Aeronautics

Volume 6 - No. 1 - 1910 January

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE BIRD MAN Kdwin Levick Photo, N. y.

This remarkable photograph of Paulhan flying at Brooklands illustrates, more than any picture that has yet been taken, the marvellous mastery man has already achieved over the air. Flying into the eye of the sun at a height of nearly 1,000 the aeroplane looks like a mighty bird which no travel can tire, and which no angry wind can check. The scene, as our photograph illustrates, was most impressive and the spectators were awed into silence.

ABOVE ALL

As the aeroplane soars the skies, dwarfing1 all other means of locomotion, so the

EISEMANN MAGNETO

rises superior to all other magnetos tor aeronautic purposes.

We have in stock several different styles of magnetos built specially for aeronautic work. Many parts of these magnetos arc made of aluminum. The heaviest weighs l(»-7a pounds and the lightest 11 pounds for four cylinder engines. When von use an EISEMANN MAGNETO on your aeroplane you cany with you a Policy of Ignition Insurance.

Ask us to tell you more about

this remarkable magneto. Write us TO-DA Y for safety's sake.

LAVALETTE & COMPANY

225-227 Wefet 57th. sV:-NEW Ybkk:.-:

AEROPL ANISTS

searching for the strongest, lightest, most buoyant tires invariably choose

Hartford Tires

The three types of these tires for flying machines are not makeshifts.

On the contrary, they are the result of careful observations and searching study, combined with thorough knowledge of the tire requirements of the present day heavier-than-air machine.

Even the fabric is specially made of the very lightest thread.

The pure Para rubber is submitted to a process which imparts extra toughness and strength without sacrificing one jot of its remarkable resiliency.

So the Hartford Aviator, the Hartford Aeronaut and the Hartford Aeroplane are light, strong and buoyant — since these are the principal essentials required in flying machine tires.

Hartford Aero Varnish is the best and finest for flying machines of whatever type.

Write for prices and details of both these Hartford products.

The Hartford Rubber Works Co. HARTFORD, CONN.

Branches: -New York, :>?th St. and Broadway; Chicago, 12th St. and Michigan Ave; Boston, 817 Boylston St.; Detroit, 25C> Jefferson Aye.; Denver, Broadway; Philadelphia, Vine

St.; Cleveland, 1831 Em-lid Ave.; Atlanta, Ga., 91 North Pryor St.; Buffalo, 125 Main St.; Minneapolis, Minn., H22 Third Ave. S.

PATENTS

AERONAUTICS A SPECIALTY

^[Improvements in aerostructures should be protected without delay.

Thousands are experimenting, and your discoveries may be made and patented by others. A seemingly unimportant point to-day, may control the Aeroplane and Dirigible in the future as the Selden Patent controls the Automobile. Do not give your ideas away; protect them with solid patents.

tfTTWe render an opinion as to the patentability of any invention Til without charge. Send us a sketch and description, photographs or a model for immediate report.

^TTBooklets giving full information in Patent Matters, a list of needed inventions and a history of successful patents, mailed free. Write for them.

References: U. S. Representatives.—Thistlewood, Wiley, O'Connell, Groff, Morrison, Sam'l Smith and others. Bruce Mfg. Co., Clean Sweep Co., Heckman Fish Trap Co., Northern Spike Co., Yankee Tweezer Co., Twentieth Century Hinge Co.

WOODWARD & CHANDLEE

Prompt and Proper Service 1247 F. STREET.....WASHINGTON, D. C.

POWER TO FLY

Four Cycle Water Cooled Aviation Engines

FOUR LBS. PER H. P. FIFTY H. P. AND THIRTY H. P.

PRICE:

50 H.P. $830.00 30 H. P. $650.00

1910 Models = Deliverable = January 1

Propellers in Stock ^=^=: or ===== Built to Order

Harriman Motor Works, Incorporated

NEW YORK OFFICE, 1876 BROADWAY FACTORY, SOUTH GLASTONBURY, CONNECTICUT

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.

Wittemann Glider In Flight

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS - CONSTRUCTORS - DEVELOPERS OF

Aeroplanes, Gliding Machines, Models, Separate Parts

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experiments Conducted Large grounds for testing

GLIDERS IN STOCK works:

17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road, Staten Island, New York

Telephone. 390-L West Brighton

CURTISS U WRIGHT ZEPPELIN

Use

BOSCH

Magnetos

Curtiss Aeroplane, which won the Gordon-Bennett Cup and the l'rix de la Vitesse, was equipped with a DR8 BOSCH Magneto, a eut of which appears above.

Wright, Zeppelin and Paulhan use BOSCH Magnetos, and Farman. who won two of the Rlieims prizes, did it with a BOSCH equipped machine:

GREAT RHEiMS RECORDS Tbophiks and Ci'i's Boson Equipped Winners

Grand Prix de la Champagne - FARMAN

Gordon-Bennett Cup - CURTISS

Prix de la Vitesse - CURTISS

Prix de la Passagers - FARMAN

A beautifully illustrated booklet, setting forth the great automobile, motor boat and aeroplane records of 1909, sent free on request. Address nearest branch.

223-225 W.46th St. NEW YORK

Bosch Magneto Company

Chicago Branch: San Francisco Branch:

1253 Michigan Avenue 357 Van Ness Avenue

""J^HE recent prizes for aeroplane contests offered by several prominent papers recall that the FIRST AVIATION TROPHY offered in America was given more than TWO YEARS ago by the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

which is the only weekly publication that .treats fully the new science of mechanical flights—a science which it has helped develop and ^promulgate from its very beginning.

Aeronautic Having demoted especial attention to aeronautic patents, _we are exceptionally well P fl t P n f c equipped to advise and assist inventors. 1 » 1 c II t S q \/*fuable information sent free on request.

365 Broadway, New York.

CO., Inc.,

/

Scientific American Trophy, 1907

AERONAUTICS

January, igw

What Kind of a MOTOR Do YouWant?

Let us answer— 1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor

Curtiss Motors

HAVE THESE QUALITIES

The Kind You Do NOT Want—

1st, A motor of "freak" construction. 2nd, A motor of extremely light construction. 3rd, A motor of unproven merit.

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES.

Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catalcgue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD

HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, New York

HIGH-CLASS MACHINE WORK

FOR 4 AERONAUTICAL/PURPOSES

We Accomplish Results whire Others Fail Pedersen Luhricators have proven to be the most reliable

Pedersen Manufacturing Company

(ESTABLISHED 188/! INCORPORATED 1906)

636-644. FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK

L. B. REPALJ* CO., Inc.

EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOTORS REMODELING/and OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAKING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON

AIR, LAND/?. WATER VEHICLES

225 W. 57th St., N. Y. Tel. 6459 Col.

F. O. ApfoREAE

REGISTERED

OF PATENTS

Pasadena,

Calif.

SOLICITOR

Aeronautic Inventions a specialty^ at home and abroad

when you visit MORRIS PARK

don't forget to visit the aeronauts' retreat

866 Morris Park Ave., near Morris Park.

Morris Park Cafe and Summer Garden

Special lunch served at moderate prices. Private rooms for parties with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.

BAMBOO

Specially Selected for Aeroplanes

ALL SIZES'IN STOCK J. DELTOUR, INC., 49 Sixth Ave., New York

TELEPI^NE 5565 SPRING

MAGNETOS, SPARK PLUGS BATTERIES

All Supplies andHEquipments for Gasoline Motors.

L.

107 WEST 36th

G./DUQUET

h s*r., n

NEW YORK

UNIVERSAL AUTO SUPPLY CO.

Fittings for Airships /nd Flying Machines All Supplies for Motor*; Ignition Systems, Wheels, Tires, Etc. ADVISE US YOUR WANTS

1900 Broadway/(cor. 63d St.) New York

AEROPLANES AND GLIDERS

DESIGNED — CONSTRUCTED —OPERATED FOR SALE AND ^fJILT TO ORDER

Aeronautic Supplies and Apparatus

Western Agen/"AERONAUTICS "

C. T/ SHAFFER 302 holyoke Street, san francisco

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight— Strong and

Durable.

Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls on Hand.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

AERONAUTIC SUPPLIES at money saving priceS

Complete Catalogue of Supplies, Motors^and Gliders mailed FREE upon request -EVERYTHING for iL FLYING MACHINE--New York Representatives for the following Aerial Motor Co's: /

"Requa Coles Co.", "Elbridge Engine Co.", ''Antoinette Motor Co.", and the ''Herring Curtiss Co."

AGENTS WANTED E. J/WlLLIS CO., 8 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK

O f\ A OIlVJ/^1 D ¥ A YYF Q M?de to order, attachable to your »Jv-r/\I\llTlVJ. DLif\LJE*0 aeroplane or glider. They increase the speed to nearly double the motor power, push machine if motor stops over 20 miles p. h., which permits gliding and prevents accidents. Any height can safely be attained. Blue prints for aeroplanes with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium also furnished.

For terms apply to R. DR/ESSLER, Coney Island, New York:.

G. L. lU'MUAI (ill

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

DESIGNER - CONTRACTOR - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR.

AIR SHIPS AM) BALLOONS

Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 49 hours and 25 min.. the ENDURANCE RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

No connection with any other concern.

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

A SPECIALTY Livingston Radiator Co., 6 E. 31st st, New York City.

=STEEL TUBING

All diameters and gauges carried in stock

Also Nickel Steel Tubing for Propeller Shafts

NEW YORK 130-132 Worth Street

IM3TER A/FRASSEXCOm I'ANY

/ PHILADELPHIA 408 Commerce Street

Importers of Piano Wire, specially up-set for use in Aeroplanes

BUFFALO 50-52 Exchange Street

BOOKS

FOR SALE BY

AERONAUTICS

1777 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

BOOKS

A ERIAL WARFARE, by R. P. Hearne, with an introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim. First systematic popular account of progress made by the countries of the world in aeronautics; .">7 views of airships and aeroplanes; Wright, Farman, Delagrange, Bleriot, Ferber, Zeppelin, Patrie, Republique, &c.

Profusely illustrated. $2.66 postpaid.

DROBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatley.

Especially written for engineers. Outline of contents: Problem of Flight, Essential Principles, the Helix, the Aeroplane, Aviplanes, Dirigible Balloons, Form and Fittings of the Airship. Appendix furnishes much instructive information. 61 illustrations. Price $3.50.

l\/IOEDEBECK'S HANDBOOK, by Major H. 1V1 W. L. Moedebeck and O. Chanute. The only handbook of aeronautics in English. All phases of aerial travel fully covered. Invaluable for the beginner and a ready reference for the aeronautical engineer. Data on screws, pressure, ballooning, physics, etc.

Illustrated, $3.25.

MAVIGATING THE AIR, by members of the Aero Club of America. Interesting record of ideas and experiences of 24 distinguished men. Contributors: Wright Bros., Chanute, Pickering, Rotch, Zahni, Stevens, Herring and others. 300 pages, 3-2 illustrations.

$1.25

^STRA CASTRA, by Hatton Turnor.

This rarest aeronautical work in existence can be supplied to a few first inquiries at $15.00. All in perfect condition.

jgALLOONING AS A SPORT, by Major B.

Baden Powell. A handbook of ballooning and guide for the amateur. Full instructions for the equipment and management of a balloon. Illustrated. Price $1.10.

S. Upon application, we will be | fHE AERONAUTICAL WORLD, interesting nd an up-to-date list of all rare and useful. Illustrated Monthly--Published

pARE BOOKS

glad to send an up

books on the subject of ballooning and aeronautics j 1902-1903 by W. K. Irish, contains important in general. Several of these works are getting information for experimenters in mechanical very scarce and can only occasionally be secured flight. 12 Xos., Vol. I. at the second hand book stores. $1.50 I'ostpaid.

A RTIFICIAL AND NATURAL FLIGHT, by VEHICLES OF THE AIR, by Vie

Sir Hiram Maxim. A concise history and V The last word in aeronautic 1 description of the development of flying machines. Description of his own experimental work. Explaining the machinery and methods which enable him to arrive at certain conclusions. Fully describes the work of other successful inventors. Chapter on dirigible balloons.

With 05 ill us., $1.75 net.

tor Lougheed. literature, the

experimenter's Bible. Nothing relating to aviation not covered. Details of construction of every part of an aeroplane. Working drawin of all successful machines. 479 pp., 270 illus. Price, $2.50 : $2.75 Postpaid.

pjOW TO MAKE A GLIDER, illustrated, 8 WAR IN THE AIR, by H. G. Wells. The page illustrated pamphlet giving full details VV greatest fiction story in recent years. Un-for the construction of a bi-surface glider, with folds a breathless story of aerial battle and diagrams and exact measurements. Every ex- adventure, a triumph of scientific imagination, perimenter should have this valuable treatise. j possibly not beyond the realm of actuality. Price, 12 Cents (Post Free) Illustrated, $1.50

THE CONQUEST OF THE AIR, by A. Lawrence Rotch, S.B., A.M. Contents: I. The Ocean of Air. II. The History of Aerostation. III. The Dirigible Balloon. IV. The Flying Machine. V. The Future of Aerial Navigation. Brings together scientific data and a brief and incisive discussion of the whole subject by one who speaks with authority. The book takes up the history of aerostation, considers the sensational achievements of the last year in their relation to the long line of past failures and discusses the scientific possibilities of the future.

With many illustrations, 16mo., Postpaid, $1.10

^ERIAL NAVIGATION OF TO-DAY, by

Charles C. Turner. A finely illustrated view of the state of the art. Chapters on : Principles of Ballooning, Dirigible Balloons, Principles of Mechanical Flight, Sensations in Ballooning and Flying, Aerial Law, Military Aeronautics, The New Industry, Lessons in Flight, The Aerial Ocean, etc. Useful tables, glossary, French aero terms, etc. 70 illustrations and diagrams. 327 pp., cloth. $1.50 Postpaid.

CHARLES J. GLIDDEN

You've heard about the Glidden tour, He has a lot of silver cups,

Well, here's the man who glides The trophies of his skill,

His auto o'er the continent In piloting his motor-car

On these protracted rides ; O'er valley, stream and hill ;

But not content with touring earth, But since he joined the Aero Club,

New laurels he would wear, In driving his balloon

So in his splendid big balloon, He goes so fast he ought to be

The " Boston," tours the air. Presented with the moon.

AERONAUTICS WISHES A VERY MERRY*. ,XMAS AND A HAPPY NEW YEAR TO ALL ITS FRIENDS—AND ENEMIES IF IT HAS ANY.

AERONAUTICS

main office 17 7 7 broadway new york

published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, inc. a. v. jones, president

e. l. jones. treas.-sec

e. percy noel 304 no. 4th street st. louis

cleve t. shaffer

302 holyoke st. san francisco. calif.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, N.Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

VOL. 6

January, 1910

No. 1

aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest aud most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics. _

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always In advance.

subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk.

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.50 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

important.—Foreign money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure proper credit.

'copyright, 1909. aeronautics press, inc.

FLIGHT EXHIBITIONS

JUDGING from the wonderful interest displayed abroad in aviation, and considering the magnitude of the aeroplane industry in France, brought about principally through the exhibition flights of men like Far-man, Bleriot, Delagrange, Paulhan, Latham and a host of others, beginning, of course, with those of Wilbur Wright in France, it would seem that exhibitions might provide the most direct method of creating the much-wanted enthusiasm in this country.

Some less conversant than they should be with things as they are, are decrying the entrance into the aerial arena by "professional showmen." Without intending to exonerate misrepresentations of "the state of the art," such as have already occurred at Brighton Beach and Arlington, we believe the holding of meets and exhibitions, properly conducted, will do more to stimulate public interest, encourage the inventor, and, in the period prior to the general sale of flying machines, provide funds for the experimenters and manufacturers to further improve their machines than can be accomplished in any other way.

One precedent for this belief is the stimulus given the automobile industry by the Automobile Club of America's inauguration of race meets, followed by the holding of other contests and exhibition driving by now famous auto pilots all over the country.

The aeroplane, or other type, cannot be expected to remain a scientific "toy," but to become an article of widespread trade and com-

merce. Money must certainly enter into consideration. 1 i

The New York Herald recently printed a long article praying that the art be saved from the "showmen" and the "exhibition business."

Who would belittle the wonderful exhibition made by Wilbur Wright in his flight up the Hudson last October, or the flights of Glenn H. Curtiss at St. Louis, Cincinnati and Chicago.

The article in question quotes Mr. Bishop, president of the Aero Club of America, in condemnation of exhibitions. One can scarcely credit Mr. Bishop with such an attitude when one considers his great interest in seeing rapid advancement made, and particularly the fact that the flights of Mr. Curtiss cannot do else than benefit the sale of Curtiss machines, in whose manufacture Mr. Bishop is supposed to be a financial participant.

The New York Tribune relevantly remarks: "Considerable antagonism is felt by certain members of the Aero Club toward those in the aeronautic world who have used their inventions for museum purposes. Considering the fact, however, that the majority of the ablest pioneers in this field are not wealthy, and that many are obliged by lack of funds for further improvements to enter the realm of the showman, a criticism of their conduct by capitalist sportsmen is a bit froward. The necessity for stimulus for airship industry is felt as soundly in commercial channels as in sporting circles."

DESCRIPTION OF THE SUCCESSFUL TYPES OF AEROPLANES

By G. C. Loening.

UNPARALLELED in the history of science is the rapid progress that has been made in the practical application of the principles of aerodynamics. Ihe number of men who are flying is so great, as to warrant classing artificial flight with other established means of locomotion. The successful aeroplanes which have been evolved, although similar in their fundamental characteristics, have begun to vary from each other in many important details of size, arrangement and efficiency ot parts. It seems, therefore, that we are at a stage, where an examination of these various types tor the purpose ot comparison, and a discussion of tneir distinguishing teatures, merits, and demerits, would prove of value.

It is to be borne in mind that inasmuch as aviators are constantly changing and re-changing the dimensions of their machines, without recording such alterations, many of the dimensions given here are necessarily approximate. In all cases, however, the most recent and accurate data as furnished by the large number of references consulted, as well as by close personal inspection, have been made use of.

In the science of aeronautics it has been necessary to use a number of new terms. By "supporting plane" is meant the main lifting surface as distinguished from all auxiliary or stabilizing surfaces. The term "direction rudder'' refers to the movable vertical surface used for steering to right or left, while the "elevation rudder" is that horizontal surface which is used for steering up or down. "Transverse control" is the device used for the preservation of lateral balance in wind gusts, and for artificial inclination when making turns. "Keels" are fixed surfaces exerting neither lifting effect nor rudder action. "Spread" is the maximum horizontal dimension perpendicular to the line of flight, while "depth" is the dimension of the plane parallel to the line of flight. By "aspect ratio" is meant the ratio of spread to depth.

