Aeronautics

Volume 6 - No. 3 - 1910 March

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

VOL. 6 NO. 3.

MARCH, 1910

25 CTS.

Facts About "Elbridge" Engine*

More actual power for weight than any other other engines in the world! Only engines with unlimited guarantee based on actual performance!

Less bulk for the power than any other engines in the world!

Fewer parts (Working or otherwise) than any other engine in the world!

Guaranteed speed range 200 r. p. m. to 2200 r. p. m.

Extra large bearing: —more than 15 in. i 4 cylinder engines

A refinement of deta only possible in a ligr weight engine tha has actually been o the market more tha four years.

ELBRIDGE "FEATHERWEIGHT"

Elbridge rating, 40 h. p. A. L. A. M. rating 60 h. p. Weight 167 lbs. Also made in 2 cyl. 20 h. p.; 3 cyl. 30 h. p.; 6 cyl. 60 h. p. Air-cooled engines, I to 4 cyl. 5-20 h. p. at 1,000.

Particulars and prices on request

ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY

10 Culver Road :: :: :: :: :: :: Rochester, N. \

The HeM of the Aer6plane

is the magneto. A reliable, powerful, light-weight magneto is as eagejFly sought for by experienced aviators as a reliable .^powerful,

light-weight motor. The

p

EISEMANN MAGNETO

is made especially for aeronautic use.jf Many parts of this magneto are constructed of aluminum. For four-cylinder engines the heaviest weighs 16j| pounds and the lightest It pounds. Several different styles in stock ready for* delivery. Use an EISEMANN MAGNETO on your aeroplane or dirigible and you; carry with you a Policy of Ignition Insurance.

I

Ask us' to tell you more about the EISEMANN — the magneto with "the spark that neper fails." Write us TO-DAY—for safety's sake.

Eisemann Magneto Co.

225-227 W. 57th St. New York

IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT 6 Ft. $50 7 Ft. $60 8 Ft. $70 Weight 6$ lbs. Weight 9 lbs. Weight 12 lbs.

ANY SIZE TO ORDER

Our 6 Ft. Propeller gives 200 lbs. Thrust at 1 200 r. p. m.

Small ones for models $5 to $7

Requa Gibson Co.

Phone 7200 Columbus

225 W. 49th Street, New York City

BUILT LIKE A WATCH-FLIES LIKE A GULL

GREENE Bi-plane worlds record

for leaving the ground from standing start—30 foot run.

GREENE Bi-plane stevens cup

for carrying passengers.

GREENE Bi-plane is the most stable, easiest

to drive and hardest to damage.

GREENE Propeller guarantees a flight if fitted

to your motor and aeroplane. Let us fit one for you, if you want to fly

"NILMELIOR" MAGNETOS \ WIDE HUB BICYCLE WHEELS

1-32" diam., Strain 290 lbs 1-16" diam., Strain 629 lbs,

Call or Write for Particulars

THE GREENE COMPANY :: Room 448, 1779 Broadway, New York

Pacific Coast Agents, AUCHINVOLE, BOTTS & CROSBY, Rooms 510-511,149 California St., San Francisco

$3,500 F. O. B., NEW YORK NO INFRINGEMENTS

AERONAUTIC MOTORS \ "NAIAD" AERONAUTIC CLOTH GREENE'S GALVANIZED WIRE CABLE. Sizes-

POWER TO FLY

Four Cycle Water Cooled Aviation Engines

FOUR LBS. PER H. P. FIFTY H. P. AND THIRTY H. P.

1910 Models = Deliverable = January 1

PRICE

50 H.P. $830.00 30 H. P. $650.00

Propellers in Stock == or == Built to Order

Harriman Motor Works, Incorporated

NEW YORK OFFICE, 1777 BROADWAY FACTORY, SOUTH GLASTONBURY, CONNECTICUT

AERONAUTICS

Wittemann Glider In Flight

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS - CONSTRUCTORS - DEVELOPERS OF

Aeroplanes, Gliding Machines, Models, Separate Parts

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experiments Conducted Large grounds for testing

GLIDERS IN STOCK works:

17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, New York

Telephone, 390-L West Brighton

March, rpro

BOSCH

Magnetos

Supreme at Rheims and Brescia

At the greal avialion meets at Rheims and Brescia Bosch Magnetos were supreme. The four great prizes at Rheims and six of the nine prizes at Brescia were won by Bosch equipped aeroplanes.

700 Bosch Magnetos for 1910 Aeroplanes

There are already contracts for more than 700 Bosch Magnetos for use on 1910 aeroplanes.

"The Bosch News", treats of Bosch Equipped aeroplanes and flying machines. A copy will be sent free

upon request.

Bosch Magneto Company

Chicago Branch:

San Francisco Branch:

223-225 W. 46th St. NEW YORK

1253 Michigan Avenue - 357 Van Ness Avenue

""JpHE recent prizes for aeroplane contests offered by several prominent papers recall that the FIRST AVIATION TROPHY offered in America was given more than TWO YEARS ago by the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

which is the only weekly publication that treats fully the new science of mechanical flight—j-a setence which it has helped develop and promulgate rrom its very beginning.

AcrOIliJlltiC Having devoted especial attention to aeronautic patents, we are exceptionally well ■p j. ^ equipped to advise and assist inventors,

r *1 I C D I » <]| Valuable information sent free on request.

MUNN a CO., Inc., 365 Broadway, New York.

Scientific American Trophy, 1907

What Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?

Let us answer"— 1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor

Curtiss Motors

HAVE THESE QUALITIES

The Kind You Do NOT Want—

1st, A motor of "freak" construction. 2nd, A motor of extremely light construction. 3rd, A motor of unproven merit.

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES.

Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catalogue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD

HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, New York

EDWIN LEVICK

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

Photographers

Telephone 108 FULTON STREET Cable

100 John NEW YORK Photonews, N.Y.

Photographs of Practically every Aeroplane and Airship in the World Lantern Slides and Enlargements our Specialty

Write for Catalogue

Agents Throughout Europe

L. B. RE HAIR JED.

EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOT< REMODELING arid OVERHA1 MOTORS, MAKING SPECJAtTPARTS FOR EXPEWIMENTAL-^WORK ON

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-y\ERO PLANES, GLIDERS, ^MODELS, PROPELLERS

Designed and huilt, or made to your own design ~~~

Gliders, Parts and Aeronautic Supplies in Stock

AERO MOTORS - MOTOR EXCHANGE

FRED SHNEIDER l\)20 E. 178th St., New York

New YorV Agent for ELBR1DGE ENGINE COMPANY

BAMBOO

Specially Selected for Aeroplanes

ALL SIZES IN STOCK J. DELTOUR, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York

TELEPHONE 5565 SPRING

MAGNETOS, SPARK /PLUGS, BATTERIES/

All Supplies ,and Equipments for Gasoline Motors^,^

L. G. DUQUET^

107 WEST 36th ST., / NEW YORK

Write to-day

^-7 \ for a sample copy of the American Chauffeur & Motor Car

Send 10c. in stamps to THE AMERICAN CHAUFFEUR & MOTOR CAR 1931 Broadway, New York

aeroplanes and gliders

DESIGNED — CONSTRUCTED —OPERATED FOR SALE AND BUILT TO ORDER

Aeronautic Supplies and Apparatus

Western Agent "AERONAUTICS"

C. T. SHAFFER

302 HOLYOKE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO

the

WARNER

AERO-METER

THE FIRST AEROPLANE ACCESSORY

Tells the aeroplanist just the force of the wind pressure against his planes, enabling him to guard against accident through diminished air resistance.

Built on the errorless magnetic principle which has made the Auto-Meter the standard Auto-speed indicator.

It looks unlike the Auto-Meter but has the same honest ' Mnsides*' and consequent capacity for ' 'delivering the goods.''

WARNER INSTRUMENT CO.

2 WHEELER AVENUE

BELOIT, WISCONSIN

SELLING BRANCHES

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CLEVELAND LOS ANGELES BUFFALO BOSTON

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SAN FRANCISCO INDIANAPOLIS PHILADELPHIA SEATTLE

MODEL M

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Do You Want an Aeroplane?

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:: Do you already own One ? ::

In any case our Illustrated Catalogue of Supplies for Aviator and Builder should be in your hands. It lists and illustrates material with which any type of plane can be constructed at moderate cost.

The Builder, or Inventor, wlio lincls it difficult ^-L, to secure suitable Motors. Propellers, Hollow Shafting:. Tires. Wire Wheels, Aeroplane and Balloon Cloth, Turnbuckles, Eyelets. Varnishes. B.imboo Aeroplane Poles, Birch, Spruce and Hickory Form or any supplies and parts specially / made for Air Craft, will find our low prices / and comprehensive stock a great aid

The owner of an Aeroplane, Dirigible, or Spherical Balloon will find in our Catalogue useful / accessories and materials for repairs. /

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This is a new departure in the newest industry. Ours is the Aeronautic Supply Catalogti published in the Western Hemisphere. The company is the first in this half of the World devoted exclusively to all that concerns air travel. Every present and propective air pilot should become acquainted with us now. We will be found fairly altruistic ready to /Our Catalogue help and serve all who are truly interested. for this Coupon

Because of its value as a guide and also to discourage the merely curious our catalogue will not be given away. The price is 10 cents the copy. To readers 0f Name

AERONAUTICS, however, we make a special offer. Fill out coupon below mail to us and our catalogue, will be sent yon free.

The Aeronautic Supply Co.

3923 OLIVE STREET ST. LOUIS, U. S. A.

/ Address.........................

y-'' Tear off and Mail now to

THE AERONAUTIC SUPPLY CO.

3n.'3 Olive St.. S.iint Louis, U. S. A.

AERONAUTICS

THE CENTRE OF PRESSURE ON ARCHED SURFACES

By Matthew B. Sellers.

READ BEFORE THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.

THESE experiments to determine the cen tre of pressure on some arched surfaces when exposed at various angles to a current of air were made in November, 1906, with the Wind Tunnel, described in Scientific American Supp., Nov. 14, 1908, but have not heretofore been made public.

At first, a device similar to that employed by Prof. Langley was tried; but it was impossible to get correct readings, owing to

cT - S A. Jb <

A

the desired pin; and this support can be tipped in a vertical plane, and has a graduated arc which shows the amount of inclination.

The shape is held balanced by adjustable springs in a position in agreement with the • zero of the arc; and its departure from this position is restrained by the springs, and limited by suitable stops.

A pointer affixed to the support shows when the shape is in this position.

Centre of Pressure Balance

oscillation or flouncing of the surfaces tested, and the proximity of even a slender rod used in an attempt to steady them vitiated the results. I therefore made the device shown in Fig. 1, which may be briefly described as follows :

Attached to the surface to be tested, which I shall call a shape, is a bar extending centrally fore and aft. On this are pins suitably located, for pivoting the shape. A support carries bearings, which may be sprung over

Tn making a test, the shape is pivoted on the desired pin; and, after turning the support to approximately the proper angle (found by previous trial), the springs are adjusted in still air, so as to balance the shape and bring the pointer to zero. Then the air current is started, and readings taken (with tunnel window closed), till the pointer shows no deviation; and the degree of inclination read off from the graduated arc.

The shapes, shown in Fig. 2, are 6 in. by 12 in. Two have the curvature of a circular arc, with depth respectively of Yz in. and )/\ in. (= I in 12 and I in 24). The one marked (1/3) is curved for the front third, and flat for the rest of its width having a curvature of 1 in 12. The one marked "P" is the half vertex of a parabola also 1 in 12. In this figure (Fig. 2) the pins used are shown by dots; and, below each pin is shown the degree of inclination required to bring the centre of pressure to that point. The distance in inches from the front of the shape is laid off above it. The changes in position of the centre of pressure are graphically shown in Fig. 3, where the line AX represents the length of the shape, and the abscissas of the curves show the distances in per cent, from the front of the shape; the ordinates show the corresponding degree of inclination. Table 4 gives these data. It is seen that, in these curves the centre of pressure corresponding to Zero inclination is about two-thirds of the width of the shape from the front; and that it moves forward with an increase of inclination, till it reaches a point one-third from the front, and an angle of from 16 to 20 deg., where it begins to move slowly backward and is near the centre at 45 deg. This movement of the centre of pressure, is least in the parabolic curve, and greatest in the circular arc. If we decrease the depth of curvature the centre of pressure for all angles moves forward; and the angle at which reversal takes place is

also lessened. It has been found that changing the relative dimensions of a shape, changes the relation of inclination to centre of pressure.

It has been stated repeatedly that, for the same angle, the c. of p. moves forward with an increase of air velocity; this may be so; but I have had no positive proof of it, and see no reason why it should be so. I have intended to continue these experiments with other shapes, and varying air velocity; but other more urgent work has prevented my doing so. The air velocity used was 1,400 ft. per minute.

FIG. 4.

CENTRE OF PRESSURE.

Distance

from front

edge.

Nearest

per cent.

An gle:

5 C

c

(%)

P

 

1 in 12 1

in 24

1 in 12

1 in 12

0

75

67

67

59

I

68

62

62

55

2

63

53

57

5i

.3

60

54

52

49

4

57

50

48

47

S

54

46

46

46

6

Si

42

44

44

7

49

40

43

43

8

47

39

42

42

9

46

33

41

41

10

44

37

40

40

15

39

35

36

35

20

33

38

36

33

25

42

42

37

36

30

45

45

41

40

40

46

46

45

44

MODEL FLYING THE NEW SPORT

West Side Y. M. C. A. Continues Flights.

Xew York, Feb. 14.—The West Side Y. M. C. A. is continuing its aero courses and model competitions with increasing success. ^Nearly every Saturday a hundred to a hundred and fifty gather at the Armory at Broadway and 68th Street to fly their models.

On Jan. 8th was started the contest for the "Automobilia" cup. Dr. Dederer won all three legs, getting the cup. His longest flight was 189 ft. 8 in. on Jan. 22. He won the contest of the following week as well.

SIDNEY BOWMAN OFFERS CUP.

On February 1st Sidney B. Bowman, American agent for Santos-Dumont aeroplanes and J Clement-Bayard airships, offered a cup of the value of $100 for the best constructed model made during iqio, which must win one of the Y. M. C. A. contests in order to be eligible. The Leo Stevens cup is another of $100 value, making two now under control of the association. From time to time smaller cups will be offered.

The next contest was on February 5th when \Y. Morrill Sage won with a Wright model, 107 ft. 9 in. No more contests will be held until March 5th, as many of the models will be shown in the meantime at the Newark and Boston shows.

NEW CLASS STARTED.

A men's class has just started, under the direction of Mr. Kimball, and is very successful. One of the enrollments comes from Mexico. Last week was started a boys' class in model making.

Chanute Challenge Cup for Models

Rules are being sent out by the Aeronautic Society for an international model competition for the Octave Chanute Cup. Three teams from any club can compete or individuals may get together and form teams. This cup will be for perpetual competition. The society will hold elimination trials at the 69th Regiment Armory on March 3 in order to determine its three teams to defend the cup. For particulars address the secretary, 1999 Broadway, New York.

THE midwinter international aero meet occurring in Los Angeles, Cal., Jan. 10 to 20, 1910, was sanctioned by the Aero Club of America and was held under the auspices of the Aero Club of California.

This great undertaking was financed by prominent citizens of Los Angeles, under the

leadership of the Merchants and Manufacturers Association. A committee, appointed by .this organization, managed the whole undertaking, while a committee of Judges appointed by the Aero Club of California took charge of the contests and scientific features of the meet. From a financial and sporting standpoint, it was a great success, and it demonstrated the adaptability of Los Angeles and vicinity to midwinter ballooning and aeroplan-ing.

Eighteen balloon ascensions were made, which was a remarkable thing in itself, but owing to the newness of the aeroplanes and the intense interest in the latter, the balloons did not attract the attention that they deserved. Furthermore, the balloon grounds were not located at Dominguez Junction, where the aeroplane flights took place; and this, added to the fact that the balloon flights took place in the morning, divided the interest.

On some days the attendance reached as high as 40,000 to 50,000 persons, and on no day did the attendance fall as low as 20,000. The track was located on a field near Domin-

guez Junction. It was 1.61 miles in circumference and somwhat elliptical in shape. The grandstand was situated on one side of the ellipse, facing- a broad valley toward the cit> of Los Angeles. This grandstand had a seating capacity of 20,000 persons. Here, on historic ground, world's records were broken, and ci oss-country flights were undertaken that demonstrated beyond the question of a doubt the practicability of the aeroplane.

Cortlandt Field Bishop, the president of the Aero Club of America, came from New York to observe the flights, on the part of the parent club. His presence contributed largeh tn the sporting success of the meet, and his friendly attitude and quick perception of the conditions and present difficulties of the situation made a strong and favorable impression.

The star of the meet was Louis Paulhan, with his Farman machine. His unbounded confidence in the flying qualities of his machine was shown in every move and act. He displayed no nervousness at any time, and was ready to fly even in gusty weather. The ease with which he rode the white winged monster conveyed an idea of power, and the

confidence with which he undertook crosscountry flights gave an impression of stab and practicability that no other performanc could give.

Skeptical men came and were convinced. Paulhan's flight into the upper air 4.165 ft. above the aviation field was not only spectacu

THE LOS ANGELES AERO MEET

By Professor H. La V. Twining.

PRESIDENT AERO CLUB OF CALIFORNIA.

lar, but it was also a practical demonstration of the fact that the aeroplane is no toy. It had an air of success, of solidity and certainty that impressed all beholders.

Less spectacular but no less practical, were the flights of Curtiss on his speedy flyer. The case with which his machine left the ground, its speed in the air and the grace with which it took the turns added to the general impression of success, to the certainty that the flyinr machine had come, that the dream of ages had been realized.

The work of Hamilton and Willard added to the general impression of certainty and success. With less powerful motors these two operators of Curtiss machines demonstrated what could be done with small surface and small power. Using only 25 h. p. instead of 50 to 60 and having a surface much smaller than the Farman, they were able to fly with certainty and ease. Willard left the ground in a 20-ft. square after a short run, and after making the circuit of the field, alighted in the same square, making a remarkable exhibition of skill.

Hamilton made a cross-country flight to Gardena and return, after having risen 755 ft. into the air, being in the air 25 minutes and 30 seconds.

At San Diego, on January 25, Hamilton

made a cross-country flight of greater extent. The president of the Aero Club of California was designated by Cortlandt Field Bishop to officially observe the flights of Mr. Hamilton. He had the 8-cylinder machine used by Curtiss at Los Angeles and intended to try for the world's record in height, but owing to the weather he did not make the attemrv On Monday, Jan 24, however, everything having been previously arranged, he made a cross-country flight into Mexico. At 4:45 in the afternoon he left the ground in a 10 to 15-mile wind and headed south along the beach on Coronado Island. He crossed the channel to the mainland, and proceeded along the beach to Point of Rocks, crossed the line into Mexico. Automobiles were stationed along the route, and they followed and observed his flight. After crossing the line, he turned out to sea and, facing north, he came back by the same route, being in the air just 40 minutes, and covering a distance of about 36 miles.

The local inventors were on hand with a half dozen machines, but none of them succeeded in flying, owing to lack of powerful enough motors.

Some half a dozen other machines were ready, but for the same reasons they did not enter.

FOUR NEW WORLD RECORDS — PAULHAN DOUBLES OLD HEIGHT FIGURE — CROSS COUNTRY RECORD NEARLY BEATEN

By Cleve T. Shaffer.

SUCCESS, from an exhibition standpoint, can be written for the Los Angeles "meet," Jan. 10-20. From the standpoint of a series of competitions like Rheims, it was a failure. Only three types of aeroplanes flew, the Farman, Bleriot and Curtiss; the dirigibles came out every day, but aroused little interest ; and the balloon prizes were called off, owing to lack of entries and interest. The balloons made short ascents over the city.

Sanction was given by the Aero Club of America through the Aero Club of California. Credit for the conception of the show must be given to W. H. Leonard, the sporting editor of the Los Angeles Times; Prof. H. La V. Twining, president of the Aero Club of California; "Dick" Ferris, who acted as man ager, and George B. Harrison, formerly of the Los Angeles Herald.

