Aeronautics

Volume 5 - No. 5 - 1909 November

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The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.

However, if this form of presentation is inadequate, especially as regards the photos and illustrations, you can download all the editions as a PDF document with table of contents, photos and technical drawings, for a small fee. In order to search for topics and terms, please use also the available PDF documents. Please, use the free sample pdf document to check the quality of the PDF documents offered.



WRIGHT FLYING AT GOVERNOR'S ISLAND

Photo by Edtvin Lcvick, N. Y.

Wfje Aeronautic ^octetp

MORRIS PARK, WESTCHESTER, N. Y.

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GROUNDS—Where members may try out their machines, learn the art of flying, and make flights.

EXHIBITIONS—To which all members are admitted free, and in which they have splendid opportunities to make their inventions known either in model or full scale.

Weekly Meetings — Held at the

club house of the Automobile Club of America, at which valuable discussions take place, and every assistance and encouragement given.

lectures — Well known scientists tell things worth knowing.

library—Including a complete file of all aeronautical patents.

Experiment Fund — A fund is

forming for the work of investigation and experiment.

catapult — Apparatus provided for starting aeroplanes that are wheel-less or for jrliders.

Gliding Mound—For the practice

and exercise of gliding.

Twenty-one Members of the Society are now building Machines.

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AERONAUTICS

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March 3, 1879.

Vol. 5

November 1909

No. 5

Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.

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FRENCHMEN BAD LOSERS

NOW that the Gordon-Bennett balloon cup has come back again to America, France has something more to rankle in her breast; and on top of Curtiss' victory, too.

The Bennett automobile race is now a thing of the past. Will the Bennett aero cups also pass into oblivion?

L'Automobile, a well-known French automobile journal, has the following to say on the subject of the Rheims races. It is regrettable that such an authoritative organ should speak so in view of its ignorance of matters here. That L'Automobile is not aware, evidently, that already four Curtiss machines have been put out, and that Curtiss schooled himself with the four machines of the Aerial Experiment Association while he was a member of that organization.

"It appears to us that French aviators have nothing to gain by taking part in this event, and that it is calculated, indeed, to do much evil to the French aeronautical industry. The reason is simple. There are at present not less than ten aeroplane constructors in France. What do we see abroad? Two Americans took part in the competition at Rheims and no other competitors existed anywhere. What is more extraordinary would have been to see Farman fly for England, for he is of English

nationality, while at the same time being essentially Parisian. In any case he is a member of the French school, and in that respect as much French as Bleriot or Levasseur. Suppose Farman had won the Gordon-Bennett cup; every foreigner would have declared that the English aeronautical industry was at the head of the world and that the French product was inferior.

"America is the only country that can meet us in aeronautical matters. The Wrights have presented series of machines which class them among the best constructors. As to Curtiss, the winner of the cup, he has only one machine of this type. In France there are various constructors, among them Bleriot, Antoinette, Farman and Voisin, who are daily selling machines to the public. Elsewhere only the Wrights are in this position.

"Under these conditions we are playing the role of dupes in taking part in a competition in which equal importance is given to the industry of various nations. We are about to repeat in the aviation world what was done in the automobile world, where France played into the hands of the Germans, English and Italian industry, by putting on the same footing the fifty French factories and the rare foreign factories.

16T

"The cup has been gained by a compatriot of the generous donator. It has gone to America. Let it stay there forever. It is to be hoped that our constructors will see the danger at once, and that they will inform the Aero Club that they have no further desire to take part in such an event."

The Automobile, of New York, remarked: "Had Bleriot, who placed such importance on the winning of the cup, been successful in his attempt, it is certain that such a wail would never have gone forth. This causes the whole affair to look very unsportsmanlike, because the French are losing."

HORSEPOWER AND FLYING

THE tendency towards great horsepower in proportion to weight in aeroplanes is regrettable. It does not make for advancement in the efficiency of the machine itself. Given enough power, almost anything would fly. But-the line of work should be for evolving the nearest approach to soaring.

Professor Langley said, in concluding his paper on "The Internal Work of the .Wind:" "The final application of these principles to the art of aerodromics seems, then, to be that while it is not likely that the perfected aerodrome will ever be able to dispense altogether with the ability to rely at intervals on some internal source of power, it will not be indispensable that this aerodrome of the future shall, in order to go any distance—even to circumnavigate the globe without alighting— need to carry a weight of fuel which would enable it to perform this journey under conditions analogous to those of a steamship, but that the fuel and weight need only be such as to enable it to take care of itself! in exceptional moments of calm."

In the April number of Aeronautics, Mr. Chanute discussed fully the problem of soaring and showed its possibility and the requisites for its performance.

It has not been brought out with sufficient emphasis the small amount of power needed to fly with a suitably built aeroplane. The Wright Brothers have come the nearest to doing away with motive power, but the importance of this phase of the subject ha's caused little comment and apparently small credit has been allowed these pioneers for attaining what they have. In Europe the sole aim of experimentors and practical men has been to outstrip the Wrights in speed and duration performances, laying aside the question of perfecting the machine.

M. B. Sellers, in Kentucky, has been able to_ fly short distances repeatedly, with but seven rated horsepower.

This is another step in the right direction.

Advancement along this line must be credited to America.

THE POWER BEHIND THE MACHINE

IT IS of prime interest to the aviator to know exactly on how much actual horsepower he can count in time of need. Purchasers of engines have to depend solely on the claims of the manufacturer as to horsepower, and it is not to be expected that motors will be underrated at all.

The need for a definite statement of horsepower has been realized by the Automobile Club of France, and last spring a competition was held in which but two motors showed up for the test, one of which was the Gnome, which has been heralded by some as the best motor in Europe.

Though rated at 50 horsepower, it only developed 34.2 horsepower average for 15 minutes, the remainder of its run of 2 hours 17 minutes being performed with broken inlet valve springs, popping in the carburetor, etc.

The above horsepower was given at 1,177 revolutions per minute. As the motor weighed 180 pounds, its specific weight per horsepower works out at 6.47 pounds.

During December another series of tests will be held by the Automobile Club of France, for which some small cash prizes have been offered.

automobile club to offer prize.

We are glad to understand that the suggestion to the technical committee of the Automobile Club of America by Aeronautics that a motor competition, or series of tests, be held to determine the best motor suitable for aeronautics, is to be adopted, and that a substantial prize will be offered by the club.

An electric cradle dynamometer is now being installed, and will shortly be in a position to test any motor up to 50 horsepower.

AERONAUTICS. November, ipog

THE WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT*

THE patent specifications are drawn to cover both monoplanes and machines with two or more parallel superposed surfaces. Claims given in the patent include both types. The following statement is made as concise as possible consistent with the endeavor to be accurate.

m in points in wright patent in question in the suit.

t. In a flying machine a normally flat aeroplane having lateral marginal portions capable of movement to different positions above or bt dw the normal plane of the body of the ae oplane, such movement being about an axis transverse to the line of flight, whereby said lat:ral marginal portions may be moved to di:.erent angles relatively to the normal plane of the body of the aeroplane, so as to present to the atmosphere different angles of incidence, ar .1 means for so moving said lateral marginal 'pf -tions, substantially as dcsciibed.

Application of vertical ctruts r^ar the ends \ r;.p«r _vf{/ie joints.

3. Mea.is for simultaneously iv^ >arHi g, ' ■ movement to said lateral porti' : to d-i\c _ t aigles relatively to each other.

4. Refers to the movement of tlVf portions on the same side to the same

7. Means for simultaneously movina ver tical rudder so as to present to the wind that side thereof nearest the side of the aeroplane having the smallest angle of incidence.

There appear to be two main points of argument in the Wright-Curtiss suit. One is whether or not auxiliary planes, such as used, for instance, by Curtiss, infringe the Wright patent covering "warping" or twisting the main planes themselves. The other is whether or not it is necessary to use the rear rudder in conjunction with either warping the main planes or using the wing tips.

By the fact of bringing suit, Wright evidently contends that Curtiss employs means for operating the wing tips in conjunction with the rear rudder. The drawing in the Wright patent shows that the rudder must move in conjunction with the warping. In the machines in use it seems that the rudder can be moved independently of any warping, and vice . .versa, though both operations can be made - "simultaneously if desired, with the same mechanism, by merely moving a lever in certain directions.

An examination of the Curtiss machine shows that separate mechanism is employed for tilting the wing tips from that used for turning the rudder. It is a fact, however, that both operations can be made at the same time but only by simultaneous action on the part of the aviator.

The Wrights evidently regard it necessary that warping the planes themselves, or operating "wing tips," so called, be in conjunction with a movement of the rudder. Curtiss will,

no doubt, claim that he can turn circles by means of the rudder alone.

The Wright system of warping the planes, as now in use, is shown by Fig. 1 and is de scribed below. Fig. 7 shows the mechanism by which the aviator brings about the warping and the rudder action. In Fig. 1 the machine would turn to the right were it not for the turning of the rudder to the left (Fig. 2) to counteract the effect of the warping. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section showing the left sides of the planes tilted up and the right sides turned down, from which it is seen that the angle of incidence is greater on the right than on the left. There is greater projected area on the right than on the left.

TV Warping System as Shown in the Patent

1 ' 4 i . illustrated the same view of the ac line, vi'*1 the left wing-tip tilted ■'"iSaL' r'ght "no ii'avn. Both tilt at the c-v.-ic a uie t-ssj*"! l'l'r\^ b. L have the same cm "i of t\v> wind is p_0 rune' 10 tenu ' r-o the left -:de of the macliir_ down and 'lit id, 1 _><- ip. In Fig. 6 it is attenpt^d tn n\ 1! f c r ments of the Curtiss wi g u>,s as compare with the plane-warping illustra . The cables (a) (b) (c) are atu. .c 1 'o t v1 rear edge of the wing tips, as shown, licv the shoulder brace (d) by swaying the bou> to the left pulls on (a), which draws the right wing tip down. The pull is communicated all the way around the machine, as shown by the arrows. The rudder is worked left or right by turning a steering wheel. There is no connection between the two systems on the Curtiss machine.

Fig. 5 shows the Wright front rudder and the other small diagrams give various views of the Wright machine.

how wright turns.

Mr. Wright has explained his turning circles as follows: Suppose one desired to turn to the left. To turn merely by the use of the rear rudder would result in the machine's "skic ding" greatly to the right. In the turn, the left side of the machine would naturally slow up somewhat, and the right side would move forward at greater speed than the left. Headway would be lost, and it is stated that at

♦Refer also to two recent English patents described aud illustrated in the April and July issues. These will be found of Interest. Also the "Status of the Wrights' Suit," by Thomas A. Hill, in the October number.

this point the right side of the machine would be apt to slide down toward the earth. To n<ake a short turn to the left without loss of headway, the practice is to warp the right side down and the left side up with the rudder turned toward the left. But in making this left turn it is necessary that the machine be "heeled" over to the left so that the machine will not skid. After the turn the planes are straightened out and the rudder brought back in place or moved somewhat to the right to keep in the desired path.

It is possible, of course, to make turn- of great radius without the use of warping, and possibly Mr. Curtiss will claim this pome to offset the contention on the part of the Wrights that it is obligatory to use the rudder in conjunction.

Referring to the Wright patent again, without t^-use of the rudder in conjunction with

Mr. Wright has stated that in flying b h. p. is actually used. The gasoline is fed R»koh>ef*r pump to a jet placed insi mixing tube, which is connected to the ders by means of a manifold. The cyl are separate, surrounded by copper water cts. A cam shaft within the crank c:.si. ates overhead valves, by means of rocker At one side of the motor is the r:i consisting of flat brass tubes, 5 ft. h 4 in. wide. Each cylinder has a small ai port just below the head. Two pumps a by a cross-shaft from the two-to-one cai arc provided for forcing the gasoline mixing tube, and for forcing oil from voir in the base of the engine to the o bearings and the cylinders, after whi« returned to the tank. The oil pump driven, and the gasoline pump is ? PhU The gasoline supply is contained in

Construction of

the warping, the machine would turn on a vertical axis like a corkscrew, and so the rudder is operated simultaneously to correct this tendency. Of course, the movement of the rudder to the one side or the other increases forward resistance, and this may account for the lack of extreme speed commented upon by foreign writers. In this connection it must be remembered that in the Rheims meet the Wright machines were operated by men who had less experience as aviators than men like Bleriot, Latham and Farman, with whom they were compelled to compete.

Orville Wright averaged in a ten mile flight, with and against the wind, a speed of 42.58 miles per hour, while the speed with the wind was 47.43 miles per hour.

Description of Wright Aeroplane.

power plant.

The motor is designed by the Wright Brothers themselves, has four cylinders, 4>£ by 4 inches, bore and stroke. The ignition is the make and break system, with Bosch gear driven magneto. The total weight of the motor is 200 lbs. and the power is given as 25.

Wright Planes

tank fastened to the struts and on the righ the operator, between him and the motor, radiator is attached to the front strut mi far side of the engine from the aviate 1 centrifugal motor pump is directly c< to the front end of the engine shaft.

transmission.

On the rear end of the engine shaft gears, each one connecting by chains a jk propeller, of which there are two, 3 diameter, pitch 9.8 ft., mounted on shafts 11 ft. 6 in. apart; to drive in directions, one chain is crossed. The of the propeller to the engine is in the 32 to 10. Both chains are inclosed The speed of the propellers is 40( engine's 1300.

surfaces.

The spread of the two main planes by 6.56 ft., front to rear, a total of 5; for the two. The extremities are roui There are 34 ribs, curved t-20 in each s ir The machines now being made use an Eng waterproof cloth for the planes. There 10 vertical struts separating the two great £ faces, a distance of 5.9 ft. The angle of ii

b-.-i

fin its

ft

11

Kipling to Date.

A chap there was, and he made his prayer,

Even as you and I, That he could fly through the ambient air,

Even as you and I. So he went right up in his silken ship, But the blamed old engine chanced to slip. And he said, "Oh, dear, such a mussed-up trip!"

Even as you and I.

dence is stated variously, from 3 deg. up to 7 deg. Wright is said to have given it himself as 3 deg.

rudders.

The double surface front rudder, horizontal, used for steering up and down, is 1476 ft. by 2.46 ft. deep. The rear edge is 11.48 ft. from the front edge of the main planes. This rudder is capable of being curved so as to prevent a concave surface to the wind, as illustrated in the diagram. (See January num ber.) This is tilted up and down by moving a lever at the left hand backward or forward respectively. This curving front rudder, now being used on all the machines being built by the Wrights, has caused little comment. This rudder is normally uncurved and horizontal, but curves simultaneously with the motion backward or forward of the lever. Curved, the rudder gives more power than if flat, and goes through the air easier. Then, too, the center of pressure moves about less than if it were flat or had a fixed curve.

For steering left or right, and in conjunction with the warping of the planes, there is a double surface vertical rudder, each surface being 1.97 ft. deep by 5.9 ft. high. The front edge of this is 8.2 ft. from the rear edge of the main surfaces. To steer to the left the lever at the right hand of the operator ("f" in Fig. 7) is moved forward; to steer to the right the reverse is done. The wires (jj) run back to the rudder from the cross bar.

The total length over all is 30.67 ft.

stability.

To obtain lateral stability, the extremities of the wings are warped, by moving the lever at the right hand of the operator to the left or right. To warp these extremities, the following system is employed: Wires are attached to the upper ends of each of the two outside rear struts at each extremity of the wings. These join at a pulley at the lower end of the third rear strut from each extremity of the lower surface and run to a lever (e). Another set of wires (hh) and (hV), is attached to the lower ends of each of the first mentioned struts and run over pulleys at the top of each of the third struts from each extremity of the upper surface. (See Fig. 1.)

Moving the hand lever (f) to the left communicates through the rod (g) a movement to the left of the upright lever (e). This pulls on the wire (i), branching off to the top of the two outer rear struts, and brings the right hand rear edge of the upper surface down, pushing lower surface down also. This makes a strain on the wires (hh), joining at the top of the third rear strut, and creates a pull upward through the extension (h'h1) of these last mentioned wires on the rear edge of the lower left hand. By this operation the left hand wing is warped upward.

There is an increase in the angle of incident on the right hand side of the machine, and a decrease on the left hand side, with an attend ant greater lift on the right than on the left, and also a resulting tendency for the right

hand side to slow up. To keep the straigt course, then, the rear vertical rudder is simu. taneously moved toward the left, the side oj the less resistance in order to bring the hea^ of the machine around in its intended path. Both operations are done at the same time by the same lever. To warp the wings in the opposite direction the lever (f) is moved to the right.

As illustrated in the accompanying drawing, moving the lever (f) to the left or rghi warps the planes while moving it forwarc or backward moves the rudder. This twisting mechanism in the Wright machine, and the wing tip system in the Curtiss aeroplane, are employed to counteract the effect of wind gusts and to correct any undesirable lateral slant of the machine.

weight.

With the weight of the Wright apparatus at 1,100 lbs., mounted by one man, and the surface as 538 sq. ft., the weight lifted per square foot is 2.02 lbs., and a weight of 38 Ids. to the h. p., using 14 h. p. used as a divisor

running gear.

The whole apparatus is mounted on two L..g wooden runners, which permit the machine to slide along the ground as soon as it alights. This serves to check forward motion. In starting, a little car is placed under the middle of the chassis. The grooved wheels of the car run over a monorail. After obtaining proper momentum the machine rises from the car In most of the flights a falling weight was ,-ployed to give initial velocity. When this w .5 used, a rope with a ring at the end was at tached to a downward pointing hook in the forward part of the aeroplane. This rope then ran over a pulley at the end of the rail and back to the tower and to the falling weight. In the flights made in New York the propellers easily gave enough velocity to permit the use of the rail alone.

Wrights Get Injunction.

Buffalo, Sept. 30.—An order was issued by Judge Hazel in the United States Co irt here to-day against Glenn H. Curtiss and the Her-ring-Curtiss Co. of Hammondsport, requiring them to show on or before October 14 why a preliminary injunction should not be granted restraining them from making, using or sailing, the so-called Curtiss aeroplane.