In the following paragraphs detailed descriptions of the twelve most successful aeroplanes are given. These include six biplanes, and six monoplanes. Many other types of h^avier-than-air machines have been constructed, but as yet have not demonstrated successful flying qualities.

Plans and elevations of each machine are given in the figure, all drawn to the same scale. Numbers opposite the name of the ^-machine and lettering refer to this figure. c_ i. farman biplane.—The frame consists essentially of a main box cell, somewhat similar in design to a Pratt truss, counterbraced

throughout with identical upper and lower chords, uprights of wood, acting as compression members and cross wires as tension members. This construction is common to all biplanes considered here.

Supporting Planes.—P, P, two identical, directly superposed surfaces, made of Continental cloth, a special rubber fabric, stretched over ash ribs. Spread, 33 ft.; depth, 6.6 ft.; area, 430 sq. ft.

Propulsion.—M, a 50 h.p. 7 cyl., Gnome motor, air-cooled, drives a two-bladed Chau-viere wooden propeller H, 8.5 ft. diam., 4.62 ft. pitch, at 1200 r.p.m.

Direction Rudder.—D, consists of two equal surfaces, at extreme rear of approximately 30 sq. ft. area, governed by a foot lever and cable.

Elevation Rudder.—E, a single surface of about 43 sq. ft. area, situated in front, and operated by the to and fro motion of lever C.

Transverse Control.—WW, flaps on the rear ends of each plane, the pair on one side moving inversely to the pair on the other side, and governed by the side to side motion of lever C.

Two horizontal surfaces at the rear of approximately 80 sq. ft. area, act as keels. Seats —SS, for aviator and two passengers are placed on the front of the lower plane. The mounting, l, is a combination of skid and wheels with rubber springs.

The total weight varies greatly with the amount of gasolene taken aboard, the number of passengers, etc. The limits within which this value lies, however, are given and all calculations are made for an approximate mean weight of the machine with aviator aboard ready for flight. The weight of the Farman machine is from 1100 lbs. to 1350 lbs.; the speed, 37 miles per hour; 24 lbs. are lifted per h.p. and 2.8 lbs. per sq. ft. of surface. The aspect ratio is 5 to 1.

Ref: Aerophile, v. 17, p. 220, p. 488; Aeronautics, v. 4, p. 206; v. 5, p. 218; Flight, v. 1, p. 641; Flug Motor Tech., No. 22, p. 10; Boll, Soc. Aer. Italiano, v. 6, p. 288; Loco-mocion Aerea, v. 1, p. 78; Aeronautics (Brit), v. 2, p. 117: Sci. Am. Sup., v. 68, p. 324; La Nature, v. 37. P- 329-/ 2. codv biplane.—The frame is made ^Trgely of bamboo combined with steel joints and ash. The chassis at centre is heavily built.

Supporting Planes.—P, P, two, identical sunerposed canvas covered surfaces, separated by 9 ft. at the center and 8 ft. at the tips. Spread, 52 ft.; depth, 7.5 ft.; area, 780 sq. ft.

Propulsion— An 80 h.p., 8 cyl.. E. N. V. motor M, driving two two-bladed propellers h, h, 8.25 ft. in diameter, 6 ft. pitch in opposite directions at 600 r.p.m., placed at front of main cell.

(

Direction Rudders—DD, two surfaces, one in front and one in the rear moved jointly I and about 40 sq. ft. area. A Elevation Rudder.—EE, two equal surfaces Li'm same plane 190 sq. ft. in area, placed in ||front and operated by lever C. I J Transverse Control.—WW, two balancing I ? planes of 30 sq ft. area, at either end of main jl cell moved inversely. The two halves of the y elevation rudder are also capable of being ' moved inversely and used for lateral stability. There are no keels. Two seats SS, the lower one for the aviator, are placed out in front of the main cell. The mounting L consists of a large pair of wheels, which carry most of the weight, a small wheel in front of them, and a skid in the rear. Wheels are also fixed on each end of the lower plane.

The total weight is from 1900 to 2100 lbs.; the speed, 37 miles per hour; 25 lbs. are lifted per h.p., and 2.57 lbs. per sq. ft. of surface. The aspect ratio is 7 to 1.

Ref: Zeit. Ver. Deut. Ing., v. 53. p. 1143: Aeronautics, v. 4, p. 78, 126; v. 5, p. 33, 65, 154; Flight, v. 1, p. 113, 501; Encyl. d'Av., v. 1, p. 112; Boll. Soc. Aer. Ttal., v. 6, p. 288; Vorreiter A., "Motor Flugapparate"; Sci. Am.. / v. ioi, p. 198.

3. Curtiss Biplane. — The main cell and smaller parts are made of ash and spruce and the large outriggers of bamboo. Several members of the frame meet at the front wheel. Small cables as well as wires are used for bracing.

Supporting Planes.—PP. two identical superposed surfaces made of one layer of Baldwin rubber silk, tacked and laced to the frame. Spread 26.42 ft.; depth, 4.5 ft.; area, 220 sq. ft.

Propulsion.—A 25 h.p. 4 cyl. Curtiss motor, M, drives direct a two-bladed, 6-ft. diam., 5ft. pitch wooden propeller H, at 1200 r.p.m.

Direction Rudder.—D, a single surface of 6.6 sq. ft. area operated by wheel at C and cables run inside the bamboo outrigger.

Elevation Rudder.—E, double surfaced, 24 sq. ft. in area and operated by front and back motion of long lever at C.

Transverse Control.—W W\ balancing planes of 12 sq. ft. area, tipned inversely by means of a brace fitted to and swayed by the aviator's body.

A horizontal fixed surface at rear, 15 sq. ft. area and a small vertical triangular surface in front act as keels.- The seat S, is on the framing in front of the main cell. The mounting L, is on three rigidly fixed wheels, no springs being provided. The total weight is from 530 to 570 lbs., and the speed is 47 m.p.h.: 22 lbs. are lifted per h.p., and 2.5 lbs. er sq. ft. of surface. The aspect ratio is 5.65 to 1.

Ref: Aeronautics, v. 5, p. 13. 86, 137; Am. Aeronaut, v. 1, p. 1 (new series') : Boll. Soc. Aer. Ttal., v. 6, p. 286; Sci. American, v. 100, p. 460; Encycl. d'Av.. v. t, p. 24; Am. Machinist, v. 32, p. 49: Flight, v. 1, p. 389; Zeit. fur Luft., v. 13, p. 816: Aerophile. v._ 17., P 488;'Locomocion Aerea v. 1, p 78; Genie Civil v. 55, P- 343-

4. Wright Biplane.—The frame is made of clear spruce and ash, all exposed parts being painted with an aluminum mixture.

Supporting Planes.—P, P, two identical and superposed surfaces made of canvas stretched over and under wooden ribs. Spread, 41 ft.; depth, 6.56 ft.; area, 538 sq. ft.

Propulsion.—A 25-28 h.p., 4 cyl., Wright motor, M, drives by chains in opposite directions, 2 two-bladed wooden propellers of 8.5 ft. diam., 9 ft. pitch, at 400 r.p.m., placed at rear of planes.

Direction Rudder.—D, double surfaced, 23 sq. ft. area at rear, worked by front and back motion of lever at aviator's right hand, C.

Elevation Rudder.—E, placed in front, double surfaced 70 sq. ft. in area, warpable and operated by lever at aviator's left hand, C.

Transverse Control.—By inverse warping of regions W, W, of main planes, operated by side to side motion of right hand lever, C.

A Trnlnrv^rtical keel is placed at the front. Scats, S, S, are provided for two, the outer one for the aviator (although in some French machines the aviator sits next to the motor). The mounting, L, is on skids only, a truck and rail being used for starting. Total weight, from 1050 to 1150 lbs.; speed. 40 m.p.h.; 41 lbs. lifted per h.p. and 2.05 lbs. per sq. ft. Aspect ratio is 6.25 to 1.

The dimensions of the U. S. Signal Corps machine and that built by the Ariel Co. of France differ in that the spread is reduced to 36 ft. and the surface area to 490 sq. ft.

Ref: Aeronautics, v. 3, Nos. 3 and 4, v. 5, p. 170: Sci. American, v. 99, p. 140, 209: Aeronautical Jour., v. 12, p. 114: Zeit. fur Luftschiff., v. 13. p. 6: Aerophile, v. 16. p. 470; v. 17, p. 488: Boll. Soc* Aer. Ttal., v. 4. p. 410; v. 6, p. 288:'Locomocion Aerea v. t, p. 78: La Tech. Moderne, No. 1, p. 5; Encyl. d'Av., v. 1, p. 19: Am. Machinist, v. 31 (2). p. 473; Century, v. 76, p. 641: Peyrey, F., "Les Hommes Oiseaux": Bracke, A., "Const, de 1'Aerop. Wright": Vorreiter, A., "Motor Flugapparate": Genie Civil, v. 55, p. 342; Zeit. Ver. Deut. Ing., v. 53, p. 1098.

5. Voisin Biplane.—Frame of ash with steel joints consists essentially of a small box cell, attached in the rear of a larger one. which is mounted on a central chassis.

Supporting Planes.—P, P, two surfaces identical and superposed of Continental cloth. Spread, 37.8 ft.; depth, 6.56 ft.; area, 496 sq. ft.

Propulsion.—A 50-55 h.p. motor, M. drives direct a two-bladed, 7.6-ft. diam., 4.6-ft. pitch metal propeller, H, at 1200 r.p.m. Several types of motors have been used.

Direction Rudder.—D, a single surface of 25 sq. ft. area, in centre of rear cell, governed by wheel at C

Elevation Rudder.—E, a single surface of 41 sq. ft. area, situated at front end of central chassis, operated by pushing in or out on wheel at C.

Transverse Control.—None.

Four vertical partitions, V, V, in main cell and the rear cell, comprising two horizontal surfaces, F, F, about 130 sq. ft. in area, and two vertical surfaces, V, V, act as keels. The mounting, L, is on two large wheels with coiled spring shock absorbers at the front, and two smaller wheels in the rear. The scat, S, is on the central chassis. Total weight, from 1100 to 1250 lbs.; speed, 35 m.p.h.; 23 lbs. lifted per h.p. and 2.37 lbs. per sq. ft. Aspect ratio is 5.75 to 1.

Ref: Aeronautical Jour., v. 12, No. 46; v. 13, p. 60: Aerophile, v. 15, p. 232; v. 16, p. 38; v. 17 p. 488; Aeronautics (Brit.), v. 1, p. 11, 18; v. 2, p. 20: Sci. American, v. 97, p. 292; v. 98, p. 92: Locomocion Aerea, v. 1, p. 78; Boll. Soc. Aer. Ital., v. 6, p. 288: Flight, v. 1, n. 19, 360, 485, 505: La Tech. Moderne No. 1, p. 5; Soc. des Ing. Civ., v. 2 (1908), p. 13: Zeit Ver. Deut. Ing., v. 52, p. 956: Vorreiter A, "Motor Flugapparate": Encyl. d'Av., v. 1, p. 19: Genie Civil, v. 55, p. 341.

6. Voisin Biplane (New Model).—The main box cell is mounted at the front end of a loner central frame, which carries at its other end a smaller cell.

Supporting Planes.—P, P, two identical su-p^rposed surfaces. Spread, 37 ft.; depth, 5 ft.; area, 370 sq. ft.

Propulsion.—A 48 h.p., 4 cyl., Voisin motor, M, drives direct a two-bladed metal propeller placed in front, of 7.2 ft. diam., 4 ft. pitch, at 1300 r.p.m.

Direction rudder, D, and elevation rudder, E, are combined in the universally pivoted rear box cell which can be moved up or down or to either side by wheel, C, and cables. The horizontal surfaces, E, E, have about 80 sq. ft. aiea and the vertical surfaces, D, D, approximately 50 sq. ft. area.

Transverse Control.—None.

Four vertical main cell partitions, V, V, act as keels. The aviator's seat, S, is situated on the central frame at the rear of the main cell. The mounting, L, is on two large wheels with springs in front and a single wheel at the rear. Total weight, from 800 to 950 lbs.; speed, said to be 50 m.p.h.; pounds per h.p., 19; pounds per sq. ft., 2.36; aspect ratio, 7.4 to 1.

Ref: Aerophile, v. 17, pp. 441, 485; Aeronautics, v. 5, p. 200; Fachzeit. fur Flugtech., No. 39, Oct., 1909; Aero., v. 1. p. 347; Genie Civil, v. 55, p. 341.

7. Antoinette Monoplane.—A long narrow girder-like frame of cedar, aluminum and ash carries at its front portion the main plane, at the extreme front end the propeller and at the rear the rudders. This disposition is similar to that in all the monoplanes considered here.

Supporting Plane.—P. a single surface divided into two halves of trapezoidal shape, at a slight dihedral angle and constructed of rigid trussing, nearly 1 ft. thick at the centre covered over and under with a smooth, finely pumiced silk. The plane is braced also from a central mast. Spread, 46 ft.; average depth, 8.2 ft.; area, 370 sq. ft.

Propulsion.—A 50 h.p.. 8 cyl. Antoinette motor, M, placed at the bow, drives direct a

two-bladed metal propeller of 7.25 ft. diam., and 4.3 ft. pitch, at 1100 r.p.m.

Direction Rudder.—D, D, two triangular surfaces at the rear, about 10 sq. ft. area, operated by a foot lever and cables.

Elevation Rudder.—E, a triangular surface of approximately 20 sq. ft. area at extreme rear, operated by wheel at aviator's right hand.

Transverse Control.—Balancing planes (wing tips), WW, are used or the regions, W, W, are warped, governing being done by wheel at aviator's left hand and cables.

At rear are vertical keels, V, V, and horizontal ones, F, F, giving the bird-like appearance. The seat, S, is placed in the frame back of the main plane. The mounting, L, is on a pair of wheels fitted to a pneumatic so/ing with a single skid in front and a smaller one in the rear. The total weight is 1040 to 1120 lbs.; speed, 43 m.p.h; pounds per h.p., 30; pounds per sq. ft, 3.96; aspect ratio, 5.6 to 1.

Ref: Aerophile, v. 17, pp. 7, 488; Flight, v. 1, pp. 662, 681; Aeronautics, v. 4, p. 63; Sci. American, v. 100, p. 352; Rev. de l'Av.. v. a. p. 27; La Nature, v. 37, pp. 49. 329; Zeit. fur Luftschiff., v. 13, p. 890; Encyl. d'Av., v. 1, p. 1; La Vie Auto., v. 9, p. 729; Flug Motor Tech., No. 22, p. 10; Boll. Soc. Aer. Ital., v. 6, p. 288; Zeit Ver. Deut. Ing., v. 53, p. 1759; G.uie Civil, v. 55, p. 340.

8. Santos-Dumont Monoplane. — Frame constructed of bamboo, spruce and steel tub-ir.g, narrows to a point at the rear.

Supporting Plane.—P, has both sides slightly turned up from the centre. The canvas used is stretched very tightly over the ribs and the plane is braced by wires to the chassis. Spread, 18 ft.; depth, 6.56 ft.; area, 113 sq. ft. ' Propulsion.—A 30 h.p. 2 cyl. motor is placed on top of the front edge of the plane and drives direct a two-bladed Chauviere wooden screw of 6.5 ft. diam., 3.5 ft. pitch, at 1400 r.p.m.

Direction rudder, D, and elevation rudder. E, are each fan-shaped and are combined and fixed by a universally pivoted joint at the rear. The elevation rudder has approximately an area of 21 sq. ft., while the direction rudder is somewhat less.

Transverse Control.—The plane is flexible and is warped in regions W W by a lever and wires.

Keels.—None. The seat, S, is placed under the main plane. The mounting, L, consists of two wheels at the front with no springs and a skid at the rear. The total weight is 330 to 370 lbs.; speed, 50 m.p.h.; pounds per h,p., 12; pounds per sq. ft., 3.1; aspect ratio, 2.7 to 1.

Ref: Flight, v. 1. p. 603; Sci. American Sun., v. 68, p. 317: Sci. American, v. 97, p. 445; v. 99, P- 433: Aerophile, v. 15, p. 313: v. 16, p. 468; v. 17, pp. 435, 488: L'Aviation Ill-No. 34, p. 3: La France Aerienne, v. 14. P-698: Omnia, No. 200, p. 281: Encyl. d'Av., v. 1, p. 126: Vorreiter, A., "Motor Flugapparate": Zeit. Ver. Deut. Ing., v. 53, P- 1762: Genie Civil, v. 55, p. 466.

g. bleriot XII monoplane.—A long frame braced in every panel by cross wires carries the main plane on its upper deck at the front, and tapers gracefully to the rear.

Supporting Plane.—p, a continuous, perfectly horizontal surface of rubber cloth, over and under braced by wires from the central frame. Spread, 30.2 ft.; depth, 7.6 ft.; area, 228 sq. ft.

Propulsion.—A 35 h.p., 8 cyl., E. N. V. motor, placed in the frame under the main plane drives by chain a single, 4-bladed Chauviere propeller, h, placed above it on the edge of the plane, 8.8 ft. diam., 9 ft. pitch, at 600 r.p.m.

Direction Rudder.—D, a single surface, 9 sq. ft, area, placed at extremity of the vertical keel, V, and operated by a foot lever at C.

Elevation Rudder.—E, a single surface, 20 sq. ft. area, at the extreme rear, operated by front or back motion of the bell-shaped lever at C and cables.

Transverse Control.—Side to side motion of the same lever warps inversely the regions W W of the main plane. The front edge only of the plane is rigid. A small surface under the seat also aids in lateral balancing.

Keel, F, is a horizontal fixed surface of 21 sq. ft. area. The seat, S, is a bench for two or three, placed back of the motor under the main plane. The mounting, L, is on two large front wheels and a smaller wheel all fitted with thick rubber rope springs. Total weight, 1150 to 1300 lbs. Speed, 48 m.p.h.; pounds per h.p., 35; pounds per sq. ft., 5.3; aspect ratio, 4 to 1.

Ref: Aerophile, v. 17, pp. 319, 488; Sci. American Sup., v. 68, p. 136; Encyl. d'Av., v. 1, pp. 72, 92; Flug. Motor Tech., No. 20, p. 18, No. 22, p. 10; La Vie Auto, v. 9, p. 729; Locomocion Aerea, v. 1, p. 28; Aeronautics (Brit), v. 2, p. 117; L'Automobile, v. 7, p. 520; Genie Civil, v. 55, p. 344.

10. bleriot XI monoplane.—The front half of the cross-wired frame is covered.

