Aeronautics

Volume 6 - No. 6 - 1910 June

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



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* modern friction fighters, are in the same position, but are not +

* weeping, being delighted at the remaining opportunities on the *

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$ revolving Gnome motor, and every revolving part of *

| his Farman aeroplane in his $50,000 flight of 186 miles |

J from London to Manchester. J

* *

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J the Benz car in their terra firma world's records. Every Euro- +

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t and at the International Motor Boat Regatta at Monte Carlo, +

J Monaco, the winning motor boats were fitted with F&S Annu- J

£ lar Ball Bearings. J

* The Heavens, the Earth, the Oceans, and the Deep Sea, J J all declare the F&S Annular Ball Bearing Supremacy. *

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* - — +

! J. S. BRETZ COMPANY, Sole Importers j

+ Times Building, New York f

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*

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Exhibitors.

Hartford Rubber Works Co., Tires.

Wittbmann Bros., Gliders and Supplies.

Warner Instrument Co., Aerometer.

Requa-Gip.son Co., Motors and Propellers.

Elbridge Engine Co., Engines.

Pennsylvania Rubber Co., Tires.

C. E. Conover Co., Cloth.

Edwin Levick, Photos.

Philadelphia Aeroplane Co., Motors, etc.

Roebling Co.. Wire Cable.

Victor L. Brunzel, Varnish.

El Arco Radiator Co., Radiators.

J. A. Weaver. Wheels, etc.

Whitehead Motor Co., Motors.

Greene Co., Propellers and Parts.

Bosch Magneto Co., Magnetos.

Auto-Aero Supply Co., Supplies.

R. I. V. Co., Ball Bearings.

J. Deltour, Bamboo.

J. S. Bretz Co., Magnetos, Bowden Wire. Aero Supply Co., Supplies. Chas. E. Dressler, Model Maker. Wm. P. Youngs & Bros., Lumber. Mauser Mfg. Co., Trophies and Medals.

~ INDEX TO VOLUME-VI.

Xotf_Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907. Volume II started with the issue

of iimiarv 100S Volume III started with the July, 1908, issue. Volume IV started with the Janu-aW. 1909, number, and Volume V with the July, 1909, number. Volume VI started with the January,

10Owfn^'to the lack of space it is absolutely impossible to index all the flights of aeroplanes, the balloon lsions^ news and trade items, the monthly reviews of affairs abroad, etc., etc. The following list

ascensions, _

barely covers the principal articles January, igio.

Flight Exhibitions, Editorial..............

Description of Successful Types of Aeroplanes, by G. C. Loening................

Construction Aids—VIII...... ...........

-dalles with Inventors—IV., by F. O. Andreae

Wright Co. Formed......................

Cincinnati Meet, Nov. 12-14, 1909

Page 1

10 11 12

Robinson Monoplane .........•...........

Morris Park—Greene Biplane, I........... io

Riggs-Rice Airship ...................... ^

Foreign Letter ................; ■ ■ ■ • ■ .■ • ■ • £~

Aero Club of New England, by A. R. Shrigley ~t

Aero Club of America Insurgent Suit...... rfu

Patents ................................

Club News ............................. ft.

Exchange ............................... dD

February, igio.

British Aerial League, Editorial............ 39

A New Principle in the Construction of Stato-

scopes, by L. L. Custer................. 40

Note on Interference of Aeroplane Surfaces

Due to Grouping, by M. B. Sellers........ 42

Comparison of the Successful Types of Aeroplanes, by G. C. Loening................ 43

Farman Aeroplane ....................... 47

Construction Aids—IX.................... 48

Demoiselle II.......rT*................... 49

52 58 60

D. D. Wells Warping Wings and Machine.

Club News .............................

Foreign Letter ............• ■ • • ■ •/,;•:•• v

Court Gives Wright Injunction (Extracts from Briefs in Case)

G3

Exchange ............................... Aft

Balloon Ascensions ......................

March, igio.

The Centre of Pressure on Arched Surfaces,

bv M. B. Sellers................•. • •

Los'Angeles Aero Meet, by H. La V. Twining

and Cleve T. Shaffer....................

Pfitzner Monoplane ...................... °£

Construction Aids—X.............. . • • •■ • • »°

-First Convention of Aero Clubs, by E. P. Noel

77 81

Page

Models and Contests ..................... 121

Herring-Burgess Biplane ................. 122

Newly Discovered Right of Way, by Charlemagne Sirch .......................... 123

Boston Aero Show....................... 124

Wright Exhibition Co.—Wright-Cnrtiss Suit.. 127-8 Edgar S. Smith Monoplane—Geo. H. Loose

Monoplane ............................ 131

Hudson-O'Brien Monoplane—Twining Orni-

thopter ............................... 13L—'

German Experiment at Shooting Balloons.. 140

Are the Wrights Justified?................ 141

Club News .............................. 142

Wright-Paulhan Opinion .................. 144

Foreign Letter .......................... 146

Exchange ............................... 151

Ascensions .............................. 154

May, 1910.

Military Aeronautics, by Brig.-Gen. James

Allen ................................. 155

i Some Devices for Lateral Stability, by M. B.

\ Sellers ............................... 156

Launcher for Gliders, by O. Chanute........ 158

{ Greene Biplane—II....................... 159

li Construction Aids—XII................... 161

*-CSnadian Aerodrome Co. Monoplane........ 164

Memphis Meet ........................... 166

Ouellette Biplane ........................ 168

News on the Coast, by Cleve T. Shaffer..... 169

Ballooning in New England, by Charles J.

Glidden .............................. 171

A. C. A. Recognizes Wright Patent........ 173

Foreign Letter .......................... 176

Aeronautics' Permanent Exposition......... 178

Club News ............................. 179

Buyers' Guide ........................... 182

Exchange ............................... 187

Ascensions .............................. 188

June, igio.

Aeronautics' Exposition.............opposite 189

Can a Man Fly with Wings? by Prof. La V.

Twining .............................. 189

Records ____ 93 \ Notes on Aspect Ratio, by M

World's Aero -~ ........

Wright-Paulhan Suit ..................... |*

L1".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. ioo

................ 102

B. Sellers..

191

Patents .................................

Court Enjoins A. C. A.....................

Foreign Letter

A Layman's View of Aerial Law, by J. C

Howell ...............................

Club News ..............................

April, igio.

Propeller Efficiency, by U.S. Baker, B. Sc.. 117 Meaning of Efficiency, by M. B. Sellers...... 117

107 107

Construction Aids—XI

Talks with Inventors—V., by F. O. Andreae

118 119

Hudson Maxim .......................... 192

Thomas Biplane ......................... 193

Flying and Humidity, by Chas. F. Willard.. 195(

Aeronautics in Mexico, by E. L. Ramsey.... 195V

San Antonio and Other Meets.............. 196

Flights Herring-Burgess Machine.......... 197

Patents ..........................199 and 206

Flights Begin at Mineola................. 200

Halley's Comet from a Balloon............ 204

National Federation .................... 206

Paulhan "Wins "Daily Mail" Prize.......... 207

College Federation (Club News)........... 210

Buvers' Guide and Trade Notes............ 215

.......... 217

^nTFKlJl1 Av,tttlon-Cri.t!?.8f .Wrigh! 120 Exchange

i'0TE.-.lt Is'nUh 'regret that in this issue I am obliged to Iea„e out several very interesting and valuable contributions for lack of spa o enlarge the magazine; but, between ... be Why not help me by recommending the pap

this issue I am obliged to leave out several very inieresnny ice. I am still nursing the fond hope that soon I shall be able ourselves, this publishing business isn't what it's cracked up to ing the paper to your friends and acquaintances? L. JONbb.

"AERONAUTICS"» PERMANENT EXPOSITION.

THE magazine has moved into its new and commodious quarters at 250 West 54th St., and a start has already been made on the Permanent Aeronautic Exposition, as fully explained in the May number. We have been disappointed, but not surprised, to find that the exhibitors were so crowded with work that some of them have had to postpone the placing of their material.

All the manufacturers have become enthusiastic over the plan, and prospective buyers are commending it highly for the practical service it is giving. \\ ir> Yonngs & Bros., lumber dealers, have entered into the field with a line of fine wood in various shapes and weights, and even silver smiths, the Mauser Co., have put in a display.

We want to hear from every constructor and manufacturer, and urge npon everyone interested to visit the exposition.

1

1

cAeronautics

 

S

 

II

     

IN the light of our present knowledge, the answer to the above question seems obvious. When it requires at least 25 horse power to fly a one-man-carrying machine, weighing at least 600 to 700 pounds, and when one considers the spread of canvas and the speed at which the machine must be driven, in order to develop reaction enough to furnish support, it does seem utterly unreasonable to suppose that beating wings can be used for mechanical flight, especially, if they be manually operated. Thus, viewed from the standpoint of the present development of the aeroplane, flight with wings is an impossibility, even though the wings be used for propulsion only.

It is a good thing for the world that there are men who refuse to follow the beaten path. They are more often wrong than right, but amongst these dreamers there develops a man, sometimes, that makes the dream a reality, provided the thing is not an impossibility.

Subtract ten years from the calendar. We find scientific men, business men, and people generally entertaining the idea that flight for man could never be realized, but now we see how incorrectly they reasoned.

Flight with wings may or may not be possible, but men are reasoning incorrectly in regard to it, because they are reasoning from insufficient data.

In this article I propose to call attention to a few points that have a very important bearing upon the subject.

The old saying that weight increases by

;>»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»« mttmm

Can a Man Fly With Wings?

By^ H. La V. Twining

H»ll»lllll»llllllllll»l»llllllilll!IIH»^mWW

PRESIDENT AERO CLUB OF CALIFORN A; HEAD OF PHYSICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN THE LOS ANGELES POLYTECHNIC HIGH SCHOOL; AUTHOR OF "WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY," ETC.

Editor's Note :—Mr. Twining believes that he can fly with manually operated zvings, and, in the following article, gives the results of his experiments and observations in bird flight up to date, zvith a full-sice machine.

In the light of our present knozvledge the contents arc startling, but are backed by figures and results that seem to encourage further investigation.

the cube, and the surface by the square is true, provided that the dimensions of a mass or a surface be increased. Thus, if we double the edge of a cube, its surface is four times as great, and its mass is eight times as large. Hence, doubling the edge of the cube increases, its surface by the square, and its mass or volume by the cube. This reasoning applied to weight and wing area in birds seems conclu-

Prof. Twining's Ornithopter 189

sive, but if we examine it in the light of our present knowledge, it is seen to be utterly fallacious.

A turkey weighing 10 lbs. has a wing area of 3 sq. ft., the figures being taken from • a turkey formerly in my possession. This turkey could spring off the ground, fly over a 2-story barn, and sail away for 60 rods without a wing beat, with perfect ease. An average man weighs 150 lbs. Applying the above law, we have:

io3:150s: :32 :X2. Solving for X, we have 180 sq. ft. about. In the case of the sea gull, we have the following data: weight 2% lbs., wing area il/2 sq ft. Hence: 2.25s :150s:: i.52:X2 whence X = 816 sq. ft. necessary to carry a man weighing 150 lbs. These results are utterly ridiculous in the light of recent achievements. The Bleriot cross channel machine weighs in the neighborhood of 650 to 750 lbs., having only 155 sq. ft. The Santos Dumont machine weighs 240 lbs. and it has a surface of 120 sq. ft. To the above weights must be added the weight of the operator. The same law applied to the Bleriot, and Dumont machines, taking the turkey as basis, would give each 2,460 sq. ft. and 725 sq. ft., respectively, the weight of the aviator being included in the calculation. In dealing with weight and wing area, we are dealing practically with linear relations. For instance, 2 lbs. are twice 1 lb. Three pounds are three times 1 lb., etc. Two square feet are twice 1 sq. ft. and 3 sq. ft. are three times 1 sq. ft. without any regard as to the linear dimensions. We might say that if 1 sq. ft. will support 1 lb., then 2 sq. ft. will support 2 lbs.

Applying the last law to the Bleriot machine we have, io:85o::3:X. Solving for X, we have 255 sq. ft. which is still in excess of the amount actually required. For the Dumont machine it is 117 sq. ft. as against 120 sq. ft. actually used. These figures include the weight of the aviator as 150 lbs. When it is remembered that these machines can carry additional weight and that many birds have a less proportion of wing area to weight than the turkey mentioned, it is readily seen that even the linear law does not hold good, although it comes very near to actual results obtained by experiment.

In fact, there are various factors that enter into the problem, and it is next to useless to apply mathematical reasoning to a problem of this kind unless all the factors are taken into consideration.

The factors entering into bird flight are partially as follows: Weight, inertia, length of wing, breadth of wing, speed with which the wing is driven, mechanical leverages in the machine and the relationship of the various parts of the machine; as to the bird itself. As to the air; we must consider its inertia, its elasticity, its viscosity, pressures set up in it when disturbed, air currents, etc. Besides, we must know how the wing disturbs the air in order to know how the air reacts on the machine.

Some of these factors have been determined, and our knowledge now enables us to say that the reaction upon a beating wing is pro-

portional to the square of its length, to its width, and to the square of its speed. Neglecting other factors for the present: doubling the length of the wing gives four times the effect; doubling the speed gives four times the effect; doubling the speed and the length both gives 16 times the effect, and doubling speed, length and width, gives 32 times the effect. If we double the weight at the same time, we find that the weight is only twice as great while the reactions become 32 times as effective.

It would not do, however, to draw conclusions from this reasoning. There are other factors. The relation of power to these factors is exceedingly important. If we get 32 times the reaction we must have 32 times the power, and doubling the weight would not permit of 32 times the power. On the other hand since we have 32 times the reaction we can do more than double the weight. We can take 32 times the weight and 32 times the power and only double the length, breadth and speed, provided the power does not increase faster than these other factors.

The question of power involves the question of waste or efficiency, and other factors that can only be determined by experiment, and it is useless to attempt a mathematical analysis of it, in the case of the wing, without further experimental data. The problem is thus seen to be an extremely complicated one and no man can safely say that manually operated wings are an impossibility.

Man in doing the world's work always takes leverages, and nature generally does the same thing. This typewriter that I am using has a multitude of levers by means of which I can utilize certain motions of the fingers to the best advantage, to do this writing. This is an example of man's application of levers to achieve a definite object.

My arms are a combination of levers as are the fingers also. This is an example of nature's application of levers to do its work.

The bird is a machine also built by combining a number of levers for the accomplishment of a definite purpose. In the study of the bird machine, men have given the most attention to the shape of the wings, the shape of the feathers, and their flexibility, which they thought had everything to do with the mystery of soaring and flying; and in so doing they have failed utterly to study the machine as a whole.

One might as well take a wheel off an automobile and make a learned and scientific study of it, in order to find out how the machine could run without having a horse attached to it. The study of the wing is all right, but it is not the only thing to be studied. , (To be continued) >•

Scientific American Trophy.

The iqio rules of competition for the S. A. trophy provide that the cup be awarded to the contestant making the longest crosscountry flight during the year. The distance covered must be at least 40 miles as the crow flies, or to a point 20 miles distant, returning to the point of departure.

IT has long been known that the relative dimensions of an aeroplane surface affect the dynamic air pressure on it, and the object of this note is to compare the values obtained by M. Eiffel using a 6 in. x 36 in. surface, with those found by the writer employing a 6 in. x 12 in. surface. Calling the length of the aeroplane across the current divided by its width the Aspect Ratio, it has been found in the case of plane surfaces that the larger the aspect ratio, within certain limits, the sooner the lift reaches its maximum and the higher the normal pressure and lift values will be for any small angle. The same should be true for arched surfaces.

The surface used by M. Eiffel was 6 in. x 36 in. with a circular curvature of about I in 14*; and my nearest curvature to that was 1 in I2.f In the accompanying table I give the lift, drift and centre of pressure of these surfaces; the values given by M. Eiffel being reduced to percentage of the pressure on a normal plane

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Notes on Aspect Ratio

By M. B. Sellers.

not assumed that the difference in these values is wholly due to aspect ratio; it is in part due to experimental errors, difference of curvature, and difference in experimental conditions; but the difference due to these causes may be small in comparison. Anyhow, I hope this may suggest further study of the subject, f See "Scientific American" Supp. No. 1715. * See "Aerophile," Feb. 1, 1910.

 

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JDi's fa nee J!rom front ec/ge in. /oo££-s

to correspond with my own values, and the centre of pressure given in per cent, of the width, from the front edge.

The lift and drift are plotted in Fig. 1. It is seen that the 6 in. x 36 in. shape gives higher values for small angles, and reaches its maximum lift at about 14 deg. The maximum lift for the 6 in. x 12 in. is at 25 deg. The drift curves differ correspondingly. Fig. 2 shows the centres of pressure plotted on inclination. The mamimum forward position for the 6 in. x 36 in. shape is reached at about 14 deg., while for the 6 in. x 12 in. it is 20 deg.

