Volume 5 - No. 4 - 1909 October
|Table of Contents|
The American Magazine of Aeronautics was the first commercial magazine in the United States of America about national and international aviation. There were reports on patents and flight contests. The journal was published from July 1907 to July 1915. All pages from the years 1907 to 1915 are available with photos and illustrations as full text, for free.
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HEMS CONTESTS AND HUDSON-FULTON NUMBER
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Aeronautics is issued on the 20th of each month. It furnishes the latest and most authoritative information on all matters relating to Aeronautics.
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AERO FORUM AND MARKET PLACE
With this issue is inaugurated a new department called "Exchange."
Progress in Aeronautics would be materially assisted if those interested could and would gather together, discuss their ideas, hold model contests, form clubs and bring organized endeavor and influence to bear on the popularization of this new sport and science and the encouragement of it through education and governmental co-operation. For one thing, strong pressure should be put upon Congress to appropriate ample sums for the carrying on of experiments, and the purchase and operation of airships and flying machines.
With the rapidly increasing realization of what aerial locomotion means, there must be few large cities in America where there are not 20 or 30 enthusiasts... These should get together, and those who are willing to meet others with a view to mutual profit and co-operation are asked to write a post card to "Aeronautics," 1777 Broadway, New York, and we will do our best to put them in touch with others. We would like to see a club in every large city.
We will print in this new department all such requests. If you know of anyone in-
terested, won't you give us his name, and we will do our part.
If you have a suggestion which you think will aid a constructor of a machine, write it out for printing in this mutual aid forum.
If you have a new idea for a flyer, describe it briefly, and send it in. If you have invented a new device, part, attachment or complete machine give us a concise description of it. In this way you may interest capital in your plans.
If you have money to invest in aerial apparatus, let us know it and we will print a note with whatever conditions you may wish to impose. If you do not desire your name used, please so state in your communication.
If you have suggestions as to the part the government ought to take, if you want any information, or have it to give, let "Exchange" be the medium.
The idea in this department is to bring together every force which will make for advancement. We want to make "Exchange" an aeronautical forum and market place.
Let us have your help to keep this of ever-increasing benefit to all.
EDITOR'S NOTE.—All interested in the advancement of aviation have tvclcomed the suit brought by the Wright Brothers, and aviators all over the world should commend the Wrights for taking the initiative towards establishing "the limits to which other inventors may go" zvith respect to their particular patent. Of course, nothing the courts may say will establish any limits beyond those contemplated in the claims of the Wright patent, as the courts have no jurisdiction of anything not covered by said claims in the present suits.
We have asked Mr. Hill, who has made a special study of aero patents, to give his un-
biased vieivs of the legal aspect of the case. This article should not be considered as forecasting the action of the courts, but only as the expression of professional opinion. .Of course, exception zvill undoubtedly be taken to Mr. Hill's statements, as mind is never infallible, but zve zvish it understood that the position of AERONAUTICS, in this instance as in all others, is one of strict impartiality.
The only papers in the suit to zvhich access zvas possible were those in the action brought against The Aeronautic Society, but it is improbable that the other papers in the other suits differ materially.
IHAVE carefully inspected the file wrapper at Washington in the Wright Brothers' case, and also their bill filed in the Unitea States Court for the Southern District of New York in action brought against The Aeronautic Society, and am at a loss to find the motive for such a suit at this time.
It may be laid down as a general principle that it is always advisable for a patentee holding a valid patent to prosecute infringements without undue delay. On the other hand, assuming that his claims may fall down in whole or in part, it would hardly seem good policy to prosecute a suit at an early stage in view of the fact that weaknesses in the patent would thereby become so generally well known as to bring about competition which might otherwise be intimidated under the supposition that the claims are perfectly valid.
The procedure in a suit of this kind usually begins with the filing of a bill by the Plaintiff, an answer by the Defendant, and so on until issue is joined. These pleadings usually contain the opinions of experts in an art and reference to exhibits in further illustration of the contentions set up. Following this, the usual testimony is taken on both sides. The patent itself is only prima facie evidence and its invalidity may be established by the Defendant upon many grounds. In the case in question, many issues of fact remain to be determined from the evidence and the adjudication is subject to appeal to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals.