Supporting Plane.—p, divided into two halves at a small dihedral angle, fitting into sockets in the central frame; the ribs of the plane are of wood and the sharp front edge of aluminum sheeting. Spread, 28.2 ft.; depth, 6.5 ft; area, 151 sq. ft

Propulsion.—A 23 h.p., 3 cyl., Anzani motor, M, drives direct a 6.87 ft. diam., 2.7 ft. pitch, two-bladed Chauviere screw, h, at 1350 r.p.m.

Direction Rudder.—D, a 4.5 sq. ft. area, surface at rear, operated by a foot lever at C.

Elevation Rudder.—EE, in two halves, mounted on end of a fixed horizontal keel, F, which is 17 sq. ft. area, and operated by front and back motion of the "bell crank" at C. The area of this rudder is 16 sq. ft.

Transverse Control by warping, and mounting as in No. XII. Scat, S, is placed in the frame at rear of main plane. Total weight, 650 to 720 lbs.; speed, 36 m.p.h.; pounds per h.p., 29; pounds per sq. ft., 4.5; aspect ratio, 4-35 to 1.

Ref: Zeit. Ver. Deut. Ing., v. 53, p. 1574; Aeronautics, v. 5, p. 118; Aerophile, v. 17, pp. 102, 106, 129, 318, 488; Encycl. d'Av., v. 1, pp. 3, 72, 92; Flug. Motor Tech., No. 22, p. 10,

No. 23, p. 7, No. 25, p. 14; Flight, v. 1, p. 453; boll. Soc. Aer. Ital., v. 6, p. 288; Locomocion Aerea, v. 1, p. 78; La Vie Auto, v. 9, p. 729; La Nature, v. 37, p. 329; Sci. American Sup., v. 68, p. 136; Bracke, A., "Les Monoplane Bleriot"; Flugsport, No. 24, p. 685; Genie Civil, v. 55; p. 260, 344.

11. R. E. pelterie monoplane.—The central frame is short and all exposed parts are covered with Continental rubber cloth. Steel tubing is extensively used. The bird-like form is especially noticeable.

Supporting Plane.—p, a very strong, solid surface, curved downward dihedrally and requiring little bracing. Spread, 35 ft; depth, 6.1 ft; area, 214 sq. ft.

Propulsion.—A 7-cyl., 35-h.p., R. E. p. motor, M, drives a 4-bladed, aluminum and steel propeller, h, 6.6 ft. diam., 5 ft. pitch, at 900 r.p.m.

Direction Rudder.—D, a surface approximately of 8 sq. ft. area below the central frame and operated by the right hand lever at C. ---

Elevation Rudder.—EE, a 20-sq. ft. area, surface at the extreme rear, operated by lever at aviator's left hand and cables.

Transverse Control.—Each half of the plane is entirely warpable about its base, the left hand lever at C inclining inversely the regions WW.

Vertical keels, V, V, and a horizontal keel, F, are fixed to the frame. The seat, S, for one passenger, is in a "cock pit" in the frame. The mounting, L, is mainly on a large single wheel with an oleo-pneumatic spring in the center at the front and a smaller one in the same center line at the rear. When first starting the aeroplane is inclined, resting on one end of the plane on each end of which also a wheel is placed. Total weight, 900 to 970 lbs.; speed, 39 m.p.h.; pounds per h.p., 27; pounds per sq. ft, 4.4; aspect ratio, 5.75 to 1.

Ref: Soc. des Ing. Civ., v. 2 (1908), p. 13: Boll. Soc. Aer. Ital., v. 6, p. 67, 288; Aerophile. v. 15, p. 331; v. 16, p. 226; v. 17, p. 33; Flight, v. 1, p. 19, 360; Aeronautical Jour., v. 13, p. 64: Zeit. fur Luftschiff., v. 12, p. 458: Aeronautics, v. 4, p. 21: La France Aerienne, v. 14, No. 7, 9: Zeit. Ver. Deut. Ing., v. 53. p. 1760: Genie Civil, v. 55, p. 346.

12. grade monoplane.—The frame consists essentially of a main metal tube chassis at the front, from which a long thick piece supporting the rudders is run out to the rear.

Supporting Plane.—p. made of Metzeler rubber fabric stretched over a bamboo frame and at a slight dihedral angle. Spread, 30 ft.; depth, 9.5 ft.; area, 284 sq. ft.

Propulsion.—A four-cylinder, 24-h.p. V motor, M, is placed at the front edge of the plane and drives direct a two-bladed metal propeller about 5 ft. in diam., 4 ft. pitch, at 1000 r.p.m.

Direction Rudder.—D. a single flexible surface, estimated at 16 sq. ft. area at the rear.

Elevation Rudder.—E, a single flexible surface of approximately 18 sq. ft. area, operated by a lever and cables, also at the rear.

{Continued on page So)

/ y

FIGURE I shows the arrangements on the Antoinette VII. (Latham), by which the wings are warped. Wires from the cross-arm attached to the sprocket run up over pullies to a hand wheel, as shown in Fig. 3. The steering up and down is shown in illustration 2. Steering to left or right is done by the feet pushing on either side of a horizontal piece pivoted in the middle.

Fig. 4 illustrates the shock-absorbing device used in the Voisin machines. Fig. 5 shows a section of the skeleton of the lower surface near the centre of the machine, where vertical surfaces rise on each side of the aviator. All woodwork is of ash, the only tubing being used in the chassis. The spacing of the ribs is about 1 ft. 3 ins. The main lateral beams are rectangular, il/2 by in- The ribs have a cross-section of 5-16 by 34 in-, except the "T" ribs in the drawing, which are \Yi in. wide at the base. Vertical struts have a maximum width of il/2 in. by a depth of 2 in., cross-section elliptical.

Fig. 8 shows the joint device used by C. F. Blackmore, of New York, in the machine which he is building. Patent has been applied for on this.

A combination skid and wheel landing de-

FIRING tests at a captive balloon at Sandy Hook, N. Y., have recently been conducted by the board of ordnance and fortifications. These have been secret, and no information is available.

Lieutenant Frank P. Lahm was relieved from detail in the signal corps Nov. 27 and assigned to the Seventh Cavalry at Fort Riley. His service with the signal corps had to be terminated on account of the regulations prescribing a time limit during which officers of line organizations may serve on special details, etc.

Lieutenant Frederic E. Humphreys of the engineer corps upon the completion of instruction with the signal corps aeroplane was relieved from duty with the signal corps and returned to his station at Washington Barracks, D. C.

Lieutenants R. S. Bamberger, Second Cavalry; Oliver A. Dickinson, Fifth Infantry, and John G. Winter, Sixth Cavalry, who were attached to the signal corps last spring for instruction in aeronautics have recently been re-

lieved by War Department orders and returned to duty with their respective regiments. During their service with the signal corps these officers had several practice voyages in free balloons as passengers with Lieutenant Lahm, but most of their instruction was with the signal corps dirigible balloon No. 1. These officers accompanied the dirigible to the military tournaments at Toledo, O., and Des Moines, la., during the past season.

Lieutenant Benjamin D. Foulois of the signal corps has had considerable . experience in operating the dirigible balloon, and also received instructions at the College Park field in the operation of the Wright aeroplane. Lieutenant Foulois still remains on duty with the signal corps, and was recently in charge of the aeronautical equipment of the signal corps used at Sandy Hook proving ground for experimental firing.

On Nov. 20 the aeroplane was moved from College Park, Aid., to Fort Myer, Va., where it is now stored in the balloon house.

CONSTRUCTION

AIDS, VIII.

vice is illustrated in Fig. 9. Fig. 10 shows an idea for the rear edges of supporting surfaces.

A novel gasolene tank (Fig. 7) has been put out by the Aerial Mfg. Company, 4 Upper Charles street, Finsbury, London, E. C, which is in the shape of a plane, and is so built upon the framework of aeroplane as to serve the purpose of a plane and assist in carrying its own weight. It has a division down the centre for strengthening purposes which prevents the shifting of petrol wholly to one side, and thus upsetting the lateral stability of the machine. On the bottom of the divisional piece there are small holes sufficient to enable the level to be maintained each side, whilst preventing the sudden flow of gasoline all to one side when the balance of the machine is upset. There is an exit for petrol from each lowermost point "a" beneath the tank, the four pipes being connected before reaching the carburettor.

They also manufacture fittings for joints of framework (Fig. 6), which can be used singly or in pairs at each joint. There is a small lug in the corner of the joint to which the diagonal wire is affixed. This fitting makes a strong and rigid joint, and can be had to suit different sizes of framework.

TALKS WITH INVENTORS—IV

By F. O. Andreae

patent attorney.

France.—Patents for inventions are granted for five, ten or fifteen years from the date of the deposit. Certificate of addition ends with the principal patent.

New industrial products, new methods or the new application of known methods for obtaining an industrial result or product are patentable inventions. Exceptions: Pharmaceutical compositions or medicines of all kinds; schemes or combinations relating to credit or finance; inventions or applications considered as being contrary to public morals or security, and contrary to good living or the laws of the country.

Conditions as to novelty which the invention must satisfy are: The discovery, invention or application is not considered new which in France or abroad before date of the deposit has been sufficiently published to enable it to be carried out.

Time within which the inventions must be worked is two years from the grant of the patent. The working must at no time cease for the space of two consecutive years.

There are fixed annual fees to contend with.

Great Britain.—Nature and duration of the grant: Fourteen years from date of application. (Provisional protection for nine months may be obtained to commence with.)

Patentable inventions: New arrangements or methods (in machines or processes) even to obtain a known result, new combinations of known elements (in machines and processes), new means of applying a substance or a known method producing a new industrial result, suppression of an operation in a known process, but no theoretical principles without immediate industrial application, the new employment of a known material for an analogous purpose.

To be considered new, an invention must not have been used generally nor known to the public in Great Britain. It must not have been the subjet of a prior English patent, nor have been published in a work printed or introduced into the Kingdom.

No time was fixed for the working of the invention until recently. Compulsory licenses may be issued.

A tax covering the first four years is exacted; then annual fees.

Hungary.—Patent of invention for fifteen years from the date of the deposit.

Certificate of addition ending with the patent or in certain cases taking its place.

Every new invention capable of being industrially worked is patentable, except: Inventions of which the application is contrary to law, order or good morals; arms of war, explosives, ammunition, fortifications on ships of war if the Minister opposes the grant within a prescribed time; scientific theories and

principles; food stuffs and medicines for men and animals; products obtained by chemical means processes alone being patentable.

An invention will not be considered new which has been divulged to such an extent, either by printing or other means of publication, as to allow it to be made useful by men of the trade, unless a publication or working took place more than a century before.

The invention must be worked three years from the publication made on the grant of the patent, and subsequently every year.

Annual fees.

Italy.—Grant. Patent of invention for not exceeding fifteen years from the last day of one of the quarters of the year. Patent of importation for period not exceeding that of the foreign patent, and in any case not exceeding fifteen years. Certificate of addition ending the same time as the principal patent.

Qualifications: Every invention or industrial discovery—that is to say, an industrial product or result, an instrument, a machine, an engine, a mechanism or any mechanical contrivance, a process or a method of industrial production, a motor or the application of a force already known, is patentable. The technical application of a scientific principle giving immediate industrial results. Exceptions : Inventions contrary to law, morals and public security; inventions whose object is not the production of material objects; inventions or discoveries purely theoretical, and all kinds of medicines.

An invention is considered new in Italy when it has never been known previously, or when it is one of which the particulars necessary to carry it out have not been known, although the fact of its existence is known. Nevertheless, inventions already and still patented abroad may be made the subject of a patent of importation, if in the interval it has never been imported or applied in Italy.

The invention must be worked within the year which follows the grant of the privilege for patent having a duration of less than five years. Subsequently every year. Two years, when the application is for patent for more than five years duration. Subsequently every two years.

A tax proportionate to the length of the patent.

Annual fees, increasing every third year.

Luxemburg.—Nature and duration of the grant: Patent of invention for a period of fifteen years from the day following the date of the patent, only valid if the German patent is granted.

Certificate of addition ending at the same time as the principal patent.

Patentable inventions: New inventions capable of being worked industrially. Excep-

(Continued on page 35)

AERONAUTICS January, ipio

IN THE WORLD OF AVIATION

$1,000,000 Wright Company—A. A. A. May Control Aviation-Los Angeles Aero Meet—New Rinek Aeroplane

Wrights Form $1,000,000 Company.

The Wright Company was incorporated on November 22, 1909, for the purpose of manufacturing and trading in flying machines. Its capitalization is $1,000,000. In its certificate of incorporation there is a provision that the capital stock be not increased at any time within five years unless upon the consent of the Wright Brothers.

A short time thereafter the first meetings of the stockholders and directors were held at the office of Nicoll, Anable, Lindsay & Fuller, and the following were elected officers and directors: President, Wilbur Wright; vice-presidents, Orville Wright and Andrew Freed-man; secretary and treasurer, Alpheus S. Barnes.

The following directors were elected in addition to Orville and Wilbur Wright: Russell A. Alger, August Belmont, Edward J. Ber-wind, Howard Gould, Morton F. Plant, Allan A. Ryan, Theodore P. Shonts, Robert Collier, Andrew Freedman, Cornelius Vanderbilt. Pliny W. Williamson, personal counsel of the Wright Brothers in the East.

The executive committee, which will have active charge of the company's affairs, are: Andrew Freedman, chairman; Russell A. Alger, August Belmont, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Wilbur Wright.

It was announced that the factory is to be located at or near Dayton, Ohio, with aviation grounds possibly in various States, where demonstrators will be taught the operation of the machine. This will give the Wrights an opportunity to proceed toward any other solution that may be possible of scientific problems of aviation. The New York office will be at the Day and Night Bank Building, Fifth avenue.

The centre of attention at the present time is in connection with the action of the Wright Brothers against the Herring-Curtiss Company. H. A. Toulmin, of Springfield, Ohio, has always been the patent attorney for the Wrights, and came to New York City recently to confer with new New York counsel retained in the patent cases, all of which were started in New York. Mr. Edmond Wetmore was designated by the new company to assist Mr. Toulmin.

All Ready for Los Angeles Meet.

The first big aviation meet to be held in this country will be that at Los Angeles, January 10 to 20, 1910.

There are $50,000 in prize money, and in addition there will be grand prizes of $10,000

for each world's record broken. The meet is officially sanctioned by the Aero Club of California and affiliated clubs.

Willard, with the Aeronautic Society's Curtiss aeroplane; Knabenshue and Beachey, with their dirigibles, are now on the ground. Curtiss has signed a contract to appear, and four French aviators, including Paulhan, are due to sail from Havre on the 18th. There are two Bleriots and two biplanes. Baldwin and Bumbaugh are expected with their dirigibles, together with a number of balloonists.

Every facility will be provided for the comfort of contestants and the public, and it is hoped that some new records will be made. January weather in Los Angeles is proverbial, and there should be nothing to mar the chances for good flights.

A. A. A. May Control Aviation in U. S.

The American Automobile Association, at its annual meeting in New York on December 1, appointed a committee to investigate into the status of aviation in this country, and to formulate a tentative plan for the bringing together on a working basis the various aero organizations and aviation sections formed of auto clubs, the plan to be submitted to the Executive Committee at its next monthly meeting.

Three members of the A. A. A. were named, with Powell Evans, a well-known automobile enthusiast of Philadelphia, as chairman. Lee S. Burridge, presidentaof The Aeronautic Society; Thomas A. Hill and Louis R. Adams, directors, were also asked to serve on the committee. The other members of the committee are C. H. Gillette, of Hartford; A. G. Batchelder, editor of The Automobile, and John B. Coffin, of Worcester.

Just whether the A. A. A. itself will handle the matter, or will form a separate body with the same initial letters, will be thoroughly considered by the committee.

Automobile clubs all over the country, already members of the A. A. A., or individuals, members of auto clubs, are forming aero organizations nearly every week in some part of the United States, as for instance, the Aero Club of Hartford, recently organized by prominent men in the automobile industrv in Hartford, among them Charles B. Whittlesey, of the Hartford Rubber Works Company, which is making special tires for aeroplanes; Hiram Percy Maxim and C. H. Gillette.

Having already the control of all automobile events in this country, except one or two international events under the control of the Automobile Club of America, and realizing the sport of aviation is bound to become in

M. B. Sellers Continuing Flights

flies with 4 h. p.

M. B. Sellers, Fireclay, Ky., is continuing flights with his 7 horse-power quadroplane for the purpose of testing out propellers. The foreign propeller imported gave less thrust than his own. With the last one tried—a four-bladed one—he obtained more thrust than with any other. The flights have been better and higher. The thrust while flying has not been determined.

The best propeller thrust for a direct-connected propeller machine standing, was 48 pounds. The Dutheil & Chalmers 7 horsepower motor gave but 4 brake horse-power at 1,500 r. p. m.

Work is progressing on the new machine, which is being built with a view to speed.

The New Rinek Biplane

C. Norvin Rinek is bringing his new aeroplane to New York for trial flights on the Hempstead Plains, near Garden City, where he has hired a shed for the housing of the machine, which has been built under Mr. Rinek's direction by the machine department of the Eastern Cordage Company of Easton. Pa. Last year one was built resembling this greatly as far as general appearance goes, but this new machine is a remarkably fine specimen of good workmanship.

The apparatus approximates the Voisin type of biplane, made famous as the first aerial ■vehicles of Farman and Delagrange. This type of machine was decided upon over a year and a half ago. The photograph herewith reproduced shows the second machine.

Description.

This new machine has undergone considerable modifications from its predecessor. The present machine weighs above 1,540 pounds, the difference in weight being due to the fact that the Voisins employ wood in the construction of their machines whereas steel tubing is used in this.

The "fuselage," or car, equalizing planes and the rear rudder alone are of wood. This car as in the Voisin carries the aviator motor, gasolene, tanks, etc., the aviator sitting with his back to the motor.

The whole machine is mounted upon a steel tubing chassis, running on light wheels of motor-cycle type.

The propeller was especially designed to meet the particular reauirements of this machine under the supervision of the company's engineer. E. T. Smith. It is of a true^ screw, Inminated. The diameter is 7 feet 6 inches: the pitch 4 feet. Driven at 1,000 r. p. m., an

Cincinnati's Aero Meet

On November 12, 13 and 14 there was held, under the auspices of the Aero Club of Cincinnati, at Latonia racetrack, across the river from Cincinnati, in the State of Kentucky, a dirigible, balloon and aeroplane meet, with Glenn H. Curtiss and Chas. F. Willard in Curtiss aeroplanes, and Knabenshue and Beachey in their dirigibles as the stars. The other feature was a balloon race, in which but one balloon got away—that is, regularly.

