Aeronautics

Volume 5 - No. 6 - 1909 December

Table of Contents PDF Document


The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION

VOL. 5 NO. 6

DECEMBER

===*==

25 GTS

u~7

Photo b)/ Ethiin Levick, N. Y.

HENRY FARMAN FLYING AT BLACKPOOL MEET

A Notable Triumph

for the

Eisemann

Magneto!

COn October 18th, 1909, Count de Lambert, in a Wright aeroplane, using an

EISEM AN N tTWAGNETO,

made a flight that startled the world — one of the most sensationally successful of any thus far. Ascending at Port Aviation, Juvisy, his biplane flew straight to Paris, over the city, and around the Eiffel Tower, attaining a height of 1,300 feet. After circling the Tower, Count de Lambert steered straight for Juvisy,landing within a few feet of his starting place, after covering 31 miles in 49 minutes, 39 2-5 sec-

C. This historic flight was made possible by the use of the

EISEMANN cTWAGNETO.

Steady, constant, reliable ignition is one of the chief factors of successful flight, and this the EISEMANN assures. All of Wilbur Wright's European records last year were made with an EISEMANN. and Countde Lambert, using an EISEMANN, recently won six big prizes at Port Aviation.

The

EISEMANN

is the Rea] -y Magneto for

Aviation

onds.

EISEMANN

HIGH TENSION

MAGNETO

Use.

LAVALETTE. &

COMPANY ^225-227 West 57th.St> NEW YORK

AEROPLANISTS

searching for the strongest, lightest, most buoyant tires invariably choose

Hartford Tires

The three types of these tires for flying machines are not makeshifts.

On the contrary, they are the result of careful observations and searching study, combined with thorough knowledge of the tire requirements of the present day heavier-than-air machine.

Even the fabric is specially made of the very lightest thread.

The pure Para rubber is submitted to a process which imparts extra toughness and strength without sacrificing one jot of its remarkable resiliency.

So the Hartford Aviator, the Hartford Aeronaut and the Hartford Aeroplane are light, strong and buoyant—since these are the principal essentials required in flying machine tires.

Hartford Aero Varnish is the best and finest for flying machines of whatever type.

Write for prices and details of both these Hartford products.

The Hartford Rubber Works Co. HARTFORD, CONN.

Branches:—New York, 57th St. and Broadway; Chicago, 12th St. and Michigan Ave.; Boston, 817 Boylston St.; Detroit, 256 Jefferson Ave.; Denver, 1564 Broadway; Philadelphia, 1425 Vine St.; Cleveland, 1831 Euclid Ave.; Atlanta, Ga., 94 North Pryor St.; Buffalo, 725 Main St.; Minneapolis, Minn., 622 Third Ave. S.

AERONAUTICS December, igog

Baldwin's Vulcanized Proof Material

^HB» WINS iHBfife

U. S. BALLOON DURATION RECORD—48 Hrs., 26 Mins.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New Yoik," St. Louis Centennial

U. S. BALLOON ALTITUDE RECORD—24,200 Ft.

Harmon and Post, Balloon "New York," St. Louis Centennial

BEST DURATION INDIANAPOLIS BALLOON RACE—

35 Hrs., I 2 Mins. Forbes and Harmon, Balloon "New York"

LAHM BALLOON CUP—697 Miles

Forbes and Fleischman, Balloon "New York"

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION PRIZE 30-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE GRAND PRIZE OF BRESCIA FOR AEROPLANES QUICK STARTING EVENT AT BRESCIA 2nd, 10-KILOM. AEROPLANE SPEED PRIZE 2nd, BRESCIA HEIGHT PRIZE—Glenn H. Curtiss

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons

WILL last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double-walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL. Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.

AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY Prices and samples on application

^^^■^^^^ Captain Thomas S. Baldwin ^^|^^

aSBBy Box 78;^dYos:hn s<,uare sfflBf

HIGH-CLASS MACHINE WORK

FOR AERONAUTICAL PURPOSES

We Accomplish Results where Others Fail Pedersen Lubricators have proven to be the most reliable

Pedersen Manufacturing Company

(ESTABLISHED 1884. INCORPORATED 1906)

636-644 FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK

L B. RE~PAIRCO., Inc!

EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOTORS REMODELING and OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAKING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON

AIR, LAND and WATER VEHICLES

225 W. 57th St., N. Y. Tel. 6459 Col.

F. O. ANDREAE

REGISTERED

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS

Pasadena,

Calif.

Aeronautic Inventions a specially at home and abroad

when you_visit morris PARK

don't forget to visit trie aeronauts' retreat

866 Morris Park Ave., near Morris Park.

Morris Park Cafe and Summer Garden

Special lunch served at moderate prices. Private rooms for parties with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.

TWO PASSENGER BALLOON

dJQCn f\f\ On\y inl four times.

«POOU.UU. Completely Equipped with Anchor, Drag Rope, Ballast Bags, Filling Hose, Cover, etc. Photo and/description on request. HOWARD W. GIUL, Baltimore, Md.

AEROPLANES AND GLIDERS

DESIGNED — CONSTRUCTED —OPERATED FOR SALE AND BUILT TO ORDER .

Aeronautic Supplies and Apparatus

Western Agent "AERONAUTICS"

C. T. SHAFFER

302 HOLYOKE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO

MAGNETOS, SPARK PLUGS BATTERIES

All Supplies and Equipments for Gasoline Motors.

L. G. DUQUET

107 WEST 36th ST., NEW YORK

UNIVERSAL AUTO SUPPLY CO.

Fillings for Airships and Flying Machines All Supplies for Motors, Ignilion Systems, Wheels, Tires, Etc. ADVISE US YOUR WANTS

1900 Broadway, (cor. 63d St,) New York

^J^HE recent prizes for aeroplane contests offered by several prominent papers recall that the FIRST AVIATION TROPHY offered in America was given more than TWO YEARS ago by the

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

which is the only weekly publication that treats fully the new science of mechanical flight—a science which it has helped develop and promulgate from its very beginning.

Aeronautic Patents

Having devoted especial attention to aeronautic patents, we are exceptionally well equipped to advise and assist inventors, fj Valuable information sent free on request.

MUNN & CO., Inc., 365 Broadway, New York.

Scientific American Trophy, 1907

What Kind of a MOTOR Do You Want?

Let us answer— 1st, A reliable motor 2nd, A powerful motor 3rd, An enduring motor

Curtiss Motors

HAVE THESE QUALITIES

The Kind You Do NOT Want—

1st, A motor of "freak" construction. 2nd, A motor of extremely light construction. 3rd, A motor of unproven merit.

CURTISS MOTORS ARE NOT IN THESE CLASSES.

Built in All Sizes. New Models of Highest Type and Greatest Efficiency. Send for Catakgue N. CURTISS MOTORS HAVE MADE GOOD M HERRING-CURTISS CO., Hammondsport, New York

AERONAUTICS -;-Edited by-

Major B. Baden-Powell and John H. Ledeboer

The first and leading paper in Great Britain devoted to Aviation, Aerostation, Meteorology, Aerology, Etc.

THE ONLY RELIABLE TECHNICAL JOURNAL

ISSUED A special feature is a complete illustrated list of

MONTHLY all Aeronautical Patents published every month

SUBSCRIPTION Ig^Scop'yl Si Po?tpaid 27, Chancery Lane, London, W.C., England

Steinheil Lenses

The Aeronautical Journal

(The organ of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain) edited For the Council by

Col. J. D. Fullerton, R. E. (ret.), F. R. G. S., F. Z. S.

An illustrated Quarterly devoted to the Science of Dynamic Flight in all its branches. Annual Subscription : Publishing Office :

ix Shillings and Sixpence. 27 Chancery Lane, London,

Post Free England

IIMTERES

The Aero

Illustrated Monthly

Contains

Nt> USEFUL

utical World

, lisned 1902-3 by W. E.Irish

jItant Information for

Experimenters* in Mechanical Flight

12 Nos/Vof. I . $1.50 postpaid _ 9

ESTABLISHED

1855

AND HAVE BEEN MODERN EVER SINCE

Orthosiigmat F. 6.8.

A UNIVERSAL ANASTIGMAT LENS.

Instantaneous Work Portraits Groups

Focal Plane Photography

A truly wonderful lens, having great covering power, even illumination and splendid definition. Have your dealer get one on 10 days trial FREE.

Our new catalogue, giving valuable lens information, sent on application.

Herbert <5c Huesgen,

Sole U. S. Agents, 311 Madison Avenue, New York City

GEORGE B. CHAMBERLIN

Once chosen president by all

The members A. C. A. He has a very winning glance

You know it right away. Although the world considers him

A shining legal light, He likes a little boyish fun,

And so he flies a kite.

The kite is very, very big,

So big that it will bear A man upon its many wings

And lift him in the air; Some days he means to take a trip

Among the silver stars, And find who has the title-deeds

To Jupiter and Mars.

AERONAUTICS

MAIN OFFICE 17 7 7 BROAD WAY NEW YORK

Published by AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc.

A. V. Jones, president E. L. Jones, treas.-sec.

E. PERCY NOEL 304 No. 4th Street ST. LOUIS

CLEVE T. SHAFFER

302 HOLYOKE ST. SAN FRANCISCO. CALIF.

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Posloffice, New York, N. Y., under the Act of

March 3, 1879.

Vol. 5

December 1909

No. 6

Akronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative in-formaliou on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES.

One year, $3.00; payable always In advance.

Subscriptions may be sent by express, draft, money order, check or registered letter. Make all remittances free of exchange, payable to Aeronautics. Currency forwarded in unregistered letters will be at sender's risk

Foreign Subscriptions.—To countries within the postal union, postage prepaid, $3.i">0 per annum in advance. Make foreign money orders payable to Aeronautics. No foreign postage stamps accepted.

Important.—Foreien money orders received in the United States do not bear the name of the sender. Foreign subscribers should be careful to send letters of advice at same time remittance is sent to insure oroper credit.

LIFE INSURANCE AND FLYING

A new illustration of modern damfoolish-ness is contained in the notice of the Travelers Insurance Co. This matter was discussed some time ago in this journal and at that an attempt was made to argue the subject with insurance companies, to no avail. The Company's instructions say:

"The hazard of operating or riding in aeroplanes and flying-machines is not insurable as an accident risk, and those insured with us indulging in this form of sport must be asked to carry their own risk by the execution of a special waiver, or surrender of their policies. The same instruction applies to those who indulge frequently in ballooning. Please be governed accordingly, using the attached form of waiver, or terminate the insurance.

"Concerning those who take one balloon trip, with no expectation of repeating the experience, we will not require waiver for that trip, but if another one or more are to be made, the waiver must be executed, or the policy canceled."

It is comforting to see that at least the Buffalo Times realizes the situation, even if they do write a little amateurish:

"This is the first time where any insurance corporation has formally recognized that aerial navigation is a proposition which must be reckoned with in the insurance business. The

action of the Hartford company will be followed by similar measures on the part of other concerns, and the matter is one of importance to all policy-holders, in view of the fact that with improvement in airships the number of those who ride in them is bound to increase, and the trips anigh the clouds which now make one of the big topics of news will soon become commonplaces.

"The step taken by the Travelers' Company is also of significance as tending to show the status of aerial travel in the estimate of the business world. An invention which compels a great insurance company to modify its policies assuredly cannot be treated as a mere curiosity or toy. It is clear that the Hartford corporation believes that while sky-riding is not as yet a commercial proposition, it has at least the rank of a sport, and one which is being carried on to such an extent that insurance companies must take it into account in their calculations.

"Perhaps the most remarkable thing about it all is that the company will carry risks for a single balloon ride. That is conceding a good deal, considering the peril of any sky voyage and the circumstance that the guest of an aeronaut, who tries a trip just for the experience, is quite often marked out by fate as a victim."

WE have read with much interest the article by Air. C. H. Chalmers upon the helicopter in the February issue of Aeronautics, and we admire the ingenuity of his propeller, which exhibits many ideas that are new and must have required much thought and experiment on the part of its inventor, and shows that he thoroughly understands the requirements demanded for a perfect propeller blade.

We have ourselves made a number of experiments with sustaining propellers, but it is difficult to compare ours with those of Mr. Chalmers, since the experiments were not made under similar conditions, and since it is not easy for us to translate the tables given in the article. We will, however, give you such results of our efforts as we think most likely to be useful.

Our experiments have all been made under constantly similar conditions. We have made a rigid structure of steel tubes, upon which were fixed the motor and transmission gear. The motor operated two vertical shafts revolving in reverse directions. The propellers to be tried were keyed on to these shafts. The entire apparatus was mounted on a swinging platform, and worked inside a shed, so that it was free from all exterior disturbances. The motor was furnished with a Prony brake applied direct to the surface of the horizontal shaft which drove the verticals, and upon the verticals was a Renard dynamometric register.

The diameter of the various propellers tried was from 4 m. to 6 m., and the motor used was an eight-cylinder Antoinette capable of developing 20 horse power. The propellers were two-bladed with aluminum blades riveted upon tubes 40 mm. in diameter, the extremities of the tubes being encased in sleeves of aluminum, and to alter the pitch of the propeller it was necessary only to loosen two screws.

Our first object was to discover the amount of force absorbed by the tubes or arms, which gave no sustaining power. To obtain this we mounted two tubes of 40 mm. diameter and 2 m. long, and found that to revolve them at 300 revolutions per minute required 12 horse power! We repeated the experiment several times, as in all cases we do, so as to obtain an average, and always 12 horse power was necessary. We assume, of course, that there was some loss of power due to the transmission, although that was mounted on ball bearings. But it was obvious that an inventor who would place blades on the ends of such tubes and wish to have them revolve at 300 revolutions per minute would use up 12 horse power

simply in making the supporting tubes penetrate the air.

It is necessary, therefore, either to do away with such tubes or give them some form which would enable them more readily to find a passage through the air.

The second series of our experiments had reference to the surfaces of the blades. We had believed, as we wrote last year, that it would be possible to obtain an economical sustentation with propellers of small diameter. We thought that in diminishing the diameter, one could construct such propellers in aluminum without having an excessive weight, and that one could in that way obtain surfaces that would be truer and less subject to get out of shape, and consequently give more thrust. Our experiments have proved that we were deceived.

We found that it required far less power to lift a given weight with the muslin-covered 6-m. diameter propellers of our big 1907 helicopter (with which we lifted two men) than was necessary with metal propellers of 4 m. diameter, although much more carefully made. This difference of thrust was not due. as one might have supposed, to the difference of the circles of air cut by the two propellers, but to the difference of the supporting surfaces. It would be useless to increase the diameter of a propeller unless one also increased the surface of the blades.

In our first tests we used a propeller with two blades of aluminum 1.25 long and 0.40 111. wide, mounted upon arms giving a diameter of 4 m.

The circle of air cut by these propellers had an exterior diameter of 4 m. and an interior diameter of 1.50 m., or a surface of 10.79 sq. m. To lift 100 kg., the propeller had to turn at 300 revolutions per minute, and the power required was n horse power in addition to the 12 horse power necessary to turn the arms.

In the second tests we used similar blades, but mounted on arms giving a diameter of 6 m., so that in this case the surface of air affected was 15.70 sq. m. To raise the 100 kg., these propellers had to turn at 170 revolutions per minute and 11 horse power was necessary as before. Therefore, though the circle of air attacked was much greater, the thrust obtained was not more.

To obtain a better thrust, it would have been necessary to enlarge the blades. For propellers of sustentation, the largest blades possible seem to be required, but the maximum size can only be determined by experiment. Such experiments with full-sized propellers are costly and take much time. We have therefore attempted tests with

PERFECTING THE HELICOPTER

By Paul Cornu.

models on a i to 10 scale; but the results were too variable to allow of any conclusions.

When one knows by experiment the maximum size which should be given to each part of the propeller blades proportional to the circle of air attacked, one could then increase the diameter of the propellers to the extreme limits which the construction would permit. The greater the surface of the blades, the greater will be the thrust of the propeller for the power exerted.

We believe that two-bladed propellers are best. These involve the least amount of detrimental surface, such as the arms. If for any special reasons one employed three or four blades, the total surface ought not to be more than that of two blades of the same diameter.

A helicopter ought always to have at least two propellers turning in opposite directions to equalize all reactions. In our helicopter of 1907 the two propellers were placed side by side. That arrangement is very inconvenient, and complicates the chassis and transmission. We have since tried superposed propellers on concentric axes. With such the thrust is good if one leaves sufficient separation between the two propellers and gives to the lower propeller a little greater thrust than the upper one.

We have also tried concentric propellers differing very much in diameter, each cut-

ting its own circle of air and the smaller revolving much faster than the larger. This enables a much lighter shaft to be used for the upper propeller. But we believe that two superposed propellers of equal diameter are best, since they give the maximum of surface with the relative minimum of obstruction.

Sooner or later one will certainly obtain the perfect propeller of sustentation, and then when we have an excess of lifting power, it will not be difficult to transform that into horizontal propulsion. If one used planes of light surface, one might use the whole of the ascensional force to propel the apparatus horizontally. It would be necessary to enable the helicopter to have the ability to alight safely after the motor had stopped; and to do that it looks as if planes will assuredly have to be furnished. It is very difficult to obtain sustentation and propulsion with the same propellers; but the ideal to work for is a propeller which will give the thrust and speed necessary for propulsion, and which will be so arranged that they will form aeroplanes themselves. An apparatus so formed would be at once both a helicopter and an aeroplane.

We have tried to solve the problem with our helicoplane*, the propellers of which have pivoted blades; but we have not yet made the necessary extended experiments.

* See April, '09, issue.

SEVENTY-ONE FLIGHTS IN ONE MONTH

Army Officers Proficient

SEVENTY-one flights have been made to November 9 in the Government aeroplane at College Park, Md„ during the course of the instruction of Lieut. F. P. Lahm, Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler, Lieut. F. E. Humphreys, Lieut. B. D. Foulois and Lieut. Sweet, beginning October 8 and ending November 5, when, in making a sudden landing due to the engine misfiring, the skid and right wing of the aeroplane were damaged. Repairs are now being made.

HUMPHREYS MAKES 6l MIN. ON FOURTH FLIGHT.

Lieut. Humphreys' flights might be taken to show the progress of an aviator. Beginning with one of 3 min. alone, he made one of Sl/2 min., 24 min., and then took up Lieut-Foulois for 61 min. and 18 min. respectively. Lieut. Lahm comes next in point of length, making one alone of 58^2 min. These two long flights were the longest made during the above period.

Following is a complete list of the flights:

NAME FIRST GIVEN IS THAT OF THE PILOT.

Oct. 8.—Wright alone, 3 min.; Wright alone, 4 min. 51 sec.; Wright alone, 3 min.; Wrighfc-and Lajgm, 5 min. S sec.; Wright and Humphreys, f rain. 15 sec.

Oct.^ 9.—Wright alone, 6 min. 33 sec.; Wright alone, 3 min. 23 sec.; Wright alone, 1 min. 6 sec.

Oct. 11.—Wright alone, 3 min. 50 sec.

Oct. 12.—Wright and Plumphreys, 7 min. 20 sec.

Oct. 15.—Wright and Lahm, 4 min. 48 sec; Wright and Humphreys. I min. 32 sec.; Wright alone, 9 min.; Wright and Lahm, 14J/2 min.; Wright and Flumphrcys, 3V2 min.

Oct. 16.—Wright and Humphreys, 13 min. 1S sec; Wright and Lahm, 13 min. 44 1/5 sec; Wright alone, 3 min. 34 4/5 sec.

Oct. 18.—Wright and Humphreys,_ 11 min. 47 2/5 sec.; Wright and Lahm, 18 min. 37 2/5 sec; Wright and Humphreys, 10 min. 13 3/5 sec; Wright and Lahm, 11 min. 342/5 sec;

Wright and Humphreys, 9 min. 37 1/5 sec.; Wright and Lahm, 9 min. 194/5 sec.

Oct. 19.—Wright and Humphreys, 11 min. 17 sec; Wright and Lahm, 4 min. 10 2/5 sec; Wright alone, 3 min. 15 sec; Wright and Humphreys, 18 min. 40 sec; Wright and Lahm, 19 min. 6 sec

Oct. 20.—Wright and Humphreys, 3 min. 25 sec.; Wright and Lahm, 6 min. 28 sec; Wright alone, 2 min. 31 sec; Wright and Humphreys, 27 min.

Oct. 21.—Wright and Lahm, 33 min.; Wright and Humphreys, 1 min.; Wright alone, 2 min.

Oct. 22.—Wright alone, 3 min.; Wright and Humphreys, 42 min.