In the event of a successful issue in this suit for the Wrights, its effect upon the industry is uncertain. In the first place success by the Wrights is somewhat doubtful, as will more fully appear hereinafter; and in the second place, should they be successful, it may be upon grounds which will not insure success to them in a similar subsequent suit.
The. Wrights Brothers' claims, as read and interpreted from the content of their file wrapper, do not cover supplementary surfaces, and it is difficult to understand how supplementary surfaces can be brought within what was intended to be covered by the patent granted to them. .
More particularly with regard to the issues involved in the present suit, the claim has been based upon United States Letters Patent numbered 821,393, dated May 22, 1906. It appears that the application upon which this patent was granted was filed March 23, 1903, by Orville and Wilbur Wright as individuals, having retained no attorney at that time. The application does not seem to have been received very kindly by the examiner in charge of the case, who rejected all the numerous claims upon the following patents:
220,473, Greenough, Oct. 14, 1879. 397,647, Holmes, Feb. 12, 1889. 542,100, De Los Olivos, July 2, 1895. 606,187, .Butusov, June 28, 1898. 133,046, McDermott, Nov. 12, 1872, and German patent 84,949, to Rentzsch.
A quotation from the examiner's action reads as follows:
"The claims are furthermore all rejected as based upon a device that is inoperative or incapable of performing its intended function. The examiner is unable to understand how the machine is supposed to operate."
In a letter from the Wright Bros, dated May 4, 1903, in response to the above action, on page 2 thereof, the following statement (which is quoted therefrom) seems indicative of the scope and limit of the invention as understood by the Wright Bros, more than six years ago.
STATUS OF THE WRIGHTS' SUIT
By Thomas A. Hill
"The tivist is in the surface itself, and has no reference to a variation in the angular inclination of a plane to a car or body suspended beneath it."
In the second action by the Government Examiner, dated July 14, 1903, the case was again rejected as inoperative and on the grounds previously stated, and the Wright Bros, were advised to get an attorney.
On February 16, 1904, counsel appeared on behalf of the Wright Bros, by filing a Power of Attorney, and on July 14, 1904, filed an amendment on behalf of the Wright Bros, in which it was particularly set forth that the structure had been successfully used as a soaring and as a flying machine for several months.. The argument of counsel in this amendment is particularly interesting at this time. It is as follows:
"In other words, the lateral balance of the machine is controlled by this twisting of the ends thereof as contradistinguished from the method usually employed of shifting a zveight for this purpose. The Greenough patent, and others of that type cited, employ a rigid plane which tilts as a zvhole, none of them being provided zuith means for controlling the angular position of the lateral margins so as to present them to the wind at different angles. This is the main feature of applicants' invention, and as a means for attaining this end, the further feature of connecting the planes by uprights, of zvhich the end ones at least are connected to both planes by flexible joints, is employed."
In the next action of the government, dated Nov. 8, 1904, the following additional patents were cited against the Wright Bros.' application.
338,173, Jongewaard, March 16, 1896.
728,844, Boswell, May 26, 1903.
And British patent to Moy, 15,221, dated June 25, 1897.
This action contains suggestions from the examiner as to phrasing for claims in the Wright Bros.' patent.
On January 13, 1905, an entire new set of claims, following the suggestions of the examiner, were incorporated in the case, and the claims were generally restricted to the bending or warping of the plane.
The next government action bearing date May 9, 1905, does not show much progress. The examiner said:
"On reconsideration of this case with the substitute claims in view, it is found that the ambiguities, inaccuracies and imperfections of the specification, drawing and claims (some of which have already been noted) are such as to preclude intelligent action upon the merits of the claims until the defects in question have been remedied."
The next amendment was entered on behalf of the Wright Bros, as of August 17, 1905, and contained entire new drawings, substituting three sheets for the original one sheet of drawings and substituting new specification and claims. In the meantime counsel for the
Wright Bros, had had a personal interview with the examiner upon the case.
In the next action of the government dated Dec. 2, 1905, objections as to new matter and wrong description in the new specification were alleged and further suggestions by the examiner were offered. The case was then further amended on December 6, 1905, with explanation, and on January 26, 1906, the examiner further objected to the condition of the application. Finally, on April 13, a final amendment complying fully with the examiner's requirements was filed, and the case was formally allowed on April 21, 1906.