The grounds were poor for aeroplane flying, and all the flights had to be made on the track itself.

The first day everyone was in the air. Curtiss and Willard made short flights; Beachey and Knabenshue gave demonstrations in their two dirigibles, and "the boy aeronaut,' Cromwell Dixon, in his own airship. To end the day there was a hot air ascension and parachute drop. The two dirigibles in the air at once, manceuvering over the infield and the grand stands made a pretty sight. Dixon sailed his ship close over a freight train, which provided a free grand stand for many of the citizens who were financially astute. The Curtiss machine was damaged slightly by a collision with a team.

The second day was somewhat windy, but the talent did their share to provide amusement for the crowd. The flags on the grand stand were half extended when "the aeroplanes began to play grasshopper up and down the track," as one of the participants put it. Dixon could scarcely make headway against the breeze, and at last drifted on to the top of the grand "stand. Ffe managed to drop his guide-rope, which caught in Curtiss' wing tip, breaking it for the second time The frame of the airship bumped the rooF and was pulled down safely. The hot-air balloon made its scheduled ascent.

Another exciting incident was the breaking of one of the wires running to the rudder of the Willard machine at the very moment it was above a fence. By acrobatic work Willard got it over the track and landed.

Spare time was employed in testing the two engines of the aeroplanes, both of which are identical. With a wooden propeller Curtiss' engine turned up 1,050 r. p. m., while Wil-lard's gave 1,120. Curtiss then put on an aluminum one and got 1,220 r. p. m. The

a short time very general, it was deemed advisable to exercise a proper control in order to keep the sport at a high standard. All these new aero clubs formed out of the auto clubs will, of course, come in with the aero division of the A. A. A.

actual thrust of 271 pounds has been obtained. The propeller is directly connected to last year's model 30-40 horse-power, water-cooled motor, cylinders 3 13-16 by 4 inches. It has 8 cylinders, arranged "V" shaped, and weighs ready to operate 275 pounds. The spread is 10 metres; each main surface is 2 metres deep, spaced 1.5 m. apart. The spread of the two front controls totals 5 m., by 1 m. deep. The front edge of this control is 2.5 m. from the front edge of main surfaces.

The rear box tail spreads 2.7 m., by 2 m. deep. From rear of main planes to front of box tail is 4 m. The tail is divided by a vertical rudder.

AhRONsic

3</° OJL'

January, ipio

wooden propeller

while the aluminum «il ~>.. a<( hi?*-** ' pounds.

On Sunday, the third day, the wind was worse than before. It was not until very late that Curtiss and Willard were able to make flights. Knabenshue, Beachey and Dixon were up, but the wind proved strong. The wind was so strong, in fact, that Beachey, whose airship has a speed of 15 miles an hour, could only hold his own and remained in one spot for several minutes. Just after starting Dixon lost his transmission chain, and had to work quickly to get down. This day also ended in a hot-air ascent.

Three balloons were to have competed in a distance race—the Dayton, the Cincinnati and the Haddock—but only one got away at 7:20 Sunday evening.

This was the "Haddock," piloted by George Howard, with Charles V. Tevis and J. Campbell Cory as passengers. It landed near Derby, N. Y., at 5 :20 a. m. the following day, after a' fast trip. At one stage the balloon outdistanced a railroad train, and at another drifted into a rain-storm. After dropping close to the waters of Lake Erie three times and throwing out every available bit of ballast and loose articles, a landing was accomplished, albeit with considerable difficulty. First, the balloon hit the ground a good bump, and one passenger got (?) out. Some more bumps, with the other occupants, Cory and Howard, doing a few acrobatic stunts, until it caromed on the roof of a house and tore off shingles to the amount of $2. Finally the balloon was ripped as it made a last attack on a tree, and shelter was sought by all.

The distance from Latonia to Derby is about 385 miles, done in 4BCE2lJX^2at. Going some !

H, H. McGill had hard luck with the Dayton, which broke away on the last day. The hydrogen gas, which had tb be used, was turned from the Cincinnati into the Haddock.

The night of the 12th a workman was clean ing out one of the generators1', and let a lighted lantern down into the ca^k for some reason. Result: ride on the head of the barrel for 200 feet, a cracked skull, "hospital.

\

. \

willard gets prize.

OO

iking young Cromwell Dixon, of , for his kind assistance and praising i.is'many successful flights.

\

\

First Curtiss Aeroplane Sold Abroad

A Curtiss aeroplane has been sold by the Paris agent of Wyckoff, Church & Partridge to F. L. de Riemsdyk, a Dutchman living in France. J. F. Haendel, the Paris agent, also is distributor of the Antoinette tnachine. De Riemsdyk, a young man under the voting age, is connected with the foreign agency of the Curtiss aeroplane, and will compete in the big aviation meets next spring and summer. The first event will be at Cairo, in February. He is now in Hammondsport, at the Curtiss factory, where a special study of the machine and motor will be made. His decision in the purchase of a machine was arrived at through the apparent ease of operation and handling of the Curtiss machine, and its speed and portability.

In the aeroplane contest Charles F. Willard was awarded first and second prizes ^over Glenn H. Curtiss. The prizes were donated by the Automobile Club of Cincinnati, and were for height and distance. \^

In the dirigibles, Lincoln Beachey was\ awarded first prize and Roy Knabenshue \ second prize. The first prize was donated by the Optimist Club and the second by the guarantors. In the balloon race the Haddock, owned by Leslie B. Haddock, of Cincinnati, won. This was the only starter. The Haddock won, the Piccadilly Club Cup and the Convention League Cup, one being for distance and the other for height attained. As there was no third prize in the dirigible contest the committee on prizes passed a resolu-

C. B. Harmon Buys Machine

Another Curtiss machine has been sold by the W. C. & P. Company to Clifford B. Harmon, of New York, a widely known real estate operator and balloonist. Both of these machines will be delivered the first week of January. Mr. Harmon is the second New York purchaser, the first being The Aeronautic Society.

Mr. Harmon's purchase is for sport alone. He will fly it himself with the intention of competing in aviation meets.

During the past few weeks Wyckoff, Church & Partridge have received a surprisingly large number of applications for agencies throughout this and other countries, as well as a great number of information and price-asking letters from individuals.. The most important deal being considered is one embracing the sales agency for the entire continent of South America. A syndicate of leading South American men are negotiating for the purchase of 75 Curtiss machines during 1910 for that continent.

Agencies for Curtiss machines have already been established in New York, Chicago, Boston and Philadelphia. J. H. McAlman in Boston, and G. H. Gantest in Philadelphia are the two new ones.

The ten aeroplanes going through the Curtiss works will be the same as the one used at Governor's Island during Hudson-Fulton week.

Charles K. Hamilton and Otto Brodie have \been continuing practice flights at Hammonds-port. Hamilton will give flying exhibitions and Brodie will demonstrate Curtiss aeroplanes for the Chicago agency.

New Aeroplane in Baltimore

Howard W. Gill, of the Motor Car Com pany, Baltimore, Md., is putting through an

1 1

experimental aeroplane to be tested out within a short time. Fine workmanship is displayed in its construction.

Another Aero Factory

A number of wealthy men, interested in some of the biggest industrial enterprises of the country, but whose names are withheld for the present, are behind Dr. William Greene in establishing a factory in Middletown, Ohio, for the manufacture of aeroplanes for the public at a conservative price within the reach of all. No patents will be infringed in the manufacture of these machines, as it is possible, it is claimed, to build a machine which does not infringe in any way any existing patent. For instance, the Voisin machine in Europe is said to ba the only machine which does not infringe the Wright patents. Greene has applied for patents of his own.

The machines will be about 25 feet spread, suitable for amateurs to drive after one or two lessons. Six motors, Gnome, R. E. P., E. N. v., Antoinette and Anzani among them, have been ordered by cable from Europe. 1 hese will be gone over by experts and designs made for a motor to be made by this new company for use in the machines.

The company will be incorporated with a large capital. Dr. Greene will be general manager. The company will give all inventors an opportunity to prove their claims and will adopt any ideas which look good.

The Thomas Flyer

After experimenting throughout the summer and making a number of short jumps, Dr. George Francis Myers, who is also a graduate of the Worcester Polytechnic and was a Fehow in Engineering at Cornell, completed a half-mile flight at Buffalo in his aeroplane.

Ihis machine, as already noted in these pages, is the one that the E. R. Thomas Motor Company is exploiting. It was fitted with one of the Thomas Taxicab motors and speeded over the roadway from which it rose^ quickly and flew along the street "at a terrific rate," according to those who saw it.

On essaying a turn back to his starting point the operator handled the rudder too strenuously and the machine came down in an open field to the left of the street. Here it made a good preliminary landing, but owing to the speed at which the machine was going it ran some distance over the rough ground, its front wheels finally striking a hole, which broke them off and let the machine down suddenly on its front planes, breaking them. The damage is now being repaired and more flights will soon be made—"maybe a New York to Paris trip," as was accomplished by the fam ous automobile of the same company.

Aviators' Suspensions Begin

For competing in the unauthorized meeting at Doncaster, England, the following aviators were suspended from flying in any aviation contests until December 1, 1909: Delagrange, Le Blon and Molon.

Gordon Bennett 1910 Aviation Meet

St. Louis wants to raise $150,000 in order to get the G.-B. aviation meet, and a stock company is suggested with a capital of this amount, of which one-half is to go to prizes. Reimbursement comes from admission fees.

Oakland, Portland, Los Angeles and Des Moines are also getting busy, while the Baltimore-Washington clubs are going ahead with assurance of obtaining the selection of College Park for the site. The $100,000 guarantee fund already amounts to over $65,000, much of which is paid in.

Thomas F. Walsh, who headed a delegation which entertained G. H. Curtiss and the officers of the Aero Club of America at the Met-ropoHtan Club, expressed himself as confident of the selection of College Park, "if Washington can offer satisfactory aviation grounds, proper transportation facilities, and sufficient money."

With many cities bidding feverishly for the Aero Club of America's placing of the 1910 Gordon Bennett Aviation Meet, the Aero C. A. is quietly getting together figures and hoping for a long-drawn-out flying carnival at several large cities, with a grand wind-up in the vicinity of New York, the series to extend over a month or more.

Licenses for Aviators

Hereafter aviators competing in events sanctioned by the Aero Club of America will have to be licensed by that association. At a meet: ing of the board of directors on November 23, a set of rules governing the issuance of licenses to aviation pilots was adopted, and it was determined that the only recognized pilots of the club are Wilbur and Orville Wright and Glenn H. Curtiss. Any entrant for the proposed international aviation meet of 1910 to be held in this country must comply with these requirements:

Application made in writing to the .board of directors by any member over twenty-one years of age. Applicant must state and prove to the 'satisfaction of the board of directors that he has made three flights of at least one kilometer each without coming in contact with the soil. These three flights must have been made under the general supervision of the contest committee, and must include a return to a point near the place of starting. These circuits must have been made by the applicant alone without a passenger and between the hours of 10 a. m. and 4 p. m. on three different days within a period of thirty days at the maximum.

The board of directors may, without assuming any responsibility, issue a license on such application when, in their opinion, the applicant is tully qualified, and when they are satisfied that his methods of flight are reasonably prudent and safe, and that he is a person of such sound judgment and discretion as to entitle him to assume such responsibility, or they may in their discretion refuse to grant such license.

Any member whose application for a license has been refused may not again make application until after a lapse of six months and until after he has made three additonal flights as provided.

The board of directors may in its discretion suspend or revoke any license issued under these rules.

The board of directors may upon written application grant a license as aviation pilot to any member holding such license in any affiliated foreign club.

Geo. O. Totten, Jr., Builds Glider.

George Oakley Totten, Jr., a prominent architect of Washington, has taken up the sport of gliding. About two months ago he started a machine of his own. It is practically a monoplane, with a smaller horizontal suoer-

in., held apart by two lateral members i in. by 2 in. placed on edge. A small bolt through these junctions and glue bind all together.

Twelve wires above and below, attached t<> either end of a mast, retain the shape of the wing. There is also a short mast extending downward near the tip of each wing. Mr. Robinson was able to walk on the wings without doing damage. The mast is of steel tubing and weighs 5 pounds. The lower wing truss wires are not capable of being tightened, merely being cut to length, and terminate in rings which hook into the mast. The top truss wires are connected in sets of 3 each to

6a

— CO*"*^<? Tro* AT CO/FHE&S

4 STEEL. 5TRAF"

SO Of 00

/ // -7-0

f?uDDE$

ST££fW6-

posed surface in the middle. It is finely built of spruce, covered with fine muslin, with brass guy wires and aluminum casings. There is a small tail, which is used for gliding the machine up and down or left and right. There is about 120 sq. ft. in the main surface and about 40 in the upper. The weight of the whole is but 36 pounds.

The Robinson Monoplane.

H. A. Robinson, 22 South Sarah street, St. Louis, has applied for two patents on a device lo give automatic control. In the monoplane he has built he will try two propellers, each placed behind a wing, to be driven by a Curtiss 30 horse-power motor.

Following is a description of the machine as at present:

Supporting Surface—Spread, 31^2 ft., each wing measuring 15 ft. by 8 ft. depth, a total supporting surface of 240 sq. ft. The wings are covered with shellaced muslin and polished. Each wing weighs 44 pounds. The ribs arc of two spruce strips, 5-16 in. by 1^2

A fit - FLAT CTiftr-S

&&- I X 2 " ST/TlfS OA/ Ez P6~E= CC = /?X7-/f/» Space's

Construction Details of Robinson Machine a turnbucklc. The 4 turnbuckles hook into a ring on the top of the mast. This scheme makes either or both wings readily removable. By slacking the turnbuckles the upper wires may be unhooked, when the lower wire^ may be removed by slipping off the wings. This takes but 30 minutes.

Supplementary Surfaces—Rear vertical rudder of 16 sq. ft.: rear horizontal rudder is 4r/> by 10 ft.

Framing—The body is of "V" cross-section, made of spruce, 25 ft. long. Each side the triangular frame measures \V2 ft. With all truss wires (26 piano wire doubled and twisted and tied at intersections, doing away with turnbuckles) the weight of this body is but 48 pounds, and with each end supported on horses easily held live men. The spruce mem hers are 1 in. by 1V2 in.

The supports for the front and rear wheel are of light steel tubing, and bolt through the wood to the engine base. These take the shock off the frame itself.

Control—Lateral stability is secured Immovable tips in the rear corners of the main plane. Levers now control all movements, but an automobile steering wheel is to replace

these. Turning wheel left or right will direct the machine accordingly; swinging the wheel and its pillar to left or right will operate wing tips; moving wheel and pillar forward or backward will direct machine higher or lower. The spark and throttle levers are located on this wheel.

Pozver Plant—At present, 18-20 horse-power air-cooled motor, of t8o pounds weight, driving direct a 7-foot steel and aluminum propeller. But ioo pounds standing pull was obtained with this engine, not enough to accomplish flight. A Curtiss motor and propeller will subsequently be used. Ignition is by the Atwater-Kent system, Stromberg carburetor, both of which give the best of satisfaction.

Running Gear—Three-wheeled chassis, similar to Bleriot type.

Miscellaneous—Length over all, 30 ft. Weight without motor or operator, 195 pounds; total weight at present, with motor and operator. 535 pounds. With Curtiss en-

gine and aviator weight will be about 500 pounds.

The wheels and under rigging can be removed in a half hour. The rear wheel of the chassis also steers in conjunction with the vertical rudder. Foot brakes are arranged on the front wheels.

De Riemsdyk Makes First Flights

IIammondsport, N. Y., Dec. 12.—F. L. De Riemsdyk, who recently bought a Curtiss aeroplane, made several short but good flights. Yesterday he started trials, but in his first flight he burst a tire.

Hamilton Flying at St. Joe

St. Joseph, Mich.—Charles K. Hamilton, who is here flying for the Retail Merchants' Association, made three long flights in a ride over Lake Contrary race track during a snowstorm.

AT MORRIS PARK

THE trials of the Beach monoplane have continued right along. On November 20 runs were made with the new wings and enlarged tail, the latter having now 75 square feet, and carries a weight of over 200 pounds. Running along the track the rear end lifted readily. The movable ends of the tail forming the horizontal rudder were slanted up rather suddenly, whereupon the tail got off the ground to a height of 5 or 6 feet, the machine slewed to the left, and on account of the speed and lift on the front planes the machine tipped to the right, with the right front wheel acting as a pivot. The right wing was broken off and smashed, but the machine did not upset. New wings, each 20 by 7 feet, are being built, .giving 280 square feet instead of 225, the old wings spreading but 16 feet on each side. The weight of the machine with aviator is now about 1,250 pounds. This will be reduced some 300 pounds, so that the main planes will have to lift only 3 pounds to the square foot. A new air-cooled 4-cylinder, 2-cycle motor of 30 horse-power is expected to be substituted for the 50 horse-power water-cooled now used, which develops not over 30, geared 2 to 1, as at present. The new motor will be geared 3V2 to 1, and Mr. Beach expects to get 300 pounds pull out of the big Q-foot propeller. Latham is said to get 265 pounds wtih his 50 horse-power Antoinette. New devices for maintaining transverse and longitudinal stability automatically will be experimented with shortly.

Fred Schneider has completed his second machine, and is all ready to make trial flights with his Elbridge 2-cycle motor. In general appearance the machine is a facsimile of a Wright. In his first trial a propeller sheared off the shaft and went through the planes.

From now till spring there will probably be little track work on account of the winds and the alternate freezing and thawing of the ground

Louis Rosenbaum is assembling the parts for a monoplane which he made during the summer at Cooperstown, N. Y. This is expected to be ready for trial by the end of December.

Dr. Greene Wins Prize

After Dr. William Greene's machine was run into a fence to avoid running down a bystander (see December number), the aeroplane was again brought out and short flights were made. On November 20 Dr. Greene made three flights with a passenger after having installed the Kimball light 2-cycle 40 horse-power motor. Two of the flights were the length of the track, on an even keel and much better than with the heavier motor used by Greene in his previous flights. Just as he was about to make another flight Ernest L. Jones, the publisher of the magazine Aeronautics, drove up and was invited to take a ride. He immediately got into the passenger's seat, behind Dr. Greene, and after a short, fast run the machine got off the ground at a steep angle. In lowering the front control to bring the machine to a level, the machine being sensitive, and at the same time the motor missing and being hit by a side gust, one wing struck a small tree. The aeroplane swerved sharply around and ran into the bank. The only damage was the breaking of the running gear, which was repaired next morning.

