

The up stroke of the wing thus becomes exceedingly effective, and it results largely in driving the bird forward, while the down stroke develops the lift principally. We can now account for the weakness of the elevator muscle. When the up stroke is made the bird rotates downward, presenting the under surface of the wing at a greater angle of incidence. The inrushing air striking the under side of the wing reacts upon it and the big pectoral muscle has to take up the strain.

Thus the elevator merely thrusts the mass of the bird forward, while the pectoral musclel has to assume the bulk of the work that results from that thrust. The folding of the wing on the up stroke also helps to produce this rotation by giving the feathers at the tip greater leverage.

Inertia plays a most important part, not only in the flight of birds but also in the flight of aeroplanes of all kinds. When a stone is thrown through the air, it does not rest on the air, it pursues a path which is the resultant of two forces acting on it. One of these is gravity pulling it downward, and the other is the momentum of the stone itself, which, tends to keep it in a straight line. The resultant curve is a parabola. The same thing happens to any projectile whether it be an aeroplane, a bird or a stone. So by virtue of its motion, the bird only needs to strike the air often enough to keep up its motion or to lift it back through the distance fallen through in the interval of time between strokes.

Furthermore, inertia, whatever its nature,] acts like a resistance. If a body be moving in a straight line it resists any tendency that tries to deflect it from a straight line. It takes an appreciable amount of time to overcome that resistance. Hence, if the moving mass be constantly kept in a straight line by reactions against the air, its inertia prevents it from developing the result of the pull of gravity, and hence it had practically lost its weight. Consequently the reactions necessary in keeping it in a straight line are those necessary to handle its mass only and not its weight.

Finally a man-carrying machine can be built weighing not more than 80 lbs., which with the weight of the aviator, 140 lbs., makes in all 220 lbs. The question is, has man power 1 enough to get 220 lbs. into the air and maintain it there? At first sight the answer to this question seems obvious enough, and the answer is, no.

But if we consider that a soldier can put 75 or So lbs. on his back and inarch all day with it, we see that a man has power enough to handle his weight and the weight of a machine as well.

Again a man weighing 200 to 220 lbs. caul handle his weight, although possessing no morel nower that a lighter and more sinewy man. In order to accomplish this a man must bringl his whole muscular system into play, in oper-J ating the wings: and this must be done also I to the best mechanical advantage possible.

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The World's Record Altitude Flight

By" W. R. Brookins

Humidity and :: :: Flight :: ::

By Dr. A. F. Zahm

X preparing for the high flights at Atlantic City I had put 011 a sweater and heavy gloves and was sweating to beat the band when I started. After passing the three thousand foot lark 1 began to get much cooler. Over the land

would be a little bit warmer than over the sea. nd at six thousand feet I actually shivered, eginning at three thousand feet I had to fre-ueutly yawn to reduce the air pressure from ithin on the ear drums. Over the ocean I could >e absolutely nothing below me but mist, al-tough on the ground the atmosphere seemed per-bctly clear. The sky above was perfectly clear ud the sun was just setting, but 1 had to circle ver the land to get my bearings. Down on earth le sun had already set. 1 had to follow the "feel" f the machine to determine whether I was climb-tg. At that height one cannot tell whether he is leering down or up except by the "feel."

I had to fly over a certain spot, a boat anchored ut in the sea beyond one of the piers, in order hat the engineers might follow nie for their meas-rements. Just as I was crossing the line of the each, coining in shore. 1 heard the engine miss (vice and I immediately turned for the stake oat. in order to let the engineers catch me. and weled the machine so as to allow some of the asoline to run forward and down the pipe to the ugine. This kept me going beyond the boat when he engine went dead and I turned and circled own. From a thousand feet high I had to figure ow to reach the landing between the piers on he beach.

"Humidity has u ijreat ileal to do with the success of a flujht. If tlic percentaije of moisture in the atmosphere is loir, it is much more difficult to flu. The enu'mc gives less potrev. the propeller <jircs less thrust ami the surfaces have less lifting effect."—Statement credited lo Glenn II. Curtiss.

IF IT be admitted that the engine gives less power, it naturally follows that the propeller gives less thrust, and the surfaces have less lift than they would have with larger power. But it would be wrong to assume that the propeller gives materially less thrust at the same speed in dry air than it does in moist, or that the lifting surfaces, at the same speed and inclination, give less support in dry air than in moist. On the contrary, at a given pressure and temperature the density of dry air is slightly greater than the density of moist air : it may be as much as 1 per cent greater. Now. for a given speed and angle of impact, (he thrust or support varies directly with the density. Hence, at most it could vary but I per cent due lo moisture, all other conditions being the same.

Reference should also be made to "Flying and Humidity." by Charles F. Willard, in the June, liHO, number.

It must be recognized that this pull is the maximum pull necessary to get the machine off the ground. After getting on the wing no such pull will have to be maintained. The only remaining thing to be determined is as to whether the wing is a very efficient transformer of motion or a very inefficient one. If it be very inefficient then man cannot hope to fly by manual power, but if it be a very efficient one then in my judgment men will fly by the exercise of their muscles as a bird does.

The wing when operated displaces the air as before shown, and in so doing creates air currents toward it, and these air currents produce a pressure upon the wing in proportion to the mass of the air displaced, hence there is practically no slip; because the greater the stream of air driven to the rear, the greater the pressure returned to the wing by the incoming air. On this account all the energy expended on the air comes back again in the shape of pressures which drive the machine forward and give it lift. There are frictional losses of course.

In this paper some of the principles only are considered. There are others that we can hope to attack with some intelligence only upon the completion of experiments now in progress. Experiments only can furnish the data upon which to base the calculations.

The ornithopter above described is fully protected by pending patents.

{Concluded)

* 4*

+

%

*

4,4,4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4,4-4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4,4.4.4.* 4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4-*++++4,+4,++*++++++++++'<

This has been done in the ornithopter men-oned above. Hand and foot levers have a echanical advantage of 4 to i in their attachment to the front edge of the wing. The |perator stands on the foot levers and grasps le hand levers. These two sets of levers at-ch to the front edge of the wing on opposing des of the main bearing of the wing upon le frame, so that the weight of the operator thus thrown alternately upon the levers the up and down stroke, the weight being in ict constantly supported by the opposing pulls the hands and feet, around the bearing i the wing upon the frame. The weight to lifted is 220 lbs. This is then to be lifted / striking the air with the wings in an up id down stroke, so that only a no-lb. reac-on needs to be developed under each wing in •der to lift the machine as a dead lift. The )plication of a 30-lb. pull between the hands id feet brings a 120-lb. pull to bear on the iug in order to depress it. This is 10 lbs. ore than necessary in order to balance a o-lb. reaction under the wing necessary to ft the machine. Under these circumstances cperience has shown that the wing can be liven fast enough to develop this reaction. 1 fact the wings on the above machine will }t have to make more than 60 half beats per inute in order to develop this reaction. With le wings made a trifle larger, tlie speed can be try materially reduced. Experiment has al-;ady demonstrated that the pressures can be anually developed and that with a 30-lb. pull ,1 each side or 60 lbs. in all.

4>

! Flying Meets ill

% Height Records Broken

^.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4^^

Indianapolis, June 12-18.

BV 11. E. SCOTT.

Tho Exhibition Department of the Wright BrotW crs Company made its- initial bow to the generiH public at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway duriifl the week of June !.">-1 <S. Several important poinM were demonstrated at this meet ; points of interel to promoters as well as to aviators.

So far as the flying itself was concerned, thJ meet proved pretty conclusively that the Wrigll aeroplane is a very steady and dependable machine. There were about sixty flights during the six days of the exhibition, and there was no suggestion of an accident.

In the tranquility of the performances—the invariably successful starts, and quiet, uneventffl landings—lay the chief beauty, from the writer! standpoint of the meet.

J'.ut in just that same tranquility lay its chieH drawback from the standpoint of the box-ofiicH Pence and quiet are all very well in their wal but after a man has loafed around a railroad station thirty-eight minutes waiting for transport^ tion to the held, has quietly sat on a plank up-bolstered bleacher divan at a temperature of 120 Fahr. for three hours waiting for something to happen. and with equal peace of mind Anally watcheH —at 'a distance of half a mile or more—thesj great white birds rise gently into the air and sal placidly around the track until fancy moved theiB to descend, that man is apt to lean toward soml thing more stirring than the prospect of quietlB walking two or three miles along a country roaj to where he can find a suburban trolley to take him back to town.

Walter Brookins furnished the incidents of mosH spectacular interest during the week. The tirst day, -after several races against himself arounB an unmeasured course, Brookins made an attemiB at an altitude record. Ilis altitude was taken by A. B. Lambert, of St. Louis, with a combinatidH of yard-stick and two pin-points an inch aparM Attached to the aeroplane was also an instrnmeiH for recording altitude. This was hung betweeH the planes on, a strap, but is said to have heel put out of commission by striking guy wires as it swung about.

NEW WORLD RECOItD.

Brookins climbed for twenty-four minutes, at which time Mr. Lambert announced the altitudB of the machine as 4.384 ft., as against Pnulhanl Los Angeles record of 4.1<i.~> ft. The descent lasteB about six minutes.

Brookins, in an earlier attempt, had ascendel 2,003 ft. It was the greatest altitude attained by a novice and the greatest ever made in an Amel ican-constrnctcd aeroplane.

Brookin"s flights were a revelation. He cuH sharp circles, mounted quickly as a bird, shot to the ground, swooped and dived, bringing out ctm thnsiastic applause.

Twice during the day Orville Wright flew, 01B one occasion taking up Carl O. Fisher, of the I'rest-O-Lite Co.

UP 2.0S3 FEET.

The altitude record was again assaulted o| Tuesday. .Tune 14. Brookins climbed for 12 mill utes. The engineers who took the altitude by triangulation. figured his altitude at 2.083 f« and these figures were corroborated by the recor<B ing Instrument which on this occasion was proM erlv fastened. The descent lasted six minutes.

Center—Brookins (left) and Hoxsie Bottom—Orville and Wilbur Wright

Many States j

Sensational Flying 4!

4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4,4,4,^,^,^^

A feature of the second day was a "contest" between a Wright aeroplane and an Overland 40 h. p. automobile rigged as a "wind wagon." A stock car was stripped and driven by a wooden propeller S ft. long, at Trio r. p. m. Official figures are lacking but the Overland company states that 5 miles were made in 5:20 (5" miles an hour), while a figure gleaned from another source gives the time at 4 :.">S for 2 Ms miles. The car weighed 1.800 pounds. The drive shaft was not connected with the differential. The propeller was driven by a chain from a driving sprocket having 17 teeth attached to the shaft, the chain running over an overhead shaft with a sprocket of "1 teeth.

Johnstone made his longest flight. 55 minutes, on this day, going up to 020 ft. altitude.

Orville Wright flew again on the 15th making beautiful maneonvres in the dusk, after the program had been delayed by rain.

ISIlOOKlNs' MAItVELLOfS TUUX.

Perhaps the most sensational event of a thrilling-week was Brookins' quick turn on June 10. lie made a complete circle in 0 2/5 seconds, and his main planes assumed so nearly a vertical position that many thought ho was falling. Only one of the many photographers on the field had enough presence of mind to snap a camera at him. This one picture was caught when the machine had begun to take its normal position, but the angle with the ground is still a very sharp one. This is reproduced in this issue.

.".S7G FEET HIGH.

Arch Iloxsio's motor stopped while Ilalpli Johnstone was making a 44-niinute flight and he had to land outside the Speedway. Then Brookins went up for another altitude flight and after climbing 45 minutes, reached an altitude of .",870 ft., officially measured by city surveyors. The flight lasting 54 minutes 20 seconds. The barometer carried1 on the machine registered but .".700 ft.

ANOTHER NEW RECORD.

Again on Friday, June 17. Brookins made another try for the record. lie carried two instruments—a barometer within plain sight and the recording instrument—and his altitude also was taken by reputable engineers. Brookins climbed steadily for 55 minutes, and his barometer showed him; to lie about a mile high. The engineers had no opportunity to catch him at his greatest height because he was then so far from the earth that he could not exactly locate the Speedway and consequently sailed, still climbing, twice across the course out of range. The duration of the flight was 1 :04 :U0.

As if the climb in itself were not sufficiently sensational. Brookins' motor stooped at an estimated height of P..000 ft. He then was perhaps four miles from the center of the Speedway, and the spectators, not realizing that the engine was no longer running, wondered why lie was making the long descent in almost a straight line. The aeroplane just made one long streak for the earth, and landed beyond a clump of trees at some distance from the track. There was a rush of ex-[cited newspaper correspondents and spectators Rewards the automobiles, hut it was stopped when some one with a field glass announced that the landing was safely accomplished. The altitude was officially measured as ft., a new world's

record. During this flight Johnstone and iioxsie each were flying.

Brookins Turns Complete Circle in 6 2-5 seconds

Numerous good flights were made during the week by lloxsey, Johnstone. La Chappelle and Coffyn, but they were uneventful because of the lack of competitive features. A number of races were scheduled but none were actually attempted. Ten flights with passengers were made.

To Captain (i. I,, Rumbaugh belongs the credit of making the first flight on the Indianapolis Speedway. On Friday, preceeding the opening of the big meet, and while the Wright forces were engaged in assembling their machines, the engine for Captain U. L. Bumbaugh's machine was delivered on the grounds. Carl A. U. Fisher, owner of the machine, offered to wager Roy Knab-enshue. of the Wright Co., that Captain Rumbaugh would be in the air before any of the other "planes were ready. The wager was accepted and both sides hustled to get their machines in readiness. Captain P.umbaugh's engine, an Elbridge "Featherweight" 40 (Mi h. p., was hastily installed and the aeroplane brought out of the tent. At the first attempt Captain Bumbaughs machine rose from the ground, after a run of about 100 yards. But the Captain underestimated his power reserve and the machine shot into the air about .'!<> ft. before he thought to reverse the elevating plane. When this was done his descent was as rapid as his rise had been. Skimming the ground Captain Rumbaugh again rose and on this attempt flew for about half a mile before the tricky elevator plane again brought him to the earth.

Such repairs as were made necessary by this rapid descent were completed by Monday, the first day of the meet, and early in the evening Captain Rumbaugh prepared for another try. This time he was over cautious in the other direction. Realizing that the powerful engine might drive him into the air faster than he cared to go, he deflected the elevator planes befor the start. The machine got away with a rush. A slight obstruction was encountered, just enough to jolt the machine clear of the ground ; with the deflected plane in front and the thrust of 50 h. p. behind, the aeroplane keeled over onto its head, burying the aviator in the nuns. The engine continued running, the pro-pellor threshing the guy wires, until Captain Rumbaugh recovered sufficient presence of mind to kick loose his ground wire. To the immense relief of the spectators Captain P.umbaugh a minute later rose to his feet and waved a reassuring hand. The damages to aviator and machine looked serious hut fortunately wen- of nich nature as to be easily repaired.

Several short flights were attempted during the weeks by .1. W. Curzon. bur his big Vivinus motor did not deliver power enough to offset its own weight, and carry the machine into the air. Mr. Curzon announced his intention of replacing it with an Elbridge "Featherweight."

Lincoln Reachey had his monoplane, and there was the Marquette and the Shaw biplanes but none of these flew.

results.

The accumulated duration of the flights made during the Indianapolis meet total as follows :

W. R.

Brookins.....

.....7

nr.

59

min.

Ralph

Johnstone....

.....1

hr.

51

min.

A. L.

Welch........

.....1

hr.

25

min.

Arch

lloxsey.......

.....1

hr.

 

min.

F. T.

Coff.vn........

   

20

min.

D. La

Chappelle.....

   

1%

min.

ongest

duration single

flight :

     

W. R.

Brookins.....

.....1

hr.

4

miu.

High altitude flights:

W. R. Brookins, June IT, (world's

record! ....................4.::S4 ft.

W. R. Brookins. June vi........L'.oiK! ft.

W. R. Brookins. June 14........2.0S:? ft.

W. It. Brookins. June I<>........:',,870 ft.

\y. R. Brookins, June 17 (world's

record I ....................4.9:',!) ft.

Ralph Johnstone. June 14...... 020 ft.

Flights of which official record

was taken..................55

Atlantic City, N, J,, July 4,

BY R. I'\ PATTERSON'.

The series of exhibition nights organized by the Atlantic City Aero Club, composed of the hotel and business men of the town, costing .$25,000. was a great succ.ss A section of the beach wis set apart for the use of the aeroplanes, and everything was free to the public. The flights were sanctioned by the National Council, represented by Augustus Post and Henry M. Neely.

On July 4 Curtiss made his first flight on the beach between two piers in a stiff breeze. The enormous crowd made flying dangerous.

The next day Curtiss made three flights, the longest being ,S minutes. This was made over the long piers, up and down the beach at a height of about 2(>o ft. and out over the sea.

On the <>lh it was necessary to run close to the water to get hard sand. The tip of the propeller was caught by the incoming waves and broken at the ends. With another propeller a flight of 15 minutes was made, circling over the piers and the boats anchored near the shore. Then a short flight.

No flights on the 7th.

On Julv S Curtiss made a 10i/>-minute flight at a height of 500 ft. Then Brookins got off with a 40(kft. flight, cutting various capers and making a sharp circle similar to the one at Indianapolis. This flight lasted about uy2 minutes. While he was in the air Curtiss started again and flew above him, for 5% minutes. Starting again, inside of 6 minutes Curtiss was lost to view, having gone down to Hugh L. Willoughby's grounds, some four miles away. Landing there he waited for his men to come and start him back. Rumors of all kinds circulated, as lie was gone 1 hour 1G minutes.

BROOKINS .MAKES SHARP SPIRAL.

A few minutes after Curtiss got away. Brookins started and went to a height of l.SOO ft., making beautiful curves and evolutions all the way up. lie was up some 15 minutes, coming down in a spiral to a height of about "00 ft., the diameter of the spirals being not more fhan 200 yards. This was very spectacular. After waiting a half hour for Curtiss. Brookins started off again on a (i-minute "every clay flight." Curtiss caused great excitement, as all thought he or his machine was damaged. There was cheering when someone said "Here he comes." and a speck could be seen about 4 miles away. 500 ft. up.

On July 0 Curtiss took the air first and Brookins followed in a preliminary flight. Brookins going to about soo ft. back and forth across the piers. These flights lasted 0 and 3 minutes, respectively. A half hour later Curtiss started on a 5<M>-minute flight for a moving picture man. Again Curtiss started, before Brookins was ready for his altitude flight, but flew only from one pier to the other. On Sunday Curtiss made one flight of 4% minutes.

BROOKINS .MAKES ANOTHER WORLD RECORD.

Shortly after this landing Brookins started on his wonderful altitude flight. Fn 53 minutes he had reached a height of 0,175 ft., the highest yet attained bv aeroplane. The previous official altitude flight ' is also held by Brookins, being 4.0."0 ft. the latest foreign record. 4,015 ft., was made recently by Latham" in France. This day's flight exceeds all attempts by 1.2."C> ft. His descent, without power, f »• lac k of gasoline, took 10 minutes, having been in the air 1 hour :? minutes. After landing he joyfully rushed to telephone through cheering crowds to 'phone the news of his success. This record won for him the $5,000 offered as a height prize.

While he was making this flight. Curtiss started again and made short flights of two or three, miles, circling between the piers several times before landing for the last time during this day I of exhibition work.

On Sunday. July 10. Curtiss ga ve an exhibition of a flight in a wind estimated by himself and others to he 20 miles. But for the enormous crowd, estimated at 100.000, along the board walk, piersl and housetops, Curtiss would not have attempted] the flight owing to strong wind and high seal rolling.' He received great cheering for his 5-lninute flighl. circling between piers and over the

August, 10 to

An hour later Curtiss went up to bombard a life-boat with oranges from a height of 400 ft. Out of six ornnges three would have hit a battleship, the last bomb landing within 12 ft. of the boat. lie circled around between piers till his orange bombs were exhausted, then landed. Five minutes later he was in the air again flying down to Old Pier to interview Mr. Shackleford." After a half hour's wait the crowd saw him in the air again firing bombs at the reporters and photographers. This caused great laughter among rhe audience to see them dodge from being struck by a flying orange which was merely a juicy spot after striking the ground or water/ This flight ended his last exhibition at the Atlantic City meet. The machine was housed and "knocking-down" began.

Brookins. however, made one more flight, doing his usual quick turns, and fooled all by coming down to earth as if to land and then shooting out to sea again, as if he had forgotten something, which eventually proved to bo true, for he shot up to 30o ft. and then came down close to water. 25 ft. from shore, bringing the machine so low that the skids seemed to rest on two waves and followed them to shore. Eventually he actually struck the water near shore, rising again and then landing at his eamp.

It is a strange fact, but during the entire week there was not a single accident of any kind, except the first day, when Curtiss landed in deep sand and ran into a hole, breaking one post, outside of that not a wire, nut or any part of the machines bad to be altered from the fist, day of "setting up."

The weather proved ideal, except one day. and the crowds were enormous. The largest day Atlantic City ever had was July 4, when, it is claimed. 300.000 attended. The entire meet was a success in every way, thanks to the management and the whole-hearted way in which it was carried out—free to all.

Montreal, June 28-July 5.

BY H. K. HITCHCOCK.