Oct. 23.—Wright and Lahm, 18 min.; Wright and Humphreys, S min.; Wright and Foiftsis, 13 min.; Wright and Lahm, 11 min. \JJ

Oct. 25.—Wright and Foulois, 13 min.; Wright and Humphreys, 11 min.; Wright and Lahm, 18 min.; Wright alone, \x/2 min.

Oct. 26.—Humphreys alone, 3 min.; Lahm alone, 13 min.; Humphreys alone, Sl/2 min.; Wright alone, 2 min. 15 sec.; Lahm alone, 5 min.; Humphreys alone, 24 min.; Lahm alone, 40 min.

Oct. 27.—Wright alone, 4 min.; Wright alone, 2 min.; Wright and Foulois, 28 min.; Wright and Chandler, passenger, 6l/2 min.; Lahm and Humphreys, 36 min.

FIG. 2 is an English device, recently patented by Alfred P. Portway, to take the place of a turnbuckle. It consists of a one-piece steel stamping, 1 in. in diameter, with a central boss. Around the rim are inclined slots, diametrically opposite one another, in pairs. The central boss is also slotted in line with one pair of the rim slots. The wire to be tightened is placed in the center slot and the two rim slots in line with it. On rotating (in the direction of the inclined slots) the whole device, by means of a key or screwdriver placed in the slotted boss, the wire slips from the rim slots in which it is resting, and on meeting the next pair falls into them and is automatically locked by its own tension. The surplus wire is wound on the boss.

In Fig. 3 is shown the method by which Bleriot attached the end of his round rubber shock absorber to the wires which go up to the sliding ring on the steel front upright of chassis. The end of the rubber is inserted in the cap and then the split tapes nut screwed into the cap compressing the rubber. These springs are built up into a cable out of in-

Oct. 29.—Lahm and Humphreys, 1 min.

Oct. 30.—Foulois and Humphreys, 10 min.; Lahm and Humphreys, 14 min.; Foulois and Humphreys, 39 min.

Xov. 1.—Lahm alone, 16 min.; Lahm alone, $Sl/2 min.; Wright alone, 2 min.

Xov. 2.—Wright alone, 2 min.; Wright and Lahm, 2 min.

Xov. 3.—Humphreys and Foulois, 61 min.; Lahm and Sweet, passenger, 9 min.; Humphreys and Foulois, 18 min.

Xov. 5.—Lahm and Humphreys, 9 min.

CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT AEROPLANE.

The upper surface of the front rudder of the Wright aeroplane was removed and placed as a fixed horizontal surface just in front of the rear rudder and lower than the upper main surface. This gave the machine increased stability which was an aid in instruction. A double set of levers was added to the machine to aid the instruction.

Capt. Chas. DeF. Chandler, signal corps, in addition to his duties as disbursing officer of the signal corps, also has charge of the aeronautical division.

Second Lieut. Frederic E. Humphreys, corps of engineers, is relieved from duty in the aeronautical division.

VII

numerable fine strands of rubber. The rubber cable is then covered with woven cotton fabric.

Instead of pulleys for warping or wing tip operating wires, short lengths of Bowden wire might be used, through a hole in the strut, or clamped on to the main beam, as in Fig. 1.

A loose joint connection device is shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 4 shows the method of tightening guy wires in use by Brauner and Smith on their biplane at Morris Park.

In model work, a subscriber suggests the plan illustrated in Fig. 6 for tightening the guy wires. He uses an ordinary J^-in. stove bolt, slotted at the thread end. Insert the wire in the slot and turn the bolt with a screwdriver to the desired tension and then tighten the nut.

Fig. 7 shows the central portion of the Brauner-Smith machine. The outriggers supporting the vertical rudder are bent as shown to provide room for the propeller to turn. The right and left steering is also illustrated.

CONSTRUCTIONAL AIDS —

Foreign Aeroplanes No Fly for U. S.

The Farman machine which was not flown by Aviator Ozmont at St. Louis is now at the Indianapolis motor parkway and the Bleriot, which Ralph Saulnier took to Ampere (X. J.) to sell lots is dismantled waiting for a new cylinder. It didn't fly, although the en-

gine was run a little. Then, someone threw a brick at the machine which hit and broke a cylinder, so the press agent said. Maybe it was only the piston that seized and pushed a piece out of the side.

ASUMMARY on the nature and duration of patent grants in foreign countries is, I am sure, of interest to all inventors. I will therefore try to convey a concise and clear idea as to the most important requirements and conditions imposed by the laws abroad.

GERMANY.

Patent is granted for 15 years from the day following that on which the declaration of the invention was made. Certificate of addition ending on the same date as the patent, or in some cases taking the place of the patent.

New inventions of industrial utility are patentable with the following exceptions: Inventions for articles involving a breach of the law, or of morals, food stuffs, articles of consumption and medicines, as well as substances obtained by chemical means; the process of obtaining such substances, however, is patentable.

An invention is not considered new in Germany if, at the date of application, it has already been described in publications made within a century, or if it has already been in use in the country in such a manner as to render it possible for experts in the subject to have made use of it. Applications in respect of inventions published officially abroad are only opposable after three months from the date of the publication if the application for the patent is made by the inventor or those claiming under him, and if the publication is made in a country granting reciprocal rights.

The inventions must be worked three years from the date of publication of the grant, and compulsory licenses may be ordered. There is a special tax on the patent being granted, then annual fees.

AUSTRIA.

Patent is granted for 15 years from the date of the publication in the Patent Journal. Certificate of addition ceasing on the same date as the patent, or in some cases taking its place.

Patentable inventions: New devices capable of industrial application with these excep tions: Inventions against law, morals or health; inventions destined to lead the public into error; scientific theories and principles: devices and products relating to obierts reserved as State monopolies; food stuffs and articles of consumption for human beings; medicines or disinfectants; materials produced by chemical means.

The processes by which any of these last-named articles are obtained remains patentable.

An invention in Austria is not considered new if, before application, it has been described in printed publications, used, exhibited or introduced into the country, already been the subject of protection in Austria and subsequently come within the public domain. The same provisions as in Germany in relation to official publications of foreign patents apply, except that the time is extended to six months.

The invention must be worked within three years from the date of the publication in the official journal of the grant of the patent. Compulsory licenses may be ordered. There are annual fees.

BELGIUM.

The grant is for a term of 20 years from the date of application. In patents of importation the duration not to exceed that of the patent previously obtained abroad for the longest term. Improvement patents end at the same time as the principal patent.

Every discovery or every improvement capable of being worked as an article of industry or commerce is patentable.

Conditions as to novelty: The patented article must not have been employed, put in use or worked by others within the kingdom for a commercial purpose before the legal date of the invention, and further, the invention must not, previously to the date of the deposit, have been brought out in a printed work or publication unless, as regards patents of importation, the publication is exclusively the result of a legal requirement.

The invention must be worked within a year from the commencement of working abroad. The invention must never cease to be worked for a period exceeding one year.

There are annual fees, but no additional annual fees for improvement patents when these are granted to the grantee of the principal patent.

DENMARK.

Duration of grant, 15 years.

Certificate of addition ends at the same time as the principal patent. (Special patents are granted called dependent patents.)

All inventions which can be industrially utilized, or which can be industrially employed, are patentable.

These are exceptions: Inventions without any real importance, inventions the exercise of which is contrary to law, morality or public order, medicines, articles of food or refreshment and the processes for the production of articles of food.

The invention is not considered new, if at the date of the deposit it has already been

{Continued on page 24$)

TALKS WITH INVENTORS, III

By F. O. Andreae.

PATENT ATT'y.

IN THE WORLD OF AVIATION

Curtiss and Willard Flights—Wright Injunction Suit—Van Anden Aeroplane— 1910 Aviation Meets—Automobile Club Prize

The Van Anden Aeroplane.

Frank Van Anden, a member of the Aeronautic Society living at Islip, L. I., has disjointed his machine at the central section and is storing it in his garage waiting for ice to form on Great South Bay when experiments will be continued.

While the machine is wholly experimental, many successful short flights up to about 500 yds. have been made with it during the month of October. After the flight mentioned in the November number, the propeller was broken. A new one being fitted, flights were continued up to Oct. 19th, when, in a strong fitful wind, the machine was caught in a heavy gust and keeled over, righting itself with the automatic device employed just before the landing was made, which was somewhat heavy and buckled the front wheel.

DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE.

Surfaces. The two superposed planes measure 26 ft. spread by 4 ft. front to rear, spaced slightly over 4 ft. apart. Silkeline, coated with Hartford Aero Varnish, (Hartford Rubber Works, Hartford, Conn.), is used and has proven very satisfactory. The varnish is very elastic and does not crack. The ribs are of laminated spruce curved 1 in. to the foot, the deepest part of the curve (4 ins.) being 1 ft. back from the front edge. The angle of attack is 40. Struts are elliptic in cross section, also of spruce, which is employed throughout. The main beams, each of which are in three sections, are nearly half-round, that is, the cross section area is slightly greater than a half circle. The three sections of the beams are fastened together by a metal sleeve. Each wing unjoints at a point above the rear wheels by merelv unhooking the fittings joining the beams and struts and pulling the wing out of the sleeves.

Rudders. The two-surface horizontal front rudder measures 2x2x4 ft., pivoted at its lateral center 8 ft. from the front edge of the main planes. The two-surface rear horizontal rudder measures 2x2x2^2 ft., pivoted, as in front 15 ft. from the rear edge of the planes. Hinged to the rear central strut of this tail is a vertical rudder measuring 2 ft. high by 3 ft. long. This operation of the front rudder and the rear vertical rudder is the same as in the Curtiss machine. Pushing out on the steering wheel steers the machine down, pulling back steers up. Moving wheel left and right steers in those directions respectively.

Wing Tips. The two wing tips measure 2 ft. front to rear by 6 ft. spread and are hinged

half way between the main surfaces to the two outermost rear struts. Cables run from these to an automatic device working with power from the engine, which automatically operates the tips with the tilting of the machine. Normally the wing tips are held horizontal by stiff springs introduced in the cables outside of the device. This device is purely experimental as yet and its operation is not to be made public now. Results obtained thus far are satisfactory, with the exception that it is not quite sensitive enough.

Pozver Plant. A 50 h. p. "H-F" water cooled motor, one of the aeronautical engines just put on the market by the Harriman Motor Works, 1876 Broadway, New York, drives a 6 ft. diam. laminated wood propeller with a 17 degree pitch at the extremities, increasing toward the hub. The rear end of the motor is about 6 inches back from the rear transverse beam and the engine shaft is in a direct line with the axes of the two horizontal rudders. An R. I. V. ball bearing carries the shaft at this point. Flying, the motor turns at about 800 r. p. m., delivering 180 lbs. pull. A test of the motor running at 1200 showed a pull of 250 lbs. on the scales. Bosch magneto provides ignition.

Running Gear, Etc. The whole apparatus is mounted on a five wheeled chassis in the form of a triangle. Just behind the front wheel which forms the apex of the triangle are two other, lighter, wheels fitted with springs to absorb the shock of landing. The front wheel is normally off the ground and comes in contact only in landing when the two wheels just mentioned. move up under the shock and allow the front wheel to touch for a moment. At the base of this triangle are two heavy motorcycle wheels, fitted with Hartford aero tires and mounted each on motorcycle forks. A brake on fhe front wheel and the throttle are operated by the feet of the aviator who sits on a seat ahead of the supporting planes, fastened to the two long wood strips which run from the front wheel to the engine bed. similar to the arrangement in the Curtiss machine.

At each lateral extremity of the apparatus is fastened half an ordinary buggy rim. obtained from the local wheelwright. This is of hickory, tough and springy.

NEW FEATURES.

A new structural feature is the use of the half-round beams. The greatest diameter is but 34 in- and, of course, the vertical dimension is much less. To obtain strength a short mast extends at right angles to each beam between each strut and toward the opposite sur-

face. A wire stay runs through a brass lined hole in this little mast to the fitting at the junction of the strut with the beam. In addition, each mast is stayed to the corresponding mast by a wire, as shown in the illustration.

Instead of using a cast or brazed fitting for the struts, a heavy wire is run through each strut and then bent at right angles and run through the beam on each side, threaded and tightened with nuts. The guy wires hook into this same device.

A short dowel running about a Yz in. in both the strut and beam prevents any looseness.

Auto Club Offers Motor Prize.

Following close upon a written suggestion made to the Technical Committee of the Automobile Club of America by Aeronautics, comes the official announcement of a $1,000 prize and also, as mentioned last issue, the club will soon be in a position to hold a contest for aeronautic motors on the new dynamometer. Below is the resolution adopted by the Board of Governors:

Resolved, that a prize of $1,000 to be known as "The Aero Club of America-Aviation Section of the Automobile Club of America Prize" be offered for the best aero motor performance on the new absorption dynamometer for the year iqio, the rules for the test to be formulated jointly by the Aviation and Technical Committees of the A. C. A.

The following have been appointed to serve on the committee to formulate rules governing this prize: Wilbur Wright, Glenn H. Curtiss and Charles M. Manly.

Aeronautic Society Answers Injunction.

New York, Oct. 29.—Answer is being made today by the Aeronautic Society to the bill of complaint in the proceedings brought by Orville and Wilbur Wright. The society, through its counsel, Emerson R. Newell and Thomas A. Hill, denies that the complainants are entitled to any injunction restraining it from using the aeroplane which it purchased last spring; from Glenn H. Curtiss, and that the machine itself or the use of it is any infringement of patent rights.

claim wrights not the first to fly.

This answer denies that the Wrights were ever the original inventors of improvements jn flying machines not known or used by others in this country before such invention and that the alleged invention was the first instance in the history of aviation that a gasless machine made flights under the control of an operator, in fact, denies that the Wrights' invention gave the world the first machine to actually and successfully fly-and thus created a new art or an epoch in aerial endeavor.

In referring directly to the patent itself, denial is made that it lawfully gives the Wright Brothers the full, exclusive, or any right to the alleged invention.

That the United States Government, by rea-

son of its purchase and operation of one of the Wright aeroplanes, recognizes the validity of the patent rights, is made the basis of another denying clause.

In alleging the Wright patent to be void by reason of prior patents or descriptions, six United States patents are cited, five British, four German and one French, as well as issues of the American Engineer and Railroad Journal during 1893, 1894 and 1895. The United States patents named are as follows: Marriott, No. 97,100; Davis, 291,990; Bechtel, 429,373; Mouillard, 582,757; Stanley, 659,264; Jonnston, 722,516; that of Marriott dating back to T869.

Also, that several persons in the United States made use of the devices claimed in the patent prior to the invention. These names are: O. Chanute, Dr. George A. Spratt, Dr. A. F. Zahm, A. M. Herring. Hugo Mattullath, Prof. T. J. Montgomery, E. P. Johnson and Carl Dienstbach. And that, the invention claimed in the patent involved nothing more than mere mechanical skill and "was not pat-entablv novel."

As Messrs. Newell and Hill also represent Glenn H. Curtiss and his company, it is probable that an almost identical answer will be made in the Buffalo court to the demand made by the Wright attorneys for an injunction restraining the company and Curtiss from making and using the Curtiss aeroplane. The application for an injunction was made on September 30th, at Buffalo, N. Y., in the latter actions, and argument will be heard December 14th.

sue on eleriot machine.

Injunction has also been asked to restrain Ralph Saulnier from using the Bleriot type XL monoolane, which he has imported for money-making purposes. The planes of the Bleriot are capable of being warped.

On November 6th, Wilbur and Orville Wright called at the French Consulate in New York and received the decoration of the Cross of the Legion of Honor presented by the Consul General.

J. N. Sparling, 503 Missouri avenue, E. St. Louis, 111., has completed a monoplane 30 ft. spread by 30 ft. in length, total supporting surface 275 sq. ft., weighing 400 pounds, and is waiting for a Curtiss 40 h. p. engine. The lateral stability is claimed to be automatic.

Clifford Beckham, of Ft. Worth, Tex., is preparing. to construct a full-sized biplane machine in the near future. The power models constructed during a number of years' experiments have shown the way to the big flier and Mr. Beckham, of course, has the proverbial confidence of the aeronautic enthusiast. Mr. Beckham is junior partner of the law firm of Beckham & Beckham, his father, Judge R. E. Beckham, one of the oldest members of the Ft. Worth bar, being the senior half.

BIG CITIES WANT AVIATION1 MEET.

Gordon Bennett Balloon Race Forgotten.

The east is watching with absorbing interest the outcome of the proffers made by the Baltimore and Washington aero clubs of grounds at College Park, Md., for the aviation meet in 1910. Both of these clubs have joined hands and are waging an active campaign to induce the Aero Club of America to select that site. The Washington Post has promised to offer a $1,000 trophy.

There seems to be no doubt but that $100,000 can be raised for financing the offering of prizes.

College Park is suitable, Wright having been using it to teach the Army officers, and it is accessible by either the Pennsylvania of B. & O. main lines, or by the electric line which runs between Washington and Baltimore.

Eleven thousand dollars have already been subscribed at a meeting held Oct. 26 as a "starter" and a Committee of One Hundred will raise the guarantee fund.

St. Louis is another applicant at the throne of aeronautics in the United States as represented by the A. C. A. and promises to raise $100,000 if necessary, offering, as one prize alone, $20,000 to hold a speed race on a certain hour of a certain day without regard to weather conditions. Twenty-five thousand dollars is also suggested as a duration prize and $15,000 for altitude.

Los Angeles Offers $150,000 for Meet.

Los Angeles, Nov. 8.—The California Aviation Society was organized today with Henry E. Huntington, president; Gov. J. N. Gillette, vice president; Willis H. Booth, treasurer; George B. Harrison, secretary and Dick Ferris, manager. United States Senators Perkins and Flint and ex-Secretary of the Navy Victor H. Metcalf are among the equally prominent directors.

The object is to foster aeronautics and aviation throughout California as a sport and science. All the large cities of the state are represented on the directorate, including leading state officials. Mr. Huntington is head of vast interests in California. Mr. Booth is a leading Los Angeles banker and president of the Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Ferris is a capitalist and well-known promoter of ballooning.

Allied with the society is a commercial corporation which has already raised over $50,000 toward a $150,000 fund for a big meet in Los Angeles in mid-winter, combining ballooning and aviation, to which will be invited all the aviators and balloonists of this country and the prominent ones abroad. Mr. Huntington himself has offered $50,000 to assure the event and Southern California business interests are preparing to raise a like sum.

1 Curtiss Company Adds Agency.

J Ten machines are now in progress of construction at the Curtiss plant. After the first of January the price will be cut to $5,000, a reduction of $2,500 from the present asking price.

curtiss agency in chicago.

James E. Plew, the White automobile agent in Chicago, has taken the agency for the Curtiss machine for a considerable territory around Chicago and the first machine, bought by himself, is ready for delivery, and it will be placed on exhibition in his salesroom. Otto Brodie, an old time aeronaut and parachute jumper, has been engaged to operate it. An aeronautic department will be established in the new building in course of erection. This covers a lot 125 ft. by 190 ft. and will be four stories in height, one floor being devoted entirely to aeronautics.

Mr. Plew stated to the correspondent: "Our automobile business is rather extensive and we believe that the channel through which the aeroplane should reach the public will be with the automobile dealer."

Brodie has been at Latonia race track with Curtiss, learning to fly the machine. Partial arrangements have been made with the Chicago golf clubs to give exhibitions on their grounds and a flight will be attempted from Jackson Park, across the Midway to Washington Park and from there down the line of Michigan avenue to a landing on the lake front when Brodie becomes familiar with the machine.

Warner Makes Flights.

A. P. Warner, the first private individual to purchase a Curtiss aeroplane, has taken it to his home in Beloit where he expects to "do some stunts" with it. In speaking of his first flights he says, "There's nothing to it." He has already been in the air a dozen times and his flights have been about half a mile in extent. On the last flight the wire running to the steering gear broke and a heavy landing was made on plowed ground and two of the bamboo outriggers were broken.

Wright May Fly for Michelin Trophy.

All America will eagerly watch for either Wilbur or Orville Wright, who arrived in America on Nov. 4th after completing his flights in Germany for the syndicate there, to make a new world's duration record in contest for the Michelin prize and cup for 1909.

On the very last day of December last year it was that Wilbur Wright, in France, won the first of the Michelin prizes by a flight of

2 hours and 18 minutes. That has been badly beaten during the past few months and now Farman in a four-hour flight jumps the record ahead by a whole hour from his own three-hour flight at Rhcims.