Three tents housed all the machines. The Frenchmen were in one, the local machines in the second and the Curtiss crowd in the other. Back of the grand stand is a deep gulley, in which the dirigible tents were located. The grounds are on a side hill, slop-

ing two ways of the field, with a difference of 00 ft. in elevation, end to end.

The aviators were guaranteed certain sums for their flights, and they signed releases for any prizes which they might "win" over and above the amount of the guarantees. This ■was the same arrangement as was made at Brescia.

The government dirigible, although present, did not take part. It sustained some accident in shipment and trouble was had in making the gas.

Weather conditions were good most of the "week." Paulhan had two Farmans and two Bleriots; Curtiss brought the 8-cyIinder Rheims and two regular types, one for Clifford B Harmon and one for Frank Johnson, the California agent for Curtiss machines; Charles K. Hamilton had a Curtiss and Charles F. Willard had the Aeronautic Society's machine, the first one built by Curtiss; Hill Beachy brought the Gill-Dosch machine of Baltimore, an exact copy of the Curtiss, but with an American-British automobile motor of 180 pounds weight for 26 horsepower.

(Continued on page 104)

AERONAUTICS March, ipw

THE PFITZNER MONOPLANE

IN THE February number we printed the first photographs of the monoplane designed and built by V L. Pfitzner at the Curtiss factory at Hammondsport. In this issue is found a full set of plans and specifications, with a detailed description.

Three short flights of 300 ft. to 400 ft. were made but the machine was damaged each time on the rough ground. Mr. Pfitzner is now waiting for Lake Keuka to freeze over so he can make his experiments on the ice.

Main Supporting Surface.—Each wing is made in three sections, each 5 ft. long. These are attached and connected by sheet steel sockets and steel cable, the cables forming a symmetrical double King truss with the beams, with King posts at the junction of the detachable sections. The cables fasten to drill rod hooks, which are designed for quick replacement and adjustment. Bicycle spoke nipples and eyes are used for tightening the cables. The two wings are set at a dihedral angle of 5 deg. They are formed by two beams, the front beam serving as cutting edge, while the rear beam is 10 in. from the cable rear edge of the surface. These beams carry ribs of the same shape as those in the middle main section, the ribs between the King posts being trussed by an inverted rib and drill rod ties. All sockets are made of tempered sheet steel. The surface is single with the framework exposed, and all on the under side and is made of Captain T. S. Baldwin's vulcanized Japanese silk proof material produced by an improved process jet black, according to the wishes of the designer, by the Hodgman Rubber Company, of Tuckahoe, N. Y.

The material is stretched over the ribs by lacing to the ribs at the junction of each of the seven sections, and is held to the ribs by featherbone and tacks.

The main surface discontinues 30 in. from the end of each wing, this space being left open between the front and rear beam to accommodate the "equalizer."

Between the front main posts, 46 in. from the ground, is the main lateral beam, i. e., the cutting edge of the surface. The rear edge of the surface is 10% in. lower between the rear main posts and is steel cable. The curvature of the surface is of the high speed flat type, the center of pressure being 18 in. from the cutting edge and the highest part of the surface only \y2 in. above the cutting edge. The ribs have 334 in. camber in 6 ft. length. The angle of incidence is 8 deg.

The rear lateral beam is 10 in. from the rear edge, under the surface, resting in sheet steel sockets under the heavy main ribs, which connect the main posts near at their center. The top of these posts is connected in the fore and aft direction by seamless steel tubes, which also furnish support for two torpedo shaped gasoline tanks, their form being de-

signed to give the least amount of skin friction.

The "Equalizers."—The equalizers, 30 in. wide by 5 ft. deep, are of the same curvature as the main surface, formed by three ribs which end against a beam both in front and rear, held together by sheet steel sockets. These surfaces, covered on top and bottom, are supported by eye-members of the end sockets by tool steel tube rails on the inside and in line with the beams, the rails extending the whole length of the last section, i. e., 5 ft., both under the main surface and through the left open space of 30 in., giving 30 in. travel to the 30-in. wide equalizers. The neutral position of these equalizers is 15 in. beyond the main surface and 15 in. from the end of the machine. On the inside the equalizers are connected by cable, to make one follow the other, while on the outside at the middle towards the extremities of the machine the opposite ends of a long cable are attached to each equalizer, same cable guided by several pulleys is wound around the control wheel in such a way that in turning the wheel to the right the left equalizer is pulled out from its neutral position towards the end of the machine, increasing the surface on that side of the machine and so lifting said ends while the right equalizer is compelled by the interconnecting inside wire to follow the other equalizer and so is pidled from its neutral position toward the center and nuder the main surface decreasing the lifting area on that end of the machine and so permitting the machine to sink at that end, and vice versa. The area of each equalizer being 12M2 sq. ft. the possible difference in the balance of the machine can be 50 pounds at 40 miles per hour, at which speed the surface is figured to lift 4 pounds per sq. ft.

Rudders.—At the middle of the front and rear main posts are brackets to hold the elevator and stabilizer trnsswork, made in two sections of the same King truss design as the wings. Fourteen feet from the cutting edge of the main surface is the cutting edge of the elevator, which consists of a main beam, the ends of same acting- as trunnions in the bearing of the supporting truss. Upon this beam are the ribs, which in the front carry a light beam, to give a positive cutting edge, and are in the rear connected by steel cable, similar to the main surfaces, the ribs being sn divided by the beam in fore and aft direction that the elevator surface is balanced in itself The elevator carries on the right end a double lever, which is connected by adjustable cable* to the elevator levers of the controlling column.

At the middle of the elevator beam is a socket to carry the rudder pole around whic*] turns the balanced vertical rudder above the elevator, operated by cables, which come from

the rudder levers of the controlling column and wheel.

Ten feet from the rear edge of the main surface is the rear edge of the stabilizer, which is set at a predetermined angle of incidence and is rigidly held in the end bearings of the supporting truss, which is of similar design as the elevator supporting truss. The stabilizer is of the same design as the elevator with the exception that the cutting edge is steel cable instead of wood.

Controls.—So far, steering and stabilizing motions have been controlled by the combination of independent levers, wheel and shoulder braces, swaying of the aviator's body, wires attached to the coat or headgear of the aviator, pedals, etc. The Pfitzner movement unites these three motions in a natural way in the hands of the aviator by a wheel on a controlling column.

ends of which are connected by cables to the rudder. In order that the length of these cables should remain the same during the elevating motion, the controlling column bracket is arched permitting the ends of the steering lever to be in the center line of motion.

The raising and lowering respectively of the opposite lateral extremities of the machine is arrived at by turning the wheel, which stands vertical and in front of the aviator, to the side which should be lowered. This motion is quite natural and almost automatically performed by the aviator, as our senses of stability sideways are very keen.

To transmit the motion of the wheel to the equalizers, a cable is wound around the circumference of the grooved wheel, same cable lead by pulleys through the hollow shaft of the controlling column leaves the pulleys in

E LEVATOR le VSR

ELEVATOR

Pfitzner System of Control

Steering up and down is controlled by pulling the wheel towards the body of the aviator, or pushing it away from it, which is based on a natural tendency to lean back if it is desired to go up and lean forward when descending seems advisable. For this purpose the controlling column is supported by two trunnions which revolve in bearings, same being bolted to the seat beams. On the right hand side the trunnion is extended beyond the bearing and carries the elevator lever, i. e., the double lever which transmits by cables the motion of the controlling column to the elevator.

Steering to right and left is performed by pulling the side of the wheel towards which it is desired to turn to the body and pushing the other side out. This is the regular handlebar motion, by which all bicycles and motorcycles are steered, and is natural and accustomed. To permit this, the shaft of the controlling column, rotates in a 4-in. long bearing of the supporting bracket. Against the bottom of this bearing bears the steering lever, the

the center line of motion (so that its tension is in no way affected by the formerly described controlling motions) and is fastened at its opposite ends to the outside rib of the equalizers.

The controlling column carries on the side of the aviator a lever by which the throttle of the motor is controlled, and throttle lever cable being led also through the hollow shaft guided by pulleys on its' path to the carburetor.

The wheel is equipped by a switch button on one of the spokes in convenient reach of the right hand fingers to cut out the ignition and so stop the motor.

The controlling column is in the second section of the elevator supporting truss carried by the two seat beams, which are held by the main front beam truss and the elevator trus? cross beams in such a way, that the seat of the. ayiatpr is, jo in, below, and just in front

of the cutting edge of the main surface in the longitudinal center line of the machine. The controlling column is also in this center line in front of the seat, fastened to the under side of the beams.

Po7ver Plant.—The main surface is pierced by the motor bed, which consists of two laminated beams, upon which slightly behind the center of the machine is mounted the honeycomb type Livingston radiator, and in the rear the 25 h. p. 4-stroke, 4-cycle, water-cooled Curtiss motor, upon the shaft of which is directly mounted the A type Pfitzner laminated spruce propeller of 6 ft. diameter, 4^2 ft. pitch, giving 235 pounds thrust at 1,200 r.p.m., i. e., 9.4 pounds thrust per h. p. The propeller weighs but 6*/i pounds.

Control Wheel and Post

The oil tank is below the surface supported from the motor bed and the motor bed truss.

A water jacketed "A-i" type Stromberg carburetor is used. The ignition is supplied by a "DU-4" type Bosch high tension magneto, which is regular equipment with the Curtiss motors.

Running Gear.—The main part, the chassis of the machine consists of four vertical posts, which end at the bottom in forks made of seamless steel tubing, each holding a 20-in. diameter pneumatic tired wheel. These four posts and wheels are spaced by seamless steel

tubing trusses and wooden skids forming the base of the monoplane. Brakes are fitted to the rear wheels, operated by wires and a lever on the left side of the aviator's seat.

Other Details.—The machine is balanced in the center line of thrust and in the center line of pressure. This means that the center line of resistance coincides with the center line of thrust and the center line of gravity goes through the center of pressure at the normal angle of incidence, which is 8 deg. This requirement determined the location of the motor and aviator. All the woodwork is made of spruce. Beams and posts are solid and the 26 ribs are laminated in the usual way. The \vhole machine is finished black with the exception of the steel cables, motor and radiator.

Area main surface, 186 sq. ft.; two equalizers, 25 sq. ft.; elevator, 17 sq. ft.; stabilizer, 10^2 sq. ft.; rudder, 6 sq. ft. Weight of the complete machine, with 6 gallons of gasoline, 1 J/2 gallons of water and 1 gallon of oil, 430 pounds.

CONTRASTED WITH FRENCH MONOPLANES.

The general outlines of the machine resting on four wheels are already widely different from any other monoplane. The second most noticeable departure is, that the aviator sits in front of the surface while the motor and propeller are in the rear. All the moving controls that are on the French machines in the rear, are here in front of the aviator, the surface in the rear being a rigid stabilizer.

All kinds of control levers, pedals and braces are missing and are substituted by one mechanical controlling column. The lateral stability, which has been a troublesome point in the design in most machines, is taken care of by a new, simple device, sliding surfaces, applied the first time to any aeroplane.

The supporting surface is single, on this machine, against the double surface of the French machines and the trussing is perfectly open, while it is enclosed between the surfaces in the foreign monoplanes.

REASONS FOR THE DESIGN.

The 4-wheeled chassis is an outcome of the designer's past experience with automobiles, which travel fast on all kinds of roads and ' is possible by the balance of the machine, giving ample road clearance for _ starting in all directions. The aviator's location in front was chosen for sake of personal comfort and safety. Anyone who has stood behind a propeller for a few minutes, when it is giving 200 pounds push, knows that it is not the rial-it position to be in for any length of time. Besides, in case of accident the aviator as a ride falls forward, and it is more dangerous to fall into the motor and propeller than on the ground. It is a natural desire to see the controlling parts while one is in the air, and it is safer to be able to observe their behavior under the great strain than to be ignorant of change^ that might occur with them; this js the reason for placing elevator and rudder in front

The Pfitzner Monoplane

The single surface is lighter and more efficient than the double and the open ribs on the bottom act as braces against the air on the curves, reducing the tendency to slide down sideways.

The reason for choosing an open trussing is obvious. Every part of the machine can be carefully inspected and adjusted any time in a few minutes, as everything is absolutely accessible. Yet the main reason for designing an altogether original machine was to create a new, American type of monoplane and to encourage the building of aeroplanes by proving that it is not necessary to copy anyone, to produce a successful flyer.

Claude Zellers is rebuilding the W. J. Smith dirigible in the shops of John Berry, St. Louis. Trials are planned for spring.

Hugh L. Willoughby is getting the parts together for a second machine, to be of but 500 pounds weight.

12 MILES UP.

W. II. Dines lias sent up some small registering balloons from Argyllshire, of which two reached a height of 12.5 miles. At 7 miles up one recorded 60 deg. F., while another gave 90 deg. F.

Moore-Brabazon has flown cross-country from the Shellbeach to the Eastchurch grounds of the Aero Club, about 4V2 miles, in. his Short biplane.

L. R. Peterkin, the organizer of the Wright Company, was a passenger in Hon. C. S. Roll's Wright machine at Eastchurch.

The missionary work of the British AeriaJ League is progressing rapidly in India, where a branch of the League has been formed.

Aviation Calendar for 1910.

The F. A. I. has established the following International meetings for 1910. Other meetings not of such character may also be held.

Mav 20-.'W?t>->r-«^>JN;ice ............... $50,000

April 10-25*fA. ...Berlin...................

May lO-lGr-r-rrrTSMtaly .............. 42,000

.Tune 5............Budapest........... 120,000

June 18-24.........St. Petersburg...........

.Tune 28-July 10____Rheims ............. 40,000

July 11-16.........England .................

July 14-24.........French Auto Clubs... 40,000

July 24-Aug. 4.....Belgium ............ 40.000

6-13..........England.................

7-21..........A circuit organized by

the "Matin" ...... 20,000

Aug. 25-Sept. 4----Deauville........... 48,000

Sept. 8-18..........Bordeaux ........... 40,000

Sept. 24-Oct. 3.....Milan...................

Oct. 18-Nov. 2......America.

[Oct. 1S-25 for Gordon-Bennett balloon race; Oct. 20-Xov. 2 for Gordon Bennett aviation meet.] Nine other smaller meetings are set for Cannes, Tours. Bordeaux, Lyons, Vichy, Juvlsy, Caen, TVarritz.

Aug. Aug.

R.->

CONSTRUCTION AIDS, X

CONSTRUCTION AIDS,X

IN Fig. i is illustrated a strut joint used by Dr. Wm. Greene. It is composed of a nickel-plated brass ferrule, threaded. A sleeve is bolted to the "main lateral beam. To release a strut, the nut is loosened, enabling the sleeve to turn the ferrule out.

Fig. 2 shows how a piece of bamboo may be utilized for models. The best part 'c +Uo tough wood just below the smooth c,,t

sur

the face.

Farman uses no pulleys for conducting his steering wires around corners. Fig. 4 illustrates his method.

For model or big work a good scheme for laying out a propeller is shown in Fig. 3. In a model in which this scheme was employed a 6-inch diameter propeller of 10-inch pitch was made. With two strands of J^-inch square rubber, 18 inches in length, at 200 revolutions a thrust of .75 oz. was obtained.

Draw a center line A-B and measure off

on this half the pitch, C-D, which in this case would make it 5 inches. With a radius equal to half the diameter of the propeller draw a semicircle and then complete the parallelogram. Divide the vertical sides of the parallelogram into a number of equal parts, say 12. Connect these with parallel lines. Next divide the circumference of the semicircle into the same number of equal parts and project lines downward crossing the horizontal lines at right angles. A line drawn through these intersections as shown will give the path of the blade tip through half a revolution. E-F will be the angle necessary to give the tip of the blade in order for it to travel the pitch distance, i. e., 10 inches. Repeating the latter half of the drawing will give the angle at the base of the blade, G-H. The propeller blades were made of aluminum, twisted to the above angles.

FIRST AMERICAN CONVENTION OF

AERO CLUBS

By E. Percy Noel.

FOR the first time in the American history of aeronautics a convention which represented fourteen aero clubs met in St. Louis, January 29, at the invitation of the Aero Club of St. Louis and the call of Cortland Field Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America. It was the unanimous opinion of the clubs outside of New York that the Aero Club of America should appoint a national aero commission to regulate aeronautic events in this country, which will take the supreme national control from the Aero Club of America and place it in a body representative of all the clubs.

Although the convention was in session for scarcely three hours, much was accomplished which it is believed will benefit aeronautics from a sportive, practical and scientific standpoint, through motions carried and resolutions adopted. The spirit of good sportsmanship and fairness was the keynote of the convention.

Practically every club representative present applied to Mr. Bishop for the international aviation meet, or the international balloon race, or both; but nearly all appeared too willing to hold a minor event in case the international aeroplanes, or balloon race should not be available. That all the aeroplane meets and other aeronautic events to be held this year will be under the direct management of the local clubs concerned is now determined, which will prevent the hippodrome side of aeroplaning from becoming important, the meetings to be, nominally at least, of a sportive character.

A racing committee was appointed, consisting of Carl G. Fisher, chairman, Aero Club of Indiana; A. B. Lambert, Aero Club of St. Louis; and Alan R. Hawley, Aero Club-of America. This committee will arrange a racing program for 1910 in America, to include all aeronautic meetings that will be sanctioned by the Aero Club of America, or the national aero commission. In order to obtain recognition by this committee, aero clubs are required to name their prospective dates for aeroplane or balloon races before March 1. Clubs which do not give notice by that time will have to take the chance of a sanction being refused. This committee is to obviate conflicting dates, as was recently done by a commission of the International Aeronautic Federation abroad.

The appointment of a national aero commission will be accomplished by a revision in the charter of the Aero Club of America which will call for two representatives from affiliated clubs, but the privileges of this commission are outlined. The Aero Club of America's plans are far too narrow to suit the

other clubs. It is the intention of the Aero Club of America to affiliate all incorporated aero clubs that apply for such representation in national aeronautics, it being understood that not more than one club will be accepted from the same city.

The Aero Club of America will announce the name of the club to whom the international aeroplane meeting is to be given about February 20. As everyone knows, if New York is not the city to be selected Washington and Baltimore are.

Mr. Bishop declared himself unequivocally in favor of St. Louis for the international balloon race, saying that the Mississippi valley was unexcelled in the world for ballooning. There is little doubt that St. Louis can secure this race. The Aero Club decided several months ago to endeavor to obtain this event.

Although each delegate to the convention was anxious to secure the international aeroplane meet, with the single exception of Rochester, N. Y., there was an evidence of hopelessness on the part of several. It was said that there was little possibility of the meet being held elsewhere than at Washington, where Bennings race track can be enlarged to give an aviation field some five miles in length by an average of one and one-half miles in width. Other reports have it that New York will be the scene of the meeting.

Two resolutions were adopted to be be presented to President Taft and Congress, which are designed to spur the Government to greater activity in aeronautics. One of these provides for the determination of the value of aerial craft in warfare and the other for steps to insure development in the science of aeronautics. The first was presented by Jerome S. Fanciulli, for the Aero Club of Washington, and the second by A. B. Lambert, for St. Louis.

UPHOLDS EFFICIENCY IN WAR.

Mr. Lambert's resolution reads: "As it is the opinion of the aero clubs now meeting that the United States Government is not progressing or undertaking steps to insure development consistent with that .of other nations in the science of aeronautics, and that this is most important to our government; be it resolved, that the president of the Aero Club of America appoint a committee of three, to be selected from the affiliated aero clubs, to incorporate the sense of this resolution in an address, the same to be presented to the president of the United States."

Mr. Fanciulli's resolution stated that "recent experiments demonstrated the practicability of dropping weights from air craft upon a given target, and the practicability of aerial

craft for scouting purposes." It was resolved, in view of this and other facts, that "Congress be requested to determine the value of aerial craft in warfare," and, further, "that copies of this resolution be sent to the aero clubs of the United States, with the request that they endeavor to impress the men of Congress with the importance of the object of this resolution."