Witnesses state that in one of the flights with a passenger special attention was paid to getting off the ground quickly. The machine was held till the greatest pull was obtained and let go. The machine left the ground 30 feet distant, which is a new world's record for quick starting.

The flights brought a wealth of offers for exhibitions, ranging from $1,200 a week for {Continued on page Si)

Wind Blows Tent Down on Riggs-Rice Airship 17

Levick Photo, N. Y.

Dr. Wm. Greene's Aeroplane at Morris Park

Chas. B. Whittelsey, Jr.'s Model Dirigible

eight weeks, to $5,000 for one week's engage-ment^and all were refused. The aeroplane was sold^to Wilbur R. Kimball at a price less than tjre cost of the motor, to be used for demonstration to students of the Y. M. C. A. An offer of $r,500 for the machine itself for exhibitions was refused.

Mr. Kimball took the machine to Railway, N. J., where F. E. Bolaud, himself the inventor of an aeroplane practically finished, made several short flights with it.

Dr. Greene has been awarded a special cup by A. Leo Stevens as the first member of the Aeronautic Society to carry a passenger. Mr. Stevens, it happened, was the first passenger.

description of greene's machine.

Planes.-—Each 44 ft. spread, 6lA ft. front to rear, spaced 6 ft. apart, placed at an angle of about 6^2 degrees. The finest grade of treated cotton sheeting covers the framework of the lower surface, and the finest grade of nainsook the top planes. Each rib is in two parts, the upper of ash and the lower spruce. These are separated by small spruce blocks lightened by a hole bored in the centre. The curve, 1 in 20, comprises part of a parabola, or continuous curve, the greatest depth being 17 inches back from the front edge. The struts are spruce, elliptical in cross-section. Each lateral beam is in three sections, held together with a metal sleeve. Each rib is countersunk in the beam.

Controls.—The front horizontal control, pivoted 14 ft. from the front edge of main planes, is double, the curvature being in the same ratio as that of the main planes, and measures 12 ft. spread by 31 inches length, surfaces spaced 31 inches apart. Each strut of this rudder is hinged to the lateral beams. This control is balanced "off centre," and is operated by a push rod, the rudder end of which is pivoted at the apex of a wood triangle whose base is parallel to the ribs of the rudder. Pushing out steers down, and vice versa.

A double surface vertical rudder is 14 ft. in the rear. This measures 5 ft. high by 2 ft. long, surfaces 3 ft. apart. Either surface is hinged independent of the other, but work in conjunction. Steering left and right is by a respective movement of the wheel.

Under the rear rudder is a rigid horizontal plane 12 ft. spread by slA ft. long, curve as in main planes. This adds to the fore and aft stability.

lining Tips.—Two wing tips, 6 ft. wide by 3 ft. long, are placed half way between the main surfaces and hinged at the front edge to the two outermost front struts. Cables run from these trips along the upper and lower main surfaces to the back of the aviator's seat. This back is so made that it acts as a rest for the aviator, and at the same time every movement to the left or right operates the wing tips.

Power Plant.—At first a 26 horse-power A. &: B. stock automobile motor of 320 pounds weight, giving about 21 horse-power, drove a 6 ft. diam., 4 ft. 2 in. pitch, laminated spruce direct-connected propeller and produced a standing thrust of 210 pounds at 1,200 r. p. m.

(Later the Kimball 40 horse-power, 2-cycle light motor was installed and used in the last of Dr. Greene's flights at Morris Park.) A unique and original radiator was designed by Dr. Greene. It weighs but 15lA pounds, is about 6 ft. square, and presents but 34-inch width to the wind. It is composed of 40 vertical, flat 32-gauge brass tubes with an inside diameter of l/i inch. These are placed about Y\ inch apart, with horizontal heat-radiating soldered copper strips about 2 inches apart, which also furnish the necessary rigidity. A test was made to disprove the figures of several mechanical engineers, who said the radiator would not cool, and the motor and propeller were run for six hours steady without overheating.

A 15-gallon triangular gasolene tank, inches thick, is bung from a longitudinal piece of wood fastened to front and rear struts. A Bosch high-tension aeronautic magneto furnishes ignition. The spark advance short-circuit switch and throttle are located on the steering wheel, and used as in an automobile.

Running Gear. — Three-wheeled chassis, combination of skid and wheels. Machine runs on wheels and lands on two skids, the wheels springing up under the lower plane automatically as soon as the machine leaves the ground. A brake, operated by a foot lever ami cables, hinds on both rear wheels. The machine can be stopped almost within its own length.

Total weight of the machine is about 850 pounds without the operator.

Riggs-Rice Dirigible Has First Trial.

The Rigi>s dirigible, whose tent was blown down by the wind the end of November, necessitating letting the gas out of the bag, has been taken apart for the winter. The frame is hung up to the rafters of one of the sheds at Morris Park, and the bag has gone back to Mr. Stevens' shop for storage. The tent is in the hands of the repairman. Nothing more will be done with it until spring.

On the first trial a propeller broke, and in the evening, after repairs, a good test was made. Joel T. Rice and his son made both the ascents. During the night several of the tent poles snapped off, and by morning the wind was so strong that the gas had to be let out.

Blaine Selvage, of Eureka, Cal., is reported to have made a three-quarter mile flight in his aeroplane with a 20 horse-power motor of his own construction.

A. Leo Stevens, the balloon builder, is going in for aeroplanes, too. Unbeknown to anyone else he has been quietly laying his plans for a monoplane to incorporate some protected features of his own invention.

Clifford Hendrix, of Brooklyn, son of ex-Postmaster Hendrix, is reported to have bought a Bleriot and a Farman machine.

Louis J. Bergdoll, a well-known Philadelphia brewer and owner of racing cars, has bought the Bleriot "elephant" from the Wana-niaker show at a price of $5,000. The machine is now in Philadelphia.

Paulhan Flies High

FOREIGN LETTER

$25,000 for a Military Aeroplane in Australia—England Has Big New Rival Body—Wonderful New Height Records—German Wright Company — New Prizes in Germany — $1,250,000 for Aviation in Russia—Aviators Protest Arbitrary Control of Exhibitions by French Club

Algeria.

Exhibition flights have been made by two operators on Bleriot and Voisin machines.

Australia.

The Department of Defense of Australia has offered $25,000 to the inventor of a flying machine adjudged by the Minister for Defense to be the best and most suitable for military purposes.

The inventor must have been a resident for at least two years and be a British subject- The machine, so far as possible, must be constructed in Australia.

The machine must be able to rise from the ground without appreciable delay under its own power, without the aid of special starting apparatus, and must be able to alight without damage. It must be capable of poising or remaining over a given area for what would be sufficient time to enable

f

observations to be taken. Speed not less than 20 miles per hour, with sufficient fuel to remain in action five hours.

Test flight over course not exceeding 20 miles, machine to return to start without touching earth. Trial must carry two persons, one of whom must be available for observing, total loading above weight of machine to be not less than 350 pounds.

A great deal is left to the judgment of the Minister, whose decision must be accepted as final.

Belgium.

The Antwerp meet closed on Nov. 3. The longest flight was by Rougier, of 50 kilometers in 1 h. 16 m. He made a fine height flight, reaching 270 meters. His winnings amounted to $6,500 plus 5 per cent, of the gate receipts.

England.

england has big new aviation body.

The Motor Union, the great automobile organization, and the "A. A. A." of England, has resolved to place its extensive organization at the disposal of those interested in aviation. The union, which has a membership of 14,000, an annual revenue of over $50,000 and accumulated funds amounting to $55,000, is in a position to give effective assistance to those interested in aviation. This development will, it is anticipated, render unnecessary the multiplication of new organizations, and secure that the funds contributed by those interested shall be spent directly in the extension of the movement, and not principally in the purely organization expenses of small competing societies.

In addition to the ordinary advantages of membership, the Union is in a position to offer special benefits, such as the legal advice of the Union's attorneys, grounds, etc. These benefits will be rapidly extended as the membership increases.

The general committee of the Motor Union has already sanctioned the spending of $5,000 upon the aviation side of the Motor Union activities.

paulhan makes new height record.

On Nov. 5, Paulhan gave a two-day exhibition at Sandown Park. During the flights he rose to an official height of 977 ft., making a new official record. The motor was shut off as high as 400 ft. and a graceful glide made to earth. Paulhan shows consummate skill and his turns were made at acute angles.

hon. c. s. rolls wins prize.

The Hon. C. S. Rolls has succeeded in flying a circular mile in his Wright machine, built by Short Bros., winning the first of the British Aero Club's $250 prizes.

He decided to try another spot, the British Aero Club's auxiliary grounds at Eastchurch, Sheppey, for his trials, and proceeded to fly his machine thereto, a distance across country of five and a half miles. One stop was made to adjust the front rudder, and started again on temporary rails.

On the 26th of November, Mr. Rolls flew seven miles. Another Wright aeroplane, that of Frank McLean, has made short flights at Sheppey.

Moore Brabazon has also improved his flights in a Short machine, getting up to three and a half miles. On one occasion he carried a pig with him.

Colonel Cody has removed his experiments to Aintree race course, and will try for the $5,000 Liverpool-Manchester prize. Several short flights have been made, one with a passenger.

The Rev. Sidney Swan, with a machine resembling the "Demoiselle," is also experimenting on the Aintree track.

The Aero Club of the United Kingdom has nearly reached the 1,000 members mark. The club is acquiring new quarters, with various rooms for the convenience of the members.

Alec. Ogilvie, who has a Wright machine, has been able to make short flights, though one was about nine miles, the first half of November. In a later flight a piston drove through the crank case and the aeroplane glided to the ground, sustaining some injury.

Egypt.

The Cairo meet is scheduled for Feb. 6-13. De Reimsdyk will be a competitor with a Curtiss machine. The Automobile Club of Egypt is also organizing a meet to be held in February. Jean Gobron, who flies a Voisin, has taken his machine to Cairo for the winter, and anticipates flying around the Pyramids.

France.

high flying—new records.

On Nov. 19, at Chalons, Paulhan, Farman machine, tried for a new world's altitude record, attaining a height of 36b meters (1,150 ft.).

Latham on a new Antoinette tried to beat Paulhan, and attained 410 meters (1,330 ft). The following day Paulhan, in a cross-country flight from Mourmelon, reached 600 meters (1,960 ft.), covering a distance of about 60 kilometers in 55 minutes.

On Dec. 1, Latham succeeded in spite of 1 a 36-mile wind, with rain as an added attrac-j tion, in,flying up to a height of 475 meters/ (1,550 ft.) The flight lasted in all 32 minutes.

Santos Dumont, at Issy, has put a 40-horse-power motor on his "Demoiselle" and obtained extraordinary speed. The speed caused Dumont to come down, but he could not stop before he hit a fence, damaging the wings.

M. Levavasseur, the designer of the Antoinette engine, has retired from the Antoinette company, and, with M. Gastambide, will exploit the machine in Great Britain.

Many more purchasers of French aeroplanes have begun practicing at Chalons.

flying records.

The "Commission Aerienne Mixte" have grouped, divided and subdivided records as follows:

AERONAUTICS /

Two main groups—(i) flights made in a closed circle, (2) those made otherwise. These divide into (A) records made without landing, (B) records in which machine touches the ground during the flight, (C) records made alone, (D) records made with passengers. And these subdivide as follows: (1) Longest distance, (2) longest duration, (3) best speed over 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500,750 and 1,000 kilometers, progressing by 250 kilometers above 1,000; (4) best speed in Yz, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 hours and every 12 hours beyond; (5) best speed expressed in kilometers per hour; (6) greatest height reached, same measured above the starting point.

For the "Prix de la Tenue de l'Air," awarded for the greatest cumulative distance in official events, between May 15 and Dec. 31, 1909, Paulhan stands first, with 435.5 kilometers; Tissandier, in a Wright, second, 315.4 kilometers; Bleriot, Delagrange and Rougier come next.

Chalons continues to be a busy aviation camp. Latham has been taking up, among others, Mme. de la Roche in the new two-passenger Antoinette.

This latest machine is used in instructing purchasers. Mme. de la Roche has made many flights, one lasting 38 minutes, and took up her instructor in a Voisin machine.

No flights of particular note have been made during the month at Chalons, save those of Latham and Paulhan.

Lambert's "Eiffel Tower" Wright has been sold.

pilots change during flight.

Farman and Paulhan have tried shifting the piloting during flight. Paulhan took his place behind Farman and they were able to relieve each other without trouble. This will be advantageous in long flights.

hunting in an aeroplane.

Latham now goes hunting via aeroplane. On Nov. 23 he flew in his Antoinette from Chalons to Berru, near Rheims, about 20 miles, to attend a shooting party. After killing a few birds, he returned with the game, and, of course, his gun.

Farman and the Voisins are arguing as to who has done copying, each claiming the other has profited by the experiments made.

fernandez killed.

On Dec. 6 Antonio Fernandez, was instantly killed in his own type biplane, mentioned last month. He apparently did not heed the demands of safety and flew with a defective part of his machine tied up with string. After going a short distance, he made too short a turn and the machine landed on top of him.

Germany.

company organized to make wright aeroplanes.

Deputy Consul-General Simon W. Hanauer reports from Frankfort that a limited stock

January, 1910

company has been formed in Berlin by leading German industrial concerns for the purpose of manufacturing flying machines of the Wright system. {

Wilbur and Orville Wright have given the new company, whose firm name is Flugma-schine Wright, G. m. b. H., the right to work all their patents, models, etc., for making aeroplanes in Germany. The new company has a working capital of 500,000 marks ($119,000) ; its principal participants are Krupp Company of Essen; A. Borsig Machine and Locomotive Works; Hugo Stinnes, coal and iron operator ; Delbrueck, Leo & Co., bankers; Ludwig Loewe & Co., machine, arms and tool manufacturers; Aerial Vehicle Company; Motor Air Locomotion Experimental Company; the General Electric Company of Berlin, the Electro Chemical Company of Bitterfeld. Captain von Kehler will be the managing director of the new company.

new lanz prizes.

Dr. Carl Lanz has offered two prizes of 10,000 and 7,000 marks for the next two German machines to duplicate Grade's performance when he won the Lanz 40,000 marks, recorded last month. The Royal Automobile Club and the German aero clubs have also offered three further prizes of 2,000, 1,500 and 1,100 marks under the same conditions.

grade flies hour.

On Nov. 15 Grade made a flight of 54 minutes in his miniature aeroplane. On the 23d he flew as high as 140 meters.

flies for two hours.

On Nov. 5 Captain Englehardt flew his Wright machine for 1 hour 53 minutes.

On Dec. 11 Captain Englehardt met with an accident in his Wright machine. The horizontal rudder is said to have failed and the machine overturned.

There is another new monoplane flying in Germany, that of Lieutenant Gohler, a military officer, near Cologne. The flights have so far lasted only as long as four minutes.

The end of October and the first part of November secret military trials were made of the "Zeppelin II," the "Gross II," the "Par-seval I," "Parseval III," near Cologne. On Oct. 30 all were in the air for 10 hours, with bad weather. On the night of the 2d and 3d of November an imaginary attack was made on the fortress near Coblentz by all but the "Parseval III." The course covered about 250 kilometers and the duration was nine hours.

The "Gross II" and the "Parseval I" in a five-hour altitude test operated at a height of 1,200 metres. Two hundred and seven men of the dirigible corps and five officers took part.

On Nov. 14 the "Parseval III" made a 270 kilometer trip from Bitterfeld to Gotha. After several hours' fight with wind and snow, it had to be deflated and returned by rail.

A new dirigible has begun trials, the "Leich-lingen." The non-rigid envelope has a capacity of 2,900 cubic metres, 56 metres long, maximum diameter of 10 metres, two horizontal planes attached to rear of bag. Power plant,

Benz 125-horsepower motor, driving a propeller of 4.5 diameter at 400 revolutions per minute, placed at front end of frame.

another new airship.

Germany's army now has a third Gross dirigible. The envelope has a capacity of 7,500 cubic metres, and has a power plant of four Korting motors totaling 300 horsepower.

Two Germans, Messrs. Amerigo and Thiele, have been able to make short flights with a biplane at Leipsic.

Italy.

The Italian military dirigible made a 500-kilometer trip Oct. 31 from Bracciano to Naples and return. A stop was made at Rome, where Lieutenant Rosetti met his death by being struck with a propeller blade.

Russia.

$1,250,000 for aviation.

It is reported that the budget of the Minister of War includes $1,250,000 to be ex-

pended on aviation. The first of five aeroplanes, said to resemble the Wright, is ready for trial at the military balloon grounds at Gatchina.

Exhibition flights have been made by M. Guyot in a Bleriot and Baron de Caters at the Imperial race track at St. Petersburg.

The latter had to land on top of a fence to avoid hitting some "cops."

Spain.

On Nov. 5 the "Espana," the new Spanish dirigible undergoing first trials at the factory in France, started on a long trip, but after running for five hours it met with trouble in the power plant and had to be deflated.

NEXT MONTH

Drawings and Description Santos-Dumont aeroplane, Table of Records, Ascensions, Pacific Coast News, etc., will be printed in the February Number, having been crowded out in this.

FOREIGN AVIATORS OBJECT TO USURPATION OF RIGHTS

Many New Rules

F. A. I. Rulings.

At the Zurich meet of the F. A. I. four principal rules were made relating to aviation meets. By entering an event the entrant must take part. No entrant can enter in another meet for the same date and then pick the better one. The entry is made by the pilot and all prizes and records go to him personally. Prize money and awards must be sent to the winners within 15 days, the national F. A. I. club to by the promoters, which must be ratified by the F. A. I. representative in the country of the meet. The decisions of the judges can be appealed to the F. A. I. representing body within 15 days. The national F. A. I. club to enforce penalties against competitors who make false announcements with regard to his performances. Competing machines must have no other trade announcement than the name of the constructor.

Aviators Object to C. A. M.'s Arbitrary Rule.

A good many aviators are not altogether satisfied'with the decisions made by the "Commission Aerienne Mixte." One prominent aviator expresses himself very strongly. He says: "It seems to me the C. A. M.'s duty is of an

exclusively sporting character. It is the supreme authority in France on all matters connected with the bona fide nature of aerial ex ploits, but I fail to see it has any right to concern itself with the commercial side of the question. No doubt the C. A. M. was inspired with a desire to be useful to aviators wrhen it decided not to recognize any aviation meeting the promoters of which seek a personal pecuniary advantage, and also when it went so far as to claim the right to exercise financial control over the meetings it may authorize. But such pretensions are beyond its competency, and, what is more, I believe they are calculated to prove detrimental and not advantageous to the interests the C. A. M. would serve."

