Aeronautics

Volume 6 - No. 2 - 1910 February

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

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THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

VOL. 6 NO. 2

FEBRUARY, 1910

25 CTS

CONTENTS

if

Wright-Curtiss Injunction Suit

JUDGE'S OPINION, ARGUMENTS, ETC.

Taj* (Stzt

IIIlist rated

Interference of Aeroplane Surfaces

By M. B. SELLERS

Comparison of the Successful Types of Aeroplanes Illustrated

By G. C. LOENING

New Principle in Statoscopes

By L. LUZERN CUSTER

Paulhan's Aeroplane

Santos Dumont's "Demoiselle"

Construction Aids

Illustrated

With Working Drawings Wit It Worl'ing Draic'utgs

Illustrated

Aviation, Aerostation, Club News, Foreign Letter—The Aero News of the World,

Accurately, Graphically, Pictorially told

The Heart of the Aeroplane

is the magneto. A reliable, powerful, light-weight magneto is as eagerly sought for by experienced aviators as a reliable, powerful, light-weight motor. The

EISEMANN MAGNETO

is made especially for aeronautic use. Many parts of this magneto are constructed of aluminum. For four-cylinder engines the heaviest weighs 16i pounds and the lightest 11 pounds. Several different styles in stock ready for delivery. Use an EISEMANN MAGNETO on your aeroplane or dirigible and you carry with you a Policy of Ignition Insurance.

Ask us to tell you more about the EISEMANN — the magneto with 'the spark that never fails," Write us TO-DAY—for safety's sake.

Eisemann Magneto Co.

225-227 W. 57th St. New York

Elbridge Engin

Two New Models for Aeronautical Worl

FEATHERWEIGHT

Bore 4| in. Stroke 4i in. Spun Brass Jackets; Aluminum Bases. He Shafts. Hand-made, Finest Possible Qu

2 Cylinders, 20 H.P. Weight 100 lb

3 Cylinders, 30 H.P. Weight 135 lb:

4 Cylinders, 40 H.P. Weight 167 lb;

"AIR-COOLED"

Deep Flanges that really Cool

4 Cylinders, 20 H.P. Weight 150 lb;

More real power for weight than any others. I ^-L, compare these with ordinary ratings. They are on speeds of less than 1000 r.p.m. On usual syste rating these engines will show 35 to 50% more th; give them. Speed range 200 to 2200 r.p.m.

We make the largest line of high-grade 2-cycle e ^J-, in the werld. Sixty different sizes and styles, for information,

Elbridge Engine Comp;

10 Culver Road, Rochester, I

E. J. WILLIS CO., 8 Park Place \ FRED. SHNE1DER, Morris Park /

New York /

** »fr *J« *fr »fr »|* »l* »fr »l* »J* »J* »l* ifr »1* »1* «fe *fr * * * * *' *

Aeronautical CI

NAIAD

Manufactured Especially^for f Aeropla

Light, Strong Air-Tight and Moisture Prooi

Data and Prices on Req

Sample

The C. E. Conover C

101 Franklin St., New Yo *************************

BUILT LIKE A WATCH-FLIES LIKE A GULL GREENE Bi-plane world's record

for leaving the ground from standing start—30 foot run.

GREENE Bi-plane Stev ens cup

for carrying passengers.

GREENE Bi-plane is the most stable, easiest

to drive and hardest to damage.

GREENE Propeller guarantees a flight if fitted

to your motor and aeroplane. Let us fit one for you, if you want to fly.

AERONAUTIC MOTORS \ "NILMELIOR" MAGNETOS \

"NAIAD" AERONAUTIC CLOTH WIDE HUB BICYCLE WHEELS GREENE'S GALVANIZED WIRE CABLE. Sizes: jlSiS^isSSnKSS:

Call or Write for Particulars

THE GREENE COMPANY :: Room 448, 1779 Broadway, New York

>OWER TO FLY

>ur Cycle Water Cooled Aviation Engines

>UR LBS. PER H. P. FIFTY H. P. AND THIRTY H. P.

PRICE

>10 Models Deliverable = i n u a r y 1

50 H.P. $830.00 30 H. P. $650.00

Propellers in Stock = or = Built to Order

larriman Motor Works, Incorporated

NEW YORK OFFICE, 1777 BROADWAY \CTORY, SOUTH GLASTONBURY, CONNECTICUT

Wittemann Glider In Flight

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS CONSTRUCTORS-DEVELOPERS OF

Aeroplanes, Gliding Machines, Models, Separate Parts

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experiments Conducted Large grounds for testing

GLIDERS IN STOCK works:

17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, New York

Telephone, 390-L West Brighton

BOSCH

Magnetos

Supreme at Rheims and Brescia

At the great aviation meets at Rheims and Brescia Bosch Magnetos were supreme. The four great prizes at Rheims and six of the nine prizes at Brescia were won by Bosch equipped aeroplanes.

700 Bosch Magnetos for 1910 Aeroplanes

There are already contracts for more than 700 Bosch Magnetos for use on 1910 aeroplanes.

"The Bosch News", treats of Bosch Equipped aeroplanes and flying machines. A copy will be sent free

upon request.

Bosch Magneto Company

Chicago Branch:

San Francisco Branch:

223-225 W.46th St. NEW YORK

1253 Michigan Avenue - 357 Van Ness Avenue

rJ~'HE recent prizes for aeroplane contests offered by several prominent papers recall that the FIRST AVIATION TROPHY offered in America was given more than TWO YEARS ago by the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

which is the only weekly publication that treats fully the new science of mechanical flight—-a science which it has helped develop and promulgate from its very beginning.

Aeronautic Having devoted especial attention to aeronautic patents, we are exceptionally well p „ 4 _ _ a _ equipped to advise and assist inventors. * a 1 e " 1 * <I Valuable information sent free on request.

MUNN & CO., Inc., 365 Broadway, New York.

Scientific American Trophy, 1907

Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?

Let us answer— 1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor

Curtiss Motors

HAVE THESE QUALITIES

e Kind You Do NOT Want—

1st, A motor of "freak" construction. 2nd, A motor of extremely light construction. 3rd, A motor of unproven merit.

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES.

Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catalcgue N.

ICURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, New York

EDWIN LEVICK

Telephone 100 John

Aeronautical

AND MARINE

Photographers

108 FULTON STREET Cable

NEW YORK Photonews, N.Y.

Photographs of Practically every Aeroplane and Airship in the World Lantern Slides and Enlargements our Specialty

Write for Catalogue

Agents Throughout Europe

L. B. REPAIR CO., Inc.

EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOTORS REMODELING and OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAKING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON

AIR, LAND WATER VEHICLES

225 W. 57th St.. N. Y. Tel. 6459 Col.

AEROPLANES, GLIDERS, MODELS, PROPELLERS

-■ Designed and built, or made to your own design -"~" Gliders, Parts and Aeronautic Supplies in Stock - AERO MOTORS ---FRED SHNEIDER 1020 E. 178th St., New York New York Agent for ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY

BAMBOO

Specially Selected for Aeroplanes

ALL SIZES IN STOCK J. DELTOUR, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York

TELEPHONE 5565 SPRING

MAGNETOS, SPARK PLUGS BATTERIES

All Supplies and Equipments for Gasoline Motors.

L. G. DUQUET

107 WEST 36th ST.,_NEW YORK

UNIVERSAL AUTO SUPPLY CO.

Fittings for Airships and Flying Machines All Supplies for Motors, Ignition Systems, Wheels,

Tires, Etc.  /

ADVISE US YOUR WANTS 1900 Broadway, (cor. 63d St.) New York

AEROPLANES AND GLIDERS

DESIGNED — CONSTRUCTED —OPERATED FOR SALE AND BUILT TO ORDER

Aeronautic Supplies and Apparatus

Western Agent "AERONAUTICS"

C. T. SHAFFER

302 HOLYOKE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO

A

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight — Strong and

Durable.

Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

AERONAUTIC SUPPLIES at money saving prices

Complete Catalogue of Supplies, Motors and Gliders mailed FREE upon request -EVERYTHING for the FLYING MACHINE--New York Representatives for the following Aerial Motor Co"s :

"Requa Coles Co.", "Elbridge Engine Co.", "Antoinette Motor Co.", and the '"Herring Curtiss Co."

E. J. WILLIS CO., 8 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK

Made to order, attachable to your aeroplane or glider. They increase the speed to nearly double the motor power, push machine if motor stops over 20 miles p. h., which permits gliding and prevents accidents. Any height can safely be attained. Blue prints for aeroplanes with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium also furnished.

For^ terms ajpply to R. DRESSLER, Coney Island, New York.

~G. L. BUMBAUGH

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

DESIGNER - CONTRACTOR. - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR.

AIR SHIPS AM) BALLOONS

===== S T EK l7~

AGENTS WANTED

SOARING BLADES

Builder of the CHICAGO—larges balloon in the world; the INDIANA which remained in the air 49 hour: and 95 min., the ENDURANCI RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won th« Handicap Race.

No connection with any other concern.

TUBING

All diameters and gauges carried In stock

Also Nickel Steel Tubing for PropellerJhafts

NEW YORK 130-132 Worth Street

PETER A. FRASSET& COMPANY

PHILADELPHIA

408 Commerce Street

Importers of Piano Wire, specially up-se for use* in Aeroplane

33

BUFFALO 50-52 Exchange Stree

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

EL ARCO [livingston] RADIATOR CO.

6 East 31st Street - - - New York Citj

Do You Want an Aeroplane ?

Are you building

an Aerial Vehicle ? Qr-

Do you already own One ? :: ::

In any case our Illustrated Catalogue of Supplies for Aviator and Builder should be in your hands. It lists and illustrates material with which any type of plane can be constructed at moderate cost.

CThe Builder, or Inventor, who finds it difficult to secure suitable Motors, Propellers, Hollow Shafting, Tires, Wire Wheels, Aeroplane and Balloon Cloth, Turnbuckles, Eyelets, Varnishes, Bamboo Aeroplane Poles, Birch, Spruce and Hickory Form or any supplies and parts specially made for Air Craft, will find our low prices and comprehensive stock a great aid.

The owner of an Aeroplane, Dirigible, or Spherical Balloon will find in our Catalogue useful accessories and materials for repairs.

This is a new departure in the newest industry. Ours is the only Aeronautic Supply Catalogue published in the Western Hemisphere. The company is the first in this half of the World devoted exclusively to all that concerns air travel. Every present and prospective air pilot should become acquainted with us now. We will be found fairly altruistic—ready to help and serve all who are truly interested.

Because of its value as a guide and also to discourage the merely curious our catalogue will not be given away. The price is 1 0 cents the copy. To readers of AERONAUTICS, however, we make a special offer. Fill out coupon below, mail to us and our catalogue, off the press January 25, FREE '

will be sent you free. ■ ■*

Out Catalogue

—^————for this Coupon

Name ..........

Sfje Aeronautic ^>upplp Co. Ad<w

Tear off and Mail now to

3923 Olive Street :: Saint Louis, U.S.A. VLfye aeronautic Supply do.

3923 Olive Street, Saint Louis, U. S. A.

FOR SALE BY

BOOKS AERONAUTICS BOOKS

1777 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

A ERIAL WARFARE, by R. P. Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. First systematic popular account of progress made by the countries of the world in aeronautics; 57 views of airships andaeroplanes; Wright, Farman, Delagrange, Bleriot, Ferber, Zeppelin, Patrie, Republique, &c.

J'rofnsehj illustrated. $2.66 postpaid.

l\/IOEDEBECK'S HANDBOOK, by Major H. AV1 W. L. Moedebeck and O. Chanute. The only handbook of aeronautics in English. All phases of aerial travel fully covered. Invaluable for the beginner and a ready reference for the aeronautical engineer. Data on screws, pressure, ballooning, physics, etc.

Illustrated, $3.25.

DROBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatley.

Especially written for engineers. Outline of contents: Problem of Flight, Essential Principles, the Helix, the Aeroplane, Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship. Appendix furnishes much instructive information. 61 illustrations. Price $'3.50.

MAVIGATING THE AIR, by members of the Aero Club of America. Interesting record of ideas and experiences of 24 distinguished men. Contributors: Wright Bros., Chanute, Pickering, Rotch, Zahm, Stevens, Herring and others. 300 pages, 32 illustrations.

$1.25

^STRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor.

This rarest aeronautical work in existence can be supplied to a few first inquiries at $15.00. All in perfect condition.

gALLOONING AS A SPORT, by Major B.

Baden Powell. A handbook of ballooning and guide for the amateur. Fidl instructions for the equipment and management of a balloon.

Illustrated. Price $1.10.

J^ARE BOOKS. Upon application, we will be glad to send an up-to-date list of all rare books on the subject of ballooning and aeronautics in general. Several of these works are getting very scarce and can only occasionally be secured at the second hand book stores.

JHE AERONAUTICAL WORLD, interesting and useful. Illustrated Monthly—Published 1902-1903 by W. E. Irish, contains important information for experimenters in mechanical flight. 12 Nos., Vol. I.

$1.50 Postpaid.

A RTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLIGHT, by

Sir Hiram Maxim. A concise history and description of the developrnentof flying machines. Description of his own experimental work. Explaining the machinery and methods which enable him to arrive at certain conclusions. Fully describes the work of other successful inventors. Chapter on dirigible balloons.

117/// 'Jo Whs., $1.75 net.

J_JOW TO MAKE A GLIDER, illustrated, H page illustrated pamphlet giving full details for the construction of a bi-surface glider, with diagrams and exact measurements. Every experimenter should have this valuable treatise. Price, 12 Cents (Post Free,)

■yTHICLES OF THE AIR, by Victor Lougheed.

The last word in aeronautic literature, the experimenter's Bible. Nothing relating to aviation not covered. Details of construction of every part of an aeroplane. Working drawings of all successful machines. 479 pp., 270 illus. Price, $2.50: $2.75 Postpaid.

y^AR IN THE AIR, by H. G. Wells. The greatest fiction story in recent years. Unfolds a breathless story 'of?aerial battle and adventure, a triumph of scientific imagination, possibly not beyond the realm of actuality. Illustrated, $1.50

■THE CONQUEST OF THE AIR, by A. Law-1 rence Rotch, S.B., A.M. Contents: I. The Ocean of Air. II. The History of Aerostation. III. The Dirigible Balloon. IV. The Flying Machine. V. The Future of Aerial Navigation. Brings together scientific data and a brief and incisive discussion of the whole subject by one who speaks with authority. The book takes up the Mstory of aerostation, considers the sensational achievements of the last year in their relation to the long line of past failures and discusses the scientific possibilities of the future.

With many illustrations, 16mo„ Postpaid, $1.10

^ERIAL NAVIGATION OF TO-DAY, by

Charles C. Turner. A finely illustrated view of the state of the art. Chapters on : Principles of Ballooning, Dirigible Balloons, Principles of Mechanical Flight, Sensations in Ballooning and Flying, Aerial Law, Military Aeronautics, The New Industry, Lessons in Flight, The Aerial Ocean, etc. Useful tables, glossary, French aero terms, etc. 70 illustrations and diagrams. 327 pp., cloth. $1.50 Postpaid.

AERONAUTICS

main office 1777 broad way new york

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

A. V. jones. president

E. L. Jones, treas.-sec

E. PERCY NOEL

304 no. 4th street st. louis

CLEVE t. SHAFFER

302 hol yoke st. san francisco. calif.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. 6 February, 1910 No. 2

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always in advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

Copyright, IOQT^Aeronautics Prkss, Inc.

WILL the aero clubs of this country follow the plan of the British Aerial League and attempt to get favorable action from Congress on the needs of our military defense? No,—they won't. Aeronautics has repeatedly urged "getting after" the representatives at Washington. It was no use. Only a waste of good space that might have been of aid to some experimenter. Those to whom the Almighty, in his infinite wisdom, has entrusted the future of aeronautics in this country, were too busy making rules for this or that holding admiration meetings, presenting medals and otherwise attending to the many details demanded by their zeal.

The Secretary of the Aerial League of the British Empire is sending out the following letter to each candidate for Parliament at the forthcoming general election :—

"1 am reciuested by the executive coniniittee of the Aerial League of the British Empire which is a patriotic and 11011 party organization to enquire, for the purposes of publication, should you be elected as a member of the forthcoming Parliament, if you are prepared to support a vote for supplies for furnishing our country with adequate means of aerial defence, in view of the actual position already secured by neighboring continental nations in this important matter. It is definitely known that Germany will have 'in being' an aerial fleet of nineteen vessels by the end of the year, and that this will be increased in the near future to twenty-five ; it is further reported that by the next manojuvres Germany will possess sixty-five airships. France, Austria, Russia, Italy and the United States* are all moving in the matter of the provision of aircraft with energy and foresight."

The letter is accompanied by a form on

which the parliamentary candidate can express his attitude towards the matter.

* Perhaps so, but foresight is useless without the wherewithal.

Boston's "First National Exhibition of Aerial Craft."

The first national exhibition of aerial craft will be held in Mechanics Building, Boston, Mass., from February 16 to 23, 1910, under the management of Chester I. Campbell.

The' airship used by Capt. Baldwin in his attempt to fly from New York to Albany has been secured and will be on exhibition, as well as Mr. Glidden's spherical, the "Boston." It is also planned to have a \\'right, Bleriot, Latham, Greene, Shneider, and every other possible type of heavier-than-air apparatus.

A. Leo Stevens will have on hand his large collection of balloous and baskets. The Witte-mann Bros, will show their gliders and accessory manufacturers are expected to exhibit in force.

An enormous number of models and photographs of all kinds of machines has been sent in already and it is expected that the exhibition will be the largest and finest of its kind ever held in this country.

The Aero Club of Xew England has lent its name and aid. Every one who has a model or full sized machine should communicate at once with Mr. Campbell, at 5 Park Square, Boston, Mass.

A NEW PRINCIPLE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF STATOSCOPES

By L. Luzern Custer

(presented before the international aeroplane club, dayton, ov oct. 27, 1909.)

TO KXOW whether one is ascending or descending; to know how fast one is ascending or descending; to know definitely the altitude. These are matters of paramount importance in the management of every kind of air craft.

To determine the state of vertical motion of a balloon—whether rising or falling—an instrument termed a statoscope is employed, and

that time to this the fundamental principle upon which nearly all statoscopes have been constructed has remained the same.

It is known that the pressure of the air existing at various altitudes above the surface of the earth varies.

For the benefit of those who are not as well versed concerning the physics of the atmosphere as are others, the following explanation

FIG.-l.