The above data is limited to the first patent obtained by the Wrights in the United States, the only other patent in this country obtained by them is numbered 908,929, dated January 5, 1909, and has no reference whatever to the present suit.
In the patent of the Wrights upon which suit has been entered against The Aeronautic Society, the claims are based upon the movement of the marginal portions of a normally flat aeroplane about an axis transverse to the line of flight or upon an axis perpendicular to said lateral margins, or to different angular relations to the normal plane of the body of the aeroplane. These different forms of expressing the flexing movement substantially establish the limitations of the eighteen claims in the Wright Bros.' patent referred to, except claims 12, 13 and 16, the claims 12 and 13 having reference to a flexible rudder as an element independent of the main planes of the aeroplane, and claim 16 having special reference to the rearwardly extending arms free to swing upward at their rear ends.
There is nothing in the Wright patent contained to warrant the inference that they at any time intended to use supplemental surfaces for accomplishing substantially what they accomplish by warping, flexing, bending, twisting or otherwise distorting the lateral margins of their main planes. From an inspection of the Curtiss machine, it will be seen that it is quite impossible to flex, warp or otherwise bend or move the main planes and that a similar effect to that produced thereby is obtained in the Curtiss machine by supplemental or auxiliary surfaces, planes or rudders, which are pivot-ally mounted and at all times under the control of the operator. It must be clear from the arguments of the Wrights and their counsel in prosecuting their claim for the patent, that it was clearly not their intention to "employ a rigid plane which tilts as a whole." This is precisely what Curtiss has done. Indeed, the Wrights could not have claimed such construction, as it is well known in the art, and if Curtiss has at any time attempted to obtain a patent on such construction, this fact has long since been well known to him. It must be clear that what the Wrights did apply for and were granted were claims limited to the distortion of the lateral margins of the main
(Continued on page 164)
IMPORTANT CONTESTS PROMISED IN ST. LOUIS EVENTS, OCT. 7, 8 C& 9
Although the money prizes offered to winners in the aerial contests to be held by the Aero Club of St. Louis, October 4, 8 and 9, on the occasion of the celebration of the Centennial of the founding of St. Louis, do not compare with the large amounts offered abroad for similar events, a large number of aeronauts and aviators will take part. The Contest Committee has supplemented the prizes by offering cash for the appearance the day of the aeroplane contests, of Curtiss, Bleriot's machine, Delagrange and other successful aviators.
The success of the balloon races is assured by eleven aerostats, nearly all of which have been definitely entered; three of these are small balloons to compete in the event for 40,000 cubic footers, the same afternoon as the race for full-sized balloons.
EIGHT PROBABLE STARTERS.
The tentative list for the big race, to which others may be added, follows :*
Aero Club of America—"New York," entered by Clifford B. Harmon; pilot not named.
Aero Club of Indiana—"Indiana." entered by Carl Fisher; G. L. Bumbaugh, pilot; "Hoosier," entered by Aero Club of Indiana; pilot not named.
Aero Club of St. Louis—"St. Louis No. 3," Albert Bond Lambert, pilot; "Centennial," H. Eugene Honeywell, pilot; balloon not named, John Henry, pilot.
Aero Club of Ohio—"Ohio," Charles Walsh, pilot.
Aero Club of Milwaukee—"Milwaukee," pilot not named.
SIX DIRIGIBLES ENTERED.
Six dirigibles have been entered in the contest to be held October 8, and of these three are positively expected to appear: namely, Thomas Scott Baldwin in his new airship; Roy Knabenshue in his new airship, now nearly completed at Toledo; Lincoln Beachey in his Californian machine. The others who may not be definitely counted on as yet are the 110,000 cu. ft. airship being built by G. L. Bumbaugh at Indianapolis for Carl G. Fisher; the W. J. Smith airship, "East St. Louis," of 25,000 cu. ft. capacity; the "American Eagle," of John Riggs, Hot Springs, Ark., the envelope for which has been delivered to the inventor by Leo Stevens.
Two St. Louisians are expecting to get their aeroplanes in the contest, although neither of the machines had been in the air as late as September 10. One is H. A. Robinson, with the Bleriot-type monoplane; the other Frederick Kubno. with a Farman style biplane. It is probable that a few others now unknown, will come forward at the last minute.