Another well-known aviator writes: "Does it not appear most probable, if not certain, that most of the municipalities and most honorable persons desirous of aiding in the development of aerial locomotion by the organization of aviation meetings will rather abandon the idea than submit to an irksome if not humiliating financial control? Moreover, I do not understand why even those speculators who seek pecuniary profit in the organization of aviation displays should be discouraged. They bring grist to the aviator's mill, and it ifor the aviators to look after their own pecuniary interests. I could say a good deal more, but I think it is sufficient to point out that the C. A. M. will have encroached on the commercial field, which does not belong to it. if it maintains its decisions."

what caused the trouble.

From Jan. 1 next the societies represented by the C. A. M.—that is to say, the Aero Club

(.Continued on page S5)

AERONAUTICS January, ipio

WITH THE LIGHTER THAN AIR

Many Ascents for New England

Eighty-three ascensions have been made in New England during the past season, as follows: Pittsfield, 28; North Adams, 23; Fitchburg, 15; Lowell, 7; and the rest were divided among Springfield, Rutland, Vt., and Nashua, N. H.

Gordon Bennett 1910 Balloon Race

Denver is bidding for the Gordon Bennett balloon race to be held some time in October, 1910. While geographically a good location, Denver may be barred on account of its high altitude and wind currents. An investigation as to the specific gravity of its gas and the amount available is now being prosecuted.

Another contestant is Kansas City, where Geo. M. Myers, president of the Priests of Pallas, is starting a campaign, but Kansas City gas is of a lower order.

denver and st. louis compared.

In view of the fact that Mr. Bishop in a recent public utterance committed himself in favor of holding the next balloon race in Denver, some data compiled by Albert Bond Lambert, with the aid of the Weather Bureau of both St. Louis and Denver, is interesting.

Every aeronaut knows that on account of the resultant contraction and expansion of gas uneven temperatures are disadvantageous to long-distance ballooning. It appears that in Denver the variation between night and day temperatures is on an average of 30 degrees for October, as against 18 for St. Louis in the same month.

The weather reports from 1902 to 1906 show that the average winds at Denver blow toward the northeast, but that there is always a fair chance of an easterly wind that will carry balloons into the mountains. The average velocity of the wind during the same years for the months of October and September was only 7lA miles an hour.

During the month of September, in Denver, the average minimum night temperature has been 48 degrees, with the maximum day temperature 77 degrees. In October the average day temperature is 65 and the night 37 degrees.

In the same months the average in St. Louis are 79 by day and 61 by night, and 68 by day and 50 by night, respectively, showing a much lesser variation.

Dirigible Licenses of Aero C. A.

The Aero Club of America has formulated rules for the issuance of dirigible pilot licenses with the following requirements. Capt. T. S. Baldwin has been granted license No. 1. Applicant must be member, twenty-one years old.

The applicant must state and must prove to the satisfaction of the board of directors that he has personally made at least ten ascents in dirigible balloons; that he has been accompanied on at least five of these trips by one of the licensed dirigible balloon pilots of the Aero Club of America, and that on at least two of these trips that he has operated the dirigible balloon on his own responsibility from start to finish, and that on both of these last-named voyages has accomplished a distance of at least 5 kilometers, including a return to the point from which he started. The application must be accompanied by a statement of the licensed pilot describing the manner of the applicant's handling of the dirigible balloon.

The other conditions are the same as in the conditions for aviation pilots printed elsewhere in this issue.

America's Youngest Constructor

Chas. B. Whittelsey, Jr., of Hartford, Conn, age ten, son of Mr. Chas. B. Whittlesey, superintendent of the Hartford Rubber Works Company, began experimenting with dirigible balloons some time ago, using the smallest sort of a balloon to commence with. Gradually his interest grew, and the balloons were made larger and larger until now he has a dirigible 18 feet long by 4^4 feet in diameter fitted with a Porter motor, which is capable of being directed from the ground.

The illustration shows the balloon inflated with coal gas at the Springfield Gas Works. In Hartford water gas is used, which is too heavy for aeronautical purposes, but when filled with coal gas the balloon showed excellent possibilities. A special kind of cambric covered with Hartford Aero Varnish is used, and the total weight of the balloon is only 11 pounds. The framework is fitted with aluminum wire, and the motor adds but 3 pounds to the weight.

The young man is an enthusiastic member of the Junior Aero Club of America, and his balloon was an important part of the exhibition of The Hartford Rubber Works Company at the recent Aero Show in New York. Because of his experiments, The Hartford Rubber Works Company have been enabled to put on the market an excellent Aero Varnish, and are also prepared to supply Aero Tires of various sizes and construction suitable for different weights and styles of cars.

There is now being constructed at The Hartford Rubber Works Company a 50-foot gas bag for further experiments of the young gentleman, and in the spring he hopes to have something particularly good as a result of his efforts.

Pittsfield to Have Balloon Shed

A balloon shed for Aero Park is the latest announcement made by the Pittsfield Gas

Company. A large shed has been purchased, and it will be remodeled into a five-room building. Four of the rooms will be used for the storage of balloons, and each room will be 8 by 10 feet. Each room will hold a balloon and all its equipment, and the various roonb will be provided with a lock and key. An attic or loft will be used for the repairing of balloons. The new balloon shed will be in readiness by the first of the new year. This will make one of the finest balloon parks east of the Mississippi.

The new gas holder under construction will be in readiness about January i, and after that date the company will be in a position to supply balloon gas at a moment's notice. The new holder will hold 750,000 feet of gas. If there are enough ascensions to warrant it the gas company will make and store balloon gas in the 250,000-foot holder.

Will Make Aerial World Tours

James W. Price, who only returned home to San Jose, Cal., a month ago from a tour of the world with his balloon and airship, is leaving for Australia in about three weeks with his dirigible balloon "Messenger," a small gas balloon, a large captive balloon and two hot-air balloons. He has already made seven tours of the world with his balloons and airships, and on this new trip will visit Australia, India,

China, Japan, Java, Straits Settlements, South Africa, South America and other countries. Mr. Price is also building a monoplane, to be completed in about three months.

Chas. J. Strobel is sending three airship outfits to Australia the end of December. Another airship is touring the South giving exhibitions.

Government Balloon Goes 280 Miles.

November 8.—The research observatory of the U. S. Weather Bureau has just brought to a close a sounding balloon campaign in the west. Two stations were occupied, one at Fort Omaha, Neb., where the signal officers kindly supplied the bureau with hydrogen gas, and the other at Indianapolis, Ind. The object, as one doubtless knows, is to send up light rubber balloons carrying meteorological instruments on which a record of the pressure the temperature and the moisture is made as the balloon goes up. When the balloons get in the rarified air of the upper regions they burst and the instrument is brought safely to the ground by means of a parachute. Thirteen ascensions were made at Omaha, Neb., and seven at Indianapolis, Ind.

The farthest drift of any of them was about 280 miles from the starting point. Most of them fell within a radius of 50 miles of the starting point.

THE AERO CLUB OF NEW ENGLAND

By Alfred R. Shrigley, LL. B.

THE Aero Club of New England held its annual banquet at the Boston City Club on the evening of Nov. 22, 1909, and over 80 members and their friends were present. Prior to the banquet a business meeting was held, at which the following officers were elected : President, Charles J. Glidden ; vice-president, Timothy E. Byrnes; second vice-president, Nathan L. Amster; treasurer, Harry G. Pollard; secretary, Alfred R. Shrigley. Many important matters were transacted, among them the increasing of the board of directors from 7 to 11 members and the appointing of an aeroplane committee and a committee on dirigible ^oons.

The guest of honoi + the banquet was Cortland F. Bishop, presidem of the Aero Club of America and vice-president of the "International Aeronautical Federation." Mr. Bishop spoke at length during the evening on the question of the international aviation contest, which is to take place in the United States in October, 1910, and suggesting the idea to the club members that Boston should be one of the places in which the contest should take place, his idea being that all the United States should be given an opportunity to witness this interesting event, and that the same be held in four cities during the month, thereby giving an opportunity for a large part of the citizens of the United States to witness the contest. Mr. Bishop offered to the Aero Club of New England a cup, which is to be known as the

"Bishop cup," to be awarded to the pilot making the longest flight in a balloon during the year 1910, who starts from a point in the New England States. This cup was accepted by the club, and many interesting events in the competition will no doubt take place during the coming season.

Among the other speakers of the evening was the retiring president, Prof. William H. Pickering of Harvard University, and Charles J. Glidden, the incoming president.

The Aero Club of New England will purchase a glider for the benefit of the members who intend to take' flights in the club's aeroplanes during the coming season. The glider will be used for the purpose of instructing members in the methods of balancing in the air. A committee has been appointed, consisting of H. Helm Clayton and J. Walter Flagg, to consider the advisability of purchasing an 80,000 cu. ft. racing balloon, the same to be entered on behalf of1 the Aero Club of New England in the international balloon race which will be held in 1910.

The Aero Club of New England intends to hold informal dinners once every month during the coming season in order to bring its members into closer relation with one another and to promote discussion on scientific matters in air navigation. Many of these dinners will be attended by gentlemen of international reputation in aviation, who will speak to the members on topics of interest.

Enthusiasts Loosen Up

Lieut. Frank P. Lahm, chairman of the Selfridge Memorial Committee of the Aero Club of America, is making an urgent appeal for funds to complete the amount necessary to complete the work on the shaft which is to be erected at West Point.

Three hundred dollars is still needed, and though some very generous subscriptions have been made, the number of contributors has been small, and it is felt that many more interested in aeronautics will gladly subscribe if their attention is called to the matter.

The design has been decided upon. It is to be a Barre granite stone, suitably mounted on a base, the whole about 6 feet high and 8 feet long, with a bronze tablet on one side giving the principal facts of Lieutenant Selfridge's life and death.

Send subscriptions to Lieutenant Lahm at the Aero Club of America, 12 East Forty-second street, New York.

Boston Y. M. C. A. Has Aero Course

Following the lead of the West Side Y. M. C. A. in New York, the Boston Y. M. C. A., 458 Boylston street, has inaugurated a department of aeronautics with a faculty consisting of H. H. Clayton, A. A. Merrill and Winthrop C. Hosford, the latter to lecture on motors. Mr. Clayton on aerostation, and Mr. Merrill on aviation. Professor Pickering and Charles J. Glidden are on the advisory board. It is the purpose of the school to put students in touch with all that is known on the subject of aeronautics and to give them such instruction as will enable them to comprehend theory and practice readily. As soon as the "art develops to the proper stage'" air lessons will be given to the would-be aviators. In the meantime those desirous of specializing in aerostation will be enabled to make ascents and become pilots through arrangements to be made with the Aero Club of New England.

The cost of the aeronautic course is but $20. The opening lecture was made by H. H. Clayton on November 23.

Cornell's Course in Aerial Engineering

The club which was organized by students a few weeks ago will see one of its objects accomplished next year, for Sibley College is going to give a course in aerial engineering. The course will be a technical elective, open to seniors, and will be in charge of Professor McDermott, whose specialty is naval architecture. The sciences of air navigation and water navigation have some important principles in common.

Lectures

Albert Bond Lambert, secretary of the Aero Club of St. Louis, gave an amusing and instructive talk on ballooning at a recent dinner of the Paint, Oil and Drug Club, in St. Louis, with the result that the club adopted resolutions to aid the Aero Club of St. Louis in connection with other civic organizations in an endeavor to secure the 1910 Coupe d'Aviation meeting for St. Louis. E. Percy Noel, the magazine writer, who conducts a regular department of aeronautics for the St. Louis Globe-Democrat, followed Mr. Lambert with a condensed version of his illustrated talk on "Practical Air Travel." Mr. Noel is booked by the aero clubs of several Western cities this winter. . His most popular talk is profusely illustrated with motion pictures and lantern slides. * * *

John Berry, who won the national championship balloon race last June, lectured on ballooning before one of the grammar schools in St. Louis recently. The superintendent of schools protested that the aeronaut had not received any authority from him to do so. Mr. Berry had planned to lecture at all the public schools in the city.

* # »

Wilbur R. Kimball lectured November 20 before the Medical Alumni Society of Philadelphia on the art of aviation, showing moving pictures of the Rheims contests and some taken from a balloon. The room was artistically decorated with models of the various successful flyers belonging to L. E. Dare, who is conducting a series of exhibitions and educational talks with these models at various department stores and aero organizations through the country.

A. A. Merrill lectured on "Aerial Navigation by Aeroplane" at the "1915" Boston Exposition, on Nov. 11.

He described the way in which air reacts against a surface moving through it, how the position of the centre of pressure varies with a change of angle and speed and how this affects the stability of the surface. The principles involved were illustrated with simple paper gliders.

Gliding flight was then taken up, details of construction and methods of operation treated, and pictures of the work of Lillienthal, Cha-nute and the Wright brothers shown. Power machines were treated next and pictures of all the types now in existence will be shown.

A short discussion of the limitations, possibilities and general effect of these machines on sport, war and civilization closed the lecture.

H. H. Clayton talked on "Aerial Navigation by Balloon," leading up to the dirigible and giving lantern slide illustrations of the great airships of foreign countries.

Trade Notes

flying machine speedometer.

The newest thing in the flying accessory line is the speedometer, or correctly, anemometer, just about ready to be put on the market by the Warner Instrument Company.

It is designed and built on the well-known principle of the Auto-Meter, in fact, is practically a Model F instrument inverted and provided with the usual anemometer spider and cups. The scale is, of course, especially cali-

brated. The instrument is very small, measuring only 17J/2 inches from outside to outside of the cups, and weighing complete only 2 pounds. It is thoroughly practicable and accurate, and will show wind velocity from zero to 60 miles an hour. It is designed to be attached to the frame of the aeroplane within sight of the driver, and in this position will accurately indicate its speed. One of these has been in use on the Curtiss machine purchased last summer by A. P. Warner. Send along your orders.

aero supply house for st. louis.

It is significant, as it reflects the progress of aviation, that a supply house has been established with headquarters in St. Louis, to deal exclusively in aeronautic supplies. The Aeronautic Supply Company, Olive street, St. Louis, undertakes to provide "everything for the aviator." A comprehensive catalog is now on the press and will shortly be issued. Inasmuch as this catalog has been compiled at considerable expense, and is in itself of great value to the intending aeronaut or aviator, whether he purchases supplies from the new company or not, a price of 10 cents the copy has been fixed for it. Readers of Aeronautics will be able to secure this catalog free by filling out a coupon printed in the advertising section of the current issue. In years to come the Aeronautic Supply Company will no doubt be proud of its title, "The first in the Western Hemisphere"; in the meantime it will be to a certain extent altruistic, helping the inventor and builder to attain the air levels. In the catalog, everything from a turn-buckle to a fully equipped aeroplane is listed.

trunks for aeroplanes.

Mr. Joseph Berg, a member of the Aeronautic Society, and very familiar with different types of motors, aeroplanes, etc., is one of the firm of Ajax Trunk and Sample Case Company, 91-93 Mercer street, New York.

This firm are manufacturers of auto, trunks and luggage carriers.

Mr. Berg has devised a practical trunk for the safe transportation of motors, planes, propellers, etc.

The trunk for carrying the motor is so constructed that the motor can be easily removed, as well as being perfectly protected, while in transit.

!5> :This new and practical method of transporting machines of the air will surely appeal to anyone as a great improvement on packing in wooden cases, as has been done heretofore.

The above firm also make trunks for monoplanes and dirigible balloons when folded for transportation.

new motor catalog

The Machine Department of the Easton Cordage Company, Easton, Pa., has issued its new motor catalog. They are confining themselves to but one motor (see November number for description), a 40-50 horse-power, selling at $1,200, complete with Bosch magneto. Although delivering 50 horse-power at 1,000 r. p. m. a greater power is developed at a higher speed. With the smaller sized engine the company built a 30-40 horse-power; a standing thrust of 271 pounds was obtained at 1,020 r. p. m., with a 7^2-foot propellor of 4 feet pitch. Every finished motor is subjected to a shop test of three hours, and the power curve must remain constant throughout the test.

The motor now on the market has undergone considerable modifications, viz.: The bore has been increased to 4 feet, making the size 4x4; head and shell cast in one piece; force feed oil system and mechanically operated intake valves, and delivers 50 horse-power at 1,000 r. p. m.

aeroplane catalog.

The Scientific Aeroplane & Airship Company, of 361 Broadway, New York, has gotten out a little pamphlet illustrating the aeroplanes which the company proposes to build on order. Two models of monoplanes are listed—the first a 50 horse-power flyer of 1,000 pounds' weight, designed for two people, price $7,500; the other is the one-man machine of 25-30 horse-power of about 500 pounds weight, at an outlay of $5,000. Two models of biplanes are described at the same prices as above. Both monoplanes and biplanes are controlled "by a new patented form of duplex steering wheel, which steers the machine up and down as well as sideways with perfectly easy and natural movements. The machines are also provided with a novel and practical device for automatically maintaining the equilibrium at all times, so that all the aviator has to do is steer the machine up and down and to right and left."

The company was organized by Stanley V. Beach, aeronautic editor of the Scientific American.

business with wittemann.

Twelve gliders are now going through the shop of Wittemann Brothers on Staten Island. So far, some fifteen or twenty have been sold to purchasers scattered all over the United States. Two power machines are now being built to the design of inventors, and the Witte-manns are starting a power machine of their own, which will probably be placed on the market after experiments with it. This will be of the biplane type, somewhat similar to the Voisin. A power-driven model is being constructed for George Bold, with two steam engines, the whole apparatus weighing only about 70 pounds. Nine men are now employed, and it is but a year ago that the first glider was built.

hartford tires and varnish.

Good sale has been found for the special aero tires put on the market by the Hartford Rubber Works Company, as well as for the varnish sold for coating aeroplane surfaces.

New Books.

Fliegende Menschen, by Lieut.-Col. H. W. L. Moedebeck. (Otto Salle, 1909; pp. 98, ill., 3 marks.) A most useful book and fills a great demand. The only regret is that it is published in German. A quarter of the book is devoted to the history of aviation but the remainder gives a brief and accurate description of the present state of the art, with a record of the achievements of the most advanced flyers. All theoretical data are omitted, giving only actual results.

An excellent handbook of aerial navigation brought up to date is The Conquest of the Air, by Professor A. Lawrence Rotch. Professor Rotch's point of view is that of the meteorologist rather than of the inventor or mechanician. As director of the Blue Hill Observatory he has had many years' experience in the study of atmospheric currents and temperatures by means of kites. His chapter on "The Ocean of Air" will be found helpful to amateur aviators. The remainder of the book is made up of a history of aerostation, descriptions of the dirigible balloon and the flying machine respectively, and a brief forecast of the future of aerial navigation.