The convention was called to order at 3:30 p. m. in the main floor library of the Jefferson Hotel, Mr. Bishop in the chair. A motion made by Mr. Lambert was carried that the conference should be open not only to affiliated clubs, but also to all clubs represented. Mr. Bishop at once recognized three applicants for affiliation with the Aero Club of America, in the Kansas City Aero Club, the Aero Club of Dayton and the Aero Club of Rochester, all of which have recently been incorporated.

DELEGATES GET FLOOR IN TURN.

Each delegate was given the floor in turn and permitted to set forth his views and demands for the club he represented. A greater number of clubs than had been expected was represented, the Aero Club of St. Louis by Mr. Lambert, the Aero Club of America, theAero Club of New England, the Aero Club of California, and the Aero Club of Denver, by Mr. Bishop; the Aero Club of Washington and the Aero Club of Baltimore

by Mr. Fanciulli; the Aero Club of Dayton, by S. T. Hunter; the Aero Club of Rochester, by L. J. Seeley; the Aero Club of Des Moines, by Lafayette Young, Jr.; the Air Craft Club of Peoria, by F. W. Arnold; the Aero Club, of Kansas City, by George W. Meyers and the Aero Club of Indiana, by Carl G. Fisher.

Others present from out-of-town clubs were: J. D. Havers, W. B. Strong, S. B. Duke, L. W. Shouse and H. F. Lang of Kansas City, F. C. Hubbell and A. D. Peters of Des Moines.

L. J. Seeley asked for the next convention of clubs at Rochester, N. Y., but no action was taken. A plan, was formulated for the translation of the International Aeronautic Federation rules from French into English, so that all clubs might be provided with a copy. Fisher offered $50,000 cash and a percentage of the gate receipts for the international aeroplane meet at the Indianapolis motor speedway. Myers asked for both balloon and aviation events in Kansas City, saying that from that point the greatest distance was possible in a balloon. Arnold asked for an aviation meet at Peoria July 4, 5 or 6, guaranteeing sufficient money.

At the luncheon which preceded the convention, Daniel C. Nugent, acting president of the St. Louis Aero Club, presiding, Mr. Bishop was first called upon. He spoke eloquently of the joys of air travel.

BOSTON AERO SHOW-FEBRUARY 16-23

Owing to the widespread interest now being taken in aerial navigation, it has been decided to afford the people of New England an opportunity of seeing just how far the art has progressed. Gigantic strides have been made in the past year, but the general public have had no way of realizing what degree of success has been obtained through the newspapers. The opportunity of viewing all the different types of wonderful air-craft will be afforded the public February 16-23, when the "First National Exhibition of Aerial Craft" will be held in Mechanics Building, Boston, under the personal direction of Chester I. Campbell and sanctioned by the Aero Club of New England and the Aero Club of America.

Charles J. Glidden is Chairman of the Advisory Board for the Exhibition, and such well-known men as Prof. W. H. Pickering of Harvard University, Prof. David Todd of Amherst College, H. Helm Clayton, Luke J. Minahan, president of the Pittsfield Aero Club; N. H. Arnold of North Adams, Chas. J. Shean, president of the Springfield Aero Club; A. Holland Forbes, vice-president of the Aero Club of America; Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch of Boston, Hon. John Barrett of the Aero Club of Washington, D. C, and A. B. Lambert, president of the St. Louis Aero Club, are serving on the Board.

The entire Grand Hall of Mechanics Building will be devoted to the most complete

exclusive exhibition of air-craft and accessories ever assembled in this country. Among the many entries so far arranged for are Capt. Baldwin's dirigible, the same ship in which he made successful flights during the Hudson-Fulton celebration; the celebrated "Boston" balloon, _ the "All America," and others from the different aero clubs, as well as a most complete exhibit by Aeronaut Leo Stevens will also be shown. Among the heavier-than-air machines are promised several Bleriots, a Latham, an Antoinette, Wright and other models. Hundreds of flying models will be sent from all over the country, including exhibits of the West Side Y. M. C. A. of New York, the Junior Aero Club of New York, Columbia and Harvard Universities, and many individuals. Many "freaks" will also be shown, of which the inventors make great claims, but have yet to "make good."

Edward Durant, of the Aero Club of America, will have on exhibition at the Boston aero show a collection of flying model aeroplanes which have been competing in the recent contests in New York, together with many other models made by members of various local clubs. In addition he will show some of the articles used by the first American aeronaut, Charles F. Durant. Anyone having models for the show may send them there, care of Mr. Durant, and he will see that they are properly taken care of.

IN THE WORLD OF AVIATION

May Be No International Aviation Meet.

There seems to be more than a possibility that America will not see the contest for the international aviation cup this year. The foreigners are expressing themselves as unfavorable in view of the pending Wright suits, and even the F. A. I., the international body, has inquired from the Aero Club of America as to prospects.

The international federation has allotted the bad dates, in view of weather probabilities, from October 18th to November 2nd for international aviation contests in this country. No other events of like character will be held abroad during this period.

ONLY FOUR FOREIGNERS ENTERED.

Italy, with one aeroplane, and France, with three, are the only countries that have made any entries. Of course, America has the opportunity of adding three more, making seven in all. There is still the chance that further foreign entries may be received as the date for closing is March ist, but it is made plain by Mr. Bishop that the success of the meet depends on the outcome of the various Wright suits.

A circular letter has been sent out to various aero clubs by the Aero Club of America calling attention to the open period for international events, and suggests that such be organized at various cities during the two weeks above mentioned.' National aviation meets are also urged, to be held during the summer, with the expectation of establishing a national racing circuit.

.PROMISE GOOD RETURNS.

"Past experience has shown that the promoters of such meets can look forward to a complete reimbursement of the prizes they may offer, and the expense they may be put to." The circular states that the amount of money offered will have a great deal to do with the success of any meet, and while "at the present state of the art," when it is difficult to secure "bona-fide entries," an entrance fee for aviators and would-be aviators is proposed to prevent people from "getting free advertising * * * when they are really unable to fly."

The date of the big cup race must be set by April ist.

WILL NEW YORK RAISE $100,000?

Cortlandt F. Bishop has offered to be one of twenty men to put up $S,ooo each to have the Gordon-Bennett aviation contest held in New York. Looking back on the history of aeronautics in New York, one may well doubt the ability to get together any such syndicate.

The Los Angeles show has done a lot for

progress, but another held in New York of equal or greater magnitude would do still more good. But the probability is mighty small.

Greene Machine Flies Without Tail.^vT^^.

The Greene aeroplane bought by Wilbur R. f • Kimball and used by him and F. E. Boland near Rahway in experimental flights, has been / altered considerably. The rear vertical rudder has been removed entirely, and vertical surfaces have been introduced between the main planes. These are operated in such a way as to preserve lateral equilibrium as well as steering right or left. Mr. Boland has taken his brother up for a short flight. C. E. Fisher, who handles the Cadillac car in Newark, has also been a passenger. Patents are being taken out on the device.

Monoplane Wrecked.

The first attempt by a Washington, D. C, aviator to fly in his own machine resulted in the wrecking of the Moore-Avery monoplane on Feb. ioth, at Bennings race track.

Six starts were made—four by Mr. Moore and the last two by S. A. Luttrell. The latter was steering the machine when it dashed into the fence. He was not injured.

Robert Moore, constructor of the machine, with a half dozen assistants, arrived at Bennings about half past four o'clock. The birdlike machine, which weighed only 260 lbs., was carried from the shed adjoining the grand stand by three men, and was placed on the race course. After a few preliminaries had been arranged, Mr. Moore slipped into the operator's seat and gave the signal to start.

It was the first time either operator or machine had attempted a flight. The monoplane started off with a bound, making a speed of about 26 or 28 miles an hour. Within 150 feet from the starting point the aeroplane leaped into the air to a height of about 3 feet. It traveled at this height for about 30 feet. Moore, seeing that his machine was inclined to fly in the direction of the fence, which runs along the inside of the track, shut off the engine and brought the monoplane to a stop.

Immediately his assistants and a few friends who had been invited to witness the flight ran up the track and shook Mr. Moore by the hand, congratulating him on the successful start.

A second start was made with equal ease, and the machine made even greater speed than during the first test. But this time the machine again inclined its course toward the fence, and had to be brought to a stop. Moore made two more starts with his machine, each time with the same result.

The fifth start was made by Luttrell. Mr. Luttrell noticed the motor was missing fire, and brought the machine to a standstill.

The monoplane was again placed in the center of the race course, with its head point-_ ing westward. Mr. Luttrell stepped in, this time getting a splendid start. Hardly had be traveled 200 feet along the ground when the front wheels of the monoplane leaped into the air. A gust of wind blew the machine to the right, the wing-tip scraped along the ground, and the craft suddenly turned and crashed into the fence. The propeller struck the fence and plowed its way through it.

Mr. Luttrell, shortly before the monoplane struck the fence, managed to creep out of his swinging seat, thus saving himself from injury. The damage done to the machine will necessitate a new set of planes and a new propeller. The motor and the elevating planes or rudder were not damaged.

Mr. Moore will reconstruct his monoplane, and probably will be ready to resume his trials during March.

Hamilton to Fly Over New York.

Charles K. Hamilton, who flies the Curtiss machine, promises to shortly fly over New York, and is now working his way east with the aeroplane.

From Los Angeles he took the 8-cylinder machine which won at Rheims and went to San Diego, where he made, according to eyewitnesses, some wonderful flights through the canyons, over the ocean and into the wild mountains of old Mexico. Shutting his engine off he would make glides of nearly a mile, it seemed, and the daredevil feats carried out made the hearts of the spectators stand still.

From there he went to Bakersfield and Fresno, Cal., and is now at Phoenix, Ariz.

The San Diego flights were under the auspices of the world's fair which is to be held there in 1915, while in the other towns the chambers of commerce took charge.

John F. O'Rourke Builds Aeroplane.

John F. O'Rourke, head of the big New York construction company which bears his name, is completing designs for an aeroplane, the feature of which is automatic stability. Within a short time the construction of a machine will begin.

There will be no rear vertical rudder, steering right and left to be done by the wing tips, which will resemble somewhat those of the Curtiss machine. These will be so arranged that at any angle of incidence of the machine the angle of incidence of the respective tips will always be equal.

Paulhan to Fly in New York.

Paulhan is scheduled to fly in the vicinity of New York, at Belmont race track, sometime about the middle of March. He will give exhibitions on several days.

Wright Aeroplane School in Florida.

February 10th.—Messrs. Wilbur and Orville Wright are expected to arrive in Washington to-day and receive the Smithsonian medal. One or both of the Wrights will continue on to Florida where grounds for a school are to be selected, probably in the vicinity of Jacksonville. Demonstrators will be taught to fly the machines so as to leave the time of the Brothers Wright free for management of their business. The factory at Dayton is now ready to turn out a number of machines.

Wrights Get Smithsonian Medals.

Washington, Feb. 14.—Last Thursday the Langley gold medal was presented to Wilbur and Orville Wright by the Smithsonian Institution in recognition of their achievements.

Dr. A. Graham Bell in addressing the assemblage, told of recent progress, referred to the work of Langley and the practical application by the Wrights. Senator Lodge spoke briefly and then Chief Justice Fuller presented the medals. Wilbur Wright replied in behalf of the aviators in a speech lasting about four minutes. After the meeting, the Wrights went to a. quiet luncheon at the home of Dr. Bell, in company with Secretary Walcott, of the Institution, and a few friends.

BISHOP IN TOWN.

Cortlandt F. Bishop has an audience to-day with President Taft to present the resolution adopted at the St. Louis conference and to urge greater activity in military aeronautics. A committee from the Washington and Baltimore aero clubs are meeting him and they will discuss the possibility of holding the international aviation meet at College Park.

Government Aeroplane to Fly at San Antonio.

At the close of the Electrical Trades Ex hibition at Chicago, January 15-29, at which was exhibited the U. S. Government "Wright Flyer," it went to Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Tex., in charge of Lieut. Benj. D. Foulois, of the Signal Corps, and a detachment of enlisted men. Ft. Sam Houston has a suitable open ground on the Government reservation and the winter climate is such that Lieut. Foulois will have ample opportunity for practice with the aeroplane.

Notes on the Los Angeles Flights.

Charles F. Willard has declared himself in favor of more than four cylinders. "Paulhan could fly with one or two missing and seemed not to mind at all. Curtiss, too, could keep aloft on six or seven cylinders, but let one cylinder go bad on a 4-cylinder engine and it's a case of—land"

Curtiss Factory Busy.

The Wright suit has not caused the shutting down of the Curtiss aeroplane factory as the latter concern put up a $10,000 bond indemnifying the Wright company. An appeal from the opinion of Judge Hazel has been taken by the Curtiss attorneys and trial on appeal will take place when a date has been set.

Glenn H. Curtiss was a guest at the annual banquet of the Automobile Club of America at the Waldorf Monday evening, January 31. The Steuben Club entertained him again at the^Wajdprf^on February 1.

The New Farman.

Of the two Farman machines flown at Los Angeles, one was the new light apparatus mentioned in the Foreign Letter last issue. Following are the changes which have been made. The other details remain the same as described and illustrated in the drawings last issue.

The front horizontal control has been shortened laterally so that it does not extend on either side of the outriggers, and works in conjunction with a movable rear horizontal surface affixed to the rear edge of the upper surface of the biplane tail. See photograph. One of the rear vertical rudders has been done away with and the remaining one has been placed in the center of and between the tail planes. A rigid iron-shod skid has been substituted for the two caster wheels formerly supporting the tail. The running gear is practically the same, having only minor changes in the method of attachment of the pivot rods holding the wheel axle. The weight is given as but 800 pounds.

Herring Injunction Denied.

The application for an injunction to prevent Curtiss from making exhibition flights for his personal profit instead of for the profit of the Herring-Curtiss Co., made by A. M. Herring, who failed to deliver a flying machine to the U. S. Government after repeated extensions of time, was denied by Judge Co-man. This was just before Curtiss left for Los Angeles, and if granted would have prevented him from flying there. This was an action taken by Herring after an injunction had been secured by Curtiss enjoining Herring from disposing of any of his stock which he received in return for patents or inventions, which, it is claimed by the friends of Curtiss, were never put in evidence by Herring.

Herring objected to Curtiss having his winnings or earnings by flights for himself, even though the directors of the company so voted. The directors then offered Herring the use of one of its machines with the same privilege, but this offer has not been accepted by Herring. Both Curtiss and Herring draw $S,ooo a year salary from the Herring-Curtiss Co.

A Herring Aeroplane to be Seen at Last.

The W. Starling Burgess Co., Ltd., of Marblehead, Mass.. state that they will have on exhibition at the Boston show which opens on February 16, an aeroplane which is being worked out from A. M. Herring's original design, with modifications proposed by Mr. Burgess of the firm. These are refinements in details of construction based on the company's experience with similar structural work in the lightest types of racing yachts.

S. Y. Beach Has Another New Monoplane.

The first week in February, Stanley Y. Beach was actively engaged in making the first tests with a new Bleriot-type monoplane he has recently constructed. The tests were made at Stratford, Conn, upon the frozen surface of Fresh Pond, a salt water pond over a mile in circumference, in which the tide rises and falls by means of an underground connection with the adjacent Housatonic River. Some little trouble was experienced with the motor—a 4-cylinder 2-cycle air-cooled engine of 25 h. p. at 1,400 r. p. m.—at the start, and this had to be taken off the machine and run on the bench with the propeller on for some time before it was working properly. In the first test on the pond, the motor would only run about half a minute at a time because of insufficient lubrication and no thrust bearing to take up the thrust of the propeller. By putting in an excess of oil, however, this trouble was got around. A pull of 150 lb. was obtained at 1,000 r. p. m.. with the special 6 ft. propeller shown by Mr. Beach at a recent meeting of the Aeronautic Society.

When testing the engine and propeller in the monoplane on. Feb. 3rd in the shed near the pond, Mr. Beach and his assistants ran the machine upon the ice broadside to the wind, which was blowing about 25 miles per hour. The monoplane, without wings on, started over the ice with the wind and rapidly accelerated. It finally swung broadside to the wind again and skidded sideways over the ice until it struck the shore, when it overturned, breaking the propeller. An old 8 ft. diameter, 4 ft. pitch true-screw propeller was then fitted. It was possible to use this propeller, which was a left hand instead of a right hand, because the motor was a 2-cycle and could be run in either direction. The engine drove the larger propeller about 1,000 r. p. m., also, and a pull of 220 lbs. was obtained and held with it. At 1,000 r. p. m. the motor develops about 16 h. p.

After fitting the new propeller, a trial was made without the wings in order to see if the tail would lift. This was fairly successful, the tail lifting enough so that the machine could be steered readily with the vertical rudder and several circuits of the pond, were made.

On Feb. 5th, in a wind blowing 25 m. p. h., according to the weather bureau at New Haven, Mr. Beach got out his monoplane with the wings on and made several runs against the wind. The propeller pulled the machine 7 or S miles an hour over the ice against this strong wind, but save for the tail rising a short distance once or twice, the monoplane showed no tendency to get in the air. The cloth with which the wings are covered not being closely enough woven to hold all the air, it was coated with lacquer. An air-tight smooth surface was thus produced. The wings will probably have to be set at a somewhat greater angle in order to lift the machine, as they have not the pronounced curvature of the Bleriot, and are intended for a high-speed machine. The spread is 35 ft., and the area 168 sq. ft. The weight of the machine complete is about 450 lbs. Its over all length is 25 ft.

This machine, as well as a larger one of the Antoinette type, will be exhibited at the Boston Aeronautic show.

Paulhan Making Circuit in Exhibition Flights.

After the show at Los Angeles, Paulhan was taken by his manager Geary, who is paying him $20,000 a month in real money, to San Francisco, where some nights were made on January 26 under the auspices of a daily paper. From there he went to Salt Lake City, Utah,, Denver, Colo., and thence to the City Park race track at New Orleans, La., for five days.

A two-day series began in Salt Lake City on January 30. While he went up to 4,165 ft. at Los Angeles, the ground at Salt Lake City is 4,366 ft. above sea level. Paulhan states that the motor worked perfectly. The barometric pressure there is 25.63 inches. On the 31st Paulhan flew up 300 ft. above the ground, and said that because of the rarity of the atmosphere he was unable to go higher.

Cleary's first demand was for a guarantee of $50,000. This was out of the question, and the Commercial Club agreed to pay all organization expenses, tickets, ticket takers, etc., and to give Cleary gross receipts for two days. This was accepted. It is estimated that he got in this way $6,000.

At Denver, on February 3, Paulhan's Far-man biplane was almost completely wrecked in his third attempt to fly prior to his departure for New Orleans. After making several successful flights around the park he started a second time, and almost mowed down at least 200 persons inside the enclosure. The crowd had encroached upon the field, despite Paul-ban's protests and warnings of danger.

At the second attempt he swerved the machine in trying to escape the crowd, and struck one of the badly filled irrigation ditches that cross the field at dangerous angles. One of the wires supporting the framework gave way, and the aviator realized that he must come to the ground; but directly in front of him were the

spectators, who saw the machine sweeping down upon them.

Their only safety lay in throwing themselves on the ground, lying upon their stomachs. This they did almost as one man.

The machine sailed over them, but in the meantime Paulhan was having his troubles keeping afloat. The crowd miraculously escaped, but the front of the biplane hit the ground with such force that Paulhan was thrown out.

Unhurt, however, he rose, and pursuing the machine, which was bumping over the ground with motor still in action, caught it and stopped the motor.

Thousands rushed on the field and aided in taking the biplane back to the starting point, where it was repaired quickly, only to come to grief on the third attempt.

At New Orleans on February 8 he flew to an altitude of 1,200 feet. On the 6th he made a sensational glide from an altitude of 600 ft. at the end of a fifteen-minute flight, the second flight of the first day's entertainment.

H. W. Gill Building New Machine.

Howard W. Gill, of Baltimore, Md., is now building an entirely new model, which will make the third machine. The machine flown by Hill Beachey at Los Angeles was along the exact lines of the Curtiss, but with more curve to the planes, and equipped with a standard American and British automobile engine of 26 h. p. This was built solely to secure experience.

St. Joseph Man Has Aeroplane.