There will be at least .one. though probably
more, well-known successful aviators in the events, October 9. If Curtiss cannot appear, Willard probably will; besides, Delagrange is expected by some members of the committee.
ST. LOUIS HAS SIX PILOTS.
The Aero Club of St. Louis has leased a large tract of land adjoining its permanent ascensions grounds, and the fence has been extended to embrace the new tract. It doubles the former size of the grounds and gives ample room for sphericals and dirigibles. A small grand stand of 3,100 people capacity has been built for the use of club members and invited guests. There will be no admission fees. Store rooms and temporary hangers are to be arranged for contestants' use. Thomas Scott Baldwin will make the hydrogen gas for dirigibles at the expense of the club.
In the race for small balloons the new Air Craft Club of Peoria has entered the 38,000 cu. ft. "Peoria," and the Aero Club of St. Louis, the "Dauntless" and the "Missouri." Other entries are expected to bring the total number up to five or six starters. These with eight balloons in the big race would make a total of 14 balloons inflated on the ground at the same time. There is ample provision for this. A 16-in. gas main is now on the club grounds, and it requires only about 40 minutes to inflate a 78,000 cu. ft. aerostat. At present there are only three connections from the main, but as many as needed will be provided in time for the race.
Because a number of the clubs which wish to enter balloons have no available pilots, the Aero Club of St., Louis will furnish the men as far as possible. The club will, by the time this issue of Aeronautics is published, have six licensed pilots, as follows: Albert Bond Lambert, H. Eugene Honeywell, John Berry, S. Louis Von Phul, James W. Bemis, Harlow B. Spencer.
TO REACH GROUNDS.
The ascension grounds of the Aero Club of St. Louis, where the balloon and dirigible events will be held, is between Taylor and Newstead avenues, with frontage on Chouteau avenue and Papin street. Cars, known as the Taylor line, run north and south on Euclid avenue, which is one block north of Taylor. Other surface cars run east and west on Chouteau avenue, .past the grounds. These cars, marked "Chouteau" and "Market," can be boarded as far downtown as Fourth street. All other lines, north of the railroad tracks which divide the city, connect by transfer with the Taylor line.
It is planned to start the aeroplane contests from what is known as Art Hill, in that part of Forest Park which was used for the World's Fair grounds, but has since been re-parked.
BALLOON RACE THAT WOKE A CITY
By E. Percy Noel.
ON the evening of August 18 the citizens of Peoria, 111., who passed by a small open tract of land on the water front, saw three white cloths laid out close together and along the edge of each, rows of white canvas bags filled with sand. As dusk came on something round with a netting spread over it was seen. Somebody said "Those are the balloons." "Huh," returned another; "think they'll go up?" "Big fake!" was the rejoinder, with a laugh.
The next afternoon these deflated envelopes of the night before stood plump and taut, snugly held close to earth by encircling ballast bags from the lowest loops of the nettings. The levee was lined with 50,000 persons, who had earlier in the day been watching fast motor
Afterwards I tried to get their point of view. To do so I had to imagine that I had never seen a gas balloon, and I couldn't quite manage it. The trouble with that great crowd which could not believe in balloons as easily as they might in fairies was, not one out of 1,000 had ever seen a gas balloon before.
The Aero Club of St. Louis united with the Air Craft Club of Peoria, which at that time consisted chiefly of Eugene Brown, and showed them. Now Peoria is glad, and, I am told, wants more ballooning. All of three of the balloons came from St. Louis, and H. Honey-
EUGE/fE BKPWA #9 vT.B.LAMBERT ShST* ' VV ' " '
LAMBERT & "BEMS
boats on the river. They looked at the balloons in much the same way that a casual spectator might have looked at a "flying machine" twenty years ago. The majority of the people expected to see "professors" in tights appear on the scene to ride the balloons skyward. The others had an idea that these balloons before them were some new kind of "airship" and had their very frank doubts about their being able to ascend from the ground.