The lift ratio is greater for the longer surface, showing it to be more efficient. It is

Carl G. Fisher, head of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and president of the PrestO-Lite Co., is having two aeroplanes built.

McNair Brothers, of Peoria, 111., are working on a bird-type machine, raising the wings by an edgewise gliding motion in the air so that it is always incumbent on the air while in the act of raisins; for its next stroke downward.

Dr. and Mrs. Alexander Graham Bell left New York May 9 for a trip around Montreal, where they joined Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Baldwin for an indefinitely long tour of the world.

* f

| Hudson Maxim *

4* 4*

4. President of The Aeronautical Society 4.

* £

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INSEPARABLY connected with the higher development of explosives is the name Hudson Maxim. His epoch-making inventions have fairly revolutionized naval warfare.

Hudson Maxim was the fourth son of a family of eight children—six boys and two girls. He was born February 3, 1853, at Orne-ville, Piscataquis County, Maine. His parents, Isaac and Harriet Boston (Stevens) Maxim, were of sturdy New England stock of English and French Huguenot descent.

In 1875 ne formulated the hypothesis of the compound nature of the so-called atoms, which has only recently been generally accepted as a proven theory through experiments on radiant matter. His theory was published in the "Scientific American" Supplement in 1889—which, in brief, is that all matter is one in the ultimate, and that the difference in the various forms of matter and manifestations of force is due to the difference in the relative positions of the ultimate atoms.

From 1883 to 1888 Mr. Maxim was engaged in the subscription book publishing business at Pittsfield, Mass., and during this period he wrote and published a book on Penmanship and Drawing, of which nearly half a million copies were sold by subscription. In 1888 he left the publishing business for the more fascinating occupation of inventing and experi-

menting with ordnance and explosives. Two years later he erected a dynamite and smokeless powder mill at Maxim, New Jersey, named for him, where he developed and manufactured the first smokeless powder to be adopted by the United States government. He soon sold out his inventions and powder business to E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company, of Wilmington, Delaware, and later was engaged by that firm as consulting engineer and expert in the experimental department.

He has recently developed and perfected a new smokeless powder, known as stabillite, which possesses decided advantages over any other form of this explosive.

Among the other notable inventions of Mr. Maxim is a detonating fuse for high-explosive projectiles, which has proven itself superior to all rival fuses.

The process of making calcium carbide continuously by the electrical resistance of a molten carbide conductor, removing the carbide as fast as formed and simultaneously supplying fresh material to the heating field, now in general use in this country, was invented by him, the invention being sold to the Union Carbide Company in 1906. During Mr. Maxim's experiments in the manufacture of calcium carbide, he invented a process for the manufacture of microscopic diamonds by electro-deposition.

Mr. Maxim's most recent war invention is a new type of torpedo-boat, which itself forms a veritable torpedo, so constructed as to be able to run through the gun-fire of a battleship without being stopped or receiving serious injury. This boat-torpedo will carry a ton of high explosive in its warhead, which will be delivered and exploded against the hull of the war vessel attacked by it.

Mr. Maxim has lately invented a new food product, which possesses unusual advantages as an army ration, besides being well adapted to general use.

A recent invention of his is the one of which he is the most proud. It is a game of skill, and an improvement on chess, and is called the War Game, the movements of the pieces simulating field operations of troops in battle.

Mr. Maxim has for the last nine years been at work writing a book on "The Science of Poetry and the Philosophy of Language," which is now completed, and will be published at an early date.

From the foregoing one can easily appreciate what a hard worker and tireless thinker this man must be, and yet, aside from inventive labors, he has won acknowledgment as writer, critic, philosopher and sociologist. He is an able public speaker, and is also a frequent contributor to the leading periodicals on a wide range of subjects.

Mr. Maxim is a member of the following societies: The Military Service Institution, Society of Chemical Industry, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chemists' Club, New England Society, Navy League, the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, and the Aeronautical Society.

WILLIAM T. THOMAS, of Hammonds-port, N. Y., has finished a promising looking biplane for entry in contests during the year, though if there seems to be a demand he will contract to supply them. The builder has kindly furnished the following details:

DESCRIPTION OF THOMAS BIPLANE.

General.—"In the design of the machine automatic stability has been the key word, and the principles which underlie this have been brought in as far as has been deemed expedient. Thus, with this machine, assumed to be flying in still air, provided that all controls except the elevator were not operated, and that this elevator was merely held in its normal position, its tendency would be to keep on an even keel both laterally and also in the line of motion, and if it were thrown out of balance in any way, its tendency would be to right itself rather than continuing to get more out of control.

"This is accounted for by the disposition of the planes relative to the centre of gravity, and partly by the effect of the side planes in the outer sections of the main planes and in the tail. It will be noticed that a dihedral effect is obtained both in a fore and aft direction, due to the line joining the centres of pressure of the control surfaces passing well above the centre of gravity of the machine, and in a longitudinal direction, due to the dihedral tips and also due to the centre of gravity being below the centre of pressure in this plane.

Main Planes.—"These measure 27 ft. x 4 ft. 8 in., and are of the usual type, with modifications in regard to the fastening of the ribs and posts, over all length, including dihedral tips, is 32 ft. 6 in.

"The dihedral tips are pivoted about an axis in the line of motion of the machine, and are set normally at an angle of 30 deg. to the main planes. In case of emergency, these planes can be tilted so as to bring one horizontal while the other is very nearly vertical, so as to obtain a considerable lift on the former, or vice versa. It is, however, unnecessary to use these under most conditions due to the stabilizing effect of the side planes, four of which are used in the main planes, the end ones passing through the dihedral tips, and thus tending to shield the inner portion of the tip in the case of a side gust, which gust would also tend to swing the tail round, and head the machine into the wind, which is as desired."

Controls.—A biplane front control is used, placed well ahead of the main planes and high up, this being operated by a push and pull of the steering wheel, through stout steel cables. This control measures yl/2 ft. x 2 ft.

A rear box control is used, being also of ptygoid aspect, measuring sl/2 ft. x 3>4 ft., planes 3T/2 ft. apart. This has side planes fitted, and is attached to the rear control bain-

I The Thomas j iii :: Biplane :: ijj

boos in such a way that its angle of incidence can be varied, and set in different positions previous to a flight.

A rudder measuring 3 ft. 8 in. x 4 ft. long is pivoted over the top plane of the rear control, the lower half swinging in the box as shown by the drawing. This is operated by turning the steering wheel in the orthodox way.

Skids are provided under the rear control to protect it and aid in alighting.

Running Gear.—This consists of four 20 in. wheels mounted on springs of a particular shape (see drawing). These springs are attached to the skids, the wheels running between the skids, which latter are very rigidly braced to the frame of the machine, and are also connected directly to the engine bed by stout struts. These springs are very effective, and will not only take off much of the racking and straining of the guy wires due to the vibration caused by a rigid machine running over rough ground, but will also help in alighting, the wheels being pushed up and the skids coming into effect in the case of a heavy landing.

Propulsion.—A 7^ ft. propeller is driven by the 30 h. p. engine, through a chain and sprockets, giving a reduction of i}4—1, the propeller running at 1,000 r. p. m. when a 5 ft. pitch is used, and by lowering the gear so as to give different propeller speeds down to 600 r. p. m., different propellers of varying diameters and pitches will be tried.

The torque due to the propeller will be allowed - for by having some 4 sq. ft. more area on the right wings.

Detail.—All operating cables will be run through brass tubes at points where a turn is required, these tubes being well greased. This is believed by the designer to be more reliable than pulleys, which unless very carefully designed and made are apt to give trouble.

All struts are finished to a section of minimum head resistance, and all beams are enclosed in silk wherever possible. Baldwin's double rubberized silk is used throughout.

The sketches show various detail of construction which are believed to be novel and practical.

The total weight of machine is 600 lbs. without gasolene, the 6 gallons capacity adding roughly 48 lbs. to this.

5x

       

/

 
     
           

Challenge From the Juniors.

THE Junior Aero Club of America challenges any aero club, society or association in the United States to fly an aeroplane model the greatest distance under the rules of the National Model Aero Club.

The challenge cup is, in fact, two cups, of silver, exactly alike in every particular in order to avoid unpleasant comments while boys and girls are competing with men and women for the same honors at the same time and place.

The cup is donated by Edward Durant, director of the Junior Aero Club of America, who is the son of the First American Aeronaut. While competing for the Edward Durant

trophy under the National Model Aero Club rules, the contestants are also competing for the excellent silver cup of special design donated by A. Leo Stevens, which is for the person (man, woman, boy or girl) whose model flies the greatest distance during the year 1910.

It is not to be forgotten that the_ members of the Junior Aero Club of America are ahead in all official flights held so far this year, but the interest in this new scientific sport is so rapidly increasing that it is difficult to predict who will be in the ascendancy at the next local test.

Edward Durant, Director, Junior Aero Club of America.

MANY questions arise from time to time regarding high flying and some experiences of late open up a new line of ) thought.

Sometimes it seems—and is—very hard to reach any altitude at all. At other times it is comparatively easy. This change is from hour to hour. After being puzzled for a long time I can now mention some possible answers to the question of "Why so?"

Humidity seems to have a great deal more to do with the subject than has been credited to it. Since the close of the Los Angeles meet I have gone over some records made by a recording hydrometer and find that the variation in per cent, of humidity was very great at times, while practically nothing at other times. A change from So per cent, to 30 per cent., and back to 85, all took place within less than two hours.

Leaving Los Angeles and going to Fresno, Calif., considerable difficulty was experienced, especially in the afternoon. The altitude at Fresno was only 288 ft. The barometer pressure averaged 2962 in. for February. The humidity was 81 per cent mornings and 34 per cent, in the afternoon.

At Phoenix, Ariz., the altitude was 1,087 ft-, barometer for February 28.84 in-, humidity 45 per cent, mornings and 18 per cent, afternoons.

Now, 0.78 in. difference in barometer pressure should not make any difference but it was the extreme hard work at Phoenix that led me to look into matters. For example, I took my machine—a new one—and tested it out one morning in several flights with a result that was apparently O. K. for the afternoon, but at 2130 p. m. I had a smashup, due to no other reason than that the machine just

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$ Flying and* ! :: Humidity^:: !

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dropped squarely and there was not enough space left to check the machine in so it hit the ground. That particular day was very warm and hence there, the humidity was very low in the afternoon.

Hamilton was able to fly at Phoenix with some 30 sq. ft. less surface on his machine [due to a fire], and he reached an altitude of some 300 ft., while at El Paso he found it convenient to add some 45 sq. ft. more surface.

At El Paso, Tex., the 8-cylinder Rhefms machine had all it could do to carry Hamilton, whereas it has carried two good sized men many times. El Paso is 3,702 ft. high, humidity 36 per cent, mornings, and 13 per cent, afternoons.

At Phoenix 400 ft., estimated, was as high as I could get. which is far below the possibility at sea level, meaning that 1,087 and 400, or 1,487 ft, could more than be reached at sea level.

While there is nothing very decisive about this in one way, it surely seems that humidity is quite a factor in the altitude question. I have some readings of places I expect to go to soon and will try to substantiate these evidences.

eronautics :: in Mexico ::

By E. L. Ramsey.

AYOUNG Mexican by the name of Alexander Morales has been working on means for stability and believes he has succeeded in obtaining the desired result. He says :

"The principal parts which tend to give complete stability to my monoplane are two: One in the form of small planes which are attached over and at the ends of the main planes or wings, and the other an automatic spring which warps the wings or planes, a great assistance in changing direction, in the way that birds raise and close their wings to obtain perfect equilibrium in any position, as might happen with the monoplane in case of being turned from its course by air currents."

It was the intention to have an aeronautical

tournament in Mexico City during the centennial celebration in September, but the idea has been abandoned on account of the difficulties met by Mr. Braniff in his Voisin biplane and Mr. Raoul Duval in his Bleriot monoplane. Both succeeded in getting up about 17 ft., and made very short and unsuccessful flights on account of the high altitude.

A new type of monoplane has been designed by a young man in Guadalajara, a working model having been built which has flown satisfactorily. The main supporting planes are covered with "manta" (common sheeting) varnished over. Money is being raised by popular subscription to enable the young man to build a man-carrying machine.

An actor named Manuel Noriega is experimenting with a model aeroplane of his own construction in Veracruz, V. C, Mexico, and it is reported his efforts have been quite a success.

Sr. Alfonso Saavedra, who has been experimenting with a monoplane of his own construction, modeled after the Bleriot machine, tried his machine near the beach, but presumably on account of the strong breeze blowing, same was dashed to the ground and completely wrecked.

I |

! The deviation | I :: :: World :: :: |

THE SAN ANTONIO MEET.

THE aviation meet at San Antonio April 20 to 25 was scheduled as the main feature of the Spring Carnival there, which included parades, celebrations, etc., as minor features. Two exhibitions daily, morning and afternoon, were scheduled.

The following aviators participated in the .meet: Glenn H. Curtiss, with his 8-cylinder Curtiss; Charles K. Hamilton, with another 8-cylinder Curtiss; Charles F. Willard and J. C. Mars, with 4-cylinder Curtiss machines.

Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin was on hand with his aeroplane and a duplicate of the U. S. Army dirigible, equipped with Curtiss motor. The biplane, illustrated in the May issue, was also equipped with Curtiss motor and made in the Curtiss shops at Hammonds-port. It presented several novel features well worthy of attention, such as the engine setting as low as the level of the lower surface; sprocket and chain to counter shaft carrying propeller.

The meet was to have been held at the Fair Grounds in San Antonio, but, after looking over the race track there, Mr. Curtiss immediately saw the utter impossibility of flying in such a circumscribed space. It might be mentioned here that Mr. Curtiss has come to the conclusion not to fly hereafter unless suitable grounds are provided, the accident to J. C. Mars at Memphis having brought home what was already known—that a large open space was not a convenience only, but a necessity for the safety of the spectators as well as that of the aviators themselves.

New grounds were selected at Highland Park and a grandstand and other necessary buildings erected.

The first day of flights was April 20. An invitation had been issued to the school children to attend and a special rate made them. The children came in large numbers as well as their elders.

The meet opened favorably, the weather being fair although somewhat windy, but not enough to seriously interfere with the flights.

The following flights for the day were made: Curtiss circles the course several times. Chas. K. Hamilton, as is his custom, rose quickly from the ground and, flying higher than Curtiss, circled the course and then flew out of the course over the surrounding houses. On his return he made his well-known glide in front of the grandstand.

From the roofs of buildings in San Antonio the machines were plainly visible at Highland Park, about three miles away.

Mars did not fly, as his machine was not

yet fully repaired and he had hardly recovered from his shaking up at Memphis, and Willard circled the track once but broke his propeller.

Capt. Baldwin circled the enclosure several times, starting, stopping and steering in every direction.

The next day, April 21, was windy, the wind coming in strong, irregular puffs. It was hoped that it would let up enough _ to permit flights, but it blew with unceasing vigor. Hamilton tried two flights, but gave up. The crowd, a very small one, was given wind checks.

The same conditions prevailed Friday—the wind being too strong to permit safe flying, especially as it came in gusts. Hamilton flew for 10 minutes to save the crowd disappointment. At no time on this day were there more than 200 people present.

NEW WORLD RECORD.

On Saturday, the 23d, Curtiss made a new quick-start record before about 2,500 spectators. The time was 5 1/5 seconds, but he did not lessen his short distance record. In the morning both Curtiss and Hamilton were in the air at the same time for about eight minutes, Hamilton repeating his spectacular glides with the motor shut off. R. W. Hearne, one of the promoters, was given a short ride. In the afternoon was present the greatest crowd of the meeting. Curtiss, Hamilton, Willard and Mars all made flights, but Mars and Willard found the wind too much for their low-powered machines, and the interest centered around Curtiss and Hamilton. Lieut. B. D. Foulois, of the U. S. Signal Corps, was carried as a passenger with Curtiss, as were several others.

It was hoped that Sunday would be a favorable day and make up for the days which had been lost, but the same strong, gusty wind prevailed.

A large number of people journeyed out to the grounds in spite of the wind, and these were admitted free to inspect the machines, about which there was the greatest curiosity. They wandered about, and asked innumerable questions of the mechanicians.

CARRY PASSENGERS ON TAIL?

The most common seemed to be, "Where does the operator sit?"; next, "Where does he put his feet?", "Where does he put his hands?" One old lady, on being told that the machine carried one passenger, replied, "You must be mistaken. Why," pointing to-the horizontal surface of the rear control, "there is room enough for four people at least on that." The idea of carrying four passengers on the tail was too much for the. mechanician and he could only look helplessly at his questioner.