AERONAUTICS November, /pop

CONSTRUCTIONAL AIDS NO. 6

THE aeroplane or airship builder has a universal panacea in Bowden wire for the transmission of motion through a flexible and tortuous route. He can open or close his throttle around a strut or in an otherwise inaccessible place. It can be applied to the spark lever, the air valve of his carburetor or to "tickle" the latter nuisance.

what it is.

Bowden wire mechanism consists of but two parts—a closely coiled and practically incompressible spiral wire, constituting what is termed "the outer member," and a wire cable, practically inextensible, threaded through the above, and termed "the inner member."

Previous to the introduction of the Bowden mechanism the usual mechanical method of transmitting power in other than a straight

castor oil lubricates well.

Castor oil is very extensively employed for lubricating the aeroplane motors. Bleriot uses it exclusively for both his small and large motors. All the Gnome engines use it for the main bearings. Employers of pure castor oil are unanimously of opinion that it is excellent as a lubricant. The only objection that can be raised against it appears to be that its smell is objectionable.

fittings of the aeroplane.

In Fig. s is shown a combined strut-socket and wire-strainer. Among the advantages claimed for this device are the following: Extreme lightness, since it takes the part of two turnbuckles and does away with (in some cases) five metal eyes or hooks. It offers no head resistance, being immediately behind the strut and socket; also it can be

line was by means of angle levers and rods, cables and pulleys, and other such devices, all of which necessarily involve considerable complication, besides increased labor and expense in adapting them satisfactorily to the users' requirements. Bowden wire dispenses with all these difficulties, while enabling power to be transmitted by the most tortuous route. The mechanism is complete in itself, and requires only that one member shall be anchored to a stop at each end, and that the other member shall be attached to an operating lever at one end and to the object to be moved at the other. It may be adapted to impart either a pulling or pushing movement.

quickly and easily attached to piano wire. In addition, it is very cheap, and there are no left-hand threads, which are often difficult to replace in case of loss. F. G. Brockway, in England, has put out this device, protecting it with a patent.

To the English Flight we are indebted for the original of the sketches i, 2, 6 and 7. Fig. 1 shows the joint used by Pischoff. That in Fig. 7 is the R. E. P., in France. Fig. 2 shows a Lamplough fastening. Short Brothers, the well-known balloon builders, turned aeroplane manufacturers, employ the flexible scheme shown in Fig. 6.

Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate two fittings sold in the open market by Chauviere.

ATTENTION has occasionally been called to the unquestioned efficiency of the Wright aeroplane. It is of interest to examine the reasons for this efficiency, and in comparing the performance of various aeroplanes, we should remember that not only the weight carried per horsepower, but also the speed attained, must be considered.

The greater efficiency of the Wright machine appears to be due to the use of two large propellers turning at slow speed, as distinguished from the small direct connected high speed propellers of most other machines. The absence of large fins and other guiding and steering surfaces may also attribute to efficiency by reducing skin friction and head resistance. As has been shown by recent experiments, the comparatively slight curve of 1 in 20 used on the Wright machine gives a greater ratio of lift and drift, than the deeper curves employed by Bleriot and some others. Aside from the efficiency, it would seem that the quick and vigorous response to "control" of their machine would recommend it; but for this very reason the natural or structural stability may be less.

In view of the fact that there are no reliable propeller data in existence, and that probably 40 to 50 per cent, is the best that is obtained by directly connected propellers already in use, the following is of the greatest interest:

75 per cent. efficiency.

Wilbur Wright has said that the efficiency of his propellers is 75 per cent., and naively admits that even that is not as good as it should be. And this, absorbing but 14 h.p., with the balance in reserve. And it must be remembered that the chain drive imposes a tax of at least 5 per cent, or so for loss in transmission. There are so many qualifications of the term "efficiency" as applied to propellers that we must accept herein the general understanding thereof.

It is stated that the efficiency of a propeller increases with the decrease in the product of the pitch and the r.p.m., but the smaller this product the more power is required for a certain diameter of propeller.

The design of an aeroplane has all to do with the efficiency of the propeller. If large, slow speed propellers are used; room must be found for them.

In the foreign dirigibles, where more than 100 h.p. is used to drive the great gas bags, large propellers cannot conveniently be used on account of constructional difficulties, so that the smaller propellers used must rotate at high speed, with a consequent loss in efficiency. Nor does a monoplane lend itself well to large propellers not directly connected.

The mystery of the Wright propeller seems to have been solved for the public by an engineer in the Royal Prussian Aerial Battalion,

Captain Eberhardt, of Berlin. He has published details of tbe propeller, with equations and drawings made from measurements taken.

figures on wright propeller.

Fig. 1 shows a top and plan view of the solid wood propeller, with an outside radius of 1.3 meter (4.264 ft.). The hub radius is as small as possible consistent with strength in order to get all the blade surface capable of being had, so that the surface is almost perpendicular to the direction of rotation.

Captain Eberhardt goes on to say, referring to this last statement:

"This, as I have frequently pointed out, is quite important. The height of the propeller through the hub is 130 millimeters (see Fig. 1). Wright has cut off the ends of his propeller as shown in the heavily shaded portion. This gives it rather a queer appearance, but one might be tempted to see in it a good aerodynamic reason. Perhaps the ends of the propeller were cut off to allow the motor to run at full speed? It is not impossible that by this cutting off of the ends and keeping a constant height (thickness) of the propeller that there might be a certain advantage. Theoretically, the form of the propeller is indifferent, as I have shown in my book, 'Theo-rie der Luftschrauben.'

How the thing is in practice can only be found out by experiment. To judge from present experience the shape seems to have very little to do with the subject. Figs. 2, 3 and 4 show sections through the propellers in three different places. If x is the distance from the center of the hub, and Alpha the angle of slope at that distance, then the pitch s is found by the equation s=2 x Pi tan. a

The pitch angle, propeller width and propeller curvature are shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4. In Fig. 2, x=i.3 meter; in Fig. 3, x=o.86; and in Fig. 4, x=o.5.

These values inserted in the above equation give the pitch of the propeller as follows:

For Fig. 2, sr=2Xi-3 Pi tan. 20°=2.o8, or approximately 3.

For Fig. 3, s=2Xo.86 Pi tan. 290 50—3.09, or approximately 3.

For Fig. 4, s=2Xo.5 Pi tan. 440 20—3.06, or approximately 3.

By this it is seen that the pitch is practically a constant of three meters.

The Wright motor should develop 28 h.p. at 1,300 r.p.m., so that each propeller absorbs 14 h.p. I have measured the ratio between the motors and propellers by counting the teeth in the sprockets and found 32-^-10=3.2, so that the r.p.m. of the propellers is 1300-^-3.2=approx. 400.

The tractive effort (thrust) of the Wright propeller is found by equation, which I have worked out as follows:

S sn

WRIGHTS' PROPELLER EFFICIENCY

FIG. 3

Phe Wright Propeller

in which Nj means work absorbed (total work), S the tractive effort (thrust), n the r. p. m.; s the pitch of the propeller. By inserting these values we have: S 3X400

14=—X-

75 60

which gives the thrust of the propeller S=50 kilograms, approximately.

The resistance of the Wright aeroplane amounts to 100 kg. for a speed of 15 to 16 meters per second. The pulling power of the propeller per horsepower is 50-M4 equals about 3.6; in reality a little bit more, as I have put the figures in round numbers. As we put the speed c of the Wright machine at 15 to 16 meters per second, the efficiency, E, of the propellers is found by equation: Ne Sc E = -^7 = 75Ni

(Ne being the useful work.) Substituting values for S, c and N in the above, we have: SO 15

E=—X— equals about 0.71. 75 14 50 16

E=—X— equals about 0.76. 75 14

As the Wright machine makes nearer 16 than 15 meters per second, the efficiency might be said to be 76 per cent."

Captain Eberhardt claims that efficiency is increased with the number of propellers, and that for large flying machines with four propellers an efficiency of 85 to 88 per cent, ought not to be too high. This is the theory of W. R. Kimball in his 20-bladed propeller.

To our Friends:

If you know of someone interested, won't you tell us of him ? If you meet another enthusiast, won't you tell him of us?

"One good turn deserves another"

You Know!

RAICHE MAKES FIRST FLIGHT. Riggs Airship Being Inflated.

THE first member of the Aeronautic Society to have fly an aeroplane designed by himself is Francois Raiche, whose machine was described in a recent issue of Aeronautics. During September the motor was got running, and, although the wing tips for stability were not hooked up, on September 16 Raiche and Crout, who designed the motor, were so anxious to get the machine in the air that they could not wait for a little thing like that. Hardly any preliminary run was necessary. Starting with the rudder tilted up, the aeroplane, with Charles Crout aboard, got into the air in less than a hundred feet and traveled for about the same distance late in the afternoon. The machine was then packed up for exhibition at the Madison Square Garden show. It will go on the road shortly, giving exhibitions, with Harry M. Green as the Star.

S. Y. Beach has continued the trials of his monoplane as a "wind wagon" around the Morris Park track. Everyone is waiting patiently for him to put on the planes again and make a real try.

The Riggs — Rice airship is being inflated for its trial. The bag, which has been built by Leo Stevens, is a hundred feet long, was made under a contract to lift a certain specified weight. The framework is made of tub-

ing, with Silverite connections. This framework extends the full length of the bag and actually incloses the bag, which would thus be of the rigid type, like the Zeppelin, but with the framing outside instead of inside the bag. One large propeller is directly connected at the forward end, and back from the forward end on each side is a smaller propeller. All the propellers are capable of being tilted for use in ascending or descending in place of using rudders.

Frederick Shneider has not put his second Wright-like machine together, but has been making scale models for sale.

The Brauner-Smith aeroplane is now at Morris Park, and, with one or two others, is waiting for a motor. There are no suitable motors to be had for prompt delivery, it is claimed.

This winter will probably be the last for the Aeronautic Society at these grounds, as the surrounding land is being laid out in streets and soon the big grand stand, which has been sold, wiir*be demolished. The new grounds will probably be on the Hempstead Plains, near Mineola, as this is the only suitable large space near New York. The thousands of acres of marsh land in Jersey have been investigated, but found too wet for any use.

Dr. H. W. Walden has been running his double biplane on the track, but has not succeeded in getting up enough speed to leave the ground.

GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE

AGAIN the Gordon Bennett balloon cup comes to America, for the second time. From Zurich, October 3rd, seventeen balloons started in this, the fourth contest for the cup. Among the pilots were Alfred Le Blanc, Capt. von Abercron, and Paul Meckel, who were also contestants in the race from St. Louis in 1907.

E. W. Mix, a native of Ohio, represented America in the balloon "America II," used by J. C. McCoy in last year's race. Mr. Mix

made the greatest distance, about 1,100 kilometers, landing north of Warsaw in Russian Poland. Alfred Le Blanc was second with 834 kilometers. Cable advices are not certain whether Mr. Mix is to be granted the cup, as a statement has been given out that he made a descent at one point and took on ballast. This will be investigated, of course. In the next issue we will give a summary of the race with the official figures.

While the feeling of the French in regard to the Bennett aviation cup is unsportsmanlike, still we cannot say they have no valid reason for feeling disappointed at being placed second to America in the balloon race. Mr. Mix was aide to Alfred Le Blanc in 1907 when they both represented France in the St. Louis race. Now Mr. Mix represents America in the Zurich meet, and with a French made

balloon. Mr. Mix has lived in France the best part of his life, so that France really looks upon him as an adopted son. It might have looked better for America to have sent a resident native with an American balloon. Of course, the obtaining of Mr. Mix to represent America was a sagacious move which resulted in victory.

WASHINGTON, Oct. 12.—Wilbur Wright arrived in Washington on the evening of October 5, and the next day commenced preparations for the instruction of signal officers, as required by his contract. The Wright aeroplane and the Signal Corps detachment were moved from Fort Myer, Virginia, to College Park, Maryland, on the 6th.

First Lieutenant F. P. Lahm, Signal Corps, and Second Lieutenant F. E. Humphreys, Corps of Engineers, are the officers selected for instruction.

On October 8 for the first time, an aeroplane owned by Uncle Sam made a flight, for on this day Wilbur Wright, who had never flown this machine before, started in to give driving lessons in "Miss Columbia," as the machine has been called.

Three short flights were made of about five minutes each, then Lieut. Lahm took his

place beside Mr. Wright for five minutes, then Lieut. Humphreys got in for a lesson.

The next day Wright alone made a speed trial over a closed circuit of one kilometer. In one direction the time for the 500 meters was 241/5 sec; in the other, 243/5 sec. At the fastest direction, the m.p.h. figures 46.14, slightly less than Orville did in his official flight.

Two other solo flights were made, one without the use of the falling weight. Duplicate levers for the use of the students of the Wright "Aviation College" were fitted and a couple of flights made with Lieut. Lahm.

Sunday, the 10th, was a day of rest for Mr. Wright. On the nth a short solo flight was made, in which the machine was driven in short-radius circles. The instructor and his pupil, Lieut. Humphreys, made a flight of over seven minutes on the 12th.

AEROPLANE

RECORDS.

Distance Record.

Farman, Aug. 27, 1909, Rheims... 180

Duration Record.

Farman, Aug. 27, 1909, Rheims .................. 3h. 4m.

Duration With Passenger.

O. Wright, Sept. 18, 1909..- ih. 35m.

Height Record. .

Rougier, Oct. 2, 1909, Berlin........

Unofficial, O. Wright, Oct. 2. 1909, Potsdam ........................

Speed Records.

Kiloms. h. m.

10 Bleriot ................ o 7

20 Curtiss ............... 0 15

30 Curtiss ............... 0 23

40 Latham ............... 0 34

50 Latham ............... o 43

kilom^/

70 80 90 100

56 2/5 J 150

Latham ............... 0

Latham ............... 1

Latham ............... 1

Latham ............... 1

Latham ............... 1

Latham ............... 2

52 44 2/5 3 6 11 26 3/5 19 56 2/5 28 17 13 9 3/5 Two-Man Speed Record.

10 kiloms. Farman ........... gm. 524/5S.

Three-Man Speed Record.

10 kiloms. Farman ........... 10m. 39s.

Quick Starting. Delagrange, Sept. 29, 49 meters. Fastest Average Speed.

Bleriot, Aug. 28, 1909, Rheims, 76.95 k.p.h. 503/5^ (47.78 miles). Unverified, Santos Dumont 291/5 * covered 8 km. in 5 min., a speed of 96 k.p.h.

55 *s (59-6i miles). The distance is also stated as

56 7.5 km. and the time 6 min.

4/s. \J

560 ft. 1,600 ft.

s

47 4/5

WRIGHT AND CURTISS FLY IN HUDSON-FULTON CELEBRATION

WRIGHT OUT-BLERIOTS BLERIOT—BURSTING OF ENGINE ENDS FLIGHTS—AIRSHIPS START! FOR ALBANY-BALDWIN HAS ACCIDENT

stevens' captive balloon success.

THE most spectacular feat in aviation up until October 4, of the year of our Lord 1909, was probably Bleriot's crossing of the English Channel in his little monoplane.

This has suffered severely by comparison with the sensational flight of Wilbur Wright on this day from Governor's Island, off the southern end of Manhattan Island, out past the statue of Liberty, up the Hudson to a turn over the British warship "Drake," opposite Grant's Tomb, and back to the Island. No early morning gallop was this, with a great expanse of clear water in case of mishap, but a stake event over the congested traffic of the great harbor and river, the trans-Hudson ferryboats and the long line of foreign battleships.

And this was only a try-out for the official flight to be made in the afternoon. What Wright really intended to do is still a matter of conjecture. A condition of his understanding with the Hudson-Fulton Commission was that he remain in the air an hour. At least we knew he would go up the Hudson again.

The morning flight almost caught the newspapers napping, and it did the photographic brigade. But by two o'clock there was no lack of the camera gents all along Riverside Drive, and at the historic Claremont restaurant there was a regular encampment. At this hour the announcement was made that the flight would shortly start. It was not until two hours later that the patient men received word that the head of one cylinder had blown off and that no further flights would be made. It was truly a sad procession that made for the subway, for the last chance to get photographic record of the machine in flight had passed, and the week had not been anything like prolific in affording opportunities.

At the Governor's Island end of the course something serious had happened. The aeroplane was on the rail and the propellers were being turned to "crank" the engine. There was just one solitary explosion and a piece of something shot up through the plane, describing an arc to the rear where it fell in the sand. It was the cylinder head. A "flare-back" had occurred.

Wright immediately threw up his hands with a faint guess-this-is-the-end-of-it kind of a smile and took the next boat to Manhattan, and was in Washington the following day to begin the instruction of the Signal Corps men.

The distance of the morning flight totals over 20 miles and the elapsed time was officially taken as 33 minutes, 33 seconds. The Weather Bureau measured the speed of the wind as eight miles. The average speed made was just under 36 miles an hour. Mr. Wright's estimate was about 41 miles, with the wind blowing eleven.

wright circles statue of liberty.

Mr. Wright had been at the Island since the 20th of September and Curtiss arrived with his machine a week later. High winds prevailed practically all the time up to September 29, when they let up to allow the airships to get away and Wright to make an inspiring circle of Miss Liberty.

About nine in the morning his first flight in New York was made, circling around the great level expanse of filled-in land comprising the southern portion of the Island. This lasted about 53^ minutes.

An hour later saw a goodly crowd of spectators when Wright started on his swoop around Bedloe's Island. He was 6y2 minutes in the air. This feat might well be compared to a duplication of Santos Dumont's famous airship trip around the Eiffel Tower in Paris, with great steamships and a myriad of smaller craft in place of buildings. Toward evening another flight of about 3 minutes around the Island was made in a fitful wind.

No more flights were made by him till the Great One of October 4, as abnormally high winds prevailed. Nature allotted but these two favorable days for the aero part of the celebration, and advantage was quickly taken of the opportunities.