O. J. Pruitt of St. Joseph, Mo., has completed the construction work on a monoplane and is waiting to install a motor. It has 256 sq. ft. of supporting surface. The total weight is now 482 pounds. A 40-horsepower water-cooled motor of special make has been ordered. This will weigh 200 pounds with magneto, carburetor and pump.

It has a spread of 26 ft. and is 24 ft. long. The boat-like chassis is mounted on three bicycle wheels fitted with two coil springs to absorb the shock of alighting. The motor will be mounted at the front edge of the planes' and the aviator will sit at the rear edge. A two-bladed 6^-ft. propeller with a 4-ft. pitch will be mounted direct to the crankshaft. The main spars are i$i by ij^-inch laminated white pine and hickory. The ribs are white pine, ij4 by §i of an inch. Muslin is used for the surfaces, sized with decorator's glue and treated with paraffin and benzine.

This is the fourth machine built by the inventor within six years. Two were gliders and the other a biplane. He has made 21 hot-air balloon ascensions with an equal number of parachute jumps.

Many St. Louis automobile chauffeurs are building aeroplanes in their spare time.

AERONAUTICS March, ipio

THE WORLD'S AERO RECORDS

Aerostation

FREE SPHERICAL BALLOONS.

World's record, distance: Count Henry de la Vaulx and Comte Castillion de Saint Victor, Vincennes, France, to Korostychew, Russia (1,193 miles), in 35^4 hours, October 9-11, 1900.

United States record, distance: Oscar Erbs-loh and H. H. Clayton, St. Louis, Mo., to Bradley Beach, N. J., mile? October 21-

23, 1907, in 41 hours.

IVorld's record, duration: Seventy-two hours, made by Colonel Schaeck, a Swiss military officer, from Berlin, Germany, on October 11, 1908, landing in the sea off Norway.

United States record, duration: Clifford B Harmon and Augustus Post, St. Louis, Mo., to Edina, Mo., 48 hours 26 minutes, in St. Louis Centennial Balloon Race, October 4, 1909.

IVorld's record, altitude: James Glaisher. September 5, 1862, claims to have reached 37,000 feet. This is now doubted. --Professors Berson and Suring have i?ea«h^rl>3n altitude of 34,000 feet. Qjg "^^^0^

United States recordfj-altitTtdc:'Y^%,2od feet, reached bv Clifford B./Uarmon-au<J^Augustus Post, St. "Louis Mo., to Edina, }Mo\TJQctober 4, 1909. Not official.

Lahm cup record (United States) : 697 miles, A. Holland Forbes and Col. Max C. Fleischmann, St. Louis, Mo., to near Beach, Va., October t2, IQ09.

DIRIGIBLE (STEERAP.LE BALLOONS).

IVorld's record, duration and distance: German military dirigible "Zeppelin TI." covered 900 miles in 37 hours 40 minutes on May 2930, 1909.

IVorld's record, height: French dirigible "Clement Bayard," bought by Russia, 1,550 meters, August 23, 1909.

Aviation

IJ-'orld's record, one-man duration and distance: Henry Farman, at Mourmelon, France, November t,. iqoq. 4 hours 17 min. 53 sees., covering 234.2 k7T7"TfTe~ters. Won the Michelin cash prize and trophy for 1909.

Worlds' record, tzvo-man duration and distance: Orville Wright and passenger, Captain Englehardk September 18, 1909, at Berlin, Germany, iNiour 35 min. 47 sees.

World's record-, tzvo-man speed: Henry Farman, with one*" passenger, at Rheims, France, August 28, 1909; 10 kilometers in 0 min. 52 1-5 sees.

World's record, altitude: Louis Paulhan, in

Louis G. Erickson, Springfield, Mass., is now building his second machine, almost entirely of bamboo, to weigh but 350 pounds, with motor. A four-cylinder "V" French motor-cycle motor, expected to give 16-18 horsepower, 3 by 3?$ bore and stroke, .3,000 revolutions per minute, will be used. It is air coole(' and weighs 115 pounds. The

a Farman machine, at Los Angeles, Jan. 12, 1910, 4,165 feet.

IVorld's three-man duration, distance and speed record: Henry Farman, with two passengers, Rheims, France, August 28, 1909, 10 kilometers in 10 min. 39 sees.

World's shortest distance starting record: Glenn H. Curtiss, Los Angeles, Jan. 11, 1910, 98 feet. Unofficial, Dr. William Greene, at Morris Park, New York, November, 1909, 30 feet.

IVorld's shortest time in rising from start of motor: G. H. Curtiss, Los Angeles, Jan. 11, 1910, 6 2-5 sec.

IVorld's fastest average speed: Leon Dela-grange, 4999 miles per hour at Doncaster (England) aviation meet, October 26. 1909. Unverified : Santos Dumont made 59.61 miles per hour at St. Cyr, France, September 13, 1009.

Worlds' longest (time) cross-country flight: Col. S. F. Cody, at Laffans Plains, England. September 8, 1909, 1 hour 3 min., covering about 40 miles.

World's longest two-man cross-country distance and duration: Mr. and Mrs. Paulhan, Los Angeles, Jan. 19, 1910, 21 miles, 33 min. 452-5 sec.

JVorlds' most spectacular feats: Count de Lambert, in a Wright aeroplane October 18, 1909, from Juvisy aerial race course (near Paris), over Paris, around the Eiffel Tower and return, 30 miles distance; time, 49 min. 39 2-3 sees.

Wilbur Wright, from Governors' Island, N. Y., October 4, 1909, up the Hudson to Grant's Tomb and'return, 20 miles distance; time, 33 min. 33 sees.

Louis Bleriot's flight across the English Channel, from Calais to Dover, July 25, 1909; distance, about 31 miles, in 37 minutes.

One-man speed records for various distances:

Kiloms.

H.

M.

S.

1 Ferber ..........

..... 0

1

15

2 W. Wright

..... 0

2

44

5 Tissandier ......

..... 0

5

26 2-5

10 Bleriot ..........

..... 0

7

47 4-5

20 Curtiss..........

..... 0

15

50 3-5

30 Curtiss..........

..... 0

23

29 i-5

40 Latham.........

..... 0

34

55

 

..... 0

43

56

60 Latham .........

..... 0

52

44 2-5

70 Latham.........

..... 1

3

6

So Latham .........

..... 1

11

26 3-5

00 Latham .........

..... 1

19

56 2-5

100 Latham.........

..... 1

28

17

1 50 Latham .........

 

13

9 3-5

200 Farman .........

..... 3

42

34

two planes will be 20 by 7. The previous machine was quite heavy and insufficiently pewered, but the machine was built solely to provide experience. Mr. Erickson is amply capitalized in earnestness and otherwise, and has the third machine in anticipation.

WRIGHT-PAULHAN SUIT

Court Will Grant Wrights Injunction

February 10.—Judge Hand, of the United

tStates Circuit Court, Southern Division, is now-considering the briefs in the Wright-Paulhan suit and is expected in a few days to render an opinion whether a temporary injunction should issue.

When Paulhan arrived in this country papers in the suit were served upon him. The next day Judge Hazel's opinion in the Wright-Curtiss suit was rendered and that afternoon the Wright company got an order to show cause why Paulhan should not be enjoined from flying. This motion was argued before Judge Hand on Tuesday and ' Thursday of last week.

At one point in the Thursday hearing, Wilbur Wright himself took up the argument and was so convincing that the Court announced hi^ intention to immediately grant the injunction but a question to Wright by Israel Lud-*<?w, who is associated with Clarence J. Shearu *in Paulhan's defense, raised the point of reasonable doubt whether the Farman machine operates like the machine of the Wright patent.

A sketch of the operation of the Wright aeroplane was printed in the November, 1909. issue: a sketch of the Farman machine was printed in the February, 1910, number. These issues are exhausted but copies of the sketches may be had.

how wright's machine turns corners.

An affidavit of Lieut. F. E. Humphreys, of the Signal Corps, who has flown the Government machine, was put in evidence by the Paulhan side. The Wright attorneys also put in a Humphries affidavit which amplified the statements made in the previous one.

Lieut. Humphreys' operation of the Wright machine is described by him as follows, as regards turning:

"In turning in flight the outer wing is elevated by increasing the angle on the side opposite to that to which it is desired to go. Elevating the outer wing is essential to prevent the aeroplane from skidding. The rudder is turned in the direction to which it is desired to go, which is also the side having the smaller angle of incidence. Therefore the wing with the greater angle rises and advances instead of being retarded as would be the case if the wings were warped without any movement of the tail. Technically considered, there are differences between the action of the vertical rudder of the Wright machine and the rudder of a ship, since in correcting lateral balance by warping the wings the rudder may be turned to one side to correct difference of the right and left wings, without causing the machine to turn. As the rudder is turned, the wings are warped. Then the angle of inclination on the outer side is brought back slightly past the normal so as not to continue the transverse inclination of the aeroplane further. Usually, during the turn the larger angle is on the same side as that to which the rudder is turned with reference to the longitudinal a^is of the machine. To restore the course of a straight line, the rudder is brought hack to a neuter state, and the aeroplane rights upon a horizontal balance. P.y the instruction of Mr. Wright, I aim to keep the machine skidding slight-

ly outward when circling so that the rudder may be receiving a pressure on the side opposite the wing with the greater angle even when turnd slightly toward that wing as compared with the longitudinal axis of the machine, since the axis of the machine and the relative wind do not quite coincide. This is the rule in all cases unless unforeseen and unusual occurrences interrupt the operation.

"The warping of the wings and the turning of the rear rudder is moved by one lever, which has two motions; that is, a forward and backward motion from front to rear to turn the rear vertical rudders from left to right; and the right and left transverse motion to increase the angle in each section, right and left respectively; that is to say. if one wants to make the larger angle on the right the lever is moved to the" left. This enables the operator, in turning a corner, to increase the angle of inclination on the onter wing section and io elevate the same ; or, should it become necessary, as sometimes happens to be the case from disturbing wind currents, the operator may increase the angle of inclination of one side, and at the same time to swing the rear rudder in the direction of that side of the machine whose angle has been made smaller. All the way around the curve the position of the rear vertical rudder and the warped surfaces vary, one state of affairs requires a different position of the levers from another. In the last flight I made on the machine which was in company with Lieutenant I.ahm, the machine was flying close to the ground, when an attempt was made to raise the depressed wing by increasing the inclination of the low wing and decreasing the other but owing to failure to promptly set over the tail toward the wing whose angle had been decreased, the depressed wing refused to rise and struck the ground causing damage to the machine."

now paulhan turns.

In an affidavit submitted by Paulhan he says that though the "rear rudder is sometimes moved toward the angle of least incidence at the beginning of a sharp turn," it would he "suicidal to connect the rear rudder with the warping of the wing so that the rear vertical rudder would always be turned to the side having the least angle of incidence or to have the rear vertical rudders in any degree controlled by the movement of the aileron or the warping of a wing." He goes on to say:

"Under one condition an operator might increase the angle of incidence considerably on the right and move the rudder slightly to the left. Under different conditions he might increase the anale of incidence slightly on the right and move the rudder considerably toward the left. Under other conditions he might increase the angle of incidence on the right and move his vertical rudder to the right. For example, suppose the aeroplane to be proceeding northerly with the right wing tilted up at an angle of 1(> degrees or more and to be suddenly struck with a gust or air current from the east. The operator would instantly bring his rudder toward the east or the angle of greatest incidence so as to swing or steer the aeroplane into the head of the wind. It is to steer with, maintain and control direction that the vertical rear rudders are used and it is only occasionally as in turning a sharp corner that the rudders are used by turning them to one side or the other at the same time that the angle of incidence is changed and even in those cases, as above stated, whether the rudders are turned toward the. angle of least incidence or the reverse depends upon the condition of the moment. The all essential requirement for safe and practical

operation is that the operation of the vertical rudders shall be wholly independent of and distinct from any wing warping or increasing angles of incidence by means of ailerons or otherwise.

"In turning a corner in the Farman biplane machines * * * or in any aeroplane that I am familiar with, it is not at all essential to use the aileron so as to increase the angle of incidence on the outer edge in turning a corner. There are circumstances in making a turn in such machines and in a straightaway flight when the operator would use the aileron or warp the wings without turning the rudder at all and very often the rear vertical rudders are used without any interference with the ailerons or without any wing warping.

"If for some cause such aeroplanes move obliquely to their longitudinal axis, in other words, skid, the use of the rudder alone will correct the aeroplanes' equilibrium and bring them back to their normal line of advance. The operator can make a complete turn by the use of the rear vertical rudders alone and without using either ailerons or warping to correct horizontal equilibrium. The rear vertical rudders have a most powerful turning effect in all cases. In making a sharp turn the outer end of the aeroplane may be tilted up and a new plane of movement established which may be at an angle of ten or more degrees. The tendency of the rudder during such movement is to swing the tail to the outer side of the turning arc with great rapidity.

"Where one side of the Farman biplane * * * is depressed or tilted downward the side which is depressed tends to move more slowly and the aeroplane turns in. the direction of the depressed side."

paulhan says weight patent OF machine is im practicable.

Paulhan states in his affidavit that he is informed the Wrights have abandoned the system described in their patent and now build aeroplanes with absolutely independent action and control of rudders and wings. He says :

"An aeroplane with flat sustaining surfaces is useless. To get lifting power the surfaces must be curved and the curve is a matter of careful study and adjustment and is not any mere curve that may be produced by a sagging or bellying canvas. As for having the rear vertical rudder controlled by and dependent upon the movement of the rope or lever that changes the angle of incidence, that is utterly impracticable and extremely dangerous. * * * Under such conditions a gust of wind or sudden air currents from the side of the aeroplane that was tilted up would inevitably upset the machine unless the rudder could be quickly and sharply turned to-

ward the wind so as to steer the machine around into the face of the wind."

PRIOR ART.

That the Wrights admitted the prior art in the file wrapper of their application for patent is claimed in the quotation following:

"We are aware that prior to our invention u.\-ing machines have been constructed having superposed wings in combination with horizontal and vertical rudders."

After mentioning the airship patent of Lewis A. Boswell, Sept. 24, 10,01, the Mattul-lath patent application filed Jan. 8, 1900, and the D'Esterno, Alouillard, Le Bris and Ader machines discussed in Air. Chanute's "Progress in Flying Machines," an affidavit is submitted signed by Dr. A. F. Zahm. In this he refers to his paper read before the Chicago Conference on Aerial Navigation in 1893, and printed in the proceedings in 1894 in which Dr. Zahm suggests moving the slats of the Phillips machine on either side thereof so as to present one side of the machine at a greater or less angle of incidence than the other to "arrest all pitching, rocking and wheeling." He goes on to say:

"In general, at the close of the 19th century £tlj_ esserit_ial principles and contrivances of pioneer TrrgTTt^v^re^weTl worJje_d out except one—a suitable motor. 5 * 33 A light automobile motor appeared in the latter nineties and promptly thereafter followed the dynamic tlyer. * * * The essential elements of aviation, barring the motor, had been clearly worked out. Xo further need to prove feasible the heavier-than-air machine, for that had been done repeatedly. Scientific design and patient trial, not physical research, was the chief demand. Further research would improve the aeroplane, but not bring it into practical operation. The aeroplane was sufficiently invented. It now wanted, not fastidious novelty, but concrete and skilful design, careful construction, exercise in the open field.

"The first person, to my knowledge, to apply for a patent involving the three-rudder system control was Hugo ilattullath, who in 1S99, showed me, and many others, plans for an aeroplane having a vertical rudder in the rear and lateral steering planes on either side, fore and aft, of the main body, so disposed that he could cause the aeroplane to turn about either of the three rectangular axes at will."

New York, February 17.—Judge Hand to-day rendered opinion that "ailerons" are equivalent to general helicoidal warping through the whole plane, and will grant temporary injunction. Appeal being taken by Paulhan*s lawyer.

Newark Aero Show.

There will be an aeronautical division to the automobile show at Essex Troop Armory, Newark, N. J., February 19-26. This is being organized by the new Aeronautic Society of New Jersey. Full-sized machines will be there, as well as a large number of models, photographs, etc. To reach the show take Lackawanna R. R. to Roseville station, Newark.

Henry Ford, the automobile manufacturer, is taking a significant interest in aeroplane construction. This is also true of an officer of the Packard Motor Car Company, as well as of Alexander Winton, the automobile maker, and Dr. Lee De Forrest, the wireless man.

The Steingruber machine in Memphis is about finished, with the exception of the motor, for which the inventor is now waiting. The machine is really a kind of odd biplane, consisting of two planes below, one forward and one in the rear, with a plane above immediately over the opening between the other two. The control of the machine is to be by means of the latter upper plane. Underneath all is carried a canoe or boat hull of light construction, mounted on four wheels, which will enable landing on either land or water.

Morris Bokor, whose triplane was last summer rather a negative success, has just left for Austria at the bidding of the government, which has been watching his work through its consul here.

AEROPLANES, AIRSHIPS and BALLOONS

is

J

SAIL AT LOS ANGELES AERO SHOW

Upper—Paulhan's new Farman with three aboard — Lower—Curtiss winning short start contest

Washington Auto Show Has Aero Division.

It was not till the arrangements for the Washington Auto Show, held at Convention Hall, January 24. were well under way that it occurred to anyone to have an aeronautic end to the exhibition. There was a paucity of time, money and experience back of the promoters, but there was an abundance of enthusiasm and while the Washington Aero Club did not lend its aid there was a very good exhibit gotten together.

Robert Moore, chief mechanic for Emile Rerliner, the telephone man, had on view a monoplane much like the Bleriot in general appearence but weighing only 262 pounds all on. It is driven by an Adams Farwell motor with a single tractor propeller. The engine is rated at 36 h. p., but the Berliner shop is now turning out a 50 h. p. seven cylinder revolving motor that is to weigh only 150 pounds and this will be installed in the monoplane after it has been tried out with the smaller motor.

The lateral balance of the machine is practically automatic, the wings being set at a very small dihedral angle and kept in place with springs that will allow them to tilt slightly when air pressure is put on them. Mr. Moore says frankly that this is purely an experiment but that he thinks it worth trying. The workmanship of the machine throughout is good.

The monoplane of J. H. Smidley, which was tried tentatively at Bennings last year, has been entirely rebuilt and is quite as good looking a piece of work as the Moore mono-nlane. It has only an 18 h. p. engine but it i* ready for a trial and will be taken out as soon as the weather permits.

Rexford Smith, a patent attorney and old trick bicycle rider, has a biplane looking much like the Curtiss" but larger balance, with "'i automatic system for maintaining the lateral. It has not been tried out and the motor has not been fitted but there is a fair chance of it flying.

Besides the man-carrying machines there are a dozen models of different sorts, none of them strikingly new though there i« a small monoplane, on which the National Air-Craft Construction Company is now working at its shop here, that is rather different from anything that has actually flown. It is controlled laterally by tilting wings and has a main plane that is fluted fore and aft with the intention of the flutes acting' like the anti-skid chains on an automobile in case of a side dive.

There are four propellers on view, some by the company just mentioned and some by Spencer Heath of Washington. All of them are very fine specimens of mechanical work and designing.

The Church Aeroplane Co., of Brooklyn, has a lot of little flying models on exhibition, driven by rubber bands. All of them are fine pieces of work but are rather expensive as toys. The Eagle Kite Company also has quite a show of bird kites.

Some of the aeronautic exhibits are to be sent to Baltimore for the show there February 22 to 29.

Incorporations.

The Aeroplane Advertising Co-, Manhattan ; general advertising, etc. Capital, $15,000. Incorporators, Lee De Forest, No. 103 Park Ave.; Harry M. Horton, John J. Reilly, both of No. 59 West 44th St., all of New York.

American Aeroplane Co., No. 119 Market St., Wilmington, N. C, incorporated with $125,000 capital stock by F. A. Bissinger, W. B. Cooper, C. H. Dock and others to manufacture aeroplanes invented by David Palmgren.

Aerial Demonstration Co., of New York City, which proposes to construct airships. The company has a capital of $100,000 and the directors include W. E. Allen, W. Briggs, J. F. Gasby, John J. Harper and E. J. Fohan, of New York City.