Aerial Navigation of To-day, by Charles C. Turner. (London, Seely & Co., 1910; pp. 327; ill., 5s net.) A modern Astra Castra, it is the first modern English written book to give a reliable record of the beginnings, rise and development of the history of aerial navigation.

Vehicles of the Air, the newest book on aeronautics, is all that its title page sets forth, "a popular exposition of modern aeronautics with working drawings." It is by Victor/ Lougheed, a prominent automobile engineer, former editor of Motor, etc.

The technical matter is treated in a broad and analytical method without recourse to mathematics, while an extraordinary amount of information helpful to the designer and experimenter is crowded into its 479 pages. The illustrations and drawings are particularly fine and show features of some of the leading flyers not previously available. As a book of

reference it can hardly fail to win ready appreciation.

One chapter is devoted to the atmosphere, one to all the types of lighter-than-air machines, going into all the minor details, one to heavier-than-air machines, one to aeroplane details, chapters on propulsion, power plants, transmission elements, bearings, lubrication, starting and alighting, materials and construction, typical aeroplanes, accessories, miscellany and flight records.

Every possible item of construction is carefully considered and the scale drawings and photographs of successful machines offer a veritable mine of information for the builder and experimenter and man-on-the-street alike.

This is the one book that everyone must have.

Aeronautics, by M. K. Kasmar, is one of the newest books treating of the subject of mechanical flight.

It presents a general fund of information derived, evidently, from a wide range of study and observation, and sums up the matter with a unique tabulated system of synthesis and analysis, without recourse to mathematics, and in the simplest language.

Aeronautical Exhibition for Chicago

Arrangements are being made to lease the Coliseum, Chicago, the latter part of February to hold a five-day aeronautical exhibition. The expenses of all exhibits will be paid both ways, and it is hoped that a goodly number of inventors and constructors will allow their machines to be shown.

Western Aero Federation.

St. Louis, Dec. 11.—A Western Federation of Aero Clubs with headquarters in St. Louis is being organized by Albert Bond Lambert of the Aero Club of St. Louis.

The prospective members of the federation are the clubs of St. Louis, Indianapolis, Dayton, Denver, Peoria and Los Angeles, with the probable addition of clubs in Edwards-ville, 111., and Kansas City now being formed.

/ New Suit Against Aero Club

/ A suit has been brought by Gutzon Borglum »and Thomas A. Hill in Part I. of the Special Term of the Supreme Court against C. F. Bishop, as president of the "Aero Club of America, an unincorporated association," the plaintiffs claiming that they are not members of the stock company of the same name. This is the second legal action brought by the "insurgents."

The action is for the purpose of setting aside the recent election on the grounds that there was not a proper election; that the club's ticket was not in accordance with the by-laws; that the administration forced the mutilation of the opposition ticket and the removal therefrom of the names of the candidates for office;

that no officers have been elected up to the present time (November 6), and that therefore a new election should be had; that at such election proxies shall not be used, as there is no authority for their use in the by-laws; that the members voting thereat shall be those properly elected to membership in accordance with the by-laws; that those who were prevented from taking part in the last election for non-payment of dues, unnotified of their deprivation of membership, be allowed to pay their dues and vote.

the former proceedings.

In filing answer to the application of October 31 for an injunction, made by William J. Hammer, to restrain the Aero Club of America from voting proxies at its annual meeting, and from illegally electing to membership applicants therefor, President Bishop denied that there is an unincorporated body of men known as the "Aero Club of America," but that there is only the stock corporation. It was claimed in the papers of Mr. Hammer that the members formed an unincorporated body separate and distinct from the stock corporation of the same name.

Also, Mr. Bishop admitted that members have been granted membership by the board of directors without due notice having been sent to the other members, and urges that the power to elect members is vested in the directors, and that where notices were sent to other members containing the names of those proposed for membership, such notices were sent by courtesy only and does not affect the validity of their election. He also believes the right to vote by proxy is "inherent, both as a matter of custom and law."

In the affidavit submitted by Mr. Bishop on the application for an injunction statements are made which are said to contradict some of those in the attached answer.

In Bishop's affidavit he said that at a special meeting on October 28, two days before the application was formally made by Hammer, though an inkling of the proposed action was public property, the directors added a section to the by-laws to the effect that at all meetings of the club and at all elections proxies may be voted; the affidavit admitting that prior to this the by-laws contained no express right to vote by proxy or at all, but that as a matter of practice at members' meetings all members have been allowed to vote by proxy or in person, and the stockholders merely give effect to the selection made by the members.

Though in the answer itself Bishop stated it is by courtesy only that members are notified of names proposed, and admitted that many have been elected to membership without any such formality, in the affidavit he said that notices have been sent to all members at all times, except where it was a case of accident.

To aid the judge in his decision of the case, Bishop included in his affidavit a list of prominent men all over the country who had given the club their proxies for the annual meeting.

In Hammer's complaint to the Court he mentioned that many members have been elected to membership whose names have not

been sent to the members, in violation of the constitution and by-laws, and attached to his papers as exhibits the various literature sent out by the club before election, with their letters asking for proxies. He complained that proxies were voted at the preceding year's meeting without any provision therefor in the by-laws, and that unless restrained by the Court the present directors will be enabled to hold control, to the great damage and injury of the members, and prayed that the Court restrain the club from conducting and managing the club in violation of the by-laws and constitution and restrain the voting of proxies. He also asked that the club be restrained from admitting members without due notice, as provided in the by-laws.

The temporary injunction asked for to restrain the voting of proxies at the election on November 1 was denied by the Court, but this and the other matters will come up for final determination later.

Incorporations

Aero Club of Utah, Salt Lake City.

Aero Club of Hartford, Hartford, Conn.

Aero Club of Colorado, Denver, Colo.

Malasomma Aeroplane Company, New York. Cap., $25,000; incorporators, A.. Malasomma, L. Jantzen, G. H. Jantzen.

G. Hilton Gantert Company, Philadelphia. Pa. Cap., $50,000; incorporators, G. Hilton Gantert, Albert C. Trammel and E. S. Partridge. The company will handle aeroplanes and automobiles.

Barberton Aviation Company, Barberton, O. Cap., $10,000; incorporators, W. A. Mansfield, M. Paridon, E. B. Frace, J. M. Royan and H. W. Alcon.

Patents

We desire to print a correction to the list given in the December number. The name of the patentee and address should read: Charles W. Cheney, Brookline, Mass.

Henry Mesinger, New York, N. Y., No. 940,701, November 23, 1909. Airship, consisting of a boat-like framework with two longitudinal shafts, one of which is movable laterally with relation to the axis of the ship. Propellers are provided front and rear, and two sets of wings formed of slats capable of opening and closing are caused to oscillate by means of cranks operated bv first-named shafts.

Albert H. Friedel, Baltimore, Md., No. 040,866. November 23, 1909. Flying machine, the distinguishing feature of which lies in two propellers provided at the rear of the chassis. These propellers are adjustable vertically and horizontally so as to drive and steer the machine, and in addition the blades are referred to as wings, so arranged that the angle and inclination are changeable; besides which they can be contracted and expanded by a radial movement at will.

Jacob Suter, Jersey City, N. J.. No. 941,896, November 30, 1909. Aerial vessel. A framework rising rom the body supporting aero-

Y. M. C. A. Model Contests.

On November 27, at the continuation of the aeroplane model contest for the Louis R. Adams cup given to the West Side Y. M. C. A., Dr. Dederer was the winner with 92 ft. 1 in.; Walter Phipps, second, 83 ft. 2 in., and James K. Dalkranian, third, 77 ft. 6]/2 in. There were fourteen machines entered.

There was quite a turnout at the aero flight on December 4 in Frank Goulds' Riding Academy. Fifteen machines were entered. Dr. Dederer had a flight of 112 ft. 11^2 in. Percy Pierce was second, with 87 ft. 6l/2 in.; Wilson Marshall, Jr., third, with 69 ft. 6l/2 in. Several new models were shown, among them a Bleriot model built to scale and made by a Mr. Sage. It is a very pretty piece of work.

On account of the long flight made by Dr. Dederer at the last contest the Y. M. C. A. was compelled to procure larger quarters for the flights, and succeeded in getting the Twenty-second Regiment Armory, and on December 11 a contest was held in which there were entered some fifteen machines, and the winners were Dr. Dederer, with a flight of 147 ft. 6 in; second, Percy Pierce, 105 ft.; and third, C. C. Graves, from Newark, N. J., 97 ft. As this made the third time that Dr. Dederer won the cup, it now becomes his property. Immediately upon his winning the cup a representative of Automobilia and Flight informed the Y. M. C. A. that they would donate a solid silver cup, to be competed for by men.

In this contest two new rules are noticeable. One is, the machines must start from the ground, and the other, that they must be built in such a manner that a man-carrying machine could be built from the design of the model.

In conjunction with these model flights a series of flights will be held under the auspices of the Y. M. C. A. for boys. The contest will be for a silver cup given by Mr. Leo Stevens to the Junior Aero Club of America, and offered by them to the Y. M. C. A. as a trophy for boys.

new course begins in january.

On account of the large demand which the former course in aeronautics at the West Side Y. M. C. A. has created, the Association has been compelled to get ready for another course, which will start the middle of January.

In the new course there will be two separate courses. One will be a class of ten lectures given by Mr. Wilbur R. Kimball in the. Association Building, for which the fee will be $20 and membership. There will also be given a course consisting- of ten lessons on a man-carrying machine, which has had a number of successful flights. These lessons will be given by Mr. Kimball, and will take in the handling and managing of a full-sized aero-

planes spaced one above the other; the upper one being inflatable while the lower has a control opening, below which swinging wings are made to operate, besides a propeller at the rear, and up and down swinging rudders. The inflation of the upper plane is accomplished by means of a heating chamber therein connected to the exhaust from the motor.

Samuel W. Applegate, South Bend, Ind., No. 939,651, November 9, 1909. Aeroplane, the characteristic features of which are a body composed of a cigar-shaped shell, a propeller in the front and a universal-jointed tail or rudder at the rear. The supporting surface consists of a plane extending across the body and above it.

Boyd W. Dysart, Los Angeles, Cal., No. No. 939,483, November 9. 1909. Airship. Two elongated, horizontal cylinders having closed walls and open ends are caused to rotate in opposite directions. The outer surfaces of the cylinders are provided with spiral blades. Platforms are suspended inside the cylinders from the axes, and engines are supported on these platforms. A horizontal rudder is provided in the forward cylinder and a vertical rudder in the after cylinder.

Otto Krell, Charlottenberg, Germany, assignor to Siemens-Dchuckart-Werke. G.M.B.H., Berlin, Germany, a corporation, No. 940,329, November 16, 1909. Optical instrument for determining the direction of travel of airships and the like by means of an eye-piece tube common to two telescopes, one of which points below and the other points on the horizon. A glass prism is provided in the field of vision with a plurality of lines which will coincide with the direction of the apparent motion of the point below when such motion coincides with the point on the horizon. A gyroscope is mounted on the vertical telescope to maintain steadiness. _

M. I. T. Aero Club.—A working aero club which proposes to build and experiment with research work was formed Nov. 12 by 600 technology undergraduates with the backing of several members of the faculty. In 10 minutes more than $300 was subscribed toward purchasing materials and obtaining an aviation field.

President Maclaurin told of the club, was much pleased, and said the club would have the full use of the institute laboratories. The establishment of a regular course in aeronautics at the institute is Dr. Maclaurin's aim.

The forming of the aero club came at the end of a lecture in the Tech Union by Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, chief of the Blue Hill Observatory, and close friend of the Wright brothers, who sketched the history of the conquest of the air.

The club plans to begin actual work at once. Each man must pledge himself at least three hours a week to work on research, construction or draughting. Gliders will be built within a few weeks, to be followed by the construction of an aeroplane, following the lines laid down by some member of the club. Several members have worked with gliders already.

Charles E. Creecy, '10, of Illchester, Md.,

Sel fridge, '12, of San Francisco, a brother of Lieutenant Selfridge of the signal corps, who was killed at Fort Myer last year when a Wright machine fell, was made secretary-treasurer. The executive committee consists of M. A. Lyons, '10, of Somerville; H. D. Kemp, '12, of Dorchester, and C. H. Strang, '13, of Brooklyn.

The Harvard Aeronautical Society has

been organized with a charter membership of 240 to do its share for advancement, and particularly to make accessible information to Harvard men. A library will be established, a systematic course of lectures provided, an exhibition of flying models, construction of gliders and volunteer experimental work.

James V. Martin is director. Among his duties he is to instruct the members in model flying and gliding and endeavor to construct at least one full-sized machine and install a motor. There is much enthusiasm manifest, and there is good reason to expect that the above and other conditions of the constitution will be fulfilled. One illustrated lecture and a motion picture aeroplane exhibit have already been given.

Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, president of the society, will deliver a course of lectures on the physics of the air. Prof. I. N. Hollis, of Harvard Engineering School, will lecture on the movement of solids through fluids, and Prof. R. W. Wilson, professor of astronomy, will discuss the new problems of navigation arising with the advent of air craft.

Glenn H. Curtiss will be given a reception on December 23. A flight .exhibit is being arranged for spring.

The Cleveland Aero Club has been formally organized at a meeting held in the quarters of the Cleveland Automobile Club in the Hollenden. Forty shares of stock were subscribed for and nine directors were elected. H. C. Gammeter, president of the temporary organization, presided, and C. J. Forbes, Jr., of the Automobile Club, acted as secretary. The directors elected were H. C. Gammeter, C W. Fuller, L. H. Kittridge, J. Milton Dver, William F. Bonnell, W. H. Abbott. Robert Jardine, Carl De Mooy and Albert H. Bates. The club is affiliated with the Auto Club.

The Aeronautic Society of Florida is the name of an aero club recently formed in Jacksonville, Fla. At the last meeting convened for the election of officers the following gentlemen were elected : President, Geo. W. Clark: first vice-president. Dr. Sanderson; second vice-president, B. I. Butts; third vice-president, H. J. Klutho; treasurer. Dr. Stenson; secretary, Dr. Davenport Kerrison : directors : Hon. H. H. Buckman. H. C. Hare. William Frazier, Hon. Frank Chase, J. H. Bland and W. W. Acheson, Jr. The membership numbers some fifty, with new applicants on the list.

Several of the members are working on aeroplanes of various descriptions, and one full-sized plane is awaiting a motor. Dr. Kerrison, the acting secretary and, indeed, promoter of the society, is experimenting with a new method of control from which he ex-

pects good results, but that like all new things has yet to be tried out.

The Aero Club of Utah has been incorporated now and every member is an active worker. One member, L. R. Culver, has a machine nearing completion. During the winter weekly meetings will be held, with lectures and talks on motors and machines, etc. The first will be by J. M. Thomas on patent law. followed by a lecture on the Wright machine by the secretary, Frank A. Ayres.

The Aero Club of Rochester has been tentatively formed by thirty-two enthusiasts of that city at a meeting held in the offices of the Elbridge Engine Company. Committees were formed, and at a subsequent meeting the constitution and by-laws will be adopted. A canvass was made of those present as to the activity in the construction line in Rochester, and it developed that either gliders or full-sized machines were being built by Messrs. Ocumpaugh, Strowger, Nichols, Hall, Oliver, Adams, French, Delong, Benjamin and Urm-son, the latter having two machines practically completed. Four full-sized machines are actually under construction, and it is very probable that the aero club, which numbers among its members several millionaires, will soon begin the construction of further machines.

. The Aero Club of Hartford has held its incorporators' meeting and elected the following officers: President, Hiram Percy Maxim; vice-president, C. H. Gillett; secretary, Arthur G. Hinckley; treasurer, Albert M. Kohn. With the above mentioned the following com plete the board of governors: Charles B. Whittlesey, J. C. Rowe and Fred W. Dart. Membership is limited to one hundred. The club will be affiliated with the Aero Club of America. At present the total membership is but sixteen, with one honorary member, Charles J. Glidden.

The Cornell Aero Club has been organized with fifty-four members at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., with the following officers: President, R. E. Treman; vice-president, G. F. Hewitt, Jr.; corresponding secretary, M. Bronk; treasurer, J. C. Von Glahn.

A glider has been given the club by R. V. Morse, of Ithaca. Professor McDermott gave the first lecture, taking up the history of aeronautics and showing the different classes of air "craft" and their sphere of usefulness. His suggestion that the club have committees on historical development, technical study, motors, literature, experiments, etc., was adopted. The next lecture will be by Prof. C. F. Hirsh-feld, of Sibley College, on "Motors and Proper Propulsion of Airships."

University, has formed in a permanent way. The officers are as follows: L. M. Stoakes. president; John C. Tully, vice-president; John M. Wilson, secretary-treasurer.

The University of Pennsylvania Aero Club, at Philadelphia, Pa., with fifty members, is working actively. Membership is limited to students, though there is a system of membership for non-students.

The club is arranging to build a motor machine on lines already laid out. Construction is to be started in January. This will be on the Curtiss order, but is to include some features of the Farman. Hugh L. Willoughby, the first man to wear the red and white of "Penn" in an athletic event is an honorary member.

The officers are: President, F. H. Dechant. Senior C. E.; vice-president, E. F. Wright, Junior M. E.; secretary, G. A. Richardson, Soph. M. E.: treasurer, J. F. Rhodes; Carl H. Carlson, superintendent of construction and chairman of the executive committee.

The club hopes to induce the University to inaugurate a course in aeronautics.

The Aero Club of Buffalo has been formed at the Automobile Club of Buffalo, starting with a membership of about forty, many of whom are members of the Automobile Club of Buffalo. The headquarters will be at the Automobile Club until the organization has a large enough membership to build a clubhouse of its own.

A board of directors was elected, and they selected the following officers: President, John M. Satterfield; vice-presidents, H. A. Mel-drum, Howard A. Forman, Robert K. Root; treasurer, George P. Urban, Jr.; secretary, Dai H. Lewis.

The Aero Club of New England voted at a special meeting of the directors that the entertainment committee arrange monthly dinners for club members and friends, to be followed by an entertainment during the months of January, February, March and April. The directors endorsed the exhibition of aerial craft contemplated by Mr. Chester I. Campbell. They approved a suggestion to reserve one week in October, 1910, to be known as Boston's International Aviation Week, and the president was requested to ascertain if there is sufficient interest in Boston to provide facilities and means to hold this contest in this vicinity. The directors accepted the cup offered by Cortland F. Bishop, to be pre sented to the pilot of a balloon making the longest flight in 1910 who starts from a point in New England. The contest is open to all international pilots.