The "meet" was from one viewpoint, the scientific, eminently successful, and as a direct result an impetus to the interest in and study of aeronautics has been started in this great country. Financially the meet was a failure, the expenses running to some .$40,000. but the flying was good continuous every day of the meeting, all done by the Wright and P.leriot machines. J. A. 11. McCurdv only got up once in the early morning and quite wrecked their Baddeck 11 in land ing with the wind. Mct'ui'dy was unfortunate

The Overland "Wind Wagon" at Indianapolis 45

ocean. Curtiss reached a height of about 300 ft. during flight. The Wrights will not tiy. or allow their own machines to be flown on Sunday, so Brookins did not fly this day.

CURTISS FLIES 50 .MILES.

July 11. Curtiss started flying for the .$5,000 30-mile prize at 3:24 o'clock. After finishing 50 miies. or ten 5-mile laps around piers, he circled Atlantic City. Entire flight lasted 1 hour 21 Iminutes. The average height was 700 ft. During ,the flight quite a southwesterly breeze was blowing, making a record speed' flight impossible. [I'he aetunl time for the 50 mi'es was l:ij:00. The fastest lap was 6:01 t-5, a speed of to.ss miles per hour. The (inie !made was not as good as previous records held by Curtiss machines. This won for him $f>,000, as the Wright machine did not try for it.

Brookins made the next flight and for 15 minutes gave a fine exhibition of the control ho has pf the Wright machine, twisting and turning at tlmost impossible angles.

Curtiss then flew from the Million Dollar Pier :o Old Pier to get ready for his record-climbing (light. Before this was started. Brookins attempted flying with Mr. Coffyn, another Wright pupil, lis passenger. At 0 o'clock the machine ran down he monorail, but failed to rise. It was pushed iack to starting point and another trial took the uachine up to an altitude of MOO' ft. at times, t very fine flight was made for 15 minutes with hort turns and dips. After the descent, Curtiss :iade the most notable flight of the day—the uickest time for reaching l.ooo ft. He actually cached between 1.500 and 1.(500 ft. in the re-larkable time of .r> minutes Si seconds, traveling a a straight line for about two miles, turning lien and descending to earth. Shortly after land-ng he flew back to the Million Dollar Pier, carry-fig Lincoln Beach»y as passenger. While hauling lie Curtiss machine up the platform to house it, F. Coffyn made a short exhibition flight in the Tright machine used by Mr. Brookins. This lasted

minutes, reaching about 150 ft. at times. This uded the last intended day of the aviation meet t Atlantic City—but the aviators had been pur-jaded to remain over another day.

BROOKINS' MACHINE .STANDS OX END.

July 12. At :-! :.'!0 P. M.. Brookins started for a ight and rose to a height of from 000 to 1.000 . and remained in the air some 20 minutes doing

most the Impossible at times in his turns. At ne turn his machine stood close to an angle of i degrees, and it appeared that he had turned >o far by mistake. All held their breath and Ohs" were heard all through the crowd.

the whole week. lie had trouble getting his machine on the grounds to begin with, and assembling was delayed by reason of no shelter. O. fl. Hubbard, of I'.oston, was induced to come at a late date with his monoplane. built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co. of P.addeek. without an engine, which had to be sent for to P>addeck and it did not arrive until the last of the week.

The Wright team. Brookins. La Chappelle. Johnstone and Coffyn. all flew well. Count de Lesseps was a striking feature with his two Bleriots. a 50 h. i). Gnome engined type XII and the smaller XI with the Anzmii .'10 h. p. motor. His 30-mile trip to and over the city of Montreal in 40 minutes was the great event of the exhibition, lie used the big "Searabee" with air bags, the same equipment he used in his cross-Channel flight. Fred Owen and Cromwell Dixon, with their dirigible attracted small attention. Dixon tried a new propeller on the advice of Knabenshue and increased its speed. The airship escaped and burst, on the fourth day of the meet. This made quite a stir, as the people could not tell whether he was in it or not. He stopped the motor by aceident, descended, jumped too soon and missed the guide rope. Johnny Mack and one of Ed. Hutchinson's men made daily parachute drops from hot-air balloons.

Wm. Carruthers. vice-president of the International Aviation Association, which promoted the meet, bought a Bleriot XI and imported one Milt-jen from France to tly it. Miltjon's experience at flying was evidently obtained at a correspondence school. On his first and only flight the machine jumped into the air and then gracefully dug its nose in the dirt. Cromwell Dixon, who had never boon in an aeroplane before, then tried it and made a highly sensational and wild flight, narrowly escaping accident, but brought it safely down.

SO.MK OF THE FLIGHTS.

The feature of the first day was Brookins' 2.000 ft. altitude flight, while de Lesseps and Johnstone were the other aviators. On the second day de Lessens in a trial for speed lost to La Chappelle, while Brookins made another altitude flight of 1.050 ft. On the 2Sth Johnstone was up 45 minutes, and Brookins flew to a height of 1,."5(50 ft., and was up 20 minutes. The start on the rail was timed, too. at 5% seconds till the machine was in the air. On June 20 Balph Johnstone flew for 40 minutes and Brookins was up 21 minutes, flying to a height of 2.450 ft. This was after carrying up de I esseps for a 13-minute trip. Early in the morning McCurdy made a flight, in the "P.addeek II." but. landing outside the grounds in the tall grass, the machine was partially wrecked. R. Timherlakc, who had bought a P.leriot XL essayed his first flight. With a novice's inexperience, after getting off the ground, could not stop in time to save hitting the grandstand. The " next day Johnstone flew for 25 minutes and Brookins took up Count de Lesseps' brother to a height of 1,140 ft. in a flight of 25V> minutes. Then he made a trip alone up 2.000 ft.

3.130 FEET IN AIR.

On July I Brookins again made a high and sensational ascent, reaching 3.130 ft. in a flight covering 45 minutes.

PE LESSEPS FLIES OVER CITY.

The most sensational flight of the meeting was de Lessens' journey over three bodies of water and Mt. Royal in a continuous flight around Montreal's City Hall and back to the aviation grounds, a round trip of 30 miles. The flight lasted 49 minutes. His face was screened from the oil of the Cuomo engine by a thin wire gauze mask.

BROOKINS SKIS CAVA01AN RFCORI).

On the same day Brookins ascended to 3.5lo ft. The meet closed on July 5. with small attendance and few flights. Some of the Wright machines were going to Toronto, hut two had to be rushed away, so these were flown from the .aviation grounds to the railroad station, over the hills and trees. The landing spot had not been investigated and when Brookins and passenger

flew over (hey saw they had but a very small place to land. Steering sharply down into tall grass, the latter caught in the wires and corners, turning the machine face down and breaking the front construction. The second machine they flew over made a safe landing.

Nashville, Term., June 21-26.

Unquestionably among the most spectacular flights that have been made may be numbered the two night flights of Charles K. Hamilton during his exhibitions at the Military Tournament at Cam]) Dickinson.

FLIES WITH SEARCHLIGHT.

The first flight was in the dark of the early evening, with the moon obscured by clouds. Hamilton flew over the electric light studded grounds, almost touching the siring of bulbs, then shooting up into the air and gliding down. Someone suggested a searchlight and immediately there was hustling to attach "a Prest-O-Lite tank under the seat and the headlight on the front framework. About 11 o'clock in the night he was ready and the sighi of the big automobile lamp flashing up and down through the semi-darkness, the moon having do-ci led to show her face, was a thrilling one. Aftei flying about a quarter hour a cylinder head blew oiit and he was forced to land.

Louisville, June 18th and 19th.

On June IS. Curtiss lowered his own record ol quick starting to four seconds flat, with tin Albany-New York S-cylinder biplane, starting 01 very rough and grassy ground. Hamilton did i' in 3 4-5 seconds at San Antonio last April.

On account of a very choppy and high wind neither Mr. Curtiss nor "Bud" Mars was able t< make any very nice flights until after 5 o'clock when above a crowd of nearly lo,0o.o people. Mr Curtiss carried a local newspaper man for a shor flight.

A stiff wind until late the next afternoon pre vented any circular flights. However, after l\ o'clock Mars, at an altitude of 20 to 40 ft., racec" against Curtiss around the circular track lo times Curtiss keeping about 200 to 300 ft. above Mars and at all times was directly over him.

For quick starting. Curtiss got off the gronin in 87 ft., and Mars, with his 4-cylindor 25 h. p. got off in Km; ft. Both of those distances art behind past performances of Curtiss machines.

The total Attendance for the two days was ii file neighborhood of 17,000 people.

The meet closed when Mr. Curtiss carried It. O Rubel. Jr.. local agent for the Curtiss biplane, foi a short flight.

Minneapolis-St. Paul, June 22 25.

At tlie Twin City meet there were Curtiss. Wil lard. Mars, Kl.\. Whipple Hall. Lincoln Beachej with his monoplane and two dirigibles. Curtis? flew, of course, his S-c.vlinder machine. Mars ]M his 4-cylindor Curtiss and Willard had a new Curtiss with a 4-cylinder engine of somewhat greater power, the new engine having slightlj larger cylinders. Hall had the old 4-cylindei Curtiss sold to Frank II. Johnson in Los Angeles Ely had the machine of Henry Wemme of Portland a 4-cylinder Curtiss. Charles J. Strobel furnisher one dirigible with Ciutner as aeronaut, whil< Horace B. Wild flew the Yager airship.

The track was a bad one for aeroplane flight: and the attendance small. The track was linei on nearly all sides with buildings or trees anc. there was onlv one spot on the grounds suitabh for landing. Every flight of any length had to 1)1 made out beyond the grounds and return to land ing inside. The dirigibles were up every day. bill the first. Hall did not get up. all during the meet

All the aeroplanes, except Beaehey's and Hall's made short flights the first day. On the second lh( two dirigibles and Curtiss were in the air at th( same time. Besides the short flights. Curtiss madf one verv pretty flight outside the grounds and b-ie'-. Beachev got off a short distance without his controls on.

Aeronautics

August, igib

Curtiss and Brookins Flying at Atlantic City

On the third day Curtiss. Ely and one of the rigihles were up simultaneously. Reachey had at his elevator and ailerons on and made a short ght. In the evening lioachey made another trial id ran into the fence, smashing up. The fourth ly it rained. After the showers, Curtiss made a icctacular flight. Willard and Mars also flow.

Kansas City, July 3-4.

Willard and P.eachey went from Sioux City to ansas City. Willard only flew. P.eachey spending time assembling the Curtiss machine. This [eet was also unsuccessful from an attendance jandpoint.

Willard made eight or ten short flight* each day. The Omaha meet lias been postponed to July 2.T2S.

Willard is working his way to Mineola. where ho will try out a machine of his own make. Curtiss type, with greater spread, the end of .luly.

Providence, R. I., July 4.

Joseph Seymour was scheduled to fly his Curtiss af Providence. July 4. lie circled the track sov oral times at a height of •_'<> ft. The conditions were ideal but the spectators left before the exhibition Wiis concluded, owing to the repeated delays caused by making minor repairs.

Mars Flies Cross Country.

At Topekn, Kans., J. C. Mars, tlie only aviator at the meeting, as Willard did not go. as planned, on June lo attempted to-fly <io miles cross country to Kansas City. A landing had to he made at Grantville after nine miles, breaking a couple of ribs. These were repaired and a second start was made. After going on for four or rive miles the engine went wrong and another landing was made, at Newman. After an hour's stop he pluck-ily went on for a short distance tinally coming down at Midland.

Pittsburg, Kans., July 2-5.

BY PAUL W. 1IAUVEY.

Arch Iloxsey made fourteen flights during the 4 day Wright meeting at Pittsburg, Kan. In the last flight, which was to close the exhibition, the wind was blowing very hard and Iloxsey while some :!<>0 ft. in the air shut off his motor intending to glide to the ground, which he had frequently done before. On account of the smallness of the ground he saw that he was being carried in his circles towards the bleacher, which was filled with people. Having uo motor power to direct his course beyond the bleachers it seemed to him best to point the nose of the machine directly towards the ground in front of the stand. This ho did with a result that the forward steering planes were badly damaged, lie fell almost vertically about 40 or 50 ft. but he was not at all injured. The motor and transmission parts were found in good order.

Iloxsey made good flights each day. On the second he made three low flights, circling the liold several times and having his machine under perfect control at all times. The first day he left the ground three times when a storm interrupted the exhibitions.

On the third he made four flights. The first three were spectacular exhibitions. He did the "Poller Coaster" flight and turned the figure eight several times. He had wonderful control of the machine at all times and as a climax to the afternoon work he made a beautiful ascent of 1,000 ft.

On the fourth Iloxsey duplicated his exhibition of spectacular flights and also gave some of the feats that aeroplanes are supposed to do in times of war. lie made some short and fast short country flights and in the finish carried a passenger three times around the field for a total distance of about two miles.

On the last day Iloxsey made his usual short spectacular flights. In the last one of these he carried Mayor Hoyt and did some beautiful work. Un to that time iloxsey had not had a single mishan and every attempt that he had made was a success.

Sioux City, Mo., June 29-July 1.

BY P. M. M'CABE.

Due to a wind which ranged from 5 to is miles an hour the flights given here by Mars and Ely June 29, 30 and Aulv 1 were far from successful

On June 20 Mars attempted to circle the mile race track, attaining a height of from 10 ft. to 40 ft. Mooting adverse air currents lie did not make the circle, stopping; several yards short. Ely made a similar attempt but he, too, was compelled to alight without being successful. Two other attempts were made to got info the air but were failures.

On June .10 after f> o'clock Mars made another attempt and succeeded in getting from 40 ft. to 50 ft. high and went with the rapidity of an express train for a short distance but was compelled to let down because of the winds.

On Jnlv 1, in the evening after the wind and the crowd had departed. Mars made a fairly good flight ascending to a height estimated between 100 ft. and 150 ft. He circled the mile course iy., times and went at a good speed. Ely made one circle of the field the same evening but his ensines were not working well and ho was compelled to give up before doing anything of a sensational nature. Following Ely. Mars made two other flights in one circling the field twice and

concluding his performance with his "Mars glide.lfl dropping from a position of about 75 ft. in the air to an eagle like sweep and then alighting.

Ely is flying now for Curtiss, using the machiuS sold Henry Wemine, of Portland, Ore.

Aurora, Ills., July 2-7.

BY FliANK II. BEV1ER.

A. L. Welch was the Wright aviator who filled! the Aurora date. On the 5th after a 20-minutB flight he had to land in an oat field. The startinB track was brought, and in leaving the rail one side of the planes hit the oats which had not been cut low enough and broke several ribs. On the 7th he flew for 55 minutes going up to 512 ft. The winB was bad and' Manager F. II. Russell, of the WrighB Co.. kept the machine over two days in order to satisfy the public.

Monmouth, Ills., July 4.

Charles W. Miller, who bought a machine fronB C. & A. Wiftemann tried for an hour and a halB to get his machine to fly but failed.

New Britain, July 2.

Chas. K. Hamilton made a sensational flighifl over the main street of his home town, NeB Britain, Conn., on July 2, after a discouraging day. The flight was most sensational. Thfl streets were crowded with people, trolley carB and automobiles. Crowds had come in frorB nearby towns and the governor of Connecticut with his staff was present. The conflict betweeB two factions of the business men marred HamilB ton's efforts. On his first flight he landed' in a swamp and broke parts of the machine whiclB necessitated some hours to repair. Still anotheB short flight was made. On the third trial, he went through a series of hair-raising feats for which he is noted and then sailed on his specB tacular flight over the main street.

St. Louis, Mo., July 11-16,

St. Louis, July 10: The first aeroplane meetl ing to be held in this country where entrants havB been required to pay a fee to compete and in which there are no hired airmen to take partB will open to-morrow afternoon on the temporarB aviation field of the Aero Club of St. Lonis at Washington Park, 111., and continue for six days Ten, machines have been officially entered and it is expected that all will be on the starting line at 3 :30 Monday afternoon.

The coming event, known as the First NationaB Aviation Meeting for Novice's which was organizetB by the Aero Club of St. Louis to promote the science and sport of aeroplaning in America, is a'lsB unique in the respect that none of the entrantsB has ever made a public flight for pay or receiveB cash aviation prizes of more than $250. The AerBJ Club has announced that no flights will be guarB anteed, but as nearly all of the machines are built along established scientific lines there is little doubt that there will be flying every day thaB weather permits Full details will be given in the next issue.

Thomas, Bergstrom and W. C. Rohinson failerB to arrive and are disqualified.

The following will compete: H. W. Gill, biplane B C. W. Curzou. Farman : J. N. Sparling, monoplane ;■ .1. N. Sparling, biplane (Shneider make) ; II. AB Robinson, monoplane ; Charles Kuhno, monoplaneB W. F. S. Zehler, fore an aft monoplane; ClandB Harris, biplane.

Army News.

From June 1 to June 7 Lieutenant FouloiBj made five flights at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, in gusty winds up to 15 miles per hour, varying in length from 5 to 14 minutes. No flights werBJ made after June 7. as the Aeronautical DetachB ment was sent to Leon Springs to assist in installB ing the annunciator buzzer system at that plaeeB

Captain A. S. Cowan. Signal Corps, now haBj charge of the Aeronautical Division, relievinsB Captain Chandler on June 1. 1010.

aeronautics

Brookins Flying Over the Ocean at Atlantic City

Curtiss Drops Bombs from Aeroplane.

Ilammondsport, July 1.—Under the auspices of the New York World and in the presence of officers of the army and navy, who acted unofficially as observers, yesterday. Glenn II. Curtiss carried out some tests with dropping lead missiles with colored streamers attached at a target representing a battleship 500 ft. by 90 ft.

Then, of 14 record shots. 10 hits were made and 4 misses within 5(> ft. of the target. Six hits were made running at 218, 2Si', 240, 200, 135 and 139 ft. respectively. The seventh and eighth, at 107 and 191 ft., were misses. Next, at 250 ft., hit. At 208 and 312 ft. shots were misses. Last three, at 302, 208 and 2G0 ft. altitude, were hits. These shots were made moving at right angles to the greatest length of the target. After these tests the officers left.

At sunset four more shots are reported, with three hits and one miss, the latter being from an estimated height of 900 ft., the machine traveling lengthwise the target.

To-day no bomb tests were carried out. but several circles over the lake were made and a landing made in the water. A small hydrocnrve surface is affixed .just forward of the front wheel for assistance in keeping the machine on an even keel when hitting the water.

RESI/LTS OF TESTS.

Mr. Curtiss gives it as his opinion that to accurately drop bombs in actual warfare one man would have to be carried for the purpose besides the aviator, as it was impossible for him to make accurate calculations of angle and speed, and suggests the proper method is to have some kind of a gun to Are the projectiles instead of merely dropping them.

Dr. Greene Hits Tree Head On.

Rochester. June 30.— Rochester can now claim to be an aviation city from more points of view than that of engine construction. Hr. Greene, who has, in the past, made several successful (lights at Mineola and New York City, and who has recently moved to Rochester to open an aeroplane factory, made his first flight in Rochester to-day.

The biplane which he used was constructed for

G. E. De Long of the Elbridge Engine Co., and was equipped with a 4-cylinder Elbridge featherweight engine and a Requa Gibson 7-ft. diameter by 4-ft. pitch regular propeller.

After making his thrust test with the machine tied, and succeeding in developing considerably over 200 lbs. thrust. Dr. Greene decided that he was ready to fly, and the machine was cut loose. After running over the meadow for a distance of less than 100 ft.. Dr. Greene rose at what seemed to be an angle of almost 45 degrees to a height of, approximately. 50 ft., and then flew directly down the field of the Rochester Aero Club for a distance of about one-quarter of a mile.

The start had. unfortunately, been made from a point in the field which was protected from the breeze by a large-sized hedgerow of trees, and the doctor did not appreciate the fact that a considerable breeze was blowing from his right, so that as soon as he reached the end of this hedge his machine was thrown to the left a considerable distance. When the doctor succeeded in righting himself, he discovered that he was headed directly for a tall elm tree, (if the two alternatives, dropping down and going under the tree or attempting to lly over it, the doctor chose the latter. It seemed for a few seconds as if he were going to make good, but when he was within a few yards he discovered that it was impossible, and the only thing left for him to do was then to stop the engine and attempt to glide rapidly to the ground under the tree. This also proved to be impossible, and the machine hit the tree head on. at a height of about 30 ft. from the ground, breaking the front control and knocking the machine, of course, to the ground. The rear control was also broken when the bipane struck solid earth. It seemed to the spectators almost impossible that the doctor could be alive and whole. looking at the wreck at a distance of 20O or 300 yards: but he immediately climbed out of the wreck and waved his hand in assurance that he was all right.

The flight, from some points of view, was unsatisfactory, inasmuch as il resulted in smashing Mr. De Long's machine. However. Mr. De Long was more than pleased, inasmuch as it demonstrated that the eiiffine had considerably more power than was actually necessary to fly with ibis type of biplane. hi the next flights that Dr. Greene makes in Rochester with this machine, in all probability, a 3-eylinder feather-weight engine will be used.

i aAt America's Flying Field |

Daily Flights at Mineola.

NOT a day now passes, scarcely, without flights by either Harmon, Baldwin, Seymour, Russell, Hamilton and others still experimenting. There are always several hundred people on hand to view the scene and on Saturdays and Sundays the number runs up into two to three thousand. Mineola is 25 miles from New York on the Long Island Railroad, and the grounds are a mile from the station and still further from Garden City.