FRONT VIEW-FIG 1

to tell its altitude an aneroid barometer is used. The statoscope is to show whether you are in the act of rising or falling, and has no reference to degree of altitude. It is with this instrument that this paper shall deal.

Historically, the first statoscope of which we have record was a mercury column used by Pascal in endeavoring to prove Torricelli's theory of the existence of a vacuum. He found that by ascending Mount Puy de Dome the mercury in the mercury tube fell 3 in. From

11

is given. In the first place, as is well known, the earth is surrounded by a layer of air. This air, or the atmosphere, in accordance with laws of physics concerning gases, varies in its density. This is due to the weight of the superimposed air over any area at any level. As the level of this point is raised, the superimposed air becomes less and the pressure consequently diminishes; if it is lowered, the pressure increases—thus we find there is a definite air pressure for a definite altitude.

The statoscope (Fig. i) as universally used at present consists of a closed reservoir (A) connected to an extremely sensitive metal diaphragm (B), which is exposed on the outside to changes of atmospheric pressure. An open tube (C) also enters this reservoir, thus normally maintaining a pressure within equal to that without. Closing this tube and holding the statoscope quiet, the pressure within and without still remain equal, and so no motion of the metal diaphragm takes place. But suppose we elevate the statoscope with the tube closed, then what will result? The confined air now being of greater pressure than the surrounding air, the diaphragm is pushed out. Now, if, instead of elevating the instrument, we lower it, a reverse operation will consequently ensue; the pressure on the outside now being greater, the diaphragm is compressed. These movements, although exceedingly slight, are recorded by means of suitable levers (D), clockwork (E) and a long, delicate index needle (F). When in either case the needle reaches the limit of the scale, it can be again reset by releasing the pressure on the tube, thus permitting an equalization of pressure within and without.

From my observation of the operation of a statoscope of this style, I perceive three notable defects. First, a jerky motion when the index needle is on the verge of noting an ascent or descent, and this is unfortunately at a critical time. Second, the small range of motion of the recording needle to a comparatively great ascent or descent, and, third, the inconvenience of pressing the rubber tube every time a reading is taken.

It was to overcome these apparent defects that I set about to construct a statoscope by which I hoped to overcome these patent faults. (

The statoscope (Fig. 2) I have to introduce is based on the difference of atmospheric pressure existing between any two different levels, thus far similar to those already constructed. From this on it is radically different, as you will observe. Instead of using a delicate metal diaphragm and a complicated clockwork device, I employ a large capillary tube (A), with an internal bore of about 3/32 of an inch, containing a globule of oil—coal oil or other liquid of light specific gravity and viscosity. This tube is connected to the reservoir at the point X and finds exit to the outside air at y. Any difference of pressure between the inclosed air and the external air will be quickly detected by a movement of the globule one way or the other. It can be readily seen that there is no lost motion in the action of the globule at the critical time. The very instant there is the least change of pressure, the globule moves, and no unsteady motion occurs as in other statoscopes. This use of a globule of oil instead of a clockwork mechanism has the added, advantage of being almost frictionless.

In this design there is no tube connecting the interior of the reservoir to the external

air, and it must therefore create a constant motion of the globule in one direction or the other. As it is a mechanical impossibility to have a tube long enough to register such a motion as would be produced in ascending or descending, say, a mile, this must be provided for by some other expedient. This has been accomplished in the following manner. Each end of the tube is drawn out in a long narrow taper, thus forming a means by which the globule may be broken when it reaches this point of the tube. The oil then flows back

FIG-2

FID-3

until by capillary attraction it bridges over and a new seal is formed. This motion is consequently continuous—the globule always moving in one direction in ascending and the opposite in descending. The rate at which the globule moves will also be an index of the relative rate of vertical motion of the air craft.

As will be observed by reference to Fig. 3, the tube containing the globule of oil has a very slight curve. This is done to counteract the action of gravity as far as possible, thus allowing the globule to be considerably more sensitive than if the tube were in a vertical position, as is the tube in a barometer.

The trap (B) in the same figure is merely a mechanical contrivance to permit of holding the statoscope in any position without the loss of oil and yet allow air to pass through.

NOTE ON THE INTERFERENCE OF AEROPLANE SURFACES DUE TO GROUPING

By M. B. Sellers

AFRAME offering small wind resistance was so constructed that the surfaces tested could be moved about in it, while remaining always parallel with the top bar of the frame.

This was attached to the "lift balance" in 'he "wind tunnel" described in Sci. Atner. Supp. of Nov. 14, 1908, and the whole frame was inclined at the desired'angle. "

The planes tested were 4 in. x 12 in. curved to 1 in 12. The vertical spacings were 2 in. and 4 in. In A, (see diagram) the planes are 4 in. apart horizontally, in B they are edge over edge as shown by the dashes which represent their relative positions.

is considerable loss in lift, being greater at 10 deg. than at 5 deg.: and that the least interference is shown where the upper plane is in front of the lower one; and that the interference diminishes with the horizontal and vertical distance apart. A possible source of error was the unavoidable fluctuations in the velocity of the air current, but it is hoped that the numerous observations taken on each value have at least in part eliminated this.

The interference due to the walls of the wind tunnel might have affected the values unequally, but a critical study of the values gives no positive evidence of this.

It is probable that a change in curvature

Angle

Vertical Distance

-

\

2"

90

87

80

80

84

85

70

4"

94

90

87

88

89

89

83

10°

2"

89

85

73

72

73

82

65

4n

91

90

85

84

85

85

77

INTERFERENCE OF AEROPLANE S

In making a determination, a single plane was mounted in the frame and its lift determined — say 100 g. Then two were mounted as shown at A, 4 in. apart horizontally and 2 in. vertically and the lift was, say 180 g., which would equal 90 g. for each; or 90 per cent, of what one would lift alone and so for the other values which represent the percentage of lift of a plane in combination compared with one alone. It is seen that there

'FACES. PERCENTAGE OF LIFT

of the "planes" would change the amount of interference. The air velocity was 1,400 per minute. I see no reason why a change of air velocity would change the interference if the angle of attack remained the same.

P. W. Wilcox of Columbia University is quietly working ,on his own design biplane, to be ready for trials on Hempstead Plains in April or May. It will be of the Farman genus, with nothing about it particularly new.

Now, regarding the range of motion: By actual comparison between a standard stato-scope and one of this form, I find that with air chambers of the same cubical contents, the ratio of movement to a given height of 50 feet is 1 in. in the ordinary statoscope to 8 in. in this form. In other words, with the same cubical contents, this is approximately eight times as sensitive. As the range of motion of the globule varies directly as the cubical contents of the air chamber, it is seen that the range of motion or delicacy of the instrument is infinite. The larger the air chamber, the greater the motion of the globule.

This constitutes in the main the statoscope I have constructed.

Some of the advantages which I claim for this appliance are, first, its simplicity and consequent cheapness of manufacture; second, the delicacy of its operation; third, the absence of moving parts and frail' mechanism, and, lastly, the elimination of the inconvenient rubber tube necessary in other statoscopes.

As to its application, I feel that a statoscope of this kind could not only be used in balloons and lighter-than-air vessels, but would be applicable to aeroplane work as well.

It is with the hope that this instrument may be of some value in aerial navigation that I respectfully submit this to you.

COMPARISON OF THE SUCCESSFUL TYPES OF AEROPLANES

By G. C. Loening

IN a previous article (see AERONAUTICS, January, 1910, p. 2), the six most successful types of biplanes and the six most successful types of monoplanes were described, and details of their construction and operation were given, supplemented by plans and elevations of each drawn to the same scale.

In the present article the various types are compared according to the following essential features:

I. Mounting.

II. Rudders and Keels.

III. Transverse control.

IV. Aspect ratio.

V. Incident angle.

VI. Propellers.

There is also given a set of four tables which show graphically certain features of construction and operation of each machine.

The numbers before the name of each machine in these tables are the same as were used to designate them in the previous article, a convenient order which was adopted there. The biplanes are grouped in Nos. 1 to 6, and the monoplanes in Nos. 7 to 12 inclusive.

I.—Mounting.

There are three distinct types of mounting:

(a) Skids alone—Wright.

(b) Wheels alone—Curtiss, Voisin (both types), Bleriot (both types), Pelterie and Grade.

(c) Skids and wheels combined—Farman, Antoinette, Santos Dumont and Cody.

In the Farman machine the combination is most pronounced, and consists of two long skids forming part of the framework, upon each of which is mounted a pair of wheels. When starting, this machine runs along the ground on its wheels, but when alighting the wheels, which are attached to rubber springs, give way, and the machine lands on its skids.

The necessity of providing springs on a heavy machine mounted on wheels has frequently been emphasized, (1). M. Bleriot has called special attention to the fact that a high speed screw generates a gyroscopic force which tends to resist all vibration or sudden changes of its axis, (2). If, therefore, when running over the ground the machine be suddenly jarred, the propeller is likely to snap off. This has often been experienced by M. Bleriot himself, and was only obviated by the use of a very springy mounting.

The relative merits and demerits of mounting on_ wheels or skids are subjects of wide discussion, (3). The advantages of mounting such as in the Wright machine became very great when starting is to be made from soft soil or rough land, since the rail upon which

NOTE—Kisures in parentheses relate to references at conclusion of article.

the machine is placed can be laid down in almost any kind of country. Here is an advantage of skids over wheels, the latter requiring a certain area of reasonably smooth and hard ground, a condition not always met with. A machine fitted with skids can withstand rougher landings, and upon alighting stop within a few feet. Furthermore, by using a rail, and, in addition, as is often done with Wright machines, a starting impulse given by a falling weight, a less powerful motor is needed for starting, (4). But a machine fitted with skids alone, when once landed away from its starting rail, cannot again take to flight. It is noticeable that several Wright machines have been fitted with wheels, with success, 'and combinations of wheels and skids seem to be the most satisfactory.

II.—Rudders and Keels.

The direction rudder in all cases is placed at the rear. The Cody biplane has an additional direction rudder in front. All the monoplanes have their elevation rudders at the rear, while in all biplanes, excepting the Voisin (new model), this rudder is placed out in front. Rudders placed at the rear are advantageous in that they act at the same time as keels, (5). But, in general the placing of the elevation rudder in front appears to offer more exact control of the longitudinal equilibrium, (6).

In the Wright biplane the elevation rudder is so constructed thtat when elevated it is automatically warped concavely on the under side, and when depressed curved in the opposite way. This materially adds to the rudder's force due to the peculiar law of aerodynamics whereby a curved surface, under the same conditions as a fiat surface, has a greater ratio of lift to drift, (7). The reduction in size of the rudder that is thus afforded, and its flat shape, when normal, greatly reduce the head resistance.

Keels, idle surfaces for preserving stability are entirely absent in the Wright, Santos Dumont, and Cody. In the Voisin type use is made of several vertical keels, partitions, placed not only at the rear, but also between the main surfaces themselves.

Keels add greatly to the resistance of a machine, the skin friction of such surfaces being considerable, (8). But actual practice shows that they do increase stability, (9), and tend to hold the machine to its course.

III.—Transverse Control.

In practice the lateral stability of aeroplanes is preserved in three ways.

A. Automatically.

B. By warping of the main planes.

C. By balancing planes ("wing tips.")

AERONAUTICS

The Voisin is the only type for which automatic lateral stability is claimed. The rear box cell and the vertical keels between the surfaces, exert such a forcible "hold" on the air that to displace the machine is^ difficult and in all ordinary turmoils of the air it displays exceptional stability. A well known aviator amusingly stated at Rheims that were a Voisin tipped completely over on one end, it would still be aerondynamically supported, so great is the expanse of vertical surface.

Without such keels, however, the lateral balance of any aeroplane is so precarious that some form of control is necessary, (10). The machines using the methods of warping the main planes for the preservation of lateral balance, include in addition to the Wright, all the present successful monoplane types.

Because of the structural difficulty of rigidly bracing the surface of a monoplane, warping is an ideal form of control. But the rigid structure of the biplane permits auxiliary planes (wing tips) to be more easily provided. This is done in the Farman, Cody and Curtiss biplanes.

These two methods of transverse control are both very efficacious, but the additional resistance, unaccompanied by any increase of lift, which is produced by balancing planes, perhaps renders them less desirable than warping, (n). On the other hand there are objections to weakening the structure of the main surface by making it movable, (12).

There is a further distinction between these two methods of control which although not thoroughly understood appears to be borne out in practice: viz., when a plane is warped, the action tends not only to tip the machine up on one side, but also due to the helical form assumed, there is a tendency to turn, which can only be counteracted by a vertical rudder ; in the case of "wing tips," however, due to the equal but contrary position in which they are placed, both sides of the machine are equally retarded, and in addition, since the main surfaces preserve the same shape and the same angle of incidence, this tendency to turn appears to be absent. Mr. Curtiss states that for correction of tipping alone he makes no use whatever of the vertical rudder, (13).

IV.—Aspect Radio.

It is at once observable from the diagram (see p. 4, 5, Aeronautics, Jan., 1910) that the aspect ratio (ratio of spread to depth) is generally less in monoplanes than in biplanes. Theoretically and experimentally the value of this quantity is considered to have much to do with the ratio of lift to drift, (14) ; but whether or not in actual practice, those machines like the Santos Dumont having as low an_ aspect ratio as 3 to 1 are really inferior in their qualities of dynamic support to a machine like the Cody with as high an aspect ratio as 7 to 1, is difficult to determine, since many other quantities such as the loading and the velocity are involved. It is interesting to

February, ipi

note here that some of .the large soaring bird; notably the Albatross, may be considered a aeroplanes of very high aspect ratio.

V.—Incident Angle.

The incident angle (i. e., the angle th main inclined surface makes with the horizon tal line of flight) varies greatly in the differer types. The Wright biplane is noticeable for it low angle of incidence in flight which rarel exceeds 2 degrees. Renard, after deduction from the experiments of Borda, as well a Langley and other investigators have enunc: ated the principle, that as the incident angl diminishes, the driving power expended in sus taining a given plane in the air, also dimin ishes, (15). Wilbur Wright states that "th angle of incidence is fixed by the area, weigr and speed, alone. It varies directly as th weight, and inversely as the area and spee< although not in exact ratio," (16). Faraud cor eludes that small angles are the most efficier for all aeroplanes, (17). A constant angle c incidence in flight seems also to be desii able, (18).

The Farman, Voisin, Bleriot XI and Grad have an angle of incidence when first startin much greater than when in flight. Since thi involves greater drift resistance and conse quently more power necessary to attain th velocity of levitation, and furthermore, in viei of the fact that aeroplanes with as heavy loading but no excessive angle are able t rise after a reasonably short run, it woul appear as if this provision were unnecessary

Recent experiments in aerodynamics indicat that the ratio of lift to drift, with a surface c the shape now so generally used, varies littl between the values of 1 degree and 6 degree: a maximum value being reached in the neigr. borhood of 3 degrees, (10). This explains i a measure the wide variations in this angl as observed and recorded for the differer types, and also that many of the present ma chines preserve their equilibrium during corr paratively large changes of their longitudim inclination.

VI.—Propellers.

The Wright and the Cody are the only m? chines provided with two propellers rotatin in opposite directions. The greater efficienc of a propeller of large diameter and slow revc lutjon over one of small diameter and high rc tative speed, (20) has attracted much atten tion. This seems to be borne out especiall in the case of the Wright machine in whic more thrust is obtained per unit of powe than in any other type. The limit of rotativ speed in practice is in the neighborhood 0 1,500 r.p.m., and in all types excepting th Wright, Cody and Bleriot XII, the r.p.m. ex ceeds 1,000. Many of the aeroplanes us Chauviere wooden screws for which an eff ciency of 80 per cent, is claimed. The Antoin ette, Voisin and Grade use metal propellers.

NOTE—Figures in parentheses relate to references 1 conclusion of article.

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Table I.

In this table, the longest flight of each type up to date is given both numerically and graphically. As can be seen, the Farman holds the world's record, while the Pelteri and New Voisin have as yet accomplished little. From a purely aerodynamic standpoint an aeroplane should not be judged by duration of flight, because this depends much more on the skill of the operator, the endurance of the motor and the amount of fuel carried. The three best flights have been made with Gnome motors.

Table II.

The speed of each machine is here given. The Santos Dumont is the fastest and the Voisin the slowest. The speed of the Bleriot XII is normally as given, but Delagrange in his record flight (see Table I) used a 50 h. p. Gnome motor, and obtained 49 m.p.h. The speeds of the machines are very much alike, the monoplanes not being in general any faster than the biplanes.

Table III.

The number of pounds per h. p. a machine carries gives an excellent indication of its efficiency. As can be seen from the Table, the Wright machine is by far the best and is followed by the Bleriot XII. But in the latter case, calculations were made for a 35 h. p. motor with which this machine was originally fitted, while at present a 60 h. p. motor is used. The Santos Dumont appears to be the least efficient in the application of its power. Again here, there is no general distinction between the monoplanes and biplanes.

TABLE II.

TABLE III.

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Table TV. Z ; J* T^T

In this table the loading (i. e., the pounds per sq. ft. of surface), is given for each type. The Grade and the Wright have the lightest loading, while the Bleriot XII has the heaviest. It is particularly noticeable that in general, the monoplanes are more heavily loaded than the biplanes, the Grade being an exception. This, however, is not accompanied by any specially remarkable high speed qualities of the monoplanes, as would be expected.

(1) ref: Chatley, H., Sci. Am. Sup. v. 67, 346.

TABLE IV.

(2) ref: Bleriot, L., "La Resistance des Helices," Aerophile v. 16, p. 11S.

(3) ref: Rozendaal, J., "Rader Oder Anlaufs-chiene," Zeit. fur Luft. v. 13, p. 136 ; Hunn, Zeit. fur Luft. v. 13, p. 610; Lefort, H., Aerophile v. 17, p. 51 ; TatiD, V., Aerophile v. 14, p. 220.

(4) ref: for descr. of this apparatus see Aeronautics, Sept., 190S.

(5) ref: Tatin, V., Aerophile v. 14, p. 220; Seux, E., Paris, Acad. Sci. v. 142, p. 79.

(6) ref: Lefort, H., Aerophile, v. 17, p. 51; Aeronautics, v. 4, p. 175.

(7) ref: (early) Dr. Barnard of Columbia in Sci. Am. v. 32, p. 112; Lilienthal, 0., Aeronautical Annual No. 3, p. 95; Soreau, R., Soc. des Ing. Civ. v. 2, p. 507 (1902) ; Lanchester, F. W.,

(Continued on page 73.)