It must not be that the Wrights allow this challenge to pass unnoticed and lose for igo9 this most famous of all trophies. In his noncommittal way, Wilbur Wright led the report-

ers to think, on meeting his brother and sister at the steamer, that the prize will not be lost to America this year. After winning the biggest international balloon and aviation trophies this year, certainly we want to get the/ third of the trio. France realizes keenly that "troubles never come singly" and to lose tjle Michelin again this year will be a sad blowff

/

Y. M. C. A. Course Successy

The class in aeronautics which was started under the tutorship of Wilbur R. Kimball at tue West Side Y. M. C. A., 318 W. 57th St., New York City, on Oct. 20th, has met with great success. At the opening lecture Messrs. Hudson Maxim, Winthrop E. Scarritt and Wilbur R. Kimball addressed about 100 present at the school. Over 30 students have already been enrolled, a lot of whom are enthusiastic and endeavoring to secure all the information they possibly can. Charles A. Stewart, Assistant Director, stated: "The demand for a school of this kind has been so great that we believe we shall have to put on another term as soon as this one is finished. Inquiries have been received from as far west as Salt Lake City, and from Maine and Massachusetts."

In conjunction with the aeronautic school, on Saturday, Oct. 23d, the Y. M. C. A. tendered a silver cup for the longest flight made by model aeroplanes in the competition held that day. This was won by Joseph H. Dalkranian with a flight of 44^2 ft. by an Antoinette model driven by rubber bands. William H. Aitken was second with a flight of 44 ft., and Wilson Marshall, Jr., (12 years of age) with a flight of 40 ft. was third. One of the rules of the contest was that the machines must start from the ground and this was the cause of the flights being so short. Louis R. Adams, one of the judges, made an offer to the Y. M. C. A. of a silver cup as a prize for another contest in which the models were to be flown from the hand. He stipulated that the cup must be won three times in order to become the property of the winner. The first flight for this cup was held on the 23d and Wilson Marshall, Jr., won the first leg with a flight of 60 ft. 9 in.

November 6.—Wilson Marshall, Jr., today captured the second leg with a flight of 60 ft.

To Fly Over New York.

J. Fillmore Cox, M. E., of Bayonne, N. J., states that in pursuance of the agreement made between him and a Mr. Spencer of New York, he is to start from New York or vicinity and fly over Brooklyn and New York City before starting on a contracted flight up Long Island Sound to Westbrook, Conn. He says that Soencer Kerr, of London, will promote a syndicate in Great Britain to manage flights to be made by Mr. Cox during the coming spring in Great Britain with the machine, the American Vacu Aero Car. which was exhibited at Madison Square Garden, where it created a

grejft deal of interest on account of its novelty. It/bears no resemblance to any known type.

Cincinnati Has Aero Meet.

G. H. Curtiss will have for a competitor at the aeronautic meet at Cincinnati, Nov. 12, 13 and 14, his first pupil, Charles F. Willard. These two are the headliners in the aviation section. ,—'

Not to neglect the lighter side of the art, Lincoln Beachey and Roy Kr-abenshue will provide dirigible balloon racing with Cromwell Dixon as a, perhaps less well known, runner-up. Since St. Louis, 1907, Dixon, the boy airship pilot, has advanced from the foot-power stage and has long since joined the motor class with a Curtiss four-cycle air-cooled motor, driving a 60 ft. bag, 18 ft. in diameter. Several spherical balloons are to be inflated with hydrogen for a long distance race. Two hot air balloons complete the bill.

Cincinnati, Nov. 12.—G. H. Curtiss made four short flights and Charles F. Willard ten; at the aero meet here today. Knabenshue,* •Beachey and Dixon all are on hand with]', their airships and at one time today the|\ three were in the air at once. Knabenshuep and Willard were both flying at once, on-different aerial levels. H. H. McGill's balloon Dayton, Mr. Howard's Cincinnati, and the Haddock balloon are here.

Curtiss Flies In Chicago.

After filling his engagement in St. Louis, Mr. Curtiss went to Chicago, where he was scheduled to give an exhibition on the Hawthorne race track on the 15th, 16th and 17th of October. On the first two days the usual Chicago half-gale prevailed and it was only at dusk on the 16th that Mr. Curtiss was enabled to make a flight of about half a mile, at a height of about 35 ft. The next day, 17th, the wind was mild, and in the afternoon Mr. Curtiss made two flights. In the first he did not venture to sweep over the whole track because of the sharp turns required, but in the second flight he went around the whole track, or a distance of one mile.

Captain Baldwin also made two flights with his dirigible balloon and successfully negotiated the difficulties to be overcome in "The Windy Citv."

From Chicago, Curtiss visited friends in Detroit and gave a talk there.

Willard Flies In Philadelphia.

Philadelphia, Oct. 21.—C. F. Willard, in the Aeronautic Society's Curtiss biplane made some good exhibition flights at the Point Breeze track today under private management. After four short straight flights, he circled the track, won the applause of the assembled crowd and was congratulated by Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, president of the Ben Franklin Aeronautic Association. His trial flights were made on Oct. 15th at sunset. The machine is now in temporary storage in this city.

Curtiss Will Fly at Los Angeles.

Hammondsport, N. Y., Nov. 10.—Mr. Curtiss has also contracted to make flights for one week at an aviation meet in Los Angeles, and will receive $10,000 for his participation in the event, which begins on January 3.

The object of making flights is to arouse interest in aviation. In carrying out his determination to make no exhibition flights except for the purpose of aiding the advancement of the science of aviation, Mr. Curtiss has arranged with Charles K. Hamilton, the dirigible balloon expert, whereby the latter will make all exhibition flights with the Curtiss aeroplane. Mr. Curtiss will participate in aviation meets or other affairs which are intended to popularize aviation or to demonstrate the present stage of advancement. He also intends to enter any races or competitions which his other affairs will permit.

Mr. Hamilton has made over a dozen successful flights in the Curtiss aeroplane, using the machine which Mr. Curtiss used in making his flights during the Hudson-Fulton celebration in New York. The first flight made by Hamilton was on October 29. He made five more flights on -the 31st, confining his efforts ito encircling the aerodrome at Rheims, which ps two miles from Hammondsport.

NEARLY HALF^HOUR FLIGHT BY PUPIL.

On Monday, the first of November, Hamilton made a flight of 25 min. and 25 sec, encircling the field over 25 times. He came down because of the failure of his fuel supply. Before making this flight Mr. Hamilton had made five other short flights on the same day. In all of his flights Hamilton has shown great aptitude and so well demonstrated his ability to handle the machine that Mr. Curtiss engaged him to make exhibition flights at fairs and other public celebrations with the Curtiss machine. In addition to his experience with the dirigible balloon, Hamilton has made many gliding flights.

SHOCK-ABSORBING DEVICE.

On November 9 Mr. Curtiss made a flight lasting slightly over 5 min. for the purpose of trying out a new attachment intended to aid in stopping the machine after landing. The device has been attached to the underside of the single runner, and consists of a supplementary runner, which drops after the machine leaves the ground and takes up the shock when the landing is made, bringing the machine to a complete stop within 25 ft. The new device also prevents the machine from swerving around if a defective landing is made.

Clifford B. Harmon is numbered among those who are desirous of obtaining a Curtiss aeroplane. Mr. Harmon visited the Curtiss plant at Hammondsport last week, accompanied by C. K. Knasu, a Japanese manservant who may become the operator of Mr. Harmon's aeroplane. The aeroplane which Mr. Curtiss took to Cincinnati with him for the meet is the first of ten machines which

are to be completed at the Hammondsport factory by the first of December. It will be delivered to James E. Plew, the Chicago agent for the Herring-Curtiss Company, who has bought the aeroplane for his personal use.

Mr. Curtiss has appointed Jerome S. Fan-ciulli, formerly of the Washington staff of the Associated Press, to direct the various enterprises in which Mr. Curtiss has engaged, with special regard to the development and exploitation of the Curtiss aeroplane.

The Aero Club of France has granted a certificate as "pilot-aviator" to Curtiss, along with one to Count Lambert and Jean Gobron.

Aviation Park and Club in Rochester.

Mr. DeLong, of the Elbridge Engine Company, Rochester, N. Y., has been very much interested in aeronautics, and the fact that he is known to be working on a specially light weight engine for aeronautical use has put him in communication with a great many people in western New York who are interested In aviation, and some of whom are building different forms of aeroplanes. At the request of some of these parties, the Elbridge Engine Company made application for aeronautical work for the use of a park recently given to the city The Cobb's Hill Park is not only the most desirable place for such experiments in this locality, but offers the advantage of having the warehouse and factory of the Elbridge Engine Company near at hand, thus providing for the storage, repairs or adjustment of machine.

The matter is at present under consideration by the Park Board and it is assumed will be passed upon favorably within a few days. It is probable that soon a local aero society will be formed, which it is expected will include the names of some of the most prominent men in the city.

F. A. I. Makes 1910 G.-B. Rules.

The fifth congress of the International Federation was held at Zurich just before the balloon races there. The officers for 1910 are: president of honor, M. L. P. Cailletet; president, Prince Roland Bonaparte; vice-presidents, Prof. Busley (Germany), Fernand Jacobs (Belgium), Count de la Vaulx (France), Roger W. Wallace (Great Britain), Prince Borghese (Italy), Cortland F. Bishop (United States) ; Count Castillion de St. Victor succeeds Besancon as secretary.

RULES FOR 1910 GORDON BENNETT.

The meeting fixed the rules for the 1910 G.-B. race to be held in the U. S. The course will be 100 kil. (62.137 miles), five times that of 1909, and the course not less than s kil. around. Each competitor will have but one start. Landings are permitted, but with a minimum distance of 5 kil. between.

Denmark, Russia and Holland were admitted to membership.

(.Continued on Page 24S)

1

Some Structural Features Used byj[Van Anden

THE FARMAN BIPLANE

Profiting by his experience with the Voisin machine, Henry Farman began experiments in April at Chalons with his own apparatus. A duplicate was used by Roger Sommers in his flight of August 7, when he was the first to beat Wilbur Wright's duration record of 2 hours, 20 minutes.

The machine has two superposed supporting surfaces of continental cloth, each 10 by 2 meters, 2 meters apart.

Six meters in the rear is a stabilizing cell, 2 by 2 meters. The two side walls of this cell are pivoted and serve as vertical rudders. In flying, the lower surface of the rear cell is on a level with the lower main supporting surface, while the upper surface of the cell falls below the corresponding one of the main cell.

In front of the supporting surfaces is the single-surface horizontal rudder of 4 meters spread, operated by a lever pivoted near its lower end, on one of the beams on which the engine rests. Moving this forward or backward raises or lowers the machine in flight.

Attached to the rear of the supporting surfaces, running from each extremity thereof towards the center, are wing tips. The two

on each end may be tilted in opposite directions by a movement of the above-mentioned lever to the right or left.

To steer the machine to the left or right, the operator pushes outward with each foot respectively on the horizontal number of a metal "T."

A 35-40-h. p., 4 cyl. Vivinus was used in the Sommer record breaking machine, placed just on top of the lower supporting surface behind the radiator, which is in turn behind the aviator.

In the Rheims contests, two of the Farman machines were fitted with rotating Gnome motors, 50 h. p., air cooled. A Chauvicre 2-bladed "Integral" propeller, 2.6 meters diameter by 1.15 meter pitch, at 1,200 r. p. m. is directly connected on the engine shaft.

The chassis is furnished with four wheels, in pairs, beneath the main surfaces. Three small wheels hold up the rear cell. Between each pair of front wheels is a skid which comes into play on landing only.

For 40 square meters supporting surface, with operator and supplies for an hour, the weight is 550 kilograms.

WITH THE LIGHTER THAN AIR

VERY BIGGEST AMERICAN AIRSHIP.

By Ralph A. Watson.

The first rigid frame dirigible to be constructed in the United States is now under way at Portland, Ore., where Edward P. Preble and J. J. Rekar have completed the frame for the large airship. The work of covering the frame has now begun and the maiden trip is expected by the end of November.

Instead of having an aluminum frame, the Portland ship is shaped with spruce strips I in. wide and from J/i to % of an inch in thickness. These strips are steamed and warped into shape and all is bound tightly together with piano wire. It is contended by Preble and Rekar that this frame will be not only

not like a cigar, as is the Zeppelin. The builders contend that this shape will give greater strength and less air resistance than the Zeppelin shape.

No nails or bolts are used in the construction of the framework. The "boat" designed to carry the engines and passengers is 180 ft. long and from 2 ft. wide at the ends to 4 ft. in the middle. The 35 engines are designed by Preble and are being manufactured in San Francisco and Portland. There will be four propellers each 5 ft. in diameter. The blades and 2 in. steel shaft will be cast in one piece in order to prevent accident. The weight of the entire machine will be 200 lbs. lighter than air, according to the plans of the builders.

In addition to helicopters for raising and lowering the machine in its flights, aeroplanes will be fixed to each side of the main bag so that the inventors believe that the ship will be able to glide much of the time without use

What Forbes' Ascension Record Looks Like

lighter than that of the Zeppelin, but will be more rigid, stronger and have more resistance to accidental blows or the strain of a gale.

The length of the ship is 250 ft. The frame work as it is now set up is 25 ft. high. This framework will enclose seven gas bags, each of wh'ch will be separate from the others if desired, though the gas pressure can be automatically equalized in all of the seven bags. In case of accident to one bag, that one can be cut out from the rest without loss of time and gas.

The seven bags and the framework are to be in turn covered by one immense silken sheath. One striking feature, differing from the Zeppelin model, is that the nose or bow of the ship is shaped like a vertical wedge, and

of the engines. Gas for the use not only of the bags but for the engines as well, will be* manufactured while the machine is in the air.

Forbes' Fast Trip Wins Lahm Cup.

On Tuesday, Oct. 12, iqcq, A. Holland Forbes, pilot, and Max C. Fleischmann, aide, left St. Louis at 5:30 p. m. in the balloon "New York" for the avowed purpose of winning the Lahm cup. Not only was Mr. Forbes successful in the attempt but he made one of the fastest continuous trips on record covering officially 697.17 miles in 19 hrs. and IS min.

At the start the ground wind was blowing 28 miles an hour and the thermometer regis-

tered 400 F. Forty-two bags of ballast were weighed in. By studying the accompanying log the reader will see at a glance the details of the trip. The average speed was 37 miles an hour although telegraph reports sent to St. Louis show that the balloonists covered the distance from Flinton, W. Va., to Lynchburg, Va., 120 miles, in 115 min.

According to the Government weather reports, Mr. Forbes expected to find a wind from the southwest during the night and to pass over Lake Erie and down the St. Lawrence valley on Wednesday, the day following. If this had happened he would undoubtedly have made a world's record. The landing was made 20 miles south of Richmond, at Beach, Va., with 22 bags of sand, having used only 20 bags for nearly 700 miles. The balloon came down in a cornfield belonging to Charles Graves, in Chesterfield County, with the wind blowing about 40 miles an hour. Mr. Forbes states that owing to the heavy wind and having no anchor he was obliged to rip the balloon over 150 feet in the air so that all the gas might be evacuated before coming to earth. The basket touched the ground, made one short jump of about 25 feet, the bag collapsed and the journey was finished at 12:45 P- rn., Wednesday, Oct. 13, 1909.

From 10 o'clock Tuesday night the aeronauts were kept busy emptying one or two sand bags at a time on the bottom of the basket and breaking up with a hatchet the frozen bumps. About midnight they found^ the water in the glass bottles frozen, otherwise it was a most enjoyable trip for them both.

A new 80,000 ft. balloon has been ordered by Mr. Forbes of Capt. T. S. Baldwin for delivery in the spring. Clifford B. Harmon has now purchased Forbes' half interest in the "New York."

Bumbaugh Building Big Bag.

G. L. Bumbaugh and Carl G. Fisher will soon own a big dirigible, which Mr. Bumbaugh is now building. The envelope will be 166 ft. long and the framework 105 ft., driven by a 35 h. p. motor. This is in addition to a small dirigible being built for use next spring for Mr. Bumbaugh personally. This will make his fifth and will be named the "Hummingbird". The four others were: "Kathleen," "Albatross," "Condor," and "Swallow," owned within the last four years.

The balloons Chicago (110,000), Indiana (80,000), Hoosier (80,000), Indianapolis (40,000), Queen Louise (40,000), Columbia (40,000), Ville de Dieppe (40.000), are of Bumbaugh manufacture. The Chicago and the last three named are owned by C. A. Coey of Chicago; the Indiana, made for Mr. Fisher; has been since sold to H. H. McGill, of Dayton. The Hoosier is owned by Dr. P. M. Crume, of Dayton; the Indianapolis by Dr. Link and Russe Irvin of Indianapolis.

During 1909 in the dirigible, Bumbaugh has used 30,000 cu. ft. of hydrogen.

Lambert and Von Phul Beat Chandler Record in 44-Mile-an-Hour Trip.

Starting from St. Louis on October 15 in the St. Louis III on an attempt to break the Forbes-Fleischman Lahm cup winning record, A. B. Lambert and Louis Von Phul beat by a wide margin the 475 miles of Captain Chandler when he won the cup in 1907, but came a little short of equalling the distance of_ the New York. From St. Louis to "a point 15 miles north of Ridgville, Dorchester Co., S. C," is about 665 miles; just where the landing was made has not been ascertained. The duration was 15J/2 hr., the average speed 44.3 miles an hour.

The ascent was one of the most dangerous ever witnessed at the gas works, owing to the puffy wind. The aeronauts narrowly saved themselves from dashing into the east fence of the. inclosure and into the telegraph wires on the Levee by throwing out two and one-half bags of ballast.

The balloon did not clear the poles more than 20 ft., and H. E. Honeywell, who was superintending the inflation of the bag, with his assistants and the bystanders, made a rush for the bag to get it off, thinking it would strike the fence and spill the occupants. The great bag responded after a moment to the lightening and rose majestically above the wires and headed at an altitude of about 1,500 ft. a little south of east.

The balloon carried only about thirty bags of ballast. The gas was too heavy, having not been properly dried, according to Honeywell. This accounts for the small amount of ballast, as there was an unusually light equipment inside.

Semi-Centennial Meet to Commemorate Prof. Lowe's Trip.

Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe's famous balloon trip from Cincinnati to Union, S. C. is to be commemorated by a semi-centennial celebration at Union, S. C, on April 20. 1911, if the plans of Allan Nicholson, editor of the Union Progress meet with support. Mr. Nicholson is working hard to bring this about, and has been in communication with Prof. Lowe at Pasadena, Cal.. and it is intended to invite the Wright Brothers, Glenn H. Curtiss and others to duplicate the trip by aeroplane.

The famous trip Prof. Lowe made was during the War of the Rebellion. He left 3.30 o'clock on the morning of April 20, 1861, from the city of Cincinnati and carried a number of copies of the Cincinnati Commercial, edited by Murat Halstead. During the trip the height of 22.000 ft. was attained. Prof. Lowe's description of the landing amidst the fright of the negro population is very interesting. The cold was so intense that the water in the bottle had frozen, while the jug of Murat Halstead's coffee, wrapped up in a dozen thicknesses of blankets, was still hot after the nearly nine hours consumed

or. the journey. This apparent paradox was the cause of great wonder and astonishment. The distance traveled was estimated by Prof. Lowe as 800 miles. Mr. William Welch, of the office of the chief signal officer of the army, has kindly computed the actual distance in a straight line as 346 miles, that is, from town to town. This would make the speed average 38.4 miles an hour.

Blondin Reaches High Altitude.

Joseph A. Blondin and Roy A. Stamm in the latter's 18,000-foot hydrogen balloon, starting from Albuquerque, N. M., on Oct. 19, went to 12,792 ft. The landing was at three miles beyond the ranch of Angus McGillivray at the base of the Pedernal Mountains, a distance of 90 miles. It was intended to make a record trip for the Southwest.

8,000-FT. DROP IN FOUR SHORT MINUTES.

"We dropped eight thousand feet in four minutes when we made our landing," said Mr. Stamm. "Crossing the McGillivray ranch we were 13,000 feet in the air, our highest altitude. Three miles further we landed. While we knew we were dropping we did not appreciate our terrific speed earthward. We were going about thirty miles an hour eastward at the same time. We came down, remarkable to relate, with hardly a jar, owing to the skill of Mr. Blondin in manipulating the balloon. The anchor caught and we settled easily down, narrowly missing a big bed of cactus, on the slope of a hill on this side of the Pedernals, which are really only low hills themselves. Just as we reached the ground, however, a gust of wind struck us and turned the whole outfit over. The hot water bottle burst and let its contents down my neck, while Blondin got badly tangled up in the rigging. But we lay tight, holding on to the valve rope, and soon had the balloon deflated and lying on the ground. We folded it up into the basket and the trip was over."