Colfax Aeroplane Co., Colfax, Calif. Capital $50,000. Dan C. Gillen, Lyman Gilmore, Richard De V. Bessac, Dan A. Russell, incorporators.

Swivel Buggy and Wagon Co., Richmond, Va. Incorporators, A. W. Miller, John A. Robertson, G- J. Cawley. Charter includes flying machines.

F"leiss Equipment Co., Brooklyn. Manufacture airships, aeroplanes, balloons, etc. Capital, $100,oco. Incorporators, Charles E. Muller, No. 27 Willoughby St., Brooklyn; Beresford W. D. YVoodward, No. 590 Sixth St., Brooklyn ; Geo. Render, No. 133 Washington Market, New York; John P. Muller, Lake Hopatcong, N. J.

An Indianapolis company is being formed for the manufacture of aeroplanes of which Carl G. Fisher is expected to be the head. Three flying machines have already been sold. They are being built on the third floor of the Fisher Automobile Company garage and it has been inspected by many interested persons. Names of the men who will be associated with Fisher in this company have not been announced.

T. N. Sparling, Grafton, 111., has installed a new 30-h. p. water-cooled motor in his Bleriot-lype monoplane, and will make trials in Missouri, across from Grafton, in February and March. His apparatus is complete and he waits only for the ground to harden.

Another company is being formed for the manufacture of aeroplane engines. Members of this company are C G. Fisher, A. C. New-by, F. Ft. Wheeler, J. A. Allison, Howard Marmon, William G- Wall and E. A. Moross. Two separate companies have been formed for the reason that it is believed that the demand for engines will greatly exceed that for aeroplanes.

Pacific Aviation Company, Portland, Ore. H. W. Manning, W. M. Davis and Arthur I. Moulton are the incorporators. The capital stock is $50,000.

Preble-Rekar Airship Company, Portland, Ore. The officers of the new corporation are: C. W. King, president; Richard Martin, vice-president : Grant Phegley, treasurer, and F. H. Whitfield, secretary. C. H. Preble and J. J. Rekar are directors. It is the plan of the corporation to purchase or lease about four hundred acres of land adjacent to the city, where air craft of all descriptions will be brilt. The chief aim of the corporation, however, is to exploit the Preble-Rekar dirigible airship. It is expected the trial trip can be made early in May.

Aero Motion Company of America, St. I.ouis, Mo. Among the incorporators are H. Brussel. M. Seguin and J. P. Walsh. The nominal capitalization is $2,000.

M. Seguin. secretary of the Re-enforced Concrete Construction Company, is one of the leading promoters of the venture.

"It will be the only aeroplane factory and agencv outside of the Curtiss Company in America," said Mr. Seguin, who has been a resident of St. Louis for ten years.

"When we get started we intend to establish a factorv for the manufacture of heavier-than-air machines. My brother, Laurent Seguin, of Paris, is the designer of the Gnome machine."

Illinois Aeroplane Club. Chicago, giving exhibitions. Edward E. ITarbert, Oscar New-strom, John A. Montgomery.

The Aero Club, Philadelphia, Pa., has applied for a charter. It was stated that the pnruose of the organization is to make a special study of aerial navigation, and to bring together in social intercourse all aeronauts who find recreation from business cares by going up in the air.

The board of directors is composed of the following fivers: Arthur T. Atherholt. R. H. Beaumont, Louis J. Bergdoll, John Hickock, Lawrence Maresch, Rev. George S. Gassner, Henry S. Gratz, Robert D. Carson and Thomas Ttittie.

Boston Aeronautical Manufacturing Co., Boston Mass., to manufacture, sell and deal in inventions such as flying machines, etc.; capital stock, $500,000.

Aerial \ Navigation Syndicate. Sacramento, Calif.; capital, $10,000. Directors, F C. Ditt-mar,'James C. Clarke, Earl Wayne.

The Mathewson-Marr Aeroplane Co. of Den-

ver is being incorporated, with $50,000 capital stock, to manufacture aeroplanes on the design of Walter L. Marr. A building has been secured to manufacture the aeroplanes at popular prices. The office of the company will be at 1624 Broadway, Denver.

Patents.

Levi Felker, Washington, D. C, No. 942,629, Dec. 7, 1909. Aerial navigating apparatus. Structure comprises a housing mounted on wheels and provided with aeroplane steering rudders at the front and rear. Rotatable shafts have rods revolubly connected and wings are mounted at right angles to each other upon said rods.

Sydney S. Williams, Chicago, 111., No. 942,691, Dec. 7. 1909. Gyroscopic aeroplane, which consists of an attachment to any class of flying machine rather than a concrete structure. Several rotating gyroscopes are formed of hubs provided with blades without pitch and circumferential rims, so mounted that the axis of rotation may be inclined to various extents.

Thomas F. Dunn, New York, N. Y., No. 942,958, Dec. 14, 190a. Flying machine, or, more properly, a dirigible balloon, the essential features of which are a transversely arranged propeller shaft, having at its ends radially arranged blades and means for giving an oscillating or vibrating movement thereto.

James Means, Boston, Mass., Xo. 943,120, Dec. 14, 1909. Aerial navigation. The combination with lateral, longitudinal and vertical rudders of a pivoted lever having universal movement and adapted to be manually operated, to control the various rudders.

Amiel Bratschie. New Castle, Pa.. No. 943,732, Dec. 21, 1909. Airship, consisting of upper and lower revolubly mounted wind wheels, rotating in opposite directions, a series of wings arranged in said wheels, said wings being of peculiar configuration, designed as comprising substantially triangular walls, with closing flaps hinged to swing downwardly between the ends of the inclined walls of said wings when the rotation ceases so as to form parachutes of said wings.

Aaron W. H. Warshavsky, New York, N. Y.. Xo. 944,301, Dec. 28, 1909. Flying machine, comprising a main frame, rotatable shafts mounted thereon, serving to oscillate wings by means of cams and pins mounted on the shafts. Means are also provided for adjustably timing the oscillation of the wings so as to maintain corresponding wings on the same side of the machine in parallel planes.

Court Enjoined Aero Club.

The day of the meeting held on Monday, February 7, of the Aero Club of America for the voting on the proposed new scheme of incorporation, constitution and by-laws. Judge Gerard signed an order restraining proxv voting and ordering that those members of the opposition forces who were dropped

Cortlandt F. Bishop

from membership just previous to the annual meeting be reinstated and allowed to vote, that those who have not been legally elected to membership by having their names sent to the other members be restrained from voting at this meeting, and ordering the books of the Hub open to the inspection of the insurgents.

This order was granted on the application of Thomas A. Hill and Gutzon L. M. Bor-glum. Trial of this suit, brought to declare the annual meeting illegal, as well as trial of a suit instituted by William J. Hammer will come up probably in March, it is stated. The Court at the same time denied the Hill-Bor-glum request for the restraining of the holding of the meeting on the by-laws. As soon as the opinion of the Judge was given on the bench the insurgents got out literature to the members and on the morning of the day of the meeting Mr. Bishop, the president of the club, and against whom the suits have been brought, endeavored to get an order to show cause why the insurgents Hill and Borglum should not be held in contempt for getting out the circular containing the Judge's orders before the actual signing of the order. The request of Mr. Bishop was denied.

At the February 7 meeting a large majority vote carried the proposed new plans, which are mentioned below. The insurgents claim that the new scheme is not a legal method of reorganization as well as a poor one and say that the new plan cuts off what little rights the members may have had under the old by-laws. Unless new actions are brought by the insurgents, or a compromise is reached, it may be presumed that the new plan will be carried into effect.

may compromise.

It is known that prominent members of the club from both sides of the controversy have already been discussing the prospect of a settlement of the differences, with indeterminate results.

reorganization plan.

The report of the reorganization committee contains substantially the following recommendations, which were adopted at the meeting mentioned before.

(1). The name of the present stock corporation '"Aero Club of America'' in which the stock is owned by five members, to be changed to "Aero Corp. I.im.," hereinafter called the "corporation."

   
 

f

Thomas A. Hill

(2). A membership corporation to be formed with the name "Aero Club of America," hereafter called the "club."

(.'»». The shares of stock in the "corporation" to be assigned to the "club."

(4). The stock of corporation to be voted pursuant to direction of board of governors of the "club" who shall select the directors for the "corporation."

(,5). The "club" to acquire and take over assets of "corporation" except $500 representing paid up eapital of corporation. All exhibitions and contests to he conducted by the "corporation." Stock of "corporation" to lie increased as may be required, such additional stock to be acquired and owned by the club.

WHAT THE INSURGENTS WANT.

The main plea of the rebels is for greater participation by the members in the affairs of the club. They also object, as before stated, to the method of reorganization. Ajt the meeting they presented, after hasty preparation as a temporary remedy even with the new plan, some amendments which are mentioned below:

Amendment making it obligatory upon the club to send out a call for a meeting to amend constitution when application for same is signed by at least 25 members.

Giving members right to have meetings other than annual when 15 members make application for same.

Having monthly meetings for transaction of business and Interchange of views, etc.

Business involving other than ordinary expenditures or affecting the policy of the club to be brought before the members.

The election of all governors and officers by the members.

Nominations for governors and officers to be printed on one ballot to avoid publicity for each member's vote and preventing the use of various colored ballots to intimidate voters, as was done in the annual election.

Give members opportunity to protest "for cause" any name proposed for membership.

Non-suspension or expulsion of members except by a three-fourths vote of the members at a meeting at which at least 50 are present, and giving such members opportunity to have copy of charges and chance to be heard. New by-laws provide for expulsion by directors.

The exercise of parliamentary procedure at the meetings so that members may not be improperly deprived of the privilege of speaking.

WANT CLUB TO FULFILL ITS STATED PURPOSE.

The insurgents want the club to be more active in aeronautics and try to advance the art. They want to have regular members' meetings, with talks, to arouse enthusiasm; the appointment of various committees to take up aggressive steps forward; the end of autocratic power of the board; the forming of a library on aeronautics; and in general the participation by the members in the affairs of the club. They say that no members' meetings are held and nothing affecting the policy of the club ever comes before the members for unrestricted discussion. They want the club reincorporated on broad lines as a stock company, as has been done already by three other clubs, notably the Cleveland aero club, of which Alexander Winton is the head. Each member in that club receives a share of stock which gives him full voting power, in person or by proxy, and affords the individual member such rights as are provided for by stock corporation law. Personal liability in case of suits for large damages which may grow out of contests or exhibitions is thus limited, whereas, it is claimed, under present conditions, each member is peronally liable under certain conditions for his share of any debts or damages.

The insurgents also claim that the meeting of February 7, at which the new by-laws were ratified, was without warrant in law and state that any attempt to take advantage of the same will be met by further actions in the courts.

Lectures.

"Balloons and Ballooning from a Practical Standpoint," was the subject of the lecture which Albert Bond Lambert, vice-president of the Aero Club of St. Louis, gave on January 13. He was followed by E. Percy Noel with an illustrated talk on air travel in general. The audience was the Association of Mathematics and Science Teachers of St. Louis. The members were anxious to know something about aeronautics so as to be able better to answer the questions of their scholars and to be able to speak in the class room with a general knowledge of the subject. They were extremely interested listeners, taking notes in abundance, and after the stereopticon views asked Mr. Lambert many questions.

Aero Books.

Prof. Joseph Hidalgo, of the State University of California, lectured a short while ago on the "History of Aerial Navigation" before the Pacific Aero Club, and his lecture has now been incorporated into a neat booklet. The chapters cover balloons and parachutes, scientific aerostation work, dirigibility of balloons, military ballooning, foreign dirigibles, flying machines, Wright aeroplane, flying machines in warfare, etc. The various machines built in and around San Francisco are described and illustrated.

The "A B C of Aerial Navigation" is the attractive .name of the latest publication on aeronautics, and is, as its name implies, an elementary treatise covering balloons, dirigibles and flying machines. It is by Victor W. Page, M. E., the mechanical expert of the New England Automobile Journal, and is a compilation of reprints from that magazine. The various well-known motors are described and illustrated, there is a chapter on the various devices employed for obtaining stability, construction details, etc.

At cTWorris Park

ACTIVITY at Morris Park has waned somewhat during the extreme cold weather. The Beach machine has been taken to the inventor's home in Bridgeport, where he is building a smaller monoplane along the lines of the Bleriot.

W. J. Diefenbach is still working on his large biplane, which is nearly completed. Louis Rosenbaum is also completing his small monoplane, equipped with a Curtiss 8-cylinder air cooled motor. Lindsay is changing his motor into a water cooled affair. Just when he will try his machine is impossible to determine.

Joke?—Who should have been the first man Biblically reported to have been connected with a flyoplane? Aaron-ought.—Walter Levick.

AERONAUTICS March, 1910

WITH THE BALLOONISTS

Fourteen in Balloon Race.

Fourteen balloons have already been entered for the international balloon race, the date of which will have to be set by March i. Denmark will have a balloon—the first _ time that Denmark has ever appeared in an international race.

The list is as follows: Denmark i, France 3, Germany 3, Italy 2, Switzc rland 2, United States 3. England has not entered.

St. Louis, Omaha, Denver and Kansas City all are bidders for the race. The cup which Mr. Mix won from Switzerland last fall is still in Switzerland—at least this country has not yet been able to get it away from that country as the last holder.

Balloon Trophies Awarded.

Accomplishments in aeronautics during the past season and expectations of what is to happen the coming year were discussed at a meeting of the Aero Club of New England January 24 at the Boston City Club. The meeting was notable because of the presentation of two trophies to H. Helm Clayton, of Canton. These were the Boston Herald and Fitchburg trophies, and were won by Mr. Clayton's trip from Fitchburg to Winchester, his landing being the nearest to Boston Common during the year. Both trophies will be. offered for competition during 1910. About fifty guests were present, and Charles J. Glidden presided.

The Boston Herald trophy was presemcd to Mr. Clayton by Dr. William R. Ellis.

The Fitchburg trophy was presented by C. F. Wilson, secretary of the board of trade of that city.

Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, director of Biue Hill Observatory, spoke on "A Contribution of the Aerologist to the Aeronaut," and said in part:

"The Blue Hill station is the first station in the world at which aerial observations

FOREIGN

Algiers.

aeroplane burns up.

M. Oleschlaegers began the second week of January with a 54 min. flight in a Bleriot machine at Oran, over the town, in the course of a series of exhibitions. On the 16th he flew for 1 hr. 5 min. 12 2-5 sec. On the 20th his foot caught in steering gear, machine dropped, hit telegraph wires, rebounded to railroad track, caught fire, destroyed.

Australia.

The first aeroplane flights in Australia have recently been made by a Wright aeroplane under the auspices of a theatrical concern. It has, however, made but short jumps. No derrick is used, the machine being mounted on three wheels.

Bohemia.

A Wright aeroplane was used in exhibition flights at Prague the first week of January.

have been made by kites in which much has been done by Mr. Clayton. By flying kites to an elevation of three miles with recording instruments valuable data have been gathered simultaneously on wind velocity, temperature and humidity. It has been found that at moderate altitudes in the free air the wind velocity is lowest during the, afternoon and highest at night.

"An investigation has been made also of the trade winds and of the upper return trades by a French colleague and myself, and if Count Zeppelin crosses the ocean it will be by way of the northeast trades, returning to Europe in the higher southwest current, thus profiting iv the prevailing winds as a low-powered steamship does. Experiments have also shown that a balloon leaving the coast with an offshore wind may return on a breeze blowing from the sea. I think that in the future aerol-ogists will be found not easily dispensable in aeronautics, and will, in fact, be made more of than to-day when weather observations can bi put to a more practical use."

Manager Chester I. Campbell, of the first national exhibition of aeronautical craft, said that the exhibit would include eight large aeroplanes, five gliders, seventy-five models, three balloons, three dirigibles, five exhibits of engines and over 3,000 pictures, with other fcj hibits promised. The other speakers included President L. R. Speare, of the American Anirmobile Association; Professor William H. Pickering, of Harvard; J. Fortescue, secretary of the Bay State Automobile Association; W. H. Gannett, of Augusta, Me.; E. C. Brown, secretary of the Harvard Aeronautical Association; J. J. Van Valkenburgh, of South Framingham; Dr. F. L. D. Rust, A. V. Wilson, of Bar Harbor, Me.; A. A. Merrill, in charge of the aeronautical division at the Boston Y. M. C A.; Alfred R. Shrig-ley, secretary of the Aero Club of New England, and William Carroll Hill, of the Associated Press.

LETTER

Canada.

canadian aeroplanes' success.

Successful flights have been made with the "Baddeck I" and the "Baddeck II," the first two machines to have been built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co.

These are practically duplicates of one another. The supporting wings are 40 ft. spread, exclusive of the balancing rudders or "wing tips," and 7 ft. deep at the middle, gradually decreasing to 5 ft. at the extremities. The wings are spaced 6 ft. 3 in. at the centre, the spacing gradually decreasing towards both ends to 5 ft.

The general form has been characteristic of all machines, including those of the Aerial Experiment Association. The bow control is double-decked, and hinged 15 ft. from the front edge of the main surface. Its planes have the following dimensions: 12 ft. spread by 28 in. depth, and are spaced 30 in. apart.

These also are the exact dimensions of the longitudinal balancer, or tail, which is secured 11 ft. distant from the rear edge of the main planes. The vertical rudder is hinged between the surfaces of the tail, and, although small, serves amplj when called upon.

The wing tips have approximately the shape of a quadrant with a radius of 5 ft. There is one of these placed at the extremity of each main surface, the two at the starboard end working together and the port pair acting in a similar manner. They are operated by wires connected to a movable shoulder-brace which fits around the operator's back and shoulders.

The front control and the rear vertical rudder are operated by a single wheel. The third or front wheel of the chassis is attached so that it is capable of being turned right or left, as in a tricycle.

A single propeller of 7 ft. 8 in. diameter with an average pitch of 6 ft. is used'. This is driven by chain drive in a ratio of 3 :5 from a 40 h. p. Kirkham motor. This engine is an automobile motor, six-cylinder and water-cooled, of standard make, and has given every satisfaction possible, developing 40 h. p. at 1,400 r. p. m., and 48 h. p. at 2,000 r. p. m.

The radiator used is one of their own design, and consists of 30 tubes, so arranged that they give, apart from their cooling properties, the greatest lift possible with the least drift. These tubes are 7 ft. G iu. long, and 3 in. wide, and 3-32 in. thick, and they have the same fore and aft curve as that given to the main surfaces. Such a form of radiator is practically self-supporting, even Including the water carried.

At present, the machine is simply being tested on a small field at Baddeck. and although many flights were made this fall, the inventors are not prepared to publish much concerning them just now. They have to rely on ice for good "grounds." and are waiting for the large bay there to freeze over when they hope to get in some good flylug. A fifteen-mile circular flight with fourteen complete turns was made a few days ago.

Egypt.

On January 27 Latham fell with his Antoinette at Heliopolis, where a meet is on. The monoplane was wrecked.

On February 0, H. Hayden Sands, an American pilot of an Antoinette, was reported to have beaten a world speed record.

England.

AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF EXGLAXD TAKES BOLD STET.

The council of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain is addressing an official letter to the press warning the public against investing money in aeronautical businesses, or paying premiums for instruction in aeronautics, without first making thorough investigation. It is hoped that this will have a good effect.

FIRST DETAILS OF ENGLAND'S BIGGEST AIRS HIT.

The new government dirigible No. 2A will make its first trials next month. It will be of 72,000 cuhic feet capacity, with a Green motor of 100 horse-power driving two propellers, the blades of which are so attached as to enable the pitch to be altered at will. The "empennage" will, it is gathered, be rather more elaborate than in the preceding models. The present only airship in England, the "Baby," is to be lengthened by 24 feet. The envelope will be cut in half and that length added in the middle.

Lieut. Dunne's aeroplane is now undergoing trials at the Aero Club's grounds in the Isle of Sheppey. It is a biplane with the somewhat startling peculiarity of possessing no forward governor or tail. Its planes are crescent-shaped, and at the rear corners of the top plane are two "wing-tips" by which the entire control is effected. The motor is a 50 horse-power Green, driving two propellers, one on each side at the back of the planes. The spread of the planes is about 46 feet, and the depth 5% feet. His object in building this machine, which is the fifth he has constructed, is to try to obtain automatic stability. The planes

have a very big negative curve at their forward

edge.