Philip W. Wilcox has finished and given one trial his Farman-type biplane, fitted with a Rinek S-cylinder 50 h. p. motor. Lewis Strang, winner of the Briarcliff race, will learn to fly it.

The grounds have been fenced in by the owners of the property with a high board fence 2,500 ft. long along the road, with wire fences extending out across the plains at each. There is another inner wire fence, to keep people off the course and provide parking space for automobiles. .V small grandstand has also been erected and an admission fee is being charged on Saturdays and Sundays. After the expenses have been met, I if is announced by the president of the land company, the income will be devoted to prizes for the aviators. The use of board fence has been sold to White & Wood, of 1777 Broadway, New York, for sign painting.

The next day Harmon and Russell provided the entertainment, but there was nothing unusual in the flying.

RUSSELL BEGINS PRACTICE.

On June 29, George Russell, who had never operated a machine before, made his first flight in a Curtiss machine, fitted with a Harriman engine. The machine had been exhibited by him during the spring over a theatrical circuit. After a few days he sold the engine to I'. Brauner to install in a Curtiss-type aeroplane sold to a customer and then got another of the same make. In five days Russell was proficient enough to fly a distance of about 5 miles.

On June 20 Mrs. Harmon was a passenger with Clifford B. Harmon on a lOnninute flight. This was the first time a woman has flown at Mineola and the third in this country.

Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt, Jr., was a passenger with Harmon for a short jump of a minute on June 30. The motor would not mote, and a skid broke in landing. Further flying was given up for the day.

Harmon Sets New U. S. Record.

On July 1 Clifford B. Harmon made a new duration record for the United States, 2 hours 3 minutes, beating Paulhan's record at Los Angeles of 1 hour 5S minutes. No official figures were taken.

After Hitting Tree

On July 3 the first admissions were taken in and a goodly crowd saw Harmon make a 10-minute flight alone and then a short one with a passenger. In the first he essayed the diving trick and quick rises which brought forth applause. William Watson tried out the machine he had just bought from P. Brauner, with Russell's Harriman engine, and got off the ground—and then lauded suddenly, smashing up the machine considerably.

however, of either duration or distance. The Mineola field over which he flew has not as yet been equipped with the proper markers. It is estimated that the distance covered was 100 miles.

HARMON MAKES FIRST CROSS COUNTRY FLIGHT.

On July 11 Clifford B. Harmon attempted to tly from the Mineola aviation field to Greenwich, Conn., in competition for the Country Life trophy.

At 5 :49 the Gnome engine was got going after much trouble, but the machine did not go a quarter mile across the field before Harmon brought it down again. Hamilton, who had returned to Mineola from Atlantic City, suggested leaving off the pontoons which had been affixed for use in case of a forced descent in Long Island Sound. This was done and a new start made at 6:14:50, but he flew no further than Roslyn, a distance of 4 miles, passing over roads and' trees and the settlements of East Williston and Albertson Station.

Stanley Y. Beach was practicing with his Bleriot-typ3 machine at Lordship Park, Bridgeport, irtending to try to fly across the Sound to Long Islrcd. After several efforts the niacrir-e started Toi the cliff, but Beach jumped out just in time to save from going over with the machine. The machine fell and was wrecked.

On July 12 Hamilton saw Russell fly for 20 minutes and then took Capt. Baldwin's machine, after weighting down the front end, and flew it for 8 minutes. Russell then went out and flew another 20 minutes.

ISRAEL LUDLOW BUILDING.

Israel Ludlow is building a biplane at Mineola which he states will not infringe anyone's patents. Fie claims it is a remarkable aeroplane, with its new patented applications of controls and promises it to be so stable that a man can take his hands' off the lever: that it is balanced so well that it will find its own level and will keep a level flight without attention on the part of the operator. The machine is expected to be finished by the middle of August.

B. T. Babbitt Hyde is having a shed 70 by 40 ft. erected by C. O. Conklin for the housing of his machine. John H. Tyson, Jr., has bought Greeley Curtis' Bleriot which he recently imported, and it Is to be flown by Louis Strang.

On the Aeronautical Society Grounds.

At the present time there are 13 machines on the Aeronautical Society's grounds. Those in process of building, of the biplane type, are Miss Todd, Messrs. Diefenbach. Talmage, Watson and Stevenson, Mergatroyd, and Edick and Edwards: of the monoplane type, Messrs. Godley, Waldcn De Kilduchevsky, and Rosenbaum.

Creditable flights have been made by Joseph Seymour and George Russell in their Curtiss machine's. Russell is using a 30 h. p. Harriman engine, and speaks favorably of it.

Messrs. Edick and Edwards have had their Curtiss type machine out and succeeded in getting it off the ground several times for good distances. At the present time they are changing the angle of incidence of the planes and expect to have it in the field in the very near future.

Messrs. Watson and Stevenson have had their machine in the field with a 30 h. p. Harriman motor. On June 20 Mr. Watson made an abrupt ascent for 20 to 30 ft. and descended just as abruptly, smashing the entire ontrigging for the elevator control. Mr. Watson was not hurt.

Frank Van Anden has had his machine out several times In charge of Charles Nyquist. formerly with Hamilton. At present Mr. Nyouist is keeping the machine on the ground until they get it thoroughly balanced and he has learned to handle it. The motor is a Harriman.

E. H. Skinner, manager of South Beach. Staten Island, will soon be another addition to the flyers at Mineola. He has a biplane of his own design, fitted with an Elbridge "feather-weight" 40-00 on gine. with which he has been making short flights for several weeks past in the vicinity of South Beach.

The Aeronautical Society is building a shelter along one side of its 13S-ft. shed. 30 ft. in width to accommodate the machines which are without protection except such as tents afford.

CONSTRUCTION AIDS XIV.

$ I

% For Control of National Affairs |

National Council of the Aero Club of America Formed.

The "National Council of the Aero Club of America" was formed at the rooms of the Aero Club of America on June 23, following the breakup, through a shrewd political move on the part of the Aero Club of America, of the intended joint convention of the two organizations, the American Aeronautical Association and the Aeronautic Federation of America.

Twenty-six clubs compose the council. These are as follows : Aero Club of America, California, Kansas City, Kansas State, Dayton Aeroplane, Philadelphia (now extinct), Saratoga Springs, Illinois, Minneapolis, Utah, Springfield,^ Intercollegiate, Harvard, Baltimore, Washington, Atlantic City, Dayton Aero Club, Pittsfield, New England, Canton, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Aeronautique of Chicago, South Bend, Buffalo and Milwaukee.

An executive committee and officers were elected to serve until the second Tuesday in December, when a convention will be called in New York.

The executive committee and officers are as follows :

Clifford B. Harmon (A. C. of America), chairman; W. B. Strang (A. C. of Kansas City), A. P.. Lambert (A. C. of St. Louis), Dr. J. C. Eber-hardt (Dayton Aeroplane Club), Dr. Albert F. Zahm (A. C. of Washington); Vice-Chairmen— George-M. Myers (A. C. of Kansas City), Chas. J. (Hidden (A. C. of New England), James E. Plew (A. C. of Illinois), John M. Satterfield (A. C. of Buffalo), O. A. Richardson (Intercollegiate Association). Carl G. Fisher (A. C. of Indianapolis), Arthur T. Atherholt (A. C. of Philadelphia).

Henry M. Neely was made chairman of the contest committee, and Arthur T. Atherholt chairman of the press committee. Col. Jerome IT. Joyce was elected treasurer ; Jerome Fauciulli, secretary, and Geo. B. Harrison, field secretary. Harrison later resigned.

By the terms of an agreement made between the Council and the Aero Club of America, the A. C. A. authorizes the organization of the "National Council of the Aero Club of America" and the A. C. A. is confirmed as the representative of the International Federation; all matters relating to national affairs' are to be referred to the Council, to be composed of one member from each affiliated club; the Council will construct an organization on the basis of state representation : the chairman of the executive committee shall be named by the A. C. A. ; the matter of location of international contests after the year 1010 vested in the N. C. ; a committee shall be constituted by the N. C. to deal with the question of sanctioning national meets, providing the A. C. A. agrees it will not make any agreements or contracts in national relations without approval of the N. C.

SITUATION CURIOUS.

The situation is a curious one. As related previously in Aeronautics, the need for a national body was felt and in response to letters signed by Hudson Maxim, president of the Aeronautical Society, sent out by Thomas A. Hill, a large number of clubs signified their acknowledgment of such need and in the course of events a convention was planned at some central city at which a really national body would be formed.

A temporary organization was formed under the name Aeronautic Federation of America to bring about this convention and to prepare drafts and plans for the proposed national body.

Observing the apparent strength of this movement, the Aero Club hastily called a meeting of its affiliated clubs. The majority of the affiili-ated clubs responding to the call of the Aero Club were disgusted, and then and there, on May 23, formed the American Aeronautical Association. They found that the Aero Club was not willing fo give them any yoice in the affairs of

the Aero Club of America and its affiliated clubs, and, as will be noted from the strong statement issued at the time, the new body was clearly against the policies of the Aero Club of America as exemplified in their action.

Leaders of both the Aeronautic Federation of America and the American Aeronautic Association immediately got together and planned a joint convention to be held in New York, June 22. Both organizations were to assemble in New York as many delegates of the clubs as possible. Both secretaries were to work in harmony and their letters were to be of the same general character. The Hotel Astor in New York was offered as a meeting place and accepted. The A. A. A. was advised that a meeting place had been secured, but unfortunately a misunderstanding had occurred and the A. A. A. letters had called the meeting) at the Waldorf.

to work in harmony.

Previous to the June 22d meeting leaders in both these organizations got together and it was plannedl to call to order such delegates as assembled at either of the hotels, and then adjourn to a com-' mon meeting place. The A. F. A. was called to order in accordance with the programme and advised of the misunderstanding in regard to the , hotels and it was with common consent that the meeting was adjourned and the delegates in a magnanimous spirit proceeded to the Waldorf to meet in joint convention.

A. F. A. DELEGATES SHUT OUT.

The delegates who happened to come from the Astor experienced the greatest difficulty to being admitted to voting powers in the convention. All sorts of demands were made as to the form -ofl credentials. Many credentials were "lost" by thel credential committee. There seemed to be a plan to keep these delegates out. It was also found that one of the delegates who was not empowered by his club to secede from affiliation with the Aero Club of America at the time the A. A. A. wasj formed, had seut out a day or two previous a great number of telegrams advising that the meeting place of the convention was at the Waldorf and] not the Astor, with the apparent intention of! stealing whatever delegates they might from the ranks of the A. F. A. despite the tacit agreement] that both were working to the same end and in perfect accord. In response to these telegrams, manv delegates who had been working with the A. F. A. went to the Waldorf.

convention at last down to business.

The session was a very strenuous one, and finally everything seemed to be working all right. The delegates had all been admitted and pdace had reigned for at least 30 minutes. The whole day had been employed in seating the delegates and the body was now ready for business. A motion was made and carried to adjourn for dinner, to meet again at seven-thirty.

One of the members of the Aero Club of America invited some of the delegates to dinner and a plan was laid at this meeting to withdraw from the con-J vention at the evening session and retire to thel Aero Club of America. What mess of pottage thel Aero Club could offer in exchange for the birth-l right of the delegates is not apparent. At anyl rate, the scheme worked.

When the meeting was called in the evening, U the presiding officer, Geo. M. Myers, of Kansas I City, asked Lee S. Burridge, former president of| the' Aeronautical Society and one of the primal movers in the A. F. A., to take the chair while! he was out temporarily. No sooner was the tem-1 porary chairman ready to receive motions than the! delegate from the Pennsylvania Aero Club got un and' withdrew his club from the convention. Irl rapid succession one-half of the other delegate* followed suit, showing that the plan so suddenly developed at the dinner had worked most suciJ cessfully,

AERONAUTICS

How men of self-respect could stoop to such methods as to place an innocent man in such a curious predicament, is difficult to understand. It also developed at about the same lime (through the anival of afternoon newspape s) tint a corporation had been formed at Albany under the name of the American Aeronautic Association, despite the fact it was agreed between the leaders a month previous that even the name of the proposed national body would be left to the joint .■(invention to select. This showed a premeditated i)Ian to steal the convention. Even some of the lelegates who mel at the Hotel Astor. and who tad so much trouble in the morning in being ldroitted to tin1 Waldorf meeting, deserted the rery ones who started the whole movement, and vhich made a national body possible at this ime.

The organizers of the. A. A. A. were frankly >itter against the Aero (.'lull of America and ret they joined hands with their enemy to the Insertion of their own comrades.

WHERE IS THE N. C. OF A. C. A. AT?

An officer of the National Council « f the Aevo 'lull of America states that the Aero Club of \merica is now but a local club on the same landing with the others, that the Council will see o it that the club is kept in such position, that n the future the Council will rule and that the nly thing the Aero Club retains is its name and fs international affiliation, that the A. C. A. is equired to represent the National Council in iternatioiial matters and to carry out its mission

that the A. C A. is "down and out."

On the other hand, it will be the chairman of ae National Council's executive committee that ; named by the Aero Club of America ; the clubs ow forming the N. ('.. it is said by the Aero

August, ioio

Club, are but affiliated clubs of the A. C. A., coming meekly into the fold after rebelling, and in added numbers; and the A. C. A. never had any national control except over the old half-insurgent affiliated clubs.

The one inference to be drawD from the situation is that the Aero Club of America has deciu edly increased its strength by inducing the clubs forming the National Council to become affiliated under the name of the Aero Club of America and by naming its own chairman. In return, the A. C. A. allows the affiliated clubs now known as the National Council of the Aero Club of America to merely select the place of holding any national event which may be won by a representative of America.

THE A. F. A. MADE PERMANENT.

'., Those who remained in convention after the exodiis included the representatives of the aero clubs of Rochester, N. Y. ; Florida, West .Side Y. M. C. A., Canada. Amherst and Springfield. Mass.; Aeronautical Society of New York, Aeronautic Society of New Jersey. Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, the Y. M. C. A. Alumni Aeronautic Club, and the Southern Aero Club. Subsequently the representative of the aero clubs of Amherst and Springtield, Mass., withdrew and announced he would go with the other organization. The following officers were chosen by the Aeronautic Federation of America, which organization was made permanent :

President, Hudson Maxim. New York, N. 1'.: vice-presidents, L. J. Seeley, Rochester, N. Y. ; George W. Clark. Jacksonville, Fia. ; Or. Thomas E. Eldridge, Philadelphia. Pa. : Wilbur R. Kimball. New York. N. Y. ; secretary. Thomas A. Hill. New York. N. V.; supervisor. Pee S. P.urridge.

Second Annual Aero Show of the Pacific Aero Club I

By- Cleve T. Shaffer +

The second annual aeronautic exhibition of the icific Aero Club from May 19 to 21. inclusive, at te Auditorium. San Francisco, was a great suc-■ss from an exhibition standpoint, the variety of achines giving a liberal education in aeronautics, o one who had seen the first exhibition of the ub, it gave a startling idea of the marvelous •ogress in the science in less than a year, and the emendous increase in public interest. At the •st show there were but two comparatively crude achines—the latest show filled the hall and even truded upon the model flying area, several of e model flyers, disobeying their rudders, flew to the big machines like angry hornets and tore nts in their fabric.

Two of the large aeroplanes exhibited had ac-illy flown and attracted a large amount of invest on that account. They were the Curtiss-rring of Whipple Hall of the Pacific Aero Club d the beautiful large monoplane of George ■ose of the Pacific Aero Club. The latter has t made extended flights, but is reported to have ared the ground for a short distance.

The exhibits composed four full-sized aero-ines (three monoplanes and one biplane), a bal->n. a dirigible, gliders, models, kites iunuiner-le. propellers, supplies and aeronautic accesses and a United States signal corps portable reless set.

V novelty on the Curtiss was the ."-ft. exten-u of each end of the upper planes, as shown photo. This was an idea of Mr. Hall's: he ims that the additional surface (.'{0 ft.) permits much slower speed in rising. The short beams wing bars fit into the end sockets and a bracket ces them to the end strut.

The little "Demoiselle" monoplane, also oxhib-1 by Mr. Loose, was the hit of the show, its lall proportions being somewhat startling to the ^itor. The body (not imported) was equipped Mr. Loose with an extra pair of skids at the r of the planes. Power plant : A 4-cylinder 111 engine of 35 h. p.. 13S lbs., driving a Coffin rabolel" propeller, a small Curtiss type radi-

ator was placed at rear of motor, both being mounted on the single upper member of the triangular body, the motor being also guyed to the lateral wing bars. Dimensions and control similar to the original "Demoiselle" with the exception of lateral control, in which the Yeudome front flaps are used. Single surface cloth tacked on with tape. Lateral beams underneath as in the Curtiss and Pfitzner.

On the whole, the machine lacked the finish and careful attention that characterized the liarge monoplane built by Mr. Loose himself. The latter machine was exhibited without the motor. Tts beautiful lines were admired by everyone. This was shown in the July issue.

An "all-steel" monoplane was exhibited by A. Soring, the ribs even being of small tubing. Surface, 240 ft. Weight, 20O lbs. without power plant, cloth or operator. Three-wheeled chassis, rear rudder turning with rear wheel, which also carries a supplementary surface, to the rear diagonal edges of which are attached the two separate flaps of the elevator. Lateral control by ailerons. One lever control.

A most curious oddity was the exhibit of Israel P.aylis : it might appropriately be termed the paradox of the show. Whereas all other exhibitors seeked to eliminate weight, in this case weight was a desirable factor. The model (see photo), about 2% ft. square, weighs 00 His. and has two wagon springs fixed to the base, between the ends of "which (one on each side) is pivoted a heavy pendulum. This is to be driven, at a high speed, by gears and chains from the motor. The inventor claims that a reaction of the machine from (he rapid pendulum blows on the spring ends, which cause it to lift.

President .T. C. Irvine of the Pacific Aero Club exhibited his battle-scarred balloon. "Queen of the Pacific." Capt. P. A. Van Tassel was early on the scene with a new S,O0O-ft. dirigible, 14 ft. diameter by 03 ft. long.

Gliders were exhibited by William Kreling. Ohrt Bros., M. Gunzendorfer and J. Musser, C.

AERONAUTICS

Demoiselle Built By Geo. H. Loose.

Gray and E. Speycr, It. Hughson and L. Schultz, and the Shaffer Aero Manufacturing and Supply Co.

Kites, including a Philippine war kite, used as a target at 600 metres, were displayed at one end of the hall, while at the other were the large number of models. Several of the well-known "parabolel" propellers were exhibited by A. Coffin.

The Pacific Aeroplane and Supply Co. exhibited several samples of fine work in wing construction.

The Shaffer Aero Manufacturing and Supply Co.

had a large exhibit of aero supplies, includin gliders, wheels, tires, propellers, wire, laminate ribs, tanks, etc. The Aeronautics stand by ti above company was visited by many of its westei friends.

The Pacific Aero Club reception room and boot were well crowded; many new members hai joined since the show.

William Kreling won the glider cup. His glid< was a beautiful machine "de luxe."

Model contest winners were Waldo C. Brow Fred Hotchncr and Harold Willots.

Aeronautic Calendar for U. S.

July 9-16—Toronto. Can., aviation meet.

July 16-17—Grand Rapids. Mich., J. C. Mars.

July 16-17—Decatur, 111.. Chas. F. Willard.

July 23-2S—Omaha, Neb.. G. H. Curtiss, C. l*r , Yvmutf, J. C. Mars, t\c Coyly £1/ .

. ^ Augr6»8— rittsburg, Pa.. J/C. Mars,.J I <£«H»/

Aug. 12—Indianapolis. Ind., balloon race.

Sept. 5-10—Lincoln, Neb., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Sept. 5-10—-Hamline, Minn., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Sept. 12-16—Milwaukee, Wis., • exhibition with one Wright machine.

Sept. 17—Indianapolis, Ind., elimination race for Gordon,Bennett balloon race. •> , i

Sept. J 9-24—Detroit. Mich., Wright exhibit! flights.

Sept. 20-30'—Trenton. N. J., exhibition fligh by Wright aviators.

Oct. 1-8—Springfield, 111., exhibition flights I Wright aviators.

Oct. 3-S—Sedalia, Mo., exhibition flights 1 Wright aviators.

Oct. 8-13—St. Lonis, Mo.. Aero Show.

Oct. 15-23—Mineola, N. V., Gordon Bennett aB" other aviation contests.

Oct. 17 -St. Louis, Mo., Gordon Bennett halloo race.

Dec. 1-S—Chicago, 111., aeronautical exhibitio of A. C. of Illinois.

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I Chronology of For- $

1 :: eign Happenings:: I

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June 3. Marcel llanriot, aged 15, flew a Hau-riol monoplane cross-country, Betheny to Mourmelon, 35 kil.

June 5. Capt. Rurgeat, French military flyer, using an antoiuette, flew r hr. 5 in. at Mourmelon and over surrounding country.