According to Mr. Blondin's observations while in the air, the highest speed was attained at a height of 10,000 ft. crossing the Manzano mountains, when the balloon was going fifty miles an hour. The whole east side of the mountains, the aeronauts say, is covered white with snow and the cold blast was plainly felt as it came swirling up, while the wind, which could not be felt in the floating balloon, was heard roaring and whistling through the pine trees a thousand feet below. The range was crossed about midway between the Sandia and Manzano peaks about level with their tops.

Rodman Wanamaker of Philadelphia has purchased a Bleriot type XI. monoplane and it arrived the second week in November. A Mr. Robeson preceded the machine and after assembling it will instruct Mr. Wanamaker in the mysteries of the birds.

Gordon Bennett Balloon Classification.

The Aero Club of Switzerland has given out the official findings of the contest committee in the matter of the question over the winner's distance in the Gordon Bennett balloon race of October 3, and has decided in favor of E. W. Mix and A. Roussel, who represented the United States in the French-built balloon America II (77,700 cu. ft.), allowing him a distance of 696.62 miles, from Zurich to Ostrolenka, Warsaw, Russia; duration, 35 hr. 1 min. Alfred Leblanc was second in the He de France with 507 miles. Seventeen balloons started in this race: 1 Austrian, 3 German, 1 United States, 3 Belgian, 2 Italian, 3 French, 1 English, 3 Swiss.

Twenty-seven balloons took part in the point-to-point contest two days before, and in the distance race on the 2d twenty balloons started, 258 miles being the greatest distance made by any and 23 hr. the longest duration.

FORMER GORDON BENNETT RECORDS.

Lieut. F. P. Lahm (United States), 1906, from Paris, 410 miles.

Oscar Erbsloh, 1907 (Germany), from St. Louis, 872 miles.

Col. Shaeck, 1908 (Switzerland), from Berlin, 753 miles.

Dirigible Ascents in the U. S.

For the January number we are preparing a synopsis of the airship ascents made in this country during 1909, the amount of hydrogen gas used, etc., and would like very much to hear from all owners or operators of airships at the earliest possible date.

Airships Races New Exhibition Feature.

The dirigible balloon as a show proposition having waned from the spectators' point of view, and therefore from the view of the box office, it remained for Knabenshue and Beachy to create a new sensation and they are now en tour with two airships, each operating one in speed competitions at the big fairs in the south.

The Highest American Balloon Ascent.

One of the "ballons-sondes" which were sent up by Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch of Blue Hill Observatory from Pittsfield, Mass., during May and July, 1908, was not found for ten months and its record is most interesting. The instrument recorded completely temperature data from the ground up to 17,700 meters/' (11 miles). On May 7, the date it was re-<^ leased, a general storm prevailed so that the balloon traveling from the east was soon lost in clouds and its course could not be followed. It landed, however, 59 miles to the southwest, as determined by the place where the instrument fell two hours later. At the ground the temperature was 4.50 C, and this decreased as the balloon rose to the base of the clouds, which itself was considerably warmer than the underlying air. Above the clouds

the temperature continued to fall with increasing rapidity up to a height of 12,500 meters (7.7 miles) where the minimum of —54.50 C. was registered. Here the great warm stratum was penetrated farther than ever before in this country, namely, to the height of 17,700 meters (11.0 miles) where the temperature was —46.50 C. An increase of 8.90 C. occurred, however, in the first 3000 m., for above 15,500 m. nearly isothermal conditions prevailed, confirming the belief of Teisserenc de Bort that what he calls the "stratosphere" is composed of a lower inverting layer with isothermal conditions above extending to an unknown height.

In an ascension last November in Belgium the relatively warm stratum was found to extend from 12,900 m. to the enormous height of 29,000 m. (18 miles) where there was still no indication of its diminution.

In the instruments used by Prof. Rotch at Pittsfield, special precautions were taken to limit the time they remained in the air and so prevent them from drifting out to sea with the upper westerly wind.

Official Returns St. Louis Balloon Race.

The official returns of the balloon race which took place from St. Louis Oct. 4, in connection withthe centennial celebration of the city have been announced by the Aero Club of St. Louis.

First prize—Von Phul and O'Reilly; balloon St. Louis No. 3; Lawrence, Minn.; distance, 545 miles.

Second prize—Honeywell and Tolland; balloon Centennjal; Silas, Ala.; distance 488 miles. (/ 1 Nv.< '/ / *vt*<*"

Third prize—Wade and Morgan; balloon Cleveland; Alexander .City, Ala.; distance, 459 miles.

Fourth prize—Berry and Fox; balloon University City; Mooresville, Mo.; distance, 202 miles.

Fifth prize—Arnold and Taylor; balloon Pommery; Knobel, Ark.; distance, 177 miles.

Sixth prize—Harmon and Post; balloon New York; Edina, Mo.; distance, 152 miles.

Non contestants—McGill and Shatter; balloon Indiana; Albany, N. Y.; distance, 523 miles. Crume and Custer, balloon Hoosier; Russellville, Mo.; distance, 105 miles. These balloons were unplaced on account of their pilots not holding official certificates.

Winner of endurance contest—Harmon and Post; balloon New York; time, 48:26:00; highest altitude, 24,200 feet.

Race for 40,000-ft. balloons—First prizes; Bemis and Smith: balloon Peoria; Levins, 111.; distance, 115 miles.

Second prize—Spencer and Dcnvir; balloon Missouri; Hibernia, Mo.; distance, 100 miles. -)

NEW AMERICAN ENDURANCE RECORD.

A new American official record for endurance of 48 hrs. and 2§ min. was made by Mr. Clifford B. Harmon, pilot of the Aero Club of America, with Augustus Post, aide, in his balloon "New York" 80,000 cu. ft., during the "Centennial" races held at St. Louis, Miss., on Oct. 4th, 1909.

The balloon was built by Captain Thomas S. Baldwin of vulcanized rubber material made in America.

Leaving the Aero Club Park, St. Louis, at 5:15 p. m. Oct. 4th; landing was made at 5:41 p. m. on Oct. 6th, at Edina, Miss., 152-1 miles distant. The winds were variable and' a much greater distance was covered. J

SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND RACE

By Cleve T. Shaffer.

As a result of the Pacific Aero Club's challenge to the newly organized Oakland Aero Club, at the Pacific Club's show last August, San Francisco was treated to its first balloon race Sunday, Oct. nth.

San Francisco was represented by the new balloon, "Queen of the Pacific," (40,000 ft.) piloted by Ivy Baldwin and accompanied by President J. C. Irvine of the Pacific Aero Club. Much interest attended the leaving of the balloon because of the christening ceremonies, whHi preceded the flight. Miss Geneve Shaffer, sister of the Secretary of the Pacific Aero Club, after appropriate remarks, broke a bottle of champagne which spattered over the side of the basket.

The Oakland club was represented by the balloon, "The Greater Oakland," (40,000 ft.) ; it was to have held President Martland of the Oakland Aero Club as a passenger, but owing to the balloon sucking air from holes near the

bottom during inflation, it was unable to carry Martland and also the necessary ballast. P. A. Van Tassel was pilot.

A. C. Pillsbury of the Pacific Aero Club, brought out his twin balloon "The Fairy," (10,000 ft.) piloted by J. C. Mars of Seattle; it was an unofficial competition. Time of start: "Fairy," 2:30 p. m.; "Queen of the Pacific," 2:46 p. m.; "Greater Oakland," 3:05 p. m.

The day being calm even at high altitudes, the distances travelled were disappointing and the landings worse. The "Greater Oakland" was picked up by a launch about 8 p. m., in San Francisco Bay off South City, and the "Queen of the Pacific" an hour later off San Mateo. The "Fairy" landed shortly before 6 p. m. at Dunbarton.

The second race for the Portola cup was made Oct. 24th from Oakland, there being almost an entire change in pilots, passengers and rules.

"111111k

1. Queen of the Pacific and the Greater Oakland. 2 A. C. Pillsbury in the basket of the Fairy, with a special panoramic camera. 2. One of Carl E. Myers' captive balloons. 4. Miss Geneve Shafftr. ivy Baldwin, J. C. Mars and Miss Margaret Miller in second race for Portola Cup. 5. Myers' balloon and Baldwin dirigible at Worcester. 6. A. C Pillsbury's Fairy. 7. A six and a half foot uniform pilch propeller made by Cleve T. Shaffer.

The Pacific Aero Club's entry "Queen of the Pacific" piloted by Capt. Ivy Baldwin, carried Miss Geneve Shaffer and the Oakland Aero Club's "City of Oakland" was piloted by Capt. J. C. Mars, with Miss Marguerite Miller as passenger.

This unique innovation in balloon racing necessarily caused a change in the rules which were amended so as to require that a landing be made within two hours of the start, the winner naturally being the one making the greatest distance.

The day was a poor one for racing as there was but little wind and that in the direction of the Bay. Capt. Baldwin, seeing that he was about to get over the water and the balloon leaking, wisely decided not to try for

San Francisco and made a landing about two miles from the start. Time in air: 30 minutes.

Mars endeavored to reach Goat Island but failed and was towed back to Oakland shore. He made about a mile further than Baldwin, winning" the race.

The third of the series was started from San Francisco on Oct. 31st with Miss Shaffer and Miss Miller again as mascots. Both balloons after traveling in the same course and in each other's wake, finally landed near Alva-rado about 25 miles from San Francisco within the time limit.

Both balloons struck the water and only by heroic efforts were they again induced to leave it without sacrificing too much of their precious, ballast..

{Continued on page 2U)

Stevens' Balloon On Top of Madison Square Garden

The Advertising Balloon.

Anew stunt in aerial advertising was inaugurated by A. Leo Stevens for the N. Y. Edison Co. at the recent electrical show in Madison Square Garden, New York.

Suspended from an i8,oco-foot hydrogen gas balloon, the "Stevens 24," was a great silk disc 14 ft. in diameter, being a large iron ring inclosing a circle of pure white silk. Below this were six "Excello" flaming arc lamps, a new type recently put on the market. The light thrown on the silk disc from these lamps seemed to merge into one great reflector or mirror, the whiteness of the silk giving this impression. The current was supplied by a flexible cable. The balloon was covered with the usual net connected to a load ring, to which was attached the rope used for lowering or letting up the sphere of inclosed gargiunning off an electric windless. At various times the light from twelve searchlights was thrown on the balloon at an altitude of about 700 feet, the average height at which the balloon was kept. The weight of the lights, cable and ropes, ring, etc., amounted to about 850 lbs.

The tanks for making the hydrogen, pipmg, etc., were brought from the grounds of the Colonial Yacht Club, where the balloon did duty during Hudson-Fulton, knocked down, and hoisted to the roof of the Garden by the

same windlass. After the close of the show the tanks were again knocked down and lowered to the ground and returned by Mr. Stevens' shop. Nearly a week was spent before and after installing and removing the paraphernalia, and the cost of the plant, covering a dozen men day and night, iron filings, acid, etc., approximated $5,000.

News in the Manufacturing Field

HAttRTMAN motors.

The Harriman Motor Co., 1876 Broadway, New York, is prepared to make prompt deliveries of their "H.-F." motors now on the market. One purchaser whom a representative of Aeronautics interviewed expressed himself as much pleased with the results obtained, and the interviewed has flown.

Two standard sizes are made, 50 and 30 h. p., at normal speed of 1,400 r. p. m. The A. L. A. M. rating is 40 and 25 respectively, at a lower speed. The motor is of the vertical individual four cylinder, four cycle type. The cylinders are machined outside before boring, assuring perfect heat distribution. The water jacket on the head, including the valve ports, is cast with the cylinder, and the jacket on the barrel of the cylinder is of seamless brass tubing. The cylinders

are threaded, and screw into the crank case and locked. The crank shaft is of vanadium steel, cut from the solid b.ock, with hollow crank pins, but solid at the journal bearings and the driving end. Ihe crank case is in two parts, the bearings being hung on the upper naif. 'Ihe lower section is partitioned, and its use is primarily as an oil tank. Bronze is used throughout, no ball or babbitt bear.ngs being employed, 'ihe oiling system is by splash, -bor ignition is emp.oyed a high tension Bosch magneto or Atwater Kent Datteiy system. The overhead cams operating the valves in the head are of cold rolled steel, hardened and pinned to a drill-rod steel shaft. One cam operates both intake and exhaust valves, while rotating through an arc of 180 degrees. The water is circulated about the heated parts of the engine either by means of a centrifugal pump or by syphon system. Auxiliary exhaust ports are provided to assist in the cooling.

NEW ELBRIDGE MOTOR.

The Elbridge Engine Co., Rochester, N. Y., is now planning a very light weight 2-cycle aeronautical motor, the details of which will be published subsequently. This will develop 40-00 h. p. at a weight not to exceed 4>4 lbs. per h. p.

In the meantime, experimenters are continuing to use the stock motor weighing 8 lbs. per h. p., at 900 r. p. m. It is called to buyers' attention that the Elbridge motor ratings are at tne approximate speeds at which they would be operated, and not at impracticably high speeds, and that 8 lb. per h. p. means delivered horse power, and not merely brake test power.

BALDWIN CLOTH.

Baldwin's Vulcanized Proof Material is gaining favor rapidly with aeroplane builders. All the Curtiss machines are covered with the Baldwin proof silk, and the manufacturer can boast of a long string of successes during the past year. Some of the achievements in which the material figures are given in the advertising seetion.

TIRES FOR AEROPLANES NEW INDUSTRY.

An entirely new branch of the rubber tire industry has been opened up, and is being given impetus by the aeroplane. The Hartford Rubber Works Company, Hartford, Conn., has made this a staple branch of its business, and is finding a ready sale for the product.

At first thought, one would be tempted to ask what need an aeroplane has for pneumatic tires. But, in the present stage of its development, the aeroplane cannot rise from earth with powerful flappings of huge pinions; it must run along the ground for some distance to gather the impetus necessary to send it soaring.

The especial requirements of aeroplane tires are strength, coupled with extreme lightness and resiliency in superlative degree. The

thread fabric used by the Hartford Company is the very lightest, and designed primarily and exclusively for aeroplane tires. It will be readily seen that a tire for this use must be strong for the work it dots on the ground, and very light so that it adds no excess to the weight of the machine m the air. Resiliency counts to a considerable degree in aiding the machine to rise. Ihe rubber, too, receives especial treatment to fit it for the particular work it is called upon to perform.

Incorporations.

Schrocder Aerial Navigation Co., of N. Y., at Albany, with capital stock $75,000. Directors include Lindley B. Newby, George E. Fleming, and William H. Crow, all of New York.

Patents.

Charles W. Cheney, Brooklyn, N. Y., No. 936,303, Oct. 12, 1909. Aeroplane consisting cf main supporting planes and gliding planes pivoted "to turn about an axis extending in the general direction of movement of the aeroplane."

Jos. A. Steinmetz, Philadelphia, Pa., No. 936,tSo, Oct. 12, 1909. Balloon of the usual spherical style having a rigid tubular ring secured at the "equator." In addition to the usual net surrounding the bag for supporting the basket, the latter is also connected to the ring.

Charles N. Lee, Gibbon, Neb., No. 936,916, Oct. 12, 1909. Propeller mechanism for airships, the characteristic feature of which is a plurality of truncated conical shells open at both ends, and rotatably mounted in axial alignment with each other, means for rigidly connecting said shells to each other, and one or more spiral vanes mounted on the inner surface of each of the shells.

Jeremiah S. Letts, Dickinson. N. D.. assignor of one half to W. Guy Clark, Dickinson, N. D., No. 937,250, Oct. 19, 1909. Aerial navigation. An airship containing two reservoirs for compressed air and liquid air respectively. A propeller operated by the compressed air and expanded liquid air. Compression pumps operated by the propeller. Means for causing the heat developed by the compressed air to raise the temperature of the liquid air and vice versa; a tank into which the expanding compressed air and liquid air are delivered, and means for conveying said airs to the propeller.

Davi „ S. Foster, Syracuse, N. Y., No. 937,-5S7, Oct. 19, 1909. Aeroplane. More specifically a helicopter since the characteristic feature consists of a vertical and horizontal propeller both of which are provided with adjustable blades for varying the pitch by manually operated means to control the power of either propeller independently.

August E. Mueller, Chicago, 111., No. 93/>3Si, Oct. 19, 1909. Motor driven aeroplane. An aeroplane member provided at its side margins with vertical planes and a swinging wing

Miss E. L. Todd, who completed some time ago a biplane which is now at Mineola undergoing the change from double propellers to a single one and other minor alterations, has obtained the services of Hugo C. Gibson as consulting engineer. Among the results now looked for are development of propeller thrust on a line running through the center of buoyancy while keeping the center of gravity low and absorbing the thrust equally on the main planes.

located beneath the aeroplane member and between the vertical planes.

Benjamin F. Seymour, Denver, Colo., No. 937,i87, Oct. 19, 1909. Airship. Propeller rotating about vertical axis provide "means to impart a vertical movement" and four propellers arranged to independently rotate about horizontal axis at right angles to each other so as to include all points of the compass enable motion in any direction. The lifting propellers are composed of blades "each formed of a coniform sheet whose edges overlap in spaced relation to each other."

Milton D. Thompson, South Portland, Me., No. 938,291, Oct. 28, 1909. Propeller consisting of blades which are adjustable as to the angle of the blade with relation to the axis.

Wiley C. Perry, Luther, Okla., No. 937,956, Oct. 26, 1909, airship comprising a gas bag,, a car suspended therefrom, forwardly tapering shells at opposite sides of the bag and at the forward end of the car, each of said shells having an open side wall and propeller blades arranged within the shells.

Reynon D. Reese, Philadelphia, Pa., No. 939,089, Nov. 2, 1909. Dirigible balloon, the envelope of which is formed of a series of cireumferentially extending strips joined edge to edge and all terminating so as to form a single longitudinal opening in the bag. The car hung from the bag is provided with a structure at each end for holding the envelope at its ends and is capable of being collapsed or expanded at will.

Aero Feature of "1915" Exposition

The feature of the "1915 Boston Exposition," running from Nov. 1-27, is the Rheims winning Curtiss biplane for the exhibition of which a round sum was paid.

C. and A. Wittemann have a glider exhibit in charge of Wm. H. Aitken who is to demonstrate the art of gliding on Franklin Field.

MORE ROOM FOR AERO SHOW.

Boston, Nov. 13.—A second airship room was opened by the "1915" Boston Exposition in the old Art Museum yesterday to accommodate the aero show. The exhibit consists of large models, with working parts, of the ten types of aircraft which represent the progress of aerial navigation from its very beginning up to the present day. The aeroplanes have been very fully represented from the opening of the exposition in the original biplane in which Curtiss won the French aeronautical prize last summer, and the models of Wrights' machine and other heavier than air machines which surround it.

The collection of airships just entered at the "1915" Boston Exposition came through the Custom House Wednesday, having just arrived on the steamship Ccstrian. It was a feature of the festival in Hamburg, Germany, last summer. It starts with a balloon such as was used in the first half of the last cew tury, includes both free traveling and captive balloons, military balloons and dirigibles, and brings the history of ballooning up to date

with the Santos Dumont No. 9, and Count Zeppelin's famous airship. The model of the Santos Dumont, which was built in 1894 and was the first balloon to carry a gasoline engine and to be driven around a closed circuit, is suspended above the door of the old Art Museum, outside, on Copley Square.

This interesting collection of models in the "1915" Exposition includes the airship of Giffard, who made an attempt half a century ago to propel a cigar-shaped balloon through the air with the aid of a small steam engine placed in the basket, in addition to the other models showing successive stages of development.

Visitors to the exposition not only can study many types of air craft side by side, see ttieir workings, and compare them with even the minor experimental air vessels which are shown by photographs, but can witness some of the famous flights that have been made as they are reproduced on the moving picture machine in the old Art Museum. On the nth a further advantage was provided in the lectures on aviation by Mr. A. E. Merrill, subject, "Aerial Navigation by Aeroplane," and Mr. H. H. Clayton, formerly of the Blue Hill Observatory, subject, "Aerial Navigation by Balloons."

The gliding flights by William H. Ai:ken on the Wittemann glider in Franklin Paik, last Saturday, excited so much interest that the "1915" management has arranged for another series of flights to start from the top of Schoolmaster's Hill.