9419754995

THE FARMAN AEROPLANI

THROUGH Paulhan's flights at Los Angeles, everyone will be interested in knowing the details of his Farman ma-' chine. Farman has been famous as one of the pioneer European fliers since 1907, when he used the Voisin machine. This year he branched out for himself and is manufacturing the Farman aeroplane. This has no vertical surfaces in the main supporting cell, as has the Voisin, nor in the tail cell.

Supporting Surfaces.—As usual, there are two lateral main beams1 to each plane, spaced apart as shown in the sketch. On these are laid the ribs, flush with the front edge of the front beam. Only a single layer of canvas is used, but the beams and ribs are inclosed in

hinged to the two rear struts of the tail. Tl bracing of these is shown in the sketch.

Framing.—Ash is the principal wood used i the construction of the machine. The foi spars running back to the tail have a rectai gular cross section and are braced by vertic struts set in aluminum fittings. To lugs : these fittings are attached the diagonal gi wires. There are no horizontal members 1 this structure, except the two at the front edj of the tail.

The rigging supporting the front control composed of four spars, each pair of which braced with but one upright strut, and gi wires. The only horizontal spar is that at tl front edge of the horizontal rudder, on whit

pockets of the same material. These rib pockets are sewn on the upper side of the cloth. The rear edge of the lower surface is cut away from the rear beam back to give room for the propeller. Between the two outermost struts of each main surface the rear edge is hinged to the rear lateral beam, making "flaps" like the tail board of a wagon. The ash struts are oval in cross section. The whole main cell is stayed with wire.

Supplementary Surfaces.—There is a single surface front horizontal control. A double surface rigid tail carries at the rear thereof two vertical rudders, working in unison.

-7i

m& tip

the rudder hinges.

To avoid drilling the wood, the engine b( is fastened by U bolts, as show.n. The se and foot lever arrangement is attached to tl same spars which form the engine bed. pressed steel bracket provides a support f< the stationary crankshaft of the rotary Gnon engine.

Chassis.—Each of two skids connect wi the main cell by three vertical struts, braci with wire. An axle is strapped to each pa of skids by heavy rubber bands. Two bra rods run from each skid to the inner extrerr ties of its respective axle. Each of these roi

FVoni Elevation

is hinged so that the wheels are somewhat flexible. In landing, the wheels first touch the ground, the elastic stretches and the skids come into contact:

Controls.—The "wing tips" will now naturally come in for discussion. The two flaps at either extremity of the machine work in unison through a vertical wire running from the rear of the lower to the rear of the upper. Moving a hand lever to the right, for instance, pulls the left hand flaps down. This movement aoes not affect the flaps on the other side at all, they being left perfectly free to adjust themselves to the stream lines. Pulling the left-hand flaps down increases their angle of incidence, increases the resistance, that end of the machine slows

up, with an increased lift. To counteract the right end of the machine from increasing its forward velocity and the whole machine slewing around to the left, the two vertical rudders are turned to the right by pressing with the right foot on the foot lever. At the aviator's right hand is a lever mounted on a universal joint, as shown, to which four wires are attached. Two of these work the flaps, as described, and the other two operate the front control. Pulling the lever toward the operator steers the machine up, and vice versa.

Power Plant.—The engine at present used is an air-cooled Gnome seven-cylinder rotary, 50 horsepower. The wood propeller, a Chau-viere, is placed ahead of the motor.

AERONAUTICS

CONSTRUCTION

February, ipio

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IN Fig. I is shown the method of steering up and down, left and right, in the Antoinette machine which Mr. Winton will bring to this country in the Spring. Figs. 7 and 8 show details of construction of the wings. The ribs are laid on two main transverse beams, neither of which form the edge of the plane, both front and rear edges heing sharp. These two main cross members -fit into the body framework. There are other transverse beams but which do not join to the body. The wings are supported by wires which radiate from a central mast above the body and run to the two main cross beams. Each cross beam is trussed by a vertical post and diagonal wires, as shown in Fig. 7. The method of warping was illustrated in the last issue.

Some vertical strut fastenings are shown in Figs. 2, 5 and 6. No. 5 is the device used

in the Wright machines. The guy wire slips in the slot "A" in the part "B" and a pin is run through. Nos. 2 and 6 were noticed on machines building at Morris Park.

Another Wright device is that shown in Fig. 3. This is a section of one of the two uprights that extend from the extreme front end of the skids up to and supporting the front rudder. Wife for the rear edge of a surface is being used at Morris Park, as shown in Fig. 9.

FLOUR AND WATER USED ON PLANES.

Panlhan was recently discovered painting his surfaces with a mixture of flour and water. He had noticed that they were not as tight as they should have been after much use out in the weather and this scheme was adopted in lieu of anything better.

SANTOS DUMONT'S DEMOISELLE II"

THIS WING TIP DEPRESSED TO OVERCOMETORque. OF PROPELLED

Supporting Surface.—Dimensions in sketch. The bamboo ribs are fastened to the under side of the two lateral ash beams. The ash beams taper toward ^ach end and are largest several feet out from the apex of the dihedral angle, measuring here about i by 2 inches. The cloth used is silk, in a double layer. A light bamboo corner-stay holds the fabric tight and prevents distortion at the ends of the planes. The angle of incident is greatest at the apex of the dihedral angle at which the planes are set. The curve is almost a true arc of a circle, and the rise of arc is about 1-20. Wires are stretched across the ends of the ribs, to which the silk is laced. The two layers of silk are sewn together between the ribs. The whole plane structure is kept rigid by guy wires introduced between the layers of cloth. In the middle, the cloth is cut away back to the front lateral beam .to provide roorii for the propeller.

Supplementary Surfaces.—A combination vertical and horizontal tail is pivoted on a universal joint. The tail moves as a whole, that is, the horizontal part is not movable distinct from the vertical. In this universal joint, of tubing, the horizontal member "T" has a vertical arm that swivels in the brazed sockets which hold the bamboo beams together. The tail moves up and down upon this horizontal piece "T."

Controls.—A lever at the right hand side moves the tail up and down. AtthcTleft is a small hand-wheel which turns the tail to the left or right. Another lever at the aviator's back, which warps the wings, fits into a tube fastened to the operator's coat. A side movement of the aviator pulls down the rear edge

of the wing opposite the side to which he leans, Springs are introduced in the wires which control the tail so as to bring the tail back without effort on the part of the operator. The spark switch is on the steering lever, while the gas is controlled by a foot pedal.

Chassis.—Three large bamboo beams about 2 inches diameter form a long horizontal sharp-pointed cone. Connecting these are oval steel rods. The knots in the bamboo are smoothed down. Between the knots the bamboo is wound. The drawings show fully the chassis arrangement. The seat is a piece of canvas stretched across the two lower bamboos, just behind the wheels. At the lower end of the vertical mast forward of the tail is a skid which holds up the rear end.

Power Plant.—Darracq, 2 cyl., opposed, horizontal, 30 h.p., water cooled, weight complete 52 kg. The 4 valves are in the head. Auxiliary exhaust ports. Cylinders of steel, with soldered copper jackets, 130 mm. bore by 120 mm. stroke. Connections are at 180 degrees with the crank shaft. On one end of the crank shaft is the propeller, 2.1 m. diameter by 2.1 m. pitch. On the other end is a pinion and eccentric working the oil pumps. This pinion also meshes with a gear which operates the water pump, the^cams which raise the valves and at the same time operates the magneto. The engine is mounted on top of the main surface. The radiator is placed under the main surface and extend the full length of the plane. This is composed of a great many small copper tubes connecting up to a larger tube at front and rear.

Total weight about 120 kg.

1%

Hamilton Reported Made New World Record—Flies in Snowstorm

ST. JOSEPH, Mo., Dec. 18.—At the series of exhibition flights given by Charles K. Hamilton with the Curtiss aeroplane at St. Joseph, Mo., under the auspices of the Merchants' Association, a new world's record was made for one kilometer, as well as a new world's "average speed" record.

Strong northwest winds with a temperature near zero marred the flights, except on Sunday, Dec. 12, when an unofficial flight of six minutes' duration amid a blinding snowstorm, a total distance of five kilometers being covered, the rounding of corners not considered.

Two straight flights of one-half and a kilometer were made previously, in which the aviator took bearings, having never before seen the field.

All the flights of the meet took place over the frozen surface of Lake Contrary. Trials, however, were made within the race course, the entire length being 1,250 ft., covered with ice and snow and a year's growth of weeds.

FLIES IN 29-MILE WIND.

On Tuesday several short flights were made at about 20 ft. high. One complete round of the course was made with only a few touches. A strong wind of 29 miles per hour prevailed, government record. Going with the wind, protected somewhat by the timber along the west shore, a speed of 62.72 miles an hour was made. The distance was exactly 3,450 ft. and the time a fraction over S71A seconds. J. H. Hess held the watch and your correspondent measured the distance. This record was made under the unfavorable conditions. A faulty spark plug gave trouble, the lubricating oil was cold and a new carburetor also gave trouble, to say naught of the velocity of the wind.

Wednesday trials within the race course resulted in the aviator losing control by vibration set up while passing over the undulating field. His foot slipped off the brake lever and the aeroplane crashed into a fence, breaking two braces of the horizontal rudder support truss.

After repairs were made, a two-bladed propeller was substituted, but it was too late for further flights.

On Thursday, Dec. 16, after hours of waiting for the abatement of the northwestern gale, chilling to the very marrow, flights were again made from the lake's surface. Thousands watched, in protected covers from the storm, from the Casino and two clubhouses, Hamilton's maneuvers with the tiny biplane, which were sensational. In alighting from the first round of the course, in which only about half the time was the machine flying, by set-

ting the brake too sudden, the machine skidded around, facing the wind. The tires were loosened and later were thrown while passing through a snowdrift. Notwithstanding this, he arose and covered 800 ft. A rear wheel was locked at the time. After adjusting the tire, the last flight was made. In alighting, the machine coasted dangerously near a barb-wire fence and Hamilton threw himself prone upon the ice in a desperate struggle to impede the speed. His nose was cut and bruised, and blood flowed freely, when boys on skates rescued him.

The best flight of the series was on the last day, Sunday, Dec. 19. Hamilton covered about 10 miles, or three times around the course over the lake, at about 40 ft. altitude.

o. j. PRUITT.

[This speed has been questioned. We have no further authority than the above at present.—Editor.]

Hamilton's Flights at Kansas City.

22-MINUTE FLIGHT ACROSS COUNTRY.

From St. Joseph, Mo., Hamilton took his machine to Overland Park at Kansas City, where W. B. Strang, owner of the park, had contracted for three flights a day for eight days.

On December 26th the first flight was made. In spite of extreme cold and bad wind, several straight jumps were made and one circular flight of a mile. The next day he accomplished a couple of figure-eights and several straightaway flights of about 300 yards. The next day, Tuesday, a local constable thought Hamilton would collide with the grandstand and attempted to save the grandstand from the new fangled assault. He was struck by the machine, that is, literally, and considerably bruised. A patrolman went to the hero's aid and was dragged for 20 ft. The weather on this day was so cold that the water in the radiator froze 'on attempting the third flight. Wednesday was too cold for flights at all. The following day four flights were made, including two figure-eights and a 100-ft. altitude flight.

Friday, December 31, witnessed a very sensational flight. For more than a mile an altitude of about 500 ft. was maintained and he was in the air for 22 minutes, covering an estimated distance of 18 miles, at an average height of 200 ft.

SPECTACULAR FLYING AT 5OO FT.

The weather on this occasion was by far the best of the week. It was fairly warm and the wind was very light. Hamilton made a

IN THE WORLD OF AVIATION

termined to bring an aviation meet here next May or June and already has opened negotiations with Hamilton to return and hopes to have Paulhan and other foreign and American aviators. Suitable trophies and cash prizes will be offered to make it worth while for tha "human birds" to come to Kansas City. If three or more aviators come here prizes will be awarded for speed, heighth and distance. An effort also will be made to get the international balloon races.

Boston Man Buys Canadian Aeroplane.

The Canadian Aerodrome Co. is now building a monoplane somewhat similar to Latham's for Gardiner Greene Hubbard of Boston. It will be remembered that the Canadian Aerodrome Co. was formed by Messrs. F. W. Baldwin and J. A. D. McCurdy when the Aerial Experiment Association came to an end on March 31, last year. The company has built two machines, called the "Baddeck No. 1" and "Baddeck No. II," on the model of the previous machines of the A. E. A., with improvements, of course.

A short time ago Mr. McCurdy was in the air for over 20 minutes in the "Baddeck No. II," using a commercial automobile engine not built especially for aviation work, at their grounds in the Baddeck River Valley, about four miles from the town of Baddeck, Nova Scotia, where they have the use of a flat meadow.

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, whose home is at Beinn Bhreagh, near Baddeck, together vvith the Canadian Aerodrome Co., will, as soon as the Bras d'Or Lake freezes up, have quite an aviation meet of their own. There are no less than five machines to be tried out. One, the old "Cygnet II," a " 'drome" of pure tetra-hedral construction: 2, a " 'drome" upon the Oionos model, in which the framework is of tetrahedral construction and horizontal surfaces as well as oblique are employed; 3 and 4, the two "aerodromes" of the Canadian Aerodrome Co., the "Baddeck I and II."

John Shepard, Jr., of Boston, Mass., is considering the purchase of a Wright aeroplane. John W. Kaufman of Columbus, O., is another.

Aero Meet Opens at Los Angeles.

The first big aeronautic meet in this country opened at Los Angeles on Jan. 10. Paulhan is the main feature of the show, by reason of his great exploits abroad, though Curtiss and Willard stand high in the hearts of their countrymen.

After a great deal of fuss has been made over the question whether or not the permission of the Aero Club of America would be obtained in order that it would be possible for Curtiss to come, and to make the records of the meet official as far as the International Federation is concerned, the A. C. A. granted a

straightaway flight of a mile but could not make the circle. He then returned through the air to the grandstand and started again. He made about the same distance on his third and fourth flights. His fifth attempt took him 2}i miles through the air and he was prevented from making the turn by the telegraph and electric wires. He made a successful return flight to the grandstand during which time he raced with a speeding electric car and provided some interesting entertainment for the passengers who were going to Overland Park in a doubtful frame of mind as to the ability of the machine to fly. It was his seventh attempt on this day that resulted in the greatest flight of the week.

Starting as he did on every other occasion, the machine rose gracefully into the air and made about four miles due north before Hamilton began his circle. The crowd in the stand and i m the field saw the big machine gradually grow smaller and when Hamilton made the circle to the west it resembled a giant chicken hawk.

FLIES CROSS COUNTRY.

Across houses, haystacks, trees and electric wires the machine sped on toward Marriam. He again turned south with the biplane and for a minute the machine was lost to view. It was believed that Hamilton had alighted but the eager crowd saw it reappear and cheered as the machine headed straight for the field. When the flying machine and its daring driver came closer to the park, the four cylinders of the engine could be heard beating in unison and the machine was flying about 40 miles an hour. Hamilton made no attempt to alight, but drove the biplane east until it appeared that he soon would be lost to view. Another wide circle to the south followed. It was here that the machine attained its greatest altitude. Hemmed in on all sides by trees Hamilton had but one remaining course, that was to rise above them. He took the machine higher and higher and when at an estimated altitude of 500 ft. he drove over a mile of forest.

The machine went south for considerable distance and then Hamilton executed another circle and drove it southwest toward Overland Park. He alighted without accident in front of the grandstand and was accorded an ovation by the spectators. It was a spectacular flight and one that never will be forgotten by those who were fprtunate enough to witness the exhibition. This was the last successful flight.

New Year's day, when there was an excellent prospect of assembling a crowd of 5,000 spectators, a cylinder in the engine broke and the people on their way to the aviation park were turned back at the state line. It was an unsatisfactory ending, as New Year's day was about the first one where the weather conditions would have induced a large turnout.

K. C. WILL HAVE AVIATION MEET.

Though the experiment proved a losing venture for Mr. Strang, it probably will be a good thing for Kansas City, as he has de-

5o

sanction to the promoters of the meet through the Aero Club of California. This sanction was not given, however, without a string. The conditions imposed are substantially as follows: That no exhibition flights of dirigibles or aeroplanes be sanctioned; that contests of aeroplanes for prizes be sanctioned provided they are in accordance with the rules of the I. A. F., and that the Aero Club of America shall finally confirm the decisions of the judges and the prizes shall not be paid over before the period required by the rules of the federation, after the official acceptance by the A. C. A. of the awards.

Pilots of the A. C. A. cannot compete in races where unlicensed pilots take part.

The A. C. A. must be satisfied that the money for the payment of the prizes is available.

Cortlandt F. Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, journeyed to Los Angeles to see that that big affair was handled in accordance with his views of propriety, but it is to be noted that his presence did not stop exhibition flights and ascensions, nor the discrimination between licensed and unlicensed pilots. Anyway, rules are at times only loopholes.

Anticipation of the meet aroused great enthusiasm in southern California and Los Angeles newspapers devoted the greater part of their editorial pages to appeals to the merchants for subscriptions to stock in the enterprise which was inaugurated out of civic pride and the desire to advertise Los Angeles.

Clifford B. Harmon will take delivery of his Curtiss aeroplane and learn its operation at Los Angeles.

PAULHAN SERVED IN WRIGHT SUIT.

Louis Paulhan, his wife, his wife's dog and mechanics arrived in New York on their way to Los Angeles on Jan. 3. Paulhan was immediately served with papers in an action brought by the Wright company alleging infringement. This does not prevent him from flying, but may deprive him of a more or less large portion of his earnings.

In the next issue we will have a very complete record of the meet through our delegate to the meet, Cleve T. Shaffer.

Says He Warped Wings in 1897.

D. D. Wells has completed a monoplane at his home in Jacksonville, Fla., and is now waiting for the engine and propeller.

Mr. Wells states that he made models incorporating the warping of the main plane in 1897, six years before the Wright patent. He says: "I considered it of not much value to patent it as it was. I also had in that model at that time rear pivoted horizontal and vertical controls."

The details of his present machine are as follows:

Supporting Surface.—The spread measures 40 ft. from "tip to tip," the two "wings" br'ng

each 4 ft. 2 in. front to rear at the center of the machine, tapering to a point at the extremities as in the Antoinette machines. The total supporting surface is about 150 sq. ft. The cloth used is "heather silk." Each wing is double covered. This cloth has been found very good without treatment;

Supplementary Surfaces.—There is a rear horizontal control 12 ft. spread by 3 ft. 2 in. front to rear. Pivoted at the center of the rear horizontal control is a vertical rudder measuring 4 ft. high by 4lA ft. front to rear.

The tips of the main surfaces are movable for lateral stability.