871 JULES FLOWN IN THREE DAYS.

June 0. The Anjou meeting closed this day. The total distance flown by six aviators was 1,403.4 kils. (871.5 miles I. Summer machines first and second ; Farmans third and fourth ; Bleriots fifth ■and sixth. Contest distance flown without stop : Martinet (II. Farman I, 108.2 kil.; Taiilette (Summer), 125.0 kil.; Dickson (11. Farman), !J8.7 kil.; Legagneux t Summer i, 07.8 kil.; Aubrun (Bleriot), 31.3 kil. iKS.Sim in prizes divided. Martinet (11. Farman) won Angers-Saumur cross-country race (42 kil.) in 31 in. 35 s. (4.1.5 in. p. h.j.

June 7. Marcel llanriot flew back to Betheny accompanied by M. Niel in a Voisin, and Lieut. [Fequent and Ca])(. Marconnet in a Farman. The [first two landed at Betheny, while the other, Jbear-ung the officers, went on, over Rheims and back to Chalons, covering US kil. in 1 hr. 37 min.

June 8. Leon Morane (modified Bleriot XI [fitted for two people i flew cross-country, Issy to Toury, with stop at Etampes, 03 kil., in 72 mins. Itiyiug time.

Verstraten (Sommer) carried a passenger for 55 mins.

June 0. Lieut. Bellenger flew a 11. Farman 1 hr. Mourmelon.

WORLD CROSS-COUNTRY 2-11 AN DURATION AND DISTANCE RECORDS.

June 0. Capt. Marconnet and Lieut. Fequent, two military pupils using 11. Farman machines, [flew from Chalons to Viucennes, 100 kil., time

2 hr. 30 m. With oil and gas the weight carried iwas 402 pounds, ('apt. Marconnet held the map and took photos.

June 10. Dubonnet (Tellier) flew 120 kil. at [Juvisy track.

2-MAN MONOPLANE RECORD.

June 11. Leon Morane (Bleriot) beat the world's monoplane passenger record, flying in a |circle over Toury for 1 :30 :00.

June 11. At Juvisy meet, Dubounet flew 65.30 [kil. iu 1:14:00; Didier (11. Farman), 57.S kil. in 1 :04 :00.

TWO-HOUR FLIGHT.

June 11. Budapest meeting closed. Total time 10 machines flew, 50 h. 16 m. 48 s., and still other machines flew not entered for duration prizes. This time runs from more than 12 hrs. If or Nicholas Kinet (II. Farman) to 2 hrs. for Mine, de la Roche. Longest flight without landing prizes awarded as follows: Wagner (llanriot), 2:03:40; Hlner (Etrich), 1:45:40; N. Kinet (H. Farman). 1:44:50; Wachalowski (II. Farman), 1 :13 :20. The greatest distance in one flight was 137 kil. bv Wagner.

June 12. Capt. Marie (II. Farman) flew for 1 :10 :00 and 1 :05 :00 on the same day.

June 10. The German Clouth airship sailed fcrom Cologne over the French and Belgian frontiers unnoticed, landing at Etterbeck, near Brussels, Belgium. The distance covered was about [125 miles and the duration 5 h. 20 m.

June 20. Labouchere (Antoinette) flew from Mourmelon to Betheny. Recently while carrying 'a companion, at Chalons, Labouchere proposed a drink and proceeded to fly to a cafe at Mour-•nelon. Served, the return was made to the ■camp.

Passenger car of the " Deutschland" Airship

Sommer has delivered his first military aeroplane to the French army after a demonstration flight of 2 :10 :00.

PASSENGER AIRSHIP MAKES LONG TRIP.

June 20. Leaving Friedrichschafen the new aerial liner "Deutschland" (Zeppelin VII.) sailed to Dusseldorf, a distance of about 311 miles, the trip lasting 9 hours. Count Zeppelin was in command, and there were a dozen others on board. The new Zeppelin is similar to its recent predecessors, except that there is an inclosed gangway connecting the two cars and between them is the compartment for passengers. The walls are of mahogany covered aluminum and the furniture consists of wicker chairs. The length is 14S m. (4S5 ft.) and 14 m. in diam. The capacity is 10,000 cu. meters.

June 21. Tableau (M. Farman) flew at Buc, covering about 108 kil. over nea

June 23. Lieut Fequent flew from Issy ceunes on his H. Farman.

June 24. The "Deutschland" undertook its first' -regular passenger trip, with a crew of 12 and 20\ passengers. Three hours were spent cruising around Dusseldorf. During part of the time there was wind and rain, but the elements seemed lo have no bad effect.

2775 J1II.ES FLOWN IN A WEEK.

June 25. Rouen meeting closed. The total mileage flown was 2775 miles (4409 kil.) divided among various machines as follows: If. Farman 1095. Bleriot 900'. Antoinette 713, Tellier 507, llanriot 4S9. Demoiselle 201. Sommer 411. Broguet 36. Voisin 57 kils : $30,654 distributed in prizes. The greatest total of flights by one man was 404 miles, by Bertram Dickson. The longest distance flown without stop was by Dickson (II. Farman), 141 kil., in 2 :27 :44.

AIRSHIP "DEUTSCHLAND" DESTROYED.

June 2S. The Deutschland. carrying a crew of 12 and 21 passengers, left Dusseldorf for a 3hour trip. One of the propellers stopped after 2 hours, and a storm rapidly came up. Finding it

lew 1 :14 :00 L>arby towns, j Issy to Yin-/

impossible to reach Munster, Osnahruck was made for. hut as the ship had been in the air 0 hours, the gasoline supply gave out, and left the vessel at the mercy of the storm. It finally settled down on the trees of a forest, and the passengers escaped with their lives.

June 29. Lieut. Savoia made a cross country flight of 40 miles from Centocelle, Italy, and the day following one of 22 miles in his H. Farman.

June 30. S. F. Cody tested his new biplane. The twin propeller system has been abandoned. Two engines have been fitted to drive a single propeller. Either can be operated individually. After making two circuits of Laffan Plain a gust of wind caused the machine to fall, and Cody was pinned unconscious in the wreckage. The two engines are of the 50 h. p. 4-cyl. Green type.

^ J.tine 30. Labouchere (Antoinette) and C. L. Wachter^ (Antoinette) flew from Mourmelon to Betheny for the meeting there.

July 2. The Wolverhampton. England, meet closed. Grahame-White (Farman) was longest in the air in one flight. 1:15:38; L. D. L. Gibhs (Farman) second with 1:13:5.

$5,000,000 FOR AVIATION.

July 2. The Italian Chamber of Deputies has granted about .$5,000,000 for construction and maintenance of aeroplanes and airships.

FRENCH ENTRIES FOR INTERNATIONAL.

July 3-10. Seventy-six entries in the Bheiins meeting. Monoplanes entered. 29. Leblanc, Latham and Labouchere were picked to represent France in the international at Mineola, L. 1. In Leblanc's flight he broke the 5, 10, 50, GO, 70, So and 90 kil. speed record.

BARONESS MEETS WITH ACCIDENT.

July S. P.aroness de la Poche met with an accident at the Uheiins meet, suffering severe injuries. She had apparently become unnerved by the close passing of two other aeroplanes. One of the passing aeroplanes flew directly over her. and it is thought that the draft from its propeller made trouble for the baroness.

GRAHAME-WHITE FLIES 90 M. CROSS COUNTRY.

July 11. Grahame-White flew a distance of 90y2 miles in to the Pournemouth aviation grounds where a meet was in progress, in 2 hours 35 minutes. On July 7 he. started from London to make the entire distance, but an accident compelled him to land after going but a short distance.

BRITISH ALTITUDE RECORD.

J. A. Drexel made two ascents on July 11 at the Bournemouth meet of 1950 and 2493 feet altitude in his Bleriot. On June 20 he went up to 1O70 feet.

New Prizes Abroad.

The London Dttily Mail has announced the conditions for its new .$50,000 prize. The contest is open to the entire world, to be held the second week of July. 1911. The winner will be he who starts from a fixed point near London and completes a 1.000 mile course laid out over various cities in England and Scotland, and making a complete tour of Great Britain.

The Automobile Club of France offers a .$30,000 "Grand Prize" for an aeroplane flight from Paris to Brussels and return, divided between the three who cover the course in the fastest time before January 1. 1911. the machine to carry two people, or two with ballast enough to make up a weight of 150' kgs. Must be made within 30 hours, starting from Issy. One descent at Brussels is obligatory. To take not more than 3 hours.

.$10,000 is offered for dirigibles over a course Paris to Rheims and back, given to the pilot making the best time before January 1. 1911. Start and finish at Vincennes. One descent obligatory at Rheims. where an extra passenger must be taken up of a weight of 75 kgs. Duration of landing counts as part of the time.

M. Lazafe Weiller. who was connected with the] French Wright Syndicate, has offered the Wan Minister of France a $5,000 prize for a dispatch carrying competition between military aviators,! carrying a passenger.

The II. Farman instruction biplane covers practically every day a total distance of 200 kils. with two on board.

AEROPLANE RISES FROM WATER.

Henri Fabre. with a monoplane of 50 h. p., Gnotne engine, mounted on 3 hydroeurves. hal been able to fly a distance of 5 kils.. rising andl alighting on the water. The speed attained wad 100 k. p. h. The speed is 14 m.

One hundred and eleven aviation pilots herei received licenses from the Aero Club of Francel These are divided among various makers of mal chines, as follows: (Mine, de la Roche is thJ sole woman pilot.)

Bleriot 24 : Curtiss 2 : R. E. P. 1 ; II. Farman 30; Voisin 15; M. Farman 1 ; Wright 10; Antoinette 9 : Demoiselle 2 : Soramer 4 ; Hanriot 2 ; Tel-lier 1 ; Nieuport 1 ; Breguet 1 : Sanchez-Bcsa 1 ;J Goupy 1 ; Unnamed 0.

Aeroplane and Airship Casualties.

VICTIM OF II1S OWN COURAGE.

June IS. Thaddeusi Robl, who learned to fly a| Farman, was killed at Stettin, Germany. The wind was blowing and no aviator would fly. The crowd! became angered, and called for Robl. who atJ tempted a flight. Descending from a height of 20(1 feet, a gust caught him and he was buried under the wreckage, with his neck broken. lie expired in a few moments^

QVACHTER'S^ERI (PLANE FALLS.

At the oflpm+Mj^-m* an aviation meet at Rheims,! July 3, Chas. Louis Wachter met his death in an Antoinette aeroplane. The wings seemed to frildl ii]). letting the machine drop without resistance toj the ground from a considerable height.

Oscar Erbsloh

DIRIGIBLE EXPLODES.

On July 13. Oscar Erbsloh. the winner of thl Bennett balloon cup at St. Louis. 1907. with foul companions fell from the non-rigid dirigible "Erhsfl

nautic sport. When the automobile came into being he was an ardent supporter, winning several races. He has made more than a hundred balloon ascents, and last ,year took up the aeroplane. Recently he jumped to the front with hour flights and more, crossing the English Channel and returning without stop. ^_

OTHER DEATflS IN POWER .MACHINES.

Sept. 17, 190S, Lieut. T. E. Selfridge, at Washington.

Sept. 7, 1909, E. Lefebvre, Juvisy, France. Sept. 22. Louis Ferber, Boulogne, France. Dec. 0. A. Fernandez, Nice. France. Jan. 4, 1910. Leon Delagrange, Bordeaux, France.

Apr. 2, Hubert I^eblon, San Sebastian. Spain. <z,{oJ

May 13, Ilauvette Michelin, Lyons, France. June 18. Thad. Robl, Stettin, Germany. July 3, C. L. Wachter, Rheims, France.

---, Zosely, Budapest. . -" r «. a a

JjiLy_4£7 Daniel Kinet„Diussel.s, Helium. ' (f^y

THE NEW FARMAN MONOPLANE

Henry Farman has begun trials with a new monoplane. The spread is 23.0 ft., depth 0 ft. 0 in.: the tail measurements are 9 ft. 10 in. by 3 ft. 3 in., and the overall length of the machine is 20 ft. 2 in. The supporting surface is practically 190 sq. ft. So far as can be gathered from examination, the wing curvature is the same as for the standard biplanes. The tail is 9.8 ft. by 3.2S ft. The total weight of the new machine is given as 6G0 lbs.

Lateral stability is secured by two ailerons of the familiar Farman type. The Farman is the only successful French monoplane employing ailerons, the Antoinette having abandoned them in favor of flexing the wing, Bleriot. Tellier and Ilan-riot never having employed them. The horizontal tail member has one half of its surface fixed and the rear portion hinged to form an elevator. On the more recent biplanes the extremity of the upper tail member has been made pivotable. to operate in conjunction with the front elevation rudder, but this movable surface was only about one quarter of the whole ; on the monoplane il is half the depth of the plane. The rudder is mounted entirely above the horizontal plane, and had ahead of it a triangular shaped pin.

The fuselage is a triangular structure united at the forward end by steel girder work in the form of a cross, the center of which serves to receive the mounting of the fixed shaft of the Gnome motor. The four main frame members are united by suitable stanchions, and trussed with piano wire; they are not united at the rear. The wings are not mounted directly on the fuselage, but iire carried almost two feet above it. This places the pilot., the motor, and the petrol and oil tanks on a lower plane than the bearing surface. A triangular structure receives the wings, and at the same time serves for the attachment of the running gear.

At right angles to the longitudinal frame members are two vertical members, attached to the

Photo by Edwin Levirk, AT. V.

steel girder work on the fore end of the fuselage, and mounting above the level of the wing and descending considerably below the level of the frame. From the lowest point of these two "uprights are two similar members inclined towards the rear, attached to the two longitudinal members of the fuselage, and receiving on their upper extremities the rear transverse girder of the wing. This, as can readily be seen from the illustration, forms a triangle or really two triangles, one at each side of the fuselage—the apex of which is near the ground, and receives the axle of the running wheels and the base above the main plane.

The roar plane is mounted directly on the fuselage, with the hinged portion overhanging in order to allow free movement. The rudder and fin are mounted above the fuselage, and consequently above the horizontal plane. There are neither shock absorbers or skids, the aeroplane starting on two small diameter pneumatic-tired wheels mounted on a steel axle passing through the points of the two triangles already described. Towards the rear of the aeroplane is a simple type of skid to prevent the tail from trailing on the ground. The pilot's position is within the fuselage, just to the rear of and below the level of the wing.

The fuselage is not encased. The motor, of course, is in the usual position ahead, overhanging the extremity of the fuselage. It is the standard type of Gnome, with a two-bladed Chauviere propeller. Placed below the level of the wings, the pilot has the advantage of being able more correctly to estimate his distances for landing than is possible when carried slightly above the wing level. Further, this advantage is gained without any loss of protective material in case of a roii'rh handling, there still being the motor and half the length of the fuselage ahead, the wings on each side, and the running gear below, to take the shock before the pilot can be reached. The machine's first appearance in competition will be Interesting.

loli" when it was at a height of over 900 feet. The cause is stated to he the bursting of one of the ballonets. It is thought possible that the expansion of the gas at the high altitude caused the bag to burst.

The airship had a cubic volume of 290O cubic meters, was 53.2 meters long and 10 m. diam., driven by a 125 h. p. Benz motor. The speed was 29 m. p. h. and could carry 0 people. The propeller was forward, of 2 blades, and 4.5 meters diam.

DEAJJ*-<JF ROLLS.

The Hon. C. s/Rollsj met with his death at Bournemouth, Eng.NJjujyl2, while flying his Short-Wright machine in a contest for landing nearest to a predetermined spot. Just what happened it is impossible to determine at this moment. The motor had been shut down previous to the glide down. -

The Hon. C. S. Kolls, son of Lord and Lady Llangattock. has been one of the foremost in aero-

Aeronautics August

International Aviation Tournament at Mineola.

The national and international aviation meeting for 191U will be held near Miueola, L. I., about one mile east of the present aviation held, beginning Oct. 15 and closing Oet. 23. The international speed contest for the Gordon Bennett trophy will take place on Oct. 22.

For this contest there will be at least 11 competitors—three from France, three from England, one from Italy and three from America. Elimination races for the selection of the French team were held in Rheiins, July 5, when Latham, Le-blanc and Labouchere were chosen. Latham uses an Antoinette aud the other two Bleriots.

Grouped about the international speed championship contest will be an interesting program of events, including many novelties aud extraordinary feats for aeroplanes. This program is now being arranged, and will be announced as soon as possible. Cash prizes amounting to about $50,000 will be awarded for the most importaut achievements, with several special prizes for other events.

Contracts are soon to be awarded for the building of the grand stands, aerodromes, etc., and the field, two and one-half miles in length by one mile in width, is now being put in proper shape.

In addition to the regular challengers for the International trophy, it is expected that a large number of foreign and American aviators will take part in the general program. Inquiries have already been received from many European aviators, and uo doubt many machines will actually tly over the course during the meet. It has not yet been determined who the American cup defenders will be, but it is expected that Glenn II. Curtiss, winner of the trophy last year, will be one of the three.

Lawrence L. Gillespie of the Aero Club of America, chairman of the subscribers' committee, reports good progress in raising the $250,000 necessary to fiuauee the meeting. The committee has appointed Gage E. Tarbell as general manager and Byron K. Newton as assistant manager, with offices at 320 Fifth Ave. Announcement of the prizes and program will soon be made.

Aviation Treaty Between Mexico and the United States First of Its Kind.

By E. L. Ramsey.

THE Foreign Office confirms the statement that negotiations are under way for the celebration of a treaty between Mexico and the United States for the purpose of regulating aerial traffic over the border line of the two countries with the special view of preventing smuggling.

So within a short time it will be illegal for an American to visit Mexico in an aeroplane or dirigible balloon, because it would violate the treaty which is being negotiated between the United States and Mexico.

Charles K. Hamilton has already crossed the Rio Grande at Ciudad Juarez and El Taso in an aeroplane, and the long flights that are now being made are sufficient notiee that such events will not be remarkable iu the future. This makes it necessary for the two governments to extend the provisions of their treaties regarding immigration and the collection of customs duties so that inspections may be made in the interior as well as on the border.

The officials of the State Department have made many favorable comments on the advantages to be derived from such a treaty.

AMERICANS ao FLY IN MEXICO NEXT FALL.

Joseph Hidalgo and Sparks M. Berry, of Los Angeles, have made proposals to take part iu the ceutennial celebrations in Mexico City this fall. They propose to bring a number of aeroplanes, with expert aviators, dirigible balloons and several aerostats. This has given rise to new hopes on the part of Governor De Landa y Es-candon of the Federal District to make this one of the drawing cards of the event.

The matter will be discussed by the national centennial committee, of which Mr. Landa y Es-candon is the president, at the next meeting, and no reply will be given to either of the proposals until then.

Terms of Chicago-New York Flight Announced.

Dates have been set for the coutest to he held uuder the auspices of the New York Times and the Chicago Evenimj Post from Chicago to New York for a prize of $25,000. The race will start October 8 from the Windy City.

A resume of the conditions follows: Entries may be made at any time after publication of the terms. There must be at least ihree competitors or no race. The start shall be 10 o'clock a. m., or as soon thereafter as may be, and shall be simultaneous, if possible. In case of uad weather, the start may be postponed from day to day until Oct. 15. Each entered machine must be in Chicago by Oct. 3 and give daily trial flights until start. The race must be finished within. 168 hours from the start. Stops unlimited. Each entrant must have a verified record of one hours continuous flight in Chicago between Oet. 3 and 8. Repairs may be made en route, but aviators musi finish in the same machines they make the start. If the start is simultaneous, the first machine that reaches the finish within the rules will be adjudged winner, hut in case the entrants start at intervals, due allowance will be made. A flight of equal or of greater length than the proposed course, prior to the race in this country, shall serve to invalidate its terms. The promoters of the event reserve the right to delegate the management of the affair to a recognized aeronautical society if such a course is deemed advisable.

Public school 77 of New York celebrated a "safe and sane" Fourth by having a free balloon ascension in addition to kite contests. It was not intended to be of the free variety, but the bag-took charge of itself and sailed over to Mas-peth, L. I.

An 18-ft. balloon was furnished by A. Leo Stevens and a generating plant was installed iu the Central Park yard at 97th St. After inflation was complete, the balloon was guided over and under trees in a brisk breeze, up Eighth Ave. to lOGth St., sustaining small holes in the journey. These were patched up, and the balloon, decorated with flags, was sent up at the end of a 2,0O0-ft. rope. In pulling the balloon down in the late afternoon, the rope broke and the balloon slowly went out of sight. Not being quite full, there was ample opportunity for the gas to expand. When found, it showed signs of having burst at a great altitude.

Clifton O'Brien of the Pacific Aero Club is flying a Farman type biplane with a 60 h. p. Hall engine.

Aeronautics

August, ioio

St. Louis Aero Show.

That exhibits of complete aeroplanes and motors built expressly for aerial use will be the feature of the St. Louis National Aero Show, in the Coliseum, Oct. S to i:>, is now assured by contracts for floor space which have been made by several well-known coucerns, among them the agents for the Gnome motor, to which I'aulhan and Farman attribute much of their success.

Complete aeroplaues and a new aero motor will he shown by the Aerial Navigation Co. of Girard, Ivans. This coucern has already completed three machines of the same type, which are reported to have been sold, and has now constructed three more.

The Aeromotion Co. of America (.St. Louis; has taken space in which to exhibit the Gnome motor, and has reserved additional room for exhibiting two types of foreign-made aeroplanes for the agency of which they have about completed negotiations. Marc tieguin of the Aeromotion Co. cabled to the French house of Gnome motors before taking space and learned that the company could furnish a motor for exhibition at the time of the show. It will probably be the first Gnome motor shown in St. Louis.