Eisemann Magneto Flies Round Eiffel

What would have happened had the motor of Count de Lambert's aeroplane stopped when he made his remarkable flight from Juvisy to Paris and around the Eiffel Tower on October iS? Would he have lived to tell the tale if the magneto had stopped when the plane was circling the tower at a height of 1,300 ft.? Ignition reliability is the most important thing to be considered in aerop ane flights. Count de Lambert chose the Eisemann magneto for his equipment, after long experiment and investigation, as being the one he could depend upon under most trying conditions. Throughout his entire trip of 31 miles from Port Aviation, Juvisy, to the tower and back, which his Wright biplane covered in the fast time of 49 min. 392/5 sec, the ignition was absolutely perfect. The motor did not miss a single explosion, thanks to the quality of the spark produced by the Eisemann.

The Van Anden Aeroplane

Rings a Cane While Flying?

The Galveston News publishes a most startling interview with Col. E. H. R. Green, of Dallas, who was present at one of the flights made by Charles F. Willard at Mineola.

Following is the actual quotation of Mr. Green according to the above newspaper:

"'Now, some gentleman stick up his cane in the ground,' said the aviator. 'A lady has

already given me a bracelet.' The aviator had descended from a height of 50 ft. and the machine hung stationary about 12 ft. above the ground. A cane was stuck in the ground. The machine flew about in a circle gracefully, and Willard dropped the bracelet over the cane. When the machine came to the ground it dropped so lightly that the silk planes did not even flutter."

TO

Comte de Lambert Circling the Eiffel Tower, in His Epoch-Making Flight in a Wright Machine

F O

E I G N LETTER

Lambert Flies Over Paris and Around Eiffel Tower—Farman makes Two New World Records—Paulhan Makes Three-Hour Flight at Brooklands—Maurice Farman on Hour Flight Cross Country—Baroness Successful Aviator— Wright Suits in France—Experimentor Wins $10,000 German Prize—Moore-Brabazon Wins $5,000 "Daily Mail" Prize.

Algeria.

A Frenchman, F. Kaspar, has made short flights at Algiers with an aeroplane of bamboo and steel tubing. A 35 h. p. E. N. V. engined-Voisin has been purchased by a M. Metrot, who will fly it at Algiers.

Argentine.

An aero club has been organized in the Argentine, S. A., and has ordered a Bleriot monoplane.

Austria.

On October 23 the Viennese had their first sight of an aeroplane in actual flight, and an estimated crowd of 300,000 assembled to see

Bleriot make two flights of 22^/2 and 17 min. each. Bleriot was afterward presented to the Emperor. The next day Bleriot left to fly for the King of Roumania.

RENNER AIRSHIP.

October 16 saw the first trial of a new airship built by Anatole and Alexander Rentier, called "Estaric I." The whole affair is almost identical with the U. S. government Baldwin dirigible. The triangular framework runs nearly the entire length of the bag, the propeller is in front, and in the center of the framework is an open place for the navigator and the engine. There is the same rear vertical rudder with a horizontal surface at right angles to it, but the forward horizontal cells

are left off. The side suspension system is used to hang the ash frame of 250 kg. weight from the Continental cloth bag, which measures 32 meters in length, 6 m. diameter, volume 700 cu. m. (24,720 cu. ft.). The Puch motor, a 4-cylinder of 24-2S h. p., weighing 80 kg. (176 lbs.) drives a 1.8 meter diam. steel propeller. Ordinary coal gas was used for inflation. A shifting weight is used for steering up and down. On October 16 and 17 it was operated for the Emperor at Vienna.

The three dirigibles purchased by the government, a Parseval, a Lebaudy and a Clement-Bayard, will be delivered soon.

An engineer of Vienna has invented an "aerial torpedo" to hit dirigibles at 3,000 ft. altitude.

Belgium.

The Astra company of France has completed for the Belgian government a new dirigible, the "Flandre," of 6,500 cu. m. capacity. A $1,000 prize has been offered for a flight from Brussels to Antwerp, some 25 miles. Other prizes are being put up.

At a flying exhibition at Antwerp the last of October, Baron Caters and some of the minor flyers made some short flights. De la Vaulx gave exhibitions with a Zodiac airship.

England.

paulhan makes great record.

The motor racing association which runs the Brooklands course booked Paulhan and his Farman machine for a series of flights October 28—November 1, and under adverse conditions made a great showing, making new English records and beating his own personal record. The grounds were flooded in sections. The track is bounded by iron fences, and motor cars were driven on the track while Paulhan was flying.

On October 30 made a flight of 58 min. 57 sec, as well as a shorter one. WTT official judging was done-of-his-high-,-flighr,~bufcon-servatiye estimate places it over^oofeej.^^ * .

*^"L*G> ^three^ioUrflight. //Zrf^ttA^J

On November 1 he made the flight of tTs~*v 'life. He remained in the air for over two ' hours and fifty miri'ules, descending for lack ^of gasolene after 96 miles had been covered. Various shorter^flights were made, and on several occasions he took up passengers.

braeazon wins $5,000 prize.

On October 30, J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon won the Daily Mail $5,000 prize at the Aero Club's Shellbeach grounds. The prize was for a circular mile by a British aviator on an all-British machine. The flight was officially measured as 1^4 miles, and lasted 2 min. 35 sec.

Moore-Brabazon first had a Voisin machine, but this month, October, received delivery of the aeroplane made for him after the style of the Wright by the English balloon builders, Short Bros., and made several short flights up to 400 yards.

The Hon. C. S. Rolls got his motor fitted to his Wright aeroplane the first part of October, and made„one or two satisfactory short flights

at Shellbeach. A slight accident occurred. Starting off the rail at too steep an angle, Mr. Rolls cut out the spark and landed on the right wing. On November I a mile was flown.

England is developing a fine crop of experimenters, and one would think from the advertisements in aero journals that aero touring has long been an accepted fact. A number of the machines built have made short flights.

The subscriptions to the National airship fund now amounts to $56,100.

Egypt.

An aviation meet is to be held at Cairo in January near the Pyramids. A special prize of $10,000 is offered for a flight with a passenger from Cairo to Suez and back.

France.

The two very biggest events of the past month in France were the spectacular flight of De Lambert around the Eiffel Tower (see elsewhere this issue), and the new world's distance and duration record set up by Henry Farman.

farman makes new french passenger record.

On Nov. I, at Chalons, H. Farman made a 40-minute passenger flight, and then one of 1 hr. 16 min. 35 sec. wv\j<_ ^jr^-a^+^As

over four hours in the air—two new* world records.

On November 3, at Mourmelon, Farman surpassed in distance and duration his own new^«^ world's record made last August atRheinTs (180 kil., 3 hr. 4 min. 56 sec^--by^sTaying in the air for 4 hr. 17 min. 53fsec., and covering more than 2^"3Lkil. miles), and may be

considered to have won the Michelin prize and trophy for 1909 unless this is again beaten by December 31.

The Fernandez biplane made its first flight the early part of October. The running gear and the vertical and horizontal tail is a copy of Curtiss. The planes resemble the Wright, and the front horizontal rudder is similar to that of Farman.

Countless flying machines of all sorts are daily undergoing trials and repairs, and out of the many we hear of only a few doing any real flying. The exhibition flights of Farman, Paulhan, Sommer, Rougier, Latham, Lambert, and the few stars of lesser magnitude, so far eclipse the flights of the experimenters that the latter are lost to public notice. The centers of industry are at Chalons, Port Aviation (Juvisy), and at Issy.

Wheels have been fitted to Baratoux's Wright, as well as to Schreck's, to entire satisfaction.

-7 h. tU/n.

J-a

231

maurice farman on long cross-country flight.

Maurice Farman, brother of Henry Farman, jumped to the front ranks last month, on the 12th of October flying across country, passing several towns, in a flight of 10 kilometers, about. On the Tgth he made another crosscountry flight, during which he made four circles of the country around Buc, remaining aloft for 55 minutes.

His machine closely resembles his brother's, but it was built by Mallet, the balloon builder. Following are the principal points: Biplane, io meters spread by 2 m. length, spaced 1.5 m., varnished cotton surfaces; two horizontal surfaces in rear, 3 m. spread by 2 m., with a vertical rudder; single horizontal plane in front, 4.0 m. by 0.9 m.; 40 h. p. 10 cyl. R. E. P. motor and 8 cyl., 58 h. p. Renault have both been used; Chauviere propeller, 2.5 m. diam. by 2.5 pitch, in rear of surfaces; weight without motor, 270 kg.; add 80 kg. for Farman and 100 kg. for R. E. P. motor, or 17.8 kg. for the Renault.

PAULHAN CHANGES MOUNT AND FLIES HOUR.

Paulhan, who has been flying Voisin machines, has gone over to the Farman, which he flew at Blackpool. His first flight in a Farman was made at Chalons, and lasted over an hour.

Students of the well known machines are progressing fast, and many cyclists and chauffeurs are taking up aviation.

The French government airship Liberte has had wood propellers with light metal rims fitted in place of the old steel ones, and new double surface horizontal rudders, one on each side of the car. The bag is to be divided into compartments, with a very small hole at the center of each partition.

The Ville de Paris is to have the same change made.

THE FIRST WOMAN AVIATOR.

For some time Baroness de la Roche had been learning on.a Voisin. On the 22nd October she took the wheel for the first time. The initial flight was only about 300 yards, but on the following day she flew twice around the grounds at Chalons in a gusty wind, covering about four miles.

WRIGHT SUITS IN FRANCE.

Suits are being brought by the General Society for Navigating the Air against the manufacturers of sixteen aeroplanes—Farman, Bleriot, Antoinette, R. E. P., Santos-Dumont, Clement-Bayard and others, for infringement of Wright patents. Farman says: "Flexing planes are not patentable and, further, were used long before the Wright Brothers turned their attention to aviation."

NEW AERO FEDERATION.

The Federation of Aeronautical Societies of France was formed the last of October by fifteen Aero organizations in France, which were not affiliated with the Aero Club of France. _

The Col. Renard airship, which was so in evidence at Rheims, is undergoing trials under supervision of the government at Verdun.

Bleriot has selected Pau for his aeroplane factory and "college." Tissandier and Count Lambert will use Pau also for instruction on Wright machines.

New prizes are being offered all over France by newspapers, individuals and syndicates, and the total is enormous.

A motion has been put before the Chamber of Deputies for $4,000 to provide aeroplane

landing places in various parts of the republic to encourage aerial touring.

Germany.

Herr Grade has st£adily_jmproved with his little monoplane, being able~to~"fiy—for over 11 min. a distance of about 13 kil., near Berlin.

GRADE WINS $10,000 PRIZE.

On October 30 he won the Lanz $10,000 prize, by flying, with an all-German machine, a figure "8" around posts a kilom. apart. The wind blew 8 m. a sec. The time was 2 min. 43 sec. Other short flights were made up to 13 min. Grade is the only German flying a German \ machine.

\-WRTGHT PUPIL FLIES LONGEST OF ANY GERMAN.

On October 18, Captain Engelhardt's assistant, Keidel, had an accident with the Wright machine, but escaped unhurt. The machine was wrecked. On the 29th Captain Engelhardt, Wright's pupil, flew for 44 min. 30 sec. at Potsdam, and on the 30th for 1 hr. 6l/2 min.

The German air is constantly filled with dirigibles. The Zeppelin has been working with wireless, the Ruthenberg got a prize at Frankfort exposition, the Zeppelin I, Parseval II and Gross II conducting manceuvers, and the Parseval III, taking up the Grand Duke of Hess and Prince Henry of Prussia.

Germany is preparing to find out to just what practical use airships may be put, for which a series of severe experiments will take place during November at Cologne. The three airships to be tried are:

Zeppelin II.................Rigid

Gross II...............Semi-rigid

Parseval II..............Non-rigid

Orville Wright's last flight in Germany occurred on October 15, the day before he left for Paris on his way to the States. This was a spectacular one of 20 min. duration in the presence of the Kaiser, the "Mrs. Kaiser," and Princess Victoria Louise. Wright made swoops and dives, and soaring high, showed royal blood what 'twas to fly. On leaving, the Kaiser gave Miss Katherine Wright an autograph portrait of himself.

Hungary.

Bleriot made three flights at Buda Pesth on October 17 before a huge crowd, one being of 26l/2 min. duration. At the conclusion of this Archduke Joseph led him to the royal box and presented him to the Archduchess.

Indo-China.

A syndicate of the municipality of Saigon has bought a Bleriot and founded an aero club.

Italy.

On October 13 the Italian military airship traveled from Bracciano to Rome, took Col. Morris aboard, and returned to Bracciano. On the 21st it went over the Mediterranean, touching at various aerial points on the way to the Island of Monte Cristo, about 30 miles at sea,

(.Continued on Page 2U)

AERONAUTICS December, 1909

AVIATION MEETS RAGE ABROAD

LAMBERT CIRCLES EIFFEL TOWER.

Delagrange Makes New Speed Record.

LATHAM FLIES IN GALE.

Paulhan Makes Great Flight—3 Hours. The Juvisy Meet.

LAMBERT FLIES AROUND EIFFEL TOWER.

Even more startling than Wright's trip up the Hudson was Count Lambert's flight across part of Paris, from the Juvisy flying course around the Eiffel Tower and back in a Wright aeroplane on October 18, during the Juvisy meeting. The distance as the bird flies is about 21 kil., and with the return trip and two turns of the course the total is 48 kil. (29.82 miles), and the height attained was 400 meters (1,312 feet). The flight took 49 min. 39 2-5 sec, a speed of 36 m. p. h. Thus Wright's first pupil out-Wrights him. The Aero Club of France has awarded him its gold medal.

Paris has been particularly favored with facilities for viewing the wonderful advancement of mechanical flight, and never more so than now, with its great flight-course "Port Aviation" at the suburb of Juvisy. The meeting began on October 7th, and lasted until the 21st—fifteen days, and a dozen aviators took part. There was some flying every day but two, when the weather was prohibitive.

Only short flights were made until Sunday, the 10th, when, in the presence of an enormous crowd which demoralized the lack of transportation facilities, Paulhan and Lambert were the star performers, Paulhan in his Voisin ^oing eight turns of the 2-kilometer course (1.242 miles), covering nearly 22 min., and Lambert for 7 circuits in 15*^ min. More short flights followed on Monday, and on Tuesday Paulhan kept going for 13 rounds, 26 kil., in 32150 4-5. He continued until he had made 39:i 4-5-

Nothing startling happened the next day; Latham tried his first flight of the meet and broke a wing. The remaining days provided nothing better than has been recorded above, with the exception of the cross-P=)ris flight of Lambert, by which the meet will be known to fame, and a 33 min. flight by Bregi. After circling round the course and rising to a height well over 350 feet, Lambert flew outside the grounds and was lost to sight. The crowd thought he had gone for a little cross-country flight, but as time passed anxiety grew until he was sighted coming back. He was accorded a tremendous ovation, in which Orville Wright, who was present, joined, when it was learned what he had accomplished.

It is a curious coincidence that just eight years before, plus one day, Santos Dumont startled the world by sailing his dirigible around the tower.

Sensation after sensation is the order of the day.

RESULTS.

Paris Municipal Council Prize (for the best time for a circuit of the course, passing under a wire 8 meters above the ground and then rising over a balloon 40 m. altitude).—1st, $3,000. Lambert (Wright), in 1:56 4-5; 2nd, $400, Paulhan (Voisin).

Seine General Council Prize (fastest speed for five laps).—1st, $1,400, Lambert, 10:13 4-5; 2nd, $600, Jean Gobron (Voisin), 10:45 2-5; 3rd, $400, Henry Bregi (Voisin), 11:40 2-5; 4th, Louis Paulhan, 13:37 4-5. Various other prizes were given, in all $8,980, Lambert winning $7,269, Gobron $1,069, and Bregi $641.

Blackpool.

On October 18 the aviation meeting at Blackpool, under the sanction of the Aero Club of Great Britain, was formally opened. While on a much smaller scale, the arrangements were similar to those at Rheims, the same code of signals and markings bc'ng used. The course, laid out on a flat pla'n along the seashore, was quadrangular in form marked by four corner posts. The lap was 1.986 miles in length. Bad weather generally prevailed and many were the disappointments, but it was financially a success. Among the competitors were Farman, Paulhan, in a Farman machine; Latham in an Antoinette; Rougier and Fournier (Voisin") ; Fernandez in his own machine: Leblanc (Bleriot); A. V. Roe (tri-' plane; M. Singer (Voisin), and several English would-be aviators.

The weather on the opening day was ideal, and Farman. using the machine he recently sold to Paulhan, his own machine being on a freight train somewhere between Berlin and Paris, made the initial flight of the meeting. He covered a round or two making the first officially controlled flight in England, and was followed bv Paulhan on the same machine. After this Farman aeain mounted the machine and flew for 23 min. While he was still circling the course, Rougier on his Vo'sin started on a 32 min. 27 sec. trip, thus affording the soectators the opportunity of seeing two machines in the air at once. Pnulhan then went aloft for a 26-min. snin, and later Far-man took Paulhan with him for a fly. The public was very enthusiastic and seemed to appreciate the high flyine of Rougier and Paulhan much more than the low monotonous circuiting of Farman.

The next day, October 19. the winds blew and the floods came, but Latham, who had arrived the previous dav, ventured forth on his Antoinette and had few tiffs with the wind

gusts. Finally he suddenly dove down, and in landing broke a wheel and propeller blade. He was followed by Rougier, who found the atmospheric conditions so disturbed that he soon quit. The side vertical planes proved of good service in enabling the wind to blow him sideways.

Paulhan, however, seemed to have more courage, and starting off, he immediately rose to a great height in a measured wind of 15 m.p.h., and stayed up for 32 min. 17 4/5 sec. At the end the wind was 22 miles an hour.

England's duration record.

On Wednesday Farman created the duration record for England by staying in the air for 1 hr. 32 min. 164/5 sec-> traveling 47 miles 1,184 yards. Parkinson's Bleriot machine, Singer's Voisin and Fournier's Voisin made "fledgeling" hops. Rougier then made three rounds for a slow speed prize, the slowest round being made at 27.257 miles an hour. Paulhan then came out, but the wind was blowing at 24 miles and he only completed half a circuit. Before the close of the day Roe and Fernandez made some ineffectual attempts to get off the ground.

Thursday, all day a wind of 40 miles per hour kept conditions so precarious that flying was out of the question. The only interesting event in the day's proceedings was a dynamometer test of the tractive pull of Latham's propeller.

On the next day the weather moderated a little, but the wind still blew at 25-45 m.p.h. The spectators were few and hardly expected any flights, but to their surprise a^little after midday, while the wind was whipping and lashing flags on their staffs, Hubert Latham came out on the course.

flies in a gale of wind.

Few believed that Latham possibly could fly or control his machine in such a high wind. At the first start the wind damaged one wing, but in spite of this he tried again and got slowly up. Latham with superb skill and mastery could be seen working the control levers, now warping, now elevating, now turning, until it seemed to the spectators as if they could actually see the invisible whirls and eddies of the aerial ocean. He was actually tossed about like a cork and spectators called to him to come down. The flight lasted in all 10 min. 15 sec, and at times when heading against the wind, which reached 40 m.p.h. during the flight, the Antoinette actually flew at 5 m.p.h. with respect to the ground. This exhibition of nerve, daring and ability made every man's heart stand still and is unparalleled in the history of aviation. This is the thing that will make aero-planing other than a "fair weather sport." His slow average speed, 21.65 m.p.h., is significant.

On Saturday, October 23, and Monday the 25th, the last two days of the meeting, the weather was so bad that the inglorious ending of "no flights" ensued.

The prizes and awards were as follows:

The Blackpool Distance Grand Prize, $10,000 won by Farman in 1 hr. 32 min. 164/5 sec, distance 47 milts 1,544 yards; second and third prizes of $3,600 and $1,400 went to Rougier and Latham respectively.

Daily Sketch Prize, $2,000, for Speed over three laps, was won by Farman; speed 36.38 m.p.h. Paulhan (Farman) second; Rougier (Voisin) third.

Manchester Guardian Prize for Slowest Circuit—cups and cash, won by Latham (Antoinette) ; speed 21.65 m.p.h.; Paulhan (Far-man) second, 28.9.

Prize for General Merit of $1,500, $750 and $250, won by Latham for his flight in a wind of 28-40 m.p.h.; Paulhan second for flight in 15-23 mile wind; Rougier third.

Prize for Assistants, $250 for greatest number of circuits. Won by Rougier; Paulhan second.

Total value of prize money was $20,750, plus a $500 cup, and the total distance flown about 116 miles. A. V. Roe made two short flights of 20 yards in his triplane. Singer and Parkinson did not leave the ground.

Doncaster.