These wing tips are controlled independently of each other or in unison as desired. For instance, the left tip can be moved up or down without disturbing the right tip, and vice versa, each having a separate lever. Moving both levers to the right will lower front edge of right tip and elevate front edge of left tip. A reverse action is obtained by a reverse movement of the lever. These tips pivot near the center of the main planes front to rear and are operated* by means of flexible wire cable running over pulleys, between the two layers of cloth, to a short vertical mast at the junction of the wing tip with the main surface. The same levers moved forward will elevate the front edge of the rear horizontal control, causing the machine to descend. Pulling both levers toward the operator will depress the front of the rear control, causing a rise. A cross bar just under the body in front of the aviator, pivoted in the center and used as a foot lever, is connected by wires with the vertical rudder for right and left steering. Pushing out on the left foot turns the machine to the right, the movement being the same as with the handle bar of a bicycle.

Body Framing, Etc.—The body, of rectangular cross-section, is covered with the same cloth as the surfaces. The front portion of this body is mounted in a large vertical triangle like a letter "A." Just in front of this "A" will be situated the motor, while the aviator sits just back of it. From the extreme front point of the body a curved skid extends down to the base of the "A," thougn later a patented skid will be employed. Another curved skid holds up the rear end of the aeroplane. The body and wings are both fastened and stayed to this "A." The length of the aeroplane over all is 24 feet.

White spruce is used for all framing. Bolt holes have been avoided almost entirely. The framing measures 1 in. by 54 hi. The body is 22 in. wide at the aviator's seat and 11 in. deep, and pointed at each end to avoid bolt holes. Clasps and sockets are provided for cross timbers. These sockets are made of No. 18 stamping steel. The weight of the apparatus without the motor and operator or propeller is about 100 pounds.

Monoplane at Curtiss Factory.

Hammondsport, N. Y., Jan. 11.—The first pictures of the new monoplane built at the Curtiss factory are just now available. The ma-

A. L.^Pfitzner in His First Aeroplane

H. M. Benner Photo

chine is on the design of A. L. Pfitzner, the motor superintendent of the Curtiss works, who was formerly an engineer with the Buick automobile concern. It flew on its first trial for several hundred yards, hut through the inexperience of Mr. Pfitzner, the operator, it hit a tree.

Some entirely new features in monoplane construction are embodied in this machine. The motor is the new type Curtiss 25-horsepower, the same as used by Curtiss in the flights at Los Angeles. Instead of having the vertical rudder in the rear, it is placed in the front, while the rudder for steering up and down is at the extreme rear. The apparatus runs on four wheels instead of three, as used by Curtiss. In the photograph is shown Mr. Pfitzner. the designer.

Flies From Worcester to New York and Back (?).

was tt a pair of owls and a lantern?

A sensation was caused last month when Wallace E. Tillinghast of Worcester, Mass.,

stated that on the night of Sept. 8 he flew an aeroplane to New York and back, during which flight the motors were stalled for 46 minutes at an elevation of 4,000 ft.

The story has been generally discredited, but it seems to be a fact that Tillinghast is working on some kind of flying machine at a lonely spot 50 miles from Worcester and 13 miles from the nearest railroad.

After the announcement everyone in the vicinity of Worcester imagined he saw the searchlight of the aeroplane while it was making nightly flights. One practical joker tied a lantern to two owls and let them loose. Thi^ made another flight for Tillinghast.

You started the new year right, for your January number was the best yet, I hope j-our magazine will continue tc improve each month as it has in the past. If there is anything I can do to help Aeronautics and its readers—don't be bashful.

Carl Bates. 104 West Oak St.. Chicago, 111.

AERONAUTICS February, ipw

WITH THE LIGHTER THAN AIR

Dirigible Ascents in the United States

During the year probably more than 450 dirigible ascents have been made in the United States by a dozen or more airships, using 7.347,000 cubic feet of hydrogen gas. There have been made possibly a few more of which no record is obtainable. Following is a partial list:

G. L. Bumbaugh—Seven at State Fair, Indianapolis, and 3 at Richmond, Ind. At Richmond the trips were of 3 to 4 miles each over the city, starting from a vacant lot and returning to the start.

Horace B. Wild—Three at Aberdeen, S. D.; 5 in Chicago; 7 at Terre Haute; 5 at Houghton, Mich. Number of inflations, 6, consuming 84,800 cubic feet of hydrogen. The '"Eagle" and "Comet" were used.

Capt. T. S. Baldtviu—Seven at Arlington, N. J.; 5 at Norwich, Conn.; 6 at Worcester, Mass.; 2 at New York; 4 each at St. Louis and Chicago, in the "1909 California Arrow." using 111,000 cubic feet of hydrogen.

Clias. J. Strobel—Six airships were operated by Mr. Strobel during 1909. The exact number of ascents made is impossible to ascertain. It is of interest to note that Frank W. Goodale alone made 152 ascents during the season, and it is probable that the other six pilots, Fred Owens, Stanley Vaughn, Eugene Godard, Jack "Dallas," "Van" Parker and Harry Ginter, made a goodly number apiece.

It is estimated by Mr. Strobel that the six ships were in service a total of 133 weeks, and used an average of 9,000 cubic feet of hydrogen each week apiece, or 7,182,000 cubic feet during the year. The capacity of each ship averages about 7,500 feet. One has a Curtiss 2-cycle engine; two have 4-cycle engines of Strobel's own pattern, and five are fitted with 2-cycle Indians. The extra two ships are kept in reserve in case of accident. Three Yale motors will be tried in 1910. During 1909 one airship was in Rio Janeiro. South America; one at Seattle; one through Canada and British Columbia; two in the East, and one in the Middle West. Two of these are now working in the South. Three go to Australia and New Zealand.

Figures have not yet been obtainable from Roy Knabenshue, Lincoln Beachey, Carl E. Myers and one or two others.

The Goodale ship has a capacity of 7,000 cubic feet, weighs 275 pounds without operator, equipped with slA horse-nower Indian motor. The two Knabenshue-Beachey ships-are 47 ft. long, 14V2 ft. diam., with 5 horsepower motors.

The "Pommery," formerly known as the "Conqueror," owned by Messrs. Taylor and Arnold, of St. Louis, has been sold to the Aviation Committee of Los Angeles.

To Build Monster Hot-Air Balloon

J. A. Blondin, now of Los Angeles, is to build a "thermo-aerostat" with a capacity of 220,000 cu. ft. The weight, including the hot-air plant, with two passengers, fuel and provisions, will be about 2,200 pounds, while the lifting capacity is estimated at 3,000 pounds. To inflate the balloon, it is intended to use common coal oil, which can be procured in almost any locality.

After the balloon is filled with hot air and ready to start, the "furnace," which is located between the basket and the bag with the hot-air pipe projecting into the interior, will continue to supply fresh hot air and at the same time furnish power for a 25-horsepower engine which is used to drive a small propeller attached to a framework on the basket. This propeller is not intended to make the balloon a regular airship but it is hoped that it will enable the aeronaut to lay some kind of a course and possibly return to the starting point.

The advantages claimed are that an ascent of a week mav be made, minimum initial cost and expense of maintenance, a saving of 00 per cent of the cost of inflation, a constant lifting power, and, bv employing the motor, advantage can be taken of any stratum of currents.

Honeywell to Take Up Governor.

"Bud" Dozier has set April 1 as the date for the balloon ascension in which Governor Had-ley, Mayor Kreismann and Dozier are to be piloted by H. E. Honeywell.

May Climb Mt. McKinley by Balloon.

Some time ago Col. A. P. Shirley of Nashville, Tenn., declared if he had a balloon he would scale Mt. McKinley. For a Christmas present, A. Leo Stevens, the New York balloon builder, sent him a small hydrogen balloon, and it is now up to Colonel Shirley. The balloon has a diameter of 20 ft. and a capacity of 4,850 cu. ft., just enough to barely lift a man the weight of Colonel Shirley. The idea is to attach the balloon to a belt around the body of the climber. This is to prevent serious accident in case he should fall off a ledge, and avoids the necessity of the user lifting his own weight up the mountain side. No basket, of course, is used.

The big balloon built by A. Leo Stevens, the "All America." has also been sold to the Lo; Angeles Aviation Committee, and has already been shipped to Los Angeles.

Winton Buys Aeroplane

Alexander Winton, president of the Winton Motor Carriage Co.. has purchased a 50-horse-power Antoinette aeroplane to be delivered some time in the spring.

Mr. Winton has recently been elected president of the Cleveland Aero Club.

H. Farman Biplane—The Area of the Wing Tips has been Reduced Since the Above was Taken

THE Aero Club of America has leased from the Garden City Co., a large real estate concern, an acre of ground near Garden City. L. I., at the edge of the Hempstead Plains, with the privilege of flying over all the other property controlled by the Garden City Co.

Willis L. Moore, chief of the United States Weather Bureau, lectured before 40 of the members of the Aero Club of America and Automobile Club of America at the latter's rooms on Dec. 27. With lantern slides he described the work of the bureau and hinted vaguely at a recent magazine article which devoted considerable space to the alleged incompetency of the bureau, by telling the percentage of error in calculations. Then he took a fall out of the "rainmakers," who use exploding balloons and cannon to produce ( ?) a fall of the precious fluid. He described one particular chart prepared each morning at 10 o'clock, which shows the distribution of pressure of the entire world. From the cable reports at this hour daily a line can be drawn showing the world-wide movement of storms. Before the eyes of the experts, six to eight of these can be "seen" wending their way through the atmosphere of the various portions of the globe.

The Aero Club of Rochester, was incorporated at Albany during the last week in December. The club organization was perfected earlier in the year, but with the idea of making its constitution and by-laws as strong as possible and to leave the least possible ground for future quibbling some weeks of deliberation by the board of directors were devoted to them before final adoption.

This, one of the last of tlie 1909 clubs, promises for the future to be one of the strongest organizations of the kind in the country. The history of its inception may prove amusing.

Nearly a year ago officials of the Elbridge Engine Company of Rochester, began to be "pestered" by "aviators" on the lookout for light-weight motors. The company was manufacturing very light-weight marine engines and their advertising of "more power for weight than any others" evidently interested prospective aviators. The inquiries interested the gas engine men and they began some experiments, both with engines and aeroplanes.

A nucleus of a dozen or so men interested in the new science brought the idea of an organization. This was taken up by the Rochester newspapers and on the evening the first meeting was held at tlit offices of the Elbridge Engine Company instead of

the twenty men who were expected, there appeared more than thirty.

On this basis it was figured that a club membership of fifty would be ample and plans were made accordingly; this number was passed before the next meeting so the limit was raised to sixty. Before the second meeting, and organization, the voluntary applications had reached the one hundred mark, and still coming in. The membership includes some of the most prominent men in Western New York, doctors, lawyers, financiers, inventors.

Of these, a count being taken, it was found that nearly twenty had machines in course of construction or were financially interested in aeroplanes, built or building.

Quarters will be secured and preparations begun for active work to be done when the weather breaks.

The Cleveland Aero Club has completed its organization and elected penminent officers. Alexander Winton, president c/f the Winton Motor Carriage Co., is president; H. C. Gam-meter of the American Multigraph Co, first vice-president; L. H. Kittredge, president of the Peerless Automobile Co., second vice-president ; W. H. Abbott, third vice-president. Albert H. Bates is treasurer and C. J. Forbes secretary.

The manner of incorporation is unique, though it was instituted by the Aeronautic Society. Every man who joins receives a share of stock, giving him full voting power. This costs $25, which represents the nrst year's dues. The second and succeeding years an annual fee of $20 is paid by the members for privileges of the club. The capital stock is $10,000. There are now 40 members. Headquarters are in the Hollenden Hotel.

Lectures will be given to arouse interest and grounds provided for experimenting. Several of the members have already offered to subscribe large sums toward preparing grounds. Mr. Winton is particularly interested in this, as he wants a place to fly his Antoinette.

The Michigan Aero Club has been formally launched at Detroit. A committee consisting of R. D. Chapin, H. B. Joy, well-known automobile manufacturers; Russell A. Alger, Fred Wadsworth, E. W. Lewis and Charles Ducharme, was appointed to formulate definite plans and report. Wilbur and Orville Wright and F. S. Lahm were present at the meeting. Mr. Lahm illustrated his talk on ballooning with lantern slides.

The Southern Aero Club has been formed in New Orleans, with Dr. Thomas W. Carey, Jr., president; F. Freige Galan, vice-president; Dr. L. L. Lavadan, secretary-treasurer. Tern-

porary headquarters at 809 Canal St., New Orleans. Already 30 members have joined. The objects of this new organization are to encourage study, hold exhibitions and contests, have workshops, sheds, motors and grounds for members, and to spread knowledge of the art.

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania has been formed by a group of enthusiasts in Philadelphia to attend more particularly to aviation. These include He'myS'GrTitz. president of the Aero Club of PhiladelphiaTArthur T. Ather-holt, who was aide to Major Hersey in the 1907 Gordon-Bennett; T. T. Tuttle, Louis J. Bergdoll, who has just bought the Wana-maker Bleriot; Willie Haupt, the automobile race driver, and others. It was intended to merge the Aero Club of Philadelphia and this new society into one organization, but the plan was not capable of fulfillment. Laurence Lesh was a guest at the meeting on Jan. 7.

The new club is to be state-wide in its scope, any resident of Pennsylvania being eligible to membership, and it is hoped to have a number of affiliated clubs in the various cities in the state. There is a committee looking for grounds and another inspecting various places for headquarters in the city.

The University of Pennsylvania A. C.

started work during the holidays on an aeroplane to be called the "Philadelphia I," with the assistance of Laurence J. Lesh. A subscription was easily started, and will be continued, to defray the expenses of building the machine and fitting it with a motor.

The Amherst Aero Club has recently bought one of the gliders manufactured by C. & A. Wittemann of Staten Island, New York. So far, the time has been spent at the weekly gliding trials, in learning the balance and gaining confidence by using ropes. Every time a trial is made, big gains result, and it is soon expected to discard the ropes. The flights have been of 200 to 300 ft. Prof. David Todd is president and Weston W. Goodnow of New York, secretary.

The Aeronautic Alumni Association has

been formed by the members of the recent class in aeronautics at the West Side Y. M. C. A., New York, of which Wilbur R. Kimball was instructor. Dr. Rex C. Northwood, 1777 Broadway, New York, is president. The A. A. A. is instituting a new series of model contests, and issues a challenge to any model flying club of the country to compete against its team. Acceptances are asked for, and may be addressed to Dr. Northwood. The new club will have talks and lectures at the Y. M. C. A., and will shortly start work upon a full-sized aeroplane.

An Aviation Section of the Professional Chauffeurs Association of America has been formed in Philadelphia. The seed was sown when several members of the Philadelphia branch of the P. C. A. of A. began gliding. Others became interested and it was decided to form a club. At a meeting held at their club house, 1933 Spring Garden

St., a permanent organization was effected with the following officers: President/ i\. McGeorge, automobile designer; secretary-treasurer, John R. Tallis, mechanical engineer; board of engineers, "Willie" Haupt, the well known racing man, "Al" Truitt, formerly chief tester with the Chadwick Engineering Co., and the president and secretary ex-officio.

The purpose of the club is to carry on experiments in aviation until all the members who so desire become expert aviators. As soon as weather permits the interrupted gliding practice will be resumed with a new glider designed by Laurence J. Lesh. When sufficient skill has been attained flights will be attempted in a full size monoplane now under construction at McGeorge's garage

The present time is being spent in the study of the construction and design of aeroplanes with discussions by the members and addresses by practical men of experience in aeronautics and engineering, among the latter being Mr. Lesh. an honorary member, whose address on the use of model experiments and gliders was very interesting and instructive. Robert H. Ramsey, inventor of the Ramsey engine; Samuel King, the veteran balloon builder, and Carl H. Carson, of the LT. of P., have also offered to assist.

The Aeronautic Society has accepted the invitation of the Genealogical Society and held its two last meetings at the G. S. Building at 226 West 58th St., New York. Future meetings will probably be continued at this address. The weekly meetings have been reduced in number to semi-monthly, on Thursday evenings, as usual.

The first meeting held at the new rooms lasted until midnight, and then a portion of the discussions had to be postponed to the next session. Carlos de Zafra. B.S., M.E., a well known marine engineer, was the principal speaker on propellers, the subject of the evening. He was followed by J. H. Edwards, an officer of the Aeromotor Co.. manufacturers of windmills; Mr. Kit ter. of the American Blower Co., who explained their method of testing blowers, illustrated by a model; P. W. Wilcox, of Columbia University; F. Charavay and Hugo C. Gibson.

At the next meeting Dr. Dwight Tracy, S. Y. Beach and Wilbur R. Kimball were the speakers. In addition a debate was inaugurated on the question of the best form of running-gear and landing devices.

The desire for an emblem of the Aeronautic Society has now been gratified. Among the several designs submitted to the committee, one furnished by J. A. Moller, New Ro-chelle, N. Y., was selected last month. It is made in three colors—gold, white and blue— in the shape of a pair of gold wings crossed by a white propeller interlocked with a blue ring, wherein the name of the society appears. It is very handsome and is made in two sizes. These can be secured from the secretary.

A. V. Roe Flying at Wembly

Edwin*Levick Photo

FOREIGN* LETTER

Good Flying in England—Delagrange Killed in Aeroplane—Many Long and Cross Country Flights in France—Farman Wins Michelin Cup — New Speed Record — French Government Buys Aeroplanes—$100,000 Subsidy — $2,000,000 for German Airships

Algi

ers._

A Voisin machine has been flown during December by M. Metrot near Algiers. On Christmas Day a 14-kil. cross country flight was made, returning the following day.

Argentine and Brazil,

Six aeroplanes left Marseilles for Argentina and Brazil on December 24, including 3 Voisins. 1 Santos Dnmont and 2 Bleriots. Aviators will be imported from France.

Austria.

The Austrian government now has a rarseval dirigible of 2,400 cu. m. capacity, GO h.p. motor. Almost the first ascent made was one of 7 hours, over the city and in the country round about Vienna, covering about 200 kil. Twenty-seven thousand dollars is provided in the budget for dirigibles.

He it Ettrich, whose novel gliding machine attracted wide attention the early part of last year, has been able to fly with his odd looking monoplane at Weiner-Neustadt, getting up to 4^ kils.

England.

The Hon. C. S. Rolls, Frank McClean and Alec Ogilvie have all been increasing the length of

flights in their Wright machines, Mr. Rolls getting up lo one of 20 minutes. Mr. Ogilvie, on December 2, flew out over the sea at Rye, remaining up 16 minutes. More sheds are being erected at the Aero Club's grounds at Eastchurch.