A very large company is starting in the Midlands for the manufacture of flying machines and dirigible balloons and all appliances. " Beyond the fact that it is to have a large capital nothing further is known.

France.

LATHAM GOES UP 3,100 FEET.

Though outflown by Paulhan at Los Angeles, still Latham's feat with his Antoinette, on January 7, going to a height of 1,000 meters, was a great one. Its duration was 42 :11 2/5.

TUPIL MAKES 1%-IIOUR TWO-MAN FLIGHT-NEW

WOULD RECORD.

Van den Born, one of the latest of Henry Far-man's pupils, flew at Chalons on January 5 for 1 h. 1G m. On the following day he and Farman flew together for 20 kil. On the Sth Van den Born came down account of carburetor trouble, after 56 min. Other flights were made on succeeding days of half-hour length. On the 23d he made a crosscountry flight of 20 miles.

On January 31 he was up with a passenger 1 h. 4S m. 50 s., covering 151 kil. This beats Orville Wright's world record with passenger.

' ANOTHER 1%-HOCR TWO-MAN FLIGHT.

M. Eflmoff. an II. Farman pupil, was up over an hour at Chalons on January 21. On the 26th he was up for 53 mins.

ALMOST BEATS WORLD'S RECORD JUST MADE.

And again, this time with a passenger, on January 31, for 1 h. 48 min. 30 s., covering 15S kil.

Lieut. Camermau, another H. Farman student, a military officer appointed to this duty by the government, has started in on successful flying.

WOMAN HAS ACCIDENT.

.Mile. Dntrieux, who is practicing with a Santos-Dumont. had an accident on January 21. The machine suddenly shot head down and regained perpendicular after striking the ground. The young lady was unhurt.

Maurice Farman started from Orleans to fly back to Chartres (see last issue), but ran into fog after going 38 kil. and had' to land.

The Lebaudy Brothers, builders of the famous dirigibles, are to manufacture monoplanes.

Sommer has finished the biplane of his own design and had first successful trials.

Count Lambert has fitted a cellular tail to his Wright machine.

FETTERED, TO FLY MACHINE.

Houdini. the "Handcuff King," who quickly frees himself when handcuffed and fettered by chains, has bought a Voisin machine and has been practising. As soon as he is better skilled he will be handcuffed on starting and expects the machine to guide itself until he can free his hands.

70 H.T. WRIGHT MOTOR.

The Wright Bros.' motor is now produced in 70 h.p. size, one having been built for a hydroplane by Bairiquand and Marre, the French builders of Wright motors.

During 1900 Paulhan's accumulated flights, in both Voisin and Farman machines, totaled over 654 kil. (406 miles) : Tissandier, with his AVright machine, 315 kil. (196 m.).

Hungary.

Hungary is beginning to have real flights. A Dr. Kutassy has recently bought a Maurice Far-man aeroplane and succeeded in flying at Buda pesth for about 5 kil.

Ireland.

The first flight in Ireland has been made, in January, by 11. G. Ferguson, of Belfast, with a monoplane suggestive of the Bleriot. It has a supporting surface of 192 sq. ft.. 34 ft. spread, total length 3D ft.. 35 h. p. S-cylinder J. A. I* engine, weight 020 lbs., wings set at dihedral angle of 4 deg.; angle of incidence in flight 7 deg.

Turkey.

The army is to have three aviation sections. (Continued on page 115)

Los Angeles c^Vleet

(.Continued from page 81) NOTES OF THE MEET.

One item of particular interest at this time, in view of the suit brought by the Wright Brothers against the Curtiss company, was r straight flight by Hamilton in a Curtiss machine with the rear vertical rudder tied. This was to demonstrate that it is not necessar to use the rudder in conjunction with the use of the wing tips in flying the Curtiss machine.

One impression received was that the largf heavy aeroplane will supplant the light racing type as a commercial possibility.

One noticed also that Paulhan "banked" In''

ist Day, January 10.

The meet opened with a decided French accent, inasmuch as Paulhan, in his old Farman, was the only aviator to make a complete circuit of tht course (1 01-100 miles) during the day.

Glenn Curtiss started events by making a qualifying flight on a brand new machine. Chas. F. Willard. with the Curtiss machine of the Aeronautic Society, in a pretty flight, made the fastest time of the day, doing a mile in 1.23.

Paulhan's appearance was made in his usual spectacular manner. He sneaked out of his tent and without the formality of bundling up before the grand stand, he sailed away up the back stretch, around the turn, and bore down upon the crowd in full career.

Curtiss asain got off the ground for 1.125 mile in his 8-cylinder Rheiuis winner, going this distance in 1 min. 51 sec. Although he did some nice cautious flying, he lacked the brilliant daring of the Frenchman, who made three flights of 10%, 4 Ms and 33/t miles, the last at an elevation of 400 ft.

C. K. Hamilton in his Curtiss made a flight of I1/! miles in poor time.

To the presence of Cortlandt Field Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, is due some well advised and necessary changes in the prize list.

Knabenshue and Beachy brought out their dirigibles. The former had a brush with Paulhan in which the Frenchman easily passed him, going two feet to his one.

BALLOON'S.

All asceuts were made from Huntington Park, near Los Angeles.

The lack of interest in ballooning was disappointing, but was not to be expected, considering the distance to the grounds and the superior attraction of the aeroplanes. Clifford B. Harmon's beautiful Baldwin silk balloon "Xew York," 80,000 ft., made a short ascent with Geo. B. Harrison, aide, and four passengers to Colegrove, distance 12 miles.

Frank J. Kanne in the "Peoria," 40.000 cu. ft., followed, with ,7. C. Mars, aide, to Colegrove, distance 12 miles.

2nd Day, January n.

The day opened with a gusty 20-mile wind which deterred all but Paulhan from venturing forth. He made three flights of 8% miles, 5 and 2% miles, and although later Curtiss broke two world's records, the smiling Frenchman by his splendid Work was the redeeming feature of a poor afternoon's program.

CURTISS MAKES WORLD RECORDS.

In the contest for rising in the shortest distance, Curtiss easily broke the old world's record by getting away in 98 ft. The best Paulhan could do was 191 ft.

In the contest for the quickest time in rising from the start of motor, Curtiss made a new record of 6 2-5 sec. from the first explosion of the engine. Paulhan's time in a Farman was 12 2-5 sec., and in a Bleriot 35 sec. Starting from line after engine was warmed up, Curtiss got off in 5 3-5 sec.

Willard made a beautiful descent in a trial for landing on a 20 ft. square, giving him 100 points.

machine in making corners, while Curtiss barely swerved from the horizontal.

THE SHOW DAY BY DAY.

Following is a daily history of the first b'r successful flying exhibition held in America It will, no doubt, afford a stimulus, much needed, to aviation in this country, and it is likely that the East will follow in the holding of similar spectacles. But success depends outside of weather conditions, solely on the aviators making a good showing. Each succeeding affair will have to furnish something bigger than its predecessor. The public will expect past performances at least to be equaled, if not surpassed.

Miscarol brought out one of the two cross-channel type Bleriots, but only succeeded in breaking a wheel after making % of a mile in poor time.

Paulhan took the other Bleriot and managed to cover 2 miles in 5 min. 6 sec. Altogether the Bleriots have made a miserable showing thus far. Though beautiful pieces of workmanship, they were almost unmanageable owing to the disuse of the warping device (Wright suit) and the inexperience of the aviators with this machine, though Paul-ban's showing in the strong wind was very creditable. Excepting Paulhan, the widely advertised Frenchmen seemed to be only mechanicians.

Hamilton, turning too low in a short flight, struck the ground and damaged his front control.

Prof. T. S. Zerbe's heavy multiplane proved too slow and heavy to get off the ground.

Edgar S. Smith, tuning up the motor on his Langley type machine, was struck on the head by the propeller and knocked unconscious.

55-MILE SPEED WITH PASSENGER.

Curtiss was the first to take up a passenger, carrying Jerome S. Fanciulli for a flight of a mile, his Aerometer registering the high speed of 55 miles per hour. On a second trip he carried C B. Harmon. The passenger seat is placed on the left side of the aviator, and while off center it appeared to make no difference in control. Paulhan made one passenger flight.

/ BALLOONS.

IV. .7. Kanne, M. L. McKeever and another, in the '/Peoria," to Florence, distance 10 miles.

3rd Day, January 12.

The events are so arranged that there will be no fixed program for each day, but every day the aviators may try for any one of the prizes if they are ready with their machines and the weather is good.

PAULHAN MAKES NEW HEIGHT RECORD.

Paulhan was again the star, breaking all records for height. The figures of the engineering squad were 4,105 ft., while the aneroid on the machine read 4,600 ft. Paulhan was 43 min. 16 1-5 sec. ii reachiug this altitude, and but 7 min. 30 sec. In descending. This record was made with a new tjpe Farman just assembled. The total duration of the flight was 50 min. 46 1-5 sec.

Curtiss, with Harmon's machine, made a record for the course of 2 rain. 13 3-5 sec, only to break it with Willard's "Golden Flyer," which made it in 2 min. 12 2-5 sec. The best lap by Paulhan was 2 min. 25 3-5 sec. His 5-lap trial for the course was 12 min. 23 1-5 sec., unofficial by reason of the fact that judges had not been posted at the "pylons" to see that there was no cutting of corners.

Hamilton, after considerable engine trouble, got away, and after a circuit of the course took a short cross-country trip over the dirigible tents. Clifford B. Harmon got off the ground for about 100 ft. in a maiden, flight on his Curtiss, of which he took delivery at Los Angeles.

The day was a tiresome repetition of the preceding one with the exception of Paulhan's high night and a short passenger flight of the Frenchman.

BALLOONS.

C. B. Harmon, Geo. B. Harrison, aide, and five other passengers in the "New York," landed (after being towed) in the center of the aviation field. Distance 6 miles.

C. F. Willard, Geo. Duessler, and four others, in the new "Dick Ferris," 80,000 ft., landed at Santa Monica. Distance 18 miles.

J. C. Mars arid two passengers, in the "Peoria," to near Palma, distance 10 miles.

4th Day, January 13.

In the 10-lap speed contest Curtiss beat Paulhan by only 5 sec. in the distance of 16.11 miles. Curtiss's time was 24 min. 54 2-5 sec.: Paulhan's was 24 min. 59 2-5 sec.

Willard took the honors for leaving the ground and stopping the machine in a 20 ft. square, showing fine control over his Curtiss.

PAULHAN CABBIES TWO OTHERS. v

Paulhan again saved the day from being dull, his spectacular passenger flights taking the crowd's fancy. He carried up eight passengers in two hours, in one flight carrying two besides himself.

The remarkable effect of an aeroplane getting in the wake of another was well shown to-day. Paulhan cut in ahead of Curtiss during the latter's 10-lap trial, and Curtiss's machine was seen to drop like a stone In the downwardly moving air of Paulhan's wake.

BALLOONS.

J. C. Mars, K. L. Bernard and three others, in the "Lo6 Angeles," 82,000 cu. ft., to near Burbank, 31 miles.

5th Day, January 14.

Paulhan again the whole show, making a 21% mile cross country flight over San Pedro harbor and return, and making a one-lap track passenger record of 2 min. 30 sec.

Chas. K. Hamilton made a course record of 3 min. 36 2-5 sec. in a trial for slowest time for one lap. Willard's slowest was 3 min. 11 1-5 sec.

Curtiss lowered his own one-lap track record, doing the lap in 2 min. 12 sec. Paulhan made the lap in 2 min. 21 1-5 sec. Willard made two laps In 3 min. 04 1-5 sec. and 3 min. 01 2-5 sec. respectively in the fast lap contest.

Hamilton in an altitude trial made 364.5 ft., up 12 min. 33 3-5 sec; Curtiss, 247.6 ft.

To-day saw the first official circuit of the course in a Blerlot, Paulhan going the lap In 2 min. 48 sec. It was the only lap made by a monoplane during the meet.

Roy Knabenshue made a dirigible record of 5 min. 10 2-5 sec. for one lap, and in a race with the Beachy airship made It in 6 min. 29 3-5 sec; Beachy in 7 min. 50 sec.

BALLOONS.

Geo. B. Harrison, alone, in the "Los Angeles," qualifying trip for pilot license. Distance, 3 miles.

6th Day, January 15.

Weather bad. Raining. Track heavy. Mlscarol practising with one of the Bleriots broke one of the wings and severely damaged the chassis.

The only Interesting event of the day was the brush between Paulhan and Hamilton during the latter's 10-lap trial In which the Frenchman with his more powerful motor easily passed Hamilton. Hamilton's time for the ten laps was 30 min. 34 3-5 sec.

Curtiss, Hamilton, Willard and Paulhan each made qualifying rounds.

The Knabenshue dirigible manoeuvred at a height of 60 ft., dropping bombs In a 20 ft. square— though the lesson to be gained at this low elevation Is problematical. He made one lap of the track in 5 min. 33 sec, and Beachy one lap in 5 min. 21 sec.

yth Day, January 16.

High wind and rain. Paulhan made several flights, one with two passengers, and also went after the record of Curtiss for short distance in rising, but best he could do was 118.3 ft.

Hamilton tried to beat Curtiss for quick start; his time was 9 1-5 sec.

Hamilton, Curtiss and Willard each made a flight and were deserving of much credit for attempting to fly in the strong wind with their light machines. A feature was Curtiss's terrific speed going with the wind.

The Knabenshue and Beachy airships, after attempting to buck the wind, gave up and went back to their sheds.

BALLOONS.

"Peoria," J. C. Mars and two passengers, to Boyle Heights, 9% miles.

"New York," Geo. B. Harrison and two passengers, to Boyle Heights, distance 8 miles.

"Dick Ferris," Geo. Dressier and four passengers, to Sierra Madre, 13% miles.

8th Day, January 17.

TWO HOUR FLIGHT.

But for a leaky gasoline tank, Paulhan might have to-day made a new American record for endurance. He had covered 75.77 miles in slightly less than two hours when he came down by reason of a leak in his gas tank. Total time in air, 1 hr. 58 min. 32 sec. Hamilton also tried for the endurance record, and had covered 12 laps, 19.45 miles, in 39 min. 00 2-5 sec, when it was seen that an upright on his machine had slipped from its socket and he was flagged.

Curtiss again went after the 10-lap record, cutting more than a minute off his old mark, doing the distance in 23 min. 43 3-5 sec

Hillery Beachy made several short jumps in the Gill-Dosh machine, but lacked skill in raising from the ground.

Masson, one of the foreigners, tried out a Far-man, and with a little more practice should be able to cover the course.

Paulhan, for the first time, tried his hand on an American machine (Willard's Curtiss), but did not succeed In making more than jnmps.

BALLOONS.

J. C. Mars, in the "Dick Ferris," with three passengers, to Moneta Ave., three miles.

9th Day, January 18.

HOUR FLIGHT CROSS COUNTRY.

Paulhan's magnificent 45% mile cross-country flight to Santa Anita race track and return was naturally the greatest event of the week, arousing enthusiasm admixed with awe that eclipsed that ou the day of his high flight. It was wonderful to see him gradually growing smaller and finally disappear against the white of snow on the background of mountains. His return was equally awesome from the time he was a tiny dot, high in the air above the mountains, till the moment of his landing. It was the supreme happening of the meet. Elapsed time, 1 hr. 2 min. 42 4-5 sec.— within 17 1-5 sec. of the Cody record. Distance each way, 22% miles. Greatest height 600 meters, or 1,988.8 ft. Engine behaved well. Paulhan viewed the country as he flew, using field glasses.

Short flights by the other aviators completed the day.

Trials for rising in short distance: Curtiss, 148 ft. 9 In., 114 ft. 6 in. ; Hamilton, 154 ft. 9 In.

BALLOONS.

J. C. Mars and two passengers in the "Peoria" to Boyle Heights, 6 miles.

Geo. B. Harrison and C. F. Willard, in the "New York," to Aviation Field, 9 miles.

10th Day, January 19.

•Paulhan broke the world's record cross-country passenger flight to-day, taking Mme. Paulhan a dls-

tance of 21 % miles for the round trip. Elapsed lime, 33 min. 45 2-5 sec, leaving Aviation Field and circling over Kedondq and llermosa Beaches.

Later he carried C. B. Harmon in same direction; distance about 17% miles. Track passenger flights did not equal his previous record.

Lieut. Paul YV. Beck, of the Signal Corps, who was ordered to attend and report on the flights, was taken up with Paulhan for three circuits of -he course, and an attempt made to throw bombs in a 20 ft. square at an altitude of about 250 ft. First bomb went 58 ft. over square and 47 ft. to right. Second went 113 ft. over. A third fell 00 ft. to the right of a line. Lieut. Beck had worked out a table on the distance before target that the bombs should be released, but in the calculations he had figured on the machine going at a higher speed than it did.

In trials for height Hamilton took honors, making a daring ascent of 530.5 ft. in 8 min. 04 2-5 sec.; in a second flight he went up to 455 ft., up 14 min. 53 2-5 sec. Hamilton tried again for endurance, but came down after G.02 miles; up 11 min. 01 1-5 sec. In the one lap speed contest his time was 2 min. 47 2-5 sec.

Knabenshue and Beachy in a closely contested dirigible race, made new records for the course. Knabenshue, 5 min. 05 sec. ; Beachy, 4 min. 57 4-5 sec.

After flying the new Gill-Dosh biplane more than a mile and a quarter, Hill. Beachy descended too abruptly and partially wrecked the beautiful machine. It was his first real flight, and he did very well, considering.

BALLOONS.

J. C. Mars and five passengers, in the "Dick Ferris," 80,000, to Moneta Ave., 4 miles.

Geo. B. Harrison and three passengers, in the "Los Angeles," to Boyle Heights, 7 miles.

F. J. Kanne and two passengers, in the "Peoria," to near Huntington Park, 2 miles.

nth Day, January 20.

CURTISS MAKES 1 HR. 24 MIN. FLIGHT.

Curtiss on this, the last day of the meet, regained somewhat the good will of the audieuce, which had somehow, in the light of Paulhan's superior performances, grown a bit cold in its enthusiasm. Curtiss had made 33 1-5 laps (53.38 miles) in 1 nr. 25 min. 5 sec, when a broken rib on the machine forced him to descend, leaving Paulhan still flying. The Frenchman covered forty laps in I hr. 49 min. 40 4-5 sec, when darkness compelled him to descend. Curtiss lapped him several times.

Hamilton proved the most nervy of the Curtiss operators, ascending in a height trial to 754.0 ft., and then started out on an unofficial cross-country flight to Gardena and back, about 6 miles. On returning, his crankshaft fortunately broke when nearly in the grounds, and he glided from a height of about 200 ft. into the field, landing safely after a flight of 25 min. 30 sec.

Willard and Masson each made a flight, the latter in the old Farman.

BALLOONS.

Clifford B. Harmon and Geo. B. Harrison, in the "New York," in a trial to set an official altitude record for Southern California, 11,100 ft. Descended at S. Hollywood. Distance 8 miles.

Prizes.

Prizes announced as awarded by the judges are :

FOR HEIGHT.

*$3,000—Louis Paulhan, 4,165 ft., 1st. $2,000—Chas. K. Hamilton, 626 ft., 2nd. $500—Not awarded.

ENDURANCE AND TIME.

$3,000—Louis Paulhan, 75.77 miles, 1 hr. 58

min. 32 sec, 1st. $2,000'—Glenn H. Curtiss, 37.05 (12 pylons)

miles, 1 hr. 25 min. 05 sec. $500—Chas. K. Hamilton, 19.44 miles, 39 min.

2-5 sec.

SPEED, TEN LAPS.

$3.000—Glenn II. Curtiss, 16.11 miles, 23 min.

43 2-5 sec, 1st. $2.000—-Louis Paulhan, 16.11 miles, 24 min. 59

2-5 sec, 2nd. $500—Chas. K. Hamilton, 16.11 miles, 30 min.

34 3-5 sec, 3rd.

THREE LAPS, WITH PASSENGER.