The machine Wright used was made up of parts, both new and old, the major portion being from the machine used by Orville Wright at Fort Myer last year in the fatal flight. The motor was the one used in the

last flights in North Carolina. Under the center of the lower plane and extending nearly to the rudder in front was a canoe, in anticipation of a landing in the wet. This Wright bought up street one day before the flights. It was then decked over with canvas.

curtiss' flights.

The Curtiss machine did not arrive until the 27th, but it was set up in record time. In two hours there was enough of the machine together for it to appear complete to the average New Yorker.

Early in the morning of the 29th, Curtiss made one short flight as a test of the ma-

■ chine, which was a "bran' new" one, finished

j at Hammondsport during his absence in Europe. Few were present at the unearthly

i hour of 6 a. m. to view it. The next flight was not until the night of October 3, when a short one was made lasting not more than

I a minute.

No other flights were made. On the afternoon of the Wright-Hudson flight the Curtiss machine left for St. Louis, to take part in the meet there.

the airship race.

The airship feature of the celebration was not as satisfactory as it might have been. Although three airships actually showed up, but two made a start for the "World's" $10,000 prize for a flight to Albany from the "Fulton Flight Square" at Riverside Drive and 120th Street.

Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin built for Geo. L. Tomlinson a new dirigible, practically a duplicate of his own. The air-cooled Curtiss motor formerly used by Capt. Baldwin in his airship was installed in the Tomlinson outfit, and the Captain himself used a special water-cooled Curtiss motor.

The other contestant was John Roeder, of White Plains, with an unique affair in which the gas bag was supposed to lift only part of the weight.

After several days of preparation and waiting for the strong winds to subside, Baldwin and Tomlinson got away about 10 o'clock on the morning of September 29. The day was perfect with a slight breeze blowing from the west. With apartment houses facing the Square on two sides, Riverside Drive on the west, with the Hudson a hundred feet below and Grant's Tomb on the north, the get-away was a particularly pretty sight. Tomlinson was first and had gotten almost out of sight before Baldwin started.

The plan Tomlinson followed was to let the wind blow him to the eastward of the Hudson, and then head directly west into the wind at intervals so as not to get too far from his course. Though this system was employed several times during the journey, he kept getting far to the east and finally landed on the farm of Howard Willets at White Plains, a distance of 20 miles. The landing

was necessitated there on account of the oil supply tank leaking badly. The ship returned to the start the next day.

Captain Baldwin immediately headed out over the Hudson River, and then turned northward along its course. After passing Ft. Washington, the two top members of the frame broke just back of the engine. It would have been dangerous in the extreme to have gone ahead with this damage unrepaired, and the moment it happened the aeronaut steered the ship down to the water. It was then allowed to drift inshore, while many willing hands lifted it on the rocks. The gas was let out of the bag, and the ship returned to the square. The distance made was only four miles. Although the rules allow as many trials as desired, no second attempts to reach Albany were made by either of the contestants. Roeder did not put in an appearance until three days after Baldwin's and Tomlinson's attempts, and by that time all vestige of the two latter ships had been removed, Captain Baldwin taking his ship to St. Louis.

the baldwin airship.

The bag measured 86 ft. in length by 20 ft. in diameter at the greatest width, tapering to 18 ft. at the rear, total capacity being 19,000 cu. ft. The framework and other details of the ship are the same as has been given in previous issue of this magazine, with the exception that the 25 h.p. water-cooled motor is being used. The bag is made of double walled silk weighing 6^4 ounces to the square yard, with a strength of 6b to 65 lbs. per sq. in.

tomlinson's airship.

The Tomlinson bag measures 86 ft., but has a diameter of 18 ft. and 16 ft. respectively, and a capacity of 17,000 cu. ft. This bag is made of single-walled cotton weighing 6 ounces per square yard, and having a breaking strain of 50 to 60 lbs. The 15-h.p. air-cooled motor formerly used by Baldwin has been installed in this airship.

stevens captive balloon.

The captive balloon used by the Sanitary Department of the Hudson-Fulton Commission at the grounds of the Colonial Yacht Club at 140th Street, installed by Leo Stevens, was a distinct success, although the wireless intended to be tried was not experimented with. Communication with the ground was had by telephone at all times. The wires running from the instruments in the basket followed the cable to the ground and iU to the switchboard in the club u~ of Dr. Lucas, of the Sanitar Air. Stevens' were all give go up in the balloon, and s joyed the naval parade and nations from the basket of t

perkins and HI5

Samuel F. Perkins, the flier, has had a busy time it

AERONAUTICS November, 1909

AIRSHIPS AND AEROPLANES FLY IN

Route followed by Wright in his Hudson Flight, showing Baldwin's start and finish

'right's Machine, with Canoe Attached, at Governor's Island 180

AERONAUTICS t November, ipop

MEMORY OF HUDSON AND FULTON

the Hudson-Fulton celebration. At various places in the city kites were flown with advertising banners attached. At Madison Square a balloon was used on calm days and nights to carry the banners and flags, and a searchlight is employed at all times of the night to illuminate the kites, signs and the balloon.

The day that Curtiss was advertised to make his flight around Grant's Tomb, the newspaper men assembled there were nicely fooled by one of Perkins' banners. With all eyes strained to catch the first glimpse of the Curtiss machine as it came up the river, one sharp-eyed Globe representative spied a yellow streak far down the river, moving, it seemed, extremely slow. All were notified that Curtiss was on his way, and the crowd along Riverside Drive waited to catch the first view. As glasses were procured, the "aeroplane"

was found to be a banner emblazoned with the sign "Duplex Razors" tied to a tug boat. This tug boat paraded the river and around Governor's Island. As a sensation a dummy man was occasionally dropped from the kites. The Perkins outfit will shortly start on a tour of the country.

World Prize Renewed.

The Ar. Y. World's $10,000 prize for a flight or sail to Albany during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration has been renewed, open until October 10, 1910, with the elimination of any entrance fee. There are no conditions except that the trip must be continuous.

George L. Tomlinson is building an airship of his own design and promises to be ready by the middle of November. Baldwin will, no doubt, have another try.

MADISON SQUARE GARDEN AERO SHOW

FROM September 25 to October 2 there was held at Madison Square Garden an aeronautical exposition in connection with the Business Show. This was arranged and conducted under the auspices of Alfred Chasseaud, who already announces a second one for May of next year.

While little time was given to the show, which occupied the entire gallery of the Garden, a surprisingly large number of exhibitors showed up and the character was such as to promise well for the next.

Of course, the freak models were all there, but the showing made by actual manufacturers of aeroplanes, motors, propellers and accessories was most creditable.

The big feature was, of course, the Curtiss aeroplane sold to A. P. Warner by the Wyck-off, Church & Partridge company.

Two other full sized aeroplanes looked considerably like some of the Curtiss relations. One was the Francois Raiclie machine which got off the ground a few days before at Morris Park. The other was that of Pincus Brauner and A. J. Smith. The Raiche machine was described in the September number of Aeronautics, as well as the Curtiss machine, with full drawings. The Brauner-Smith machine is very well built indeed, and surely ought to do something soon. It was not quite completed for the show, but will probably be having its trials within a month. As soon as trials are completed it will go en tour giving flying exhibitions. Mr. Raiche is prepared to accept orders for his machine or to do special work to designs.

Messrs. C. & A. Witteman showed two of their regular type biplane gliders. These were particularly finely made and illustrate the advance that has been made. Orders were taken during the show for several gliders and

a power machine contracted for payment subject to demonstration flight. Starting in a small way, the Wittemans have built up a surprising business. They have recently completed a power machine for Miss E. L. Todd, which is now at Mineola.

Adjoining this exhibition was that of the Silverite Metal Co., who had castings of strut sockets, beam connections and other parts.

The magazine Aeronautics had a most attractive stand, with a background covered by photo enlargements of well-known aeroplanes and airships, made and loaned by the aero photographer, Edwin Levick. A constant stream of visitors inspected the pictures and bought copies of the only aeronautical journal in America.

The exhibit of the Hartford Rubber Works Co. was a distinct surprise. Experimentors have had all kinds of trouble to find suitable wheels and tires, and here, all of a sudden, was a manufacturer with special tires in stock and a catalog. To the Hartford people must be given the credit for being the pioneer in this country. Three weights and sizes were shown, each with its name moulded in the rubber, "Aeronaut," "Aviator" and "Aeroplane."

Then there was shown "Hartford Aero Varnish" for use on balloons and aeroplanes. The show developed a surprising number of orders for various tires for aeroplanes, and the company is already behind on varnish orders. This amber-colored varnish will make a cloth gastight with one coat, and is easily applied with an ordinary brush. There is a large amount of rubber in the solution, and with the drying, it incorporates itself in the fabric, after which it does not shrink nor expand under all atmospheric conditions. The specific gravity is 0.95.

The Requa-Coles Co. was unable to show a finished motor, but had at their well-equipped stand some vital parts to show the kind of material and workmanship entering into the manufacture of the motors they are now putting on the market. A beautifully made true screw propeller was shown, as well as small model propellers attached on an electric motor.

/. A. Moller was another exhibitor of propeller. He showed a well-built metal screw of his own design.

The Livingston Radiator Co. had on exhibition two special aero radiators. These were of the type illustrated and described in Aeronautics some time ago. The Livingston company has made a special study of the needs of the aeronaut and aviator, and has developed a fine piece of cooling apparatus. y,

A stock motor was shown by the American & British Mfg. Co. This motor is not particularly light but stands well, and several machines have them installed now. Good prospective business was reported by this company's representative.

The R. I. V. Co.'s ball-bearing exhibit occupied a prominent place. The R. I. V. bearings, described in a previous issue of Aeronautics, have been used with the utmost satisfaction by aero experimentors, and they are used by many of the best known automobile manufacturers.

Charles J. Hendrickson exhibited his monoplane glider and represented the C. E. Con-over Co., manufacturers of aero cloths. This company is prepared to furnish treated cloth of any material or to treat any material desired by the purchaser.

The show was made particularly interesting on account of the great number of small working models, some of which actually flew.

Mr. Church, of the Aeroplane Toy Co., had a lot of fun with his butterflies, which he flew all over the Garden. A great many of these were sold at 5 cents each for Hudson-Fulton souvenirs, showing a picture of the Clermont and the Wright aeroplane on the wings. They operate with an elastic band, and fly about 50 ft. They are also being put out as advertising novelties.

The Aeroplane Toy Co. promises to have most of their complete line of toy flying machines ready for the market before the end

of the month. The prices range from 5 cents to $50.00, and they fly from 40 ft. to several hundred yards. The line will consist of monoplanes, biplanes, helicopters, gliders, parachutes, kites, etc. One model in particular which promises to be a very popular toy is patterned after the Bleriot type which flew across the English Channel. This model retails for 35 cents and is almost indestructible. It flies about 60 ft.

Mr. Church intends to build a full-sized machine in the early spring, which he claims will easily travel a mile a minute, and he also says that nothing short of a hurricane will keep him from flying. He is not prepared to show the model of this machine at present, but will exhibit it at the Boston show, as by that time he expects to have it fully covered by patents.

William Morgan was another exhibitor of toys, both aeroplanes and helicopters. These sold well at 50 cents and $1. The aeroplanes, made of tissue paper, with twin propellers, fly about 50 ft. The helicopters go straight up a'considerable distance.

Dr. William Greene had a very extensive booth. By kites of various kinds he showed the evolution of the flying machine beginning with an imported Chinese kite, a duplicate model of the first kite made by them some 3,000 years ago. Then there was a Japanese hand painted butterfly kite transcendent material, a long tail kite, the first modern tail-lers, the box, French war kite for photography, and the modern aeroplane kite. The model Bleriot XII, made on a scale of 1 in. to the foot, was a beautiful piece of work and complete to the last detail. To the popular nature of the exhibit was credited the number of people who constantly surrounded it.

Octave Jean exhibited his flying machine, with rotating paddles having feathering blades.

The exhibitors of large-sized models were: A. J. Stadtler, O. de Martini, the Buck "Airship," J. F. Cox, "the Vacu Aero Car," S. Andrews, N. Y. Aerial Mfg. Co., J. C. Press, and Philip W. Wilcox. The Martini model was a well-built Bleriot type, with warping wing tips under the main planes. A small gasoline motor was fitted.

The small model exhibitors included: William Harrison, Thomas Penn, Carl Bizzozero, Albert Malasomma and C. H. Rogers.

"I want to say this for 'Aeronautics,' that it is the most valuable piece of literature that it has been my pleasure to secure, for the simple reason that it publishes the up-to-date experiments, improvements, and success of hundreds of aeronautical students which enable one to benefit by others' experiments that would not only take an enormous amount of money, but years of time to acquire. The benefit of 'Aeronautics' enables us to accomplish in a year's time what would take a life time to produce. It makes it possible to keep in touch with the whole alphabet of aeronautics. I have

always read everything I could secure on the subject of aerial navigation for the last twenty years. The men that really fly are the ones that produce something in reality and try it; and if it fails, produce another idea in reality and try that; and the results of these men's brains are what we get in 'Aeronautics.' That is why the publication has been the success it has. It appeals to the mechanical mind, and as the art of flying progresses with rapid strides, there is no question why 'Aeronautics' will not progress with the same strides. I wish it double the success it already has.—H. C. R."

AERONAUTICS November, ipop

IN THE WORLD OF AVIATION

Monoplane Flies in Ohio.

L. W. Bonney of Sandusky, O., has built an interesting monoplane, with which he states he has flown about 600 yards at a height of 20 ft. In a subsequent trial it was smashed, due to breaking of the propeller.

The wing spread is 22 ft., by 7 ft. depth, set at 10 degrees dihedral angle. A 6-ft. propeller, geared 1-2, is driven by a 24-horse-power air-cooled motor through motorcycle chain. The steering both ways is effected by a two-way tail with about 9 sq. ft. surface in all, governed by an automobile steering wheel, which turns left and right and pushes out and in, as the Curtiss machine. The propeller is mounted on ball bearings and the engine shock is taken up by a compensating sprocket.

The plane framework is of California redwood J4 by 1 in., laminated. Rubberized cloth is used for the surfaces. The whole is mounted on a triangular chassis, running on 20-in. wheels. The motor rests on this chassis and the chain drive runs up to a sprocket on the front edge of the plane. In its way it resembles Santos-Dumont's "Demoiselle" more than any other. It gets off the ground at a speed of 20 miles. The weight is 320 pounds. A new and larger machine is now being built.

Nelson Aeroplane Flies in Connecticut.

The first aeroplane to fly in Connecticut has been that of Messrs. N. J. Nelson and Albert S. Swanson.

The machine was tried out at Charter Oak Park, Hartford. The first time it made several short flights of about 50 ft. at a height of a yard. Some changes were then made and was tried a few days later, but the wires from the rear rudder had not been properly adjusted and the machine ran into a fence. A new machine is now being constructed, using the same motor and some of the parts that were not damaged.

Both young men are but 22 years of age, and the aeroplane was built in three months, working at night.

details of apparatus.

Main planes, of oil cloth, 32 ft. by 5 ft.; forward rudder, 2J/2 ft. by 8 ft.; total length, 25 ft.; motor, 24 h.p.; 4^-in. by 4xA-'m. water-cooled, 4-cylinder, driving a 6-ft. by 4%-it. propeller at 1,000 r.p.m. This gave a thrust of 125 lbs. Weight of motor, 165 lbs. The front wheel and the rear rudder are steered simultaneously by the feet. Maple and white-wood are used throughout. The entire weight of. the machine, without operator, is 475 lbs.

Willard Flies 26 Times One Week.

Willard is to fly at Point Breeze track, Philadelphia, October 16. During the week at Richmond be made 26 flights in six days. This is going some. He has obtained wonderful control of the machine, and within the confined grounds he repeatedly stopped the machine within a yard of the fence. Part of the planes has been recovered.

Richmond, Va., Oct. 4.—Using a Curtiss aeroplane owned by the Aeronautic Society, C. F. Willard made two brief but successful flights at the state fair grounds here this afternoon. Willard climbed to the seat of his machine at 5:15 o'clock and rose gracefully to a height of 25 ft., sailing to the western end of the field and passing over many tents. At the western end of the field he made a landing, and after a few minutes rose again, returning to his starting point without mishap. Each flight occupied 30 seconds.

The machine came here from Athens, Pa., where it made five short flights. Magneto trouble was to blame for the failure to make others.

More About the Sellers Aeroplane.

The flights with 7 h.p. made by Mr. M. B. Sellers (mentioned in the October number), have created considerable comment. We are able, in this issue, to give some additional details.

The machine described last month in the patent specifications is merely the machine as it has been used as a glider. It has necessarily been changed somewhat, and improvements made for operation as a power machine.

The weight of 210 lbs. includes the operator; the machine with engine weighs 78 lbs. It is light but not frail. This same machine was used in gliding and towing from July intermittently till October, 1908, when the present chassis was attached. This chassis is a combination of wheels and runners. The wheels are held in a lowered position by a device which automatically releases them as soon as the machine rises, thus permitting it to make the preliminary run on wheels and to alight on the runners. Flights were made by towing to learn the use of the steering gear. A weight was added in place of the engine, and it was found that a tow-line pull of 40 lbs. was sufficient for flight. Then the engine was attached.

Mr. Sellers states: "On December 27, sixteen short flights of about 100 ft. were made. A dropping weight was employed to accelerate during the preliminary run. The propeller thrust was not sufficient, but before abandoning the direct drive, I decided to give my attention to the study of propellers and no more flights were made till recently.

"This aeroplane was designed for slow nights. The wings are 18 ft. by 3 ft., and its area about one square foot per pound weight.

"I have under construction one intended for higher speed, having only two planes in steps and spreading about 100 sq. ft."

Fred. T. Childs Builds Biplane in Ohio.