Not to be outdone by meetings in other parts of the country, the municipal sportsmen of the Yorkshire town of Doncaster, after much friction with the British Aero Club, finally succeeded in having their flight gathering on the hexagonally-shaped Town Moor take place October 15-25. The flying field was not very large, being only 800 yards the longest way and V/i miles around, but the ground was good and very level.

The only men to fly were Cody, Delagrange, Molon and Le Blon in Bleriot monoplanes, and Sommer in a Farman. The other competitors, Schreck (Wright), Lovelace (Bleriot), Prevot (Bleriot), and Saunier (Chau-vierc), doing nothing more than run around on the grass.

The weather for the week was bad, flying being possible at Doncaster only six days, and the meet was extended two days over the advertised week.

On Friday, October 15, the opening day, Cody made a spin on the ground but did not fly. The wind disabled Capt. Windham's machine and nothing flew.

The next day, however, saw some real flying. Cody was the first up, but after flying around the course he ran on the ground a short distance and the front wheel suddenly dug into a soft place, causing the machine to turn turtle and it was out of business for three days. Cody was fortunately unhurt. Codv had bad luck all the week, his 80-h.p. E. N. V. motor working very badly and continually misfiring.

cody now a full-fledged britisher.

Cody publicly signed his naturalization papers for which he applied some time ago during the Doncaster aviation meeting,

the bands playing "God Save tut King" after Cody had taken the oath of allegiance before the town clerk of Doncaster.

Sommer, Delagrange, Molon and Le Blon made short flights, but it was very risky in the wind. In a lull Delagrange, in his 7-eylinder Gnome-engined Bleriot, circled the course several times in contest with Sommer, Delagrange winning the Inauguration Prize.

Sommer took up several passengers, each for a short run. Twenty-three flights were made on this day.

Monday, the 18th, a large attendance was attracted to the grounds, and were rewarded by a fine flight by Le Blon on his Bleriot lasting 30 min. 4 sec. Sommer also came out for a 25-min. flight and was followed by Delagrange for two rounds. Molon landed in sand and the machine turned over.

FLIES IN THE RAIN.

A wind blew up on Tuesday, but Le Blon made a 20^-m. trip in the bad wind and rain. Delagrange, Sommer and Cody made shorter flights.

Captain T. T. Lovelace made his debut as aeroplane driver for Ballin Hinde's Bleriot, but did not leave the ground.

It was still more windy on Wednesday, and Le Blon, Delagrange and Cody made short runs. The wind was very treacherous and none of the aviators except Sommer seemed to be able to handle it. Sommer towards evening made a brilliant flight of 9. min. duration. Lovelace was out running up and down.

Thursday, Friday and Saturday were very disappointing. The weather was so bad that no flying took place to speak of. Saturday saw a short flight by Lovelace, which ended in a smash. A Voisin machine fitted with two gyroscopes made an appearance only, as did the Chauviere machine with reefable planes.

On the following Monday, however, October 25, several flights were made. Sommer, Delagrange and Cody made successive short flights, and in the afternoon Le Blon started off on his Bleriot. He was soon caught by the wind, and in a most exciting manner the machine was blown towards the grand stand. Le Blon, by great skill, narrowly avoided crashing into the spectators, but badly damaged the machine.

NEW WORLD'S SPEED RECORD.

Sommer opened the proceedings on the last day, (Jetober 26, covering 20 laps in good form. Delagrange then tried for speed, and succeeded in covering one lap in 1 min. 47 see. The speed was 49.99 m.p.h., a new official world's record.

Molon covered three rounds, but was slower than Delagrange. A little later Sommer started out on the last and best flight of the meeting, covering 29 miles 1,575 yards in 44 min. 53 sec, and this concluded the meeting. Sehreck, in his Wright machine fitted with spring wheels, in addition to skids, did nothing during the meet.

The loss sustained by the promoters came to about $40,000.

FINAL RESULTS.

Whitworth Cup (for best aggregate distance on October 26), won by Sommer with 38 miles, 1,580 yards.

Doncaster Cup (for greatest aggregate distance of meet), won by Sommer, 136 miles, 280 yards.

Tradesmen's Cup (for fastest circuit, i mile 860 yards), won by Delagrange; time 1 min., 47 1/5 sec.

Chairman's Cup (best time by biplanes for five circuits), won by Sommer in 12 min. 27 3/5 sec.

Great Northern Railway Cup (best time for ten circuits) ; the Leeds prize and several other prizes were not won.

Frankfort.

At Frankfort, October 3-11, De Caters for the City of Frankfort Prize won first, $10,000; Bleriot second, $2,500, for the duration prize. The Krupp $2,500 prize for an. obstacle race was awarded to Bleriot; second, $1,250, Caters. Five kil. speed competition, $600, won by Bleriot; second, $400, Caters.

Latham, Rougier and M. Nervoe in a Voisin made short flights, and Bleriot covered to laps in 1 hr. 12 min., and Baron de Caters 54 laps in 1 hr. 17 min., thus making a longer and at the same time a. shorter flight than Bleriot.

OVER AND UNDER WIRES.

For the Krupp prize competitors were asked to fly under and over three wires at a height of 15 m. and separated by a distance of 200 m. Rougier flew over the Parseval airship.

Spa.

Delagrange, Le Blon, Sommer and Paulhan took part in the Spa meet, September 23-Oe-tober 2, with the following results:

Aggregate duration — First, Delagrange (Bleriot), 1 hr. 2 min. 22/5 sec; Sommer (Farman), 58 min. 32 3/5 sec; Le Blon (Bleriot), 46 min. 331/5 see. Le Blon made the longest distance in one flight, Sommer attained highest altitude and Delagrange the greatest speed. The Zodiac III dirigible was up for an hour on October 2.

Cologne.

In the Cologne meet, September 30-October 6, were engaged Bleriot, Paulhan, Delagrange, Bregi, Prevot and Dufour. Bleriot was the phenomenal flyer, making a personal record of 1 hr. 4 min. 56 sec. He covered 60 measured kils. in 55 min. Paulhan (Farman) was next best with 37 min. 32 sec.

Instruction in Aviation.

"Mother, may I go out to fly?"

"Oh, yes, my darling daughter; But do not go too near the sky,

And when you fall, hit water."

—Mother Goose Up to Date.

IF there are still any skeptics floating around in regard to the flying machines becoming a commercial success, I would suggest that they make a short visit to the Morris Park race track, the headquarters of The Aeronautic Society, then if they still cling to the idea that the "man in the street" will never float above the bathers at Coney Island, I am sure they have the sympathies of a majority of their fellow-creatures.

Anyone who has visited Morris Park during the last weeks could not fail to be impressed with the calm, level-headed and systematic working of the enthusiasts to be found there.

One particularly notices the absence of the "crank" who was with us for so long a period in the beginning of the automobile era.

Every member at Morris Park has got down to solid hard work in the matter of solving the numerous problems which continually crop up, and while all are aiming for the same goal, that of "getting up in the air,"

not one seems to be there "prematurely," for one finds the owner and builder of the machine ever ready to discuss the advantages as well as the disadvantages of his machine.

Flying has become an accomplished fact. The honors have been given out, and now these clever, keen business men are working to assist the progress of the heavier than air machines, and hasten the time when cnaperoned lovers "stealing kisses behind a cloud," will have ceased to be a "pipe dream," and flying will have ceased to be the recreation of the millionaires only.

At the present time there are at least eight aeroplanes at Morris Park nearing a state of completion, all of which are able-looking creations, and certainly point to the fact that there will be "something doing" in the near future in the manufacture of aeroplanes.

In fact as in the instance of the evolution of the automobile as a commercial success, so history will repeat itself in the case of the "Air Machine."

Greene Aeroplane Carries Passengers.

November 15.—Dr. William Greene, who is probably the first to take a 320-lb 26 h. p. stock automobile motor off the ground, has made 31 short flights in the last three days, up to 600 ft. This was with the biplane he has just completed. On the second day he took up Leo Stevens, the balloon builder, and also two others, on other flights. Yesterday he had to run the machine into a fence to avoid running down a man with a baby.

wins two prizes.

During these flights he won the Triaca prize of $100 for flying 100 meters and the Stevens Cup for the first man to carry a passenger. The whole machine gets in the air within 50 ft. of the standing start. About 80 pounds of sand in bags was attached to the front control to overcome the weight of the motor which is too far to the rear.

Brauner-Smith Aeroplane Flies.

On Nov. 1 the Brauner-Smith biplane was partly wrecked during the course of its first trials. It was built by two members of the Aeronautic Society, Pincus Brauner and A. J. Smith and was the second machine to have been built and flown by members at Morris Park.

Brauner was at the wheel and made one good short flight. At the next trial considerable speed was attained on the downgrade of the track and though 50 or more pounds of brick tied in a bag had been hung out in front near the front wheel to counterbalance the weight of the motor which was placed too far to the rear, the machine went up at a very

steep angle. Brauner quickly shut off power and the machine seemed to slide backwards after loss of headway and landed on one wheel. This buckled the running gear and let the lower plane down heavily on the ground, breaking several struts and the central section of the under surface.

EARLIER TRIALS.

On Oct. 28th the machine had its very first try-out. Dr. William Greene installed his American & British stock automobile motor in the machine and made a short flight. Some little damage was done in landing which was repaired. Brauner and Smith also ran the machine up and down the track before Greene got in. With the 6 ft. propeller which Brauner had cut out in a hurry after several tests on the engine and numerous parings down with a draw-knife gave a pull of 210 lbs.

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS.

The aeroplane very much resembles the Curtiss aeroplane. It has a spread of 35 ft., and the two surfaces, 5 ft. 6 in. deep, are placed 5 ft. apart. A double surface vertical rudder, measuring 5 ft. by 2 ft. 3 in., each surface 2 ft. apart, is hinged about 9 ft. from the rear vertical struts. The two surface front rudder measures 8 ft. by 2 ft. by 2 ft., and is pivoted about 10 ft. from the front vertical struts. This front rudder tilts up and down by the pulling back and pushing forward of the steering wheel respectively. By turning the wheel to the left or right, the rear vertical rudder is operated in accordance, through the cable which runs around the wheel, down to pulleys on the framework near the operator's feet, along the skid in the center, crossing then to a cross piece on the rudder. Heavy Bessemer

REAL WORK AT MORRIS PARK

By Ada Gibson.

steel wire, No. 18 gauge, is used to stay the structure. These stays are tightened by turn-buckles made of small steel tubing threaded and turning up on right and left handed threads cut in the steel wire.

The propeller is 6 ft. in diameter and the inventors state the pitch as 4^2 ft.

The wing tips, operated the same as in the Curtiss machine, by a movement left or right of the operator against the hinged back to the seat. These measure 5 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft.

The whole is mounted on a three wheeled chassis, running on 2J/2 in. double clincher tires. The rear wheels are arranged with spring shock absorbers.

OTHERS MAKE PROGRESS.

The Lindsay machine has at last secured a motor and no doubt will try to do something before very long. Dr. William Greene is putting the finishing touches to his big biplane and by the end of November is expected to either be flying or in the junk heap. Frederick Shneider, whose original and rebuilt biplane has been described and illustrated in this magazine, will soon assemble his second entirely new machine, the planes and other parts of wl.ich have been completed for some time. The Lawrence biplane is still awaiting its motor.

W. Diefenbach is quietly making rapid progress on a biplane of 45 ft. spread. Outside of the planes, steel tubing is being generally used. This machine should be ready for trials in December.

Riggs Airship.

November 10.—The biggest airship in America will be that of John A. Riggs now practically completed at the grounds of The Aeronautic Society at Morris Park. Mr. Riggs states that he has leased the manufacturing rights from the Hot Springs Airship Co., and is financing the work which has been prosecuted with rapidity under the direction of Joel T. Rice, the inventor of the plan.

A varnished bag of a special high grade cotton roo ft. in length with a diameter of 25 ft. has been built by A. Leo Stevens to contain 35,000 cu. ft. At the top in the center is a safety valve. In the bottom of the bag are sight holes for observation of the inside of the bag. Underneath the bag is a reserve receptacle to take the surplus of gas through expansion. The bag is encased with Italian hemp netting and is expected to lift 1550 lbs. over and above its own weight.

The car is made entirely of Shelby seamless .steel tubing. The longitudinal members are 24 in- diameter and the vertical and other stay braces are in. The length is 87 ft. long. The cross section is in the form of a rectangle, 2 ft. wide by 5 ft. high. The top of the rectangle is extended out each side making a width of 10 ft., so that the cross section is in the shape of a "T." This framework, with passenger car, motor, propellers, etc., weighs about 1000 lbs.

At the extreme front end is a 6 ft. wood propeller, 3 ft. pitch. This is mounted so that it turns from right to left, or vice versa, in a horizontal arc, giving the same effect as the steering wheels of an automobile. This is intended to steer, or rather "pull", the ship in the desired lateral direction. All rudders are dispensed with. This propeller is driven through bevel gears at about engine speed. It is moved at the will of the operator by wire cables from the operator's seat to a chain running over a sprocket on a short vertical shaft at the other end of which is a pinion meshing with a quadrant, which does the steering.

Placed 7 ft. behind the front propeller, one on each side, and 12 ft. apart, are two similar propellers, arranged to swing in a vertical arc, in order to provide for ascent and descent. These are driven by a cross shaft at the same speed as the front one and may be operated independently or in unison with the front propeller.

Twelve feet back from the center of the framework is placed the 8 cyl. Curtiss, air cooled motor of 34 h. p. This drives the main power shaft by a chain running over sprockets. A large leather faced cone clutch is introduced just forward from the engine.

The gasolene tank is placed at the point where the ship balances so as not to throw out of balance due to usage of gasolene.

The engine and accessories are placed in what might be named a "car" consisting of a framework built out 2l/2 ft. on each side of the main longitudinal frame and extending 8 ft. in length. There is room for two men on each side of the motor. From this car to the extreme rear end, the frame tapers to a point 2 ft. square. A special light Splitdorf three cell battery and coil are employed for the ignition.

The various lengths of tubing in the frame are joined by 3-way and 6-way aluminum al-lov fittings; and in the long rods couplings are used, with the ends of the rods sweated in and fastened with split pins.

Walden Machine Wrecked by Wind.

The Langley-like-looking biplane of Dr. H. W. Walden which has been completed for some time and had its trials at the Morris Park grounds of The Aeronautic Society has been wrecked completely by the wind. The machine for some weeks has been out of doors between two of the aeroplane sheds, with only the engine covered by a canvas. During the night the wind overturned the machine and it is now a mass of sticks and wires.

The Aero Club of New England has elected to membership the youngest member on record, Phillip John Fitz-Gerald, eight years old, who recently made an ascension in the balloon Boston from Fitchburg. It will hold its annual banquet on Nov. 22, at the Boston City Club. A business meeting will be held previous to the hour of the dinner to consider the raising of the annual dues to $10 and to elect officers for the ensuing year.

Aero Club of Utah. At an enthusiastic meeting the Aero Club of Utah was formed during October. The meeting was held at the home of Wilton Powell, 259 South Third East street, and already more than 25 persons have joined.

The constitution of the Aero Club of America, with suitable changes and amendments, was adopted, as were also by-laws. Dr. A. Brodbeck was elected president of the club; Iver Redman, first vice president; S. S. Gilson, second vice president; Arthur Jennings, third vice president; L. R. Culver, treasurer; F. A. Ayres, secretary. Wilton Powell was named chairman of the membership committee and was instructed to start a campaign which will bring to the club every man interested in aviation in the state.

The club will meet again to further perfect the organization and outline the work for the fall. While the research will be chiefly along the lines of heavier than air machines, the matter of dirigibles will not be overlooked, and by next summer the club hopes to have a big machine in the air.

Affiliation will be asked for with the Aero Club of America.

The Int. Aeroplane Club of Dayton listened to informal talks and addresses at its meeting Oct. 27. Dr. L. E. Custer described a new device for registering the altitude of a balloon, invented by his son.

The Aero Club of New Hampshire has

been formed by Charles J. Glidden at Manchester, N. H., drawing from the Calumet Club for members. Mr. Glidden was entertained by the Club and in return favored them with a talk on his ballooning experiences.

SUN COOKS EGG IN BALLOON.

Mr. Glidden told the following story, which, considering the author, could not for a moment be doubted. It was in Central Vermont that an eagle alighted on the balloon and laid an egg on top of the valve. The weight of the eagle caused the balloon to drop quite rapidly and the valve was opened to scare the

bird away. This broke the egg and the warm sun cooked it to a nicety. It then slid down over the surface of the bag into the basket where it served as luncheon.

The First Association of International Aeronautic Pilots was organized on the 119th anniversary of the first ascension of man in a balloon in Boston, on Nov. 1. The object of the association is to encourage members of aero clubs to become navigators of air craft, and any person elected may become a member who holds a pilot's certificate issued by an aero club in the International Aeronautic Federation.

Invitations to join the association have been issued to nearly all well known pilots of this country.

lemporary officers were elected as follows: President, Charles J. Glidden; vice presidents, A. Holland Forbes and J. H. Wade, Jr.; secretary, Jay B. Benton; treasurer, J. Walter Flagg; advisory board and membership committee, Charles J. Glidden, A. Holland Forbes, Jay B. Benton, H. Helm Clayton, A. B. Lambert.

A second meeting will be held in Boston and the organization made permanent. There are at present about 250 aeronautic pilots in the world: 114 in France, 35 in the United States, 35 in Great Britain and the remainder in Germany and other countries.

The cost of gas, use of balloon and incidentals to become a pilot is about $750.

Club at University of Virginia.

An aero club has been organized at the University of Virginia for the advancement of the science of aeronautics, with the following officers: J. Rogers McConnell, of New York, president; Matt H. Murphy, of Greensboro, Ala., vice president; Stanford Gwin, of San Rafael, Cal., secretary; C. H. Sutton, Jr., of Richmond, treasurer; John Heath of the University of Virginia, consulting engineer. H. Cabell Claiborne, of Richmond, is chairman of the membership committee, while D. A. Hughes, of Dallas, Texas, and J. E. Patterson, of Kansas City, Mo., compose the lecture committee, and J. Lewis Underwood, of Birmingham, Ala., and Joseph Watson Beach, of Hartford, Conn., are members of the contest committee.

While the club itself is not well enough off from a financial standpoint to carry on any extensive experiments, it is doing what it can. John Heath, its consulting engineer, is bringing to completion a small glider which he is constructing in the mechanical laboratory. This glider is being built in conformance with

some of the most modern ideas in aero-dynamics. When it is finished he will try it out, using as a starting place the top of the grandstand on Lambeth Field. Besides testing the efficiency of his biplane, he will be able to determine just how good a flying ground the university has.

It is the intention of the club to have as many lectures as possible at the universitydur-ing this and subsequent sessions, and it is hoped that it may be feasible to have some aeroplane flights take place at the university also.

Aero Club for Cleveland.

Several meetings have been held in Cleveland preliminary to the formation of an aeronautical organization, but same has not yet taken concrete shape. Ff. C. Gammeter, inventor of the multigraph, is a moving spirit. Mr. Gammeter is thinking seriously of again taking up actual experimental work. Those who saw his ornithopter at the aeronautical exhibition in Grand Central Palace several years ago will remember the beautiful workmanship displayed.

ANNUAL MEETING OF A. C. A.

Aero Club of America. The annual election, or rather "meeting", as the Club prefers to have it called, the members having no riqht to vote but merely to express their "preference" for directors, passed off with unexpected quiet on Nov. i, though for a moment it was feared that the active element which had named an opposition ticket would have a chance to speak a word on their side, and the dove of peace perches precariously on the rafters.

The old directors, who have held office since the end of the first vear of the Club's existence, rallied their friends around the standard and presented an unbroken line of defence, while the attacking force was outpointed, albeit the tactics might be questionable.

Many of the members have been dissatisfied with the present control of the Club and at the election a year ago put up an opposition ticket and were defeated. This year another petition was prepared naming a-new ticket 15 days in advance of the date of the election. Letters were sent out by the opposition calling a meeting, which was held at the Hotel Astor. A resolution was there adopted condemning some of the arbitrary actions of the present board. Communications were made to all the members setting forth some of the grievances and all members were urged to be present at the annual meeting. Those out of town were asked to sign proxies. In the meantime it was thought that the by-laws did not specifically provide for the use of proxies and the idea of obtaining proxies was given up and a temporary injunction asked for to restrain the voting of ^proxies at the election, which application was denied.

The Club sent out its own circular letters, beginning first by asking especially for proxies on the presumption that the members

would not care to be bothered by coming to the meeting. The date of the election was not given in this letter nor was the club's ticket announced. At the eleventh hour a last letter was sent out by the Club asking the members to come in person or be present by proxy and express their preference.