Another type of rotary motor, which works upon practically the same principle as uie French-made Gnome, wilt be exhibited by the nolines Rotary Motor Co. of Denver, Colo. The western Oil t'ump and Tank Co. (St. L.ouisj has taiien space, and will exhibit its regular line oi lUuks and self-measuring pumps, but in additiou 10 this, it is rumored that lhis company will snow something novel in the way of an aerial accessory which will be of considerable importance to airmen.

The Aeronautic isupply (j0-i which has just opened a store on Olive St. in the heart of the automobile district, will be another St. Louis exhibitor, showing practically everything for the construction of complete planes as well as the finished machines. Tuis concern has already placed St. Louis in an important position as far as the aeronautic industry is concerned. It was the first aeronautic supply house in America, aud it is said that its present number of clients is 3,000 people, embracing the entire country, Canada and Mexico.

The eight or ten airmen about to take part in the novice meet of the Aero Club of St. Louis are very much interested in the coming aero show, and have expressed their intentions to have exhibits there, provided they are successful in their work this summer.

Hamilton Tries Two Cycle Engines.

Charles K. Hamilton, who has split with Curtiss, has borrowed for temporary use the Curtiss type aeroplane built by Fred Shneider for G. E. DeLong of the Elbridge Engine Co. of Rochester, land expects to use it in demonstration flights at Mineola until his own high-powered racing machine is completed, which will probably be the first part of August. The De Long machine is equipped with an Elbridge two-cycle 40-00 h. p. engine, Bosch magneto and Requa-Gibson propeller, El Arco radiator and Ilarttord tires. This is the same machine which Dr. Greene flew at Rochester.

C. W. Bennett, who was associated with Messrs. Wilcox. McDonald and Carruthers in getting up the Montreal meet, has disposed of his interests and has joined hands with the Aviation Co. of Canada.

The Aviation Co. of Canada has been organized with offices at 201 St. Catherine St.. Montreal, with the primary object of promoting so-called "meets," supplying fairs, etc., and has secured representation in the maritime provinces and the west.

John McGoveru on June IT delivered a panegyric an hour and a half in length, entitled "The United Brethren, Wilbur and Orville," at the Press Club of Chicago.

Rules for $15,600 Prize.

The rules for the Edwin Gould $15,000 prize have been formulated, aud are, in short, as follows :

For the most perfect aud practicable flyer designed and demonstrated 111 this country, having two or more power plants, capable of working independently or in conjunction. File compleie specifications and urawings with contest committee, Scientific American, 361 Broadway, Aew lork, on or before June 1, 1911. Contest takes place July 4, 1911, and following days. Two machines must enter or uo award. -i

Before competing, applicant must have made flight at least one hour, using but one power plauL-^and must also iu same flight drive engines alternately and together. Open to any gasless apparatus. No entry fee. Location of place of trial to be announced about June 1, 1911.

Kite Contests at Mineola.

Fdward Duraut is directing kite flying and model contests every Saturday at Mineola. Two score boys started the first of the series on July 4th for a cup offered by Mr. Durant. At the end of an hour many of the kites had escaped and the contest was brought to a close. The three prizes went to Frank Krug, John Kiusella and Carl Morehouse respectively.

Pennsylvania Club Has Grounds.

The Pennsylvania Aero Club is building six sheds at Clementon, N. J. Edward Augsberger is working on his machine iu oue shed, the Lesh aeroplane belonging to Herbert Itazzard is another and Louis Bergdoll who bought a Bleriot some time ago will probably use another shed. A meet is in anticipation for the Fall.

Armour Institute's Aero Course.

The rapid development of aerial navigation has led the Armour Institute of Technology to offer instruction in the more important branches of this subject. The object of the course is to prepare students for experimental and practical work in aeronautics.

The elements of what is known of the scientific principles upon which the art of Hying is based are taught. Students are made acquainted with the work aud results of the principal experimenters ; and also with the methods of construction now used in successful air ships aud aeroplanes, including motors. These courses are elective and open to Juniors and Seniors of all departments.

The subjects of instruction are :

AERODYNAMICS.

The work iu this subject includes the study of fluid resistance, stream line forms, the economics of flight, the theory and efficiency of the screw propeller, and experimental aerodynamics. Published accounts of experiments, including the latest available, are drawn upon for data on which to base mathematical studies of the problems of flight.

Text-book: Lancaster, Aerial Flight, 1 oi. /. Aerodynamics, supplemented with lectures.

Two hours per week during the second semester of the Junior year.

AERONAUTICAL DESIGNING.

The studies include the stresses in the principal types of balloons, air ships, aud aeroplanes now in use ; and the designing and detailing of these structures.

Lectures with problems assigned for solution by the students.

Two hours per week during the first semester of the Senior year.

GAS ENGINES.

Elementary theory, construction, and practical working of fight weight gas engines.

Two hours per week during the second semester of the Senior year.

Death of A. L. Pfitzner.

A. L. Pfitzner, who was employed by G. II. Curtiss to design the present 4-cylinder Curtiss engine, then building and flying a monoplane of his own and later experimenting with the Burgess aeroplane at Marblehead, Mass., on July 12, went out in a boat and shot himself, falling into the water. The boat was found adrift. In it was his hat and coat and a note asking the finder of the boat to return it to its owner. The reason for his act is thought to be despondency. His loss is keenly felt by all those who knew him.

Mr. Pfitzner had been fairly successful in flying the Burgess aeroplane, and had made numerous flights on his own machine, as recorded in Aeronautics. On July 9 he made a flight of about 3 miles. When directly over the river at Plum Island, where all of the flights arc being made with the Burgess machine, a gust of wind hit the machine and both the aviator and the aeroplane landed in the water.

On July S he made a flight of a couple of miles and then landed, due to the overheating of the engine.

Meets Death in Glider.

Eugene It. Speyer, of San Francisco, Calif., a young lad student, who with his "pal," Carlton Gray, had built a biplane glider, was killed on June I during his first experience at gliding, while towed by an automobile. Evidently frightened by the speed and a contrary gust of wind, he turned his front rudder down and the machine hit the ground and turned a somersault, breaking the boy's ribs and resulting in his death a few minutes later in the hospital. Speyer was quite insistent on being the first to try the machine and would not even toss a coin for choice.

The Wright Suits.

New York, July 1. The P. S. Circuit Court of Appeals yesterday denied the motion on behalf of the Wright Company asking that the Curtiss concern put up a bond to protect the petitioner from loss in the event of winning the patent suit. The petition sets forth the loss being done the Wright Company by the flights of Curtiss and Hamilton and others using Curtiss machines. In the last issue the dissolution of the injunction against Paulhan and Curtiss was announced.

The suit against Saulnier has been dropped as lie left the country. Pressure of work that has seemed more important has prevented suits being brought against Harmon and other alleged infringers but the matter is not being held open awaiting final decision on the original suits. The Wright Company in the near future will proceed against every infringer who is injuring its business.

The Wright Co. has filed a demurrer to the action brought by Charles I.amson alleging infringement, stating that the bill of complaint does not show whether the infringement was committed by the defendants jointly or severally, and that it does not aver execution of the letters patent according to law.

WRIGHTS .MADE 1HICTUKS OF LAW.

Oberlin College has conferred upon Orville and Wilbur Wright the degree of Doctor of Laws.

Balloon Races Off.

The balloon race scheduled at Peoria, July 5-0, was called off. A storm upset the plans for the St. Louis race on June C>-7 and the balloons had to be deflated to save them.

Octave Chanute. who was taken ill in Paris last month, is reported in a cablegram to his son. C. D. Chanute, No. G047 Jefferson Ave., Chicago, to be better. The message says : "No cause for alarm."

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING]

TYPEWRITERS.—All makes. Caligraphs $G.00 ; Hammond, Densmore $10.00.; Remington $12.00; Oliver $24.00; Underwood $30.00. 15 days' free trial and year's guarantee. Harlem Typewriter Exchange, Dept. F IS, 217 West 125th St., New] York City.__I

AEROPLANE—Position wanted by woodworker! and mechanic experienced in aeroplane and gal engine work. DAVIS, care of Aeronautics.

NO INFRINGEMENT—I am patenting desigij of aeroplanes, with no vertical rudder, whicll does not conflict with Wright patent. Need niodl erate capital to build. EXPERIENCED, care oil Aeronautics.___

BALLOON FOR SALE—New, 35,000-ft. balloon! in fine shape. Full equipment and instruments. Cost $750. What will von pay or trade ?i EUGENE BROWN. Peoria, 11L___

FARMAN AEROPLANE—For sale cheap. The1 identical Farman aeroplane which won endurance prize at Rheims, France, for flight of over three hours. New power plant. J. W. CUItZON, Hawthorne Aerodrome. Hawthorne, 111.

THE "WHITE ROTARY" ENGINE WILL MAKE YOI'R MODEL FLY. WRITE ABOUT IT. MINIATURE AEROPLANE WHEELS, RUBBER TIRED. VERY STRONG AND EXTRA LIGHT.I SUPPLIES FOR YOUR MODEL. WHITE AEROPLANE CO., 15 Myrtle Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.

FOR SALE—One 110.000 cubic foot balloon! holder of world's speed record. Also one 40,00(1 cubic foot balloon complete. Make offer. C. A. Coey. 1710 Indiana avenue, Chicago. 1

WANTED.— Capital to develop or construed "Man-Carrying Aeroplane," entirely original in-l ventiou on new scientific principles. Patents! granted in all civilized countries on miniaturJ models which will be sent to interested parties! for the price of one dollar. No other miniaturel flying machine stands comparison in its simplicitjl and stability of construction and wonderful a el tion. Will Ilv under any condition of wind. Fol further information write E. EICIIENFELI). Nol

11 South 7th Sc, Minneapolis, Minn.__I

MECHANICAL ENGINEER wishes position al charge over aeroplane building; has 7 years' ex! perience in aeroplanes, motors and experimental work. Address M. E., c. o. Aeronautics.

Having developed a totally new device for auto-l matically balancing and steering aerial crafts, ll wish to co-operate with a party, willing to furnish! a few hundred dollars for building and demonstrat-l ing the same in a flying craft of any make.

This apparatus embodies principles and featuresl of the highest importance and value, and will be-l come fundamental and indispensable to aerial navil gation.

Leading features of the apparatus :

Size lo in. x 10 in. x 20 in. balances the largest

craft, be it Wright, Curtiss, Bleriot, any dirigible.I

etc.

Possesses a positive, iion-osciUatahlr, vertical! (fundamental requirement) controller at all times! that is perfect, and will never and can never be] radically changed or improved upon.

Balances flying machines with their planes inl tilted, warped, ascending, descending positions with utmost accuracy.

All steering mechanism combined in one hand] \\ heel.

Flying in horizontal, ascending, descending, directions, circular, spiral curves of any radius by predetermined action on this one hand-wheel without ever interrupting the automatic balancing operations.

Patents applied for in several countries. An] early demonstration of this invention, presented here without exaggeration, is the principal motive for advertising it. Address :

G. GAWLET. .2318 Sixth Ave.. Seattle, Wash. (.Continued o>i page 70)

I :: BIBLIOGRAPHY :: j

fLYlNOMACniMfS

CONSTRUCTIOn&OPtRKnon

Flying Machines: Construction and Operation, is a new book announced by the Charles C. Thompson. Co., of Chicago. It will be ready for distribution June I. The authors are W. J. Jackman and Thos. H. Russell, both well kno w n as writers on mechanical topics. Octave Chanute, C. E., a recognized authority on aviation, contributes a chapter on "Evolution of the Two Surface Flying Machine," which will undoubtedly be of interest and benefit.

While many valuable works on aviation are in circulation, the preliminary announcement of "Flying Machines : Construction and Operation," makes plain the fact that this is something different. In the words of the publishers it is a "show how'' book for novices who wish to construct and operate flying machines. With this purpose in view it is strictly non-technical and easy to understand.

For sale by Aeronautics at $1.50 in leather; $1.00 in cloth.

Les Aeroplanes de 1910 by R. de Gaston, secretary of the French Society of Aerial Navigation. Preface by ~S\. J. Armengaud. and a study on propellers by M. V. Tatin. Librarie Aeronautique, 32 rue Madame, Paris. Price 4 fr.

A technical study of the principal aeroplanes of 1910, usually showing drawings, which gives in brief space very complete data, figures, scales and comparative tables. This is a work of real value to the experimenter and to the student of aviation.

The Sky-Man is the title of a new and absorbing book just brought out by The Century Co., Xew York. A pleasure yacht goes up into the wilds of the frozen North, searching for some signs of a lost vessel which contains an Arctic explorer and his party. On board the yacht is a young girl. Jeanne Fielding, the daughter of that explorer. Up into the same region of the North comes a young man, Philip Cayley, who has long been an outcast from civilization, because of a crime of which he was not really guilty. He has taught himself to fly with a pair of giant wings whose motive force is the muscular power of his own body. Wild chance and a quick succession of stirring adventures leave the "sky-man" and the young girl alone to fight privation and darkness through an Arctic winter. Of course, there is a villain in the case, a half insane Norwegian sailor, whose

stealthy appearances make life miserable for Philip and Jeanne.

It is a book which appeals to the imagination—a story not sociological nor with a problem in it, but of the kind of adventure that one finds in "Robinson Crusoe" and "Treasure Island." For sale by Aeronautics at $1.30.

The Epitome of tlie Aeronautical Aiuuiul. Mr. .lames Means, who published the "Aeronautical Annual," in. IS95, lS'Jfi and ISP7, has completed an epitome of these volumes, all three numbers of the Annual being now out of print. Mr. Means-Annuals have been of great value to experimenters but are not so well known to present-day enthusiasts. A vast amount of good information will be obtained from this book. The principal articles of the three previous volumes are incorporated in the epitome, with several new ones. The article by Octave Chanute on "Soaring Flight."' printed in Aeronautics for April, WOO, has been substituted for Mr. Channte's two previous articles in the Annuals. Prof. A. Lawrence Kotch has written a chapter on the relation of the wind to aerial navigation, and the history of the Blue Hill Observatory is given up to date. For sale by Aeronautics at $1.12.

The Art of Aria Hon, by K. W. A. Brewer, a "Handbook upon Aeroplanes and their Engines," with notes upon propellers. Svo., cloth. 253 pp. fully illustrated with 12 large plates. This is a very practical book and will be of value to anyone who can make use of higher mathematics, although the theoretical is done away with. The tables of weights lifted at various angles, wind pressures, etc., will be found of value. Contents include: Comparison of Monoplanes and Biplanes; Form. Support. Stability. Weight and Horse Power: Herson's Machine: Engine Problems (This is quite exhaustive); Descriptions of Engines (Many engines are described in detail) : Propellers. Relation between Pitch Speed. Thrust and H. P.: Efficiency of Propellers by Various Methods. Tables; Materials of Construction: Details of Manufacture: Successful Monoplanes: Biplanes: Wright and Voisin Compared. Tables of Leading Machines; Progressive Record's; Art of Flying, eliding, etc. Price, $3.50. from Aeronautics."

Iloir to Build an Aeroplane. This is a new book translated from the French of Robert Petit by T. o'B. Hubbard and .1. II. Ledeboer. The author, who is an eminent French engineer, has made a personal study of the method of adopting by various European manufacturers, and has tried to incorporate in the book such knowledge of methods adopted by constructors as will be of benefit to those building.

The contents include : General Principles of Aeroplane Design: Theory and Calculation (Resistance, Lift. Power. Calculations for the Design of an Aeroplane, Application of Power. Design of Propeller. Arrangement of Surfaces. Slability. Center of Gravity, etc. 1 ; Materials: Construction of Propellers: Arrangement for Starting and Land ing; Controls: Placing Motor, etc.; The Planes (Curvature, etc.): Motors.

Lc Constrtictcur de Pctits Aeroplanes, par M. R. Petit. A large pamphlet containing working [dans of four small easily flown aeroplane models with complete directions for their const met ion. Published at 30 cents by Librarie Aeronautique, ."12 rue Madame, Paris.

L'Aeroplane de I'Avcnir. par Henri Picq. A brochure with drawings and plans of a freak aerial omnibus. Price 30 cents, at Librarie Aeronautique. 32 rue Madame. Paris.

The Art ,of Flying, by Thomas Walker, is the third of the series of classics being published serially by the British Aeronautical Society. This may be had from King. Sell & Hiding. 27 Chancery Lane, London, England, at 30 cents.

aeronautics

. August, 19i'd

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The

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4.

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Sole MakerslJ and Exhibitors of the Famous

WRIGHT FLYERS

Both 'planes and motors built entirely in our own factory

The WRIGHT COMPANY

+

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Lighter Gas for Balloons.

A new German invention of value for free balloons is reported by Consul Tbomas H. Norton of Chemnitz :

Illuminating gas is forced through long tubes, maintained at a very high temperature. Most of the carbon in the hydrocarbons is thus separated out and the percentage of hydrogen is largely increased, so that this gas constitutes SO per cent of the modified coal gas. At the same time it is deprived almost entirely of its characteristic odor, and freed from the presence of benzine, which exerts an undesirable solvent action upon the materials employed to render balloons impermeable. The most important change is that iu buoyancy, as the specific gravity sinks from 0.44 to 0.225, or less than one-quarter the weight of air. This means that 1 cubic meter of the new gas can support a weight of 1 kilo (.2.2 pounds!, fn coal gas, 1 cubic meter supports O.T kilo. A balloon with a capacity of 7,000 cu. ft., when inflated with the new gas, has a lifting power equal to that of a balloon of 10,00.0 cu. ft. charged with ordinary coal gas.

Wellman in the Air Again.

It has been announced that Walter Wellman and Melville Vaniman, who have made a number of attempts to reach the pole by airship without success, are now planning to sail from Europe to the States in the same ship, "America," used in previous expeditions. The London Telegraph and the New York Times are exploiting the attempt, agreeing to purchase all the news which Mr. Well-man can produce.

{.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4*4< 4. 4.

4* 4*

! The Buyers' Guide %

4* 4*

% Trade Notes J

4. *

$4>4<4<4>4>4>4<4>4'4>4>4>4'4'4<4>4<4>4<4>4<4<4>4'4'4>4'4'$

TO OUR FRIENDS.—We would appreciate it very much if you would specify in writing advertisers that you sua) the ad. in AERONAUTICS. Ttiis will help us, and eventually be of equal service to yourselves.

4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4,

The Call Aviation Engine.

A decided refinement in aeronautic engine construction is that adopted by the Aerial Navigation Co. of America, with headquarters at Girard, Kans., in the Call aviation engine.

This is a regular opposed two and four cylinder engine of the usual four-cycle type, water cooled, 0-in. bore by 51,4-in. stroke; the two-cylinder engine developing 50 horsepower and the four-cylinder engine developing 100 horsepower at 1,900 revolutions per minute.

It is in the cylinder and cylinder head construction that the chief point of interest lies.

Even with the usual copper or other sheet metal water jacket, adopted by most aeronautic engine manufacturers to lighten the weight of iron cylinders, the great weight of cast iron either compels an unduly thin cylinder in order to keep down the weight, or, in case the cylinder walls are made of the requisite thickness for strength, the engine becomes very heavy.

�8090854

8

On the other hand, the employment of steel for cylinders, as has been attempted by certain manufacturers, both in this country and Europe, has not, to say the least, met with signal success. Whether from the extreme thinness of'the cylinder walls or to steel being less satisfactory in its bearing finalities than gray iron, engines of this construction, while giving satisfactory short runs, have failed in endurance tests.

In the Call engine the cylinder walls, piston beads, valve cages, valve seats, as also all other parts exposed to the heat of explosion chamber, are constructed of a special high-grade vanadium gray iron., while the outer cylinders and cylinder

heads, comprising also the water jacket, are constructed of a special high-grade alloy of aluminum and magnesium called magualinm.

Unlike other constructions in which the use of an outer cylinder of lighter metal with an inner cylinder or bushiug of gray iron has been attempted, it will be observed from the accompanying illustrations, first, that the iron inner bushing is surrounded throughout its entire explosion chamber length by the jacket water, without any intervening metal or joints, and, second, that no part of the lighter metal of which the outer cylinder and cylinder heads are composed is exposed to the heat of explosion chamber.

With proper water circulation, all danger of the overheating of the outer cylinders is thus avoided, and the proper adjustment maintained between the relative heat conductivity and expansive qualities of the two metals.

The gray iron bushings are machined to a perfect fit both inside and out. and arc then pressed into the outer cylinder from the top. These bushings are of amnio thickness throughout the length of explosion chamber, and1 below that are considerably reduced in thickness. As will be seen from the accompanying illustrations, an additional shoulder upon the inner cylinder at the top is machined to fit into a companion groove in the magnalium cylinder in order to make a thoroughly water-tight connection, while the spiral nartitions of the magnalium water jacket extend inward to the iron cylinder, greatly strengthening it to resist the explosive stress encountered.

P.y the use of this lighter metal for the main outer cylinder, enormous strength of construction is permitted without undue weight. The magnalium cylinders are. in fact, of sufficient thickness to give a tensile strength of something like 1."0.000 lbs., while the cylinder base and cylinder heads are each secured by a dozen steel studs or cap screws % in. in thickness, having a combined tensile strength of 150.000 lbs.