Fred T. Childs, of Akron, Ohio, has built a biplane. The top surface measures 36 ft. by 7 ft., and the lower 26 ft. by 7 ft., the distance between the planes being 6 ft. The total surface is 578 ft. The forward horizontal plane for steering it up and down measures 12 ft. by 5 ft. There are two side surfaces measuring 6 ft. by 7 ft., set at a dihedral angle, the idea being that these will maintain equilibrium during flight on the theory that a tip to one side or the other will cause an increased resistance on the side tipping over, with a resultant righting of the machine. Two 7-ft. propellers are placed in the rear. These are made of hard wood blades, aluminum and hubs pinned to ^-in. propeller shaft. Phosphor bronze bearings are held to the frame by U bolts. Ordinary light canvass is used to cover the planes, and the entire structure is made of i%-'w. square hickory.

Vertical rudders to guide the machine to the right or left are not shown in the photograph. They are located about 10 ft. back of the rear plane.

The total weight of the machine, without the engine, is 250 lbs., and is very rigid. For exhibiting the machine at the county fair, a 2-cylinder, 7-h.p. Waterman engine was installed. The motor intended to drive the machine will be 35 h.p., air-cooled. The weight is promised to be not over 150 lbs., including the magneto and accessories. The propellers are now driven by cable, but it is intended to try chains and sprockets. Aluminum brackets are used throughout the machine, which is braced with steel wire. The propeller is placed a little above midway between the two surfaces. The front horizontal rudder is located 6}4 ft. from the front of the planes and is 18 in. higher than the top surface. This is operated by a rod running from the forward edge to the operator's side on the front of the lower surface.

Aeroplane in Memphis.

E. F. Stephenson of Memphis, Tenn., is working on a monoplane type of apparatus, with a view to being able to rise without a running start and to automatic stability.

George Steingruber is another Memphian who is working.

Aeroplane To Sell Lots.

A land company has engaged the Bleriot aeroplane, which was on exhibition at S. B. Bowman's automobile store, to make flights Oct. 12 and 13 at Ampere, N. J.

Changes in the Curtiss Machine.

The machine used by Curtiss at Governor's Island contains a number of different features from that sold the Aeronautic Society.

The upright post at the front of the front rudder has been lightened and the small triangular vertical surface removed. Galvanized cable is used throughout the machine. The tip controls are much larger, extending now from the second from the end strut to 40 in. beyond the outermost.

In case of a wet landing, a pyramid-shaped pontoon is provided on the skid running from the front wheel to the axle in the rear, which has been curved downward in the center so as to come closer to the ground. Under the second strut from each end a metal gasoline tank has been strapped.

The radiator has been placed further forward and the water pump is in front of the gear case instead of at the rear of the engine. The engine bed is larger and of laminated spruce. In addition to the foot-controlled throttle, there is a convenient lever at the left hand attached to the same mechanism. Instead of the throttle normally being wide open and closed by the control, it can be opened or closed at will. The shoulder brace is now hinged to the seat and is stayed with two extra bars. >n emergency oil gun is placed on the obiter framework, with the chamber continually filled with oil, for squirting an extra supply of oil into the cylinders on starting, or if the oil pump should give out. A refinement in control is noticed. The wires working the vertical rudder have been run through the center of the bamboo rods all the way to the junction with the vertical struts, where they run over pulleys up to the steering wheel.

The machine used abroad is on exhibition at Wanamaker's store. In November it will go to Boston for a month's still-life exhibition at $4,000 per. Aeroplane business is "looking up!"

First Foreign Aeroplanes in N. Y.

The first of October saw two foreign-built aeroplanes arrive in New York City. One is the identical machine with which Farman made the new world record at Rheims, imported by J. B. Curzon, who will use it in giving public exhibitions throughout the fairs of the country. An aviator came with the machine. Without any preliminary work whatever the machine went direct to St. Louis for competition there in the aeroplane contest, with Curtiss as the only other competitor. No flights, however, were made, the operator seeming to be unable to get off the ground.

The other is a Bleriot monoplane, type "XI," imported by Ralph Saulnier, who will also use it in giving exhibitions. It is now on exhibition at the automobile salesroom of the Sidney B. Bowman Automobile Company. Saulnier will act as demonstrator with this machine for Mr. Bowman, who has options on

eight machines, three of which can be delivered in December and five for January, provided orders are received.

When asked if this Bleriot machine were intended for delivery to H. Hayden Sands, of New York, who is reported to have purchased a Bleriot machine, Mr. Schultz, of the Bowman Company, stated that all he knew about Mr. Sands was that he returned a couple of weeks ago on the same ship with Mr. Bowman. Mr. Bowman is agent for the Clement-Bayard airship and has a large model of it in his show window.

Rinek Machine Out for Trials.

A fence has been taken down to give greater space for the running start for the Voisin-like biplane of C. Norvin Rinek of Easton, Pa., which is now ready for experiments, equipped with a new motor. The machine is built entirely of steel tubing, and weighs, without the motor, about 700 pounds.

Wing tips are attached to the ends of the main planes for stability, and can be operated either separately or in connection with the vertical rudder.

A description of the apparatus was given in the March issue of Aeronautics.

E. G. Lewis, the owner of the IV0man's Magazine and other publications, is expecting to construct an aeroplane in his own shop this fall and winter.

Fred H. Fleege of Detroit is building a unique aeroplane, to be completed in a short time, and measures only 7 ft. long and 4l/> ft.. wide.

Selfridge Monument.

A monument to Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge is being erected at the expense of his father in the cemetery at Arlington. This will be the largest stone in the Arlington National Cemetery. The stone consists of four pieces—a shaft 18 ft. n in. by 2 ft. 3 in.; a plinth and die 4 ft. by 4 ft. by 5 ft. 6 in.; second base 5 ft. 3 in. by 5 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft.; base 12 ft. 6 in. by 12 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. The whole structure then rests upon a sub-base of rough ashlar 12 ft. ro in. by 12 ft. 10 in. The construction work is already under way.

Captain Ferber Killed in a Fall.

On the 22d of September Captain F. Ferber, the chief apostle of aviation in France, and universally known and esteemed, was killed in a trial flight on a Voisin aeroplane at Boulogne, France.

The accident was peculiar. He made a good start after a run of about 100 yards against a head wind, rose to a height of about 25 ft. and flew a kilometer straight. Then he determined to turn to the left, and in so turning

he lost altitude, the left wing careened downward unduly and struck a hummock. He endeavored to alight, but the wheels then dipped into a small drainage ditch, thus stopping headway so suddenly that the whole machine turned a somersault fore and aft and the framing carrying the motor fell upon Captain Ferber, crushing in his breast and stomach. He died from internal hemorrhage within half an hour.

Captain Ferber was a distinguished artillery officer and aviator. Born in Lyon, Feb. 8, 1862, he graduated at the Polytechnic School, was stationed as lieutenant at Clermont-Ferrand and Belfort, made a captain in 1893 and commanded the Seventeenth Alpine Battery at Nice from 1900 to 1904.

A chance magazine article on aviation had aroused in him in 1898 an interest which never subsequently flagged; he built several gliding machines and tested them with varying success and indomitable pluck. Becoming aware of the success of the Wright Brothers through correspondence with Mr. Chanute, he endeavored to secure the first fruits of the invention to France by inducing the government to buy it. Two missions were sent to Dayton, the first a private one in the interest of a syndicate and the second by the government direct, but the negotiations failed, as terms could not be agreed upon.

In 1904 Ferber was called to the government aeronautical establishment at Chalais-Meudon. There he built, partly at his own expense, his aeroplane No. 8. This being ordered out of the shed to make room for a balloon was wrecked by a storm. Disgusted by this, he in 1906 obtained a leave of absence for three years and entered the service of the Antoinette Motor Co. temporarily as engineer. There he supervised the construction of motors and screw propellers and built in 1908 his aeroplane No. 9, which at once gave good results. Since then he had been making flights and participating in various contests. He had gone to Boulogne on a proposal to attempt a flight across the British Channel, but, as he had been recalled to military service, the discipline regulations prohibited exhibition under his own name. He had therefore entered as "De Rue," this being the name of an estate which he owned in Switzerland.

Captain Ferber was a charming lecturer and writer, with a dash of humor. Besides many articles for the press, he published four or five pamphlets or books on the progress of aviation, which contain fuller details of the inside facts of its development than any other works which have been published. To him more than to any other man is due the enthusiasm aroused and the progress made in aviation in France. He was universally esteemed and the whole French press has been deploring his loss in lengthy articles while expressing its sympathy for the widow and three children which he leaves behind him.

Farman Aeroplane Begini Exhibitions.

The Farman aeroplane imported by J. W. Curzon is scheduled for exhibitions at Cass-ville, Mo., Oct. 12.

P. Y. Alexander Offers Big Prize.

Believing that the suitable aeroplane motor is not yet at hand, or to encourage better construction, Patrick y. Alexander, the international patron of aviation, has offered $5,000 for the first British aero motor of 20 h. p. which, under certain conditions, will run 24 hours continuously.

Who will offer a like prize in America?

Van Anden Flies.

New York, Oct. 11.—Frank Van Anden, a member of the Aeronautic Society, made a flight in his aeroplane at Bay Shore, L. I., today, but it was cut short by the breaking of the propeller.

Mr. Van Anden, who lives in Islip, towed his machine out to the golf links by an automobile.

It rose gracefully and traveled about 500 ft. Then something was seen to be wrong and it began to descend, landing with hardly a jar.

WITH THE LIGHTER THAN AIR

Balloon Ascent Ends Disastrously.

The balloon trip made by Dr. Lucas and A. Leo Stevens in the "Stevens 24," which was being used as a captive during the celebration at the Colonial Yacht Club grounds on the Hudson River, ended in the unfortunate death of two aeronautic enthusiasts, "Teddy" Baker and Parker Norton, editor of a newspaper in Mineola, both of whom were residents of that town. ' They became interested in aeronautics through the flights of Curtiss and Willard at Mineola, and those who had the pleasure of meeting these two gentlemen will realize the loss sustained.

Dr. Lucas and Mr. Stevens cut the balloon loose at the yacht club grounds and sailed in a northeasterly course, passing directly over the Morris Park grounds of the Aeronautic Society, where they could see the various aeroplanes built by the members and the big tent erected by Dr. Riggs for his airship. From there the balloon crossed Long Island Sound and, curiously enough, passed over the aviation grounds at Mineola, where Miss Todd now has her aeroplane. Long Island was crossed, and on reaching the water on the southern shore, the balloon was maneuvered up and down to take advantage of the currents of air to carry it lengthwise of the island, the landing finally being made at Hicksville. The theory of Paul Nocquet, who met his tragic death in the marshes of Great South Bay, was proven correct in this trip, as in the early evening the lower current of air blew in shore, and this was taken advantage of by Mr. Stevens on this trip.

A. R. Pardington followed the balloon in an automobile and brought back Dr. Lucas and Mr. Stevens in his car to a hotel in Mineola. A Simplex demonstrating car with William Watson' as driver was obtained in Mineola to go to Hicksville to bring the balloon in. Baker and Norton went with the car. The balloon was packed up and put in the ma-

chine, and on the way back the automobile was driven at high speed. In making a short turn to avoid a horse-driven vehicle, the car ran off the road and through a fence and hit a tree, making a wreck of the machine. Both Baker and Norton were instantly killed, the driver escaping with some minor injuries, though he spent a couple of days in the Mineola hospital.

Keen Competition for Herald Trophy.

As the balloon season draws to a close, interest to win the Boston Herald trophy increases. There have been a great many attempts made this year to win the prize by the amateur aeronauts in ascensions from Pittsfield, North Adams, Springfield and Fitch-burg. The trophy goes to the pilot landing nearest the geographical center of Boston Common during the year 1909. The six pilots in the advance are: June 26, Glidden, balloon "Boston," Fitchburg to Lexington, 10 miles; June 20, Van Sleet, balloon "Pittsfield," Pitts-field to Holbrook, 12 miles; May 8, Forbes, balloon "North Adams," North Adams to Bolton, 26 miles; April 22, Randall, balloon "North Adams," North Adams to Byfield, 30 miles; May 4, Flagg, balloon "Boston," Fitchburg to Atkinson, 32 miles; September 30, Clayton, balloon "Boston," Fitchburg to Kensington, 37 miles.

"I think the magazine is very good and I thank you for the copy sent me. The topics discussed have just enough range to make the magazine good. You have given each subject about the right amount of space to suit me and I think you are to be commended on its publication. I like the longer articles when I have time to read them, but_ I also like the shorter articles which give the report of a flight or an ascension in a nutshell."—P. H. E.

New Dirigible Balloon.

Indianapolis.—Capt. George L. Bumbaugh is putting the finishing touches to a large dirigible balloon which has been constructed at the Indianapolis motor speedway.

On the first favorable day after the balloon is finished Bumbaugh and Fisher said they would attempt to sail over the city, and after circling the Soldiers' Monument, continue to Dayton, O. The balloon is a cigar-shaped affair, 166 ft. long and 32 ft. in diameter, exclusive of the mechanical part and framework beneath the bag. The big airship will be much like the small dirigible which Bumbaugh uses for exhibitions.

Airship Collapsed.

South Bend (Ind.), Oct. 8.—William Mat-tery's balloon "America" collapsed to-day at

a height of 100 ft. Both Mattery's wrists were fractured' when he struck the ground. The machine, valued at $3,000, was destroyed. When Mattery started tbe motors of his airship a crowd pressed about him and he was obliged to steer upward at a sharp angle. The propeller caught the gas bag and tore it open.

Lahm Cup Changes Hands.

Richmond, Va., Oct. 13.—Col. Max C. f'Kischmann, ex-Mayor of Cincinnati, piloted by A. H. Forbush, of New York, in the balloon "New York," landed in Chesterfield Co., 20 miles south of here, after a voyage of 19 hr. from St. Louis. Entry was made for the Lahm Cup and the required distance, 475 miles, was beaten. The distance measures about 710 miles on the Government map.

FIRST NATIONAL GUARD ASCENSION

By Geo. B. Harrison.

ABALLOON ascension strictly military throughout was made from Los Angeles, Cal., September 29, by the aeronautical squad of Company A, Signal Corps, National Guard of California. While held primarily in connection with the annual convention of the United States National Guard Association, held at Los Angeles that week, it was also a part of the regular work planned by the aeronautical squad for trial of a conventional code devised particularly for signaling from a balloon by utilizing the Meyer code with action flags.

All the work of laying out, inflating and handling the balloon, piloting it and caring for it after landing was done by members of the company. The three members making the ascension were Pilot George B. Harrison, Corporal Vance Worden and First Class Private W. A. Hall. Trailing them on the ground were two automobile loads of enlisted men commanded by Captain H. W. Slotterbeck and First Lieutenant H. T. Bathey. Visual signals were easily read and exchanged, being taken at a height of 3,900 ft. above the ground.

The balloon used had a capacity of 77,000 cu. ft., but owing to the exhibition side of the voyage, Captain Slotterbeck ordered only a short trip to be made, and a landing was effected after a journey of about 20 miles. A spot was selected protected by a fringe of high trees, and the landing was made by releasing the gas through the valve and without ripping the balloon.

The trip was recorded on a chart for ballooning devised by the aeronautical squad of Company A. The chart shows the points passed over, thus giving the directions taken,

and the line plotted to demonstrate the trip also indicates the altitude at all stages of the voyage.

to make aerial war.

The squad is working out a large aerial map of the region around Los Angeles, combining for this the designations used by the Geological Survey for the contour, elevations and other ground work and those of the Hydrographic Office on the pilot charts for the air currents, thereby standardizing the aerial map so it may be the more easily read. Balloon ascensions will be supplemented by kite flying and other methods to obtain the desired data, and the signaling work of the company, such as the selection of visual points, will be carried on at the same time.

The aeronautical squad of Company A has been organized for two years, but its limitations have prevented more thorough work until this year. Captain Slotterbeck has entered enthusiastically into the aeronautical work, and plans to carry it on every month in the year, which is possible in Los Angeles. A number of world's records are already held for signaling by his company, including that of transmitting messages over land and sea, and he is ambitious to see it in front in the aeronautical work of the National Guard. A system of tactics for handling a military balloon for observation purposes is already being developed under Captain Slotterbeck's supervision. An ascension at night, with signaling from the balloon with a tungsten electric light to one squad on the mountain top and another at the site of the harbor fortifications, the two latter using heliographs, is planned for this winter.

NEW AERO MOTORS Easton Motor.

The Easton Cordage Co., Easton, Pa., has now entered the aero engine field with a promising looking motor; two sizes are being made.

They have been designed with the view of giving ample power with a minimum amount of weight. The very best of material obtainable enters into their construction, and the workmanship is fully guaranteed.

Each engine consists of eight cylinders arranged v-shaped, using one cam shaft for all cylinders, size being z3A m- by 4 m- f°r the smaller engine, and 4^2 in. by 4^ in. for the larger. They are conservatively rated as to horsepower, as they will deliver considerably more power than the rating given.

Some slight changes have been made to the engine, differing from the illustration shown in the advertisement in this issue; namely, the spark plugs are placed on the carburetor side of the cylinder and the exhaust piping on the outside of the cylinder.

On the smaller engine the heads with the valves are separate from the cylinders, and with the water jackets are made of a special aluminum alloy of great strength, which during the past summer, notwithstanding the severe testing under which the engine was operated, have shown no defects.

Both engines are equipped with Bosch magnetos and the Schebler carburetor, one carburetor being used for the eight cylinders, so arranged that each cylinder has equal length of pipe leading from the carburetor.

The oiling of the engine is operated by a pump enclosed in the crank case, driven by a gear from the crank shaft. The pump can be disconnected and taken out of the crank case by removing two bolts.

The action of the pump is to force the oil through leads to each of the large bearings and through oil ducts in the crank shaft to the connecting rod bearings, the oil returning to the bottom of the crank case.

The engine is built as a complete unit with a radiator ready to run. The company will also furnish propellers, either wood or metal if so desired, for direct connection to the engines.

Elbridge Motor for Aeronautics.

The well-known Elbridge Engine Co., Rochester, N. Y., makers of 2-cycle motors,

are bidding for the aeronautical business in competition with makers of extremely light engines. The Elbridge motor has already found favor with a number of experimentors on account of its simplicity and comparatively light weight. In a subsequent issue we will give the details of the type now put on the market for the work.