TWO NEW WORLD RECORDS.

On Sunday afternoon Hamilton was the only one to fly in the strong wind and he did not attempt to fly around the field. Three trials were made for short time and short-distance starts in the face of the strong wind^

The second trial got the quick-time start down to 3.8 seconds, while on the third start he clipped 28 ft. from Curtiss' Los Angeles record, getting off in 70 ft.

Owing to the bad weather, the meet was extended over Monday. On this day all made flights. In the afternoon Curtiss and Hamilton were flying at once, one above the other, going in the same direction and at the same speed. Hamilton operated the Baldwin aeroplane, but met with little success. Captain Baldwin himself sailed the dirigible several times over the field. Again on this day there was a small crowd.

The W. B. Kelley cup was given to Curtiss for first breaking records at the meet. Hamilton got the L. P. Peck cup for the best and most daring flights.

The meet was conducted at a big loss and the citizens arranging it were called upon to make good a guarantee of $8,000 to the aviators.

OTHER FLIGHTS OF CURTISS MACHINES.

Whipple Hall, in a Curtiss machine, made some flights at Fresno, Cal., under the auspices of the Driving Club and also the Union High School League. Hall's machine has had the surface increased.

Hamilton made some good flights at Beaumont, Tex., on April 27-28 before large and highly enthusiastic crowds.

Eugene Ely, who bought the Curtiss aeroplane owned by E. Henry Wemme, the Curtiss Portland (Ore.) agent, made his first flight at Portland on April 27.

The machine bought by A. P. Warner has been sold to Joseph Seymour, the auto race driver, for exhibitions.

FLYING AT ATLANTA.

Grand Opera, Aviation and Automobile Races were on the schedule the first week in May at Atlanta, Ga. Hamilton, after a preliminary test flight on May 1st, began official flights on the 2nd when eight good flights were made on the Speedway course on three of which a passenger was carried. Thousands of people assembled showed great enthusiasm.

On a trial flight at Hanford, Cal., Frank Johnson broke his Curtiss machine and the promised show could not be given.

Alexandria, Va.,May 14.—Charles F. Willard made a fine cross country flight of about i2j/£ miles and return in a drizzling rain. Willard is touring Louisiana and Mississippi for the next few weeks.

Crosby Flying.

R W. Crosby, who bought a Greene aeroplane, gave his first exhibition at Sacramento, Cal., on April 17, but was able to make only two brief flights.

Flights of Herring-Burgess Machine.

As a result of the flights that have been made with the two Herring-Burgess machines so far tried out, a few modifications will be

made, principally looking to the better protection of the ends of the wings and to altering the controlling mechanism so that the engine levers can be operated without taking the hands from the steering and balancing controls. A more direct system for lateral stability has also been suggested and will probably be adopted. Meanwhile, other machines of the same general type are nearing completion in the Burgess shops. It is understood that the manufacture of the "Flying Fish," as the machine is called, is soon to be put upon a more extensive basis to meet the many orders that have already been received and those which are expected in the course of the present season.

Trials were made of the second machine from April 17 to 22 on the Plum Island grounds. It will be remembered the first machine had its trial at Chebacco Lake in February and was immediately shipped to the purchaser in Kansas where the engine was run with no load or propeller which resulted ;n its damage. Throughout these tests at Plum Island the elevation was controlled exclusively by the forward horizontal rudder, which was operated by means of a vertical lever worked fore and aft by the right hand. The lateral stability was primarily controlled by the eight vertical fins raised above the upper plane of the flyer. These were reinforced by the action of the vertical rudder operating on the principle that by turning the machine towards the right, the left end of the supporting surface is made to travel faster than the right end, the left end thereby gaining increased lifting power and bringing the machine back to a level position if it had previously tilted downward to the left. The vertical rudder was controlled by a horizontal steering wheel attached to the under side of a longitudinal bar conveniently located for manipulation by the left hand. Mounted on the same bar which also served as a rest for the left arm was the vertical throttle lever. The throttle lever was connected with the short-circuiting device of the magneto in such a manner that the lever itself short circuited the magneto _ when pushed back beyond the point of minimum throttle opening.

Unfortunately considerable skill or familiarity with the manipulation of this lever was necessary in order to shut it completely off in an emergency without at the same time momentarily letting go of the steering wheel. Another emergency short-circuiting switch for the magneto was controlled by a wire within easy reach of the left hand.

Early on Sunday morning, April 17, the wind fell to less than four miles an hour and the "Flying Fish" was promptly taken out on tc the marsh for its first trial, A. M. Herring in the seat. After running smoothly over the marsh on its skids under its own power the machine took the air easily, though with the bow considerably elevated, and flew some 50 yards or so to the end of the ground, where Mr. Herring decided to descend.

Mr. Burgess, the builder of the machine, then took the pilot's seat and made a similar

cA. c7W. Herring in the Herring-Burgess Machine

flight of brief duration, coming down without difficulty when he neared an obstruction at the side of the field. This was Mr. Burgess' first attempt at flight and was successful in every way. The speed of the machine was carefully estimated at between 20 and 25 miles an hour.

Mr. Burgess then made a second attempt somewhat more ambitious than the first and flew a longer distance. The landing, however, was not quite so successful, as it started a screw in one of the landing skids which involved about five minutes for repairs. In the course of this brief interval the wind sprang up and further tests were postponed for the day.

Early Thursday morning the weather was again calm and Mr. Herring piloted the machine through four short flight > with entire success. In coming down from the fourth flight, however, the "Flying Fish" passed through a tuft of tough marsh grass, the blades of which chipped a corner from one blade of the propeller. The wing tip also needed attention.

On Friday shortly after noon the wind again died down and Mr. Burgess invited his friend Greely S. Curtis, of New York, a consulting engineer in aviation engineering, to take the helm.

Since the test of the day before the rear horizontal rudder had been given a slightly greater lift in order to permit the aeroplane to soar at a flatter angle.

A short course was laid out for Mr. Curtis in a direction towards the aeroplane shed which was^ just behind a pool in the marsh. The intention was that the power should be shut down before reaching the pool and the machine come to rest on the marsh. On starting, however, the machine quickly gathered headway and was nearly up to the pool before

the aviator realized that he had left the ground. Thinking that he was still traveling on the skid, Mr. Curtis turned to the left to clear the obstacles, at the same time lifting his forward plane. As a matter of fact the aeroplane had already been traveling some 200 yards or more through the air at a speed considerably in excess of any previously employed. The combined effect of the turn to the left and of lifting the forward plane was to give the aeroplane a tilt downward to the left. The proper way to regain equilibrium would have been to alter the course of the machine to the right, but this was under the circumstances impossible, owing to the immediate proximity of the building and other obstacles on that side of the course. To prevent tilting any further toward the left, Mr. Curtis shut off the power and the machine glided down, first striking the tip of its left wing. The effect of this blow was to tip the bow of the machine sharply downward, and deposited the aviator without a scratch or bruise on the surface of the soft meadow. The bow rudder sustained the principal impact of the blow and was considerably damaged. The body of the machine was so well constructed that not a crack was to be found in any part of the main frame, nor did a screw start from its position. The engine was tested and found to be absolutely unhurt, as were also the other essential parts of the mechanism. Beside the forward rudder and its support, the only parts damaged were the two ends of the lower plane. The right end of the lower plane was slightly damaged, evidently through the whiplike action of the whole plane when its progress was abruptly arrested. It was estimated that two days would be required to repair the damage, and a part of a third day to bring the repairs from the workshop at Marblehead to the testing ground at Newburyport.

Wright School at Dayton.

The Wright Co. has started an instruction school at Dayton in charge of Wilbur Wright, with two machines. A number of men are to be tried out, from which a selection will be made for aviators. Five men have been studying at Montgomery, Ala., on one machine under the tutorship of Orville Wright. Twenty-five machines are now coming through the shops, five of which are now practically complete.

A slight change has been made in the engines fitted to the new machines, which are of the usual type. It is of interest to note that the Wrights insist on certain parts of the engine being produced under their personal supervision. For instance, machines have been installed to bore the cylinders and to make the piston rings. They are not trusting to contract work on these important matters. The connecting rods and valves are also turned out at Dayton. The valves are of cast iron with steel stems.

The Wrights say that but 5 per cent, is lost in the chain transmission, and that 75 per cent, is the actual work produced by the propellers.

Prof. Montgomery Building 'Plane.

Prof. J. J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara College, in California, is rushing work on an aeroplane incorporating the features of his gliders tried out in 1884 and 1885 and later in 1903-5-

The machines of 1884 and later contained devices for presenting to the wind varying angles of incidence with relation to each other and a patent was taken out on this system. Prof. Montgomery is now taking up the work he had to stop at the time of the San Francisco earthquake in 1906.

James E. Plew, 240 Michigan Ave., Chicago, has the exclusive manufacturing rights for the Montgomery machine. Part of the big new sales, office and garage building has been equipped for the manufacture of these machines. The first machine is expected to be finished the latter half of May.

Y. M. C. A. Aeroplane.

A biplane, designed to carry two persons, is being built by the men of the Alumni Association of the West Side Young Men's Christian Association, 318 West 57th St., New York, who are graduates of the aeronautic class of the season of 1909.

In all of its characteristics, even down to the pitch of the propeller, the biplane is a composite of ideas of a dozen men. After finishing the course in aeronautics, during which time the men were practicing with model aeroplanes, the members of the class got together and organized the Alumni Association, and at the first meeting a resolution was offered and passed that the alumni build a biplane for two passengers. Sometimes as often as three days a week the men got to-

gether and point after point in the plans were taken up and discussed. The plans, after a number of meetings, settled down to a biplane, but of a different style than anything that has gone before it in the line of aeroplanes. In the arrangement of the planes, the material in the frame, the style engine and every other phase of construction the men all had a say and all had ideas.

One thing that kept the alumni members very busy was the invention and working out of a steering apparatus which will not be interfered with by the Wright patents and which will at the same time be practical and safe. They say they have solved the problem.

Dr. Rex C. Northwood, of 1777 Broadway, is president of the Aeronautical Alumni Association, and Francis C. Wilson, of Xo. 477 First Ave., is secretary and treasurer. Four others of the alumni are engaged with them in the labor of erecting the machine.

The members of the alumni will permit the biplane to be used for instruction of men in future aeronautic classes.

Louisville Booms Model Meet.

The Louisville '"Times" has inaugurated a contest for model aeroplanes and dirigibles for prizes totaling more than $200. This is the first time that a newspaper has taken up the encouragement of the young idea in aeronautics. This initiative should induce others to follow.

There are no entry fees or stringent regulations. The competition is open to all. The aviation contest is divided into three parts: (1) for boys between 18 and 21, (2) between 12 and 18, (3) and under 12 years. The demonstrations will begin on June 20. The prizes in the first class total $(50, in the second class $45, and in the third class $40. Any model that flies by its own power other than prize winners, will receive $2; $35 has been allotted for the dirigible prizes.

Awards will be made as follows: In the first two classes lightness and weight count 10 points, time in air 20 points, workmanship and appearance 30 points, distance 40 points, ability to rise from platform and fly 10 ft. or more in a true flight, 50 points. In class 3, for boys, under 12, with models having no power, workmanship and appearance count 50 points, lightness in weight 30 points, and probability to fly 20 points.

The announcement of the "Times" aroused a number of prominent men, with the result that contracts have been signed v\ith Curtiss aviators for a meet on June 18-19, when an exhibition will he held at the Churchill Downs race track under the auspices of this newspaper and the management of Col. J. L. Gribble, of long and pleasant aeronautic memory.

It is the plan of the "Times" to continue the amateur contests, and if the aeroplane meet is successful, to arrange for a long distance balloon race in the Fall.

Flights Begin at Mineola.

Clifford B. Harmon, who purchased the Farman machine used by Paulhan in his flights in America, has been practising and has made short flights up to one of a mile straightaway. No attempt is being made by Mr. Harmon to do much in the way of flying until he has accustomed himself to the machine and its operation.

W. L. Fairchild has about completed a beautiful monoplane fitted with the first of the Requa-Gibson two cylinder 50 h. p. motors. Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin has his aeroplane installed in a tent and will soon begin experiments. All three machines are on the Aero Cub of America's ground.

The big shed of The Aeronautical Society has already had all its space leased to members. Among these are Miss E. L. Todd, L. T. Rosenbaum, W. J. Diefenbach, Charles Morok, Dr. H. W. Walden and Joe Seymour with his Curtiss. Seymour will make his practice flights at Mineola before going out on exhibition work.

An office has been partitioned off in the shed for the keeping of records and the use of a superintendent.

Mineola, May .15.—Mr. Harmon made three fine flights to-day. two of about ten minutes and one of eighteen minutes. Glenn H. Curtiss flew the Baldwin machine for about three

miles in a circle. Then Capt. Baldwin began practising, running along the ground and making short jumps.

Wittemanns Complete Aeroplane.

C. & A. Wittemann, the Staten Island, N. Y., aeroplane builders, have completed, with the exception of the power plant, a biplane for the Barberton Aeroplane Co., of Barberton, Ohio.

The machine has a spread of 37 ft., depth 6 ft. 3 in., between surfaces 6 ft. A front rudder 14 ft. spread by 2]/2 ft. deep is located 12 ft. in front of the main planes. This front rudder is divided in two portions, either of which may be set at varying angles. 12 ft. to the rear is a double surface vertical rudder 6 ft. high by 2l/2 ft. deep, spaced 20 in. apart. Bisecting this are vertical surfaces 20 in. by 2)/2 ft.

All of the beams are fish-shaped. The regular ribs are shaped like those in the Curtiss machine, are laminated, and measure Y% in-wide by 1in. high. The big ribs are 24 in. by il/2 in. The Naiad No. 6 cloth is laced with the best quality fish line.

Another aeroplane is being built by the Wittemann Bros, on a customer's order. This will have a double horizontal rudder, a box tail and vertical planes like the Voisin machine. A 75 h. p. Whitehead motor will drive an 8 ft. propeller.

Wheels on Army Aeroplane

Lieut. B. D. Foulois, of the U. S. Signal Corps stationed at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, is installing wheels on the Signal Corps Wright aeroplane in order to do away with the starting device used to date.

Barberton cTWachine

For Some A. C. A. Members.

An optimist is one who would rather believe that everything is all right than know the Lippincott's.

truth.-

Aeroplane whiskey is the latest beverage. It is said to be like squirrel whiskey, only more so.

Gordon Bennett at Mineola.

May 14.—The Aero Club of America has decided on Mineola as the place for the Gordon Bennett aviation race, on Oct. 22. There will be other events covering at least six days. Andrew Freedman, of the Wright Company, and L. L. Gillespie, of the Club, have been appointed a committee.

One or two professional promoters of sporting events are willing to finance the meet, together with a series of flight days covering ten days or two weeks, on the basis of a division of the profits between the backers, the Wright Company and the Aero Corporation. Ltd., the stock-holding part of the Aero Club of America. These proposals are now being considered by the club. Los Angeles has also made an offer for the meet.

A pamphlet has been sent out by the club containing a statement of its position with regard to the Wright-Aero Club agreement, and giving in full the text of the contract.

BALTIMORE SAYS "BAD FAITH."

Baltimore and Washington have withdrawn from the contest for the international aviation meet.

The action of the Baltimore and Washington committee was taken following an ultimatum sent to the Aero Club of America giving it ten days to name the place of the meet. Answers to this were unsatisfactory.

Col. Jerome H. Joyce, president of the Aero Club of Baltimore, charges bad faith on the part of Cortlandt F. Bishop, president of the A. C. of A., and says the New York men have diverted the meet to their own neighborhood. The $100,000 raised has been returned to the subscribers.

Colonel Joyce said he was much incensed at the action of the Aero Club of America. He said it had practically ignored all communications sent them regarding the meet.

"We cannot afford to be treated in the manner in which the Aero Club of America has adopted," he said. "We were strong bidders for the meet, and showed that we were anxious for it. Our guarantee fund has been pledged, and it has been effectively pointed out that the College Park site is about the best that could be obtained anywhere in the country.

"Mr. Bishop traveled over the country inspecting the proposed sites, and at that time he said the selection of the site would rest in the hands of the aviators, Wright, Curtiss and Patilhan. We were then sure that College Park would be selected, because Wright and Curtiss had already inspected the field and had expressed delight with it. When Mr. Bishop heard this I think he at once took up with Paulhan to keep the meet from this city. Patilhan never inspected the site, and suddenly came out as strongly opposing it."

Coming Events | in Flying |

Big St. Louis Programme.