In order to further lighten the engine, the valve cages, which are also of vanadium gray iron in one piece, are air cooled above the level of the cylinder heads; while below this and around the valve seats they are most efficiently water cooled. The crankcasc and fittings not exposed to the heat of explosion chamber are also made of magnalium, similar to the material used for outer cylinders and cylinder heads, and the erankoase is thoroughly braced and ribbed in such a way as to give enormous strength combined with minimum weight.

Having thus secured lightness in the heavier engine parts, there has been no attempt made upon the part of the designer to secure lightness by the use of freakish material and insufficient sizes

Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co.

Builders of Light Weight, High - Power MOTORS. PROPELLERS and RADIATORS

OUR motors combining compactness, simplicity and power, are the result of twenty years of practical gas engine construction. A card will bring our circular with full description.

Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co.

Four Cylinder x 4*-<j in. 30 to 40 H.P., complete with radiator and 6-ft. x 3>gft.-

DETROIT, MICHIGAN Six cylinder 5x5 io., 60 to 70 H.P., corn-

Four cylinder 5x5 in., 40 to 50 H.P., complete with radiator plete with radiator

;S650[

pitch propeller

Weigh! per outfit 175 lbs. I Wgt. per outtil 200 lbs.

and 7-ft.x4-ft.-pitch propeller

$750

and 8-ft.x4-ft.-onrn pitch propeller«>33U Wgt.per outfit 240 lbs,

LARGEST and MOST Complete

CATALOGUE

OF

AERO SUPPLIES

ever printed

37 models of aero motors alone

R. 0. RUBEL, Jr. & CO.

Louisville, Ky.

Mention Aeronautics When Writing

CHURCH

Aeroplane Co.

BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Working Models Flying Models Separate Parts

MODELS BUILT TO ORDER

From Working Drawings, Etc.

SUPPLIES FOR MODEL BUILDERS:

AriraiixuJi, Rattan, Bamboo, White-Wood, Etc.

Special Notice!

WE have received so many inquiries for agency propositions and orders are coming- in so fast, that our mail has grown to such an extent, that we find ourselves unable to keep up with our correspondence, but will fill orders and answer all letters as quickly as possible until we have increased our facilities still further.

Price List of Models and Parts

is now ready, but it will be some little time before our

Supply Catalog for Full Size

Machines is ready for distribution as there are so many new things to list. In asking for catalog, please state which one you want.

CHURCH AEROPLANE CO.

Main office and factory 123 South St., BROOKLYN, : N. Y.

Chicago office, 49 Wabash Ave., H. S. Renton, Manager.

in the construction of piston heads, connecting rods, crankshaft and other like parts. The piston brads and rings are also made of vanadium gray iron. The connecting rods are the best grade of vanadium phosphor bronze, specially designed for strength, and the crankshaft is of the best grade of vanadium steel, solid throughout.

The valves are of large size and have unusually large valve lifts. Both the inlet and exhaust valves are 2 in. in diameter, and the valve lift is % in., giving free clearance. In addition to the main exhaust valves, a %-in. (inside diameter) auxiliary exhaust port, thoroughly water cooled, is placed on the bottom side of each cylinder. This exhaust port is allowed to open somewhat in advance of the main port, and thus draws the fire, furnishing an additional safeguard against the overheating of the main exhaust valve seats and bearings.

lioth the main and exhaust ports are silenced, not by means of the usual baffle and mufller plates, which crowd the exhaust back into the explosion chamber, but by a special silencer constructed of an inner casing of steel tubing, with V slotted mouth, over which an outer casing of aluminum tubing of considerably larger proportions is then fitted by means of a vanadium gray iron ring or thimble containing a large number of holes around its entire circumference. The force of the exhaust pumps the cold air through these openings, and by this means the gases are so cooled and shrunk by the time they reach the mouth of the silencer as to greatly diminish the deafening noise so pronounced a feature of other aviation motors.

ENGINE DETAILS.

Fig. 1 is a central horizontal section of the cylinder and piston of engine. Fig. 2 is a vertical section taken on the line 11-11 of Fig. 1. Fig. .'{ is a vertical section taken on the line III-III of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is an enlarged section at the outer end of the cylinder on the line IV-IV of Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a similar view on the line V-V of Fig. 2. Fig. 6 is a vertical section of a part of the cylinder on the line VI-VT of Fig. 1.

Especial attention has been devoted to securing the greatest possible cooling facilities. To this end the water jacket partitions are spirally arranged in such a manner that the jacket water passes four times around the cylinders during each circuit, and then over the entire surface of the cylinder heads. In addition to this, the engine is also equipped with a piston circulation pump instead of the usual centrifugal or gear pump adopted on automobiles, and copied by other

aviation engine manufacturers. This piston pump is positive in its action, and in connection with the spiral cooling flanges forces the jacket water four times around the cylinders during each 15 seconds.

While the manufacturers of this engine have endeavored to put upon the market a moderate priced engine, they have spared no pains and expense to make the engine of the very best quality, both in the character of its workmanship and finish. All the exposed parts of the engine not constructed of magnalium—a shining non-corrod'ible metal— are nickel plated, and the whole engine is polished to a mirror finish. The demand has been so large that the manufacturers have been compelled to increase their shop and foundry facilities from time to time, until they are prepared to supply the engine on short notice and in any numbers. The prices of the above engines are $1,(100 for the 50 h. p. and $1,700 for the 100 h. p. respectively. These prices include all accessories, such as carburetor, pump, ignition and radiator facilities.

Two Spark Plugs to a Cylinder.

Messrs. Unterberg & Ilelmle, who ' make the famous 1*. & 11. Master magnetos, have developed a new type of magneto, which meets with every requirement of speed service. In this new U. & II. racing magneto, two armatures are employed mounted tandem, and running in the same armature tunnel on one shaft. These armatures are fitted with two complete sets of windings, each set consisting of a primary and secondary winding. The most unusual feature of the magneto lies in the fact that but one interrupter is employed to break the primary circuit of both armature windings, and it is obvious that this arrangement must produce the high tension current in each armature winding., and must produce these two impulses at precisely the same instant.

TWO PLUGS FOR EACH CYLINDER.

The magneto is equipped with a compound distributor, each armature winding being connected by conventional means with the distributor, one set of plugs is connected with one distributor, and the other set of plugs, of course, connects with the other distributor. Two safety spark gaps are provided, one for each high-tension circuit, so as to eliminate any danger of damaging the windings, should the cables, leading to the plugs, be accidentally damaged.

As will be seen, the above unique arrangement overcomes all objections heretofore found in the use of two magnetos on racing motors. It is immaterial as to the amount of wear which takes place in the driving mechanism, or the amount of wear on the interrupter mechanism of the magneto, as the one break of the magneto interrupter operates for both windings. It is impossible to derange the magneto so that one set of plugs will receive the electric impulse before the other does, and tests made abroad with this new type of mag-

TO THE PROMOTERS OF THE

Coming Aeroplane Meets

YOU want exhibitions of Man-Lifting Aeroplane Kite Flying to interest the crowds while the aviators are not flying. C. High or even moderate winds will invariably keep the aeroplanists from flying until late each afternoon. Before then we will fill the air with hundreds of 9- and 12-foot Aeroplane Kites of every known kind. By flying these, dozens in tandem, enormous American flags, streamers and announcement banners about the meet can be lifted a half mile in the air.

C. These scientific kites will fly all day and the displays will be a great attraction in themselves and will keep the crowds quiet and contented, when for any reason the aeroplanes cannot fly. C. At the Meet of the West Hudson Aero Club at Arlington, X. J., June, 1909, New York papers said, "The hundreds of kites in the air were a decided feature.*'

SAMUEL F. PERKINS

110 Tremont St. :: Boston, Mass.

♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦MM

NON-INFRINGING

AEROPLANES

Guaranteed to Fly

I Ready for Early Delivery $

Easy Terms for Exhibitors

Manufacturer and Dealer in

AERONAUTICAL SUPPLIES

Aviators for Tournaments |

N.Y. Agent for Elbridge Engine Co.

FRED. SHNEIDER

1020 E.-178th Street New York <

♦■♦♦♦♦ M ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦

AEROPLANE TIRES

Clincher type only, which is the lightest and most satisfactory type for aeroplanes

SIZE Weight complete

20x4 in. 6i lbs.

26x2i " 6i "

28x2£ " 7i "

28x3 " 8 "

28x3* " 8f "

Wheels also furnished for the above sizes Pennsylvania Rubber Co., Jeannette, Pa.

BRANCHES: New York-1 741 Broadway ; Boston— 167 Oliver Street; Chicago—1241 Michigan Avenue; San Francisco—5'2 Mission Street: Los Angeles—930 So. Main Street.

4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.*****

* *

* The Acme of Engineering Skill I

THE WORLD FAMOUS

Whitehead Motor!

*

Designed by Ihe Noted ♦

Engineer *

GUSTAVE WHITEHEAD 4.

No Bursting Cylinders—No Cams— +

* No Springs or Valves to Work Loose *

Construction of the utmost simplicity 4*

Vibration negligible jjj

Absolutely Nothing to get Out of Order I

* 4 Cylinders (vertical), 8 port exhaust, 2 cycle 4*

75 H.P. 200 lbs. 145 " 95 "

Price $1,400 " $1,150 $950

*

* * * * * * *

* 4*

X

* * *

t

******************************

* *

1 40

* 25 *

* Including Bosch Magneto—30-day deliveries

* GEORGE A. LAWRENCE, Mgr.,

*, Astor Theatre [Building, New York, N. Y.

T This motor has been exclusively adopted by T ^L, C.& A.Wittemann, Aeroplane Manufacturers

neto show conclusively that the principle of operal tion of this new U. & H. Master Magneto is col rcct, and that while it is possible to secure fairljl satisfactory results by connecting two separate" magnetos to the motor, the use of the U. & H.i racing magneto assures the maximum efficiency of' the motor at all times, owing to the fact that it is impossible for the sparks in any cylinder to] occur out of synchronism.

Aside from the principal features outlined above,, the magneto is of the well-known U. & H. con-l struction, employing the U. & II. non-adjustablel interrupter, which is another detail of great inJ terest to racing men, as it eliminates all possiblJ chance of ignition difficulties, due to breaking or sticking of the pivots, springs, insulation, and] other parts used on other types of interrupters.! The armature and distributor of the machine are! mounted on annular hall bearings, which effectu-l ally eliminates any possibility of trouble, due tol lack of oil.

Buffalo Pitts Co. Building Aeroplane.

The Buffalo Pitts Company of Buffalo. N. Y.J who are large engine builders, have tinder construction an aeroplane. In the course of their' experiments with this machine over a number of years, they had occasion to try out certain models demonstrating new aerodynamic principles, and onel of these models created so much interest in its! operation, that they decided to make a flying toy novelty of it, which they have done, giving it thej name of "Hi-Flyer" helicoptic flying machine, patented and copyrighted.

This little machine flies to a height of overl f.00 feet, and can be operated by any child. Shoot-] ing the "Hi-Flyer" is as much fun for grown people as for children, and is an excuse for out-! door exercise for everybody. It has been the sen-siation of the aviation meets throughout the country. It is used by aviators for determining the direction and velocity of the wind at high altitudes, and there is a special demand for it for this purpose at aero clubs, as well as for use on golf courses, and at amusement parks and beaches.

Kites Now Feature of Meets.

The kites of Samuel F. Perkins were a continual source of amusement and interest during] the Indianapolis. Montreal and Toronto meets. These flew all the time and provided the public with something to look at when the 'planes did not fly. One Montreal newspaper featured an au-nonne'ement of the kites on its news bulletins, illustrating tho surprising value kites are lending to meets. These kites are sent up on many lines, singly, in tandem and other ways, and carry various banners, streamers and flags, advertising either the meet or articles of general use. If] there is not enough wind for kites small balloons take the place of the kites and perform the same usefulness. The regular outfit numbers 100 kites of all kinds. A new stunt is a huge box kite made like an aeroplane, with rudders and propeller. In the air it looks exactly like the real thing and remains stationary in the air. In this it has it over its original.

Rinek Aero Mfg. Co.

The Rinek Aero Manufacturing Company of Easton. Pa., was recently incorporated with C. Norvin Rinek president and Frank Buckman, see-retarv-treasurer to conduct the light motor and aeroplane business heretofore handled by the machine department of the Easton Cordage Com-panv. It was felt that on account of the rapidly increasing business handled by the machine department that a greater volume could be more efficients handled by an organization devoted solely to aeronautics. The Rinek engine has found favor through consistent performance and good workmanship and material. Philip W. Wilcox, who has built a Farman-type machine at Mineola. speaks highly of the motor and the company's treatment of him.

A

ERONAUTICS

Catalogues Wanted.

Manufacturers are requested to send catalogues Lf motors, propellers and accessories to Miguel Lebrija, Ave. del I'alacio Legislative Xo. 42, Mexico. I>. V.. Mexico.

J. W. Curzon Starts Aero School.

I J. W. Curzon who brougbt the first Farman keroplane into this country and has made flights kith it at the Indianapolis motor speedway, has Istablisiied a training school where would-be aviators build actual machines. Those who want 10 [earn to fly only will be accommodated at the Hawthorne racetrack, Chicago, where he has as-lociated himself with M. L. Kasmar, author of I First Lessons in Aeronautics." An effort will be liade to furnish graduates of the school with positions as aviators. Owners of machines will also le taught to fly them.

I Three machines will be put out by the manufacturing end of the concern, all to be uon-tifringing and equipped with Elbridge engines. These are :

Curzon No. 1, small biplane, main, planes 2S by ft.; box kite elevator, size 0 ft. by 2 ft. each; ■nglerplane stabilizer with slight camber; 17% |q. ft. of surface; Curtiss type chassis and rudder. I Curzon Xo. 2, main planes "2 ft. by G ft., single-llano stabilizer with 18 sq. ft. of surface, single-llane elevator in front. 15 sq. ft. f Curzon monoplane, main plane 35 ft. by 7 ft. Ihassis similar to Farman; aspect same as Far-Ian, hut with bottom plane entirely removed with reception of middle section, which is made much larrower, and is lowered down so that the driver Its immediately above the wheels with engine at lis back and propeller far above the engine, chain liven, thus placing man and motor far below lie main lifting surface, which is 12% ft. high, in l-der to maintain stability in all kinds of weather. Ingle-plane stabilizer behind as well as hori-pntnl rudder in front, 15 and IS sq. ft. respec-vely.

About Hartford Tires.

While to many people if may seem strange that flying machine is equipped with tires, never-keless in almost all cases this is true. The lurtiss machine used by Charles K. Hamilton in lis flight in Xew 1'ritain is fitted with three lartford aviator tires 2(> in. by 2 in. in size. I Hartford tires have been used since the first liys of the bicycle, and have kept abreast of the ■•occasion of new inventions, and when the leroplane became pomil.tr and tires were found a fcquisite part of their equipment, the Hartford lubber Co. had three styles of tires to offer. At lie first aerial show held in Madison Square larden the Hartford company was the only tire khibitor. showing at the.t time ils aviator, aero-lane and aeronaut tires.

I These tires are pneumatics, mostly in small Izes and of special construction to afford all the hsiliency possible, as this is necessary to aid the lachine in starting from the ground—and yet the read must be very durable and of a certain I'gree of toughness to withstand contact with ]>stacles which may come in the path of the roplane.

There are already in this country more than a kindred flying machines fitted with Hartford tires, lecently a good-sized shipment was made to the |urtiss factory.

Shaffer Supply Co. Absorbed.

,The Shaffer Aero Manufacturing and Supply Co.

San Francisco has been absorbed by the Cali-Irnia Aero .Manufacturing and Supply Co. Itoy tott, a well-known automobile man of San Fran-jseo, is now a partner in the rapidly growing Isincss.

J The new salesroom, factory and office at 441 |id 443 Oolden Gate Ave. is already a head-Jarters for the aeronauticallv inclined on the ►cific Coast.

August, ip 10

AEROPLANES

Bleriot

Antoinette Sommer

AND ALL TYPES

E. N. V. GNOME ANZANI, Etc.

SPARES PARTS

Organization of MEETINGS in All the World

Aug.C.Gomes&Cie.

Trade and Export 63 Bd. Haussmann PARIS

MOTORLESS

THE next great achievement in aviation may he Motor less Fi.niiT. Many eminent engineers and physicists believe it to be atta'nab'.e by man. We know that it is performed by the birds. Read the article entitled "Soaking Flight," by Octave Ciianute, in the Epitome of the Aeronautical Annum.. This Epitome contains also articles by

CAYLEY, WeNIIAM, LlLlENTIlAL, M.VXIM,

Langley and others who laid the foundations of the science of aviation. '2^1 pages, 18 plates. Price $1.00; postage 12 cents. W. H. CLARKE CO., L2C) Tremont St., Boston.

HOLMES ROTARY MOTOR

7 Cylinder

30-35 H. P. 70-80 H. P. 3 lbs. per H. P.

Superior to any Aviation Motor built in this or any other country.

A. D. Mackay

General Sales Agent First National Bank Bldg. CHICAGO

Roebling Aviator Cord

Made of the highest strength wire drawn from special steel

The strongest and lightest cord procurable

JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS CO.,

Trenton, N. J.

They report a large demand for their laminatel ribs, which are carried in stock and made to order, the four-ply 5-ft.. ."-ft. (5-in. and G-ft. G-inl lengths being favorites. They are now filling an order for ribs of the exceptional size of 8 ft. G hm

The 20-in. aero wheel made by this company il replacing a number that have "dished" its 7-injj hub. steel rims and heavy spokes, making it prael tic-ally unbreakable. Regularly equipped with ball bearings. Friction bearings on order.

They are now placing on the market a knockdown plane, or rather a biplane, carrying surface! 30 ft. by 5% ft. The outfit includes laminatedl main beams and ribs, struts, sockets, joints anl rib connections, to which can be attached any sorl of rudders and chassis, one of the three ' types] made by this company, or by the buyer.

Mr. Cleve T. Shaffer, whose technical descrintion.J Aeronautics' readers are familiar with, will b<J consulting aeronautic expert for the firm.

The following agencies have been secured : Whitehead motors, Detroit 20-30 motor. Palmer & Uoodyear aero tires. Bosch magnetos.

Elbridge Engines Improve.

Mr. A. P. Warner of Beloit, Wis., the first amal tour to fly in this country with a Curtiss machinel has announced1 his intention of building a new mal chine after ideas of his own during this summer! He expects to equip it with an Elbridge "feather! weight" engine.

Very rapid advancement is being made in thl design and construction of the Elbridge "feathe« weight" engines. Fundamentally the engines remain the same, but drop forged steel connecting rods, new pistons and a more efficient system of manifolds have improved the engines in both appearance and efficiency. The engines now heinl turned out at the rate of one each day are said to deliver 15 to 20 per cent, more than rated poweil Regular deliveries are now being made in lo dayfl after receipt of orders.

Willis Co. Removes.

The E. J. Willis Co.. dealers in aero supplied has removed to larger quarters at So ChamheiH St., New York.

Harmon Uses Pennsylvania Tires.

One of the Herreshoff brothers is building an aeroplane and is equipping it with the large diameter Pennsylvania'aeroplane tires. The PenB sylvania Rubber Co. has supplied Clifford B. HaB mon with rubber to renew the shock absorbers on his Farman. which is already equipped with PenB sylvania tires.

The Pennsylvania Rubber Co., whose works anl main office are located at Jeannette. Pa., and wifl are now giving employment to nearly 1.000 poH pie. have recently put on the market an aeroplanj tire peculiarly suitable to the advanced stage of aeroplane development.

Heretofore motorcycle fires of 21/& in. and 3 inl section have been largely used on aoroplaneH Such tires are not designed or adapted to stanB the shocks of alighting and have little cushion ing effect. It is therefore often necessary to use four wheels on an aeroplane, resulting in a com siderahle increase in weight and air resistance: ■

The Pennsylvania aeroplane tire is 20 by 4 in. in size and is of light but strong construction Two of these tires will carry a ten or twelM hundred pound flyer, and will have sufficient cuslB ioning effect to prevent the jar of alighting beinB transmitted to its delicate framework. ■

This tire is similar to the Pennsylvania clincheB automobile tire, but constructed with a view to its use on aeroplanes.

The 20 in. by 4 in. tire complete with tubfl weighs only seven pounds. For lighter machinB thev are turning out a 2M>-in. fire in both 2f>-dJB and 2S-in. diameter of the same light and stronB construction which may be employed where the use of a wheel of a larger diameter seems to he advisable.

Requa-Gibson Propeller Holds Record.

Clifford B. Harmon, who holds the United States amateur endurance record with his Farman, recently had the machine fitted with a Requa-Gibsou regular type propeller, sya ft. diameter by 2-ft. pitch. Referring to its performance, Mr. Harmon writes : "With this propeller 1 broke the amateur record of America of 1 hour 5 minutes. Tt seems to be giving entire satisfaction."

With this propeller and the engine running at I.l'iki r. p. m.. the pitch speed figures 2,400 ft. per niinute. Now, the aeroplane Hies at 40 miles per hour, or 3.520 ft. per minute, which is considerably more than the pitch speed of the propeller. Patrick Y. Alexander experimented with model propellers on a wire on board the steamer traveling between England and America, and found that these advanced into the wind. The Requa-Gibson company promises some startling information in the near future, as the result of present investigations.