Bates Motor Now Ready.

Carl Bates, whose aeroplane has been illustrated in Aeronautics, is putting on the market a special motor which he has designed and for which he claims very light weight. He is making plans to get out a biplane for sale to the public.

Requa-Coles 50 H. P. Motor.

The Requa-Coles Co., 225 West Forty-ninth St., New York, is now ready to book orders for their new aero motor.

By referring to the September number of Aeronautics, one will note a distinctive feature in connection with this motor which has been designed by and is being built under the patent of Hugo C. Gibson. The patented device used is for doubling the possible maximum horsepower developed by a normal fourcycle engine, and this results in the retention of ample weight in the vital parts, where strength is absolutely necessary. In fact, the strength of such parts as the crank shaft, bearing surfaces, etc., has been increased. On the basis of the abnormal power claimed to be developed, the actual weight per horsepower would be below that of all motors actually in use in aeroplanes, calculated on the basis of actual horsepower produced and not on the rated horsepower.

The Requa-Coles motor is of the two-cylinder 90 type, both cylinders in the same plane, with valves in the head. These are 4Y2 by 5 in., water cooled. The speed is 2,500 revolutions per minute. The horsepower is given as 50, the motor being sold on the understanding that it is to show this amount on the brake for five hours, same to be tested on the Automobile Club of America's dynamometer. Ignition is by Bosch high-tension magneto, with a secondary system by coil and batteries. From an oil well in the crank case the oil is delivered by pump to each bearing. Bronze is used on the bearing surfaces. All heavily stressed parts are of Krupp

chrome nickel steel, while the crank case and least strained parts are of McAdamite. The weight is given as 200 pounds.

The company is prepared to deliver laminated true screw propellers built to order to suit particular conditions.

Cleveland Inventor Has Aero Gun.

Dr. S. W. McLean, of Cleveland, O., has built an airship gun which has received some preliminary tests mounted on a Baker electric truck. The gun itself appears to be the usual naval type of semi-automatic, firing a six-pound shell. It is capable of delivering 200 shots per minute. The mounting has been altered to allow of a maximum elevation of

The McLean Gun on a Baker Electric Truck

about 45 degrees. According to Dr. McLean, the difficulty is to devise a missile which will damage the airship, even if it does hit it. The ordinary shell will not explode under less resistance than that offered by a one-inch pine board. The idea of the new gun is to riddle the dirigible or aeroplane by a number of shells, not depending on their explosion. For this purpose mobility is the prime requisite.

News on the Coast.

A Chinese student of Oakland, Fung Joe Guey, has built a biplane 25 by 6 equipped with a 6-horsepower motor. The chassis is a rectangular frame supported by four bicycle wheels, Wright type front and Curtiss type rear controls. The surfaces have no arch.

It is claimed that this machine has flown three-quarters of a mile in a circle on its first trial, but this is extremely doubtful for many obvious reasons.

The balloon race resulting from the Pacific Aero Club's challenge to the Oakland Aero Club will be held Oct. 9, and it is probable that there will be another race during Portola week. Baldwin is completing a 40,000-ft. balloon for the Pacific Aero Club, and the Oakland Club will use the balloon "City of Oakland," P. A. Van Tassel, pilot.

A. S. Smith of Exeter, Cab, is making some long gliding flights.

Horace Walling, Jr., of San Mateo, and Elwin Willatts of San Francisco have made numerous flights with their respective gliders.

Boston's Aero Show in 1910.

It has been decided to hold the "First National Exposition of Aerial Craft" in Boston, Feb. 16 to 23, 1910. The exposition will be devoted exclusively to everything appertaining to aeronautics, and the list of gentlemen who will serve on the advisory board is in itself a guarantee of the success of the exposition.

The Mechanics Building, well adapted to this purpose, has been .engaged, and the interest being manifested' in New England at the present time in >rerHU development will be further stimulated^by^A show of this description.

It is desired to make this a most complete exhibit, and to that end co-operation is earnestly desired. Satisfactory arrangements as to space will be made, and all are asked to give assistance in furthering the interest in aeronautics in this section.

Spark Plug Loses Race.

In the table of contestants at Rheims, printed in the October number, the rating of one Bleriot machine was given as 50 h.p.

Unfortunately, in the story of the meet, it was not brought out that Bleriot, finding that Curtiss had the faster machine, substituted an 80-h.p. motor for the 50, and the greater powered motor was the one which he used in the last try for the single lap when he defeated Curtiss for first place.

Another item of interest which has not been heretofore made public is the fact that to the breaking of a spark plug in this single lap contest must also be attributed Mr. Curtiss' loss of first place. It is extraordinarily interesting to compare the times made by Curtiss and Bleriot with Curtiss handicapped for a quarter of the distance with a broken spark plug, and the increased horsepower in the Bleriot machine.

Another View of "Aeronautics."

"According to my views, your magazine cannot be too technical nor can there be too much about aviation. In fact, I have absolutely no criticism to offer. The contents of the magazine indicate that every effort is made to give the news in the best possible manner, and in such a way that it serves as data to those interested.

Patents.

Paul F. Degn, Bremen, Germany, No. 934,394, Sept. 14, 1909. Screw propeller _ for _ flying machine, the characteristic of which is that the blades are made up of a series of metal strips, slidably connected.

Wallace R. Turnbull, Rothesay, New Brunswick, Can., No. 934,771, Sept. 21, 1909. Aeroplane and hydroplane. The planes have double curvatures presenting a concave curvature in the front under surface, with a convex curvature on the upper front surface, while at the rear these curvatures are reversed the conversity being below and the concavity above.

De Witt C. Dorman, Minot, S. D., No. 934-7T7, Sept. 21, 1909. Flying machine, consisting of a plurality of propellers having blades which feather by means of gearing so that these propellers rotating on horizontal axes have a lifting action. There are various concentric shafts horizontally disposed supporting these characteristic propellers so disposed as to propel the device horizontally and vertically.

Robert Strehlan, Westend near Berlin, Germany, No. 935,130, Sept. 28, 1909. Lifting and driving propeller. Construction consists of wings capable of vertical as well as horizontal motion for the purpose of lifting and driving the frame to which they are attached. There is no rotating propeller device as usually understood by that term.

Alberto R. Malasomma, New York, N. Y., No. 935,039, Sept. 28, 1909. Flying machine embodying an aeroplane body of superposed planes, vertical and horizontal propellers, wings pivotally secured at sides and motor-driven means to operate the wings and propellers.

William H. Martin, Canton, O., No. 935,384, Sept. 28, 1909. Flying machine. An aeroplane having angular balancing planes forming a diahedral angle, a motor and reversely rotating propellers at lower part of diahedral angle combined with a rudder at the rear.

Daniel D. Wells, Jacksonville, Fla., No. 935.075, Sept. 28, 1909. Skid for aerial navigating devices, consisting of a belt guided in grooves in the runner, and pulleys at the extremities so as to reduce friction and wear on the runner.

Alfred W. Reinoehl, Phila., Pa., Oct. 5, 1909, No. 935,862. Aeroplane. In an aeroplane, the combination with four longitudinal rods, vertical transverse rods dividing the frame in three sections, canvas surrounding entire front and rear and upper half of intermediate section ; rudder, motor and propellers.

Adolph E. G. Lubke, San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 5, 1009, No. 936,141. Airship. Device consists of a combination of plane and hot-air dirigible. Under a large flat plane is a gas bag, divided in compartments, with schemes for supplying heated air, changing its temperature, etc. Horizontal and vertical rudders. Motor and propellers in frame hung below bag and plane.

James Meany, Boston, Mass., Oct. 5, 1909, No. 935,766. Emergency apparatus for controlling flying machines. Means by operator,

with motor control circuit, for changing the position of sustaining planes so that they may be inclined to the planes of the machine to form a diahedral angle with the outer edges of each plane uppermost with respect to the machine.

Henry Otto, Bloomington, 111., No. 933,199, Sept. 7, 1909. Air propeller, characteristic feature of which is a rearwardly and inwardly directed flange provided' on each blade at the rear face thereof, said flange increasing in width from its forward end rearwardly.

Samuel H. Gilson, Salt Lake City, Utah, assignor of one-half to Jay S. Milner, Salt Lake City, Utah, No. 933,548, Sept. 7, 1909. Aeromotor. A combination of planes, cigar-shaped envelopes, concavo-converse wings and a plurability of propellers, one behind the other, each pair of blades being one-half the length of the preceding pair and whose angle of pitch increases as the length decreases.

E. S. Partridge Discusses Aeronautics.

E. S. Partridge of Wyckoff, Church & Partridge of New York City has returned from an extended European trip.

During his absence his firm made arrangements for the handling of Herring-Curtiss aeroplanes, entering this new field as the pioneers for the selling of heavier-than-air machines in this country.

While abroad Mr. Partridge arranged for the proper representation of the new aeroplanes in Paris.

In commenting on the situation, Mr. Partridge said in part: "When the news first reached me that Mr. Wyckoff had closed arrangements with the Herring-Curtiss Co. for the handling of its aeroplanes, I at once prepared to go more thoroughly into the investigation of foreign machines than was my first intention. Both Mr. Wyckoff and I have realized for some months that the handling and selling of aeroplanes to the general public would soon be both feasible and commercially practicable.

"In comparing the Curtiss machine with those built in Europe and America, which have actually flown, I have found that it possesses decided points of superiority. Its main point of excellence is its compactness and small size.

"To demonstrate how readily the amateur can learn to operate and control his nerves in air navigation, the case of Charles F. Wil-lard is a good example. The machine with which Mr. Curtiss made his record flights on the Mineola plains is owned by the Aeronautic Society of this city, and before Mr. Curtiss sailed for Europe, Mr. Willard, an amateur, operated the machine, in calm weather, making daily flights, after but a few trials, and is now remaining in the air longer than did Mr Curtiss after many months of experimenting."

TEN BALLOONS IN ST. LOUIS MEET

CURTISS FLIES.

New American Duration Balloon Record.

THREE AIRSHIPS MANOEUVRE.

ST. LOUIS, Oct. 13.—Ten balloons started in the centennial celebration of this city on October 4, on record-breaking trips. Figures have not yet been officially compiled and records have not been checked up.

The standing of the balloons at present is as follows:

"St. Louis III," Sylvester von Phul and O'Reilly (St. Louis), to Mille Lacs, Minn., 550 miles, 40 hr. 40 min.

"Indiana," H. H. McGill and J. H. Schauer (Dayton, O.), to Albany, Minn., 525 miles, 40 hr. 35 min. Sailed under protest as McGill had no pilot license.

"Centennial," H. E. Honeywell and J. W. Tolland (St. Louis), to Silas, Ala., 485 miles.

"Cleveland," J. H. Wade, Jr., and A. H. Morgan (Cleveland), to Alexander City, Ala., 425 miles, 38 hr. 15 min.

"University City," John Berry and W. C. Fox (St. Louis), to Mooresville, Mo., 195 miles, 22 hr. 15 min.

"New York," Clifford B. Harmon and Augustus ,T. Post (New York), to Edina, Mo., 145 miles, 48 hr. 25 min. Altitude reached, 24,200 ft.

I "Pommery," N. H. Arnold (North Adams)

cind Le Roy Taylor (New York), to Knobel,

V\rk., 160 miles, 28 hr. 20 min.

"Hoosier," P. M. Crume and L. E. Custer

(Dayton), to Russellville, Mo., 169 miles. 21

hr. 30 min. Disqualified on account of Mr.

Crume not being a pilot. I "Peoria," J. H. Bemis and G. H. Smith \ (Peoria), to Levings, 111., 127 miles, v "Missouri," Harlow B. Spencer and James VP. Denver (St. Louis), to Hibernia, Mo.,

moo miles.

All but the "Missouri" and "Peoria," 40.000-footers, were of 78,000 capacity. In its class the "Peoria" won out for the Centennial Cup and the "St. Louis III" the $600 prize in the big division. Full details of the preparations

BRESCIA

Rougier stayed at Brescia after the other prominent aviators left, and made a new height record of 645 feet on September 20. On the same day, in the presence of the King, Lieut. Calderara flew the 50 kilometers in 50 min. 50 3-5 sec. Rougier also made 20 km. in 18 min. 25 sec. Cagno, in an Avis monoplane, after flying well in several hundred meter jumps, lost control, and his aeroplane fell on .mother, doing considerable damage.

were given in the August, September and October numbers of Aeronautics.

Jack Bennett and M. A. Heimann made an independent ascension from St. Louis, landing at Laredo, Mo., a distance of 206 miles.

aeroplane flights.

G. H. Curtiss and G. F. Ozmont were on hand to furnish delectable flights for the aviation fans. Curtiss used the machine which he had at Governor's Island and Ozmont is a professional flier imported, together with a Farman machine, by J. W. Curzon, who enters the aeroplane exhibition business. U. A. Robinson, of St. Louis, brought out a monoplane which failed to get going.

On the 7th Curtiss made three short flights. The first two were early in the morning and the last flight did not occur till dark. Four hundred thousand people waited for hours to see the performance. Ozmont ran his machine around the ground but could not get it in the air.

The following day, late in the afternoon, Curtiss made a flight in a wind, it is stated, of 15 miles per hour. Ozmont was only able to get his front wheels off, and in making a turn damaged the machine to a considerable extent. Robinson failed to get off the ground. In the early morning he made another short flight in the presence of members of the aero club.

On the 10th Curtiss provided a return for the bad winds which blew at the time he should have flown during previous days. He completely circled the field, over the heads of the spectators, grazing the grass in a thrilling demonstration.

the airships.

Three airships tried to fill the air above Forest Park, and Knabenshue made an unheralded ascent on the 6th, and on the 7th Lincoln Beachey, Captain Baldwin and Knabenshue were all in the air, and Baldwin experienced trouble after an extended sail and had to land in the crowd. After a little tinkering he went up again. On the 9th the speed race for the $1,000 had to be called off on account of darkness.

RESULTS

winners.

Grand Prize of Brescia (speed over 50 kil.). — 1st, Curtiss. $10,000; 2nd, Lieut. Calderara, $2,000: 3rd, Rougier, $r,ooo.

Modigliano Height Prize.—1st, Rougier, 198 metres. $1,000; 2nd, Curtiss, 51 metres. $600.

Passenger Carrying Prize.—Lieut. Calderara. $600.

_ Prize for Starting in Quickest Time.—Curtiss ; 2nd, Leblanc.

Calderara also got $4,600 in other prizes and the King's Cup.

Santos Dumont on a Cross Country Flight

FOREIGN LETTER

New World's Records by Orville Wright—Aviation Meets all Over Europe—Death of Captain Ferber in Voisin Aeroplane— "Republique" Falls, Killing Four—Clement-Bayard Puts "Demoiselles" on the Market—New Aeroplane Factory in England.

Australia.

The inaugural meeting of the Aerial League of Australia was held on Aug. 16. The government is much interested in the aeronautical movement, and has offered a prize of $5,000 provided that a similar amount is publicly subscribed for the most proficient airship.

Austria.

Several military dirigibles are under construction and Herr von Luben, a wealthy manufacturer, is said to have presented to the Austrian army a Wright aeroplane which is to be available for flights at the beginning of this month.

Belgium.

exhibitions at tournai.

Beginning September 6, Paulhan in his Voisin gave exhibitions at Tournai. Bad weather prevented much flying. On the nth he flew over the surrounding country for 1 hr. 35 min., landing five miles away, by invitation, at Taintegnies. An hour and a half later he flew back to the grounds.

ostend meet.

At Ostend on September 16, Paulhan flew the entire length of the Plage and made a magnificent turn over the sea. Two days later he flew 47lA kilometers in 1 hr. 1 min. over

the sea front, landing finally in the water but suffering little damage. By this flight he won a prize of $5,000. The other aviator, Bregi, made two short flights, one of 4 kilometers, which Paulhan bettered and won $1,000.

spa aviation meet—new starting record.

The meeting at Spa, beginning September 21, was a veritable miniature Rheims. Among those who were entered were Sommer, Paulhan, Delagrange, Le Blanc and Cranda, a young Roumanian with a Voisin. Delagrange was the star performer and made several well executed short flights on the first day, September 22. On September 23, the ground being very rough and marshy, the short flights made by Delagrange and Sommer were preceded by great difficulties in starting. The next two days many beautiful flights were made, and the populace was extremely enthusiastic. On September 26 rain set in again but Delagrange braved it and made a short flight. On landing, however, the wheels struck in the mud and the machine tipped up, breaking both wings, in consequence of which the meet was postponed two days. The longest single flight was of 23 kilometers by Le Blanc. On the 29th Delagrange made a new record, starting in 49 meters.

Denmark.

Ever since he has piloted a Bleriot XI, Delagrange has been very active, flying all over Europe. He has been at Aarhus, in Denmark, where he made several flights before the king and queen, his best being one of 15 min. duration and at a height of 125 ft.

British Isles.

The garage the Daily Mail has had constructed for the Lebaudy airship is now completed. It measures 365 ft. long, 98 ft. high and 65 ft. broad, and is constructed mainly of steel girder work and iron sheeting.

$5,000 for 40 miles.

The Glasgow Daily Mail & Record has offered $5,000 for a cross-country flight by a Scotchman in a Scotch-built aeroplane from Edinburgh to Glasgow, a distance of about 40 miles.

Harry Keen, a member of the Aeroplane Club, offers a prize of $2,500 to the first aviator who succeeds in flying over London. Another prize of $250 is offered by Chas. Friswell to the first English aviator who succeeds in remaining stationary in the air for one minute at a height of at least 50 ft. This would seem to point to some encouragement for the Helicopter "fans."

Cody has done so well that he is taking out naturalization papers, and has already put an English engine in his machine so that he can go in for the English prizes, and just now is the only man in England who is making any real flights, as "flights" as we knew them last year are now nothing but hops.

After his record flight of over one hour last month, he has contented himself during the month with making short flights, lifting many passengers in the air for a few moments.

New aero clubs have been formed at Coventry, Manchester, and Liverpool, as well as in other cities, and many experimentors are building full-sized machines.