The opposition named Alfred Wagstaflf, Jr., Gutzon L. M. Borglum, William J. Hammer, Thomas A. Hill and Hon. James M. Beck for directors. Mr. Wagstaff's acceptance was obtained by telegraphing but on his arrival in New York he found he was on a ticket opposed to the old regime and refused to accept the nomination. As he had already once accepted and the ticket was printed and the petition filed, it was too late to actually withdraw and the opposition found itself voting for a ticket shy one man. The New York Herald took part in the controversy and printed an editorial which many call insulting and garbled the news.

On the night of the election, more were present by twice than ever before were in the Club. Two well-known members of the opposition, who had the week before been dropped from membership by reason of their dues not having been paid up to date, though no notice of such action had been sent them as provided by the by-laws, were not allowed in the room, and their proffers of the amount due refused. Another of the opposition it is said, was allowed to pay tin and vote the Club's ticket. Strict surveillance of every one entering the room was maintained and a detective at the elevator door asked all comers as to their membership.

Reports of the president, secretary and treasurer were read and the polls declared open. No announcement of the club's ticket had been made up to that moment and even after the polls had been declared open a member had to ask what the Club's ticket was. The names of the old board were then read.

By using a glaring red ballot, the Club forced many friends of the directorate who were favorable to the cause of the opposition to vote for the Club's ticket for personal and business reasons. Prior to the opening of the polls, Hon. James M. Beck tried to obtain a hearing before the meeting. Another of the opposition was actually accorded the floor but had proceeded only a short way before he was cried down. It was impossible to obtain the privilege of speech.

An overwhelming defeat was met by-the insurgents. Then, several resolutions were passed. One was to waive the by-laws and officially consider members all those who were on the books as members, irrespective of their election by the methods provided in the by-laws.

REFORMS PROMISED.

A law and ordinance committee was authorized to be appointed as provided in the

by-laws, this committee to draft a new constitution and by-laws and reorganize in a satisfactory manner. The Club announced its intention of complying with the by-laws in the future and of making some of the changes sought by the rebel band.

FAIR OPPOSITION GOOD FOR PROGRESS.

The opposition to the "regular" ticket brought about a greater active interest in the Club's affairs, and the future will no doubt provide less cause for righteous criticism.

They say a certain amount of fleas are good for a dog, and certainly an organized opposition tends toward healthy conditions. No fair-minded man can rightfully object to the adhering to principles believed to be correct; the holding of different opinions is no cause for the casting of mud. Open discussion within reasonable limits should be the unhampered prerogative of every member and the elimination of personal venom is the duty of all.

DUES INCREASED.

At the annual meeting it was resolved, "that the annual dues of the members of this Club be $25 per year for resident members, and ten dollars for non-resident members. Non-resident members are those who reside more than fifty miles from the City Hall, New York City, and who have no office for the transaction of business within the limits of said city. This resolution shall take effect immediately."

The stockholders meeting has not yet been held, so that no officers have been chosen from among the directors.

LECTURE ON AERIAL LAW.

The first lecture of the season was given October 18th on "The Law of Aerial Navigation," by Lyttleton Fox.

Mr. Fox's talk was most interesting. He said that the legal questions which must arise as soon as aerial navigation becomes at all general are now of immediate and practical interest. Among these are problems arising as to the right of the aviator to fly over his neighbor's land, or make a landing upon it, his liability in case of damage done by objects falling from the airship, the extent to which violent means may be legally used to drive the aviators from lands over which he is trespassing, the respective rights and liabilities of aviators whose machines collide, the regulation of aerial traffic by law and establishment of rules of the road, etc. The right of the aviator to fly over private property is the most important of these questions, and if the present state of the law is such as to discourage aviation, there should be a consideration of ways and means by which to change it.

The Aeronautic Society has continued to hold its weekly well attended meetings at the Automobile Club of America's main hall. Hugo C. Gibson has given a diagrammatic talk on engines and Laurence J. Lesh

described his whirling table and gave demonstrations with it in motion, driven by an electric motor. This brought out considerable discussion on propeller designs, etc., and Messrs. H. C. Gibson and Wilbur R. Kimball spoke on the meaning of efficiency and its relation to power, pitch, etc.

John H. Scarr, head of the Weather Bureau office in New York lectured on wind currents, the prediction of weather, and the profiting by aviators and balloonists by Weather Bureau reports.

At the close of nearly every meeting the members hold an informal model contest and the discussions in which all the members present take active part are most interesting and instructive.

The Postal Aero Club has been organized and already has members all over the United States and in Canada, England, Scotland and India.

At its factory, 305 W. Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal., there is now building an airship of 75,000 cu. ft. capacity to be operated as a captive, ending with a free flight in San Francisco, Oakland, Stockton, Sacramento, San Jose, Fresno, Los Angeles, Redlands, San Bernardino, Riverside and San Diego. Safety being the first consideration it has an extra covering over entire upper half of balloon forming a parachute that is always open.

The Aero Club of Hartford has now been duly incorporated. The club has been in existence over a year, having been organized on October 7, 1908, during the bridge celebration when Charles J. Glidden attended a banquet of the automobile club. Its existence during the past year has, however, been entirely passive until the present time when the incorporation was made, partly for the purpose of holding the name and partly because the science of aeronautics is reaching such an advanced stage that its beginnings in Hartford must be made in the very near future.

The purposes of the club do not include sport alone, but experimentation in the science of aeronautics. In this line considerable has been done already by Charles B. Whittelsey, Jr., the young son of the superintendent of the Hartford Rubber _ Works. He began experimenting with dirigible balloons using the smallest kind of a balloon for the purpose. The balloons were made larger and larger, until now he has a dirigible 18 ft. long by 4l/2 ft. in diameter equipped with a Porter motor and capable of being directed from the ground. The dirigible was recently inflated at the Springfield gas works, where coal gas is used and showed good possibilities. In Hartford water gas is used which is too heavy for aeronautical purposes. When the balloon is inflated at the Rubber Works hydrogen gas, made on the premises, is used. The balloon is made of special kind of cambric and weighs only 11 pounds, the frame being fitted with aluminum wire. The motor adds only three pounds to the weight.

EXCHANGE

Aero Forum and Market Place.

meaning of expression "1 in 12."

A cuvature of 1 In 12 means a rise of arc of 1 in 12, and this expression Is used whether the curve is a section of a circle or Is flattened out at either end, and the depth is measured from the

deepest point (c) of the curve to a straight line (d) connecting the tips (a) (b) (i. e., the chord of the arcl, like sketch, the ratio being the depth of the curve to the length of the chord.

monet backing wanted.

T have been interested in aeronautics for ten years, when I started by making paper balloons. T gradually made them larger till 1 successfully floated them clear shape over thirty feet long. Theu I took up wing arrangement made by overlapping turkey feathers. 1 found out some surprising things in regard to strength of feathers. I do not mean to assume that a practicable flyer could be made to duplicate the feats of the Wrl™hts of feathers Instead of cloth as a cover. But I do say that for my experiments I have found out that the pressure to square inch Is hardly anything. I have made a machine with wlnis of feathers and wood, propelled by my own strength, that has lifted me clear o(T the ground. You enn see from this I have started from bottom. What I now want Is a party with money to make me a small a'lowance each week to keep me In material and life's necessities. In return I will share results of my experiments. I am willing to show my work to anyone, and let him judge for himself If I am worth the backing.

HARRY BROADWELL. 1548 Baymiller Street, Cincinnati, O.

sprockets for models.

Having use for a small sprocket wheel In a model I am constructing. I was at a loss until I hit upon the following devire, which works very well. T drove some fine finishing brads into a spool which had held copper wire, about a quarter of an Inch apart. I then cut off the heads with a pair of nippers, sawed off the ton of the spool, and Inserted a spindle. To cause the cord to engage with the teeth of the sprocket. I ran the former throueh a narrow strip of kid leather.

I send this suggestion for use of any experimenter who may, in the place of anything better, wish to use it.

DAVENPORT KERRISON.

Jacksonville, Fla.

propellers wanted.

E. F. Stephenson, 250 Vance Street. Memphis. Tenn., would like to communicate with all makers of propellers.

progress in australia.

It Is rather peculiar that New South Wales, who first showed the way by Mr. Hargrave's models, should only now be starting in earnest, after the rest of the world has got a "flying" start on us. At present we are handicapped out here, there being no light engines on the market, nor manufactories for some.

I got the "craze" about thirteen years ago, on reading a work by Prof. Chanute, but gave It up

after making a few experimental gliders, pocket money allowed me (I was at school then) not standing the strain, and rubber being the only motive power. I am now constructing a 3 ft. model after the Voisin type, and one monoplane also. I have not yet been able to secure a light motor (clockwork) to drive the Voisin, so may apply compressed air. Perhaps you may be able to tell me where to obtain models available for models up to 10 ft., and price. The monoplane I will drive by rubber motor.

At a lecture by the league the other night, two New Zealand gents. Messrs. Knight and Forrester, flew a machine (size about 2 or 3 ft.) by means of string wound around a rod for motive power, no planes, .lust a two-bladed propeller at each end of a beam, which flew like a bullet from a gun : but as the hall was short it was brought to a stop by a screen made of aluminum and steel.

H. R. EAMES.

60 York Street, Sydney, New South Wales.

monoplane wants $ $ $.

My monoplane combines the following features, and has been pronounced the perfect machine by all : Automatic stability, automatic speed regulation, liiht. strong and substantial construction, no running start necessary to rise, great speed and carrying capacity with moderate power, simnliclty and safety the main features. Cost moderate. Great proneller thrust. I need capital to put same before public, and will gladly furnish further details and references to interested parties.

EBB. F. STEPHENSON.

250 Vance Avenue, Memphis, Tenn.

manufacturers, please note.

I wish to communicate with manufacturers of propellers, wheels. Bowden wire, chains, cables, turnbuckles. fabric, motors, correction devices and dealers in bamboo. I desire catalogues and prices.

G. F. WARRICK.

656 Bryant Street, Palo Alto, Cal.

wants aero club in providence.

I received the October cony, and think It is a cracker.iack little journal. Your Aero Forum and Market Plnce Is a good idea, and while there is no Aero Club in Providence, T think the city Is large enough to support one, and I am thinking of starting the movement soon.

E. S. LIDSTONE. 17 St. James Street. Providence, R. I.

club wanted in minn.

For a long time we have had the pleasure of reading: your most Interesting Aeronautics. It Is up-to-date, right to the minute, which makes one eager for new copies.

We note what you say under "Exchange" and would be pleased to hear of anything that may develop in the line of a club in Minneapolis, Minn.

CURRIER BROS.

2714 N. Washington Ave., Minneapolis, Minn.

Dr. Davenport Kerrison, of Jacksonville, Fla., has completed a beautiful model of his monoplane, and is looking forward to constructing a full-sized machine at an early date.

\-___-

BALLOONERS PLEASE NOTE.

"AERONAUTICS WOULD APPRECIATE IT VERY MUCH IE YOU WOULn BE GOOD ENOUGH TO SEND US A NOTE OF EACH ASCENSION FOR RECORDING IN THESE COLUMN'S. WE DESIRE TO RECORD EVERY ASCENT MADE IN THE COUNTRY DURING THE YEAR. AND OUR LIST WOULD RE IN MUCH BETTER SHAPE IF THOSE FOR WHOSE BENEFIT THIS LIST IS PUBLISHED WOULD BE MORE WILLING TO HELP.

IF YOU WOULD JUST SEND US A POST CARD TELLING THE DATE. START AND FINISH. DURATION. MILEAGE AND ANY SPECIAL ITEMS OF- INTEREST. YOTT WOULD OWN OUR EVERLASTING APPRFCI VTION—AND IT'S WORTH H WING. AT THAT.

THE ASTERISK (*) DENOTES TRIPS OVER 100 MILES.

Canton. Arts. 24.—J. H. Wade. Jr.. A. n. Morgan and Pierce B. Lonersan In the Sky Pilot to Ashtabula. O. Dist. 80 miles.

St. Louis. Sept. 5.—A. B. Lambert in the Missouri to Camn Thelma, 1% miles from Merampc Highlands, Mo. Dist. about 18 miles; dvtr. SO min. The inflation served as Instruction to the Aero Sound. Co. A, of the Missouri National Guard's Signal Corps, under direction of H. E. Honevwrli.

St. Louis. Sent. 5.—.Tack Bennett in the South St. I.onis (15,000 cubic feet), to near Potosi, Mo., 57 miles.

North Adams. Sent. 7.—N. H. Arnold, nilot, Robt. Cook and Harold Jaoslick in the North Adams I. to Rowe, Mass. Dist. 10 miles; dur. 55 min.

St Louis. Sept. 12th.—Harlow B. Spencer alone in the Missouri to St. Charles. Mo. Dist. 20 miles: dur. 3 hrs.: 10th ascension for pilot iicense.

Davton. Sent. 13.—Dr. P. M. Crnme. L. E. Custer. C. M. IHII. C. .1. Goeibert. C. W. Stacey. C. E. Davis and H. L. Booher in the Hoosier to Addison, O. Dist. 120 miles.

Peoria. Sept. 16.—Eugene Brown, pilot, and George E. Smith from Peoria to Cazenovia, Ili. Dist. 18 miies : dur. 1 hr. 15 min.

North Adams. Sept. 16.—N. II. Arnold, pilot; George Von Utassy. Cant. W. E. Dame and F. S. Honpin In the Snringfield to near Chesterfieid, N. H. Dist. 34 miles; dur. 3 hrs. 13 min.

Dayton. Sept. 17.—Dr. P. M. Crume, pilot; Warren Rasor, Rube Snhindler. Charles Shank, Chick Meisner and A. Snyder in the Hoosier to Franklin, O. Dist. 16 miles; dur. 2 hrs. 15 min.

STOPS TO ORDER SUPrER.

Peoria, Sept. 10.—H. E. Honeywell, Eugene Brown, Frank Kanne and George Kanne. of the I'eoria Aircraft Ciub, in the Peoria. Landing near Bradley Park, the two Kanne boys apprised their mother of the trip, and. promising to be home for supper, went on, landing about 8 miies from Peoria. Here several girls were sent up, with the balloon captive.

Dayton. Sept. 20th.—H. II. McGiil, Charles Ben-ner and Earl Kobbe in the Dayton to Vandalia. Here the bailoon was made captive and a number of residents of that citv ascended. Dist. 10 miles.

*Balto., Sept. 21.—Hill Beachey and George Hudson in Howard W. Glli's bailoon to "Poweii's Valley." Pa. "Dist. 125 miles; dur. 7 hrs." No such place on the map.

Washington. Sept. 25.—Howard W. Gill made an ascent at 3:15 to-day in his 22.000 cu. ft. balloon.

TWO LANDINGS TO CHANGE PASSENGERS.

Peoria. Sept. 25.—George E. Smith. Eugene Brown, Elmer Foisom and Leslie Lord In the Peoria. After going a few miles a landing was

made to allow Ted Brown, who had followed In a car, to take the place of Mr. Lord. Another change was made iater on. Eugene Brown giving place to A. II. Brown. Final landing 5 miles n. w. of Mason City. Dist. 30 miies.

♦Pittsfieid, Sept. 20.—William Van Sleet. Jay B. Benton and .1. Waiter Flagg In the Mass., to Newton, N. J. Dist. 130 miies.

BUYS BALLOON-TRIES TO SAIL IT HOME.

♦Indianapolis. Oct. 1.—H. II. McGiil. Henry P. Prnden and John Shauer to White Plains. Ky., in the Indiana. Mr. Pniden had become enthusiastic and went to Indianapolis from Dayton to buy the baiioon and sail it back home, but the wind disposed otherwise and the party traveled ail night, landing the following morning. Dist. 189 miies; dur. 15 hrs.

Philadelphia, Oct. 4.—Dr. T. Chaimers Fulton, J. F. Hasskarl. David II. Schuyler, G. A. Reichter and Edwin Moore In the Ren Franklin from Point Breeze at 5 :30 p. m. About 4 :30 a. m. on the 5th a landing was made 22 miles n. w. of Coatesville, Pa. The party then reascended at 8:10 a. m. and traveled to Cornog. 12 miles n. e. of Downington, where the final landing was made about 10 a m. Dist. 20 miles: dur. 13 hrs. 15 mins. The balloon traveled a circuitous course and was returning in the direction of its point of departure when landing was effected.

Fitchburg. Oct. 4th.—H. II. Clayton and J. Walter Flagg to Sudbury, Mass. Dist. 23 miles; dur. 3 hrs. 40 mins.

Fitchbnrg. Oct. 5th.—H. II. Ciayton. .7. B. Bon-ton and .1. Walter Flagg to Winchester, Mass. Dist. 35 miles; dur. 2 hrs. 5 min.

Dayton, Oct. 7th.— H. H. McGiil and J. E. Schaner ascend. No report.

*St. Louis, Oct. 12.—A. H. Forbes and Max C. Fleischman. See special story.

*St. Louis, Oct. 15.—A. B. Lambert and S. L. von Phul. See special note elsewhere.

Springfield, Oct 16th.—N. II. Arnoid. pilot; S. H. Evans. A. T. Stearns, Abraham Mitchell. W. W. Goodenow in the Springfield to three miles s. of Webster. Mass. Dist. 36 miies; dur. 1% hrs.

Fitchbnrg. Oct. 18.—J. B. Benton. H. II. Ciayton and J. Waiter Flagg in the Moston to Wobiim, Mass. The bailoon passed through two snow storms. Dist. 32 miies.

Albuquerque. N. M.. Oct. 18.—Jos. A. Blondln and Roy A. Stamm in the Stamm, a 572 e. m. hydrogen baiioon. sought to make a long-distance trip. The ianding was made at the base of the Pedernai Mts.. Terrence Co., N. M., a distance of 90 miles, in 2 hrs. 30 min. Alt. 12.702 ft.

Boston. Oct. 21.—J. Walter Flagg alone In Boston to 18 miies from Ayer, on road to Loweil.

WOMAN ON 110-MILE TRIP.

♦Philadelphia, Oct. 21.—Dr. Thos. E. Eldrldge, Miss Violet Ridgway. Frank E. Raeyiing and C. G. Eldridge in the Phlia. II. to Middletown. N. Y. Dist. 110 miies. Miss Uidgway wins the liidridge-Simmerman cup. This has been held to now by Miss Margaret Tourison, as duly recorded in this magazine.

Washington, Oct. 23.—Howard W. Gill and companion in the Gill balloon from Georgetown Gas Works, Washington. D. C. with sev^en bags of bailast, at 11 :35 a. m. Cioudy day, with sun shining at intervals, requiring constant use of bailast. One bag and a half had to be sacrificed at the start to miss telegraph wires.

Landing made at 2:10 p. m., 1 y2 miies from New Market, about 200 yards from railroad station. Distance traveled, approximately 39 miles In air line. Landed on account of an approaching storm which overtook the balloon just after Its arrival at the railroad station.

This was Mr. Gill's third ascension. (Continued on page

Delinquent Subscribers.

As they passed the portals of the infernal regions, he asked his guide if he might go in and look around. The guide consented, but warned him to stay but a few minutes, as he could not wait long.

A long time passed, and the editor had not returned, so the guiding angel went in search of him. He found him before a cage in which a number of doomed wretches were being toasted on red-hot griddles. Over the cage was the sign "Delinquent Subscribers."

"Come," said the guide; "we must be going."

"Don't wait for me," replied the editor. "I'm not coming. This is heaven enough for me!!"

TALKS WITH INVENTORS

(Continued from page 21?)

described in a printed work and published, or has already been sufficiently used in Denmark to enable it to be worked by a man in the trade.

The time within which the invention must be worked: Three years from the date of the patent. After that every year.

SPAIN.

Patent of invention for 20 years from the date of the grant. Importation patent for ten years and patent of introduction for five years. Certificate of addition ending at the same time as the principal patent.

Patentable inventions: Machines, apparati, instruments, processes or mechanical or chemical operations, new industrial products or results obtained by new or known means, providing their working tends to establish a branch of industry in the country, with exceptions as follows: Scientific principles or discoveries; medicinal preparations; schemes or combinations of credit or finance.

Novelty conditions in Spain: Inventions which are not known, ascertained or worked in Spanish dominions or abroad are considered new. Nevertheless, an invention patented abroad within two years may, at the instance of the inventor, be made the subject of a ten-years' patent. In addition, a five-years' patent may, after that time, be granted to the inventor, or even at any time to one who is not the author of the invention.

The requirements of the Spanish law insist upon the working of the patent within two years from the date of patent, and subsequently every year.