A. B. Lambert has been given authority by the Aero Club of St. Louis to go ahead with the biggest programme in aviation and ballooning planned by an American club this year. The programme includes at least three balloon races and two aviation meets.

The first event to be held will be the aviation meet for novices, probably June 20 to 25, when prizes of sufficient cash value to stimulate competition will be offered.

Anyone who has a machine which can fly at all should write Secretary E. Percy Noel, 304 N. 4th St., St. Louis, Mo., for entry blanks. Prizes of $100 will be given to each novice who flies 100 yards or more. A circuit of the course will bring $250, while on each day the first man to fly 200 yards will be awarded $100.

The entrant who remains the longest in the air after qualifying by a circuit of the course will be given $1,000. There are also offered $50 each one who attains an altitude of 50 feet, $500 to the man who gains the greatest height, minimum 100 feet, and prizes for total time in the air during meet, quick start, fast speed and slow speed.

Two balloon races will be held in June from the Aero Club ascension grounds, on Chouteau Ave., the first under the auspices of the club, but at the expense of Mr. Lambert, in honor of the American Medical Association, which will be in convention at St. Louis, June 6 to 11. The Aero Club has tendered the use of its balloons to be allotted to pilots by the president.

The second balloon race will be held for the edification of some 20,000 members of the American Woman's League, which will convene at University City the week of June 20. The Aero Club will finance this event.

The second aviation meet will be held October 5 to 15, immediately preceding the international balloon race from the Aero Club grounds, October 17.

Aviation Meeting at Dayton.

The Dayton Aeroplane Club is planning for its aviation meet, being arranged by the Chamber of Commerce, to take place during the week of the fall festival. The flight committee has recommended the use of the Simms prairie which the Wrights used in their early flights and are now to be used for training grounds.

Officers have been nominated for the election to be held June i. President, O. J. Need-ham, who has efficently served as head of the organization since its formation last year, has declined to be a candidate for the same office again.

Biggest Meet at Indianapolis.

Every aviation "fan" is looking forward to the Indianapolis aviation meet at the Motor Speedway, June 13 to 18. This is the first meet to have been arranged for subject to the license agreement of the Wright Co. The Motor Speedway promoters, it is said, have guaranteed to the Wright Co. that its share shall be $50,000, for five or more machines; $20,000 additional to be spent in advertising and promoting, and $25,000 more will be put up in prizes.

The meet is open to every type of machine without the contestants making any arrangement or having anv dealings whatever with the Wright Co. Wilbur Wright has stated that he expects to have six or eight Wright machines at the meet. These alone will make a series of demonstrations of flights the most pretensive yet given in this country. J. W. Curzon, who has been making some short flights with his Farman machine at the Speedway, will be a contestant, and Carl G. Fischer, president of the Speedway, is trying to secure for prompt delivery a foreign machine for himself, in addition to two machines he has purchased from local inventors.

The contract which the Wrights signed with the Speedway reads, in one clause, as follows: "In consideration of the above agreement, the Wright Co. hereby licenses this meet and agrees to make no further charge for any machine taking part in this meet which may infringe on its patents."

Every individual aviator who has a machine seems to want an enormous set sum for exhibiting or flying, so that the amount set aside for prizes will probably have to be paid out in guarantees, and cups be the only "prizes."

When will the sport be on a sporting basis, as horse and auto racing?

Incorporations.

Bennett-Christofferson Airship Co., of Portland, Ore.; capital $3,000. Incorporators: Fred A. Bennett, Silas Christofferson and Mabel A. Bennett.

Illinois Aviation Co., Chicago (?); $1,400; amusement devices; Leon S. Alschuler, Gabriel J. Nordan, Chas. W. Stiefel.

National Manufacturing & Aerial Exhibition Co., capital $50,000. Under laws of Delaware. Incorporators: Eric R. Mackay and James L. Davis, of Chicago; George W. Darsey, Jr., of Wilmington, Del.

Arrowplane Mfg. Co., Boston, $2=5,000; W. M. Hilliard, Boston, W. E. Timson, Lynn.

Sacramento (Cal.) Aerial Co., $15,000; Tracy A. Miller, E. R. Drake, G. H. Sea-mans and A. D. Bevan.

Ross Aeroplane Co., Mobile, Ala., $10,000; Otis McMahon, W. R. Ross, Jr., Alfred Ross, A. B. Barringer.

International Aerial Navigation Co., Seattle, Wash., $1,202; H. P. Decker, Ada B. Blackwell, Elijah B. Carrott and David W. West.

Robert Carlson Airship Co., Butte, Mont., $250,000; Robert Carlson, S. T. Hogevoll, John A. Smith.

Swedish-American Aerial Club, Chicago, 111., to manufacture aerial machines, $2,500; Edward Bjork, Adolph R. Engwall, John C. Jones.

Rinek Aero Mfg. Co., Easton, Pa., $50,000; Howard Rinek C. Norvin Rinek, Frank R. Buckman.

Aeronautic Calendar for U. S.

May 20—Urbana, 111., exhibition flights with Curtiss machine.

May 28-30—Joplin, Mo., flights by Willard and Mars.

June 6-12—St. Louis, balloon race.

June 7-9—Topeka, Kan., flying by Willard and Mars.

June 13-18—Indianapolis, Ind., "First Nat. Aviation Meet," with exhibitions with Wright machines and open to all others.

June 18-19—Louisville, Ky., Curtiss aviators.

June 19-26—Nashville, Tenn., exhibition flights at Military Tournament by Hamilton.

June 20-25—St. Louis, balloon race and aviation meet.

June 22-25—Minneapolis, Minn., flights by three Curtiss aviators.

July 5-6—Peoria, 111., balloon race.

July or August—Philadelphia Pa., aviation meet.

August 12—Indianapolis, Ind., balloon race.

Sept. 5-10—Lincoln, Neb., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Sept. 5-10—Hamline, Minn., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Sept. 17—Indianapolis, Ind., elimination race for Gordon Bennett balloon race.

Sept. 19-24—Detroit, Mich., Wright exhibition flights.

Sept. 26-30—Trenton, N. J., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Oct. 1-S—Springfield, 111., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Oct. 3-S—Sedalia, Mo., exhibition flights by Wright aviators.

Oct. 5-15—St. Louis, Mo., aeroplane exhibition.

Oct. 17—St. Louis, Mo., Gordon Bennett balloon race.

Oct. 22—Mineola, N. Y., Gordon Bennett aviation race.

-, Cleveland, O., aviation meet.

-, Buffalo, N. Y., aviation meet.

Dec. 1-8—Chicago, 111., aeronautical exhibition of A. C. of Illinois.

£ Halley's Comet j j From a Balloon {

* ■¥

if Opening of the Ascension Season +

FOR the first time in the history of astronomical investigation successful observations were made from a balloon, as Prof. Todd, with Mrs. Todd, and piloted by Charles J. Glidden, was able to make accurate sketches of Halley's comet, observe the planet Venus, the moon and the sun and at the same time to focus on the comet a 2^-in. telescope with a magnifying power of 30 diameters, and to hold the sight for some time, due to the absence of anything but slight vibrations in the balloon. Observations were taken when the big bag was about 5,000 ft. from the earth.

SHOT AT BALLOON.

The trip was not without its thrill of danger, for just before sunrise, when the balloon was three miles from Manchester, Conn., the report of a rifle was heard and soon after it the whiz of a bullet passed the basket of the balloon. The balloon at the time was about 1,400 ft. above the earth and although the bullet did not strike the balloon, it passed very close to its occupants.

Prof. Todd claims to have refuted absolutely the theory of scientists that astronomical observations of any value cannot be taken from a balloon, for he says that he was able to get a much better view of Halley's comet through a 2l/2-m. telescope with a magnifying power of 30 diameters from the balloon than through the big 18-in. telescope at Amherst observatory.

Ideal atmospheric conditions prevailed for the observations and with the balloon traveling steadily and with only slight vibrations Prof. Todd was able to sight the telescope upon the comet and hold it upon the object without anv difficulty, thus proving that a powerful telescope can be used from a balloon.

"The comet appeared from six to eight times as bright from the balloon as through the powerful 18-in. telescope on May 1," said Prof. Todd. "This is partly due to the increased brightness of the comet since that time, but most of all to the elevation, for we were 5,000 ft. from the earth at the time the comet was first seen. Mrs. Todd first saw the comet at 2.36 o'clock, with its head very near the horizon and its fantail at 20 deg., and very bright. I made four sketches of the tail, which curved at its upper end slightly upward toward the north instead of downward, as it has previously been noted. The display was a splendid one and astronomers can be assured that Halley's comet will not be the disappointment it has been thought it might be.

Youngest ^American c/4eronaut

The balloon observation showed the head of the comet very bright and the tail four or five times as long as previously noted. On May 25 the comet will appear 10 or 12 times as large as it does now. Prof. Todd gives the difference in atmosphere as a reason for the smaller appearance of the comet from the observatories as compared to his aerial observations.

Some meteors and shooting stars were noted, but Prof. Todd does not believe they had any connection with the comet.

A device of Prof. Todd for measuring the height of mountains was tried out and found to work accurately. This device, which is merely a level placed on a surveyor's telescope, is leveled on the summit of a mountain and then with the barometric measure taken at the same time, the height of the mountain is figured. Monadnock mountain was used in the trial and the result was the same as the known height of the mountain.

Prof. Todd's invention of an automatic rotating parachute designed particularly for aeroplanes was given a trial with a model built for him by his mechanician, E. A. Thompson. The device consists of two rotating vanes or planes turning in opposite directions, really a screw propeller with reversed blades. A bottle was attached to the model and it was dropped from the balloon when at a height of 1,500 ft. At first the model traveled at a fair rate of speed and then slowed perceptibly and finally struck the earth without breaking the bottle.

Michigan Club Starts Season.

The Aero Club of Michigan inaugurated the first of its series of ascents from the club grounds at Jackson, Mich., on April 11, when Leo Stevens took up in the balloon "Cleveland" Messrs. Frederick M. Alger, William E. Metzger, E. W. Lewis and "Jack" Kraemer. While the club will have its own balloon early in June, when ascensions will take place weekly, the balloon used on this trip was J. H. Wade, Jr.'s. During the trip the balloon passed into the edge of a rainstorm. Pilot Stevens noticed that the trail rope seemed to shoot sparks when it touched parts of the earth's anatomy and thought it best to make a landing before anything extraordinary occurred. He didn't tell his passengers what he saw, however, but when all were safe on the ground the rope looked as though it had been burned for a considerable distance.

Frank Kanne and two friends went up from Peoria in Eugene Brown's balloon "Peoria," then descended, exchanged passengers and went on, mooring the balloon over night with the intention of making a new ascent in the morning, but there was found to be insufficient gas remaining.

Wilhelm Heinrichs, a sightless man, the first on record, was a passenger with Charles J. Glidden from Pittsfield on April 29. Mr. Glidden has made three ascents already this season. In his forty-two ascents he has covered 1,358 aerial miles. Other ascents were made, as noted in the column devoted to ascensions.

Youngest American Aeronaut.

Robert Thaxter Farmer is probably the youngest person in the world to have made a balloon trip. He was only three years old when he was a passenger in Carl E. Myers' balloon from Worcester, September, 1909.

He was accompanied by his father, Frederick Farmer, a gentleman deeply interested in aeronautics, and who made gliding experiments near Worcester last fall. Mr. Farmer is now at work building another of an improved type to take the place of the one which was damaged in the previous successful experimental flights. A lot of gliding will be done this summer. A movement has been started by Mr. Farmer and others interested in gliding, to petition the City Park Commission to grant the use of the public parks for the purpose.

Cleveland Club's First (^Ascent of Year

Forbes Fails to Make Record.

May 11.—Newspapers report this morning that A. H. Forbes and J. C. Yates, who left Quincy, III., in a balloon in an attempt to make a new record, were found in an exhausted and bruised condition near Center, in Metcalf County, Ky. The wind currents encountered blew the balloon in a circuitous course after leaving the ground, and it is thought that all the ballast had been expended in trying to find a favorable air stream. Neither man was seriously injured.

Mr. Forbes, it will be remembered, was a contestant in the 1908 Gordon-Bennett race from Berlin, when his balloon burst.

Zodiac Airship Coming.

Leo Stevens has finished erecting at Nar-ragansett, R. I., a 6,ooo-ft.-an hour hydrogen plant, triple system, for the Zodiac airship that is due here from that clear France the end of May for Stewart Davis, a wealthy young enthusiast. Bids are now being secured on a shed large enough to house the dirigible balloon.

The "Club Journal," the official organ of the Automobile Club of America, in a recent issue states that "all the durations (sic), speed and balloon tests during the year have been won by the Aero Club of America." The sentence does not make sense and what the writer evidently meant to say is not true, in either flying machines, dirigibles or spherical balloons.

For a National Federation.

Already over 30 aero clubs in the United States have united in the organization of a national body, composed of representatives from each of the clubs of the country. Such a federation would, if properly conducted, work wonders for aeronautics in this country. It would bind together individual interests and unite the activities of the country in an organization which is already much needed to save the art from being the vehicle of any one club's aspirations for control.

A call was sent out to the principal clubs throughout the country for an expression of opinion on the formation of an Aeronautic Federation, and the response was so generally favorable and widespread that a general call for co-operation followed.. In this, forms were enclosed asking for views on various matters and up to the present time more than 30 clubs have actually associated in the movement.

A committee is now being organized representing these various clubs and have temporarily selected the name "The Aeronautic Federation of America" until the convention is held. The office of this committee is at 170 Broadway, New York, at which address all correspondence should be directed.

It is argued that the preservation and development of American aeronautical interests demand the immediate organization of a national representative body and it seems that many clubs and societies throughout the United States believe that this will facilitate development of the art and sport. Under these circumstances it is thought advisable to have the fullest expression of opinion from all the American aeronautical institutions, with a view to calling a convention at a central point for the organization of the desired federation.

With a view to obtaining definite opinions on these points forms of questions have been sent out to all the clubs and societies interested in the movement. These questions will furnish suggestions for use in arranging the details for such a convention.

It is hoped that the clubs will take the matter in hand at once by the appointment of a committee to deal with it, with a view to the appointment of a member to act on the federation committee.

Work will be prosecuted with all fervor towards holding this national convention by the 80 and more clubs of record.

A question sheet is sent out with each letter. _ Among the points covered are the following:

Do you approve of a national aeronautic federation composed of representatives appointed by the various clubs and societies?

Do you think one representative for each hundred members would give proper representation? If not, how many members in a club do you consider should be represented by a member of the federation?

Do you think the representative should be elected or appointed on a definite date once a year?

In what city and state and at what time will you prefer that the first convention, of the federation be held?

What name would you propose should be given to such federation ?

Do you approve of voting by proxy at the convention by any club or society not sending a representative, providing the proxy specifically stipulates the matters and the manner of the vote?

Do you think this federation should devote itself to the sporting and scientific development of the art?

To aid standardization in and encourage manufacture and commercial development and to assist in promoting proper legislation, etc., do you approve, or do you disapprove, of any of these objects and have you any others to suggest?

Patents.

Owing to the lack of space we have had to hold over our patent list. Begining next month we will give the filing dates as well as dates of issue.

Robert W. Stewart, East Oakland, Cal., 951,154, March 8. Monoplane, the novelty of which consists in the body and the wings being substantially of trapezoidal form and the central portion being dropped down in the form of a hollow, open V-shaped trough, widened towards the rear with pyramidal breast, a center board portion along the lower edge of the breast and a propeller and steering rudder at the forward end of the breast.

Herman F. Weidel, Rochester, N. Y., 951,585, March 8. Aeroplane, comprising front and rear converging planes extending from, and pivotally supported by, a common axial center which also supports the operator and operating mechanism. These planes are referred to as hollow prismatic structures.

L. C. Hincannon. Seabright, Cal., 915,615, March 8. Flying Machine, of the ornithopter type. A supporting framework is provided with horizontal plane at each end, while at sides longitudinal shafts are provided to operate feathering paddles through rotation and differential gearing.

Alfred Wunderlich, Brussels, Belgium, 952,167, March 15. Motor Flying Machine. The object of this invention is to utilize jet propulsion and partial vacuum suction. The body or hull is divided into a plurality of alternating pressure and suction chambers, the former closed on top and open at the bottom, while the latter are open on top and closed at bottom. The chambers are connected by apertures and rotary wings are mounted in the pressure chambers adapted to draw the air from the suction chambers and compress it in the pressure chambers.