ROLLS FLIES CROSS COUNTKT.

The flying colony at Eastchurch was surprised late one afternoon to hear in the distance the sound of a motor. As the noise of the exhaust grew in volume, the cause was seen to be an aeroplane—that of Mr. Rolls. He had left the Short factory a short wliile before, after having some repairs made there and this flight of December 21, though, was quite a feat, as Mr. Rolls has not yet made any long flights, and the distance is about 15 miles.

ROLLS FLIES UIS WRIGHT AN HOUR.

January 1.-—Mr. Rolls to-day flew for 55 minutes, when his motor gave trouble. Later in the day he took np a passenger.

On December 20th, Cody-started on his trip from Liverpool to Manchester for the $5,000 prize but got only about 10 miles when he gave up on account of fog. Some wires suddenly loomed up out of the fog and he made a quick descent.

MRS. HARBORD IN CROSS-CHANNEL BALLOON TRIP.

The Hon. Mrs. Assheton Harbord in her balloon Virvana, with C. F. Pollock as pilot, and another

male passenger made a cross-channel balloon trip from Battersea, December 18, at 4 :20 p.. m. After an fcxciting all night trip, the balloon landed near Hagen, Westphalia, a distance of about 330 miles. The greatest height was 8,000 ft., and the temperature dropped to 15 deg. above zero.

ROE SUCCESSFULLY FLIES TRIPLANE.

A. V. Roe, who has been struggling aloue for years, has at last beeu able to fly very well with his tandem triplane at Wembley Park. He has not yet been able to turn on the small circular course. The twisting and tilting of the main planes for steering work very well. On Christmas day he broke up one side of the machine in turning too sharply, just after making several good short flights.

The firm of A. V. Roe & Co. has been formed to take up aeroplane manufacturing.

DETAILS OF ROE TRIPLANE.

Surfaces.—Three superposed main plaues, each 20 ft. by 3 ft. 7 in., set at an angle of 5 deg. Three rear rigid superposed planes, each 10 ft. by 3 ft. 7 in. The total supporting surface is 320 sq. ft. The front planes tilt longitudinally for steering up and down. Oiled paper backed with muslin is used. There is a vertical rudder hinged to the rear end of the body frame, between the two lower horizontal surfaces of the tail section. The rear edges of the main planes also twist for steering right and left. All these movements are controlled by a single lever; pushed forwa.rd or backward for steering up and down, left or right for turning. The outer 6 ft. of main planes can be folded for housing.

Body.—Triangular in cross section of deal, cigar shaped plan view, covered. The aviator sits in a cockpit about 4 ft. back of the main planes.

Power Plant.—Motor, central between two lower main planes, 20 h. p., drives a 4-bladed propeller.

The great Brooklands motordrome has had a number of aeroplane sheds erected which are rented to aviators.

France.

DEATH OF DE LAGRANGE.

The fourth man to be killed in power machines was Leon Delagrange, and all these four have met their deaths within the last 15 months.

RECORD MONOPLANE DISTANCE.

On Dec. 30, at Juvisy, he started to beat H. Farman's record, but was only able to stay up for 2 hours 3%^ minutes in his Bleriot monoplane covering 200 kil. This is the record duration for a Bleriot machine. The speed attained at one time was 55.S9 m.p.h. A Gnome J>3> h.p. motor was —used--in plaee-ofTne Anzaflt^S'h. p. The distance was nearly equal to Farman's world record (232 kil.). Another trial was made on Jan. 4 at Bordeaux in a wind of about 20 m. p. h. As he was turning a corner of the aerodrome one wing broke under the pressure and the machine fell to earth, with Delagrange underneath, crushing out his life almost instantly.

FARMAN GETS MICHELIN $4000 AND CUP.

No one having exceeded the record of H. Far-man, 144 miles in 4 hours 17 minutes, made Nov. 3, the Michelin 1909 cash prize and copy of cup was awarded Farman in recognition of that flight. Last year it was won by Wilbur Wright.

On Dec. 31, Latham, Singer, Farman and Le-gagneux were all entered for the contest. Latham's motor gave trouble and he came down after 1 hour 20 minutes. The others were able to make only short distances. Farman flew for 2 hours and then descended, as his previous record was not in danger.

H. Farman has adopted Chalons for his training; ground, beginning the first of December. On Dee. 7 trials began with the new lighter, H.'Farman, which Paulhan took to the States and which i« supposed to flv at 80 k.p.h. Poplar has been used instead of ash, the details of construction have been improved and the weight greatly lessened.

r.UJLHAX CARRIES TWO PASSENGERS.

On Dec. 15 Paulhan took up two other passengers at one time in the new machine. These two had a weight of 330 lbs., to which must be added 10 gallons of gas.

a-i

ENGLISHMAN FLIES HOUR.

Mortimer Singer, an Englishman, has had good success at Chalons with the Henry Farman biplane, recently purchased. On Dec. 21 he flew for 1 hour 1 minute in the cold, a great thing for a novice who has had but a few lessons. The next day he took up Miss Dorothy Leavitt. Following days he continued making fligljts of 10 to 17 minutes' duration.

DE LESSEPS FLIES 90 MINUTES. 

Jacques de Lesseps, son of the famous engineer who dug the Suez Caual, is one of the students at Issy on Bleriots. He made rapid progress and it was only his fourteenth flight when, on Dec. 16, he flew for 1 hour 30«minutes, qualifying for pilot's certificate. V— _._ — "5.

This was the longest flight made on a Bleriol^ machine up to this date. On the 21st Lesseps star%l on a trial for several large prizes for cross-country flight. After going about 6% km. the action of the motor caused a hasty descent and the machine % was considerably damaged.

ANOTHER HOUR FLIGHT.

M. Chateau, instructor of the Voisin School at Chalons, started, on Dec. 12, to practice for the Michelin cup contest, remaining up 1 hour 1 minute 15 seconds, covering about 65 kil. _

Latham continues teaching with the Antoimtte at Chalons, where he has ten students. ws^mne occasion he took up a moving picture operatcn^and machine for the purpose of obtaining a film from an aeroplane. On Dec. 15, among other passengers, he took up Capt.- Gerardville, one of the three taught by Wilbur Wright.

On Dec. 26, at Chalons Latham went up to 292 meters, intending to beat Paulhan's record, but the weather forbade. However, this won him the De Caters height prize. He made a flight of 39 minutes on the aeroplane bought by H. S. Hark-ness, an Americau. The Farman and Antoinette students made short flights.

84 MILES ACROSS COUNTRT.

Maurice Farman is making a specialty of crosscountry flights. He has made another (Dec. 9) of about 43 miles, lasting 53 minutes, within 2 minutes of his previous record, from Buc to Chartres. He used the Renault motor, with Bosch magneto. On Dec. 31 he flew from Chartres to Orleans, about 43 miles, in an hour. One stop on the way was made to repair the motor.

NEW SPEED RECORD -59.6 M.P.H.

Pan, in the South of France, is now the principal flying ground. Here all the teaching on the Bleriot and Wright machines is being done. The 80 h.p., E.N.V.-engined, Xll-type, 2-passenger Bleriot of Claude G. White, is being altered to reduce the speed for instruction work. On Nov. 28 last, an officially timed circular flight of 6 kil. was made at 96 k.p.h. (59.6 miles an hour), a new official average speed record. In the spring teaching will be begun near London. At Pau two pupils are now being taught, a half dozen others are coming and two ladies from London, in addition, have paid their tuition fees.

The most notable pupil on the Bleriot at Pau was Paulhan, who had to learn just like a "green" one, but it did not take long. This was in anticipation of his taking both Farman and Bleriot machines to the States. Other pupils come from many of the countries of Europe.

Tissandier resumed teaching on Wright machines at Pau on Dec. 15, with several students. On Christmas Day he made a couple of 15-minute passenger flights.

The last week in December two of the Pau class completed their course in flying, and their places were taken by others. On the 28th Leblanc made a 34-minute flight.

FRENCH GOVERNMENT BUYS AEROPLANES.

The French war department has ordered 3 Henry Farman, 1 Wright and 1 Bleriot aeroplanes and is negotiating with the Voislns. Experiments are also to be carried out with machine guns mounted ou two Antoinette monoplanes. In each case the contract implies that an officer must be taught to pilot. Capt. Lucas Gerardville is already expert In

piloting the Wright machine and he will possibly be the chief instructor of the military aviation school.

The Minister of War has accepted the offer made by the Lebaudy Bros, to replace the dirigible Re-publique.

$100,000 SUBSIDY FOE AERONAUTICS.

Baron Deutsche de la Meurthe has given the University of Paris $100,000 and an. annual income of "$3000 for the foundation of an aero technical institute.

MOTOR FALLS OUT IN FLIGHT.

,A remarkable accident occurred on Dec. 21, when one propeller blade of Kuller's Antoinette broke while in the air. The other blades, being unbalanced, tore the engine from its bed, and dropped dwt of the aeroplane. The aeroplane glided to the ground almost normally, landing without an accident.

HUNDREDS OF AEROPLANES SOLD.

Bleriot is turning out machines at the rate of 6 a week. At the moment orders in hand total 186, and new orders are accepted only for delivery in 3 to 4 months.

More than 60 aeroplanes are ready to be delivered to their purchasers by the Antoinette, Voisin and. 1%. Farman shops. These are waiting for fli^ejjrtather.

Apprize has been offered for the longest time consumed in flying a kilometer; speed must be less than 28 m.p.h.

On Jan. 5, Santos Dumont had another accident with his "Demoiselle" at Buc. One of the wires snapped and the machine "turned over three times" while falling. M. Dumont was slightly bruised.

Santos Dumont met with an accident at St. Cyr on Dec. 10, when a gust of wind caused a broken wing after a quarter-hour flight.

Hayden Sands, who learned to fly an Antoinette is in Egypt, to give exhibitions. He will enter the Cairo meet in February.

Sommer has sold his Henry Farman and is building a monoplane and a biplane of his own.

Germany.

$2,000,000 FOR AIRSHIPS.

The Gross I dirigible has been refitted since the accident last fall, being lengthened 8 m. and given more horsepower, so that she is now nearly identical with the Gross II. It will be stationed at Cologne.

Two million dollars is provided in the budget for construction of dirigibles.

The trials of the military airship Gross III have begun. A speed of 37% m.p.h. was attained with four 4-bladed propellers, each driven by a separate motor. Steering up and down is by displacement of water in the rigid frame.

The Gross III and the Parseval III have been accepted by the military authorities and will be kept at Tegel for some time.

The German war department has decided not to buy the Zeppelin III at the price offered, $140,000, on account of the many improvements made in the Zeppelin IV, one of which is the use of "electrum" in the framework, greatly reducing the weight.

Major von Parseval, the designer of the Parseval airship, has been appointed to the chair of aeronautics at the Univ. of Charlottenburg.

OTHER NEW GERMAN DIRIGIBLES.

A new German dirigible, named the "Erbsloh," was tried out on a 2-hour trip on Jan. 11, Oscar Erbsloh, the winner of the 1007 St. Louis balloon race, in command. On the 12th of December it was intended to make a long trip, but a slight repair necessitated a descent. The airship could not be kept head-on in the strong wind and eventually a gust of wind tore the ropes away and the bag floated away free from the frame and motor. The bag went only a short distance, where it burst open, apparently lengthwise of the bottom side.

A new dirigible, the Parseval V, has made its first trials at Bitterfeld.

Italy.

Engineer Farlanini's airship, the "Leonardo da Vinci," has made its first short ascents. On Dec. 15 it visited Milan from its shed at Crescenzago, remaining up for 1 hour 20 minutes, covering 32 kil. It is a semi-rigid, only the upper half being filled with gas. Its capacity is 2500 cu. m., 40 h.p. motor.

The government has started the construction of a $100,000 shed at Verona to house two airships.

Turkey.

Bleriot met with a serious accident in his flight at Constantinople the first half of December. A large crowd had assembled and waited impatiently for flying to begin. At last, in spite of a strong wind. Bleriot determined to start. The wind carried him toward some houses and, unable to rise high enough, he crashed head-on against the side of one of them. Then he, with his wrecked machine, dropped to the ground in the back yard.

RESULTS LOS ANGELES MEET. New World's Records.

Los Angeles, Jan. 17.—Seven days have passed since the beginning of Los Angeles big "aviation week," and while the Curtiss aeroplanes, the only ones besides Paulhan's to fly, have all made fine flights, Paulhan, out in all kinds of weather with his two Farmans, has been the "whole show."

Paulhan's Bleriot machines have done little, only making one official lap of 1.611 mile thus far. Both of them were broken in the flights, evidently due to the non-use of the warping device and to the inexperience of the widely heralded French aviators who, with the exception, of course, of Paulhan, seem to be only mechanics and not flyers.

Glenn H. Curtiss has his 8 cyl. Rheims machine here, Charles K. Hamilton and Charles F. Willard have the stock type 4 cyl. Curtiss machines, the Beachey and Knabenshue and the U. S. Government dirigibles are here, Howard W. Gill of Baltimore has his machine, almost a copy of the Curtiss, but with a different engine. It has met with several accidents. Several balloon ascents have been made.

RESULTS OF THE MEET SO FAR.

Height—Paulhan broke world's height record, going up 4,165 ft., and made unofficial cross country flight of about 28 miles.

World Record for Quick Start—Curtiss left ground in 98 ft. Fastest rise from start of motor, 62-5 seconds.

One Lap—(1.611 mile) 1st, Curtiss in 2:12; 2nd, Paulhan in 2:211-5. With C. F. Bishop as a passenger Paulhan did it in 2130. The Knabenshue dirigible took 5:102-5.

Ten laps—1st, Curtiss, 24:542-5; 2nd, Paulhan, 24:592-5; 3rd, Hamilton, 30:343-5.

Slowest Lap—1st, Hamilton, 3:362-5.

Willard wins contest for perfect start and perfect landing in 20-ft. square.

Paulhan makes 3 laps with one passenger in 8:161-5.

Curtiss, with Jerome S. Fanciulli as passen ger made unverified speed of 55 m.p.h. in short flight.

Paulhan is to try for world's record duration and distance to-day. The Government dirigible is being inflated.

AERONAUTICS February, 1910

COURT GIVES WRIGHTS INJUNCTION

SAYS CURTISS INFRINGES. Action of Judge Great Surprise. CURTISS WILL APPEAL.

NEW YORK, Jan. 7.—Judge Hazel, of the Circuit Court of the United States,_ in Buffalo, granted, on Jan. 3, a preliminary injunction to the Wright company restraining the Herring-Curtiss company and Glenn H. Curtiss from manufacturing, selling or using for exhibition purposes the Curtiss aeroplane.

Following is the opinion rendered, almost in toto. Starting out with a statement of why a gasless flying machine flies, the Judge then cites paragraph 7 of the Wright patent, saying:

"The claims relied upon are the seventh, fourteenth and fifteenth. It is sufficient to here set forth the seventh claim, which in broad terms includes both the monoplane and biplane types of apparatus:

'7. In a flying machine, the combination with an aeroplane, and means for simultaneously moving the lateral portions thereof into different angular relations to the normal plane of the body of the aeroplane and to each other so as to present to the atmosphere different angles of incidence, of a vertical rudder, and means whereby said rudder is caused to present to the wind that side thereof nearest the side of the aeroplane having the smaller angle of incidence and offering the least resistance to the atmosphere, substantially as described.'

"The essential elements of such claim are an aeroplane or supporting surface, the lateral portions of which are capable of adjustment to attain different angles of incidence, and a vertical rudder in the rear of the machine. Claims 14 and 15 included as elements a horizontal rudder, which is positioned forward of the machine, and means for raising and lowering it so as to present its upper or under side to the pressure of the wind."

Judge Hazel goes on to explain that the surfaces of the Wright machine "are connected together by upright stanchions extending lengthwise on the extreme front and rear portions thereof, and are fastened on top and bottom of the planes by universal joints so as to permit the planes or surfaces to yield to pressure and incline upward and downward at their lateral edges or marginal extremities when the cord or rope fastened to the cradle is manipulated by the aviator. This lateral yielding, warping or distorting of the aeroplanes is the essential feature by which the equilibrium is secured. Its importance cannot be overestimated, as it is shown that long before the Wright invention a method was sought by which equilibrium in mechanical flying could be secured and maintained. Not only the conception of the idea of securing and maintaining equilibrium in the air, but the appliances—the dynamic cause to achieve the result—originated in the minds of the pat-

entees and took shape and form in the evidently simple method of slightly turning up and down the lateral ends or margins of the planes, thus securing different angles of incidence. The insurmountable obstacle with which prior inventors in this art struggled for years was the precipitate unbalancing or upsetting of the apparatus, and such prior flying machines were therefore incapable of flights with any appreciable degree of success. The affidavits indicate that the patentees did not use the means or identities of prior flying machines, but solved the problem of maintaining equilibrium or lateral and front and rear balance by the 'introduction of new and practical elements and became pioneers in the field of flying machines of the so-called heavier-than-air type. True, some of the elements of the claims were old, and also shown in the prior gliding machines, but such machines without the combination which included a method of maintaining equilibrium or lateral balance were utter failures. Hence the prior patents and publications apparently do not anticipate the Wright patent, and the claims in controversy are entitled to a broad and liberal construction.

"The Wright patent is unadjudicated, but such fact will not deprive the claimant of its right to enjoin infringement, save where the prior act shows sufficient ground to doubt the validity of the patent."

It is argued by the Judge in the present case "public acquiescence is claimed," it appearing that Wright machines have made "notably successful flights in France, Germany and the United States." He recites the first flight to which the attention of the public was attracted, that at Kitty Hawk, in December, 1903, and points to the heralding by the newspapers of the country of the marvelous success attained, that human flight had at last been first made possible by the Wrights. He calls attention to public recognition of their success by organizations and by the presentation of medals, citing two cases where such testimonials have been entitled to weight in support of the presumption of validity and practical utility. That both Curtiss and Herring obtained "detailed information prior to the construction" of the Curtiss machine, as to experiments made by the Wrights on "the pressure of wind on curved and flat planes and mode of maintaining equilibrium in flights, the former through correspondence" between the Wrights and Lieutenant Selfridge and "the latter from personal observation and investigation by Herring" at the Kitty Hawk camp, is set forth by the Judge.

He mentions Herring's affidavit, in which Herring asserts that he considered the Wright invention was "limited to the lateral warping of the planes, and not that it covered broadly the feature of lateral balancing."

Emerson R. Newell, counsel for the Herring-Curtiss Co.. will appeal from the opinion of Judge Hazel. Following is a necessarily short statement of some of the claims made by both parties to the suits, taken from the briefs. H. A. Toulmin, in behalf of the Wright company, takes up 163 printed pages, with illustrations.