I know, because I walked through the crowd and I caught such snatches of conversation as, "They can't get 'em off the ground." Mothers made their children behave with a new bugaboo—"I'll put you in the balloon and they'll take you up," but they themselves did not believe the balloon was reasonably sure of getting off the ground. You might understand such an attitude the night before the balloons had been systematically inflated and made ready, but up to the very moment of the first start it seemed incredible.
well, the builder to whom credit is due. inflated them and got them away without a hitch of any kind. "Beautifully done," was the opinion of all present who knew anything about ballooning. /r\
The starters were the "P^opia," of 35,000 ft., which proved the winner—a new balloon bought by the Air Craft Club of Peoria and piloted by H. Eugene Honeywell with George E. Smith, the first Peorian to make an ascension, as aid. The "Missouri," of 40,000 ft., was piloted by Albert Bond Lambert of the Aero Club of St. Louis, with James W. Bemis, also of the St. Louis Club, as aid. In the "Illinois"—the "Dauntless," renamed—35,000 ft., were S. Louis Von Phul, who had just been granted his license by the Aero Club of St. Louis, and Harlow B. Spencer, another St. Louis club member.
The "Illinois" is a heavy balloon and the occupants of the basket were heavy. The result was that the mixed gas provided would
not lift more than one and one-half sacks of ballast besides the complete craft and aeronauts. Of course, the balloon was out of the race from the start. It landed nine miles from the starting point after 35 minutes in the air.
But "Peoria" and "Missouri" gave a good race. Of only 35,000 ft. capacity respectively, these aerostats carried their teams through the night and into the next day, making runs that set new official records for balloons of less than 40,000 ft. The winning "PA>ria" travelled 230 miles, landing seven miles south of Dixon, Mo., at 11.15 a. m. on the second day, after 17 hours 5 minutes aloft. The "Missouri" accomplished 165 miles, landing near Ma^rssa, 111., at 10.15, after 16 hours 5a minutes in the air; and the "Illinois" at GroAWhnd, 111.
But to return to the incredurous fifty thousand massed on the Peoria levee, within a few blocks of the center of the principal business district. They saw the basket hooked on to the deep yellow colored envelope of the "Missouri"; saw Albert Bond Lambert and James W. Bemis, with the expensive Richard instruments hanging from the ring and rigging, ready in the basket. But did many of the fifty thousand believe then that for these men it was a simple matter, that there was really not the shadow of a doubt about their aerostat being a safe and stable craft? I think not.
When Mr. Lambert, who had calculated his ballast to a nicety, weighed in very quick time, he sailed away heavy, as is his practice, and headed southeast to cross the Illinois River. The crowd was deadly still. There was not even an "Ah" to relieve the quiet. Suddenly Mr. Bemis, who had been very busy with a hand camera, flung out his arm and gave a good American yell that sent an echo of triumph along the valley. For the echo was the answering roar of the multitude.
When over the Illinois River Lambert threw over his 300-ft. drag rope. The crowd cheered again as the big ball unwound and let the rope out to its full length. The wind was blowing at about six miles an hour on the ground, and for a time the "Missouri" appeared almost motionless. Then ballast could be seen going overboard, and soon the aerostat rose to an altitude of perhaps 2,000 ft., where a better air current was caught that took the envelope out of sight in a little more than half an hour.
CROWD SPOILS VON PHUL'S START.
Von Phul experienced difficulty in getting away because the crowd, unkept by the police, massed about the basket, rendering weighing a difficult process. He tried several times to get away with more than four sacks of ballast, but was finally unsuccessful—it was all he could carry. This was because the balloon he used was the old Dauntless, several times varnished and originally a heavy-fabric balloon. Besides,
he and his aid, Spencer, were the heaviest pair in the race. He started several hundred feet from the ground cloth, the open space on the levee, one solid mass of struggling people. The balloon was carried by the wind close to the ground for several hundred feet, Von Phul discarding ballast. Finally she lifted and sailed free, following course a few points nearer due south than the "Missouri." When beyond the river Von Phul let out his drag rope, and when it had unrolled it appeared to be not more than a hundred feet from the ground.
Before Honeywell got the "Peoria" ready to start, the "Illinois" dipped out of sight beyond a clump of tree in the distance. The "Missouri" could then be fairly seen, a dim speck in the distance. Honeywell had superintended the hooking up of the balloon of his two competitors, while the "Peoria." which he was to pilot, was still close to the ground, with the ballast bags on the end of the netting.