I %

% ump^TPM T T7TVTVT7'P Paulhan Wins $50,000 %

% r UKJ^lUrlN 1 1 i^K prize in 185-Mile Flight |

$ Across Country :: :: *

Paulhan at Manchester

Three men were ready the end of April for the London to Manchester $50,000 prize offered by the "Daily Mail." These were Claude Graham White, an Englishman; Paulhan and Dubonnet, both Frenchmen.

Paulhan's machine arrived near Hendon on April 27th and was assembled by 5 o'clock the same afternoon. After getting the machine in shape, he flew across country to Hampstead Cemetery, his official starting point. He passed the line at 5 :31 p. m. Then he followed the railroad and after covering 117 miles landed at Lichfield station at 8:10. A special train with Farman. Mme. Pau'-han and mechanics arrived at Lichfield shortly after.

The night was spent at a hotel and another start made the following morning at 4 :09 a. m. The next landing was at Didsbury,^ two miles from Manchester and within the Simile radius of the offices of the "Daily Mail." This won the prize, and, of course, Dubonnet did not make the trip.

A previous attempt was made by Mr. White on April 23rd from Wormwood Scrubbs at a little after 5:00 o'clock in the morning. He followed the railroad as far as Rugby, after flying 2 hours and 5 minutes. After a stop of an hour to warm up, he was again in the air, but landed not far from Lichfleid as two inlet valve springs In the motor had become weak. This was a very windy spot and the wind did not subside. The machine had to be left out in the field and on the afternoon of the 24th, a sudden gust of wind blew it over.

Repairs were rushed on it and on the afternoon of the 27th it was again ready. It was decided not to start until the next morning and White took a much needed nap ; but it was costly repose for while he was asleep, Paulhan started. White received the news nearly an hour after Paulhan had left on the first leg. White did his best to make up lost time and actually got away at 6:29 p. m. He came down again at 7:55 at Roade, after covering 60 miles. Here White spent the night and started in the pitch dark at 2 :50 a. m. Everything was going well until 4 :13 a. m., when the engine began to give trouble and made a descent necessary at Tolesworth, 107 miles from London, about a few minutes before Paulhan started from Lichfield some 6 miles further ahead. Bpfore the engine could be gotten in shape again. Taulhan had reached the goal. Had White been able to continue at this point, he would have been almost over Paulhan's head when Paulhan started.

Paulhan had the advantage of starting on the long flight fresh, while White had been putting in nights and days on the machine since the accident. Paulhan had a new and somewhat lighter and faster machine and had the lower plane shortened by cutting it off at the inner pair of struts at each end, and therefore there was but one pair of ailerons (on the upper plane) instead of two pairs, upper and lower, as in Mr. White's machine. Graham White had but one vertical rear rudder. Paulhan's had two rear vertical rudders which gave him better control. The White machine is the same as the machine

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The tingle rudder 0/ Grahamt-WhUe't machine.

Paulhan's (win rudders.

The three types af rudder levers.

From

Paulhan left in America, except for the foot levers. The distance from the starting and landing place is 185 miles.

Two new prizes were immediately offered by Lord Northcliffe, the publisher of the "Daily Mail," totaling $50,000. One is for a flight from Paris to London and the other is for a trip in England, conditions yet to be determined. It is reported that the latter is for a flight from London to Edinburgh and back. The railroad distance between the two points is 400 miles.

There seems to be a difference in the manner of successful flying men in England and in France. In England the men who are doing the best flying are men in high social circles, while in Prance the best flyers are coming from the mechanic class, and their modesty is not their most prominent trait.

Paulhan's engine is a 7 cyl. Gnome, 50 h. p. All ball bearings used are "F. & S.," for which the J. S. Bretz Co., Times Bldg., New York, is the American agent.

England.

J. T. Moore-Brabazon has been awarded the British Michelin $2,500 trophy and $2,500 in cash for the best distance made by a British aviator. His distance was 1S% miles on March 1. The Hon. C. S. Rolls has made the first flights with Iiis Sommer machine. Cecil Grace has fitted a Gnome motor to his Short-Wright. J. Eadley has started practice on a Bleriot.

The British Army Airship II. has made another ascent of 70 mins.

France.

So many short flights are being made daily in every part of tbe Republic that it is impossible, and valueless as well, to recount them. Mention is made only of the more notable ones. All the manufacturers have established schools for the teaching of purchasers.

To date, 97 flights of an hour or more in duration have been made by some 42 different aviators in 19 months' flying, 9 different makes of machines. The H. Farman machine heads the list with 36 hour flights, Wright 22, Voisin 15, Bleriot and Antoinette 10 each.

Meets are being held or arranged for all over France.

DUBONNET FLIES OVER PARIS.

Although Count Lambert's exploit in flying round the Eiffel Tower some months ago electrified Paris, the Gay City had a greater thrill on April 23, when M. Dubonnet flew right across the city.

Starting from his flying ground at Draveil, near Juvisy, at two minutes past three, M. Dubonnet followed the course of the Seine to Paris, then passed over the Place de la Concorde and the Avenue des Champs Elysees, and eventually landed with a gliding flight on the field at Bagatelle, where M. Santos Dumont carried out most of his early experiments. During the flight of seventeen miles Dubonnet flew mostly at a height of 60 metres, but once or twice he rose as high as 100 metres.

On April 26 Dubonnet made a short but sensational flight in the face of a gale for the benefit of Col. Roosevelt. The next day Ethel Roosevelt aud Kermit were taken up by Count Lambert.

Dubonnet, a novice, is flying a new monoplane, the Tellier. He won (last issue) the "La Nature" prize of $2,000 in a 109 kil. cross-country flight on April 3, on his eleventh aerial voyage.

FOUR FLY IN AEROPLANE.

On April 20th, Roger Sommer made a new passenger record by carrying three besides himself. The trip lasted five minutes. The machine weighs 550 lbs. and the four people another 510.

NICE MEETING, APRIL 15-24-FINES FOR RECKLESS

FLYING-WONDERFUL DURATION TOTALS.

$42,000 were distributed among eight competitors of the twelve entered at Nice. Eight contests were held, six of which were again won by Farman machines, with the other two by Antoinettes.

The Hon. C. S. Rolls, whose longest flight in England was 18 miles, was up several times for more than an hour. The last ten days was devoted to flying out over the sea. Nearly every day there were landings in the sea. Rawlinson, Chavez, Rou-gier. Grade, Riemsdyde and Latham all got duckings. Rawlinson was caught in the current of Effimoff's propeller and tossed in the water. Ef-fimofif was fined $20 for dangerous flying.

Results were as follows:

Greatest Cumulative Distance—1, Effimoff (Far-man), 9G0.398 kil. (596 miles) ; 2, Van den Born (Farman), 606.336 kil.; 3, Chavez (Farman), 440.33; 4, Rolls (Wright), 421.718 kil.; 5, Latham (Antoinette), 391.224 kil.; the other contestants, Duray (Farman), Olieslaegers (Bleriot), Metrot (Voisin), Rawlinson (Farman), Grade (Grade j, Rougier (Voisin), ranged from 82, 81, 80, 20, down to 12 and 9 kil. respectively.

Longest Distance Without Stop—1, Eflimoff (Far-man), in 1 hr. 15 min. 55 2-5 sec, 97 kil.; 2. Van den Born (Farman), in 1 hr. 5S min. 18 1-5

sec, S7.5 kil.; 3, Rawlinson (Farman), in 1 nr. 37 sec, 76 kil.

Speed for 5 Kil.—Effinioff (Farman), 5 min. 23 3-5 sec.; no other contestant.

Passenger Prize—Van den Born, in 1 hr. 10 min. 22 sec. for 02.708 kil.. and Efflmoff (both in Farmans), in 1 hr. IS min. 51 4-5 sec. for 5S.5 kil., were only contestants.

Circuit of Course—Latham (Antoinette) and Chavez (Farman), only contestants.

Starting Contest—Efflmoff (Farman), only contestant, 10.5 meters.

Starting Contest (with passenger)—Efflmoff again, 11.65 meters, only contestant.

Height—1, Latham. G56 meters, followed by Chavez (Farman), 044: Rolls (Wright), 242; Jle-trot (Voisin), 231 ; and Olieslaegers (Bleriot), 217 meters.

Three of the Farman machines had Gnome motors with Bosch magnetos.

CANNES MEET, MARCH 27-APRIL 5.

Thirteen machines were entered and $12,100 were awarded in prizes. The Farman machines won six of the ten contests, the Wright three, Curtiss one. Results as follows :

Prize for Total Distance—1, Christiaens (H. Farman), 5 hrs. 45^2 min.; 2nd, 3rd and 4th places also with Farmans, running down to 3 hrs. 6 min.; five other contestants.

Prize for Duration without Stop—1, Crochon (H. Farman), 1 hr. 9 min. 29 2-5 sec; only two other contestants, both in Farmans.

Prize for Circuit of Course—1, Baratoux (Wright); Riemsdyck (Curtiss), 3rd; seven other contestants.

Prize for Regularity—1, Crochon (Farman), 1 hr. 9 min. 29 sec.; all six other contestants had Farmans.

Prize for Landing—1, Christiaens (Farman) ; no other contestants.

Prize for Starting at a Fixed Time—1, Riemsdyck (Curtiss) ; four other contestants. By good luck Riemsdyck got away on the exact fraction of a second. Crochon was only 4-5 of a second after the time fixed, while Edmond in a Farman was 2S 1-5 sec. ahead of the time.

Prize for Speed for 11 kil.—1, Edmond (Far-man), S min. 1 3-5 sec; three other contestants.

Prize for Height—1. Popoff (Wright), 207 meters ; no other contestant.

Prize for Prescribed Cross-Country Tour—Pop-off ; no other contestant.

Eleven flights of more than an hour's duration each were made, all by Farman machines.

HOUR FLIGHTS.

On April 2, at Pau, Bleriot flew 1% hr. The same day Daniel Kinet flew a Farman 1 hr. 5 min. On the third, Captain Gibbs, a Farman pupil from England, flew 1 hr. 12 min. at Mourmelon. Som-mer flew 1 hr. 5 min. over several villages from Mouzon. Capt. Dickson (H. Farman) flew 1 hr. 33 min. at Mourmelon on April 5. Leblanc at Pau flew a Bleriot for 1% hr. on April 11.

A dirigible, "Ville de Pau," has begun making passenger trips. The fare for a sail of 30 min. to an hour is $20.

Germany.

THE ZEPPELIN II DESTROTED.

After the airship manoeuvres by the Zeppelin II, Gross I, and Parseval II the end of April, the Zeppelin II. after struggling with the wind on its way from Hamburg to Cologne, had to be brought to the ground. The following morning a violent gust of wind carried the ship away, and the only parts left of value were the engines.

The Parseval III was up for nearly an hour on April 7.

FOUR KILLED IN BALLOON.

A peculiar catastrophe overtook a party of bal-loonists who ascended from Bitterfeld, near Berlin, on April 16. At the start fine weather prevailed, but after about five hours' sailing, when the balloon was over Eisenach, it encountered a thunderstorm, and a little further on apparently was struck by lightning. This caused the gas to explode, arid the car of the balloon fell like a stone to the earth, killing the four occupants instantly. The passengers were Herr Luff, of Bitterfeld, Hcrr Leuchsenring, manager of the Parseval Airship

Dubonnet Flying c-Across Paris

Co. at Munich, and two residents of Leipzig. A committee of experts claims has investigated the wreck, and has decided that the balloon burst from exterior pressure.

The Wright school is busy at Johannisthal, near Berlin.

HOUR FLIGHT.

On April 11, Jeannin. a new one, flew 2 hrs. 1 min. 55 sec. at Johannisthal in a Farman.

Italy.

At Florence on March 2S Van den Born flew for 1 hr. 20 min. in his Farman.

Leonino da Zara has been able to make short flights at Padua in his Voisin.

Russia.

The Duma has passed a bill providing for the construction of an airship fleet, the encouragement of their home manufacture, and 25,000 roubles as prizes for aeroplanes.

A Farman machine has been flown well by Outochkine, champion bicyclist, at Odessa.

Spain.

Two aviation fields have been opened near Madrid, where Stoeckel flies his Bleriot and Mamet (former instructor at Bleriot's Pau school) and two promoters fly Bleriots.

Before the Queen, "in the face of a heavy wind, Mamet rose over three hundred feet, and flew eight kilometres in nine minutes on April 4. This is the Spanish height and duration record.

Stoeckel, after flying about 600 meters, got caught in a gust of wind, was overturned, and his wing was broken, but he was unhurt. Olie-schlagers has been giving exhibitions with his Bleriot at Seville.

At Barcelona, one Godard flew over the City, and harbor for 55 min. on April 10.

Later in the month disappointed crowds stoned and fired three aeroplanes, and one aviator came near being lynched.

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College Men Organize.

On Saturday, April 30th, the postponed Intercollegiate Aeronautic Convention met at the Houston Club, University of Penna., Phila.

Delegates were present from Cornell, Columbia, Princeton, University of Pennsylvania, University of Virginia, Haverford College and Swarthmore College. Tufts was represented by proxy, and letters from a number of the other most influential American colleges assured the convention that while representation was at the time impossible, all that was done would be endorsed by them.

An Intercollegiate Aeronautical Federation was organized. G. A. Richardson, Penna., '12, was elected president, and Elmer Rae, Cornell,. '13, secretary. The convention adopted a constitution and by-laws, decided to adopt an active policy in organizing clubs in other colleges, and authorized its executive board to-affiliate with the national aeronautic organization broadest in field. This last action was taken because of the uncertain status of the Aero Club of America, several of whose affiliated clubs have recently withdrawn from its protection.

The colleges will be represented by one vote for every fifteen men. The first fifteen will be represented by the local president. No club-with a membership of less than fifteen is eligible. Annual dues of twenty-five cents a man in the local clubs goes to maintain the national body. The incidental business of the federation is conducted by an executive board. This board consists of the president, first and second vice-presidents, secretary, assistant secretary, treasurer, and one delegate from, each of the seven colleges represented by delegates at the first convention.

All college aero clubs already organized at the time of signing the proceedings may also become charter members by signing.

The secretary's address is: Elmer Rae, Esq., 702 University, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

The University of Chicago Aero Club is

another college aero organization. The club has voted to build a glider.

The University of Illinois Aero Club, Urbana, 111., has been formed, with L. P. Brode as president pro tern. Twenty members form the nucleus. Arrangements^ have been made by the Athletic Association of the university whereby a Curtiss machine will be there in May.

The club has the co-operation of Dr. E. T. Berg, head of the electrical engineering department, and of President James.

The University of California Aero Club, of Berkeley, Cal., has come into existence as the result of a crying need for unified action amongst the aeronautically interested members of the university.

The club has held a gas balloon ascension, making an So-mile trip from Alameda, Cal. On April 23 members of the club made a number of successful glider flights at Fitch-burg and Oakland in Becher & Wolf gliders, the longest of these flights being 210 ft. Lectures have been delivered before the club by S. E. Woodworth, a member; Lieut. Paul Beck, U. S. Signal Corps; Cleve T. Shaffer, second vice-president of the Pacific Aero Club. Mr. Woodworth, who is a cousin of Lieut. Selfridge, spoke on "Aerial Navigation and Aerial Craft." Lieut. Beck, a government expert in aeronautics, chose as his subject "Aeronautics in Peace and War." Mr. Shaffer spoke on "Aeroplane Design and Construction."

Prof. J. Hidalgo is president; T. P. Hen-shaw, vice-president; F. D.j Woodworth, treasurer; T. W. Veitch, secretary. Prof. Hidalgo is a well-known figure in aeronautics on the coast, being a director of the Pacific Aero Club, and the author of a pamphlet, "History of Aeronautics."

An Aeronautic Section of the Technology Club of Syracuse, N. Y., has been formed by members of the club, scientific and technical men. It is not so much, the aim to promulgate the sporting features as to aid individual investigators or constructor of machines. Credit is due Emil Pfleiderer, M. E., for originating the idea.

The Tufts College A. C, Tufts College, Mass., has grown from 20 to 50 members in a month's time, and is still growing. A Chanute glider has been built, 20 by 4 ft., with a rear rudder having both vertical and horizontal planes. The front elevating plane, 6 ft. by 3^ ft., has an ingenious arrangement of light levers to elevate or depress it. It is trussed with Bessemer steel

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For the purpose of increasing the sphere of usefulness the membership should be augmented. Every additional member advances the general good.

C. Address the Secretary for booklet and application blanks at P. O. Box 28, Station D, New York; or 1999 Broadway, where weekly meetings are held.

wire, copper plated, with numerous turn-buckles. The total weight is under 100 lbs. All the work has been done by the members, using the machinery of the engineering department. The total cost was under $9, not including labor. One member, T. T. Greenwood, is engaged in making patterns fora 20 h. p. revolving cylinder motor, to be installed in a monoplane of his own design.