There are annual fees to contend with.

I will continue these particulars in next month's issue of Aeronautics, taking up France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy and Luxemburg.

Sixteen gas balloons and two airship bags have been purchased this season from A. Leo Stevens, the New York manufacturer. This does not include, of course, the large number of hot air balloons sold. Six of these balloons have been sold to aero clubs and two went to South America and one to Cuba.

More than 1200 passengers were carried by Carl Myers in the captive balloon during one week at Floating Bridge, Lynn, Mass., and many thousands were drawn to the grounds. Next year Mr. Myers will tour Massachusetts with several captive outfits. At the fair at Worcester a "cut-loose" trip was made with the captive after a week's use in taking up passengers. This was duly recorded in our list of ascensions.

F.A.I. MAKES ^1910 G.-B. RULES

(Continued from page 217)

To avoid conflicting of dates, it was decided to call an international conference on January 10 next in Paris to draw up a calendar of events. This makes it necessary for flight meets to be settled upon very far in advance. It was resolved in principle not to have more than one meet on the same day where the prizes exceed $40,000.

The- various countries, were accorded votes in proportion to the cubic meters of gas used during 1908. The total used by spherical balloons is 2,8ro,5i8 cu. m., divided as follows:

Germany, 1,012,849; France, 790,620; Great Britain, 332,190; Belgium, 216,500; United States, 197,329; Russia, 90,000; Italy, 89,600; Switzerland, 39,700; Austria, 34,640; Sweden, 17,000. This total would inflate 460 bailcons of the biggest size (2,200 cu. m.) allowed under F. A. I. rules.

ASCENSIONS

(Continued from page 2U?)

Philadelphia. Oct. 24.—Dr. Thos. E. Eldridge, Carl De Schweintz, A. C. Howard, Chas. D. Shaw and Bert Bartholomew in the Phila. II. to Egg Harbor. X. J. Dist. 29 miles: dur. 2% hrs.

1'eoria, Oct. 24th.—Eugene Crown, with Alfred Kanne and B. L. Wells, in the Peoria, to Kome, 111. Dist. 10 miles.

St. Louis. Oct. 24th.—Andrew F. Drew alone in the South St. Louis. Dist. 12 miles; dur. 1 nr.

Dayton, Oct. 25th.—II. C. McUill, with six companions, to 3 miles n. w. of Upper Sandusky, (). Dist. 54 miles; dur. 4% hrs.

Lowell, Oct. 20.—J. B. Benton to Newbury, Mass., in balloon Boston. Dist. 25 miles; dur. 1 hr. 10 min.

WOMAN GOES 232 MILES FOR THE LAHM CUP.

*St. Louis, Nov. 3.—John Berry and Miss Julia Iloerner in the Melba III. to Lexington Depot. Trun., landing there at 5 p. m., Nov. 4th. after nearly 24 hours in the air. Although all currents were tried, high and low, the wind gave out entirely and it was decided to land and try again. Dist. 232 miles.

Philadelphia, Nov. 5th.—Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, Lieuts. Harold Wirgman and William Smith, Ensigns L. T. Farley and Morton Poole from Philadelphia Navy Yard in the Phila. II. to Tuckerton, N. J. Dist. 51 miles.

FOREIGN LETTER

(Contin ued from page^32) and returned safely after its long journey of about 170 miles in 6j-j hours.

The military authorities are reported as building two aeroplanes.

Japan.

The Japanese government has appointed an aeronautical commission to visit countries of Europe and report progress.

Portugal.

Zipfel, of Lyons, has been at Lisbon flying his Voisin.

Roumania.

Bleriot flew at Bucharest the last of October before the royal family.

Russia.

Five "Wright type" aeroplanes are under construction by the military aero station at St. Petersburg. Legagneux made flights in his Voisin the end of October at Gatchina. Alexis Rojestvenski, of Moscow, is experimenting with a triplane. It has wing tips, front and rear controls, adjustable spread and variable angle of planes. The two Russian dirigibles made long ascents during October, rising to a great altitude till they were obscured in the clouds.

Spain.

The airship Espana, for the Spanish government, built by the Lebaudy Bros., has had its first trials at Beauval, France. One ascent lasted several hours in a high wind. A 1,500-meter height trip and one of ten hours duration must yet be made to fulfil conditions.

The Torres Queredo airship, which was reconstructed by Lebaudy Bros, on October 21, at Montesson, during a trial crashed into some wires. It is 44 m. long, 6 m. diam., 1,300 cu. m. capacity.

SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND RACE

(Continued from page 233)

The occupants took their wetting good na-turedly. What might have terminated in a serious accident was the breaking of both the valve and rip cords on the "Queen of the Pacific." Capt. Baldwin states that this is the first time such a thing has ever happened to him in all his years of experience. Luckily some hunters caught the drag rope and pulled the balloon down.

The result is still in doubt as it is claimed that the use by the "City of Oakland" of a drag rope off San Bruno Point constituted their landing.

Both Baldwin and Mars commend the young ladies very highly for their coolness and pluck during the exciting moments when the waves dashed into their baskets. They have a number of interesting photos, some taken at an elevation of 9,000 ft. Both are anxious to make further trips aloft.

INDEX V

Note—Volume I started with the first issue, that of July, 1907. Volume II started with the issue of January, 1908. Volume III started with the July, 1908, issue. Volume IV started with the January, 1909, number and Volume V with the July, 1909, number. Volume VI will start with the January, 1910, issue.

Owing to the lack of space it is absolutely impossible to index all the flights of aeroplanes, the balloon ascensions, news and trade items, the monthly reviews of affairs abroad, etc., etc. The following list barely covers some of the more extended articles.-

Joys of Ballooning, by Mrs. J. C. Hamilton, ................................ 3

On My First Balloon Ascension, by

George O. Draper .................. 3

Beach Monoplane...................... 13

The First Trip of the "Phila. II", by Dr.

Thos. E. Eldredge .................. 5

Aero Club of California Show........... 18

Talks With Inventors, I, by F. O. An-

dreae ................................ 6

National Balloon Race at Indianapolis.. 22

Wright British Patent ................ 7

Taft Presents Wright Medal .........

Army News (Explosion Gov. Balloon,

etc.) ................................. 9

Patent List ........................... 31

August.

Wright Celebration at Dayton.......... 43

Wright's Trials at Ft. Myer, by Harold

H. Brown .......................... 44

Propeller Mathematics for the Kindergarten Class, II, by John Squires, M. E. 46

Construction Aids, III ................. 48

History of the Two-Surface Glider .... 49 Curtiss Flights at Aeronautic Society

Exhibition .......................... 53

Gliding from a Hot Air Balloon........ 57

Williams Helicopter Trials ............ 62

Patent List ........................... 78

Langley's Important Work, by John W.

Mitchell ............................. 70

Airship Propeller Problems, by Prof. Calvin M. Woodward ................ 71

September.

High Explosives in Aerial Warfare and as a Source of Energy, by Hudson

Maxim .............................. 82

The Future of Aeronautics, by Lt.-Col.

Wm. A. Glassford ................... 84

Moonlight and Summer Skies, by Mar-

gueretta K. Tourison ................ 85

The Curtiss Aeroplane, by Harold H.

Brown .............................. 86

Construction Aids, IV ................. 89

Wrights' Automatic Stability .......... 90

Wright Flights at Washington ......... 93

Talks With Inventors, II, by F. O. An-

dreae ............................... 95

Raiche Aeroplane at Morris Park ..... 97

(Continued on page 2U5)

INDEX—(Continued)

Page

Airship Propeller Problems, by Prof.

Calvin M. Woodward ............... 99

Curtiss and Willard Flights, Long Island.. 101 Frankfort Exposition, by H. A. Meixner.106

Patent List............................m

Bleriot Crosses English Channel .......116

The Bleriot XI .......................118

October.

Status of the Wrights' Suit, by Thomas

A. Hill .............................122

Balloon Race that Woke a City, by E.

Percy Noel .........................125

Lateral Automatic Stability, by Dr. H.

W. Walden .........................128

Construction Aids, V......................129

ers' Step Aeroplane ...............13°

Pacific Aero Club's Show, by Cleve T.

Shaffer..............................134

Curtiss Motor.........................137

At the Frankfort Exposition, by H. A.

Meixner ................".............144

Anthony Wireless Dirigible ...........144

Rheims and Brescia Aviation Meets......146

Patent List ...........................160

November.

Wright-Curtiss Suit....................169

Construction Aids, VI .................173

Aeroplane Records ....................377

Wrights' Propeller Efficiency ..........174

Nelson Aeroplane .....................184

Wright and Curtiss Fly in Hudson-Fulton ..................................178

Sellers' Aeroplane Flights .............184-

Madison Square Garden Aero Show ...182

Changes in Curtiss Machine ...........186

First National Guard Ascension, by Geo.

B. Harrison .........................189

Easton, Requa-Coles Motors ...........190

St. Louis Aero Meet ..................193

Patent List............................191

Curtiss' Return to America ............199

December.

Talks With Inventors, III, by F. O. An-

dreae................................212

Perfecting the Helicopter, by Paul Cornu20S

Constructional Aids, VII...............210

Blackpool, Doncaster, Spa, Juvisy, Cologne Aviation Meets ...............233

Instruction Flights on U. S. Government

Aeroplane ..............-............209

Patent List............................225

No Poor Flights

With This Engine

CJ Built especially for aeroplanes, our engine positively combines less weight and more power than any other made. CJ Simplicity is its keynote. Yet it affords greater economy of fuel and conservation of power than engines of the most elaborate type. CJ A real achievement in aerial locomotion is

The Elhridge Engine

CJ Automatic oiling devices and gasoline feed, obviate the usual engine difficulties. CJ A recent successful flight was made with a 45 H.P. Elbridge Engine, weighing 200 lbs. CJ Absolute reliability qualifies it as preeminent in its field. Leading aeronauts give testimony to this fact.

CJ It will pay you to learn more about the Elbridge Engine.

Write Us Today.

ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY

10 Culver Road, Rochester, N. Y.

NEW YORK AGENT: FRED SHNEIDER. 1020 East J 78th Street

Does Advertising

>

A. C. Pillsbury, of the Pacific Aero Club, had a narrow escape on Oct. 30th while taking photos of the San Francisco water front from his balloon the "Fairy" which was captive to a launch.

A heavy gust parted the line and the balloon broke away finally landing in nearly the same locality that the two racing balloons did the following day.

Pillsbury had no ballast and in consequence was in great danger.

in

"Aeronautics" Pay?

CJWe have received unsought the following letter from a new advertiser in AERONAUTICS. Being naturally modest, and knowing how statements of returns are discounted, we have merely asked for a trial. Here is the result of one man's trial—

"AERONAUTICS is certainly the only magazine for aeronautic ads.

"I was fairly swamped with letters the first ten days after the magazine was out and replies are still coming in every mail.

"Already cash orders are beginning to arrive and I am more than satisfied with the quick results obtained." -ADVERTISER

AND WE CAN SHOW YOU SOME MORE

BATES AERONAUT MOTOR

I C

"THE HIT OF THE AERONAUTIC WORLD"

The One You've Been Looking For at a Price Within Your Reach

AT ONCE THE

HIGHEST GRADE MOTOR AT THE LOW EST PRICE

4- CYL. 4x4 WATER COOLED

25 to 30 Brake H .P.—Weight-116-LbS. Price $650.°° Complete

a Freak Design. Not an Experiment. Standard Type of the Motor World.

-Every Feature the Most Efficient and Reliable -

NOTICE

After Jan. 1st, 1910, The Price will be $750.00 ORDKR NOW

Not The

Any Size Motor or Propeller Built to Order. WRITE FOR PARTICULARS

CARL

104 OAK ST.

BATES

CHICAGO, ILL.

FOR SALE—4 cyl. 20 h. p. Cameron runabout, three seats. Price low. Full equipment. Address Cameron, care of Aeronautics, 1777 Broadway, New York.

FOR SALE.—One 8-cylinder, 40 h. p., Curtiss air-cooled motor, fine running order.

Also one 5-cylinder brand nczv Farwell motor 37 h. p., weight, including accessories, only 98 pounds. Both motors are fitted with brackets so that either one can be fastened immediately to any framework.

Price of Curtiss motor, $850.00. Price of Farwell motor, $1,100.00 Cash only. Immediate delivery. Reason for selling—am building new and more powerful engine. Address: Post Office Box 1104, Milwaukee, Wis.

FOR SALE.—A 40 h. p. celebrated Curtiss air cooled aeronautic motor. Almost new and in excellent condition. Address: Box 3, Gir-ard, Kansas, for particulars.

AEROPLANE ENGINES

Be th sized Motors fitted with Bosch Magneto, Schebler Carburetor, Mechanical Oiler, complete ready to run.

--We have standardized the following sizes of engines for aeronautical work--8 CYLS., 3f INCHES BY 4 INCHES, 30-45 H.P., WEIGHT 275 LBS. 8 CYLS., 4£ INCHES BY 4£ INCHES, 40-60 H.P., WEIGHT 300 LBS.

Machine Department EASTON CORDAGE CO. , Easton, Pi

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight — Strong and

Durable.

Variety of types and sizes in stock. Absolutely Guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

All Sizes Hoffmann Steel Balls cm Hand.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

C. and A.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS-CONSTRUCTORS -DEVELOPERS OF

AEROPLANES./LIDING MACHINES, MODELS, SEPARATE PARTS

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experirairts Conducted. ' Large grounds for testing.

A GLIDERS IN STOCK

ysWVrks: 17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road. | TdephoneA390-j^West Brighton. STATEN ISLAND. NEW YORK.

^OARIN^ DJ APiF'^ Made to order, attachable to your »JV-J.r\l\.lllVJ. DL/\L/£.»J aeroplane or glider. They increase the speed to nearly double the motor power, push machine if motor stops over 20 miles p. h., which permits gliding and prevents accidents. Any height can safely be attained. Blue prints for aeroplanes with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium also furnished.

For terms apply to R. DRESSLER, Coney Island, New York.

Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the 1NDI ANA, which remained in the air 4'' hours and i>5 min.. the KNDURANCE RKCORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

No connection with any other concern.

G. L. BUMBAUGH

1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

DESIGNER - CONTRACTOR. - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR. AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

A SPECIALTY

Livingston Radiator Co., 6 E. 31st St., New York City.

STEEL TUBING

All diameters and gauges carried in stock

Also Nickel Steel Tubing for Propeller Shafts

NEW YORK 130-132 Worth Street

PETER A. FKASSE & C031PAXY

PHILADELPHIA 408 Commerce Street

Importers of Piano Wire, specially up-set for use in Aeroplanes

BUFFALO 50-52 Exchange Street

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of the world

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

Makers of the Finest and Strongest Balloon Cloth Ever Produced

Constructor of the United States Government Balloon No. 10 in which Captain Charles De Forrest Chandler, U.S.A., and Mr. J. C. McCoy, won the Lahm Cup for Distance

MR. ALBERT C. TRIACA, Sole American and Canadian Agent

American Representative for

Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Makers of Paris, France

Address '.

Aeronaut Leo Stevens

Box 181 Madison Square NEW YORK

Wjje aeronautic g>octet|>

MORRIS PARK, WESTCHESTER, N. Y.

Join Now at the Opening of the Season.

WORKSHOPS—Where members may construct their machines.

MOTORS — With which members may make their initial trials at the cost only of gasoline and care.

SHEDS — In which members house their machines.

may

MEMBERSHIP AFFORDS STERLING BENEFITS.

j Weekly Meetings — Held at the

club house of the Automobile Club of America, at which valuable discussions take place, and every assistance and encouragement given.

LECTURES — Well known scientists tell things worth knowing.

LIBRARY — Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.

Experiment Fund — A fund is

forming for the work of investigation and experiment.

CATAPULT — Apparatus provided for starting aeroplanes that are wheel-less or for gliders.

GLIDING MOUND—For the practice and exercise of gliding.

GROUNDS—Where members may try out their machines, learn the art of flying, and make flights.

EXHIBITIONS—To which all members are admitted free, and in which they have splendid opportunities to make their inventions known either in model or full scale.

Twenty-one Members of the Society are now building Machines.

NO INITIATION FEE.

DUES -$10 A YEAR.

WRITE SECRETARY FOR BOOKLET.

FORM OF APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP.

To the SECRETARY, The AERONAUTIC SOCIETY,

Morris Park, Westchester, N. Y.

I desire to become a member of the Aeronautic Society. If elected I agree to pay the membership fee of $10 per year, and to abide by the Rules of the Society.

Name..................................................

Profession or Occupation............................

Date..................1909. Address................................

THE AEROPLANE TOY CO.

Aeroplanes, Dirigibles, Spherical Balloons, Butterfly's, Helicopteres, Gliders, Parachutes and Scientific Kites

- CATALOG READY ABOUT NOVEMBER FIRST -

ALL OUR TOYS ACTUALLY FLY

Telephone 1040 Main

Working Models Built to Order Separate Parts Furnished

Aeroplanes, Gliders, Models, Propellers

- DESIGNED AND BUILT; OR MADE iO YOUR OWN DESIGN -

Gliders, Parts and Aeronavftic Supplies in Stock

AERO MOTORS -

1020 E. 178th St., New York COMPANY, Stationary and Marine Engines

FRED SHNEIDER

New York Agent for ELBRIDGE ENGIN!

ADAMS-FAR WELL

TrtE WORLD'S LIGHTEST AND SIMPLEST

MOTOR

Less than 3 lbs. per H. P., A. L. A. M. rating

Self cooled by its own revolution

GET OUR CATALOGUE A No. 15-A

THE ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

The Master

Magneto !

and F. S. Ball Bearings

Used on Voisin Aeroplane, 8 cyl. Antoinette Motor, driven by Latham.

Bowden wire for controls

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

Sole Importers, Times Building, New York

Weaver-Ebling Automobile ===== Company =====

"WECO" OILS AND GREASES

All Aeronautic Supplies 2230 Broadway at 79th St., - - - New York

AEROPLANE WIRE WHEELS

CURTISS TYPE IN STOCK-ANY STYLE TO ORDER S/lOck AbsOrberS Mounted on Wheels

Ready to Bolt to Planes Turn Buckles - Special Fittings

J. A. WEAVER. JR. 956 Eighth Avenue, bet. 56th 57th Sts., New York

New York Chocolates

Health Food Chocolate

Most Suitable for Aeronauts or those requiring a Non-B'ilky Sustaining Fond Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET. NEW YORK

NILSON-MILLER CO.

Designers and Builders of SPECIAL GASOLINE ENGINES

Unexcelled Facilities for Experimental and Model Work

13th & Hudson Sts., Hoboken, N. J.

AVIATION

The best book on AVIATION

The First Lessons on AERONAUTICS

Illustration of Scientific Treatment in a popular style of the Principles of Aviation. A Technical Analysis without having mathematical abstruseness. There are a number of illustrations of the latest designs in Aeroplanes and Airships. Leather Back & &

Prepaid $2.00

Send to

MAX K. KASMAR, Secy.

AM. AER. SOCIETY

1827 N. Paulina St., Chicago, 111.

POWER TO FLY

Four Cycle Water Cooled Aviation Engines

FOUR LBS. PER H. P. FIFTY H. P. AND THIRTY H. P.

= Price -

50 H. P. - - $830.00 30 H. P. - - $650.00

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY ON 50 H. P.

Harriman Motor Works, Inc.

NEW YORK OFFICE, 1876 BROADWAY

FACTORY, SOUTH GLASTONBURY, CONNECTICUT

We Build Balloons That Win

HAVE WON EVERY CONTEST ENTERED AGAINST ALL MAKES

Chicago Contest — Balloon "Fielding-San Antonio" — 9 competitors Indianapolis Contest — Balloon "University City" — 6 competitors Peoria Contest — Balloon "Peoria" — 3 competitors St. Louis Centennial Contest — Balloon "St. Louis 111" — 6 competitors with Balloon "Centennial" second for distance and endurance, also water record of the world—350 miles one trip. JUST THINK OF IT, EVERY CONTEST IN THE LAST TWO YEARS.

Aero Club Grounds, Centennial Contest, St. Lcuis, Mo.

^ The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops— a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.

HONEYWELL, Builder

^ The greatest balloon trip of 1908 and 1909—850 miles in competition— made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.

HONEYWELL, Builder and Pilot

AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS

IN STOCK AND MADE TO ORDER

q HONEYWELL CONSTRUCTION utilizes the latest and best materials —varnished or rubberized envelope with French-type valve, and Italian hemp or linen nettings. Cars equipped for comfort and convenience —light and durable..........

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.


PDF Document