$1,000—Louis Paulhan, 4.83 miles, 8 min. 16 1-5 sec.

$500—No others contested. Not awarded.

FASTEST LAP.

$1,000—G. H. Curtiss, 1.611 mile, 2 min. 12 sec.

SLOWEST LAP.

$500—Chas. K. Hamilton, 1.61 miles, 3 min. 36 2-5 sec.

QUICKEST START FROM FIRST EXPLOSION.

*$250^-Glenn II. Curtiss, 6 2-5 sec, won.

START IN SHORTEST DISTANCE.

*$250—Glenn II. Curtiss, 98 ft., won.

STARTING AND LANDING IN SQUARE.

$250—Chas F. Willard won.

CROSS-COUNTRY.

$10.000—Louis Paulhan, 45% miles, 1 hr. 0 2 min. 42 4-5 sec, won.

RECORDS FOR COURSE.

*lleight, 4,165 ft., Louis Paulhan, January 12. Distance, 75.77 miles, Louis Paulhan, January 17. Endurance, 1 hr. 58 min. 32 sec, Louis Paulhan, January 17.

Speed, ten laps, Glenn Curtiss, 23 min. 43 3-5 sec, January 17.

Speed, one lap, Glenn Curtiss, 2 min. 12 sec, January 14.

Sueed. three laps, with passenger, Louis Paulhan,

8 min. 16 1-5 sec, January 13. Slow speed, one lap, Chas. K. Hamilton, 3 min.

36 2-5 sec, January 14. * Shortest distance in rising, Glenn Curtiss, 98 ft.,

January 11.

*Shortest time in rising, Glenn Curtiss, 6 2-5 sec, January 11. Cross-country, Louis Taulhan, 45% miles. Dirigibles, one lap. Lincoln Beachy, 4 min. 57 4-5

sec, January 19. Height for dirigibles, Roy Knabenshue, 1,656.9 ft Height for balloons, Clifford B. Harmon, 11,100 ft. * New world records. Judges.—Cortlandt Field Bishop, chairman ; H. La Y. Twining, vice-chairman; Lieut. Paul W. Beck, M. C. Neuner, Dick Ferris, William Stevens, A. L. Smith, G. B. Harrison, W. 1-1. Leonard, secretary and statistician. Timers, Whitley Jewel-r\ Co.

AERONAUTICS

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No. 32 MARCH, 1910 Vol. 6, No. 3

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Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postolfice

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a LAYMAN'S VIEW OF AERIAL LAW

By J. C. Howell.

(WARNER INSTRUMENT CO.)

WE have observed a good deal of comment in various papers as to the respective rights of aeronauts or aviators, and of the owners of real estate over which they may pass in flight. We would welcome a careful discussion of this subject, and to introduce it would like to offer these suggestions for your consideration. Coming as they do from a layman, they may seem unsophisticated to a lawyer, but if they evoke comment from some interested member of the legal profession they will serve their purpose.

With the exception of certain laws relating to mining properties in a few localities, we understand that ownership of the surface of the earth includes ownership above and below the surface to an indefinite extent. Any rights that apply to the surface apply equally above and below it. The courts of common law recognize every trespass as a violation of a property right, but refuse to award other than nominal damages where no actual damage is inflicted. Thus, if a property owner finds that a stranger is in the habit of crossing a corner of his property without doing the least harm, he may sue in a court of common law and recover nominal damages. A repetition of the offence will enable him to sue again with the same result. In this way his property right is established beyond question, but no sufficient remedy is afforded. Therefore a court of equity will take jurisdiction in such a case, and grant an injunction restraining the trespasser from repeating the offence,

recognizing the fact that the property owner is entitled to the quiet enjoyment of his land without being disturbed in it or obliged i bring repeated actions to secure immunity from molestation.

If this is a correct statement of affairs, it would seem that action might be brought against an aeronaut who had driven his machine above the property, and nominal damages collected. But is it not probable that an action brought in a court of equity to restrain an aeronaut from flying over the property would be met with the objection that as no injury was threatened or likely to result, no injunction would be granted?

There is of course a possibility that articles dropped or thrown from a machine passing overhead might do damage to person or property, but this is a danger that threatens equally all public property and all persons in it. Against this danger adequate safeguards can perhaps be found. It might be sufficient to require the registration of every apparatus capable of making a flight, and a report of the starting and finishing point as well as the time of each flight. By some such means, it would be possible to identify an individual who caused actual damage, and the common law courts already provide a sufficient remedy. We realize that these suggestions are extremely crude, and offer them, as first stated, only to elicit a discussion of the subject from gentlemen who are familiar with the technicalities of the problem.

Aero Club of Michigan Formed.

BY C. B. DU CHAR ME, SECRETARY.

r^E Aero Club of Michigan was given its first impetus by a meeting held July 10, 1909, for the purpose of considering ways and means of effecting a temporary organization. On this occasion 43 signified their intention of becoming members.

For several months nothing further was done, although by no means did this apparent lapse into inactivity indicate that the idea of forming an aero club had been abandoned by the early enthusiasts.

All that was needed to revive the project with greater enthusiasm than ever was the proper stimulus. This was to be furnished by a promised visit to Detroit of the Wright Brothers.

On the evening of December 16 it was found

that the above-mentioned gentlemen would be in the city and had consented to attend the meeting of the Aero Club.

Needless to say, the attendance of these gentlemen lent additional interest and enthusiasm to the gathering. F. S. Lahm favored us with a talk on free ballooning and illustrated same with a series of stereopticon views.

With their characteristic reticence both the Messrs. Wright declined to make speeches. At the conclusion of the meeting 57 of those present signed as charter members.

The net result of this gathering was the formation of a temporary organization looking towards a permanent one and an immense amount of enthusiasm aroused.

A few days after articles of association were adopted and the following officers and directors chosen: R. A. Alger, president; Wm. E. Metzger, vice-president; Winthrop

aeronautics

March, ipio

Withington, vice-president; R. D. Chapin, treasurer; C. B. Du Charme, secretary.

Plans are now being considered whereby a balloon station will be established in the early summer. Owing to the unfavorable location of Detroit in its proximity to the great lakes, it was deemed advisable from a standpoint of safety to establish a station for ascensions at some point in the state centrally located. At present both Jackson and Lansing, the state capital, are warm rivals for the honor.

The purchase of a four-passenger balloon is also being considered, the contract for which will be placed some time the latter part of this month.

While, of course, for the f.rst year at least more of the activities of the Aero Club of Michigan will be devoted to balloon ascensions by the members, the aeroplane will by no means be neglected.

President Alger has already placed his order with the Wrights for the first aeroplane of their design that will be delivered to the public. Needless to state, Mr. Alger's flights will be of great interest to the members.

In addition to the above there is a plan already under consideration by several members looking towards the formation of a syndicate to purchase an aeropla le. However, at this early date, particulars as to make and type of machine and members of the syndicate must of necessity be withheld.

To those of us who are more closely in touch with the club and its plans, in which positions we are able to judge of its future as indicated by the enthusiastic support with which it is meeting, there are none but the brightest predictions which can be made for the success and growth of the Aero Club of Michigan.

The Aeronautic Society has now established itself permanently at 1999 Broadway, New York, entrance just west of Broadway, on 68th St., and meetings will be held weekly again. Two each month will be informal gatherings, while on the second and fourth Thursdays there will be the regular formal meetings, with lectures and talks.

Hudson Maxim has been nominated for the new head, as, according to the by-laws no president can serve more than two years in succession. The other officers will be Lee S. Burridge, William J. Hammer, Louis R. Adams, Wilbur R. Kimball, C. F. Blackmore and Alva D. Lee, who will serve as assistant secretary. The board of directors also includes Thomas A. Hill, Dr. Lee De Forrest, Carlos De Zafra, Hugo C. Gibson, Dr. Dwight Tracy and Chas. W- Howell, Jr.

As usual, there was a large attendance at each of the past two meetings. On January 27 the evening was well filled with illustrated talks by Messrs. Orrel A. Parker, Wilbur R. Kimball, H. C. Brokaw, Hugo C. Gibson and E. L. Jones. On February 10 an interesting talk on his association in the work of Lilien-thal was given by Greeley S. Curtiss. Frank Van Anden gave his experiences with his

aeroplane and aerial-propeller-driven "scooter." W. Morrill Sage talked on model building.

The Curtiss aeroplane, belonging to The Aeronautic Society, flown by Charles F. Willard, having been disposed of, Mr. Willard has secured another Curtiss machine for exhibition work.

GROUNDS ON LONG ISLAND.

A lease is waiting to be signed by the Garden City Co., granting to the society a space on the Hempstead Plains adjoining, on the east, the Mineola fair grounds, with the privilege of flying over the Plains. This is where Curtiss and Willard made their flights while at Mineola. Until sheds can be erected, the one at Krug's Corner will be used.

The Aeronautic Society of Canada, which has its headquarters at Toronto, is going strong. It has now established a circulating library of books on the art for the use of its members, and it is doing this without charge for the loan of the books. But if a volume is retained by a borrower beyond the loan period, which is a week to three weeks, a fine of one cent for each day over the allowed period is inflicted.

This is an example that other bodies might well follow. Its great service is that it puts at the call of members many volumes which are now out of print, and practically impossible to obtain. It also enables them to examine new books to discover whether they are worth purchasing.

The Aero Club of the Y. M. C. A., of White Plains, N. Y., has been formed with the following officers: Harold Z. Carpenter, president; O. Guernsey, secretary; Bertram Hendrickson, treasurer. A glider is now being built and several model aeroplanes.

The Aeronautic Society of New Jersey was formed at an enthusiastic meeting at the rooms of the New Jersey Automobile and Motor Club on February 10. The new organization will be a regularly incorporated body and have complete management of its own affairs and elect its own officers. This is to be known as the Aviation Section of the automobile club. Dues $15 a year; for members of the automobile club dues are but $10.

Wilbur R. Kimball addressed the meeting, giving an illustrated lecture on aeronautics, showing moving pictures, as well, of the recent aviation meetings. At the conclusion of the lecture the plans of the society were announced and a goodly number joined and the prospects are fine for a healthy growth. One of the members has already offered the use of a very large open space and will erect as many sheds as may be necessary to house machines. Many of the 2,000 members of the automobile club are already building machines in and around Newark. The organization committee is composed of C. E. Fisher, F. E. Boland, J. F. Lanier, A. B. La Mas-sena and W. R. Kimball. W. Clive Crosby is president of the automobile club.

The Rochester Aero Club listened on

February 2 to a lecture by Carlos De Zafra on "Aeronautics." At the meeting Charles H. Ocumpaugh's offer of a silver cup was announced by the secretary. This is given to the man making the first flight from Cobb's Hill to a point in Monroe County to be determined upon. L. J. Seeley, oi the Elbridge Engine Co. reported on his visit as a delegate to the convention in St. Louis and said the prospects were good that the next convention would be held in Rochester. He has ordered a large balloon, 80,000 cu. ft. capacity.

The Aero Club of America will hold its fourth annual dinner at the St. Regis on March 24. The two international trophies held by an American balloonist and aviator will be displayed on that occasion and the presence of the two champions is expected.

A new aero magazine, called "Aircraft," is shortly to be started in New York by A. W. Lawson, the former editor of "Fly." This will have, in a way, the backing of the Aero Club, it is expected, as the club's paid assistant secretary, Charles Heitman, is interested financially in the project.

Aero Club of St. Louis. What was almost, but not quite, the annual re-election of officers of the Aero Club of St. Louis, took place on February 3. The only newcomer among the officers is Eugene Cuendet, honorary secretary, who has been elected to take the place of Albert Bond Lambert, who accepted the office of first vice-president after refusing the presidency. L. D. Dozier was re-elected president; G. H. Walker, second vice-president; D. C. Nugent, third vice-president, and H. N. Davis, treasurer. J. W. Kearney resigned as working secretary. His successor had not been appointed on February 5.

The club voted to Company A. Signal Corps, National Guard of Missouri, the sum of $200 for equipment.

At the annual meeting of the Aero Club of Washington, which was held January 10, after the election of officers, a resolution, to be presented to the President of the United States, was adopted, as follows:

"The Aero Club of Washington very respectfully requests the President of the United States to recommend that Congress take steps this year toward the systematic development of an aeronautical establishment proportionate to those of other nations."

The Secretary of War, in his last report, did not ask Congress for an appropriation for aviation experiments, but the Secretary does summarize the opinions of prominent military authorities on the question in the -alient points.

"But," says the Secretary, "whatever may be the influence of aerial locomotion upon the art of war, whether or not it will ever prove a valuable auxiliary to armies in the field, the fact must be recognized that all first-class powers, except the United States, are providing themselves systematically

with aerial fleets, Germany and France being notably in the lead."

TRADE REPORTS RAPID GROWTH

GOODRICH CO. MAKES AERO TIRES.

The B. F. Goodrich Company, of Akron, O., have established an Aeroplane Accessories Department to handle the demand for tires on aeroplane wheels. The Goodrich Company established an enviable reputation in the old bicycle days, progressed through the automobile stage, until now the flying machine demands rubber shoes. If boats wore (?) tires the Goodrich Company would make them, too. Nothing more to conquer!

NEW CURTISS AGENTS.

The Frank H. Johns Mercantile Co., of San Francisco have taken the California agency for the Curtiss aeroplane, having placed an order for eight machines.

E. Henry Wemme, of Portland, Ore., has taken the Oregon agency for the Curtiss machine and engaged George W. Kleiser as demonstrator.

An observer of Charles K. Hamilton's flight in a Curtiss machine with the rear vertical rudder tied, steering with the "wing tips," only states that the aviator had "perfect control" of the machine. This experiment was made to offset the argument of the Wrights that the rudder must be moved in conjunction with the use of the wing tips on the Curt:ss machine, thereby infringing one claim of their patent.

Jerome S. Fanciulli, sales manager of the Curtiss aeronautical department, is authority for the statement that in the near future a long-distance 8-cylinder aeroplane will be put out.

A new and enterprising firm, Lockhart & Doty, 1777 Broadway, New York, have entered the aeronautic field and will do general publicity, advertising and have established a booking agency, and will make bookings with a number of aviators for exhibtions at aviation meets, fairs and amusement enterprises for the coming season. They have a number of letters on file from promoters of fairs, amusements, etc., and also from a number of cities inquiring about aviators and machines for exhibition purposes the coming season.

Lockhart & Doty have recently taken up aeronautics, and will devote all their time to this work. They were formerly connected and are well known in automobile circles, Mr. Lockhart having had a long experience with the Berliet in New York City and the Auto car in Brooklyn, while Mr. Doty has been in touch with the racing erame, having been connected with Senator W. J. Morgan, the well-known automobile race promoter and automobile writer.

Aeronautic octet?

OFFERS REAL BENEFITS

All interested in the Art will be benefitted by becoming members.

DUES $10 PER ANNUM NO INITIATION FEE

NO association in the world has accomplished as much.

If you desire to learn what the Society has done for the Art in the last eighteen months, send for the brochure just published reciting the accomplishments from the formation of the Society in July, 1908, to December, 1909. It is practically a history of aviation in the U. S. during the above period.

For the purpose of increasing the sphere of usefulness the membership should be augmented. Every additional member advances the general good.

C. Address the Secretary for booklet and application blanks at P. O. Box 28, Station D, New York; or 1999 Broadway, where weekly meetings are held.

Through a misunderstanding we stated last ^ issue that Seguin & Co., St. Louis, were agents for the Farman and Bleriot machines. Seguin & Co. wish to make public the fact that this was erroneous.

WARNER AEROMETERS ON CURTISS MACHINES-

The Warner aeroplane, which has been on exhibition at the Philadelphia automobile show, coming there from the recent Corn Show at Des Moines, goes next to the Buffalo Automobile Show, February 14-19, thence to Cleveland, February 21-27; Pittsburg, March 26 to April 2, returning to the Warner factory at Beloit for further flights. All the Curtiss aeoplanes in the future will be equipped with Warner "aerometers."

STEVENS SELLS TWO BALLOONS.

J. H. Wade, Jr., of Cleveland, has purchased an 80,000-cu. ft. balloon of A. Leo Stevens. This new aerostat will be built of Continental fabric and will be the only balloon in this country built of this material.

The Aero Club of New England has purchased another new balloon of 1,600 cu. m. capacity to be called the "Boston II," from Mr. Stevens.

SHNEIDER MOTOR EXCHANGE.

Fred Shneider is getting out a catalogue of aeroplanes and supplies. He is to establish an exchange for motors and accessories, will build full-sized machines or models and undertake in general all work connected with the building of machines. Several orders are now on hand.

He is building a new machine for himself of the biplane type fitted with wheels instead of skids, which he has used thus far.

FACTORY IN SEATTLE.

Hamilton & Palmer, of 212 32d Ave., Seattle, have gone into the business of building gliders and aeroplanes for the market.

BOSCH MAGNETOS AT LOS ANGELES.

All the records at Los Angeles were made by Bosch equipped aeroplanes.

The magnetos used by the various machines were as follows: One Curtiss (8-cylinder engine), Bosch Magneto "DR8"; two Curtiss 4-cylinder machines, Bosch Magneto "DU4"; two Farman biplanes driven by 7-cylinder rotary engines (Gnome) equipped with Bosch Magnetos of the "FN" type.

Dirigible belonging to the U. S. government was equipped with Bosch Magneto "DAV," as was the Lincoln Beachy dirigible.

The 3-cylinder Bleriot which won no prize was battery equipped.

Not one Bosch equipped flying machine carried a battery; and they all started easily,

made fine showings and had not the slightest ignition trouble during the whole meet.

At Rheims the four great prizes were won by Bosch-equipped aeroplanes. Curtiss took the Gordon-Bennett cup and the Prix de la Vitesse, while Farman with his Gnome motor, which is Bosch-equipped, captured the Grand Prix de la Champagne et de la Ville and the Prix des Passagers.

Of the 20 contestants in these four contests, the motors of eight of the aeroplanes were equipped with Bosch magnetos, seven with batteries and six with other ignition apparatus.

At the Brescia meet, Curtiss won the Grand International Prize de Brescia and another minor prize, while Calderara, with his (Italian) Wright, Bosch-equipped biplane, captured four prizes. In other words, six of the nine event* were won by aeroplanes equipped with Bosch magnetos, and these contests included prizes for starting, passenger carrying, circling;, hieh flying for the day and other special prizes for the varying lengths. The results show that the Bosch ignition was found efficient and serviceable in all sorts of contests, and under greatly varying conditions.

In both these meets it is interesting to observe that the Bosch magneto was the ignition most favored, while the use of batteries was next in popularity; but not a single prize was won by an aeroplane which depended on batteries, and of the 13 prizes of the two meets, 10 prizes and trophies were won by aeroplanes equipped with Bosch magnetos, the other 3 prizes being won by Rougier with a Voisin aeroplane with Gibaud equipment.

REQUA-GIBSON PROPELLERS.

The Reqna-Gibson Company is turning out some of the finest looking propellers we have seen. The company carries now in stock three sizes: 6-ft., 7-ft. and 8-ft. diameter, of 4-ft. and 6-ft. constant pitch. These are made of laminations of ash and mahogany, or ash and spruce. The 6ft. diameter 4-ft. pitch propeller is guaranteed to deliver 200 pounds thrust at 1,200 revolutions; and more or less as speed varies. The above result was obtained with about 22 h. p. Propellers will be built on order for any given horsepower, diameter and pitch.

The Requa-Gibson motor is going through all the setbacks peculiar to a highly developed organism. The company announced some time ago that it would sell the new motor onlv on the condition that it would ctiou- i>s stn'H brake horsepower on a dynamometer. Several attempts hqvc been made to test the motor on the Automobile Club of America's dynamometer but each time the coupling between the motor and the meter gave way, owing to the slowness of the dynamo in accelerating. As the dynamo has been shipped away it is problematical when an official test can be made.

Four Reasons

WHY AERONAUTS PREFER

dje palmer Aeroplane

It is—

(1) FASTEST—Nomnwwgging

nor holding back in the running start from the ground.

(2) LIGHTEST—Standard size, 20x2£ inches, weighs 2 pounds, 5 ounces, — No dead weight.