A goodly number of the engineering faculty are members. Among them is Prof. H. C. Chase, professor of physics, who has offered financial support in experiments. Prof. Chase is captain in the Mass. N. G. Signal Corps, and the club is co-operating with his command in the work. Captain Chase, it will be remembered, had considerable experience with balloons during the manoeuvers last summer.

E. P. Bugbee, '12, is president; G. W. Talbot, 'n, secretary-treasurer.

The Aero Club of Illinois now numbers 250, although it was started in February of this year. The club was formed primarily to promote the sport in Chicago, and is working along the lines of other aeronautical societies. Little attention is being given to anything besides aeroplanes, and a number of members are either making machines or furnishing capital for others.

A training ground is being established for members and others interested in the work for the try-out of machines, and the club hopes eventually to have ample facilities for experimental work and a school for new aspirants.

A great many experimental machines are being built now in Chicago, and at least one concern has gone into the manufacturing of machines on a large scale. Of the many tracts of land which have been offered, two or three have been selected for final consideration, and one will be shortly decided upon, when buildings will be erected. By May 1st it is hoped to have one of the liveliest camps in the country.

As soon as the time is ripe for preliminary trials, weekly matinees will be held at which time prizes will be offered by the club for various trials and competitions. The club also expects to have one or two big meets during the summer, one before July 1 and the other early in the fall.

The Princeton University Aero Club, with a membership of 35, is now firmly fixed upon a progressive working basis. Its officers are: J. F. Thompson, president; Cyrus McCormick, secretary; and P. C. Smith, treasurer. Eight models are in process of construction, six of them being biplanes of various types, one a special designed monoplane and one a special design of the following plane type. Two of the members also are building biplane gliders. A model competition is to be held in the near future. The club is one of the members of the Intercollegiate body recently formed.

The Aeronautical Society continues to hold its semi-monthly lectures and discussions. A special night was that of April 21, when Prof. J. J. Montgomery described his experiments with warping gliders in 1884-5. On the 28th a discussion on the subject of models and their value was entered into between Messrs. W. R. Kimball, Louis R. Adams, R. E. Scott, Dr. C. Dederer, L. J. Lesh, Carlos de Zafra and W. S. Howell, Jr.

The society is keeping stenographic records of all proceedings, discussions and lectures. In due course, these are to be issued at stated intervals in booklet form for members and others. Some of these talks have proved extremely interesting reading.

The Aero Club of America called a meeting of members, in accordance with a provision of the by-laws, for May 5, but only 13 contributors of annual dues showed up —a quorum is 50—and no meeting could be held.

The Aero Club of California is in a very prosperous condition. A home for the club has been secured in the new Motordrome near Playa del Rey, some 16 miles from Los Angeles. This enclosure is 1,700 ft. in diameter and a mile in circumference. The club- has a shed housing some 16 machines, five being already on the ground, with others coming that will fill it to its caoacity. Shops and machinery are provided also. Prof. Twining, president of the club, together with Eaton Brothers have just finished remodeling a monoplane, a photograph of which was in the last issue of Aeronautics. A patent was applied for on the sliding panels at the tips of the planes, and the machine built before the inventors heard of Mr. Pfitzner's machine. A motor is expected to be installed during the summer.

The Aero Club of Buffalo will soon have a shed big enough to house four to five full-sized aeroplanes and equipped with all the machinery necessary for the construction of any sort of flying machine at the Country Club polo field.

According to resolutions passed by the club at a recent meeting, anyone owning an aeroplane, or in fact flying machine of any sort, may make application to the club for the use of the aerodrome for storing the machine, and of the polo field for flying. If the applicant deserves the permission, the use of both will be accorded him free of charge.

For any inventor, who convinces the Aero Club that he has a feasible idea, will be granted the use of the aerodrome, its machinery, the aviation field, and moreover, if the inventor is financially unable to buy all of the necessary material, it has been intimated that assistance will be furnished him.

A. L. Pfitzner, whose monoplane is already at the Country Club, has consented

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to give the club the advantage of his experience and if necessary superintend the construction, together with the obtaining of the necessary aerial machinery.

MANUFACTURERS TO HELP.

A number of aeroplane engine manufacturing companies have sprung up in different sections of the country who, to get their motors before the public, have signified their intention of donating a number of up-to-date aeroplane engines to the club as soon as the aerodrome is finished, to be used by the club as it sees fit. These engines will be loaned to inventors who have been accorded the use of the building.

The Purdue Aero Club has been formed at Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. The officers are as follows: Clarence W. Luhn, of Madisonville, O., President; Guy Wain-wright, of Noblesville, Vice-President; R. C. Hoffman, of Argos, Librarian; G. O. Carothers, Secretary-Treasurer.

The Pacific Aero Club held its first meeting in the new quarters, 914 Pacific Bldg., San Francisco, on April 19. Miss Geneve Shaffer told of her balloon trip across the Bay. A. C. Pillsbury showed some of his remarkable flight and balloon pictures. Geo. H. Loose and Joseph Naston were others of the entertainers. Frank Johnson, who has been giving exhibitions in his Curtiss machine, was roasted unmercifully for his "pitiful" flights and called a "rank failure." A photograph was thrown on the screen of Johnson making a jump at Alameda.

"This is Johnson's record flight," it was announced. "He is 20 feet off the ground."

The "Aero Club of Canada has been duly incorporated by special act of the Council and Assembly of Canada by the Hon. Duncan C. Fraser, J. A. D. McCurdy, F. W. Baldwin, Hon. Wm. F. McCurdy, and others. There is no capital stock and no member of the corporation is liable for any debts or obligations of the corporation. "Certificates of Contribution" are provided for to be given any member who contributes toward the property or funds of the body. These Certificates entitle the holders to a proportional part of the proceeds of liquidation should such take place. The first meeting of the club was held on May 6th, at which six members were present.

J. A. D. McCurdy was elected president; F. W. Baldwin, 1st vice-president; H. Percy Blanchard, 2nd vice-president; Hon. W. F. McCurdy, 3d vice-president; J. A. D. McCurdy, secretary and K. J. McKay, treasurer. An architect is drawing plans for a club room building. The headquarters of the club will be at Baddeck, Nova Scotia.

John XV. Mitchell, who is connected with the "Evening Star" in Washington, has entered the lecture field. His inaugural address was before the Army and Navy Club, where he gave an illustrated talk on the history of aviation. Mr. Mitchell is particularly well adapted for this work, as he has been closely associated with aeronautics for many years.

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NEW BATES MOTOR.

Carl Bates has gotten out two sizes of a twin-cvlinder air-cooled motor: 8-10 h. p., weight 25 lbs., and 20-25 h. p., weight 75 lbs. The S-10 h. p. motor is the one which is now being installed hy m. B. Sellers in. his quadroplane.

The S-10 h. p. model is built extra light, and is best suited for very light aeroplanes under 200' lbs. This size gives SO to 90 lbs. thrust, with propeller direct connected.

Bates 2-Cyl. Engine

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These motors are of exceptionally high power, their efficiency and good cooling qualities being due to the extra large valves, auxiliary exhaust ports, and great cooling surface.

They retail from $325 to $575, according to size and equipment.

GREENE CO. STARTS PLANT AT ROCHESTER.

The Greene Co. has found business increasing too fast for its present quarters and has removed to Rochester, X. Y. A large concrete-block factory building, 00 ft. by 120 ft., has been secured, together with an assembling shed 40 ft. by 60 ft. A complete set of woodworking machinery has been installed.

The city of Rochester has given Dr. William Greene the privilege of using suitable parts of its property. The Elbridge motor hag been finally selected as the most suitable. Four aeroplanes will bo finished by the end of May and ten others have been laid out.

FOREIGN AEROPLANE PRICES.

The following are the prices which were asked for some of the machines shown at the recent English exhibition : Santos Dumont monoplane, $1,4G0; Bleriot "cross-channel" monoplane, $2,336; Antoinette monoplane. $4,SGG ; Voisin biplane (E. N. V. motor). $3,70(5; Wright biplane (Wright motor), $5,839; Farman biplane (Green motor), $4,42S ; Farman biplane (Gnome motor), $5,450.

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SHNEIDER SELLS THREE MACHINES.

Fred Shneider has built and sold three Curtlss-type aeroplanes, one to the Elbridge Engine Co. and the other two out West.

GILL-DOSIl CO. SELLING MACHINES.

The Gill-Dosh Co., Los Angeles. Calif., are now making the Gill-Dosh machines for sale. Immediate delivery is promised, and the price is §3,500. These machines closely resemble the Curtiss, and are beautifully finished. Brown silk rubber cloth is used for covering, and all metal parts are nickel plated. All metal joints are welded and steel is used in place of aluminum. American and British engines are fitted, in which weight has been reduced to 1S3 lbs. Bosch magneto is used. The company is also in a position to accept exhibition contracts.

The Boston Aeronautical Mfg. Co., of 21 Hawkins Street, Boston, Mass., which was organized last December, is building an aeroplane of its own type, and the initial flight is promised the latter part of May.

Frank H. Johnson, Curtiss agent in California, has bought a Hall-Scott motor, 41 h. p., which he is now installing.

ELBRIDGE CO. SALES.

Two Featherweight aeronautic engines of 60 h. p., weighing about 170 lbs. apiece, have been ordered by the Western Monoplane Company for early delivery at Spokane, for use in experiment with new models the company expects to market this season or next.

The Mathewson Automobile Company, of Denver, Col., expects to produce at least one biplane a month this summer, it is reported. The company is using for experiment at present the Elbridge Engine Company's four cylinder 60 h. p. Featherweight aeronautic motor, several of which were purchased early in the spring.

Flights over the great Mormon Temple at Salt Lake City, Utah, may be common before the summer is over. James W. Wade, of Salt Lake City, has built a plane which he is equipping with an Elbridge four-cylinder Featherweight.

Louis Waynai, of West IToboken, has completed a new model of machine, according to his own ideas, which he will propel with an Elbridge engine.

WANTED.—Somebody to finance the building of a monoplane of Bleriot-Antoinette type, to be used for exhibition purposes; or, would like a position as operator of a machine for exhibition or any other purpose whatever. Will make reasonable terms. Address C. M. Hall, 406 Lincoln Inn Court, Cincinnati, Ohio.

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HOW TO ATTACH CLOTH.

107. In the May, 1010, number (which has already been mailed), you will find something on surfaces. One method is to dampen the cloth when you put it on, so that if it gets wet again it will not be baggy. The method used by one man here in New York is to spread glue over the front lateral beams. Start the cloth over the underside of the beam, pressing it into the glue, and tack it. You could run a strip of tape under the tack so as to prevent the head tearing the cloth. Then bring the cloth around the front edge and along the top of the ribs. Along each rib a strip of tape is tacked on top of your cloth the length of the rib.

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You caa run a wire through holes at the rear end of the ribs and then lace the rear edge of the cloth over this wire. You can probably get at a shoe store small brass eyelets and a punch. On the lateral extremities of the machine, yon can lace the surface to the outermost ribs, either around the ribs or through holes in it. (See note on the Curtiss machine in the May number.) If the cloth is to be placed under the rib. you will want to wind around the front lateral beam in the reverse direction. P>y wrapping the cloth once around the beam and glue, it will be very strong.

Some other experimentors merely fit the cloth to the planes and lace all the way around. Of course, any slack in the cloth can be taken up.

TO EVADE WRIGHT PATENT.

I have just invented a new rudder for a flying machine that does not infringe the Wright Brothers' patent. It has been made public, and is for every one to use.

The rear horizontal rudder is hinged diagonally so that either of the two triangles thus made can be moved to a vertical position.

JOSEPH THEBEAU.

315 W. 51st St.. New York.

A LETTER FROM DICK FERRIS.

March 3, 1910.

Editor, Aeronautics.

My dear Sir,—I am just in receipt of the March number of Aeronautics, and have read the two articles covering the Los Angeles aviation meet— one by Prof. H. LaV. Twining, and the other by Mr. Cleve T. Shaffer. Having personally conceived, promoted, and managed the first aviation meet in America, without "the blare of trumpets," I am not unlike the proverbial worm that turns when stepped upon in such a manner as I con-sfder I have been, in both articles referred to.

It is only natural that petty jealousies should exist in affairs of this character, but 1 do not propose to allow, without protest, an exhibition of those same jealousies by people who have followed in the wake of one whom they now have seen fit to ignore, especially through the instrument of your most excellent journal.

In the spring of 190S I purchased the world-famous balloons, the "United States" and "American." entered them in the international contest at Chicago. July 4. 190S, and again at St. Paul, July- IS. 1908. When I returned to Los Angeles in the fall of the same year I brought with me these two bags, and after vainly soliciting the civic and commercial bodies of Los Angeles to foster a big balloon meet, using these two bags as a nucleus, 1 was compelled to send them away, in an attempt to cross the mountains, at no small financial loss. At this time aeronautics was in its infancy here, there was no aero club in practical existence, and everything that was done was of my own initiative and paid for out of my own pocket. As a sincerity of my efforts to have these balloons cross the mountains I erected at a cost of over $2,000 a hydrogen plant, and while these bags were being inflated Professor Twining, for the first time in his life, witnessed a real balloon, and asked permission of me to bring his school class into the grounds and lecture to them upon their construction and operation. Local interest was further augmented that same winter by numerous flights here of Roy Knabenshue with his dirigible, and several private flights of the "United States" and "American," which Mr. Knabenshue and Captain Mueller piloted.

To Captain Baldwin must be given the credit for the first balloon flight made in Southern California, and for the initiative awakening of anyone in this community to aeronautics.

That my balloons did not cross the mountains was due to most unfavorable weather conditions and incapability of oue pilot who did have the opportunity*. However, a week later, at my own expense (costing over $500) I inflated the "United States." fully equipped it, and with Captain Mueller as pilot, again made a successful attempt and succeeded in not only crossing the range, but the highest peak of the range, landing in the Desert of Arizona and covering a distance of 292 miles. By these continuous flights a general interest was gradually awakened and resulted in the forming of the Aero Club of California. When 1 left

EDWIN LEVICK

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

Photographers

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flama SPECIALIST in the

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the city this club, through lack of support, disintegrated and was reorganized, to disintegrate again. During my absence I was in correspondence with Mr. George Harrison of the "Herald," to whom I outlined several plans for the winter of 1909 and 1910. Mr. Harrison being on the "Herald," gave it due publicity and in consequence the Aero Club of California again came into existence, but failed to apply for affiliation papers until the aviation meet was announced. Liking neither their business methods nor their treatment of myself, and being in ignorance of their sudden and hurried application for affiliation, I formed the California Aviation Society, Henry E. Huntington as president; Governor Gillett, vice-president; Willis H. Booth, president of the Chamber of Commerce, as vice-president and treasurer, and George B. Harrison as secretary. The directors consisted of United States Senators Perkins and Flint. General Otis, of the Los Angeles "Times" ; M. H. Ihmsen. the business manager of the "Examiner" ; Mr. T. E. Gibbon, the owner of the "Herald"; Mr. E. T. Earl, the owner of the "Express." and numerous other personages of equal importance. We quite naturally applied for affiliation, which, while not officially denied, we were told by Mr. Bishop, during his visit here, could not be granted owing to the priority of the application of the Aero Club of California.

I had been negotiating with Paulhan. Curtiss, Willard. Hamilton, Knabenshue, Beachey, and, in fact, every aviator of national and international reputation : finally closing contracts with Paulhan. Curtiss, Willard, Hamilton. Knabenshue and Beachey. I endeavored to form a company to finance the proposition, but was unsuccessful. I then went to Mr. Huntington and he subscribed $50,000 conditional upon the city of Los Angeles raising $50,000 more. I went to the Chamber of Commerce, but was twice turned down. I sought support in every direction without success. In the meantime the newspapers were most generous in their publicity, the "Examiner" being first and pre-emiuent. Finally, through the good offices of Mr. Harry Chandler, of the Los Angeles "Times," I was able to meet in council several representatives of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association, to whom I outlined my plan. I was then invited to the bauquet of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association and asked to address them. This I did, with the result that they referred the matter to their board of directors, who appointed a committee to favorably consider the project and co-operate with me in its execution. From that time on I acted as a member of that committee and in conjunction with them carried out every detail of my original plan. I personally selected the grounds, laid out the course, fenced off the field, posted the patrol lines, located the grandstand, concessions and all other details, and. in harmony with the committee, supervised their execution. I personally managed the field and nights every day of the meet, and extended to the press and photographers every courtesy within reason.

Mr. Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, and Mr. Newton, of the New York "Herald." both of whom investigated everything very thoroughly, will. I am certain, vouch for the truth of the above statements.