Mr. H. H. Clayton and J. Walter Flagg were appointed a committee to arrange for the purchase of a rubber balloon of 80,000 cubic feet capacity, to be called the "New England," to enter the international contest to be held in this country October next. Mr. H. H. Clayton was chosen to pilot the balloon.

Mr. Albert A. Merrill was added to the committee on aeroplanes.

Twenty-one cups were awarded at the first meeting of The Aeronautic Society at its new quarters in the Engineers' Building, 29 West Thirty-ninth street, New York, on December 9. These have been won during the present year at the two exhibitions and for private feats. Among the cups presented was one for the first member to make a flight in his own machine at the society's grounds, which went to the machine built by Frangois Raiche and Charles M. Crout. In the second series of model contests which have been held during the fall, W. S. Romme got a cup as a first and a gold medal as a second. One was for uniqueness of design. His monoplane model resembles nothing more than an umbrella with a large hole in the centre. In reality it is a short section of a very wide angle cone, with a large hole in the centre. Two concentric hoops separated by sticks of bamboo, covered with silk, form the surface, while a hollow tube containing the rubber band power bisects the area of the circle, with the propeller at the end of the tube on the circumference of the circle. It flies very slowly, indeed, on perfectly even keel, at a fairly flat angle. J. K. Dalkranian, a many-prize winner at Y. M. C. A. contests, received the Hanau Cup and a medal for long flights with his beautiful Antoinette-like model.

Edward W. Smith, of Germantown, Pa., who has written most instructively on his work in Aeronautics, received a trophy for his models' flights at the two exhibitions.

The Stevens cup for the first passenger flight was presented to Dr. William Greene.

Other prizes were awarded to the kite men, and "Aeronaut Johnny Mack" obtained the Stevens Medal in the Montgolfier balloon ascents at Morris Park.

Professor William Hallock, Dean of Science and head of the Department of Physics at Columbia University, and Winthrop E. Scar-ritt, former president of the Automobile Club of America, gave interesting lectures to the 200 members assembled.

During the previous meetings of the month, Capt. C. H. Hamilton, from the Sandy Hook U. S. proving grounds, talked on the experiments made at Sandy Hook recently with regard to shooting at a captive balloon. Geo. C. Cole described his method of obtaining electric current from the sun's rays and the wireless transmission of power. Geo. A. Spratt was another speaker. Carlos De Zafra. a motor-boat engineer, gave an illustrated lecture on naval ordnance, describing among other offensive and defensive devices the launching of torpedoes from boats of speed, concluding with a discussion of the aeroplane and dirigible in warfare and moving pictures of the Rheims meet, etc.

The Aeroplane and Kite Club of Illinois has been organized with a goodly membership at 2852 North Clark street, Chicago. Edward E. Harbert is president; Oscar Newstrom, vice-president, and James Rucker, secretary.

The Aero Club of Notre Dame, organized by the students of Notre Dame (Ind.)

PATENTS

20 Years Experience rfl

SPECIAL ATTENTION TO AERIAL NAVIGATION

Send for book telling how to obtain Patents and Illustrating 100 Mechanical Movements

-BOOK MAILED FREE TO ANY ADDRESS-

O'MEARA &, BROCK, patent attorneys

913 F STREET, WASHINGTON, D. C.

256 BROADWAY, NEW YORI

aero meets for dayton.

The Aero Club of Dayton held a banquet at the Philips House, November 19th, all members present. It was decided to have a meet there in the spring, and plans are now being made. The club has also asked to be affiliated with the Aero Club of America.

A trip was made in the Hoosier, Saturday, December 4th, leaving Dayton at 1.30 and landing at 4.15 near St. Paris, forty-five miles from Dayton, Dr. P. -M. Crume, pilot, Judge Dustin, Mr. John Aull and Mr. S. T. Hunter as passengers. The trip was uneventful and an easy landing was effected.

The International Aeroplane Club are planning for a meet also, at which time they will try out the new Wright machine which has been ordered from the Wright Bros. At a meeting Dec. 1st, Mr. Luzerne Custer gave a very interesting talk on air pressure at different altitudes, introducing a new stati-cope of his own make, a description of which I am sending you. The new diminutive one-man balloon made by Dr. P. M. Crume was o-iven the name of "The International" by the club. The first trip was made in it Nov. 27th.

DESCRIPTION OF AEROPLANES

(Continued from page 7)

Transverse Control.—The regions W W of the flexible main plane are warped inversely.

The tapering ends of the rudders F and V may be considered as fixed keels. The seat, S, is placed under the plane. The mounting, L, is on two wheels at the front and one in the rear, no springs being provided. Total weight, 350 to 450 lbs.; speed, approximately 44 m.p.h. ; pounds per h.p., 17; pounds per sq. ft., 1.5; aspect ratio, 3.2 to 1.

Ref: Sci. American, v. 101, p. 292; Aerophile, v. 17, p. 439, 508; Zeit. fur Luftschiff., v. 13, p. 802, 957; Aero, v. 1. p. 405; Motor Car Jour., v. 2, p. 794; La Vie Auto, v. 9, p. 711; Zeit. Ver. Deut. Ing., v. 53, p. 1762. (To be Continued)

TALKS WITH INVENTORS

(Continued from page 10) tions: Inventions of which the working would be against the law of good morals. Food stuff and 'other articles of consumption Pharmaceutical products or substances obtained by a chemical method, the processes employed remaining patentable.

Condition of novelty: An invention is not

considered new at the date of the application if it is already described in printed publications, or has been notoriously worked either in the Grand Duchy or in the States of the German Union, to such an extent that the working of it by other persons who are experts would be possible.

Workings: Three years from the date of the patent. Subsequently every year.

Annual fees.

I will continue these particulars in next month's issue of Aeronautics taking up Normandy, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and Finland

C. A. M. RULES

(Continued from page 25) of France, the Automobile Club of France, the Syndical Chamber of Aeronautical Industries and the National Aerial League—will refuse their sanction to every aviation meeting the promoters of which may seek to obtain pecuniary advantage for themselves. Too many aviation meetings being regarded as undesirable, the C. A. M. will patronize only those of which the organizers may have demonstrated their personal disinterestedness and agreed to deposit in a bank, to be indicated by the C. A. M., all the net profits, if any, of the projected meeting. That money would be employed in other prizes for aerial performances, to be determined by the promoters, or, failing them, at the end of 12 months by the C. A. M. Moreover, before the organization of an aviation meeting is commenced the promoters are for the future required to obtain the written approval of the C. A. M., which will only be granted to those who accept the conditions mentioned above and also the requirements of the International Aeronautical Federation. A sub-commission appointed by the C. A. M. will exercise financial control over the organization of each meeting. Every contract entered into between the promoters and aviators, apart from the ordinary program and conditions of the aerial competitions, must be submitted to the C. A. M. for its approval, failing which both the promoters and the interested aviators will be disqualified.. The G A. M. also reserves for itself the right to require that the total amount of money offered as prizes be lodged in a bank selected by it before it grants

—7 r

THE CHURCH AEROPLANE CO.

15 Myrtle Avenue

BROOKLYN, NEW YORK

Aeroplanes, Dirigibles, Spherical Balloons, Butterflys, Helicopteres, Gliders, Parachutes and Scientific Kites

ALL OUR TOYS ACTUALLY FLY

Telephone 1040 Main

Working Models Built to Order Separate Parts Furnished

ADAMS-FAR W ELL

THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST

MOTOR

Less than 3 lbs. per H. P. A. L. A. M. rating

Self cooled by its own revolution

GET OUR CATALOGUE A No. 15-A

THE ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

Health

Fo^d

New York Chocolates

Chocolate

Most Suitable for Aeronauts or those requiring a yfron-Bulky Sustaining Food Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK

NILSON-MILLER CO.

Designers and Builders of SPECIAL GASOLINE ENGINES

Unexcelled Facilities for Experimental and Model Work

13th & Hudson Sts., Hoboken, N. J.

WRITE TO-DAY

for a sample copy of the American Chauffeur & Motor Car

Send 10c/in stamps to THE AMERICAN CHAUFFEUR & MOTOR CAR 1931 Broadway, New York

its license for the proposed meeting. Every aviator who may participate in an unauthorized aviation meeting or exhibition will be disqualified. To participate in the aviation meetings authorized and controlled by the C. A. M., every aviator must be the possessor of a license, to be issued gratuitously to the applicants who may be regarded as sufficiently expert to pilot an aeroplane without danger to the public. The licenses already issued by the Aero Club of France are to be recognized as valid, but all the aviators' licenses must be renewed yearly. The C. A. M. also reserves for itself the right to withdraw any license it may have granted without being obliged to give the reason for that measure.

EXCHANG E

Aero Forum and Market Place

SIZE OK CURTISS STRUT. Inquirer asks for size and form of the struts used by Curtiss. Herewith is diagram giving these details. The ends are rounded to fit the sockets.

HOW SOARING BLADES .DECREASE DRAFT. The value of soaring blades is due altogether to the elasticity of the air. When air is compressed in a closed space it is found to be very elastic, and will quickly regain its original volume upon the removal of the compressing force.

wants financial aid

Dear Sir:—I have discovered the perfect automatic balance for aeroplanes. I also believe my machine superior to any other in ease of leaving and returning to the ground. Extremely simple in construction and operation. Protected by pending patents. The commercial machine of the future must embody several features of my machine.

I would like financial aid to enable me to demonstrate the soundness and practicability of my principles, or I would sell part interest in the patents. I would welcome detailed correspondence with anyone really interested in the matter.

Respectfully yours, M. B. Dunkl*.

Box No. 8o2, Moscow, Idaho.

THE STRONGEST

LIGHT METAL

McADAMITE

specific craviiy 3 20 tension, . 44,000 lbs. to sq. in. compression, 126,000 lbs. to sq. in. transverse, 87,000 " " " " .torsion. - 60.000 " " " " send for test bar or a pattern tor sample casting

U. S. McADAMITE METAL CO.

id rapelye street brooklyn. n. y

In its free state air may be compressed by a quick movement of a body, such as the inclined surface of an aeroplane. If this inclined surface is immediately followed by the horizontal surface of a soaring blade a considerable lift is exerted upon the blade by the expansion of the compressed air. This lifting result is secured without any increase of draft, except the very slight amount due to skin friction, for the blade being in a horizontal position offers no resistance to the forward movement of the aeroplane. On the other hand, the lift due to the expansion of the air against the soaring blade makes it possible to sustain a given weight with the aeroplane proper set at a smaller angle of incidence, which, of course, results in decreased draft.

If the rear edge of the blade curves upward, the forward push of the expanding air will also add to the propelling power in some degree. The use of a properly adjusted soaring blade will then decrease the amount of external propelling power required to sustain a given weight in two different ways. First, by decreasing the resistance to be overcome, and, second, by contributing to the amount of propelling power which is yet required to sustain the load in a horizontal line of flight.

The amount of motor power thus saved may be expended in increasing the speed of the aeroplane, which increase of speed will permit the angle of incidence to be still further reduced while still maintaining a horizontal line of flight, thus again decreasing the amount of necessary external propelling power. Hence, the speed which a given motive power might attain under these circumstances would be largely limited by skin friction and the head resistances of vertical edges.

t. S. harris.

Waverly, 111.

Leading Patent Attorneys

WILL SOMEONE ANSWER?

Is it practical to consider using a compressed air engine as a propelling power for a model dirigible? It seems to me I have read of aeroplanes and dirigibles being installed with compressed air engines for short trial flights. I have in mind a gas envelope of, say 25 feet in length by 5 feet in diameter. Would not a compressed air engine of, say half a horsepower, possess an advantage over an electric motor in both weight and cheapness? I have put the idea of a gasoline motor out of mind, as I understand that for such a small balloon it would require a large outlay to build or procure a motor of sufficient lightness. My idea was to make the engine as simple as possible as that was not the part of the airship I wished to. experiment with. I intendeJ procuring a tank and affixing the ordinary steam engine cylinder and piston to it. The tank could be filled before each flight at a power pump. I should like to inquire if such engines have not been used before for just such purposes, and, if so, where I could obtain something to meet my needs.

charles R. walker, jr. 18 Park Place, Concord, n. h.

PATENTS &

7.

parker

late examiner u. s. patent office

attorney-at-law and solicitor of patents

American and foreign patents secured promptly and with special regard to the legal/protection of the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 30 mcgill building washington. d. c.

PATENTS

secured or fee returned : : :

Send sketch for free search of Patent Office Records. How to Obtain a Patent, and What to Invent, with List of inventions Wanted and Prizes offered for Inventions sent free. Patents advertised free.

We are experts in AIRSHIPS and all patsnts and technical matters relating to AERIAL NAVIGATION.

victor j. evans & co., washington,d.c.

HAVE YOU AN IDEA?

if so. write for our books:

"Why Patents Pay,'" "100 Mechanical Movements" ami a Treatise on Perpetual Motions—50 Illustrations - all mailed free -

F. G. D1ETERICH & CO. patent lawyers 803 ouray building. washington, d. c.

"The Protective Patent"

This book for inventors sent free, $35.00 required to file patent application. Total cost $65.00 trade marks registered BEELER & ROBB, patent lawyers 87-90 mcgill building - - washington, d. c.

AEROPLANES, GLIDERS, MODELS, PROPELLERS

—— designed and built, or made to your own design —~~ Gliders, Parts and Aeronautic Supplies in Stock

- aero motors -

fred shneider 1020 e. 178th st., new york

new york agent for elbr1dge engine company

Happy New Year To My Friends

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

TRUNKS FOR MOTORS !

We Manufacture Trunks Specially Built for the safe and convenient transportation of Motors, [Planes, etc.

Can be packed or unpacked in Five Minutes

Write for Particulars

Ajax Trunk & Sample Case Co.

91-93 Mercer Street

New York

AERONAUTIC C

i-m. -;-Edited b>—f- v3

Major B.! Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

The first and leading paper in Great Britain devoted to Aviation, Aerostation, Meteorology, Aerology, Etc.

THE ONLY RELIABLE TECHNICAL JOURNAL

issued A special feature is a complete illustrated list of

monthly all Aeronautical Patents published every monlh

SUBSCRIPTION \2^l'com8l IZll}^^ 27, Chancery Lane, London, W.C., England

The Aeronautical Journal

(The organ of the A^onautical Society of Great Britain) edited .for the council by

Col. J. D. Fuller tor/ R. E. (ret.), F. R. G. S.. F. Z. S.

An illustrated Quarterly devoted to the Science of Dynamic Blight in all its branches. Annual Subscription : Publishing Office:

Six Shillings and Sixpence. 27 Chancery Lane, London,

Post Free / England

Auto & Aeronautic Supply Go.

c, Aeronautic Supplies of Every

Description in Stock c, Wood Cut as per Specifications

2100 BROADWAY (73rd St.,) NEW YORK

'phone, 6948 columbus

Steinheil/ Lenses

ESTABLISHED

1855

AND HAVE BEEN MODERN EVER SINCE

Orthostigmat F. 6. 8.

A UNIVERSAL ANASTIGMAT LENS.

Instantaneous Work Portraits Groups

Focal Plane Photography

A truly wonderful lens, having great covering power, even illumination and splendid definition. Haye your dealer get one on 10 days trial FREE.

Our new catalogue, giving valuable lens information, sent on application.

Herbert & Huesgen,

/ Sole U. S. Agents, 311 Madison Avenue, New York City

BALDWIN'S

Vulcanized Proof Material

tiffin

LAHM BALLOON CUP—697 Miles

Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE—

35 Hrs., 12 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York*

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY

Prices and samples on application

^tt^ Captain Thomas S. Baldwin Jj3! Box 78,^Madison Square

3H)e aeronautic ^>octetp

MORRIS PARK, WESTCHESTER, N. Y.

Join Now at the Opening of the Season.

\\ ORKSHOPS—Where members may construct their machines.

MOTORS — With which members may make their initial trials at the cost only of gasoline and care.

SHEDS — In which members house their machines.

may

MEMBERSHIP AFFORDS STERLING BENEFITS.

Weekly Meetings—Held at the

Engineers Club, 29 West 39th St., New York, at which valuable discussions take place, and every assistance and encouragement given.

LECTURES — Well known scientists tell things worth knowing.

LIBRARY — Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.

Experiment Eund—A fund is

forming for the work of investigation and experiment.

CATAPULT — Apparatus provided for starting aeroplanes that are wheel-less or for gliders.

Gliding Mound—For the practice

and exercise of gliding.

GROUNDS—Where members may try out their machines, learn the art of flying, and make flights.

EXHIBITIONS—To which all members are admitted free, and in which they have splendid opportunities to make their inventions known either in model or full scale.

Twenty-one Members of the Society are now building Machines.

NO INITIATION FEE. DUES-$10 A YEAR.

WRITE SECRETARY FOR BOOKLET.

FORM OF APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP.

To the SECRETARY, The AERONAUTIC SOCIETY.

Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y.

I desire to become a member of the Aeronautic Society. If elected I agree lo pay the membership fee of $10 per year, and to abide by the Rules of the Society.

Name.............................„.....................

Profession or Occupation............................

Dale..................1909. Address................................

BATES/ AERONAUTIC MOTORS

"the best that CAn/bE built"

4-lbs. per horse power—25 to 50 H.P.

prices $575 to $850

PROMPT DELIVERIES

Special Sizes of Light Motors, Propellers, Etc., Built to Order.

CARL BATES

104 W. OAK ST. CHICAGO, ILL.

The Master

Magneto !

and F. S. Ball Bearings

Used on Voisin Aeroplane, 8 cyl. Antoinette Motor, driven by Latham.

Bowden wire for controls

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

Sole Importers, Times Building, New York

Weaver-Ebling Automobile ===== Company =—

"WECO" OILS AND GREASES

All Aeronautic Supplies 2230 Broadway at 79th St., - - - New York

AEROPLANE WIRE WHEELS

CURTISS TYPE/ IN STOCK-ANY STYLE TO ORDER

Shock AbsOrberS Mounted on Wheels ' Ready to Bolt to Planes

Turn Buckles - Special Fittings

/ J. A. WEAVER, JR.

956 Eighth Avenue, bet. 56th <®, 57th Sts., New York

AEROPLANE ENGINES

Both sized Motors fitted with Bosch Magneto, Schebler Carbureter, Mechanical Oiler, complete ready to run.

We have standardized the following sizes of engines for aeronautical work

8 CYLS., 3f INCHES BY 4 INCHES, 30-45 H.P., WEIGHT 275 LBS. 8 CYLS., 4& INCHES BY 4| INCHES, 40-60 H.P., WEIGHT 300 LBS.

Machine Department EASTON CORDAGE CO., Easton, Pc


PDF Document