The above decision of Judge Hazel is almost entirely an exact transcript. We have merely put in fewer words the less important paragraphs. The grounds for the Judge's view of the situation as related by him are the most important, as they constitute the corner-stone of the structure the Wrights are endeavoring to erect. It is impossible, of course, to give the arguments of both sides. The decisions themselves from the various lawsuits which have now been started, and will, no doubt, be started in the future, are the main items of interest.

This brings the Judge to the question of whether the Curtiss machine infringes the Wright. He says:

"Defendants claim generally that the difference in construction of their apparatus causes the equilibrium or lateral balance to be maintained and its aerial movement secured upon an entirely different principle from that of complainant; that defendants' aeroplanes are curved, firmly attached to the stanchions and hence are incapable of twisting or turning in any direction; that the supplementary planes or so-called rudders are secured to the forward stanchion at the extreme lateral ends of the planes and are adjusted midway between the upper and lower planes with their margins extending beyond the edges; that in moving the supplementary planes equal and uniform angles of incidence are presented as distinguished from fluctuating angles of incidence. Such claimed functional effects, however, are strongly contradicted by the expert witness for complainant. Upon this contention it is sufficient to say that the affidavits for the complainant so clearly define the principle of operation of the flying machines in question that I am reasonably satisfied that there is a variableness of the angle of incidence in the machine of defendants which is produced when a supplementary plane on one side is tilted or raised and the other simultaneously tipped or lowered. I am also satisfied that the rear rudder is turned by the operator to the side having the least angle of incidence and that such turning is done at the time the supplementary planes are raised or depressed to prevent tilting or upsetting the machine. On the papers presented I incline to the view, as already indicated, that the claims of the patent in suit should be broadly construed; and when given such construction, the elements of the Wright machine are found in defendants' machine performing the same functional result. There are dissimilarities in the defendants' structure —changes of form and strengthening of parts— which may be improvements, but such dissimilarities seem to me to have no bearing upon the means adopted to preserve the equilibrium, which means are the equivalent of the claims in suit and attain an identical result.

"Defendants further contend that the curved or arched surfaces of the Wright aeroplanes in commercial use are departures from the patent, which describes 'substantially flat surfaces,' and that such a construction would be wholly impracticable. The drawing, Fig. 3 however, attached to the specification, shows a curved line inward of the aeroplane with straight lateral edges, and considering such drawing with the terminology of the specification, the slight arching of the surface is not thought a material departure; at any rate, the patent in issue does not belong to the class of patents which requires narrowing to the details of construction."

The Mattullath patent application is thrown out of consideration "as an unsuccessful experiment."

The date when machines alleged to be infringements of the Wright first made their appearance is now put on record. The Judge states:

"Indeed, no one interfered with the rights of the patentees by constructing machines similar to theirs until in July, 1908, when Curtiss exhibited a flying machine which he called the 'June Bug.' He was immediately notified by the patentees that such machine with its movable surfaces at the tips of wings infringed the patent in suit, and he replied that he did not intend to publicly exhibit the machine for profit, but merely was engaged in exhibiting it for scientific purposes as a member of the Aerial Experiment Association. To this the patentees did not object. Subsequently, however, the machine, with supplementary planes placed midway between the upper and lower aeroplanes, was publicly exhibited by the defendant corporation and used by Curtiss in aerial flights for prizes and emoluments. It further appears that the defendants now threaten to continue such use for gain and profit, and to engage in the manufacture and sale of such infringing machines, thereby becoming an active rival of complainant in the business of constructing flying machines embodying the claims in suit, but such use of the infringing machine it is the duty of this court on the papers presented to enjoin.

"The requirements in patent causes for the issuance of an injunction pendente lite—the validity of the patent, general acquiescence by the public and infringement by the defendants —are so reasonably clear that I believe it not improbable that complainant may succeed at final hearing, and therefore, the status quo should be preserved and a preliminary injunction granted.

"So ordered."

The Wright brief goes on to state that in the Wright machine itself the rear corners of the main planes are adjusted simultaneously "to equal angles from the normal or then inclination of the main aeroplane" and that it follows from the explanation given in connection with Fig. 3, "the two adjusted marginal portions will have different angles of incidence to the line (B) of flight * * * and hence will offer different degrees of resistance at the respective sides of the machine." This operation brings about the turning of the machine on its vertical axis and the giving to the right-hand side a higher relative speed and tending to "increase the lifting tendency of the right-hand side, even though the angle of incidence is inferior. If this condition goes on unchecked, the machine will lose its lateral balance entirely and is likely to tip edgewise and fall."

In flying the angle of incidence is stated to be constantly changing, these changes being brought about by necessary manipulation of the front rudder.

constant variations in angle of incidence.

The Wrights say in an affidavit: "The angle of incidence in the main planes varies with every variation in the direction or force of the wind; with every variation in the power of the motor; with every variation of the path of the machine from a uniform line, and with every variation of the load." This is explained as follows : "Since in a flying machine the lift is equal to the total weight of the machine, it is evident that if the speed is increased, a smaller angle of incidence will furnish the required lift, while if the lift is decreased a larger angle will be required. It is further evident that when two men are carried the angle will be greater than when one is carried, * * * moreover, when the power of the motor increases or decreases, the speed increases or decreases ; * * * even with constant power the speed varies, according to whether the machine is ascending or descending and the angle of incidence correspondingly increases or decreases." They also state that in an hour's flight the angle of incidence will be greater or less than a specified normal angle 59 minutes out of the 60.

Up to this point Mr. Toulmin has avoided making any distinction between supplementary planes (or "wing tips," as popularly called) and the warping of the main plane itself. The words "supplementary aeroplane," "tip," "marginal portion," "supplementary plane or margin" and "wing," are used interchangeably.

In beginning a detailed discussion of the Curtiss machine, attention is called by Mr. Toulmin to the alleged fact that "these adjustable margins constitute, in effect, portions of the aeroplanes" (main supporting surfaces).

wing tipping same AS warping.

He says : "These marginal portions or tips of defendants' machine are nothing more or less than parts of the main aeroplane sot lower than the upper and higher than the lower main plane. They are at the lateral extremities of the machine, just as in complainants' patent; they extend out beyond the more rigid part of the main aeroplanes, just as in complainants' patent. * * * When either

Extracts From Briefs.

It would be impossible to abstract the briefs submitted in the Wright-Curtiss injunction suit. A great deal of space is taken up in Mr. Toulmin's brief in going into the history of aviation, and to the riddling of A. M. Herring's affidavit to the effect that in 1894 he made use of movable auxiliary surfaces.

The question of whether or not movable auxiliary surfaces, or popularly "wing tips," are infringements of the Wright patent seems to be uppermost in the minds of the aeronautical public. Less attention has been given the subject of prior art and the question of the front rudder. In the briefs the point as to whether it is necessary with the use of wing tips to turn the rear rudder to the high side is brought out quite prominently.

Herring speaks in his affidavit of the necessity of adjusting a vertical tail whenever the angle of incidence of lateral tips are unequal. He says: "In my 1894 gliding machine I found it necessary to use the vertical rudder in preserving a straight course, when I corrected the side equilibrium by using the auxiliary surfaces." This statement of Herring's seems to contradict the affidavit of Mr. Curtiss, in which he says in regard to his own machine: "There is no necessity or reason for swinging the vertical rear rudder when the balancing rudders are swung, because (as both balancing rudders are of the same size and area and present to the atmosphere the same angle of incidence), the resistance of the forward motion of the machine is the same for each rudder."

how equilibrium is obtained.

To explain the securing of lateral equilibrium in the Wright machine, for instance, by increasing and decreasing the respective angles of incidence at opposite sides of the machine, Mr. Toul-min employs the sketch Pig. 3, showing a "supplementary plans, wing, tip or marginal portion"

(D) ; "* * * and assume that there is another just like it at the far side." "This adjustment

(E) will put the supplementary plane or margin at a greater positive augle of incidence than that of the main plane. * * * If the distant supplementary plane or margin be adjusted up to the angle indicated at F, its angle of incidence will have been changed from positive to negative. * * * When, however, .the two supplementary planes are adjusted at equal angles from position D, taking up positions E and F, respectively, it will be seen that with reference to line B, from which the angle of incidence must be determined, E is at one positive angle of incidence and F is at a negative angle of incidence less in degree, F then offering the lesser resistance to the advance movement through the air. The result would be that the side of the machine having the supplementary plane or margin, F, would advance more easily and with greater rapidity than the side having the supplementary plane or margin E. This would bring about an undesired turning of the machine, from its intended course, about a vertical axis. Now, then, in the Wright patent this tendency of the machine to so turn on a vertical axis, when the supplementary planes or margin are adjusted to effect a correction of careening or lateral tipping, is compensated for by adjusting a vertical rear rudder, which brings' into action the compensating counter-turning force."

of them is at a positive angle it has a supporting function, the same as do the complainants' marginal portions." The function of these is to "maintain the lateral balance * * * while in flight and to control the right and left direction * * * in co-operation with the rear vertical rudder."

The mechanical operation of the Curtiss wing tips is then described. This information has been printed in Aeronautics and is well known, so that it need not be repeated here.

By the mechanical means the Wright affidavit says, "these marginal tips are under the immediate control of the operator and are adjustable to various and different angles of incidence, to different angles relatively' to each other and to different angles relatively to the main body of the aeroplanes. That these marginal tips may be all the more in the nature of continuations of the main curved supporting surfaces or aeroplanes, they are made of curved form, with the concave side beneath. * * * When these curved marginal tips are adjusted at equal angles of incidence, the convex surface presented by the one will not receive

or the other. And the accelerated speed of the side with the smaller angle of incidence also tends to increase the lift of that side, and which, if not checked, would prevent maintaining lateral equilibrium. It is here that the co-operation of the rear vertical rudder comes into important action. This action consists in turning it, at this time, so that it will swing to the side of the machine whose tip has the smaller angle of incidence, and thus will check the accelerated flight of that side and hold the machine to its true forward course, without lateral divergence, while the act of recovering lateral balance is in progress through the increased lift at the side where the tip has the greater angle of incidence. That the operator in defendants' machine can perform these operations, he keeps himself constantly connected with the operating means by which these marginal tips and this rear vertical rudder are actuated. For actuating this rear vertical rudder he utilized a hand wheel, with which is connected the cable, that extends to the rudder. So when he shifts the yoke or cradle, G, with his body, he likewise adjusts the rudder with the wheel to the extent required. We state

Cmtiieainii J&iillt

the same horizontal resistance due to the wind pressure as will the concave surface presented by the other. So this concave-convex formation of these marginal tips produce unequal horizontal resistance at the opposite sides of the machine.

* * *

"These margins constantly maintain different angles of incidence to the line of flight, due to the constantly varying angle of incidence of the main surfaces to the line of flight * * *. It will be seen that in defendants' machine, when one side tends to depart from horizontal balance

* * * the operator immediately brings the machine back to normal equilibrium by throwing the marginal tip downward at the side of the machine which it dropped too low * * * and by raising the marginal tip upward at the side of the machine which is too high. * * * In this way the lateral equilibrium is regained. But the marginal tip with the greater angle of incidence, while having a greater lifting effect, will also produce increased drift, or retardation of the speed, of that side of the machine, and, too, the side with the smaller angle of incidence will likewise decrease drift or lessen resistance, which will cause said side to run ahead of the other. So the act of regaining lateral equilibrium tends to divert the machine out of course or to one side

to the Court that such is the operation of defendants' machine, the disingenuous statements as to the rudder made iu defendants' affidavits not stating the real facts in regard to the uses of this rudder. Mr. Curtiss even says he can leave off the rear vertical rudder, but we state to the Court that he has made no flight, and could make none, without the presence and use of this rudder, as we here describe the same."

Mr. Toulmin continues : "The remaining feature of the defendants' machine * * * is the forward horizontal rudder. * * * The angle of the surfaces * * * can be adjusted to different angles of incidence so as to cause the machine to tend upward or downward and thus control its horizontal course. This forward rudder co-operates with the adjustable tips, C, C1, in controlling the up and down direction, while and at the time the horizontal balance is being controlled; and also co-operates with the marginal tips should they be in a neutral position, and thus tend to act as supporting surfaces."

"It now sufficiently appears that the mechanism, mode of operation and result of defendants' machine correspond exactly" with the same disclosed in the complainants' patent. (Claims 7, 14 and 15 cited and comparisons made with the Curtiss machine.)

"HERRING OUGHT TO KNOW BETTER."

Alleging that the Curtiss side bases its contention on the theoretical assumption, "an assumption utterly without foundation in fact, impossible in flight, and contradicted moment by moment as defendants' machine flies," that the Curtiss machine in flight maintains one certain angle of incidence, in which "assumed position they say their marginal tips are at equal angles above and below the air pressure line." Mr. Toulmin fires a broadside of language when he says : "The defendant Curtiss knows better ; the defendant Herring ought to know better, and defendants' counsel, who acted as expert, knows nothing about the matter."

WEIGHTS CLAIM CURTISS WING TIPS CURVE.

Referring to a blue print put in evidence by the Curtiss forces showing the defendants' balancing rudders, the Wright Brothers testify, "Mr. Curtiss is disingenuous in that he represents these balancing rudders as planes, whereas in fact they are segments of cylinders having the convex side upward and concave side downward, and are arched in the same direction as the main planes. * * * We have confirmed this fact by personal examination of the defendants' machine. * * * We assert that, even if the two balancing surfaces are presented to the wind at equal angles of incidence, one above and the other below the neutral position, the convex surface presented by one will not receive the same horizontal resistance as the concave surface presented by the other, and the aeroplane will tend to turn about a vertical axis. * * *

"Mr. Curtiss assumes that the so-called normal position of the balancing rudders, from which they are adjusted equal distances in opposite directions up and down, is always in line with the direction of the machine through the air, and therefore in line with the relative wind. This is a false assumption. * * *

WHY CURTISS WING TIPS ARE AT DIFFERENT ANGLES.

"In order to show the court the true angular relations of the adjustable tips of defendants' machine to the wind, we present a corrected sketch marked 'Complainants' Diagram of Operation of Defendants' Machine.' Fig. 1 is the position shown by defendants' sketch, with one tip, XC, inclined downward 10 degrees from the normal position XL, and the other tip XC1 inclined upward 10 degrees from the same line. Fig. 2 represents the machine with the motor throttled a little, in which case the main aeroplanes must be inclined a little more in order to provide support for the machine at the lower speed. The post B will then be inclined backward four degrees and the neutral position XL will be rotated in the same direction four degrees from the horizontal, and the side rudders XC1 and XC will likewise be rotated four degrees from the positions shown in Fig. 1. In fact, the entire machine will be rotated together four degrees from the original position. The angle of incidence of XC1 which was originally ten degrees, will now be 10 minus 4, or six degrees while the angle of incidence of XC will be 10 plus 4, or fourteen degrees. Although both rudders are adjusted to equal angles from the normal position XL, there is a difference of eight degrees in their angles of incidence. Under this condition the claim of Mr. Curtiss that the angles of incidence must always be equal when the rudders are adjusted equal distances from the normal position XL is manifestly untrue.

"Fig. 3 represents a case where the speed of the machine is still lower and the angle of incidence greater by eight degrees than in Fig. 1, and four degrees greater than in Fig. 2. This results in an angle of incidence on XC of 10 plus 8, or eighteen degrees; while the angle XC1 is 10 minus 8, or two degrees. Thus one tip will have nine times as great an angle of incidence as the other, instead of having equal angles."

WRIGHT MACHINE NOT LIKE PATENT.

Wright Brief—"It is to be understood that in the aeronautical art aeroplanes may be flat, or substantially so, or decidedly curved and be mechani-

cal equivalents of each other in every sense of the patent in suit."

Curtiss Brief.—"In the only form of the device shown in the (Wright) patent in suit each 'aeroplane' * * * is absolutely flat, and the only place where any other form Is hinted at is in" (these) "lines * * * : 'These surfaces may receive more or less curvature from the resistance of the air * * *.' "

"It must be kept in mind machine of the patent is and that therefore any prior available as prior art. In

* * * admit * * * that the patent in suit is merely an improvement on prior machines, for they state that: 'Our invention relates to that class of flying machines in which the weight is sustained,' etc., showing that this class of heavier than air gliding machines was a well-known class

* * * that the gliding machine, gliding machine is fact the patentees

of invention. * * * In one or two places in the specification it is specified that power might be applied to it for propulsion, but no description of how the same could be applied is given, and therefore it must be assumed that * * * it would involve no invention to apply power to any glider." Brief also alleges that certain lines in Wright patent (28-50, page 5), "admit that machines of this character provided with a forward horizontal rudder and a rear rudder were old."

It is alleged in the Curtiss brief that the only means described or hinted at for restoring equilibrium in Wright patent is the warping of the main supporting surfaces themselves. Attention is called to wording of specification, the record of application and what patentees then stated to their attorney.

CURTISS' DESCRIPTION OF HIS OWN MACHINE.

The Curtiss machine Is described by Mr. Newell as follows: "It has two main supporting surfaces, both of which are curved * * * and are absolutely rigid at all times and cannot be moved, warped or distorted in any manner. The front horizontal rudder is used for steering up or down, and the rear vertical rudder is used only for steering to the right or left, in the same manner as a boat is steered by its rudder. The

machine is provided at the rear with a fixed horizontal surface, which is not present in the machine of the patent, and which has a distinct advantage in the operation of defendants' machine, as will be hereafter discussed.

"Defendants' machine does not use the warping of the main supporting surfaces in restoring the lateral equilibrium, but has two comparatively small pivoted balancing surfaces or rudders. When one end of the machine is tipped up or down from the normal, these planes may be thrown in opposite directions by the operator, and so steer each end of the machine up or down to its normal level, at which time tension upon them is released and they are moved back by the pressure of the wind to their normal inoperative position.

"When defendants' balancing surfaces are moved they present equal angles of incidence to the normal rush of air and equal resistances, at each side of the machine, and there is therefore no tendency to turn around a vertical axis as is the case of the machine of the patent, consequently no reason or necessity for turning the vertical rear rudder in defendants' machine to counteract auy such turning tendency. At any rate, whatever may be the theories in regard to this matter, the fact is that the operator of defendant's machine does not at any time turn his vertical rudder to counteract any turning tendency clue to the side balancing surfaces, but only uses it to steer the machine the same as a boat is steered."

"The complainants in their rebuttal affidavit have introduced an exhibit entitled "Drawing Defendants' Machine," which shows an exaggerated and distorted machine apparently different from that set forth in their moving affidavit."