The success of the meet was due to Paulhan's achievements, the newspaper publicity and the management in general. I might also add that but for my purchase of the balloons the "Dick Ferris" and the "City of Los Angeles," the only representation we would have had in that line was the appearance of Mr. Clifford B. Harmon with his "New York" and Mr. F. J. Kanne with his "Peoria."

I have no desire even now for credit, acknowledgment or publicity, but I do seriously object to being ignored and to the misleading articles above referred to by Mr. Twining and Mr. Shaffer. Trusting you will correct their misleading intent, I remain, with best wishes,

Yours sincerely,

Dick Ferris. P. S.—I thank you for running my cut, and enclose herewith a few editorials to substantiate my statements.

| Ascensions |

<8*S><$*SxS><$xS>$'$>^^

ASTERISK (*) DENOTES TIUPS OF 100 JULES OR OVER. BALLOON1STS ARE ASKED TO KINDLY SEND IN THEIR RECORDS.

TWO ASCENTS IN ONE.

St. Louis, April S.—Miss Flavia Hadley, of Edwardsville, 111., a daughter of ex-Congressman Hadley, and niece of Mrs. H. Clay Pierce, made her first balloon ascension to-day.

She ascended with a brother and two friends in an SO.OOO-cu. ft. balloon, starting from St. Louis, and landing in a potato patch near Col-linsville. 111., two hours later.

Peoria, April 9.—Prank Kanne, pilot, with George Fitch and E. E. Kester in the "Peoria." After going a short distance, followed by Eugene Brown, owner of the balloon, in an automobile, Fitch and Kester got out and Dr. Frank Baldwin and William Moon got in for a short sail. Finally, at dusk, a landing was made a mile out of town and the balloon moored for the night with the intention of going on again in the morning, but there was not enough lift the next day.

Jackson. Mich., April II.—A. Leo Stevens, pilot, Frederick M. Alger, Wm. E. Metzger, E. W. Lewis and "Jack" Kraemer, in the "Cleveland," to near North Morenci. Mich, about 35 miles; duration

3 hours ; altitude S,500 ft.

Springfield, Mass.. April 20.—A. II. Forbes, John Parker and William Hull, in the "Springfield," to South Hadlev. Mass.. about 17 miles.

Pittsfleld. Mass.. April 29.—Charles J. Glidden, pilot; F. P. Sibley and Wilhelm Heinrichs, the first sightless man to make an ascension, in the "Massachusetts." to Bennington. Vt. Distance 32 miles ; duration 2 hours ; altitude 4,500 ft.

LANDS BY LIGHTNING'S FLASH.

*St. Louis, May 2.—William F. Assman. in the "Missouri," to near Macomb, 111. The landing was made in the rain by the aid of the flashes of lightning. Distance 129% miles: duration 4 hours.

Pittsfleld. May G.—Charles .1. Glidden. pilot: Prof, and Mrs. David Todd, in the "Massachusetts." to East Haddam. Ct. Distance SO miles ; duration

4 hours: altitude 6,400 ft. Saw Halley's Comet, moon and sun rise.

Pittsfleld, May S.—Chas. .7. Glidden. pilot; W. Van Sleet. David Cullem, J. B. r.enton. J. W. Flagg and V. Moisan, in the "Boston," covering about a mile : duration 3S minutes : altitude 1,700 ft. This was Mr. Glidden's forty-second ascent.

After rising to a considerable height the balloon was brought to earth ten minutes later, this being repeated twice so that each of the three pilots might handle the air craft separately, on the short flights. All three flights were made within the city limits of Pittsfleld.

FOR SALE—One 40 h. p. Curtiss aerial engine in good running order. Address Box 188, Monett, Mo.

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AERONAUTICAL CLASSICS

Published by

THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN

NOW READY

1. AERIAL NAVIGATION.

By Sir George Cayley, Bart., with Portrait and Biographical Notice. First published 1809.

2. AERIAL LOCOMOTION.

By F. H. Wenham, with Portrait and Biographical Notice. First published 1866.

Four more volumes in the present series will be issued during the course of the year, including tha most important works of Walker, Stringfellow, Pilcher, Francis Lana, Leonardo da Vinci, etc.

The originals of this valuable series are extremely rare, and practically unobtainable. All the illustrations are reproduced in facsimile.

Price 25c. each volume. Post Free 30c.

Subscription for complete series of six, $1.35 post free On sale at the Publishing Offices of the Aeronautical Society KING, SELL & 0LD1NG, 27 Chancery Laae, London, EnglanP

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Y. M. C. A. Flights.

At the West Side Y. M. C. A., New York, model contest on April 23 there were 20 machines out, and in the boys' class the winner was H. Ragot, a new entrant, with a Langley monoplane with two propellers. He flew 166 ft. 5 in. F. M. Watkins was second with r6o ft. 7 in. D. Grier, who is a cripple and has to walk on crutches, was third, with 148 ft.

In the men's class M. P. Talmage, with a small Wright biplane, starting from a catapult, made 121 ft., which is the longest flight we have had from a biplane at any of the contests. Carisi and Piceller, second, with 77 ft.

On Saturday, the 7th instant, was held the next contest in the Twenty-second Regiment Armory. There were about 17 machines entered. The winner in the men's class was M. P. Talmage, with his Wright biplane, making 124 ft. Mr. Piceller was second with no ft.

In the boys' class the winner was F. M. Watkins with a double-propeller monoplane, flying 175 ft. 7 in. D. Grier was second with 173 ft. S. R. Easter, third, with 160 ft. 6 in.

Notice was served on Chas. A. Stewart, director, that Henry Ragot would not compete until the government had passed on his application for a patent for flexing wings.

This contest was the end of the Durant cup, Watkins now having three legs on it and it becomes his property. A new cup has been offered by M. P. Talmage which will be competed for the first time at the next meeting.

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AERONAUTICS June, 1910

Continental Aircraft & Transportation Company

MAN'S mastery of the air, while not yet absolute, has reached that point I where it ceases to be a dream and becomes a solid, insistent fact. It is not beyond the probabilities to expect that aircraft will soon be flying over established aerial routes in competition with railways as passenger carriers.

The organization of the Continental Aircraft and Transportation Company marks the formation of the first corporation in the United States intending to do an aerial transportation business.

This is the age of speed. If people can travel between any two places in an airship in one-half the time required by the fastest express train and for less fare, safety and comfort being equal, which will they be most apt to use for their journeys?

The great commercial possibilities of this airship lie in the fact that it can transport passengers at great speed with absolute safety and in perfect comfort.

The'Company expects to prove most convincingly that it can do this; and, if it can, it should be easily able to secure the bulk of the high-priced travel of the country, the people who are willing and able to pay for the hours of time saved them in making trips here and there.

Nature has given some birds the power to fly through the air at over 200 miles an hour. The swiftest beast that runs along the ground cannot go half that fast. And so will the future prove that aerial travel is much safer at 200 miles an hour than on railways at half that speed.

It costs about one hundred million dollars to build a railroad from Chicago to New York. There is the right of way to be paid for, tracks, bridges, etc., to be built. With the establishment of aerial travel it is altogether different. The air is free to any one. An aerial route requires no purchase of right of way, no tracks, no bridges. There is no costly rock-work, no mountains and rivers to be tunnelled. In one case the cost is millions, in the other nothing— not a dollar. All this company has to expend is the thought of determining the route, and it is instantly ready. It should readily be seen why one dollar of airship money should earn as much as one hundred or more dollars of railroad money.

The great possibility for enormous profits presented by a corporation owning swift-flying, passenger-carrying airships, after a few trips have shown what they will do, makes this Company's stock promise to be the greatest profit earner the world has ever known. It is futile to attempt to foretell how big the dividends will be, or to what figures the price of the stock will advance, for the commercial possibilities are incalculable.

Aeroplanes are only fair-weather aircraft suitable for sport and professional exhibitors. They do not possess the slightest commercial

possibilities. Dirigibles offer no advantage over a milk train for speed, and there is not the slightest hope of these balloon-sustained airships ever becoming a factor in carrying passengers as a matter of regular every day business.

No airship which does not possess the essential requisites of safety, speed and positive action in all weathers can hope to do a general passenger-carrying business every day in the year, and that is where the big money is to be made. This is the first airship planned with the purpose to meet the necessities of actual conditions. All others have been but experiments that have paved the way and positively demonstrated that the air has a sustaining power in itself much greater than people thought it had. The only force that will do without fail that which must be done in aerial navigation is that of power under absolute control because all action, be it ascension, suspension, balance or propulsion, must be forceful and positive.

. It is essential that the motors should not be connected. They should be able to be operated independently of each other or all together, as desired. An accident might happen to a single motor, or to several of them. But where there are many independent motors, an accident to one or two would not perceptibly affect the operation of the airship, and the damage, if not too serious, could be remedied while the airship was in flight at a slightly reduced speed.

It is pertinent to ask what is this new airship and what will it do?

First. It is a power sustained and propelled airship, with power controlled equilibrium, built on new applications of the helicop'er principle; but instead of only one motor, it has many, acting in unison or independently, as desired. Its action is forceful, positive and instantaneous.

Second. It will ascend in the air from any surface, even from water, in which it will not sink. It will remain stationary in the air or travel at the rate of 150 miles per hour and upward under any kind of weather conditions, and with the usual convenience and protection from weather to passengers afforded by railway cars. It will go forward or backward, ascend or descend, shift its direction under instantaneous control of the pilot. It has a natural balance, also automatic control, hand control, hand and automatic in combination, thus making capsizing impossible. The weight is neutralized by making it a live weight and self-sustaining through the motive power. It cannot fall, even if all the motors are instantaneously disabled, as the plane, the area of which extends over car and propellers, and which is used as an additional precaution for safety, operates as a parachute and makes the descent to the ground slow and gradual, with the place of alighting without a jar under control of the pilot.

AERONAUTICS June, igio

Continental Aircraft & Transportation Company

In other words, it is a simple, safe, speedy and commonsense, power-controlled airship with the every-day needs of commercial uses fully provided for, and capable of departing from the starting place every day promptly on the minute scheduled.

An airship of 3,000 horse power under the plans contemplated will carry 50 passengers and crew, figured on an average weight of 200 lbs. per person, and 3^2 tons of gasoline and oil. This equipment is sufficient for a continuous flight of over 1,000 miles. Plans permit construction in all sizes from 50 horse power upwards. In other words, for from two or three persons carrying power up to any reasonable number.

No matter what the future may bring forth in airships, there are certain fundamental principles that all airship builders must consider. The power of ascension, suspension, propulsion, balance, neutralization of weight, operation in all weathers, and instantaneous steering control are the main factors. These features are amply protected by patents so strong, so broad, and so effective, that they are basic patents which all newcomers before using must come to this Company to be licensed, no matter what changes they may make in certain details of their operating machinery or style of airship, just as the automobile manufacturers are obliged to do in connection with the Selden patent.

The capital stock of the Continental Aircraft and Transportation Company is $2,000,000, full paid and non-assessable, with shares of the par value of $100 each.

The Company is offering a limited amount of treasury stock at the price of $10 a share to raise the funds to build an airship and start an aerial route in order to attempt to prove to the public that its airships will do everything hoped for them.

No Officer of the Company is drawing a cent of salary and every dollar received from sales of treasury stock will be deposited to the Company's credit in a national bank and expended only for legitimate expenses incurred in building and proving what the airship will do.

The charter and by-laws are such that every stockholder is safeguarded in receiving his full pro rata benefit of all money made by the Company, be his holding one share or ten thousand shares. All the legal papers in connec-

tion with the Company's incorporation have been most carefully prepared with this purpose in view.

On the route between Chicago and New York, an airship carrying 50 passengers, can make the round trip daily, and, with the fare placed at $20 for one way, each airship should earn not less than $1,000 a day after deducting all expenses. On shorter distances between other cities, each airship on these routes could make more trips a day, with the relative earning power about the same amount a day, $1,000. With a hundred airships in operation in various parts of the country, the company should make at least $100,000 a day net profit, and, when one stops to think of the enormous number of people who are traveling, he can appreciate the fact that 100 airships will not carry the passenger traffic of the United States, or even a very small part of it.

It is not unreasonable to expect that the stock bought at the present low price of $10 a share may be receiving dividends equal to one hundred per cent a month, or even twice that much.

It is said that opportunity to make a fortune knocks once at every man's door. If not seized when the chance offers, opportunity passes by,, perhaps never to return. This is the opportunity of a lifetime. Don't let it pass by without grasping it, at least for a small amount.

You should estimate the future by the past and consider if this airship promises to do for its stockholders what the telephone did for those who had faith and courage to buy telephone stock before a single line was built; The man with faith and courage bought at 50 cents a share and later had the opportunity to sell at $1,000. The doubter, the man who waited too long, lost a fortune.

Those who wait to see this airship fly before buying any stock may find their timidity, their lack of faith, has lost them a fortune. 1 fie losses that one feels the most, those that linger in one's memory for all time, are the profits he might have made, had he only had the courage to accept the opportunity when offered. An undertaking of this nature is almost like the discovery of a new world. The discoverers, the daring stockholders, will practically own it and gather in the great harvest of golden profits as the just reward of their courage.

CHARLES JOHNSTON Instructor and Golf Club Maker

Mr. Crafts W. Higgins, Secretary Omaha, Neb.. April 21, 1910

Continental Aircraft & Transportation Co., Chicago, 111. Dear Sir:

Your letter and circular were duly received and after reading the same have decided to invest a little amount on your proposition. Enclosed find my cheek (No. 90) for $100.00 for which kindly send me certificate of stock in "Continental Aircraft and Transportation Company" to the value of that amount.

Here's hoping it will be a winner for us all, as I feel sure that someone is going to get there pretty soon, and I am willing to take the chances that you have done so. Yours very truly,

(Signed) CHARLES JOHNSTON.

The above copy will show you there are some who will buy stock and take the chances. Address all applications for stock to L. P. HOOPER, 1 16 Nassau St., New York, N. Y.

Paulhan at Los Angeles in his Bosch-Equipped Farman

LOS ANGELES VICTORIES OF BOSCH-EQUIPPED cAEROPLANES

Every Prize-Winning Aeroplane and Dirigible at the contests held during the 'wonderful Los Angeles Aviation Week ivas equipped %>ith a TZOSCH MAGNETO. Among the wonderful records made %ere these:

AVIATOR Paulhan

Paulhan

Curtiss

Paulhan

Hamilton

Paulhan

BOSCH-EQUIPPED AEROPLANE Farman

RECORD ALTITUDE

4,165 feet

ENDURANCE AND TIME

75.77 m^cs, 1:58:32 Farman

SPEED 10 LAPS

16.1 1 miles, 23:43 Curtiss

THREE LAPS WITH PASSENGER

4.83 miles, 8:16 Farman

SLOWEST LAP

1.61 miles, 3:36 Curtiss

CROSS COUNTRY

45.75 miles, 1 H. 2:42 Farman

NO BATTERIES WERE USED

Paulhan used a Bosch Magneto in his great flight from Manchester to London. DON'T you want a copy of the beautifully illustrated Bosch News—a postal brings it.

BOSCH MAGNETO COMPANY

223-225 West 46th Street, New York

Chicago Branch: 1253 Michigan Ave. San Francisco Branch: 357 Van Ness Ave.

Detroit Branch: 870 Woodward Ave.

PATENTS

AERONAUTICS A SPECIALTY

^"^Improvements m aerostructures should be protected without delay.

^J] Thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by others. A seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future as the Selden Patent controls the Automobile. Do not give your ideas away; protect them with solid patents.

JTfWe render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention without charge. Send us a sketch and description, photographs or a model for immediate report.

^"[TlSooklets giving full information in Patent Matters, a list of needed inventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. Write for them.

References: U. S. Representatives.—Thistlewood, Wiley, O'Connell, Groff, Morrison, Sani'l Smith and others. Bruce Mfg. Co., Clean Sweep Co., Heeknian Fish Trap Co., Northern Spike Co., Yankee Tweezer Co., Twentieth Century Hinge Co.

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Photographic Pictures of Living Models

By R. W. SHUFELDT, M. D.

All art lovers will appreciate the scientific development of the many details in nude photography which until now were available only in fragmentary form. C. Klary, Paris, France, editor of La Photographic Du Nu writes: "The work is magnificent in all respects." The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, New York City, "It must be considered as a work of exceptional value." (Our fileishow many such letters.

EDITION LIMITED

WRITE FOR INFORMATION

F. A. DAVIS COMPANY. 1914-16 Cherry St.. Philadelphia, Pa.

Please send brochure containing art pictures and description of "Studies of the Human Form" by R. W. Shufeldt, M. D.