Several leaders in the automobile are turning their attention to the commercial side of the aeroplane, notably the Sheffield Simplex Co., which has purchased a Bleriot monoplane. Two other "Bleriot XI" type machines have been purchased by private parties.

It has been definitely decided to hold an aviation week at Blackpool from October 8 to 14. Farman, Delagrange, Paulhan and some Wright machines have been entered. The prizes will total $65,000.

Mr. Haldane, the minister of war, discussed Aeronautics in Parliament and expressed his opinion that dirigibles were better at present for warfare than aeroplanes. He said that the Admiralty were now constructing a large dirigible of the Zeppelin type which was to be completed some time in the spring of 1910. He also stated that in a short while England would have three large dirigible cruisers and that the government is about to purchase two aeroplanes.

The new Barnwell machine (described in last issue) had another trial on September 8. It ran off the starting rail and was damaged. On the next day, however, shortly after it rose in the air, the aviator made a false movement crashed down to the ground and the machine was severely damaged.

baldwin and mccurdy enter $5,000 contest.

The Daily Mail has a dozen entries for the $5,000 circular mile prize for British-built and flown machines. Among the entrants are J. A. D. McCurdy and F. W. Baldwin, of Baldeck, comprising the Canadian Aerodrome Co.

bleriot machines to be made in england.

The famous Humber concern has arranged to build fifty Bleriot monoplanes to sell at $2,000. Voisin and Farman machines will also be arranged for.

Moore-Brabazon, who, we remember, was the first man in England to fly, with a Voisin machine, now has his British-built machine of Short Bros., and with a heavy automobile engine has been able to easily fly a mile at a time. A lighter engine will be fitted.

France.

The Marquis de Dion has asked the Automobile Club of France to give $40,000 for a Grand Aviation Prize.

Bleriot has sold in all 103 monoplanes. As soon as these are delivered, he will go for the London-Manchester prize, for which he is building a special machine.

The ranks of the fliers and would-fliers are being constantly augmented, and Ruchon-net, who learned in four days, has been able to make a io-min. flight at Chalons the early part of September. Chalons camp has seen many flights during the month by pupils of Farman and Voisin. Bregi, after a few lessons in the Voisin, was able to make seven circuits of the field before going to Ostend for exhibitions.

Farman and Latham were out practicing for the Berlin meet.

Farman and Voisin have sold many machines, and the French aeroplane industry is bristling with activity.

A. Mortimer Singer, the English ballooner who has purchased a Voisin machine, has been continuing flights at Chalons. He got caught in a squall and damaged the aeroplane.

A three days' meeting is to be held at Issy on October 30, 31 and November 1. Many aviators are to take part.

The Koechlin monoplane began trials at Issy the first of September, and was able to make 400 meters! damaged against fence in landing.

Guyot, the winner of the last "Coupes des Voiturettes" at Dieppe, is turning to aviation and is experimenting at Tours with a Bleriot monoplane. After he has mastered his machine, he intends to tour Russia, giving exhibition flights.

Jacquelin, the ex-racing cyclist, is making trials at St. Nazaire with a monoplane of his own design with a Dutheil-Chalmers motor.

Maurice Farman, the brother of the holder of the world's record, made a splendid crosscountry flight lasting 15 min. in his ft. E. P. biplane on September 24. The distance he covered was about 15 km. over^Buc and Chateaufort. ('/x\„OL Hct~ )

At Nancy, Schreck' on his Wright machine made a good quarter-hour flight. Schreck has fitted three small wheels with springs to the skids of his Wright, and finds starting much easier and very satisfactory.

A newcomer at Juvisy is the biplane of Maurice Clement, very much on the style of Voisin, and built at the Clement-Bayard works. Details are: spread, 11.6 m.; surface, 60 m.; over all length, 11.5 m.; 40 h.p., 105 kg. Clement-Bayard motor, total weight, with operator, 500 kg. Wing tips are used for lateral balance.

santos dumont in wonderful flight.

Santos Dumont has done little flying since early summer. On September 13 he won a bet made with M. Guffroy some time ago as to who would be the first to pay the other a visit by aeroplane. He left St. Cyr in his little "Demoiselle" and covered the distance to Bus in about five minutes at a speed of nearly 60 miles an hour. The following day he flew back.

He made a new record for getting off the ground. The French club officially measured

his running start as 70 meters in 61/5 sec, beating Curtiss' record of 80 meters.

He has demonstrated the good features of his tiny aeroplane by putting a weight cf about 40 lbs. on one side of the frame, making it out of balance, but in spite of uhis the machine kept on an even keel, maintaining it also when the weight was suddenly released. He also was able to take his hands off the control during flight.

The Clement-Bayard firm has made arrangements to build 200 monoplanes of the "Demoiselle" type to be sold at $1,500, and aeroplanes are dropping in price faster than the motor cars did.

On September 17 Santos Dumont left his garage at St. Cyr for a flight over the surrounding country. The motor began misfiring after some time and he decided to land. It happened to be near a Chateau at Wide-ville, 18 kiloms. in 16 minutes. On the previous day he had made two trips to Buc and back.

nancy exhibitions.

Sommer on his Farman made a remarkably interesting flight on September 11 at Nancy, where he went to give exhibitions. He flew 12 miles across country from his aerodrome to a parade ground where a military review was being held. He landed on the field amid wild cheering from the soldiers. On rising again he passed along the line as though reviewing them and then flew back at top speed to Nancy. During the aviation week there, ending on the 12th of September, he made several shorter flights and took up a number of passengers.

death of captain ferber.

Another martyr to the cause of aviation. Captain Ferber, like whom there were few more whole heartedly devoted to the subject in France, and whose writings form an instructive and valuable addition to the meagre literature on aeronautics, was tragically killed at the Boulogne aviation meeting on September 22. Count Lambert had been flying the week before the meet, but suddenly returned to Paris, leaving only Ferber.

On September 15 Ferber, leaving the trial ground, flew across country for five miles, and after circling over the beach returned to his aerodrome.

The next day he made a bad landing after a short flight. On September 20 and 21 he made a number of good flights. Then on September 22, due probably more to his unfortunate deformity of being very nearsighted, he went head on into an obstructive hillock, wrecked his machine and was crushed to death.

The "flying fortnight" at Juvisy is to last from October 3 to October 17, the first week to be devoted merely to practice.

There are 30 entries and the prizes total around $40,000. On October 10, the first good day of the meet, over 400,000 persons came

?8 i >\«

out from Paris. Count Lambert made some good flights. The train service was _ so wretched that rioting and a general smashing up followed.

The new "Liberte" in the beginning of September made several excellent trips about Moisson, showing perfect stability and control.

The "Clement-Bayard" has been repaired and shipped to Russia since its recent fall into the Seine.

On September 13 the "Republique" was again in service after the trouble with the motor at Nevers, and took part again in the military maneuvers at La Pallisse.

"republique" destroyed—four men killed.

After the conclusion of the maneuvers the airship started on the way back to Chalais-Meudon, with Captain Marchal Lieut. Chaure and two mechanics on board. Near Avrilly one propeller broke and the blade tore through the envelope. The gas escaped rapidly and the aerial vessel fell to the earth, the awful shock killing the entire crew. Immediately the Lebaudy Brothers offered to present another one to the Government, a matter of forty or fifty thousand dollars. On September 28, amid highest military honors, the unfortunate victims were buried.

On September 26 the start of the annual race of the French Aero Club was hcid in the Tuileries Gardens at Paris, 30 balloons in all taking part.

The weather was doubtfully cloudy, and the start was delayed. The balloons finally were sent off at one-minute intervals. There were no accidents, the quality of gas was good, and everything ran with great smoothness. Most of the contestants were caused to descend prematurely by the proximity of the Mediterranean. The winner was Georges Blanchet in the balloon "Genevieve," 1,600 m. capacity, accompanied by M. Pierson. He landed at Port-Saint-Louis on the ,JRhone, 3 km. from the Mediterranean and 626 km. as the bird flies from Paris. f

Germany

wright makes new height and passenger records.

his own machine, which resembles closely the "Demoiselle," has succeeded in making several short flights at the Mars field near Berlin. On September 18 he flew a distance of 5 km. and landed without accident near his starting point. In trying for the $10,000 Lanz prize, the propeller broke in mid-air and the machine was somewhat damaged.

berlin aviation meet.

The aviation races at Berlin from September 26 to October 3 livened things up a bit, as they gave the stoic Germans a chance to see such experts as Latham, Farman and Rougier.

On September 27, the second day of the races, Latham, witrt his accustomed skill and daring, flew, in a 24-mile wind, from the Tempelhof Field, flying directly over a thinly populated part of the city of Berlin, and return, a distance of about 10 km. in 7 min. This is the first flight of this character.

The next day many flights were made. The best was that of Rougier, who flew 44.75 km.«r^ _ in 52 min. --—__, -

The next day did not pass without its little accidents. It was one of activity, as well. Bleriot left in spite of an agreement to fly on \s five days and had been paid $5,000, so the promoters seized his machine. Rougier made 31 rounds of the course, covering 77^2 km. in 1 hr. 37 min., with Latham next with 67J/2 in 1 hr. 14 min. In the practice flights of tbe preceding week, Latham stayed up for 1 hr. 3 min.

Although some interesting flights took place on the last day, October 3, they did not affect the final results. Farman flew two hours and Rougier made several ascensions for height. .

During the meet the Aviation Company seized the aeroplane of Besa and Edwards, the Chilian aviators, alleging failure to fulfill contracts.

On October 3 Latham attempted to bea^ Rougier's height record made the day before' 1 an estimated height of was not official. The results of the competitions as announced by the officials are: .

Long distanceYcontest, $10,000 and City of Berlin Cup, won by Rougier, 0T2O kilometres

miles) ; Latham, second, $3,750, C82K-— kilometres (5* 1/3- miles) ; Farman third,

/ * of 560 ft., going to ^OQ^U * llrif.$QO ft. or more, but it " The results of the co

"Orville Wright's flights at Berlin have attracted much attention especially as he has

been steadily raising the altitude record. On $1,250, 6j-jykilometres (4»n«Ues)

the nth of September he flew for 42 min. D^alrt4ity^e-ntestr^w£ua^y^^ougier^.2

On September 15 Wright took a trip on ^3&jtnin,_j82/5^sec.;..Farnian second, 1 hr. 31

board the "Zeppelin^JII" from Berlin to mirjuaS-3/.S^ei^j^^

Mannheim. On the 16th he flew for 55 min. ^4Z^l^&es^

before the Empress, and attained a height of Speed event, 20 kilometres, won by Latham,

) r""220' meters, making a new world's record. _rJ£s,Pwo days later he made a passenger record, O remaining up for 1 hr. 35 min. and 47 sec. with Captain Engelhardt. The same day Wright was up for 1 hr. 45 min. On Oct. 2 he took up the Crown Prince on a 10 min. flight. Then Wright went up alone to an estimated height of 1,600 ft.

Herr Grade, the German aviator, in

i-^v > \ if,

197

$3,250; time, 18 min., 464/5—sec." Farman second, $500; time, so-min.- 9-2/5—sec.; Baron de Caters, third; time, 22 min. sec.

Height prize, won by Rougier, $2,500, 5cVr ft.; Latham second, $1,250, 327 ft.

No prize was awarded in the durability competition, as no competitor stayed in the air longer than Rougier, the winner of the distance prize.

Neither was the prize of $2,500 for the passenger-carrying contest awarded, as Rougier alone fulfilled the conditions.

The new airship built to the designs of Professor Schutte will be ready to make its trial trip within a few days' time. The dirigible is 423 ft. long and about 60 ft. in diameter. The frame is not, as in the case of the Zeppelin airship, of aluminum, but of light veneered wood, all metal portions being of hard wrought steel. Four propellers will be driven by as many motors, each capable of developing 135 h.p. It is anticipated that an average speed of twenty-five to thirty miles per hour will be attained. The airship will be capable of carrying a crew of thirty men.

The "Gross II" took part in army maneuvers as an adjunct to the "Blue" army. On September 13 it rose from its encampment, but was soon lost to view. During the evening news reached the "Red" headquarters that the airship had accidentally become caught in a tree and they went out and captured it. This temporarily ended the career of the Gross, but a few days later the airship was given back to the "Blues" by the "Reds," and on the 15th of September did some very valuable scouting service. In fact it is claimed that the victory of the Blue army was largely due to the information obtained by the dirigible. Throughout the maneuvers the wireless telegraph outfit of the airship was thoroughly tested.

At the Frankfort exhibition, small trips have been made by the Parseval, the Clouth and a new semi-rigid aeronaut named the "Ruthenberg," which has made satisfactory evolutions.

The new airship of the Rhenish and West-phalis Co. is expected shortly. It is 2,900 c. m. volume semi-rigid, divided into compartments and driven by a 110-h.p. motor.

On September 14 the "Parseval III" made a splendid trip from the Frankfort exposition grounds to Mainz, where it landed. It then went on to Wiesbaden, maneuvered over the place and returned to its starting point.

The little Clouth dirigible made an excellent flight from Frankfort to Kronberg, the palace of the Kaiser's mother, and back on the 22d.

On September 27 the "Parseval" was once more out. This time it stayed up five hours, traveling from Frankfort over How-burg and Darmstadt to Mannheim and return.

The "Zeppelin" has been making long trips, but in these days very little notice is taken of them. At Friedrichshafen on September 10, Count Zeppelin took the King of Saxony aboard for two trips. Wireless telegraphy was used successfully.

At Breslan the local aero club has had constructed several gliders of the same type and shape at Lilienthal's, with the exception that movable rudders are attached and the aviator is seated. Good flights have been made.

Carl Gatho, with his 54 m. 36-h.p. biplane, has been making short flights near Hanover.

Italy.

The Italian military dirigible has been given a thorough try-out. On September 16 it underwent a long and severe trial. On the next day it made a run of 50 km. at 860 m. ht., and throughout has exhibited remarkable stability and high speed. Capt. Riccaldoni has submitted his report on the performances of this airship. It has been in commission two months, has made 16 ascents, one of them lasting five hours and covering 240 km. The total distance traveled by the airship is 1,280 km., all on a single inflation.

Russia.

On Aug. 24, at Odessa, M. Cotrones, of the Odessa Aero Club, made a good flight of 18 min. in a Voisin biplane. Unfortunately the landing was a little hard and parts of the machine were broken.

Two of the Russian military dirigibles sailed over St. Petersburg on September 28 and were acclaimed by the populace. The Government has also begun a series of trials with the military biplane, very much resembling the Wright machine.

Chairs of Aviation have been founded at the Polytechnical Institutes of St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Kieff and Rostoff, and it appears as if Russia intended to keep well up with the rapid progress in aeronautics.

On September 17, Legagneux, in his Voisin, made several flights at Warsaw amid the enthusiasm of thousands of people.

Spain.

The Spanish Government is having a dirigible, the "Espana," built at Beauval, in France. On September 15 it met with an accident as it was about to be tried.

The Aero Club of Catalonia has just been formed at Barcelona with the Marquis t Mariona as President. King Alfonso has given a prize and next year an international aviation meet will be held in Spain.

Sweden.

Folmer Hansen, aviator, intended a few weeks ago to cross over from Sweden to Denmark. He started out twice, and the second time fell into the water but was rescued immediately.

Switzerland.

At Geneva, M. Luventhal is putting the finishing touches to a new aeroplane with which trials are shortly to be commenced.

M. Bianchi, of Lugano, is also at work on a new flying machine to be fitted with a 30-h.p. engine and two propellers.

Dane Hurlburt, an American, has made several short flights in his machine, provided with two propellers, one in front and one in the rear, driven by a 25-h.p. Anzani motor. It is longer front to rear than wide.

AERONAUTICS November, ipop

CURTISS' RETURN TO AMERICA

ON September 22, the day after Curtiss' arrival from abroad, more than a hundred and forty attended the Aero Club of America's luncheon in his honor at the Lawyer's Club. At the guest table sat Glenn H. Curtiss, the officers of the club and their guests, L. D. Dozier, R. J. Collier, William Berri, Col. J. J. Astor, Colgate Hoyt, Judge Elbridge H. Gary, Hon. Herman A. Metz, Dr. St. Clair McKelway, George T. Wilson, Hon. Herbert Parsons and Frank N. Double-day.

Among other diners were Marconi, Hon. James M. Beck, W. D. Gash, Clifford B. Harmon, Christopher J. Lake, Mayor Mahool, of Baltimore, Medill McCormick, James W. Osborne, A. L. Riker, General Thomas L. Watson and Payne Whitney.

After being introduced, Mr. Curtiss equaled, if he did not break, Wilbur Wright's record for brief speech. He thanked those present for his kind reception home, saying he was glad to get back to the "old U. S., but had hoped to slip in on the quiet." When asked to tell his experiences at Rheims he turned the privilege over to St. Clair McKelway and Justice O'Gorman, who saw him fly in the big meet.

Dr. McKelway told of being at Rheims, seeing the wonderful flights and claimed the honor of being the oldest aeronaut present, as he made an ascent back in 1867, in Andrews' dirigible. This airship (which was made to travel in any desired direction by means of long inclined planes between the triple, parallel, cigar-shaped gas bags, the planes causing the balloon, as it rose from the buoyancy of the gas, to ascend upon a long incline) on this occasion traveled as far as Goshen, N. Y. (50 miles), whence it was blown back by the wind across Long Island Sound to the eastern end of Long Island, where a successful landing was accomplished.

Justice O'Gorman in his remarks said, addressing Mr. Curtiss: "I wish to express to you the profound admiration which I felt on that day and have felt ever since for what you did, and I only hope in contests of the future that you will be as fortunate and successful as you were in France last month."

Mayor J. Barry Mahool, of Baltimore, who was an official delegate from the Washington and Baltimore aero clubs, availed himself of the opportunity to plead on behalf of Washington and Baltimore for the Gordon-Bennett aviation race next year. The two cities are co-operating in their efforts to advance the sport, and Mayor Mahool promised the best of the two cities for the meet and its contestants and guests. He read a telegram announcing the flight of Lincoln Beachey from

that city to a point in the Blue Ridge Mountains, 125 miles away—a flight which is probably the longest ever made in America with a dirigible balloon.