(3) STRONGEST—H a s 4

plies of the remarkable Palmer Fabric, with a tough reinforced tread.

(4) MOST RECEPTIVE—

Absorbs and holds in itself when alighting, the shocks and jars so destructive to the machinery and adjustment of the planes.

Specifications invited from Aeroplane builders and dealers. A postal card will bring samples and prices by return mail.

Address: Aeroplane Accessories Dept.

The B. F. Goodrich Co.

AKRON /. /. OHIO

Sx$x$xJxJ><3>«xJ><$xS^

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Aeroplanes

Propellers

Gliders

Aeronautic

Supplies

ESTIMATES FURNISHED ON APPLICATION

NATIONAL AIR-CRAFT CONSTRUCTION CO.

234-14th St., N. W. Washington, D. C.

I NAIAD I Aeronautical Cloth

*

i t

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Manufactured Especially for Aeroplanes

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Proof

.J. Samples, Data and Prices on Request

I The C. E. Conover Co.

I 101 Franklin St., New York

In the meantime the company is proceeding with tests with such absorption means as are available for the purpose.

It is noteworthy that the test engine has been subjected to abnormal abuse in the way of mechanical strains without in any way showing harmful effects. The company may consider dropping the motor from the steenth floor to demonstrate its absence of fragility in aerial smashups (?).

STEVENS FACTORY TAKING UP AVIATION.

W. Morrill Sage, who has lately entered into the construction of aeroplane models for sale, will take charge of the construction of aeroplanes and models at the Stevens works. Those desiring to experiment might do well to have models of their apparatus constructed first. Mr. Sage's work is displayed to good advantage in the flying models he has built. Many models are now being built for exhibition at the Boston show.

CONSTRUCTION CO. IN WASHINGTON.

To meet the growing demand for aerial vehicles of all sorts, the National Air-Craft Construction Company has opened an establishment where the mechanical end of aerial work can be done promptly and satisfactorily. The company has secured the services of Mr. Chas. B. Nichols, formerly one of the assistants to Prof. S. P. Langley. Mr. Nichols is a practical man, and has followed the development of aviation for twenty years past. He was the first man in the work to make a laminated wood propeller, and, since leaving the Smithsonian, he has been called upon by numerous aviators to design and make propellers. He is an expert in this line, and his services are at the disposal of any of the patrons of the construction company.

Work has already been commenced at the workshop of the company on a man-carrying machine, and there are two other machines contemplated.

It is the aim of the company to furnish not only complete machines, but to aid constructors in every way. The company can secure on the shortest possible notice anything that is wanted in the way of aeroplane hardware, fabric, varnishes, wire and cable and flawless wood for construction.

NOTE

The Jcartoon feature has been necessarily omitted this!issue for lack of space; also section covering aeroplanes on the Coast, and several other interesting and valuable articles.

EXCHANGE and FORUM

WANTED—A lightweight _ motor suitable for aeronautical purposes. Give lowest price possible. Address F. W. Williams, 244 Logan Ave., Winnipeg, Can.

WANTED—To buy one more flying machine or will furnish money to right party to build same. C. W, Parker, Abilene, Kansas-

THE LIGHT

STRONGEST Wj^ METAL

McADAMITE

Specific Gravity 3 20 Tension, - 44,000 lbs. to sq. in. Compression, 126,000 lbs. to sq. in. Transverse, 87,000 " " " " .Torsion, - 60.000 Send for test bar or a pattern for sample casting

U. S. McADAMITE METAL CO.

19 Rapelye Street BROOKLYN. N. Y

l'UI II'ELLKK OF WILI.AliD S CTKTISS.

To Inquirer—Every one has been different. The one used at Los Angeles had a diameter of 6 ft., pitch of IT degrees taken 1 ft. from tips. Width of blade 67s ins. Very slightly concave on work-ins: side of blade. Spruce. 11 pieces, laminated. This was more of a constant angle blade than a true screw. It gave about 165 lbs. standing thrust at around 1,115 rev. per minute. In climbing the engine slows down, while in descending the engine speeds up. Hence, in the air the engine probably does as well as 1500 r. p. m.

)

AX OPEN LETTEH TO THE AEKO CLl'B OK AMERICA.

Mr. Augustus l'ost. Sec'ry

The Aero Club of America.

New York City.

1 tear Sir :

For two years, or more, prior to the lirst of last November, I was considering the advisability of resigning as a member of the Aero Club of America, as 1 could not see where 1 was receiving any benefit whatsoever.

Here was a new industry springing up with leaps and bounds, and the membership of the club at a standstill, if not actually falling off. I received letters at times asking my assistance in increasing the membership. I could not see my way clear, however, to ask my friends to pay their good money for a "gold brick*' ; my only reason for remaining being the forlorn hope of a change in the administration. I was very sorry when the most progressive members broke away and organized The Aeronautic Society, for 1 realized that while the latter Society had the advantage in brains and energy, the Aero Club had a big asset in their affiliation with the foreign clubs, so 1 was in hopes the two would finally amalgamate. This was not to be. however. As it has been claimed that minority members, or "rebels," in the recent election were all members of The Aeronautic Society. 1 wish to state that T. for one. am not a member of that society, but undoubtedly will be in the not distant future..

On November 1. 1909, 1 attended that memorable annual meeting and voted with the minority. In a private conversation with one of the other members before the meeting came to order 1 was nearly convinced that it might be well to vote the regular ticket, but I was not long left undecided after the meeting was called to order ( ?) and the gag rule methods for holding control were brought out ; they would have been a disgrace to any organization.

And then the utter sense of ingratitude exhibited, when it was tried to pass a vote of censure against the best and truest member that you have ; a man who has worked harder for the club than any other member: the one who succeeded in getting Messrs. Wright and Curtiss to agree to

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NILSON-MILLER CO.

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311 Madison Avenue, New York City

make the Hudson-Fulton flights. And I have no doubt that the motion would have passed had not one true man stepped forward and made an unanswerable aud irresistable speech against it. It is an old saying that every man has some lingering sense of decency left in him and Mr. Beck dug right down to the core and tapped what little there was, so the only thing remaining was to table the resolution and make up for this slip by becoming more insolent and arrogant than ever.

The next day being a holiday I postponed writing my resignation until the day following, as the letter would reach you just as quick. I then sent you the following letter :

"New York, November 3, 1909. "Mr. Augustus Post, Sec'ry,

"Aero Club of America,

"New York City.

"Dear Sir :

"Please accept my resignation as a member of "the Aero Club of America, to take effect at once.

"Yours very truly,

"Harry E. Dey."

What was my surprise about two weeks later to receive the following reply :

"November 16, 1909.

"Harrv R. Dey, Esq.,

"52 William Street,

"New York.

"Dear Sir :

"Your resignation from the Club, dated November 3d, has been received, but in accordance "with the By-Laws it is impossible to accept same, "as your dues for 1910 were payable on Novem-"ber 1st, and you are therefore not in good standing. If you will kindly mail us your check for "the amount due, twenty-five dollars, your resignation will be promptly acted upon.

"Very truly yours,

"Chas. Heitaian, "Assistant Secretary."

In reply to this, I wish to say, that if my dues were payable November 1st, as you state, then the club had no right to increase the dues for the present fiscal year, making it retroactive as it were and giving nobody a chance to resign. I refer to those that did not care to pay the 150 per cent, increase; nor, did others that were not classed among the rebels fare better. Were their resignations accepted without question?

How about those that paid their bill promptly on the first of November ; after obtaining a receipt for 1910 dues. Were they called upon to ante up again? And how could they be compelled to pay more, after getting a receipt in full? If not. will one set of members pay $10.00 for their 1910- dues while the rest pay $125.00? Why not go back still farther and increase the dues now for 1909?

The By-Laws expressly state that the dues shall be ten dollars per year, and that a muxiimnn assessment of ten dollars a year may be made by a two-thirds vote at any meeting called for that purpose.

SEND FOR LIST OF

Latest Aero Books

AERONAUTICS

1777 Broadway New York

Did the call for this meeting say anything about the increase in dues? Was there a two-thi.ns vole!' =in say how many

Ayes and Nos there were, when they were all called out at once? Nobody in that room could swear positively that two-thirds favored the increase.

lias any member ever received official notice of the proceedings of that meeting? I. whom you appear to still consider a member (but the good Lord forbid) have not received anything beyond your nervy letter above quoted, and two or three relating to medals, shows or something of that nature that has passed my memory.

To sum up.—-The changes in the Constitution relating to the increase in dues made by Ayes and Nos votes were unlawful ; and even if they had been lawfully passed they cannot be made effective until November 1, 1910.

You may wonder why I am making this letter public. The reason is simple. According to youi letter I cannot honorably resign from the Aero Club of America without first submitting to delib erate highway robbery. As my spine is not of the com position that Mr. Lawson so graphically applies to the public, I do not propose to stand and deliver, and at the same time, as I value my good name I desire to let the public know why I leave the Aero Club in bad odor; I want them to know where the odor comes from.

Yours,

Harry K. Dev.

To Inquirer.—For glider described in Mr. Tandy's pamphlet, we suggest No. IS Piano wire. For the joints, 1-32 in. galvanized iron or tin. It would not be possible to install a motor in such an apparatus and fly.

FOREIGN LETTER.

(Continued from page 10J)

Germany.

ZEPPELIN POLAR EXPEDITION.

The plan to start for the North Pole with n Zeppelin airship seems to be forming in a concrete way. Prof. Ilergesell says in June or July two steamers will he chartered to proceed to headquarters at Spitzbergen and will remain there, to he us«'d later as tloating stations. From there to the North Pole is a distance of 1.20.0* kil.. and this could be accomplished with favorable winds in 35 to 40 hours. The chief object is not to reach the Pole, but scientifically to explore the polar regions, taking soundings and surveys of the stretch between Greenland and Franz Joseph Land. etc. One of the two special Zeppelins will remain at Spitzhergen. and be sent out only if called upon by wireless telegraphy to aid the exploring vessel. The crew will consist in all of twelve persons, although the Zeppelins could well carry 25. Should the German government not And itself in a position to guarantee all expenses, as is firmly believed will be the case, then Prince Albert of Monaco will pav. The cost of the expedition will be $750,000 or thereabouts. Prince .Albert will accompany he party in any case.

Leading Patent Attorneys

PATENTS

C. L. PARKER

Late Examiner U. S. Patent Office

ATTORN Ey-AT-LAW AND SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the legal protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request: 30 McGill. building Washington, d. c.

PATENTS

SECURED OR FEE RETURNED : : :

Send sketch for free search of Patent Office Records How to Obtain a Patent, and What to Invent, with List of inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for Inventions sent free. Patents advertised free.

We are experts in AIRSHIPS and all patents and technical matters relating to AERIAL NAVIGATION.

VICTOR J. EVANS & CO., Washington, D.C.

HAVE YOU AN IDEA?

IF SO, WRITE FOR OUR BOOKS:

"Why Patents Pay," "100 Mechanical Movements" and a Treatise on Perpetual Motions—50 Illustrations - ALL MAILED FREE -

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This book for inventors sent free, $35.00 required to file patent application. Total cost $65.00 TRADE MARKS REGISTERED BEELER & ROBB, Patent Lawyers S7-90 McGill Building - - Washington, D. C.

PATE NTS

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You get it here at Minimum Cost. Also Working Drawings and Reliable Data for Flying Machines. AUG. P. JURGENSEN, M. E. 170 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY

PROTECTY0URIDEAS

Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights, etc., procured on moderate terms. :: :: Free handbook.

MIL0 B. STEVENS & CO., Attorneys Est.bt.shcd 1864 848 I4th St., Washington, D.C, and 354 Monadnock Blk., Chicago Guaranteed and recommended by the Bankers' Register. Highest rating by Martindale's American Law Directory.

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over the entire business of THE AERQPLA>N-K/T()Y CO.,vLo Myrtle Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. Working Models and Flyrffg Models of all Standard Aeroplanes. Wheels, Struts, Planes^Propellers and all Separate Parts Furnished.

Catalog ready soon - free on request. Dai^ D^o^tration of Our Models i„ Flight --- p at the Washington Show, January 24th—29th.

AERONAUTICS March, ipio

AERONAUTICS A SPECIALTY

PATENTS

fTiImprovements in aerostructures should be protected without delay.

Thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by others. A seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future ;ls the Selden Patent controls the Automobile. Do not give your ideas away; protect them with solid patents.

#]T We render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention ^JJ without charge. Send us a sketch and description, photographs or a model for immediate report.

fTTbooklets giving full information in Patent Matters, a list of needed ^Jjinventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. Write for them.

References: V. S. Representatives.—Thistle-wood, Wiley, OTonnell, Groff, Morrison, Sam'l Smith and others. Bruce Mt'<j. Co., Clean Sweep Co., Heckman Fish Trap Co., Northern Spike Co., Yankee Tweezer Co., Twentieth Century Hinge Co.

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REFERENCES:

American National Hank,

Washington, D. C. Little Giant Hay PressCo., Dallas, Texas. Gray Lithograph Co.,

New York City, N. Y. Fanners Mfg. Co.,

Norfolk, Va. New Era Mfg. Co.,

Fairfield, la. The Parry Stationery Co., Oklahoma City, Ukla. Bell Show Print Co.,

Sigourney, la. The Cainp Conduit Co.,

Cleveland, O. The Iowa Mfg. Co.,

Oskaloosa, la. Sam'l Allen&Son Mfg. Co., Dansville, N. Y. The Garl Electric Co.,

Akron, O. Superior Mfg. Co.,

Sidney, O. Tidnam Tel. Pole Co.,

Oklahoma City, Okla. Bernhard Furst, Vienna,

I. Austria-1 lungary. Compound Motor Co.,

Brooklyn, N. Y.

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my offices ah e located across the street I- rom the u. s. patent office

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of America

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

MAKERS OF THE FINEST AND STRONGEST BALLOON AND AEROPLANE MATERIAL IN THE WORLO

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Engineer

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Contractor to the United States Government

AND

Ninety-five per cent, of the Clubs in this country

Also Representing the Santos Dumont Aeroplane

American Representative

Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Builders of Paris, France

The Wilcox Propeller

Address : Box 181

Madison Square

N. Y.

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight — Strong and

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Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

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Complete Catalogue of Supplies, Motors and Gliders mailed FREE upon request

-EVERYTHING for the FLYING MACHINE--New York Representatives for the following Aerial Motor Co's:

Requa Coles Co.", "Elbridge Engine Co.", "Antoinette Motor Co.", and the ''Herring Curtiss Co."

E. J. WILLIS CO., 8 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK

Made to order, attachable to your aeroplane or glider. They increase the speed to nearly double the motor power, push machine if motor stops over 20 miles p. h., which permits gliding and prevents accidents. Any height can safely be attained. Blue prints for aeroplanes with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium also furnished.

F^or terms apply to R. DRESSLER, Coney Island, New York.

G. L. BUMBAUGH

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

DESIGNER - CONTRACTOR. - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR.

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Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 49 hours and 95 rain., the ENDURANCE RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

No connection with any other concern.

STEEL TUBING

All diameters and gauges carried in stock

Also Nickel Steel Tubing tor Propeller Shafts

NEW YORK 130-132 Worth Street

PETER A. FRASSE & COMPANY

PHILADELPHIA 408 Commerce Street

Importers of Piano Wire, specially up-set for use in Aeroplanes

BUFFALO 50-52 Exchange Street

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

EL ARCO [ImNGsfoN] RADIATOR CO.

6 East 31st Street - - - New York City

t BALDWIN'S

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Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE—

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York,

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

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GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-Mailed VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

Prices and samples on application

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin

Box 78,N"w york Square sfflBT

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CARL BATES

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Bowden wire for controls

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

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Weaver-Ebling Automobile : Company -

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All Aeronautic Supplies 2230 Broadway at 79th St., - - - New York

AEROPLANE WIRE WHEELS

Curtiss Type in Stock—20" x 2" Tire. Any Style to Order WIDE HUBS WITH HEAVY FLANGES

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===== J. A. WEAVER, JR. -

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Machine Department EASTON CORDAGE CO., Easton.Pa.

Should Flying-Machines be Handicapped?

<y $*S><S>$><S><e^<S><3>^<&<$^ <S> <S> <$>

f

! be Handicapped? §

| A ^i^^the conditions governing an important prize t

$ /\ competition which is to take place this year there f

/ \ may be found the following: — "The jhjing-ma chine %

$ must be able to ri.se from the ground under its otvn 4

4 porver and without the aid of any special starting apparatus.'' f

^ / ' Such a condition is a handicap upon speed and it tends to seriously ;|

^ I retard the develo]iment of the flying-machine. $

<S> The wheeled flying-machine is good for sporting purposes, starting- and s£>

3 stopping on selected ground, and it is good for nothing else. J>

^ The time has certainly come when the designers of flying-machines should f

^ look heyond the realm of sport and consider the practical uses to which it |

^ may he possible to adapt the machine. ^

❖ The dynamic flying machine has two, and only two, qualities which |

<$> seem likely to fit it for use as a carrier : first, its independence of roads; j>

% second, speed superior to that of railway trains. V

^ The supporting power of an aeroplane increases approximately as the !>

^ square of the velocity, it is therefore certain that the efficient fast flying- £

^ machine of the near future will he designed with much smaller areas of *

<s> sustaining surface per pound of total weight than those now in use. Such a g

<g> machine will require a higher initial velocity than can safely he obtained by ❖

^ running over ordinary ground. |

Rapid running on the average field puts dangerous strains upon the |

^ stays of the machine. |

^ One of the most frequent causes of trouble and disappointment to avi- |

<♦> a tors is unsuitable ground. |

<«> A machine designed for cross country flying must be dependent upon ♦>

^ suitable ground or else upon launching stations. The former is difficult to f

^ find and even when found the question of trespass must be considered. ^

^ For military purposes the wheeled machine is useless unless some means ^

^ can be devised for carrying a parade ground into the battlefield. Portable ^

H launchers must form a part of the equipment of an army. |>

<s> When the requisite high initial velocity is given by a well-designed •♦>

$ 1........1----4.K„ a..i............K;___......„ „.....„U.L. • t„ il.„

launcher the flying-machine runs smoothly into the air.

As these machines become more common, aeroplane sheds will increase in number, and these may be provided with launching apparatus at moderate

■v <♦>

<*>

<«>

^ cost. The aviators will need garages just as motorists do. ^

<3> With launching stations not more than twentv-five miles apart it will not

<§> ° 1 ,|>

<S> be a great undertaking to flv from one to another. ♦>

S> In the present state of the art a flying-machine cannot be considered

^ marketable unless it can fly at least twenty-five miles with a reasonable degree ^

|> of certainty.

4 For the High-Speed Flying-Machine a Revolvable Launcher is A NECESSITY

^ I would ask the designers of flying-machines to read the description £

^ of the James Means Launcher, to be found on the third page of cover of <r

^ the January, 1910, number of this magazine.

§ JAMES MEANS, Box 171, Back Bay P. 0., Boston, Mass., U. S. A. §

We Build Balloons That Win

HAVE WON EVERY CONTEST ENTERED AGAINST ALL MAKES

CHICAGO CONTEST — Balloon "Fielding-San Antonio" — 9 competitors Distance and endurance trophies, also water record of the world—350 miles one trip INDIANAPOLIS CONTEST— Balloon "University City" — 6 competitors PEORIA CONTEST — Balloon "Peoria" — 3 competitors ST. LOUIS CENTENNIAL CONTEST — Balloon "St. Louis III" first, and Balloon "Centennial" officially second for distance and endurance, 47 hrs., 4 1 min.—8 competitors Balloon "St. Louis III"—speed record of America — Lambert, pilot; Von Phul, aide JUST THINK OF IT, EVERY CONTEST IN THE LAST TWO YEARS.

Aero Club Grounds, Centennial Contest, St. Louis, Mo.

Cfl The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops— a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL, Builder

^ The greatest balloon trip of 1908 and 1909—850 miles in competition— made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL, Builder and Pilot

AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS

IN STOCK AND MADE TO ORDER

q HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials —varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable..........

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.

In ansivering advertisements please mention this magazine.


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