Na

Addr

A SCREW BLADE Laminated Wood Propeller

ON LINES GIVING

Perfect Parallel Thrust

The Highest

Efficiency Attainable

Absolutely N* Lost Energy

Price $85.00 .f.o.b.

al0nz0 coffin

Sole Manufacturer 2902 - 19th Street Sao Francisco :: California

PROPELLERS TESTED

COFFIN PARABOL

HE BEST BY TEST

EQUIP YOUR AEROPLANE

WITH

Aeroplane Fabrics Aeroplane Tires Bumpers

Tell us what you need, and let us explain the superiorities of GOODYEAR Materials.

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

Akron, Ohio

PROPELLERS

True Screw

Spruce and Ash

In stock and can be shipped immediately

All Sparling-McClintock Propellers are of laminated spruce and ash. c.We get 200 pounds thrust from our 6-foot propeller at between 1100 and 1200 revolutions per minute.

Our 6-foot Propeller,

any pitch, wt., 7 lbs., Our 7-foot Propeller,

any pitch, wt., lbs., Our 8 - foot Propeller,

any pitch, wt., 11 lbs.,

$30.00 40.00 50.00

Sparling-McClintock Co.

GRAFTON, ILLINOIS

CHURCH

Aeroplane Co.

BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Working Models Flying Models Separate Parts

MODELS BUILT TO ORDER

From Working Drawings, Etc.

SUPPLIES FOR MODEL BUILDERS:

Aluminum, Rattan* , Bamboo, White-Wood, Etc.

Special Notice!

WE have received so many inquiries for agency propositions and orders are coming in so fast, that our mail has grown to such an extent, that we find ourselves unable to keep up with our correspondence, but will fill orders and answer all letters as quickly as possible until we have increased our facilities still further.

Price List of Models and Parts

is now ready, but it will be some little time before our

Supply Catalog for Full Size

Machines is ready for distribution as there are so many new things to list. In asking for catalog, please state which one you want.

church aeroplane co.

Main office and factory BROOKLYN N. Y.

Chicago office, 49 Wabash Ave., H. S. Renton, Manager.

WE MANUFACTURE THE LIGHTEST WEIGHT AND HIGHEST QUALITY ENGINES IN THE WORLD

Paragon

Propellers

w

All working parts of Krupp and other German Steels of highest tensile strength obtainable.

THE EMERSON ENGINE CO.

Virginia

E DON'T make anything else but we

DO MAKE PROPELLERS

We make them of the right shape and of the finest material, workmanship and finish—any size, any number of blades—greatest strength, least weight and highest beauty—edge grain exclusively. Each six inches of the blade is separately designed and calculated as to form and the most efficient gliding angle during flight.

The cut shows one of our .i-bladed style, 7-foot diam. x -i^-foot mean pitch; Washington spruce ; weight 7 lbs.. 10 oz. It deflects less than % inch under 800 lbs. at the hub with the blades supported outside of a 5-foot circle. Same in 2 blades weighs 5 lbs.

If you want the best let us estimate for you

American Propeller Company

616 G Street, Washington. D. C.

steel tubing

All diameters and gauges carried in stock

Also Nickel Steel Tubing tor Propeller Shafts

NEW YORK 130-132 Worth Street

PETER A. FRASSE & COMPANY^

PHILADELPHIA

408 Commerce Street

Importers of Piano Wire, specially up-set for use in Aeroplanes

BUFFALO 50-52 Exchange Street

MOTORS TESTED

Dynamometer tests of aeronautic motors made for inventors, manufacturers and experimenters.

Any size—Any speed Reliable, conclusive and confidential reports.

JOSEPH TRACY

Consulting Engineer 116 West 39th St. :: :: :: New York

g. l. bumbaugii

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

DESIGNER - CONTRACTOR - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR-AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 49 hours and 25 min., the ENDURANCE RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

No connection with any other concern.

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of America

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLD

Rubber Fabrics for

Balloons,

Aeroplanes

and

Airships

Models Developed

1

Contractor to the United States Government

AND

Ninety-five per cent, of the Clubs in this country

Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane

American Representative

Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Builders of Paris, France

The Wilcox Propeller

Address : Box 181

Madison Square

AERONAT^CS^jj^^

June, igio

Do You Want Your Aeroplane to Fly?

HOW many have tried and failed ? How many of our best aviators are satisfied with their engines? Why do they misfire and behave badly at critical times? One reason is because they do not scavenge properly—neither the 2 or 4-cycle types.

Have your aeroplane equipped with an

INMAN SCAVENGING

2-Cycle, 3 or more

CYLINDERS

Wastes no charge at any speed. Cleans out cylinders and pumps in clean charge of full volume every stroke. Means double power per cylinder of 4-cycle type. No baffle plate used. One valve only exposed to fire. Moderate weight with fair factor of safety. One lever controls everything from start to stop and intermediate speeds.

Aeroplanes and propellers built to order. Pattern making our regular business.

Let us build your aeroplane complete from your plans or ours.

Trenton Pattern Works, Trenton, N.J.

| BEATS THE DEUCE |

x how some fellows will hang around all day *

j and fake aeronautics, yet utterly fail to ap- ^

+ predate a good thing when it's poked di- *

? rectly under their noses. Seems to indicate 4.

* such aviators not only get the feathers "f

* but the avise's brains chucked in to boot ? 44. ^ Why—steel whizzers could be built af- 4. j£ ter the above pattern to cross the Atlantic ^

* in two days — circle the earth in ten; would- * 4> n't upset in a hurricane and with a power- 4. j|j ful engine carry enough ammunition to sink

+ the finest battleship afloat. *

4. ^Construct a small model and try it, or apply 4.

* to JOS. E. BISSELL, pittsburg, pa. *

nhinution Parachute. Helicopter, Gyros and FLYwheet.

4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.

I NAIAD Aeronautical Cloth

4« 4>

4, Manufactured Especially for Aeroplanes j

j Light, Strong | *--I Air-Tight and

4. ---- —o— ---- 5

t Moisture Proof |

*-- 4.

± *

% %

4. Samples, Data and Prices on Request 4.

T *

* *

t The C. E. Conover Co. |

4* 4*

% 101 Franklin St., New York }

+4^+*M*4,+,W*++4,+4,++4,+++4,4,4,+,W*4,4+

4.4.4.4^4.4444.4.4.4.4^^4.4.4.4.4,4.4,4,4,4.4^1^,4,

aeronautical supplies

AT MONEY SAVING PRICES

Elbridge Special Feather-weight, 2-Cycle Aero Motors (water cooled):

3 Cylinder, 30-45 H. P., 138 1-2 lbs. . $750.00

4 Cylinder, 40-60 H. P., 1 78 lbs. . . . 1050.00

Cylinders 4 5-8 x 4 1-2, copper jackets, aluminum bases, hollow crank shaft.

4 Cylinder. 20-24 H. P.. 150 lbs. (air cooled) 610.00 Cylinders 3 1-2x3 1-2, flanges I 5-8 in. deep.

20 x 2 Aeroplane Wheels with tires built with steel

rims and special hub. very strong, price, . . 9.50

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hubs turned from solid bar of

steel, drilled 36 holes, well nickeled, .... 4.00

E. J. W. Aeroplane Hub Brakes, enables aviator to stop his plane before or after alighting on ground, length 8 ins., outside cones 5 3-4 ins., bored

36 holes............ 10.50

Requa-Gibson Propellers, laminated wood, perfect screw:

6 ft., 6 I -2 lbs........... 50.00

7 ft., 9 lbs............ 60.00

8 ft., 12 lbs............ 70.00

The 6 ft. propeller gives 200 lbs. thrust at

1200 R. P.M.

Model Propellers, laminated wood, 10 in. to 1 5 in.

perfect screw...... ...... 5.00

Galvanized Steel Cable for "Guying":

1-32 in., 200 breaking strength, price per ft. .03

1-16 in., 500 breaking strength, price per ft. .03V2

3-32 in., 800 breaking strength, price per ft. .04

1-8 in., 2300 breaking strength, price per ft. .06

Rubber Bands for models,^1-8 in. square, perjft. . j. 10 Complete catalogue of supplies, motors, gliders and light metal castings mailed free, upon request

E. J. WILLIS CO., Dept. "F"

8 Park Place - - NEW YORK

AERONAUTICS June, igio

BALDWIN'S

Vul canized Proof Material

f^Bw \rVINS jfiSBt

LAHM BALLOON CUP—697 Miles

Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE—

35 Hrs., 1 2 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York"

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualitie and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished materia The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOl MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

Prices and samples on application

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin

Box 78, Madison Square NEW YORK

Wittemann Glider In Flight

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS - CONSTRUCTORS - DEVELOPERS OF

Aeroplanes, Gliding Machines, Models, Separate Parts

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING Experiments Conducted Large grounds for testing

GLIDERS IN STOCK works:

17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, New York

Telephone, 390-L West Brighton

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦

LAMINATED TRUE SCREW

PROPELLERS

In Stock For Immediate Shipment

OUR 6-ft. Propeller delivers 200 lbs. ^ thrust at 1200 R. P. M. C Do you want to get the best results ? If so get a ' Brauner Propeller."

C. Our Propeller has proven more than satisfactory to those using: it ::: :::

li-ft., Gi lbs. 7-ft., Sh " 8-ft., 11 "

$40.00 50.00 (30.00

p. brauner & co.

335-339 EAST 102nd STREET

Phone, 2189 Lenox ::: NEW YORK

the

warner

AERO-METER

the first aeroplane accessory

Tells the aeroplanist just the force of the wind pressure against his planes, enabling him to guard against accident through diminished air resistance.

Built on the errorless magnetic principle which has made the Auto-Meter the standard Auto-speed indicator.

It looks unlike the Auto-Meter but has the same honest ' 'insides" and consequent capacity for ' 'delivering the goods.''

warner instrument co.

2 WHEELER AVENUE

BELOIT, WISCONSIN

SELLING BRANCHES

CHICAGO DETROIT DENVER NEW YORK

CLEVELAND LOS ANGELES BUFFALO BOSTON

CINCINNATI PITTSBURG ATLANTA ST. LOUIS

SAN FRANCISCO INDIANAPOLIS PHILADELPHIA SEATTLE

MODEL M

auto-meter

% We Name

I W. otarlmg Burgess to., Ltd. |

-MARBLEHEAD, MASS.,- %

+ *

t means *

4* 4*

I Good Workmanship I

4. 4.

*-- *

* -._ *

OUR AEROPLANES !

Ask the Man Who SAW One

stand on skids, run on skids,

get into the air on skids, i

alight on skids, and are *

...safe... I

i t

I on skids %

* CL They are made by crafts- | I men, trained to careful work |

* for many years on racing boats f I Our men know why and how |

+

%

E»4m|^4^444'»*»***^**»»**»»^

IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT

OUR true pitch, laminated ash and mahogany propellers combine all the most valued and proven features of foreign and home practice.

TTHEY are built in large quantities on the inter" changeable plan.

WE specialize. You get the benefit of our experience.

YOU know the value of buying a stock article, one which is past the experimental stage.

WRITE FOR CATALOG

TERRITORY OPEN FOR AGENTS.

6 ft. dia. for 20-30 H. P. $50.00 at our Works

(Thrust 200 lbs. @ 1,200 R. P. M.)

7 ft. dia. for 25-40 H. P. $60.00 at our Works

(Thrust 250 lbs. @ 1,200 R. P. M.)

8 ft. dia. for 30-60 H. P. $70.00 at our Works

(Thrust 300 lbs. (a, 1,200 R. P. M.)

Larger sizes to order

Small propellers for Models 10-16" dia., $5.00 Mail or telegraph 10. of amount and we will ship C.O.D. for balance, plus cratage.

When ordering state therdirection of rotation of propeller when you stand facing the breeze made by the propeller, clockwise or anticlockwise?

If uncertain as to the size you require, state the horsepower of your engine and its speed.

The Requa-Gibson Co.

225 West 49th Street

NEW YORK, N. Y. Phone 7200 Col. 50th Street Subway Sta.

AERONAUTICS

4* I* ^ ^ *h "H" 'I1 "l1 ■!■ "J« •J>«J« ■£■>!• "H" • Ji

+

4*

Call Aviation Engine

THE

MAGNALIUM

ENGINE

Aviators, Attention!

A Timely Word About Motors

^^T" What you want is A Real Aeronautic Motor, light and yet strong, simple, ^fl I and above all reliable. A motor, moreover, that the average mechanic ^Bl can understand and operate.

^^^^ What you do not want is a combination motor cycle, or modified automobile, engine. Lightness in these is secured only by the sacrifice of strength and efficiency; yet either type is unduly heavy. We have tried both and we know. Before you invest, it will be worth your while to write us, and hear what we have to say.

At an expense of several years experimenting, and many thousands of dollars outlay, we have at last perfected a high grade, water cooled, four cycle, gasoline engine for aeronautic work.

By special method of construction, upon which we are securing patents, these motors are much stronger than the ordinary makes, and

at the same time very much lighter.

The 45 horsepower engine weighs 3 pounds per horsepower,

and the 90 horsepower only 2 i pounds per horsepower: —about one-half the weight per horsepower of any other adequately water cooled engine. The weight as also the quality of each engine is guaranteed. These motors are not of freakish construction, either in the number of cylinders, or in any other respect. They are of the regular opposed type, similar to the famous Darracq aeronautic engine with which Santos Dumont's machines are equipped, conceded by gas engineers to be the smoothest running, and nearest vibrationless type.

A scarcely less important feature is the fact that our motors are silenced (not muffled), which feature is secured without loss of power. They are in fact, the only silent motors yet devised for aeronautic work. The importance of this feature can not be overestimated; and in connection with their strength, lightness, and reliability, places these motors in a class by themselves.

MODEL E-l: Two Cylinder, 45 Horsepower; Weight, 135 pounds. Price, $700.

MODEL E-2: Four Cylinder, 90-Horsepower; Weight, 225 pounds. Price, $1,200.

EXTRA—Bosch Magnetic Ignition: Model E-l, $50; Model E-2, $100.

TERMS: 40 per cent, cash, with order. Balance Sight Draft against Bill of Lading.

Write to us and let us send you Illustrations and description of these Wonderful Motors.

P. S.—Send for particulars and price of our REVERSIBLE AERIAL PROPELLER. Something entirely new and absolutely indispensable.

* THE ATRIAL NAVIGATION COMPANY OF AMERICA, Girard, Kansas

adaptable also for use in the driving of

Dirigible Balloons and High Speed Motor Boats

+

! AEROPLANE ENGINES !

+

+ +

+ +

+ +

CTHE DELIGHTS of Cross-Country Planing are fully experienced when the Aeroplane is fitted with one of OUR ENGINES, as the aviator is relieved of any or all apprehension as regards this power plant.

TYPE B-3

(iO H.P., Eight Cylinders, mounted "V* shape with a 90° relation to each other. Weight, 27S lbs. complete.

TYPE B-4

30 H.P., Four C y 1 i adcrs, mounted vertically on a common crank case.

Weight, 130 lbs. complete.

COur motors express the ultimate achievement in engine construction, fulfilling a degree of perfection which leaves nothing to be added or desired in the way of improvement, and the construction is so thorough and sincere throughout that the reliability, which aviators demand, is guaranteed as far as is humanly possible. :: :: :: ::

Favored exclusively by the experimenter in the science of flight, as it insures to him the maximum of safety

American Builders of the STANDARD VOISIN TYPE AEROPLANE

"THE ARISTOCRAT OF FLYING MACHINES" The only type machine not infringing the Wrights' Patents

Easton Cordage Company, easton, pa.

Catalogue C will be sent upon request

We Build Balloons That Win

have won every contest entered against all makes

CHICAGO CONTEST — Balloon "Fielding-San Antonio" — 9 competitors Distance and endurance trophies, also water record of the world—350 miles one trip INDIANAPOLIS CONTEST — Balloon "University City" — 6 competitors PEORIA CONTEST — Balloon "Peoria" — 3 competitors ST. LOUIS CENTENNIAL CONTEST — Balloon "St. Louis III" first, and Balloon "Centennial" officially second for distance and endurance, 47 hrs., 41 min.—8 competitors Balloon "St. Louis III"—speed record of America — Lambert, pilot; Von Phul, aide JUST THINK OF IT, EVERY CONTEST IN THE LAST TWO YEARS.

Aero Club Grounds, Centennial Contest, St. Louis, Mo.

1$ The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops— a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL, Builder

<I The greatest balloon trip of 1908 and 1909—850 miles in competition— made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL, Builder and Pilot

AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS

IN STOCK AND MADE TO ORDER

€J HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials —varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable. . ......

french—american balloon co.

H. E. IIONEYWEIX, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U.. S. A.


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