The other speakers were Hon. Herman A. Metz and Colgate Hoyt. Mr. Hoyt told of being at Rockefeller's house when a dealer brought up a horse for inspection, at a price of $5,000. At that time Rockefeller was interested in racing. He objected to the price and the dealer replied: "You have been buying all your life 'going-to-be's' or 'has-beens.' Now this horse is an 'izzer.'" "I am a 'has-been,'" said Mr. Hoyt, "but we are here to-day to do honor to an 'izzer.'"

After three cheers for President Bishop, proposed by Mr. Hoyt, the luncheoners dispersed, the majority repairing to Governor's Island to see the Wright machine which was being set up. Mr. Curtiss and Mr. Wright had a friendly discussion of the aviation grounds of Europe, but no mention of any suit was made.

reception at hammondsport.

The real welcome to Mr. Curtiss was that accorded him by his home folks, the ones who hold him most in their hearts. It brought to mind the occasion of his winning of the "Scientific American" cup for 1908, when he was carried about on the shoulders of his admiring friends.

Mr. Curtiss is one of those humble individuals who never claim to have done anything very great, but just lets his deeds stand for what they are worth. A public demonstration for him is as embarrassing and, in a way, unenjoyable as it is sought after by some less entitled. I would like to express my appreciation here in a suitable manner, but I have been limited by the unfeeling editor, so I hope I may be pardoned.

The day after the luncheon Mr. Curtiss arrived in Bath, a junction point for Ham-mondsport, his home. Here he was met by two train loads of Curtiss enthusiasts, a band and a welcoming committee. Cheered by the assembled crowd, he was taken to a dinner at the local hotel by the committee of eleven, representing Bath and Hammondsport. Bath would not stand for being left out of it simply because she was eight miles from Hammondsport.

At 7 o'clock in the evening a special train left for his home town, where the blowing of whistles, the ringing of bells, the band, fireworks and cheers greeted the train as it pulled up. It was a difficult task to get Mr. Curtiss into the carriage and start the parade because of the onrush of those who vied with each other to be the first to clasp the hand of the victor.

I am going to avail myself of the Ham-mondsport Herald for the rest of this story, to show you how Hammondsport feels. We have not advanced too far to class Curtiss among the pioneers in actual flying, but with the march of progress, too often the good things of life are forgotten.

"Notwithstanding the continued downpour of rain and the deep mud, all the time getting deeper, a great procession was organized, and followed partially the line of march laid out. The crowds packed the streets on either side, red lights were burned and a perfect bombardment of Roman candles was maintained. One of the attractive features of the parade was a float containing about thirty girls, all in white, and a couple of little boy clowns.

"The decorations at the homes and places of business were intensified by the colored lights and the village was an imposing sight. Transparencies over all the arc lights and those carried in the procession added to the good feeling of the crowd. Behind the speakers' stand at the Curtiss works was a huge electric sign with the initials 'G. H. C in red, white and blue, and below, in immense letters, 'Welcome Home. The tall flagstaff was brought out with colored incandescents and strings of the lights marked the roadways. All the decorations at the works were accomplished by the employes, to whom great credit is due. In front of the speakers' stand was a miniature aeroplane, an ingenious piece of work accomplished by Claude C. Jenkins.

"Judge Wheeler, who is president of the works, made a most excellent address, which was listened to with rapt attention during a drizzling rain. He paid glowing tribute to Mr. Curtiss, his character, accomplishments at home and abroad, to Hammondsport, its people and to the magnificent outburst of enthusiasm manifested in Mr. Curtiss' homecoming. He closed by presenting Mr. Curtiss with a gold medal, the gift of the people. In accepting, Mr. Curtiss said: 'Although I spent a number of years as a student of Hammondsport high school, I never learned words which are adequate to express my ap-

preciation of the reception I have been accorded to-night, or to express my thanks for this medal which has just been presented to me. The last four weeks have been very eventful. I have met with considerable success and have met many notable people, but on no occasion have I experienced the happiness that I do to-night as I look upon this assemblage.'

"Mr. Wheeler then presented 'Slim' Shriver, Mr. Curtiss' mechanician, with a handsome traveling bag, which brought to a close that portion of the proceedings. Although the rain continued, the people lingered to meet Mr. Curtiss, who held an impromptu reception in the offices of the works.

"The fireworks ended one of the most joyous and successful public demonstrations in the history of Hammondsport. It was a grand spectacle, but modest as compared with the real emotions of the people, which were plainly depicted on every countenance.

"No hero, ancient or modern, was ever greeted with more loyalty than was Glenn H. Curtiss on this occasion. The burning of powder and the noisy demonstrations were but the exterior evidence of the great pride the people of Hammondsport feel in him. Everybody who knows Glenn Curtiss admires him for what he has done. The people of Hammondsport love and admire him for what he is, and for what, through great trials and much adversity, he has made of himself. The ease with which he carries his honors is the most convincing proof of his worth. The distinction which apparently has come to him without much exertion, many a man has laid down his life in attempting to grasp, and he accepts it as naturally and unassumingly as a child. His attachment for the friends of his youth and for the workmen associated with him is another of the strong elements of his character. Honors do not spoil him, the flattery of great men does not turn his head. His habits are as simple and his moral character as unsullied as when he was plodding the hard and uncertain road to his first foothold in the business world."

CHANGES IN TI

The latest model of the Voisin aeroplane presents several differences from the design which has proved so successful in the hands of Delagrange, Paulhan, Rougier, etc. A radical departure in the new machine is the removal of the elevating plane from the front to inside the box tail, while now the propeller is mounted in front instead of at the rear of the

E VOISIN TYPE

main planes. The aeroplane, which will be tested by M. Chateau, will be a Voisin production throughout, as the motor will be of a new design, for which M. Gabriel Voisin is responsible. Having a bore and stroke of 120 mm. by 140 mm., it is designed to give 48 h. p. at 1,100 revolutions per minute, and weighs 95 kilogs. with magneto, etc.

"I think it is hardly possible to improve the magazine as it is at present."—R. A. W.

"Please allow me to thank Aeronautics for information that I have put to practical use and find it has helped me to reach success with my aeroplane."—F. K.

TELL YOUR. FRIENDS

THE AERO CLUB OF NEW ENGLAND

By Alfred R. Shrigley, L.L.B., Sec'y.

ON November the 20th, 1909, the Aero Club of New England will hold its third annual banquet, celebrating on that date two events, the organization of the club and the 126th anniversary of the first ascension of man in a balloon. Many men of prominence in aeronautics will attend the banquet as guests, and it is expected that important discussions with regard to plans for navigating the air by aeroplane, dirigible and balloon during the year 1910 will be discussed.

The club is in a most thriving condition and has far exceeded the expectations of its most optimistic members. This organization has now 100 members, the limit set by its by-laws, and has a large waiting list.

The two club balloons "Massachusetts" and "Boston" have done excellent work during this year, having made 53 ascensions and carried 137 passengers. The vice-president, Mr.

Charles J. Glidden, has been the most active of the club's pilots, and most of the ascensions have been under his direction. Several members are now qualifying as International Pilots, among them Prof. H. H. Clayton, who was formerly connected with the Blue Hill Observatory, Mass.

On Sept. 14 the president of the club, Prof. Wm. H. Pickering, of Harvard, appointed a committee consisting of Mr. Charles J. Glidden and Mr. H. H. Clayton, to consider the advisability of purchasing a dirigible, and to report to the directors the most practical type of such an airship. Another committee was on the same day appointed to consider the purchasing of an aeroplane for the year 1910. Without doubt the Aero Club of New England will this coming season own either an aeroplane or a dirigible for the use of its members.

An Aero Club in Memphis is in progress of formation by E. F. Stephenson of that city. The first call resulted in but three enthusiasts, but this is not accepted as proof of failure.

The Aeronautic Society meetings have continued to be of live interest, with model flights each meeting.

Those who flew their models were: Mr. Dal-kranian, Louis R. Adams, W. S. Romme, Dr. Wm. Greene, Wilbur R. Kimball, Wm. J. Hammer, William Morgan, Percy Pierce, A. J. Smith, J. Newton Williams and Mr. Hillen-brandt. The Romme model was a circular monoplane, open in the center like a doughnut. This flew slowly and kept perfectly stable. Every flight was of almost exactly the same length. The Dalkranian Antoinette-like model performed remarkably straight and well-sustained flights. Each part combined with every other part to secure accuracy in flight.

First and second prizes were awarded to Mr. Dalkranian. Dr. Julian P. Thomas provided an interesting half hour with a small monoplane driven by an electric motor. This was suspended from the ceiling by the wire transmitting the power.

The Aero Club of Colorado has now been officially organized with about 50 members.

At the election held the end of September, the following officers were elected: President, Gordon L. Wands; Vice-President, W. W. Barnett; Treasurer, C. P. Allen; Secretary, Edw. F. Dean; Recording Secretary, L. H. All-mon.

The club has been organized for the purpose of promoting and advancing aerial navigation and bringing it to a more perfect stage. Enough has already been done to convince the most skeptical that practical flight with the heavier than air machine is possible, and there remains nothing for us to do but to improve and perfect the crude means which we now have.

Other objects of the club are to make scientific studies of the existing air currents which prevail at different altitudes, and make charts which will enable us to navigate the atmosphere as the waters are navigated. The club also proposes to make balloon ascensions as a means of sport. Each member may make ascensions by registering his intentions with the secretary, and will be considered in his turn.

When a member has made the required number of trips, he will receive a pilot's license, which will enable the member to pilot a balloon any place in the world.

It is the purpose of the club to own balloons, dirigibles and aeroplanes and to enter them in contests, whether they be local or international. Many people are of the opinion that Denver would be an ideal place to hold the next international balloon race since there is plenty of distance between that point and either coast to enable the participants to break the world's distance record. Every effort will be made to have this race held in Denver, since, with the

above facts in view, it is reasonable to believe that Denver would be a desirable point from which to start this race.

The Aero Club of Baltimore was formed at an enthusiastic meeting held September 30 at the City Hall. Col. Jerome H. Joyce was elected president; Mr. Waldo Newcomer, treasurer, and Mr. James T. O'Neill, secretary. The following directors were chosen: Mayor Mahool and Messrs. J. Albert Hughes, E. K. Pattison, Charles S. Abell and Gen. Clinton L. Riggs.

The club starts with 40 members among the prominent citizens of Baltimore. The club will ask for affiliation with the Aero Club of America and prosecute, in co-operation with the Aero Club of Washington, plans looking to the holding of the Bennett aviation race next year at College Park, Md.

New Club in Washington.

WASHINGTON, October 12.—Aeroplane builders and aviation enthusiasts of Washington met at the Y. M. C. A. last evening and organized the Washington Aero-Scientific Club. There were present nine aeronauts who have built or are building aeroplanes or dirigible balloons, besides others who are interested in the science.

Temporary officers were elected as follows: President, E. H. Young; first vice-president, William H. Beck; second vice-president, T. H. Bean; secretary-treasurer, F. L. Rice. Samuel A. Luttrell was chosen chairman of the com-

mittee on experiments, and J. J. O'Brien chairman of the committee on meetings. A tentative constitution and by-laws were adopted. It was decided to call the new organization the Washington Aero-Scientific Club. _M. J. Jones, educational director of the Y. M. C. A., announced that Lieut. F. P. Lahm, chief of the aeronautical division of the United States Signal Corps, has agreed to deliver a series of lectures 011 aeronautical subjects to the club this winter, and will also give some practical instruction to the members in the management of aeroplanes and dirigible balloons. The lectures probably will begin next month, and will be delivered in the large assembly hall of the Y. M. C- A.

It was announced that a large field near Washington would be secured for practical experiments, and it is probable that the War Department will be asked to allow the club the use of the aviation field at College Park for experimental purposes. Signal Corps officers, in view of the interest that the War Department is now taking in aeronautics, are said to favor allowing the club the use of the College Park grounds.

Meetings will be held every two weeks, as soon as the club is permanently organized. The next meeting will be called by the temporary president within the next three weeks. It will be held at the Y. M. C. A.

Letters of regret at their inability to be present were read from several aeronauts, and a few applied for membership in the new organization by letter.

BIGGEST AERO SHOW

The Aeronautic Salon was opened on Sept. 25 by President Fallieres. All actual flying apparatus are exhibited, the Bleriot, Santos Dumont and Pelterie monos, the Farman, Wright, Voisin, etc., biplanes. There is also a large exhibit of motors, including the Renault, Gnome, Antoinette, Panhard, Clement and Pipe. In addition there are to be seen some sphericals, the Zodiac dirigible, the historic balloon Volta, which escaped from Paris during the siege, as well as a large amount of accessories and appurtenances.

In all cases considerable thought has been given to methods of alighting. Whilst the pneumatically tired wheels are retained, elastic and spring suspensions have been added and additional springs are brought into action according to the force of the descent. In one or two instances wooden skids come into secondary contact to prevent deformatiojn or breakage of wheels, the skids being connected to springs.

Propellers have received renewed attention since the accident to the "Republique." Metal propellers are in disfavor, even for aeroplanes.

Wooden propellers, although admittedly less efficient, weight for weight, are all formed of the best hard wood, generally of strips running at 90 deg. to the axle shaft. Thus it would be difficult for one of the blades to break off in the air. One firm claims for its wooden propeller, formed in one single piece of wood, that it will turn at the peripheral speed of 200 metres per minute, without any deformation or vibration.

With regard to the motors, air-cooling has been adopted in quite a number of cases. It is somewhat curious to note that French makers were quite sceptical regarding the possibilities of an efficient air-cooled engine for motor-car service. The needs of aerial motors have, however, broken down the prejudice which existed, notwithstanding the fact that the aerial service demands harder continuous work from the motor than practical road work does from the ordinary motor-car engine. The Panhard Company, however, do not recommend the air-cooled motor. They show several groups of four vertically-arranged cylinders, the carburetor being placed over the heads of the cylinders as is also the magneto.

IN THE last issue we inaugurated a new department, called "Exchange." Progress in aeronautics would be materially assisted if those interested could and would gather together, discuss their ideas, hold model contests, form clubs and bring organized endeavor and influence to bear on the popularization of this new sport and science and the encouragement of it through education and governmental co-operation. For one thing, strong pressure should be put upon Congress to appropriate ample sums for the carrying on of experiments, and the purchase and operation of airships and flying machines.

With the rapidly increasing realization of what aerial locomotion means, there must be few large cities in America where there are not 20 or 30 enthusiasts. These should get together, and those who are willing to meet others with a view to mutual profit and co-operation are asked to write a post card to "Aeronautics," 1777 Broadway, New York, and we will do our best to put them in touch with others. We would like to see a club in every large city.

We will print in this new department all such requests. If you know of anyone in-

terested, won't you give us his name, and we will do our part.

If you have a suggestion which you think will aid a constructor of a machine, write it out for printing in this mutual aid forum.

If you have a new idea for a flyer, describe it briefly and send it in. If you have invented a new device, part, attachment or complete machine, give us a concise description of it. In this way you may interest capital in your plans.

If you have money to invest in aerial apparatus, let us know it and we will print a note with whatever conditions you may wish to impose. If you do not desire your name used, please so state in your communication.

If you have suggestions as to the part the government ought to take, if you want any information, or have it to give, let "Exchange" be the medium.

The idea in this department is to bring together every force which will make for advancement. We want to make "Exchange" an aeronautical forum and market place.

Let us have your help to keep this of ever-increasing benefit to all.

soaking rowklt vs. motor-power.

To explain why .soaring power does increase the motor-power is the object of this article, as many cannot understand this difficult problem.

In drawing 3-4 is the side view of one aeroplane and 1-X is an attached soaring blade at rest. The forward motion created by motor power does bend the soaring blades to line 2-X.

On 3-X the soaring blades are attached to the-aeroplane. The motor-power it takes to bend the soaring blades to a curvature on one end, the same power it retards on the other end in forward motion.

Solution : Take a flexible stick between the two forefingers and press same to a curved line, and if you release one finger snaplike quick, the stick will shoot forward at the rate of the pressure of either finsrer.

The soaring blades act in the same way, just as in a soaring bird of heavy weight. After a full forward motion is gained and tbe blades are curved and strong enough to suit the weight of the machine and the motor-power is cut off, the aeroplane will keep on flying until the angle is changed to an upward position where the headway resistance overpowers the soaring power, the aero-

plane is slowing down, and with this the soaring power.

IJ. DRESSEElt. Coney Island, X. Y.

advertising and sales manager.

now with large machinery manufacturer would like to form connection with well established airship builder. Experience in important executive positions ; an expert on result bringing letters, well equipped by education, experience and personality to handle high class business. Widely traveled at home and abroad. Age 33, unmarried. Manager, Room 33S, lfiO Adams St., Chicago, 111.

wanted.

Partner with $10,000.00, in securing foreign aeronautical Patents, and demonstrating them. Conservative estimate places their value at SIo0.o00.o0. Satisfaction guaranteed.

Address Stability. aeronautics.

ti.'rnruckles at' cost.

E. F. Stephenson, 250 Vance Ave., Memphis, Tenn., offers to furnish readers with small brass turnbuckles at cost, 21% cents each, or $2.50 a dozen.

will someone please answer?

To the Editor :

lias anyone ever experimented on the spiral propeller? Would it not act about the same as the continuous paddle on a boat?

ANONYMOUS.

pie 1 zen for lowest speed.

A suggestion is received from a subscriber in regard to the offering of prizes. Attention is called to the various prizes offered abroad and

{Continued on page 205)

EXCHANGE

Aero Forum and Market Place.

[note.—The first name given is that of the pilot.]

war from a balloon.

TAUNTON, Aug. 19.-Wm. Van Sleet, A. B Reed and John J. Kenney, in Dr. Randall's "Grey-lock," viewed the war game from above, reporting for their newspapers a battle between the Reds and the Blues. The landing was in front of a flagged railroad train at East Freetown, Mass. Dur., 1 hr. 18 min. Subsequently the balloon broke away and was not found till Sept. 28, in New York State.