* *

! Club News ! % i

The Lincoln Aero Club is the name of a new body just organized for the purpose of discussing aerial navigation and promoting the sport in Lincoln, Neb. The six charter members are Dr. (1. R. Brownfield, Joe Burnham, Commandant H. E. Yates of the University cadet battalion. G. W. Chowins, superintendent of grounds and buildings at the university ; E. C. Babeoek. and Dean Richards of the department of engineering at the university. As soon as possible club grounds are to be established somewhere on the outskirts of the city where the necessary sheds and other equipment will be erected, and test flights will be made.

Dr. Brownfield is working on a 4-ft. model for a double bi-plane on which he has applied for a patent. He is to have two pairs of planes, one pair directly ahead of the other. His machine, according to the model, he has constructed, is to have at least two advantages over the Curtiss and Wright machines. Both of these operate in preserving the equilibrium of the machine. One is a controller operated by the engine and the other is a pair of wings lying on a horizontal plane on either side of the' machine. These are operated by means of a lever. If the machine should dip to the left, for example, the left wing being thrown out to offer resistance in the atmosphere, while the right wing is raised to relieve resistance.

Dr. Brownfield. of 1234 "O" St., is enthusiastic and has arranged for the club to visit the Omaha meet in a body.

McGill Aviation Club has been formed by students at McGill University. Montreal, Can.

The Aero Club of Colorado is requested to inform us of its address. A letter addressed to the club at 30 W. Colfax Ave., Denver, has been returned by the Post Office.

The Aero Club of Philadelphia, which has existed in name only for more than two years, has been dissolved. Some of its members have joined the Pennsylvania Aero Club.

It was also announced that Clarence P. Wynne, treasurer of the old club, had been elected secretary of the Pennsylvania Club. Henry S. Gratz, president of the old club, had been elected vice-president of the Pennsylvania club, and Arthur T. Atherholt. secretary of the old club, had been made nresident of the new club.

A Boys' Aero Club has been formed at the Omaha, Neb.. Y. M. C. A. Sergeant C. F. Adams, of the signal corps at Ft. Omaha, gave the new club its first lecture.

The Aero Club of California held its election of officers on the 2Sth of June. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : Presi-den. II. LaV. Twining: 1st Vice-President, R. I. Blakeslee ; 2nd Vice-President. W. H. Leonard : Secretarv, liuel II. Green; Treasurer. Chas. E. Rilliet: members of Board of Directors at large, W. S. Eaton and Van M. Griffith.

California Aero Mfg. & Supply Co,

441-3 Golden Gate Ave. San Francisco :: Cal.

Manufacturers of

Aeroplanes : Gliders : Propellers Wheels: Turnbuckles: Sockets: Etc.

Laminated Ribs and Beams in Stock and to Order

AUGUST SPECIAL—5 ft. 6", 4 Ply,

laminated rib, aeroplane curve, 35C. 63Cll

Agents- Whitehead Motors, Detroit Motors, Palmer & Goodyear Aero Tires, Bosch Magnetos "Aeronautics"

Get our prices on Knock Down Planes, including Beams, Stmts, Ribs, Sockets and Rib Connections

CRAFTSMAN

Perfect Propellers

IMPROVED

Santos Dumont Type AEROPLANES I'o&Sti $1,000

Send for Specifications

All Kinds of Wood and Metal Work Made to Order. Gliders, Special Parts, % Spars, Struts, Ribs, Skids, Wheels, Etc.

ADDRESS

9626 ERIE AVENUE SO. CHICAGO, ILL. Successor lo J. STUPAR, Pattern and Model Shop

M. STUPAR

30 and 60 H. P.

— AIR-COOLED AERO-

MOTORS

With Radial Stationary Cylinders

NICKEL - STEEL TURNBUCKLES Write for circular and prices

-PROPELLERS AND SUPPLIES -

BUEL H. GREEN, Auto Engineer 515 Delta Building, Los Angeles, Cal.

Auto & Aeronautic Supply Go.

C, Aeronautic Supplies of Every

Description in Stock C. Wood Cut as per Specifications 2100 BROADWAY (73rd SI.,) NEW YORK

'PHONE, 6948 COLUMBUS

HIGH-CLASS MACHINE WORK FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES

We Accomplish Results where Others Fail Pedersen Lubricators have proven to be the most reliable

Pedersen

Company

(Established 1684. Incorporated 1906) 636-644 FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK

New York > Chocolates

Chocolate

Health Food

Most Suitable fop Aeronauts or those requiring a Non-Bulky Sustaining Food Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK

FOR ANYTHING IN AERONAUTICS

which you may desire from France, write to

Ladis Lewkowicz, Ervauville, Loiret, France

and prompt attention will be given your inquiry.

Specialty of securing reliable and successful motors. Any styles of aeroplanes. Quickest delivery and lowest figures. Manufacturers' guarantee. Full information can be obtained from my lawyer and resident representative, Eugene 1. Gottlieb, Esq., 140 Nassau Street, New York City.

PROPELLERS

C. SPECIALLY MADE

For Model and Full Sized Aeroplanes. C Prices on Application

L. G. DUQUET I07K,hrkSt-

TUB MASTER MAGNETO—F.& S. HEARINGS.

BOWDEN WISE. J. S. BEETZ CO. TIMES BLDG. PHONE 345 BEY/ANT.

The South Bend (Ind.) Aero Club lias been formed with the following officers: President, Colonel Jasper E. Brady; vice-president, George Cutter : secretary, B. S. Walters ; treasurer, Elmer R. Stoll.

The Aeronautical Society offered a prize for the most helpful essay. Seven members prepared papers and all were read on one of the regular meetings. The prize was awarded by popular vote to l,aurence l.esh. On July 14th Charles 11. In-man addressed' the society on the subject, "Proving the Horsepower of Engines by Reaction Test." Mr. Ininan's talk was most interesting. His device is intended to be capable of use on an aeroplane to show the aviator at all times just what horsepower his motor is delivering and what his propellers are doing. This paper will be printed in Aeronautics.

* f

* Exchange and * :: Forum ::

I :: :: Forum :: :: %

STARTING DEVICE FOR SALE.

D. D. Wells, R. F. D. 2, Jacksonville, Fla., has recently taken out a patent covering ;a skid to assist starting on rough ground without employing any track.

In the sketch, Fig. 1 is a side view, Fig. 2 shows a transverse section of same, Fig. 3 is a detailed end view of one of the pulleys with the belt applied thereto and Fig. 4 is a detail side elevation of one extremity of the skid.

In operation the skid is positioned on the ground when the outer face of the belt (11) engages with the ground and the runner (10) is supported upon the upper lubricated face of the belt. When the skid is forced longitudinally, the runner is caused to slide over the belt and to cause the movement of the belt beneath the runner and over the pulleys (i:i). The guides (10) engage the beads (15)

throughout the length of the runner, and holds I he belt in concaved position to engage about the polished surface of the runner. As the" belt reaches the end of the runner at the rear extremity of the skid, the same is released from the guide (101 and permitted to engage over the flattened surface of the adjacent pulley. Mr. Wells desires to dispose of the patent at a reasonable figure, as he is financially unable to exploit it.

ATTRACTIONS W A X T EI >.

E. F. Stephenson, 250 Vance Ave.. Memphis, Tenn., wants to connect with aviators having successful machines and aeronauts with dirigible and free balloons.

CENTER OF FRESSCRE.

Question : Please inform me how to find the center of pressure on a biplane whose surfaces measure 5 ft. fore and aft, with a curve of 1 :20. The angle of inclination is 0 degrees when the aeroplane is on the ground. Must not the center of gravity be just a little below and back of the assumed c. of p. when the aeroplane is not in motion, considering that because in flight the

32460�19

c. of p. moves forward, the center of gravity must be rather in front of the assumed c. of p.?

Answer : One can suggest no convenient way to find c. of p. of an aeroplane except by actual trial. The c. of p. of a small experimental plane having same depth of curvature would be for 6 degrees about 44 per cent from front edge, and if this held true for a large surface it would be 2 ft. 2 in. from front ; that is, for a circular arc. For a parabolic curve it would probably be further forward See discussion of Aerial Experiment Association in June, 1909, number, pp. 175-7. The weight, or center of gravity, should in general be forward of the c. of p. This point depends somewhat on the method of vertical control (the disposition of elevator and horizontal rudder). See also ]). 15:>. April, 1910, Aeronautics, and article by M. P». Sellers, pp. 77-79, March, 1910.

now to maintain camber.

One method of maintaining the camber of ribs, though not generally used, is to use a thin span wire to join the tips, this wire forming the chord of the rib. Hibs are usually bent after steaming, dried and then made impervious to moisture by varnish. As long as they do not absorb moisture they will stay bent.

Laminated ribs can be glued and bent at once while the glue is wet, put thus in a form to dry and when dry taken out and varnished. These will hold their shape, even though they absorb some moisture, providing the glue does not soften.

---~ tps'

I----A'y^S ^>f£ -"^re* u-

How to Make Rlts

Another method of making ribs is as follows: Take thin boards of the desired thickness and wood and glue them together, one on top of another. While the glue is wet place the laminated board thus made into a press or form the shape of the ribs you want. Clamp the form tightly together and place the whole in a drying oven for several hours. When dry the ribs can be sawed out of this curved board. A correspondent says that if ribs are wet or soaked, then bent on a board and help by bent nails, then dried and burnt a little by a gasoline torch on the concave side, they will say bent.

THE WILLOUGIIBY STEERING DEVICE.

Dear Sir :

1 was invited by Mr. Harmon recently to witness a flight in his "Farman" machine, lately purchased from Paulhan, who used it at Los Angeles last winter. 1 was tpiite surprised to find I hat it steered in the vertical plane with my patent si coring device (applied for on the 10th of June. 1909. several of the claims having already been allowed i.

This patent consists in steering an aeronautical machine in the vertical and horizontal planes by a combination of rudders. All biplanes steer up and down by (be head alone. All monoplanes steer up and down by the tail alone. Tn my device the "War Hawk" steers up and down by both head and tail at the same time.

ADAMS-FARWELL

THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST

MOTOR

Less than 3 lbs. per H. P. A. L. A. M. rating

Self cooled by its own revolution

GET OUR CATALOGUE No. 15-A

THE ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

Specially Selected for Aeroplanes

ALL SIZES IN STOCK J. DELTOUR, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York

TELEPHONE 5565 SPRING

Weaver-Ebling Automobile : Company :

"WECO" OILS AND GREASES

All Aeronautic Supplies 2230 Broadway at 79th St., - - - New York

Farman Type Aeroplanes, Elbridge

Featherweight Engine, $3,500

Curzon No. 1 Small Biplane, Elbridge

Featherweight Engine, $3,000

Curzon Monoplane, Elbridge Featherweight Engine, - $4,000

A LIMITEO NUMBER ONLY TO BE SOLD AT THE ABOVE PRICE

All Machines are Positively Non-Infringing

using my original recently perfected lateral balance device. Demonstration Flights are given with machines, before they are delivered, at Hawthorne Park Aerodrome, Chicago; 1-s must accompany order.

Invite the Interest of Capital Preparatory to Organizing Exhibition Company tor this Season Quick Action Big Returns

Announcement: America's First Aeroplane Training School under the Auspices of The American Aeronautical Society

■and ably directed by

Mr. M. L. Kasmar, Author of the book "First Lessons in Aeronautics" with J W. Curzon as instructor and Aviator-Dciiionslrator, opened beginning of July for actual practice in the art of flying and building at

Hawthorne Park Aerodrome

We intend to supply Ihe increasing demand for Aviators, and loalP'i'd an opportunity to those who desire to experience the delighlfnl. healthful, exhilarating sensations of riding through -pace. Learn to pilot your own machine. You will save twice a* much as your fee by eliminating smish-ups and loss of time.

For Aeroplanes address J. W. CURZON, Hawthorne Aerodrome HAWTHORNE, ILL. K'T particulars concerning schcn 1. applv M. L. KASMAR, Sec'y., American Aeronautical Socicly CHICAGO, ILL.

301tai0/.E. ^of? STffUT Socrrar- &c?£T

STRUT

w-Posr soccer

Bolt &raz£Z> To soc/r£T~

By crossing the tiller lines of the forward and after horizontal rudders, an inverse action of the rudders is obtained, elevating the bow and de-

AERO ENGINES

WATER COOLED

Cylinders-Wrought Steel. Water Jackets—Wrought Steel.

WELDED to Cylinders. Crank Case-Aluminum Alloy.

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Bronze. No leaky screw joints—every joint Welded. 25-30 H.P., Weight 80 lbs. $600 35-40 H.P., Weight120 lbs., $800 45-50 H.P., Weight "50 lbs., $11 >0

AEROPLANES BUILT COMPLETE READY TO FLY With Non-Infringing Equilibrium Device

25% cash with order, balance C. 0. D

THE SANFORD MFG. CO., bridgeporl conZ

pressing the st"in. halving the surface required for each rudder The pressure on the upper side of one and on the under side of the other keeps the parallelogram of forces rigid until a slight directive force is given l.y the steering wheel.

Three years ago at Brighton Beach I described this patent to Mr. Farman and: told him 1 was putting it on the "War Hawk." and T see he has now paid me the compliment of using it.

At the receut aeronautic convention in New York I was asked by several persons if it was my intention to sue on infringements. My answer was that 1 would not, and that I was more than pleased if 1 had added my little mite to the science of aviation. Yours truly,

Ilfe.n L. WlLLOUGIIBT.

PADDLE WHEEL DEVICE.

Dear Sir:

Dr. Greene of Rochester, who is building an aeroplane, kindly refers me to you for address of parties interested in the idea of a folding slat paddle wheel, which device, he says, has been patented, for sustaining aerial machines. I think I have a method of appreciably increasing atmospherical resistance to downward' movement of a paddle or wing and thereby increasing its lifting effect, and would like to get in communication with parties desiring to have such a device made more effective than it has so far proved to be.

John R. Graham. 24 Locust St., Rochester, N. Y.

SAFETY DEVICE FOR AEROPLANES.

(Jentlemeu :

The undersigned begs leave to suggest the following as a possible improvement in safety devices for machines used in navigation of the air, but more particularly for heavier than air machines.

A combination in au aeroplane or air ship of a galvanometer, an electric battery or other device for generating and maintaining a constant electric current and devices adapted to connecting in electrical circuit with the galvanometer and battery or generating device the metallic wires, pa^rts or members of the aeroplane or airship and their connections :

For the purpose of indicating, by means of the galvanometer, injuries or abrasions of said metallic wires, parts or members and their eon-

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

■IN STOCK OR TO ORDER-

EL ARCO RADIATOR CO.

6 EAST 31st STREET NEW YORK

August, ipid

HE INVENTOR"-

bove book is an honest explanation of how the tor may guard against obtaining worthless nts, and is written with a sincere desire to place the Inventor-reader in a position to determine intelligently when he should not file an application for Patent. Sent FREE on request.

The business of experienced patentees and inventors solicited. Inexperienced inventors will be rendered equally thorough service.

HI WOODWARD PATENTS, Trad- Marks. Copyrights . Li. W UUU W Food and Drug Registration

730 9th Street 0PP. U. S. Patent Office Washington, D. C.

PATENTS

ctiotis. such :is would reduce their cvoss section materially reduce their strength and safety Ictor.

The purpose of drawing this claim and publish-g it is to prevent it from subsequently being tented, and to give all interested free use the suggestion, if perchance it should be found contain any elements of value.

Albert W. Btel, 15 William St.. New York.

}»3xS><S><S*3xSxJ>^ PATENTS

Ascensions !

I'lIIL.VDEI.rillA. .lime 10.- Dr. Thomas K. ldn-dge, I »r. (ii'ii. II. Simmerinan and Welsh trawlnidge. in the "I'hila. II." attained an alli-ldc of t7.il.~i<i feet. The lauding was near Poters-ille. l'a.. after li1/. hotirs: a distance of .00 ules. Dur. 'J. hrs. ."'»."> min. It took hut 18 mill. > drop 17.000 ft. A new liigli ascent will he at-Miipled, properly equipped with plenty of ballast nd su])]ilies. The highest American official record 10.01.".. A. II. Forbes went up to 20.000 feet, as corded last month. There are lis ascensions on cord higher than the llarrnon-I'ost ascent of 0.015, not including Forbes or Eldredge.

C L. PARKER

Laie Examiner U. S. Patent Office

ATTO RNEY-AT-LAW AND SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

American and foreign palenis secured promptly and with special regard to the legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request.

30 MCGlLL BUILDING WASHINGTON, D. C.

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We are experts in AIRSHIPS and all patents and technical matters relating to AERIAL NAVIGATION.

VICTOR J. EVANS & CO., Washington,D.C.

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irce I

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AERONAUTICS

ODIER

VENDOME

August, ipic

MONOPLANE

Ready to Fly

$2500 F. 0. B. NEW YORK

Sole Agents

Uniled States, Canada and Mexico

Yves de Villers & Co.

Paris New York

Philadelphia

Aeroplane Tubing

li DIAMETER :: :: 22 GAUGE :: :: 4 FOOT LENGTHS Polished Steel Tubing : : Made up to your Measurements

VERY STIFF AND LIGHT 2"C^SAT]

Weight 8 oz. per Foot

J. L. LUCAS, 2 Fox Street, Bridgeport, Conn.

AEROPLANE MATERIALS

Gliders designed and built Catalogue free. Complete instructions for building full sized aeroplane, with scale drawings, 55 cents >

J. W. RosJion :: Harrisburg, ^a.

PROPELLERS

Laminated Wood, True Screw, Any Pitch,

1 H0LBR00K AERO SUPPLY GO.

| JOPLIN, MO.

ST. LOTUS, June IS.—At 5.30 p. m. II. E. Honeywell and YV. F. Assmanu, left in the "Centennial'! to make another attempt to win the Lahm eupl The landing was made 6 miles south of BowenJ Ky.. on June 10, at 0.30 p. m. Just after landing! a heavy storm broke. The distance is 354 miles. I

CANTON. June 18.—J. II. Wade, A. H. Morgal and W. K. Chisholm in the "Sky Pilot" to Faiil view, Pa.

ST. LOUIS, June 20.—Miss Julia Hoemer del cided to ])ecomc a pilot. After half an hour an electrical storm came up and the aide, JohrJ Perry, helped her make the descent. 9 miles fronl St. Louis. The balloon was the "Mclba."

PITTS FIELD. June 25.—Wm. Van Sleet, Wm.

Dear and F. M. Christie. 2 Ih , LOWELL, June 25.—Charles .1. Glidden, Mrs. M. N. Olidden and .1. J. Van Valkenburgh in the] "Mass." to Salem, N. II. l)ur. 1 hr. 35 m. ; dist.l 12 m. ; alt. 4,100 ft.

. ST. LOTUS, July 2.—Wm. F. Assmann, qualified Nf^as pilot, faking up two passengers. Landing was near I'attonville. Mo. Dnr. 2 hrs. ; alt. 0,200 ft. J rained during part of ascent.

I'll I LA., .Inly 9.—Dr. Thomas E. Eldredge. Dr. George II. Simmermau, Dr. L. F. Fifier and MissJ Anna Xiitinger, in the "Phila. II," to Mount I loll v J X. .1. Altitude reached 7,000 ft.

LOWELL, July 9.—Chas. .1. Glidden. John .iJ Van Valkenburgh and Edward E. Strout in the] "Mass." to Andover, Mass. Up 40 min. ; (list. 4] miles; alt.. 2,100 ft. ; poor gas. This made Mr. Glidden's 47th ascent.

F. O. ANDREAE

REGISTERED

SOLICITOR OF

Aeronautic Inventions

a specialty at home and abroad

PATENTS

Pasadena,

Calif.

PATENTS

20 Years Experience

SPECIAL ATTENTION TO AERIAL NAVIGATION

Send for book telling how to obtain Patenls and Illustrating 100 Mechanical Movements

——— BOOK MAILED FREE TO ANY ADDRESS---

CHAS. E. BROC

J

* 913 F STREET, WASHINGTON, D. C. 256 BROADWAY, N EW YORK CITY

4" I HAVE IN MY OFFICE COPIES OF ALL PATENTS GRANTED FOR AEROPLANES

*{* if.

•2* *J' 4* 4* 4* 4* v 4* 4* 4* 4* 4" 4* *

4*

PATENT ATTORNEY

FNfiINF FflR ^Al F One new 30 H. P., four cjlinder Limine run OHLE air-cooled aviation engine, equipped with Bosch magneto and Laminated true screw 6 foot propeller 200 lbs. thrust. Engine weighs ly7 lbs. Outfit just cost us about $600: will sell for half or will exchange for 50-75 H. P. motor. Address, "Aero Dept.."

STEBBINS At GEYNET. Norwich. Conn. _

THE FUTURE FLYING MACHINE. This wonderful machine is automatically balanced in the air, it does away with the warping of the wings or tips, is operated by one steering wheel and is driven by two propellers which derive their power from a 30 h. p. revolving cylinder motor. Its wings have a spread of 3(i> ft. and are 27 feet in length. The simplicity of this machine does away with accidents, and makes it very easy for anyone to operate. 1 wish to form a company of one or more to manufacture this machine. If you are interested, address Ralph Cole. Tipton. Kans.