CURTISS MACHINE NOT AN INFRINGEMENT.

"The position of the complainants is that, although the defendants' device does not answer the wording of the claims in suit, it is an equivalent construction. Even, with such broad interpretation as the complainants contend for, they substantially admit that each of the claims is limited to a construction in which the device must present different angles of incidence to the air and have a consequent turning tendency caused thereby, and that the rear vertical rudder must necessarily be used to counteract such turning tendency. Even with such a legal construction of the claims, defendants do not infringe. Defendants' machine does not answer the claims as worded, nor when construed according to the actions taken in the Patent Office and the interpretation of the claims put upon them thereby, and this,, too, without taking into consideration the prior art constructions."

Mr. Newell goes on to say: "Complainants' conclusions, therefore, rest solely upon their theories as to what ought to occur in defendants' machine, and their conclusions fall to the ground unless their theories are correct. Their theories, however, have been riddled by Mr. Curtiss' affidavit in rebuttal, where he shows not only that the actual facts are that there is no appreciable difference of pressure on, or resistance offered by defendants' balancing surfaces, but that the vertical rudder is in fact not turned to counteract any turning tendency when the planes are warped. * * * The facts" (are) "directly denied by Mr. Herring and Mr. Curtiss (who are the ones * * * who really know about the operation of defendants' machine), but complainants' theories, even if true at any time, are shown to be founded on false or erroneous assumptions, and at most to be true only for an instant of time not sufficient in length to cause the results which they seem to think must necessarily flow from such theoretical causes. Mr. See's affidavit and that of the Wrights admit that the condition shown in Fig. 3 of the 'Curtiss Sketch,' and in Fig. 1 of Complainants' 'Diagram of Operation of Defendants' Machine,' if true, would not result in a difference of resistance or difference in angle of incidence, and they have put in Figs. 2 and 3 to try to show that the

Fig. 1 condition is not the normal. This has been demolished in Mr. Curtiss' aflidavit in rebuttal where it is shown that the Fig. 1 condition is the norma], and the condition shown in IPigs. 2 and 3 only occurs instantaneously, and not for a sufficient length of time to cause any turning of the machine. Furthermore, even the condition of Figs. 2 and 3 does not occur when the wind changes strike the machine, for at that time,, as specified by Mr. Curtiss the balancing surfaces are in their normal position and therefore meet the change of the air curient at equal angles and with equal resistances, and before the balancing surface could be moved by the operator the normal condition shown in Fig. 1 reoccurs with its consequent equality of angles on incidence and consequent equality of resistances, insteaa i with an inequality of the same. Mr. Curtiss' affidavit also shows that the practical result in actual flight is the same whether the balancing surfaces are absolutely flat or are slightly curved.

"These results in defendants' machine are of a distinct advantage, and apparently could not take place in the machine of the patent in suit because, as explained in the Newell affidavit, the warpiug of the flat main supporting surfaces must of necessity result in a difference of angle of incidence, and consequent difference of resistance on the two sides. Consequently the operation of the rear vertical rudder to counteract a consequent turning tendency is unavoidable in the machine of the patent, but is not a necessity, and is not actually done in any of defendants' machines.

"The function of presenting to the atmosphere different angles of incidence and different resistances as specified in the claims in suit, obviously refers to a time when the balancing devices (whatever they may be), are actually operated for the purpose of restoring the equilibrium, and not at some time when they are not so operated. The record shows that when the equilibrium is restored in the patent in the suit, the function specified in the claims must, of necessity, occur, but they do not occur when defendants' balancing surfaces are moved.

"In short, even assuming that a legal construction of the claims as broad as the complainants contend for is allowable, the question of infringement, as substantially admitted by the complainants, depend upon theories and facts which are asserted in the moving affidavits, but equally strongly denied in the defendants' affidavits, and complainants' position depends not only on the correctness of the theories advanced by them upon the application of those theories to the actual facts. * * *

"That the word 'aeroplane' of the claims means a flat surface as shown in the patent in suit, as distinguished from a curved surface, is furthermore corroborated not only by Lieut. Selfridge, but also by the Wright Brothers themselves. In the letter of Lieut. Selfridge, on pages 16 and 17 of the Wrights' moving affidavit, he states :

" 'Will you kindly tell me what results you obtained on the travel of the center of pressure both on aerocurves and aeroplanes?'

"In reply of the Wright Brothers to that letter, they state:

" 'The travel of the center of pressure on aeroplanes is -. The center of pressure on a

curved surface is approximately -.'

"These letters not only show that an uninterested party who was delving into this art, considered that an aeroplane meant a flat surface as distinguished from a curved surface, but the reply of the Wright Brothers shows that this was what they considered themselves even as late as 1908. These facts corroborate the defendants' contention that in the patent in suit the word "aeroplane" means a flat surface, and not a curved surface, and that the claims in suit are so limited.

There will be an Aeronautical Section of the Automobile Show at the Essex Troop Armory, Newark, N. J., Feb. 19 to 26.

Internal Fight in Herring-Curtiss Co. P.

The friction between Glenn H. Curtiss and A. M. Herring, which has been threatening to burst into flame all summer, came up to expectations when, at a directors' meeting on Dec. 18, action was brought in the courts to compel A. M. Herring to turn over his patents and other property to the company, and an injunction was obtained to restrain him from disposing of any of his stock in the $360,000 concern. These patents are alleged to include features which it was expected he would utilize in the aeroplane he failed to deliver to the United States Government.

COUNTER SUIT BY HERRING.

In a suit brought by Herring, majority stockholder and vice-president of the corn-pan}', the officers and directors are restrained from further favoring Curtiss until his suit is tried. He alleges that, to the financial detriment of the concern, the directors allowed Curtiss to enter contests and give exhibitions, retaining prizes and profits for his personal bank account; that Curtiss, also a vice-president, was employed as a "driver" of aeroplanes by the company to advertise the machine and stimulate sales.

The order granted restrains the defendants pending trial from borrowing money and from releasing assets or giving to Glenn H. Curtiss or others any privileges except those in performance of contracts made prior to October 25, 1909. The order restrains Glenn H. Curtiss in particular from "any further breach of his contract" with the Herring-Curtiss Co.

Curtiss' contract, according to Herring's petition, was for a period of three years f/om March 30, 1909. It bound him to refrain /rom flying in any other, machine besides the /Herring-Curtiss biplane, and gave him $5,000' a year for his services in making flights to advertise the Hammondsport product. Justice Coman has enjoined Curtiss from making any flights except in performances of this contract.

The contract between Curtiss and the Herring-Curtiss Co. was signed, Herring says, on March 20, 1909. For $5,000 a year? Curtiss agreed for three years to fly exclusively for the Herring-Curtiss Co. and to turn over any invention he mi°-ht conceive to the company.

Hammondsport, N. Y., Jan. n.—The Curtiss plant is temporarily closed down. Whether this action is the result of the Wright injunction proceedings or whether it is a move in the internal fight with Herring is not known.

Y. Alexander Visits America—His $5,000 Prize.

Patrick Y. Alexander, the "international aeronautical missionary," has just left for his home in England on the same ship with Minister Wu, after a four-day visit. This is an unusually long stay for Mr. Alexander, as his record is one day.

Mr. Alexander is known all over the world as the modern patron saint of aviation. There's no country, scarcely, but some of whose inventors have not received financial assistance from him.

Even Colonel Cody, the American turned Britisher, who has done more flying than anyone else in England, has been aided to some extent by Mr. Alexander. Not only in small ways has he been most "helpful, but to his efforts have been due the activity among the boys of England, the establishment of an aeronautical laboratory at United Services College, and the founding of several clubs: not to speak of the Aerial League of Great Britain, which is sending lecturers throughout the entire United Kingdom. This missionary work has been inaugurated by the sending of two army officers on lecture tours in India.

Perhaps the most important single encouragement for which he is responsible is his $5,000 motor prize, open to the world, for any kind of a motor, gasoline, compressed air or electric^^^fTTrTe" only condition that the com-petins^engine be built in Great Britain, deliver 3.5yferake horsepower and weigh not more than /en pounds per horsepower. Rules of competition may be had of the Aerial League of the British Empire, Carlton House, Regent St., London, S. W.

Following are the main features of the contest:

The regulations have now been issued governing the Alexander aerial motor competition, a prize of £1,000 being offered for the best 35-horsepower aerial engine of British manufacture. These regulations have been drawn up by the advisory committee for aeronautics, in conjunction with Mr. Patrick Y. Alexander and the representatives of the Aerial League of the British Empire. The tests will be carried out at the National Physical Laboratory under the sole control of the advisory committee. The general regulations are as follows: (1) The machine to be of British manufacture; (2) the motor to be designed to give 35 brake horsepower. The machine will be required to reach this brake horsepower on a preliminary run.; (3) the maker to supply a detailed description and

drawings, together with a statement of the principal features of the machine. The drawings to show the engine, radiator, tanks, etc., fixed to a known type of aeroplane, so that the length of the connecting pipes can be determined, and impossible combinations for trial purposes guarded against; (4) motors weighing more than 245 pounds—that is, 7 pounds per brake horsepower, will not be admitted for competition. For the purposes of this clause the weight shall be taken to include the weight of the motor itself with crankcase and supporting arms, and all parts necessary for ordinary running, also the cooling apparatus with all accessories. It will not include the supply of cooling water, petrol and lubricating oil, or the containing vessels for these. The main points which will be considered in the comparison of motors admitted for competition will be: Weight and consumption of petrol per brake horsepower; reliability and steadiness of running; wear of working parts; security against fire; air resistance offered by the motor and accessories.

Another School of Aeronautics.

The New York School of Aeronautics has been started by George M. Wright of 132 Nassau St., New York. A shop where students can do real work is being arranged for at the present time. Full-sized machines will be constructed by the students and tried out upon completion on Hempstead Plains. The first machine will be made after the plans of Richard d'Cornejo. Thirty have signified their intention of becoming scholars.

Aeronautical Dictionary

An aeronautical dictionary, containing full information as to the proper nomenclature of aerial apparati, with meanings of all terms in use at the present time relating in any way to the construction or operation of dirigibles, balloons or flying machines, is in course of preparation by the Aeronautic Society.

While the intention in the beginning did not seem to call for a very great outlay- of work, the book is already assuming almost monumental proportions, considering the state of the art. It will be the first work of its kind in existence. The editors of the principal newspapers of the country will be supplied with copies, as well as educational institutions and libraries.

At a recent meeting of the Peoria Water Carnival Association it was decided that in connection with the next carnival, which will be held at the time of the regatta, about July 4, to hold in conjunction therewith extensive aeronautic events, with balloon races, etc. Cash prizes will be offered.

Best wishes to a clean magazine, which always says something whenever it speaks.

A. Q. DUFOUR.

William A. Eddy.

With the passing away of William A. Eddy, the science of aeronautics suffers another loss. Although working mostly with kites, Mr. Eddy did a considerable amount of experimental work with hand-launched gliders on a small scale, locating the center of pressure at flying speeds and the arranging of numerous and various shaped surfaces with apparatus launched from kites by time fuses and other means.

Through years of experiment Mr. Eddy's knowledge of kites seemed to come almost from instinct, and almost any shaped surface could be made to fly with a touch or two of his practiced fingers.

He was one of the first to attain success in kite photography, and invented apparatus for this purpose.

An improvement on the old Malay kite was patented, and proved to be of such value that it was purchased for a considerable sum by the E. I. Horsman Co. of New York. Without the advantages of a higher collegiate education, he had the mind and methods of the scientist and the philosopher, and numbered among his acquaintances many of the well-known men prominent in the aeronautic field of to-day.

Leon Delagrange.

Leon Delagrange was born at Orleans, France, 1873. At'the age of seven he began taking an interest in sports and had one of the first tricycles built. Then he was entered as a sculptor at the School of Arts, about the same time that Henry Farman went there to take up painting and Gabriel Voisin, architecture. Fifteen years ago he exhibited at the Salon and obtained several medals. It was in 1905 that he first took up aeronautics and assisted at the experiments of Archdeacon at Billancourt on the Seine. Then he had his first aeroplane constructed by Voisin, making his first flight on March 14, 1907, at Issy. On April 11, 1908, he made the then record for distance and duration, 9 minutes 15 seconds, which was double the distance Farman had made until then. Not many flights were made by him during 1908, the best being a little over 30 minutes. For the Rheims meet, in the Fall of 1909, he appeared with a Bleriot machine, which flew until his death. At the Doncaster meet, in England, Leon made a world's speed record of 49.9 miles an hour.

Greene Machine Flying in N. J.

Wilbur R. Kimball, who bought the Dr. Greene biplane, with Frank E. Boland, has been making experimental flights near Rahway, N. J. The tail was entirely removed on one occasion and apparently a successful short flight was made.

COMMERCIAL SIDE OF FLYING

GNOME MOTOR AGENCY.

Seguin & Co., 1610 Wright Building, St. Louis, Mo., have the exclusive agency for Far-man aeroplanes and Gnome engines, as well as the Bleriot aeroplane under certain restrictions. Paulhan, who flies at Los Angeles, uses a Gnome motor, and a motor of the same make was used by Farman when he made his four-hour flight, beating world's records for duration and distance. It also holds the height record, made by Paulhan. Eventually, it is expected to manufacture Gnome engines in this country. It is said that $120,000 was spent in developing it before it was thought fit to be placed on the market. The company is pursuing the same policy of carefulness in putting out an aeroplane of their own.

CONOVER AERO CLOTH.

After experimenting the last year and trying the cloth on machines, the C. E. Conover Co., 101 Franklin St., New York, are now bidding for business on the strength of results obtained with their "Naiad" aero cloth. Four different weights and styles are carried, in cotton, linen and silk, ranging from 32 cents to $1.25 a yard, 36 in. wide. The coating of the cloth is moisture proof, air tight and has a smooth surface. This coating is sufficiently elastic to withstand contraction and expansion due to weather conditions.

7O0 BOSCH MAGNETOS FOR IQIO AEROPLANES.

An illuminating side light on the enormous growth of the aeroplane industry may be gained from the fact that orders for 700 Bosch magnetos for 1910 aeroplanes have already been booked. Of course, these 700 magnetos are not for American use exclusively, but include the orders of French, German and other European aeroplane makers.

GRADE MONOPLANE WANTS AGENCY.

The German Grade aeroplane, which won the $10,000 Lanz prize, and on another occasion made nearly an hour's flight, is being manufactured commercially now, selling at $2,000, $3,000 and $4,000 for one, two and three passengers respectively, and a two-hour flight will be guaranteed.

A short description was given in the January issue. In a subsequent issue we will publish scale drawings and complete details. An agency is to be established in America, if suitable parties can be found to handle it.

BATES AERO MOTOR.

Carl Bates, 104 West Oak St., Chicago, 111., is having good success from the two types of motors he is putting out, a 30 horsepower and a 50 horsepower. The latter is the same design as the 30, except that the cylinders and general dimensions are larger. The weight is 195 pounds, without accessories, or 245 pounds with radiator, magneto, etc.

The "30" is of the standard four-cylinder upright type, bore and stroke 4 in. by 4 in., delivering 25 to 30 horsepower at "practical speeds," though the motor is said to be capable of running at 2,000. Cooling is by rotary pump and light radiator. Either magneto or high-tension spark coil with distributer is used for ignition. ■ Lubrication is positive pump-fed, constant level, splash system, with oil well beneath crank case. The large valves are located in the cylinder heads, mechanically operated by camshaft in crankcase. The latter is of aluminum alloy, cast in one piece, doing away with all seams. Crankshaft, connecting rods and camshaft are of Krupp chrome nickel steel. Cylinders cast iron with water jackets welded on. Weight complete, with all accessories, is about 155 pounds

Two new models of light motors are being gotten out, so designed that they can be built and sold at a low price. They will be about 25 horsepower, one air and one water cooled, to weigh around 100 pounds. Mr. Bates will accept orders for any special size from 1 to 100 horsepower.

Prompt deliveries are promised on high-grade laminated spruce propellers.

LIVINGSTON RADIATOR CO. CHANGES NAME.

The business heretofore conducted by Edward R. Hewitt and R. C. Gildersleeve under the trade name of Livingston Radiator Co., at 6 East 31st St., New York, will be continued by them at the same address under a new trade name, the "El Arco Radiator Co.," the change being made in order to identify the partners with their new product, the El Arco radiator. This firm claims certain advantages for their new product over the radiator which they have formerly manufactured, and especially for aeroplane work. A number of orders are now on hand for manufacturers of aeroplanes, of motors for aeroplanes and from tn-ventors.

AEROPLANE AGENCY IN CALIFORNIA.

Fowler & Gane, Santa Barbara, Cal., are now western distributers for the Santos-Du-mont, Clement-Bayard and Bleriot aeroplanes. Messrs. Fowler & Gane are western agents for the Palmer-Singer and Clement-Bayard automobiles.

CHURCH AEROPLANE CO. ENLARGING.

The Church Aeroplane Co., 15 Myrtle Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., has taken over the business of the Aeroplane Toy Co. and now has 16 models of flying machines ready for the market. The new company will build full-sized machines to inventors' plans, as well as models and toys.

WARNER INSTRUMENT SPEEDOMETER.

A. P. Warner, in his flights with the Curtiss aeroplane he purchased, states that a direct-reading anemometer, such as the Warner

WANTED—Back numbers of Aeronautics.

EUCLID D. MILLER. Box 12, Spencer, Tenn.

MONEY TO INVEST IN FLYING MACHINES. Am willing to finance a good aeroplane or flying machine.

H. A. LA PAUGH, Investments, 32 Broadway, New York.

AERONAUTIC« -;-Edited b>- kJr

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"jersey skeeter" toy. If Jersey mosquitoes ever get accustomed to the aeroplane, there's no telling what'll happen future generations of New Yorkers. The Lincoln Square Novelty Works, 1931 Broadway, New York, has gotten out a toy aeroplane which they call the "Jersey Skeeter." Its weight is but a sixth of an ounce and can be flown in any room without damage—to the room. Rattan and onion skin paper are used in the framing, which is simple enough. One rattan spar 8 in. long has two aluminum brackets, one each for the propeller shaft and the stationary end of the power plant. Flat aluminum frames with paper in the center make the surfaces. There is a small "V" tail in the rear. The total surface is 18 sq. in., the propeller is a,Y% in. in diameter, with a 28 degree pitch; the motor, air-cooled, consists of a number 30 rubber band. Weight of aeroplane complete, with motor, 0.0104 pound. Weight per square foot, 0.083 pound. The speed necessary to rise has not been determined. It is nicely gotten up and deserves recognition from the rising generation of birdmen.