DAYTON, Aug. 24.—Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh and seven guests went up in the "Hoosier." landing at New Moorefleld, near Springfield. O. In the evening Capt. Bumbaugh lectured before the Aeroplane Club on "Judging Distances from a Balloon."

DAYTON, Aug. 24.—H II. McGill, Paul Keenan and Earl White in the "Dayton," to between Springfield and Enon, O.

NORTH ADAMS, Aug. 26.—N. H. Arnold, YVm. R. Cross, and D. W. Goodrich in the "No. Adams No. 1." No wind. Balloon circled city, lauding finally on Florida mountain nearby.

FITCHBURG, Sept. 1.—H. H. Clayton, J. Walter Flagg and Jay B. Benton in the "Boston,'' to Winchester.

ST. CLOUD, France, Sept. 2.—E. W. Mix, G. H. Curtiss and c. F. Bishop made a short aseent from the Aero Club's grounds.

20-itour trip.

CANTON, Sept. 2-3.—J. ri. Wade, Jr., and A. H. Morgan, in the "Cleveland," to Karthaus, Pa., 200 miles from Canton, after 18 hours in the air. 59 sacks of ballast were carried. This is the longest ascent ever made from Canton.

DAYTON, Sept. 3—A. Leo Stevens, E. B. Wes-

miles. Dur., 8 hrs.

NORTH ADAMS. Sept. 3.—N. H. Arnold, Clifford B. Harmon, Mr. and Mrs. Walter E. Maynard and Mrs. Thos. Hastings, to North Easton, Mass.

WASHINGTON, Sept. 3.—Lieut. F. P. Lahm. in the "Signal Corps No. 12," to Brooklyn, Md.; dur. 3 hrs. 20 min.; dist., 27- miles.

"sky pilot" and "ohio" race.

CANTON, Sept. 6.—J. H. Wade, Jr., A. H. Morgan and H. C. Gammeter, in the "Sky Pilot," to Palmyra, O., a dist. of 35 miles.

Dr. H. W. Thompson, Louis Brush and Ralph Dow in the "Ohio," to near Alliance, O., a dist. of 20 miles.

FITCHBURG, Sept. 8.—H. H. Clayton, J. Walter Flasg and .tax B. Benton, in the "Boston," to Ashby, 10 miles'"

LOWELL, Se'pf..9'.—Chas. J. Glidden and George W. Brown, Mayor of Lowell, in the "Boston." Dur., 2 hrs. ; dist., 10 miles.

WASHINGTON, Sept. 9.—Lieut. F. P. Lahm and Lieut. F. E Humphreys, on an instruction ascent in the "Signal Corps No. 11," to Woodbine, Md. Dist 38 m.; dur., 3:48.

WORCESTER. MASS., Sept. 9.—Geo. L. Tom-linson and Karl-Symons in a hydrogen balloon of 12,000 ft., to Greenwich, Mass. 1y H^iUj^

CANTON. Sept. 9.—Dr. II. W.' Thompson, Dr. M. D. Bush, and V. A. Miller, in the "Ohio," to Kent, O Dur. 2 hr. 20 min.

CANTON, Sept. 11.—Dr. H. W. Thompson, Wm. Arnold and Oscar Lodius in the "Ohio," to Canal Dover, O., 30 miles.

PITTSFIELD, Sept. 13.—Clifford B. Harmon, alone in the "Pittsfield."

FITCHBURG, Sept. 13.—Chas. J. Glidden and Wm. E. Metzger, president of the Aero Club of Michigan, in the "Boston," to Pelham, N. H. Dur. 2 hr. 36 min., dist. 36 miles.

FITCHBURG, Sept. 15.—Chas. J. Glidden and P. Chester Thompson, >n the "Bostou," to So. Lvndeboro, N. H. Dist. 22 miles, dur. 2 hr. 44 m'in. Met clouds at 4,200 ft. Stayed above 1 hr. This trip celebrated the second anniversary of Mr. Glidden's first ascension.

PITTSFIELD. Sept. 16.—Chas. J. Glidden. Jay B. Benton and J. J. Van Valkenburgh, in the "Mass.," to Plainfield, Mass. Dist. 22 m., dur. 1 hr. 25 min. In fo<x all the time.

PITTSFIELD, Sept. IS.—Leroy M. Taylor, W. J. Serdenburg, and Mrs. A. M. King were passengers in the "Mass." on a saH«to Chapinville, Ct. Dist. 38 miles. vtt>^ ^LulA—vj^J^.^

FITCHBURG. Sept. 18.—Chas. J. Glidden, Jay B. Benton and Phillip J. FitzGerald, 8 years of age, in the "Boston," to Auburn, Mass. Distance 30 miles, dur. 2 hr. 15 min.

ST. LOUIS, Sept. 19.—John Berry and G. C. Schwartz in the "Univ. City" in an endeavor A to win the Lahm Cup.^1 Qz**Xi> *\ Vwj . I HyJ^^

FITCHBURG, Sept. 21.—Chas. J. Glidden, H. H. Clayton and J. Walter Flagg, in the "Boston," to Mason. N. H. Dist. 15 miles, dur. 50 min.

NORTH ADAMS, Sept. 25.—N. H. Arnold, Norman Trince, Mrs. H. B. Heustis and Mrs. Arnold, in the "All America," to Goshen, Ct., 50 miles.

CVNTON, Sept. 28.—Lieut. Frank P. Lahm W. R. Timken and Jos. M. Blake, in the "Ohio, to Brownsdale, W. Va. The villagers were not very expert balloon handlers, and the landing was made in a tree. The two passengers climbed down to the ground, and Anally the balloon was released, but Lieut. Lahm had to climb up the tree to get some of the belongings left behind.

NEW YORK, Sept. 29.—A. Leo Stevens and Dr. Lucas, in the "Stevens 24," to Hicksville, L. I.

LOS ANGELES. Sept. 29.—Geo. B. Harrison, Corporal Vance Worden, and Private W. A. Hall, in the "America," on ofPcial ascent of the Calif. Nat. Guard. Dist. 20 miles.

FITCHBURG, Sept. 30.—H. H. Clayton, alone in the "Boston," to Kensington, N. H. Dist. 55 miles. —

PHILADELPHIA, Oct. 2.—Dr. Thos. E. Eld-ridge, Dr. Geo. H. Simmerman, A. C. Howard, C. D. Shaw, Bert Bartholomew and a reporter, in the "Phila. II," to Cologne, N. J.

NORTH ADAMS, Oct. 3.—Wm. Van Sleet, Waldo Johnstone and E. E. Merriam in the "Springfield." to Willimantic, Ct. Dur. 4% hr., dist. 77 miles.

ST. LOUIS, Oct. 4.—Ten balloons left In the race of the Aero Club of St. Louis. (See special story.)

"I think aeronautics_ covers everything of interest in the aeronautic world, and is one of the best magazines of its kind."—J. H. VV.

"I would like to praise aeronautics through its editor for its noble work, which no doubt has improved to the delight of its subscribers, and ihose who perchance come across a stray copy."—R. P. D.

"Am much pleased with the magazine,— think it embraces and sums up nearly everything known and interesting in aeronautics. Have read it with a great deal of interest and profit."—W. D. LeF.

THE |lPw3 LIGHT

STRONGEST ^3S& METAL

Mc ADAMITE

specific gravity 3 20 Tension, - 44,000 lbs. to sq. in. Compression, 126,000 lbs. to sq. in. Transverse, 87,000 " .Torsion, - 60.000 " " " £

Send for test bar or a pattern for sample casting

U. S. Mc AD AMITE METAL CO.

19 Rapelye Street BROOKLYN. N. Y

THE AEROPLANE TOY CO. 15 Myrtle Avenue

-^-^ * -»-.■—' w * -m. w j. ww. BROOKLYN, NEW YORK

Aeroplanes, Dirigibles, Spherical Balloons, Butterflys, Helicopteres, Gliders, Parachutes and Scientific Kites

- CATALOG READY ABOUT NOVEMBER FIRST -

ALL OUR TOYS ACTUALLY FLY

Telephone 1040 Main

Working Models Built to Order Separate Parts Furnished

ADAMS-FAR WELL

TnE WORLD'S LIGH TEST AND SIMPLEST

MOTOR

Less than 3 lbs. per H. P., A. L. A. M. rating

Self cooled by its own revolution

get our catalogue A no. 15-a

THE ADAMS COMPANY

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U.S.A.

the Denver Post prize in this country, which calls for awards based on the greatest speed attained. Inasmuch as there are more difficulties presented in the building of a slow speed machine, it certainly would be an aid to the Art if someone would offer a prize for flights accomplished at certain low speeds; say, for instance, 18 to 25 miles per hour, such prize to be increased with the diminution of speed. Of course, we do not expect that the Art will be favored with any such prize, as any money available is sadly needed for Tolar expeditions. But for the purpose of an argument, we present this suggestion to those most interested. _

L. W. Bonney, Upper Sandusky, O., is anxious to communicate with parts and propeller manufacturers.

Editor. Evchanee Dept.,

Dear Sir,—I desire to communicate with manufacturers of motors, bamboo, aluminum tubing, and (Continued on next page)

AVIATION

The best book on AVIATION

The First Lessons on AERONAUTICS

Illustration of Scientific Treatment in a popular style of the Principles of Aviation. A Technical Analysis without having mathematical abstruseness. There are a number of illustrations of the latest designs in Aeroplanes and Airships. Leather Back &

Prepaid $2.00

Send to

MAX K. KASMAR, Secy.

AM. AER. SOCIETY

1827 N. Paulina St., Chicago, 111.

sheets, wire, wheels, propellers, ehains, piano wire, turn buckles and fabric. Name prices in first communication. J. M. HOOPER.

Springfleld. Tenn.

To the Editor.

I have in course of construction a biplane somewhat like the Curtiss machine in looks, but the mechanical make-up is entirely different, in that ] have an automatic stabilizing attachment and an automatic controlling device for the two auxiliary planes. i also have a starting device which will enable one man to get the machine in the air with the utmost ease and safety without the use of weights, monorail or long runs.

The above results are obtained through a very simple arrangement properi.v applied. I shall be ready to place a motor on the machine in about 00 days, and being without necessary capital 1 desire to be placed in touch with someone who has the means, and would become interested in a machine of merit.

L. B. 2?,?,, Springfleld. Tenn.

back numrers aeronautics at a premium.

Will gladly pay $1.00 or $1.25 each for the following back numbers: July, August, September, 1907; July. August, September, October. 190<s.

ROBT. \V. FAWCETT, c/o A. p. Co.. Camp Childs

mayer, ariz.

Weaver-Ebling Automobile === Company -

"WECO" OILS AND GREASES

all aeronautic supplies 2230 broadway at 79th st., - - - new york.

No Poor Flights

With This Engine

^ Built especially for aeroplanes, our engine positively combines less weight and more power than any other made. ^ Simplicity is its keynote. Yet it affords greater economy of fuel and conservation of power than engines of the most elaborate type. (^ A real achievement in aerial locomotion is

The Elbridge Engine

<jj Automatic oiling devices and gasoline feed, obviate the usual engine difficulties. ^ A recent successful flight was made with a 45 H.P. Elbridge Engine, weighing 200 lbs. ^1 Absolute reliability qualifies it as preeminent in its field. Leading aeronauts give testimony to this fact.

<]] It will pay you to learn more about the Elbridge Engine.

write Us Today.

ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY

10 Culver Road, Rochester, N. Y.

Wilbur Wright's

Remarkable Flight up the Squall-Swept Hudson, over the fighting tops of the assembled fleets of the nations, was another demonstration of the Great Aviator's complete confidence in the Reliability and Efficiency of the

Bosch Magneto

If you saw the Curtiss Cup-Winning Biplane, which was exhibited at one of New York's large retail stores recently, you may have noted that it also was "Bosch Equipped".

Bosch Magneto Company

223-225 w. 46th street, new york

Chicago Branch: 1253 Michigan Avenue san francisco branch: (just opened) 357 van ness avenue

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 206

R. I. V. RADIAL BALL BEARINGS

Used by Leading Aviators.

Light in weight — Strong and

Durable.

Variety of types and sizes in stock. absolutely guaranteed.

Send for Catalogue 19.

all sizes hoffmann steel balls on hand.

R. I. V. CO. 1771 Broadway, New York

c. and a.

WITTEMANN

DESIGNERS-CONSTRUCTORS-DEVELOPERS OF

aeroplanes, gliding machines, models, separate parts

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING

Experiments Conducted. Large grounds for testing.

GLIDERS IN STOCK Works :t 17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road. Telephone, 390-L West Brighton. STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK.

SOARING BLADES

.Made to order, attachable to your aeroplane or glider. They increase the speed to nearly double the motor power, push machine if motor stops over 20 miles p. h., which permits gliding and prevents accidents. Any height can safely be attained. Blue prints for aeroplanes with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium also furnished.

For terms apply to R. DRESSLER, Coney Island, New York.

G. L. I il "Ml J AI ( ;i I

1029 n. illinois st., indianapolis, ind.

designer - contractor. - operator constructor. ) AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS

Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 4.^ hours and 25 min., the ENDURANCE RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.

No connection with any other concern.

AEROPLANE RADIATORS

A SPECIALTY Livingston Radiator Co., 6 e. 3ist st., new york city.

BATES AERONA UTIC MOTOR

AT ONCE THE

HIGHEST

GRADE

MOTOR

AI THE

LOWEST

PRICE

4 - CYL. 4x4

WATER COOLED

25 1 O 30 BRAKE H. P — WEIGHT-116-LBS.

PRICE $650.-^ COMPLETE NOT A FREAK DESIGN. NOT AN EXPERIMENT. THE STANDARD TYPE OF THE MOTOR WORLD. MOST EFFICIENT AND RELIABLE.

EVERY FEATURE MOST PRACTICAL.

Not ashamed to publsh the price. Write for further particulars. Early orders get quick deliveries. Other sizes built to order.

carl bates

104 oak st.. chicago,

ill.

magnetos

The Master

Magneto !

and F. S. Ball Bearings

used on voisin aeroplane, 8 cyl. antoinette motor, driven by latham.

bowden wire for controls

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY

sole importers, times building, new york

New York - Chocolates

Chocolate

most suitable for aeronauts or those requiring a Non-Bulky Sustaining f-'ond office, 150-154 chambers street, new york

NILSON-MILLER CO.

Designers and Builders of SPECIAL GASOLINE ENGINES

unexcelled facilities for experimental and model work

13th & Hudson Sts., Hoboken, N. J.

Health Food

Aerial Development Company

<J This company is organized for the purpose of exploiting all business connected with aerial transportation, including the patenting of new devices, the purclnse and salt- of patents and pitented apparatus, the establishment of laboratories for original research, the building of manufacturing plants for the construction of all types of flying machines and motors, the promotion of exhibitions, races, prize competitions. J Models and experimental work of all kinds to order.

J M iterials and appliances used in aerial transport ition offered for sale.

<fl Estimates furnished for the construction and trial tests of all classes of aeronautical work. t| Write for prospectus.

45 west 34th street, new york. aeroplanes for sale

with guarantee of performance light weight motors aerial advertising . .

AERONAUT LEO STEVENS

Leading

BALLOON AND AIRSHIP CONSTRUCTOR

of the world

Representing the

CONTINENTAL RUBBER COMPANY

of HANOVER, GERMANY

Makers of the Finest and Strongest Balloon Cloth Ever Produced

Constructor of the United States Government Balloon No. 10 in which Captain Charles De Forrest Chandler, U.S.A., and Mr. J. C. McCoy, won the Lahm Cup for Distance

MR. ALBERT C. TRIACA, Sole American and Canadian Agent

american representative for

Carton & Lachambre

Balloon and Airship Makers of Paris, France

Address'

Aeronaut Leo Stevens

Box 181 Madison Square NEW YORK

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN

NEW YORK'S LEADING MANUFACTURER

BALLOON

AND AIRSHIP

PILOT AND MANUFACTURER

BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL

used in the u. s. gov. dirigible and spherical balloons

will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. the weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. the chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. silk double walled vulcanized proof material has ten times the strength of varnished material. a man can take care of his proof balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is not subject to spontaneous combustion. breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. very elastic. any weight, width, or color. will not crack. waterproof. no talcum powder. no revarnishing. the coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. the man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use vulcanized proof material. specified by the u. s. signal corps.

i-\ c

aeroplane material a specia prices and samples on application

Box 78 Madison Square P. O.

new york.

En

-P

gines - r ropellers

FOR AERONAUTICS

F

Constructed under the patents pending of Hugo C. Gibson

LYING is up to the^ motor. yIt is a matter of horse power, our engine is specially designed TO KEEP OX delivering full power.

200\LBS. - 50 H.P.

Real horse power. Certifier! by Automobile Club of America actual test of each engine supplied

This shows our 9011 fiden^e and safeguards yon.

Call or write now. ^ Full particulars by return.

Telephone 7200 Columbus

225 WEST 49th STREET NEW YORK CITY

REQUX-COLES CO.

Race of Peoria Air Craft Club, August 19

Peoria, Missouri, Dauntless, started — 50,000 people saw them

ALL THREE BUILT BY

FRENCH—AMERICAN BALLOON CO.

H. E. HONEYWELL, Director

3958 Cottage Avenue St. Louis, U. S. A.

AEROPLANE ENGINES

We have standardized the following sizes of engines for aeronautical work:

8 Cyls., 3% inches by 4 inches, 30-45 H.P., Weight 275 lbs. 8 Cyls., 4\ inches by 4V2 inches, 40-60 H.P., Weight 300 lbs.

Both sized Motors fitted with Bosch Magneto, Schebler Carburetor Mechanical Oiler, complete ready to run.

EARLY DELIVERIES FOR IMMEDIATE ORDER

Machine Department, KaStOIl Cordage Co., Easton, Pa.


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