EQUIP YOUR AEROPLANE

WITH

Aeroplane Fabrics Aeroplane Tires Bumpers

Tell us what you need, and let us explain the superiorities of GOODYEAR Materials.

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

Akron, Ohio

AEROPLANE WIRE WHEELS

20" x 2" Curtiss Type in Stock-WEIGHT 7 LBS. Monoplane Tail Wheel. 16" x IV—Weight 3 lbs.

Farman Type Axles ty^^U*.

14" Wire-Spoked Steering Wheels - - Turn-Buckles

J. A. WEAVER, Jr., 956 8th Ave., N. Y. L. B. REPAIR CO., Inc.

EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOTORS REMODELING and OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAKING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON

AIR, LAND and WATER VEHICLES

225 W. 57th St., N. Y. Tel. 6549 Col.

25-30 h. p. c/4.nzani o^otor

now on exhibition at 735-7th cAvenue, New York.

Sole Agent

UNITED STATES. CANADA AND .MEXICO Yves de Villers & Co.

NEW YORK PARIS

PHILADELPHIA

Patent List.

Robert E. Green, New York, X. Y.. 900,339. June 7, 1910, filed June 22, 1909. AIRSHIP. An aeroplane consisting of a plurality of sails at the front and another set at the rear with a propeller intermediately between them. Both sets of sails are pivoted so as to be movable and in addition the rear set is provided with rudders movable laterally.

Louis L. Crane, New York. X. Y.. 000.831. .lune 7, 1910. tiled Dec. 21. 1909. FLYING MACHINE. A toy aeroplane the characteristic features of which are a frame composed of several rods Secured to a plate at the front and joined at the rear in the form of a tripod, in the center of which extends a rubber hand operating a propeller at the front and a triangular tail piece at the rear.

Frederick W. Wnerth, Cincinnati. O., 901,923. June 21. 1910, filed March 13. 1910. ATTACHMENT FOB AEROPLANES, consisting of flexible wings attachable thereto and projecting outwardly therefrom. Means are provided for distending or collapsing the wings and changing the angle of incidence.

George D. S. Reece. St. Louis. Mo.. 902.380, .lune 21, 1910, filed June 10, 1908. AIRSHIP, the characteristic feature of which consists of sets of wings, each wing comprising a frame made up of a rod projecting at right 'angles from a shaft, and a series of arms projecting from the rod. This frame is covered with cloth and several such wings extend radially from the shaft in the same plane.

Samuel Montgomery, Stockton. Cal.. 902.032. June 2S. 1910. filed Dec. 14. 1908. FLYING MACHINE of the helicopter class, comprising a main rotative shaft used vertically from the cage or basket containing the motor. This shaft is provided with propellers and at its top a parachute is secured, so arranged that connections from the cage enable the opening or closing of the para chute.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING

(Continued from page <:o)

250 West 54th Street New York

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subscription rates United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50

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E. F. INGRAHAM ADV. CO. 116 Nassau Street New York City

NO. 37

AUGUST, 1910

Vol. 7, No. 2

COPYRIGHT, 1B10. AERONAUTICS PRESS, INC.

Entered as second-class matter September 22,1908, at the Postoffice New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

4T AERONAUTICS is issued on the 20th of each month ^ All copy must be received by the 10th. Advertising pages close on the 15th. :: :: :: :: :: ::

#T Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: ::

WE are forced to print all new material this month in. small type in order to make room. There is on hand considerable amount of material in type for which we have been unable to find space as yet.

Hour flights abroad arc so common that it seems useless to further chronicle them, and in the future we will merely try to print new records made, new machines, especially long flights and events of more than usual importance.

PROGRESS will certainly demand its' toll of lives, but there is certainly no cause for alarm. Fatalities ha\e not been as numerous as those which occur in nearly every automobile meet of importance, and the entry list in the aviation meets has been fully as large as that of any motor race. Considering the number of flights made, both at meets and elsewhere, the restricted grounds at which many meets are held, one may feel assured that the percentage of fatalities is small.

A word of caution is necessary, however. Development does not appear to be along the line of making safer machines, but in building faster and more varied1 types. Familiarity breeds contempt, and aviators should not take the fearful chances that some do.

IT is worthy of comment that aviation abroad has reached the stage where meetings may be held on the same basis as motor and horse racing, where competitors pay entrance fees returnable only on condition, say, three laps of the course are made, and where the sole remuneration consists in the prizes to be won.

Correction.

In the article, "How to Make a Propeller," in the .July number, the last two paragraphs, by mistake, were misplaced and put in the adjoining column. The last sentence of the article should read : "This will NOT duplicate, however, a Curtiss propeller, etc." The word "not" was omitted.

Permanent :-: :-: Exposition

THE Permanent Exposition at the office of Aeronautics is growing. People are coming in every day to look over the various exhibits and immediate calls on the manufacturers! result.

We want to have every manufacturer of aero-l nautical material represented. If necessary, use] the Exposition as a stock room, as some are doing. We want motors, samples of sockets, oils, bear-J ings, magnetos, plugs, tires and anything that] may be applicable to the new industry.

Manufacturers should send .a supply of thciil catalogues and print on their circulars, stationery! and letters the fact that they are exhibitors iu Aeronautics' Permanent Exposition.

EXHIBITORS.

Hartford Rubber Works Co., Tires.

Wittemann Bros., Gliders and Supplies.

Warner Instrument Co., Aerometer.

Kequa-Gibson Co.. Motors and Propellers.

Elbridge Engine Co., Engines.

Pennsylvania Rubber Co., Tires.

C. E. Conover Co., Cloth.

Edwin Levick, Photos.

Roebling Co., Wire Cable.

El Arco Radiator Co., Radiators.

J. A. Weaver, Wheels, etc.

Whitehead Motor Co., Motors.

Greene Co., Propellers and Parts.

Bosch Magneto Co.. Magnetos.

Auto-Aero Supply Co., Supplies.

R. I. V. Co., Ball Bearings.

.1. Deltour, Bamboo.

.1. S. Bretz Co., Magnetos, Bowden. Wire. Aero Supply Co., Supplies. Cuas. E. Dre.ssler, Model Maker. Wm. P. Youngs & Bros., Lumber. Buel II. Green, Turnbuckles. Profac Food.

What Bishop Says.

" 'Will the Wrights compete for the IntemationalJ Cup?*

" 'Xo one knows as yet ; they refused lastl year to compete and it is 1, Cortland BishopI who paid the expenses of Curtiss so that one! American aviator might compete for the cup and! he won.' lie adds with a practical and national] instinct; 'it cost me a great deal of money.'

"'It has been said that the International Cupl would cost aviators very dearly in expenses, etc.J and would only result in the winning of an art! object of medium value."

'" 'No doubt, but French aviators are free tol come or not as they please.'

" 'Then your opinion is that apparatus of French! origin will win over the American's?'

" "I have not ridden with the Wrights but only! with Paulhan. The impression of security is perfect and must be much greater than with thul Wrights. These oscillate a great deal in the ai« and I believe in the superiority of the French.'

"Mr. Cortland Bishop stopped and offered ami! ably to complete the interview when desiredB We* shook hands cordially and transatlantics lljl and he renewed his walk towards the Tuileries." I

The above statement of Bishop with respect to CurtisB is not an accurate statement of the facts.

The above interesting item was printed in th* French organ VAero. being an interview with the honored president of the Aero Club of America.

We Build Balloons That Win

HAVE WON EVERY CONTEST ENTERED AGAINST ALL MAKES

CHICAGO CONTEST — Balloon "Fielding-San Antonio" — 9 competitors Distance and endurance trophies, also water record of the world—350 miles one trip INDIANAPOLIS CONTEST — Balloon "University City" — 6 competitors PEORIA CONTEST — Balloon "Peoria" — 3 competitors ST. LOUIS CENTENNIAL CONTEST — Balloon "St. Louis III" first, and Balloon "Centennial" officially second for distance and endurance, 47 hrs., 4 1 min.—8 competitors Balloon "St. Louis III"—speed record of America—Lambert, pilot; Von Phul, aide JUST THINK OF IT, EVERY CONTEST IN THE LAST TWO YEARS.

Aero Club Grounds, Centennial Contest, St. Louis, Mo.

CR The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops— a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL, Builder

•J The greatest balloon trip of 1908 and 1909—850 miles in competition— made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL, Builder and Pilot

AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS

IN STOCK AND MADE TO ORDER <J HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials —varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable..........

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

Je Name

! BURGESS CO. & CURTIS

+

t -• MARBLEHEAD, MASS. -

| means

| Good Workmanship

4* *

4»--

*--4* *

%

OUR AEROPLANES

$ stand on skids, run on skids,

* get into the air on skids,

I alight on skids, and are

I ...SAFE...

I on skids t

% CThey are made by crafts-

I men, trained to careful work

4* 7 4*

I for many years on racing boats

I Our men know why and how

4*

*

4*__

*--4- 2*4>**4>**4>4^4-4>*+***4*****4>^^

+__._

*--4*

I Ask the Man Who SAW One

*

4-***4MMs»B.++++++4'**4'4M*****^

Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed. Send for Catalogue 19.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

(l I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York -"HI- FL YER"-,

THE HELICOPTIC FLYING MACHINE

Was the Sensation of the First National Aviation Meet

at Indianapolis. Actually flies (300 feet, four times as high as the tallest church spires, 2h city blocks. Aviators are using this apparatus for determining direction and velocity of wind at altitudes up to 000 feet. Recreation for old and young. Any child can operate it. Get one to-day.

■ ON SALE EVERYWHERE, 50 CENTS-

BUFFALO PITTS CO., DEPT. H, BUFFALO, N. Y.,

SOLE MANUFACTURERS

Aero Engine

<J PRICE $ 250

20-30 HP

5 in.Bore. 5in.Stroke 1000-1500 R.RM.

Weight 98 lbs

Write for a Catalogue

The Detroit Aero-plane Co.

DETROIT

MICHIGAN

EDWIN LEVICK

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

Photographers

Telephone 108 FULTON STREET Cable

100 John NEW YORK Photonews, N.Y.

Photographs of Practically every Aeroplane and Airship in the World

Lantern Slides and Enlargements our Specialty Write for Catalogue Agents Throughout Europe

SEND FOR LIST OF

Latest Aero Books

AERONAUTICS 250 W. 54th St. New York

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight — Strong and

Durable.

AERONAUTICS August, ipi.

BALDWIN'S

Vulcanized Proof Material

^SBr wins

LAHM BALLOON CUP—697 Miles

Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE—

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York"

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

Prices and samples on application

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin

TS. SjT Box 7&9 Madison Square Hf

" WU34-iafc*l NEW YORK l^LJlULM^l

LAMINATED TRUE SCREW ♦

PROPELLERS J

In Stock For Immediate Shipment +

C~)LTRG-ft. Propeller delivers 200 lbs. J W thrust at 1200 R. P. M. C,Do \ you want to get the best results? If 4} so get a "Brauner Propeller." ♦ C,Our Propeller has proven more than ^ satisfactory to those using it ::: ::: ]

6-ft., 6i lbs. - - §40.00 ♦

7-ft., 8J " - - 50.00 J

8-ft., 11 " - - (30.00 +

P. BRAUNER & CO. ♦

335-339 EAST 102nd STREET ♦

Phone, 2189 Lenox ::: NEW YORK ♦

Wittemann Glider In Flight

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS - CONSTRUCTORS - DEVELOPERS OF

Aeroplanes, Gliding Machines, Models, Separate Parts

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING Experiments Conducted Large grounds for testing

. GLIDERS IN STOCK works:

17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, New York

Telephone, 390-L West Brighton

WE MANUFACTURE THE LIGHTEST WEIGHT AND HIGHEST QUALITY ENGINES IN THE WORLD

All working parts of Krupp and other German Steels of highest tensile strength obtainable.

THE EMERSON ENGINE CO.

Incorporated Alexandria : : Virginia

FIRST in war, FIRST in peace, FIRST in the hearts of its countrymen—By George! _ _

Bear In Mind—It's a combined Helicopter, Parachute, Gyroscope, FL Y-wheel, Monoplane. JOS. E. BISSELL, Box 795, Pittsburg, Pa.

AERONAUTICAL CLASSICS

============== Published by ======

THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN

NOW HEADY

1. AERIAL NAVIGATION.

By Sir George Cayley, Bart., with Portrait and Biographical Notice. First published 1809.

2. AERIAL LOCOMOTION.

By F. H. Wenham, with Portrait and Biographical Notice. First published 1866. Four more volumes in the present series will be issued during the course of the year, including the most important works of Walker, Stringfellow, Pilcher, Francis Lana, Leonardo da Vinci, etc.

The originals of this valuable series are extremely rare, and practically unobtainable. All the illustrations are reproduced in facsimile.

Price 25c. each volume. Post Free 30c.

Subscription for complete series of six, $1.35 post free On sale at the Publishing Offices of of the Aeronautical Society KING, SELL & 0LDING, 27 Chancery Lane, London, England

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of America

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLO

Rubber Fabrics for

Balloons,

Aeroplanes

and

Airships

Passenger Aeroplanes and] Flying Models

W. Morrell Sage

Engineer

Models Developed

One to Fifty Passengers

Contractor to the United States Government

AND

Ninety-five per cent, of the Clubs in this country

American Representative

Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Builders of Paris, France

Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane

The Wilcox Propeller

Address : Box 181

Madison Square

N. Y.

ER0NAUT1CS

FREE TWO BOOKS:

61-Page "Inventor's Guide" and 64-Page "Proof of Fortunes

in Patents— What and How to

Invent" "THESE books will 1 tell you How to Secure Money to "Patent" your Invention, H o w to Sell Your Patent, and ALL about the

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August, igiO

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Telling HOW OTHERS will do the same IN THE FUTURE. ' ' \V HAT AND HO W T O INVENT" BOOK FREE.

I advertise my clients patents free in a magazine having two million

REFERENCES:

American National Bank, Washington, D. C. Little Giant Hay Press Co., Dallas, Texas. Gray Lithograph Co.,

New York City, N. Y. Farmers Mfg. Co.,

Norfolk, Va. New Era Mfg. Co.,

Fairfield, la. The Parry Stationery Co., Oklahoma City, Okla. Bell Show Print Co.,

Sigourney, la. The Camp Conduit Co.,

Cleveland, O. The Iowa Mfg. Co.,

Oskaloosa, la. Sam'l Allen &Son Mfg.Co., Dansville, N. Y. The Gail Electric Co.,

Akron, O. Superior Mfg. Co.,

Sidney, O. Tidnam Tel. l'ole Co.,

Oklahoma City, Okla. Bernhard Furst, Vienna,

1. Austria-Hungary. Compound Motor Co.,

Brooklyn, N.Y.

circulation

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MY OFFICES ARE LOCATED ACROSS THE STREET FROM THE U. S. 1'ATENT OFFICE

WHAT YOU INVENT!

X jsr^isk K JLnn#l, H JT

AERONAUTICS A SPECIALTY

CImprovements in Aerostructures should be protected without delay. Thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by otners. A seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future as the Seidell Patents control the Automobile, Do not give your ideas away; protect them with solid patents.

We render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention without charge. Send us a sketch and description, photographs or a model for immediate report.

booklets giving full information in Patent Matters, a list of needed inventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. Write for them.

. . .-. „ _ . . _ _ . _ . __ PROMPT AND PROPER SERVICE

WOODWARD & CHANDLEE 1247 fstreet,wa^r^^Torc.

PARAGON

Design for CURTISS TYPE of Machine

Seven feet diameter bv 4.40 to 6.10 ft. variable pitch. Performance guaranteed—Sixty miles per hour on BO H. P. at 1400 R. P. M. We have these in the following styles :

No. 1. All edge-grain silver spruce, 6\z lbs. $50.00. No. 2. All quartered grain white oak, 9 lbs. $55.00 No. 3. Quartered white oak with spruce core, as illustrated, 7'^ lbs. $60.00 No description of these propellers can do them justice. In them theory and practice have been liar [lionized. They must be seen to be appreciated. Other designs in stock or furnished on short notice. AMERICAN PROPELLER COMPANY, Washington, D. C.

AERONAUTICS August, 191

Facts About Motors

The Call Aviation Engine

* *

* *

A

A

* +

IS

The

1st. A Four Cycle Engine. The type used on 00% of all automobiles and motoreyles. type used by all prominent aviators here and abroad, and holding all aviation reeords.

-2nd. A Water Cooled Engine. The only kind that can be depended upon for extended runs without danger of overheating. Our spiral water jacket, together with piston pump circulation is the most perfect cooling sys em yet devised.

3rd. An Opposed Cylinder Engine. The construction conceded by gas engine authorities to be the nearest vibrationless type. By all odds the construction best adapted for aviation purposes.

•Uli. A Silent Engine. The only engine yet designed for aviation having both main and auxiliary ports silenced. Hence the only aviation engine adapted for permanent use. or for other than merely exhibition pin poses.

5th. -4 "Fool-Proof" Engine. The utmost simplicity of construction, small number of cylinders, together with its being of the usual Pour Cycle, type, enables any automobile eliantfWir to set and run it, not one in fifty of whom have any experience with Two Cycle, Revolving Cylinder, or V-shaped multiple cylinder engines.

(ith. A Thoroughly Dependable Engine. Our Magnalium outer casing for cylinders and cylinder he ids permits of a remarkably strong construction with minimum weight ; while our Vanadium Grey Iron Cylinder and cylinder head linings, piston heads, valve cages, valve seats, etc., is the only dependable material for these parts.

7th. A Superbly Beautiful Engine. The entire design is thoroughly artistic; while all exposed parts not constructed of Magnalium-a shining non-conodihle metal—are nickel plated, the whole sin face being polished to a mirror finish.

8th. Phenomenally Powerful Engine. Thi-i result is seemed by the use of a comparatively small number of cylinders of generous proportions, as distinguished from a multiplicity of cylinders with their numerous be uings, and consequent friction, and liability to derangement.

nth. An Exceptionally Economical Engine. It is a matter of common notoriety among gis engineers that economy of fuel, as compared with power developed, is secured by large cylinder, few in number, rather than bv a multiplicity of small cylinders—a consideration of paramount importance in aviation.

10th. A Moderate Priced Engine. While the ma terial and workmanship of this engine is even superior to the very expensive foreign makes, and not to be classed with the cheap engines ftoodiiif. the market, yet our aim has been to furnish aviitors with a moderate priced engine, cheaper than could be produced by themselves, except in large numbers, and with an expensive shop and found) y equipment.

Model E-1: 2 Cylinoer, 50 Kor&epower, weight 150 lbs., Pr. S1.000 Model E-2: 4 Cylinder, 100 Horsepower, weight 250 lbs., Pr. $1,700 Prices include complete equipment, NO EXTRAS

Other Aviation Engines possess a few of these advantages. This is the only engine that combines them all.

Delivery 30 da, s: Terms, 35'/> Cash, with order; Balance sight draft against Bill of Lading WRITE for particulars and price of our REVERSIBLE AERIAL PROPELLER

Also of our COMBINATION RADIATOR AND HEATER, constructed of aluminum tubing. Utilize the heat of your engine for the comfort of your passengers. Weight, I lb. per gallon of jacket water.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE C-2

| THE AERIAL NAVIGATION COMPANY OF AMERICA, Girard, Kansas

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AEROPLANE ENGINES

ADAPTABLE ALSO FOR USE IN THE DRIVING OF

Dirigible Balloons and High Speed Motor Boats

EXPERIMENT with no EXPERIMENTS EQUIP YOUR AEROPLANE with

an ENGINE of PROVEN MERIT

and thereby avoid the unnecessary expenses, accidents and barriers to success that naturally follow in the wake in the purchasing of an untried product.

IT IS THE ENGINE THAT COUNTS MOST

More and more we realize this as brilliant success, and brilliant failure ^^too, are recorded. It is to the engine we must pin our faith to bridge that distance between us and a complete mastery of the air. To all ■who are putting forward a strenuous effort to achieve this end, a RINEK motor will prove of invaluable assistance. They are the lightest, practicable, water-cooled aviation engines yet produced, and run with faultless precision.

TYPE B-8

(id H.P., Eight C y1ind evs, mounted "V" shape with a !)()° relation to each other. Weight, _>?S lbs. complete.

TYPE B-4

30 11.P., Four Cylinders, mounted vertically on a common crank case.

Weight, ISO lbs. complete.

Favored exclusively by the experimenter in the science of flight, as they insure to him the maximum of safety

American Builders of the STANDARD VOISIN TYPE AEROPLANE

"THE ARISTOCRAT OF FLYING MACHINES"

THE RINEK AERO MANUFACTURING CO. .

-- EASTON, PENNA. - f

MILTO

tITES ABO

M Q%B

\bo8t

CURTISS

USED

MOBILOIL

UN HIS

ALBANY-NEW YORK

tleuijBorlt

Vacuum Oil Company, Daw York, B.Y.

June 14, 1910.

Gentlemen;

I wleh to let you know that the oil which befouled my spark pluge was not your oil. I uaed MOBILOIL going to Philadelphia and had no trouble. Owing to misunderstanding, I wbb supplied there with soma other oil, which cBused the trouble resulting in my deBcent. Had I ueed Mo-biloil on my return flight, I ahould, undoubtedly, have made the trip home without a stop.

HAMILTO

USED

MOBILO^

ON HIS FLIG11

FROM NEW YOR1

TO

LIE]


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