REQUA-GIBSON MOTOR TRIED.

The two cylinder "V" 50 horse motor designed by Hugo C. Gibson and built under his patents, as described in the November number, has been completed and given its first trials. The manufacturers state that the dynamometer test showed up 53 h. p. at 1,600 r.p.m., only, while the engine is designed particularly to run at 2,000 or over. Its high speed work is its striking feature. At the conclusion of the automobile shows in New York it will be hooked up to a dynamometer which is capable of registering the full output of work.

The motor is being put on the market by the Requa-Gibson Co., which has taken over the engine patents of Hugo C. Gibson, formerly controlled by the Requa-Coles Co.

NEW ELBRIDGE MOTOR.

Some time ago the Elbridge Engine Co., of Rochester, N. Y., promised to add to their line a special aeronautic motor. They have gone a little further and have brought out three types, of 2, 3 and 4 cylinders, of course, two-cycle. These are of 20, 30 and 40 h. p. and weigh respectively, 100, 135 and 167 pounds. The ratings are very moderate as compared with the usual custom. The largest motor of the three above develops 10 more horsepower than its rated output and has a range of 200 to more than 2,000 r.p.m.

Instrument Co. is now making, has been of the greatest service to him during his nights. This instrument is attached to the machine, and indicates exactly at any moment the speed of the machine relative to the wind, and knowing what the machine is capable of at various speeds, he does not attempt evolutions that his speed does not warrant. Such a safeguard as this is of importance entirely independent of the distances actually traveled with respect to the ground. By having another anemometer stationary at some point on the ground and observing the force and direction of the wind at this station as well as observing the instrument on the machine itself and the direction of flight, the actual ground covered in the wind can be figured with reasonable accuracy.

NEW LIGHT EISEMANN MAGNETO.

The rapid development of the aeroplane has brought a demand for a special magneto to insure a constant, never-failing spark in the light, powerful and compact motors used to drive their air machines. Lavalette & Co., makers of the Eisemann magneto, have brought out a new magneto built especially for use in aeronautic work, which is lighter than those used in motor cars, though every bit as powerful. Part of the instrument is made of aluminum, and the heaviest model weighs only i6lA pounds, while the lightest of the four-cylinder type weighs but u pounds. The company is now in a position to furnish from stock five different styles of this new magneto.

Lavalette & Co. have turned over to the Eisemann Magneto Co. the American rights for the sale of the Eisemann Magneto and the business here will be conducted in the future under the name Eisemann Magneto Co. They have removed to the entire sixth floor of the new Stoddard-Dayton building, 225-227 West 57th street, New York. The company has special facilities for handling aeronautic business.

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AEROPLANE TYPES

(Continued from page 45.) Sci. Am. Sup. v. 07, p. 301; Montgomerv, .T. .)., Sci. Am. Sup. v. GO. p. 24902; YVenham, P. II., Aeronautical Jour. v. 4, p. 134, etc.

(8) ref. Zahm, A. F., Phil. Soc. of Wash., v. 14, p. 247; Armengaud, "Probleme de l'Aviation ;" Lanchester, "Aerodynamics" and Sci. Am. Sup.

A. Leo Stevens' Cup Won by Dr. Greene for Passenger Carrying

v. 07, p. 300; Baden-Powell, Aeronautics (Brit.) v. 1. p. 17.

ID) ref: Parseval, A., von. "Die Meehanik der Vogelflugs;" Turnbuil. \V. R., Sci. Am. Sup. v. 07, p. GS.

(10) ref: Bertin. Jour, de Phys. ser. 4, v. S, p. 393; Miller, F., Rivista technica v. G, p. 59.

(11) ref: Lefort, II., Aerophile v. 17, p. 51; Seux, E., Paris Acad. Sci. v. 142, p. 79, 772.

(12) ref: Tatin. V., Aerophile v. 14. p. 220.

(13) ref: affidavit in Wright-Curtiss patent suit.

(I4t ref: Itennrd. Ch., Sci. Am. Sup. v. 34, p. 13819 ; Soreau, R., Soc. des Ing. Civ. p. 507, v. 2 (1902) ; Turnbuil. W., Sei. Am. Sup. v. 07, p. GS; Tatin, V., Aerophile v. 14, p. 220.

(15) ref: Renard, C, Sci. Am. Sup. v. 34, p. 13819: Kv. de I'Aerouautique v. 1, p. 118, v. 2. pp. 1, 31 ; Tatin, V., Aerophile v. 14, p. 220; Lang ley, S. P., "Exp. in Aerodynamics."

(10) ref. Wright, W., "Angle of Incidence," Aeronautical Jour. v. 5, p. 47.

(17) ref: Faraud, L., Soc. aes Ing. Civ. p. GI8, v. 2 (1SSS).

(IS) ref: Soreau, R.. Sci. Am. Sup. v. 58, p. 23949; Archdeacon, E., Aerophile v. 10, p. 15.

(19) ref: Rateau, A.. Aerophile v. 17, p. 338.

(20) ref: Aruoux, It., Paris Acad. Sci., Jan. 4, 1909.

Some General References to Comparisons of These Types. Wellner, G., "Kritische Betrachtungen uber die uouon Drachenflieger," Zeit fur Luft. v. 11. p. 240: Ksnault-Pelterie, R., "L'Aviation et les Aeroplanes," Bull. Tech. Mulhousc. v. 7S, p. SI ; Eteve. A. "Les Aeroplanes, lour stabilite;" It v. de Genie Mililaire v. 33, p. 3S9. 505 ; v. 34, p. 21 ; Vorreiter A. "Kritik der Itrachenflieger." Zeit. Yer. Kent. Ing.. v. 53, p. 109.'!. etc. : Parseval, A. von, "Motor ballon mid Flugniaschine," (lesell. Pent. Xaturforschen, v. SO. part 1, p. 3S : Lanchester, F. \Y.. "Wright and Yoisiu Flying Machines," Aeronautical Jour., v. 1."., p. 4. and Flight, v. 1, p. 14 ; Espitallior. "L'etat actuel tie l'Aviation," Uenie Civil, v. 52, p. 39S, 409, 429. 455.

3219

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PATENTS

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plan FOR saving gas on balloons.

Has it been suggested that aeronauts making flights in balloons like that recently from La-tonia, in Kentucky, across Lake Erie, might pump the buoyant gas into compression receivers made of aluminum to regulate height or descent without flinging away water bottles and clothing as ballast? To again use the buoyant supply from a stock on hand instead of drawing a waste-valve might be a more, economical method.

Or, an anchor of aluminum reinforced by steel by buoyancy of its displacement by dipping in the water of the lake might aid to hold the balloon aloft safely. Other arts use compressed combustible gas. G. W. Miller,

0'2-i Campbell Ave.,

Hamilton, Ohio.

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POWER F>LAMT fOf? WO DEL 5

partner with capital wanted.

After about two years experimenting I have perfected a helicoplane. This flying machine will rise from rough or level ground, or water, with out any running start and will alight on same lias great carrying capacity, great cruising range and speed faster than any other. Very compact and substantial. Will give one-half interest to party who will furnish capital to put same before public. Will furnish full details to interested persons. References exchanged.

Ebb F. Stephenson,

250 Vance Ave., Memphis, Tenn.

MANUFACTURERS NOTE.

The Snyder & Whitmore Company, 471 Grand avenue, Dayton, Ohio, are building a monoplane for spring try-out, and want to communicate with manufacturers of motors, bamboo, wheels, propellers, chains, steel and aluminum tubing.

THE CHURCH AEROPLANE CO.

over the entire business of THE AEROPLANE TOY CO., 1.5 Myrtle Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. Working Models and Flying Models of all Standard Aeroplanes. Wheels, Struts, Planes, Propellers and all Separate Parts Furnished.

Catalog veadv soon — free on request. Daily Demonstration of Our Models in Flight

---- at the Washington Show, January 24th - 29th.

BALLOON ASCENSIONS

Ballooners Please Note

"AERONAUTICS" WOULD APPRECIATE IT VERY MUCH IF YOU WOULD BE GOOD ENOUGH TO SEND A MOTE OF EACH ASCENSION FOR RECORDING IN HE COLUMNS. THE ASTERISK (*) DENOTES TRIPS OVER mo MILES.

LOWELL, Mass., Oct. 16.—H. H. Clayton, pilot, Otto r>. Cole and D. M. Pratt, in the "Boston," landing at South Lawrence, Mass. Dist., 8J4 miles; dur., 1 hr. 30 min. Alt., 2,500 feet.

LOWELL, Mass., Oct. 28.—J. B. Beutou alone in the "Boston," landing at Salem, Mass. Dist., 23 miles; dur., 1 hr.

1.—J. Walter Flagg, pilot, the "Boston," landing at 3S miles; dur., 50 min.

LOWELL, Mass., Nov. and Jay B. Benton, in Atkinson, N. H. Dist., Alt., 3,000 feet.

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., Nov. 8— Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, pilot; Dr. Louis A. Salade, Dr. W. E. Hughes, Dr. Geo. C. Stout, Dr. W. W. Babcock and John Kanffman, hi the "Ben Franklin," landing at Ilohuesburg, Pa. Dist., 14 miles; dur., 1 hr. Alt., 3,000 feet. The ascent was made for the purpose of studying the effect of high altitudes on the heart.

*LATONlA, Ky., Nov. 14.—George Howard, pilot; Chas. V. Tevis and J. Campbell Cory, in the "Haddock," to Derby, N. Y. Dist., 385 miles; dur., 10

rDAYTON, Ohio, Nov. 16.—H. H. McGill, pilot; Edw. M. Burke, Eugene Short and two others, in the "Hoosier," landing near Portsmouth, Ohio. Dist., 94 miles; dur., 3 hrs.

RUTLAND, Yt., Nov. '17.—William Van Sleet, pilot; Ezra Allen and Mrs. Edith I. Sawyer, in the "Heart of the Berkshires," landing at Enfield, N. H. Dist., 42 miles. Snow encountered at 5,000 feet altitude.

ARMY DIRIGIBLE ASCENTS.

OMAHA, Neb., Nov. 24.—Lieutenant Haskell and Sergeant Smith, of the U. S. Signal Corps, in the army dirigible "No. 1," made three ascents of short duration.

ST. LOUIS, Mo., Nov. 27—A. B. Lambert, pilot; Dwigbt F. Davis and Robert Allyn, in the "St. Louis No. 3," landing near Bunker Hill, 111. Dist., 31 miles; dur., 1 hr. 30 min.

RUTLAND, Vt., Nov. 28.-W111. Van Sleet, pilot, and Jay B. Benton, in the "Mass," to West Lebanon, N. H. Dist., 33 miles; dur., stfi hrs.; alt., 8,000 feet.

DAYTON, Ohio, Nov. 28.—Dr. P. M. Crume, pilot, from Buck Island in a balloon ot own make of a capacity of but 14,000 cu. ft., landing near Dayton, Ohio. Dist., 7 miles.

Rutland. Nov. li'.i. 100'.), pilot, and .lay 15. l'.enton, landing at West Lebanon, miles ; duration it hours, S.oilO feet.

Dayton. Dec. (i. 1 909, l)r Judge C. W. Dust in, S. A.

William Van Sleet, in the Massachusetts, X. 11. ; distance, 35 3(> minutes : altitude.

I'. M. Crnme, pilot; Hunter and John Aull

landing near St. Faris, O. ; dura-

in the Hoosier tiou, 3 hours

St. Louis. Doc. 19. 1909. John Kerry, pilot; Miss Xella Webb, an actress, and Miss Julia Iloerner in the Melba II, landing at East St. Louis. Ills.; duration 20 minutes; altitude 2,800 foet. On landing, two other girls were given an ascent.

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* I I— I II I sJ Late Examiner U. S. Patent Office

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AERONAUTICS

February, ipio

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of the world

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

Makers of the Finest and Strongest Balloon Cloth Ever Produced

Constructor of the United States Government Balloon No. 10 in which Captain Charles De Forrest Chandler, U.S.A., and Mr. J. C. McCoy, won the Lahm Cup for Distance

MR. ALBERT C. TRIACA, Sole American and Canadian Agent

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Carton 6c Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Makers of Paris, France

Address '.

Aeronaut Leo Stevens

Box 181 Madison Square NEW YORK

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Improvements in aerostructures should be protected without delay.

Thousands are experimenting, and 37our discoveries may be made and patented by others. A seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future as the Selden Patent controls the Automobile. Do not give your ideas away; protect them with solid patents.

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References: U. S. Representatives.—Thistlewood, Wiley, O'Connell, Groft", Morrison, Sam'l Smith and others. Bruce Mf<>-. Co., Clean Sweep Co., Jleckman Fish Trap Co., Northern Spike Co., Yankee Tweezer Co., Twentieth Century Hinjje Co.

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DISTANCE — DURATION — HEIGHT — SPEED

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1610 Wright Building St. Louis, Mo.

Anticipating a big inquiry for our Motors after the Los Angeles Meet, we have msde special arrangements with the factory and are holding a few of our motors subject to immediate delivery

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BALDWIN'S

Vulcanized Proof Material

WINS

LAHM BALLOON CUP—697 Miles

Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE-

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York'

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

Prices and samples on application

Captain Thomas S. Baldwin ^^fl|

S3 BT Box 78, Madison Square JgW

. ■_8ib_uj_ujlj,-| NEW YORK , —j

BATES ERON AUTIC MOTORS

"THE BEST THAT CAN BE BUILT"

4-lbs. per horse power 25 to 50 H.P.

prices $500 to $850

PROMPT DELIVERIES

Special Sizes of Light Motors, Propellers, Etc., Built to Order.

CARL BATES

104 W. OAK ST. CHICAGO, ILL.

The Master Magnet

and F. S. Ball Bearii

Used on Voisin Aeroplane, 8 cyl. Ante Motor, driven by Latham.

Bowden wire for controls

J. S. BRETZ COMPA

Sole Importers, Times Building, New

Weaver-Ebling Automol = Company '

"WECO" OILS and GREASE*

All Aeronautic Supplies 2230 Broadway at 79th St., - - - New

I AEROPLANE WIRE WHEi

Curtiss Type in Stock—20" x 2 Tire. Any Style to WIDE HUBS WITH HEAVY FLANGES

SHOCK ABSORBERS TTur°nr&

J. A. WEAVER, JR.

956 Eighth Avenue, bet. 56th C& 57th Sts., New

AEROPLANE ENGINE

The most Reliable, Powerful and

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Early

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For

Immediate Order

No "f design enters int construct! this motor, produ conforms t most suco au tomobile engines, are buill in tended for serious v guarante stand up i heavy load, lastly, a light in w as is practk build without seri< affectin Reliability <

■ We have confined ourselves to the Manufacture of but one size, viz.:

4 x4 50 H.P., AT 1200 R.P.M. WEIGHT, 250 LBS. MAXIMUM HORSE POWE1

A MOTOR THAT CAN BE RELIED UPON AT CRITICAL MOMENTS

Machine Department EASTON CORDAGE CO. , Easton.

FLYING-MACHINE CONTROL

Invented and Patented by

JAMES MEANS

AA, rod ripridly attached to the frame of the machine. 15. C. 1). seats riaidly attached to rod A-Each of these seats lias a pair of foot-rests (not shown in drawing), rigidly attached to it. EEEEFF-these members are all rigidly attached to the frame of the machine. KK. sleeve revolvable about rod A. L, bevel sear, indicated by dotted line, meshing with gears M and X. Gear L is rigidly attached to sleeve K. T, flexible shaft. O, P. lateral rudders movable simultaneously in opposite directions. R, longitudinal rudder. S, vertical rudder.

The above drawing shows the James Means Control arranged for one, two or three persons. The number of seats and steering handles may be increased as desired. If there is a single aviator he occupies seat C ; if there arc- two they occupy seats H and 1), C being: vacant.

It is obvious that when the seat C is occupied by a pupil and seats B and 13 by expert aviators the pupil may receive instruction and at the same time be prevented from making: mistakes.

The pupil will profit in a two-fold manner: visually by observing: and following- the motions of the expert in seat D, also by feeling- and following- the motions g-iven to the handles by the two experts.

The movements of the several pairs of handle-bars are necessarily similar and simultaneous. The balancing- motions of the aviator are natural, that is to say, in actuating- the lateral and longitudinal rudders the movement of the handle-bars is in the direction which the swaying of the aviator's body would take if he sought to correct by his weight the rolling- or pitching-.

In examining- the drawing- it will be seen that there are three kinds of movement of the handle-bars:

(a) Both hands forward or aft. (b) Both hands rig-ht or left, and also, (e) the ordinary bicycle steer which moves the vertical rudder.

These movements may be made either independently or simultaneously.

To illustrate the former:

Both hands aft elevates bow.

Both hands forward depresses bow.

Both hands to the rig-ht elevates port side.

Both hands to the left elevates starboard side.

When it is desired to move all the rudders simultaneously the number of possible combinations is infinite.

It will be noticed that the swaying- movement of the upper part of the body assists the rudders by favorably changing the centre of gravity of the whole.

It is also obvious that if several persons 11 y in one machine by this method they are not carried as dead weight, but are moving- harmoniously according- to the requirements of equilibrium and they are in position to offer the least possible air-resistance.

This invention is patented in the United States. Patents are pending in foreign countries.

For information concerning licenses to manufacture, please address

JAMES MEANS, Box 171, Back Bay P. 0., Boston, Mass., U. S. A.

<♦>

<♦> <$> <♦> ♦>

»

<♦>■

<$■

We Build Balloons That Win

HAVE WON EVERY CONTEST ENTERED AGAINST ALL MAKES

CHICAGO CONTEST — Balloon "Fielding-San Antonio" — 9 competitors Distance and endurance trophies, also water record of the world—350 miles one trip. INDIANAPOLIS CONTEST — Balloon "University City" — 6 competitors PEORIA CONTEST — Balloon "Peoria" — 3 competitors ST. LOUIS CENTENNIAL CONTEST — Balloon "St. Louis III" first, and Balloon "Centennial" officially second for distance and endurance, 47 hrs., 4 I min.—8 competitors Balloon "St. Louis 111"—speed record of America — Lambert, pilot; Von Phul, aide JUST THINK OF IT, EVERY CONTEST IN THE LAST TWO YEARS.

Aero Club Grounds, Centennial Contest, St. Louis, Mo.

CJ The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops— a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL, Builder

1% The greatest balloon trip of 1908 and 1909—850 miles in competition— made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL, Builder and Pilot

AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS

IN STOCK AND MADE TO ORDER

CJ HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials — varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable. .........

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.


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