VON PHUL LANDS AT GROVELAND.
In half an hour after the Illinois started he slid the ballast bags down to the foot ropes, hooked up and got away in spite of the fact that at the last moment it was discovered that his valve cord was fouled. This made it necessary to pull the envelope down by the foot ropes so that Honeywell could reach into the appendix and straighten the .cord. Honeywell weighed promptly by putting on, instead of taking off, the ballast, and seemed surprised at the lifting power of the gas. To avoid the crowd, he allowed the balloon to get away "light," so that it rose straight into the air and did not attain equilibrium before it had reached an altitude of some 1,800 ft. It followed the course of the two that started first, with fourteen sacks of ballast aboard.
CROSSED OZARK CREST.
The Peoria crossed a crest of the Ozark range at an altitude of 6,000 ft. and landed five miles beyond, in a field on the farm of John Riddle. The balloon was deflated near the banks of the Gasconade River. So sequestered was the spot that it was twenty minutes before the farmers, who had been following the balloon as best they could, through the hills, reached it. After much delay a farm wagon was procured and the deflated envelope, basket and aeronauts went up to the hill to Dixon. They did not arrive there until 6 o'clock last night.
The voyage of the Peoria establishes a new record for the West, and probably for America. Never before has a balloon of 35,000 or 40,000 cu. ft. capacity traveled so far. The record is only forty-seven miles behind the distance made by John Berry and Paul McCullough, when they won the national balloon race from Indianapolis last June in the University City. The Peoria is 8,000 ft. less than half the capacity of the victorious balloon in the national race.
After landing Honeywell stated that he could have kept the balloon up longer, but the appearance of the rugged country ahead made him seek the first landing place. Whether or not he believed that he had Won the race before he landed he did not say, but was content to take what distance he and his aid had been able to make rather than to get farther from the railroad in the rough Ozark country. No map was carried in the balloon, and the aeronauts did not know where they had landed, or what the prospects were farther along than they could see at their high altitude. Each aeronaut slept an hour on the voyage. Smith had never been in a balloon before, but he kept watch successfully while Honeywell got his rest.
Both Honeywell and Lambert traveled a fairly straight course, somewhat southwest at an average speed of about 15 miles an hour. The Peoria crossed the Mississippi River at Louisiana, Mo. At 4.30 a. m. it went over the Missouri River at Morrison.
The Missouri was reported at about 9 a. m. at Coulterville, 111., and at 9.20 a. m. at Til-den, 111., through a message dropped by Lambert and Bemis. This indicates that the balloon had begun to travel north when Lambert landed at Marissa. Lambert said that he had only one sack of ballast left before he came down.
PEORIA CLUB NOT LONG FORMED.
The Aircraft Club of Peoria, under whose auspices the race was held, is a new organization with a small membership. The active head of it is Eugene Brown, who made arrangements with Honeywell to get together three balloons for a race from Peoria. Brown also sought the assistance of the Aero Club
of St. Louis, through its honorary member, Lambert. Brown agreed to purchase, on his responsibility, a new 35,000 cu. ft. balloon from Honeywell, to be named the Peoria, though confident the Aircraft Club would afterward purchase it. The Peoria Club supplied the gas and facilities for inflation, and Honeywell and the Aero Club of St. Louis provided two other balloons and three licensed pilots, and obtained the sanction of the Aero Club of America. The Peoria Club offered a trophy to the pilot making the greatest distance.
Honeywell did not receive the definite order for the balloon "Peoria" until scarcely two weeks. He carries balloon cloth in stock, ready for hurry orders, and so was able to build the balloon and deliver it at Peoria in time for the race. But to do so he found it necessary to work day and night at his Cottage Avenue workshop. The basket was ready first and arrived at Peoria Monday. The envelope and netting, with the Aalve and appendix holder, was not finished until Tuesday, when it was promptly shipped to the Peoria Club. To hurry the work the fabric was dried in the sun after being varnished, which made it a slightly darker color than the "Missouri," which was dried in a cool, dry cellar, but equally efficient. All three balloons in the race were made by Honeywell in his own shop. Honeywell superintended the inflation of each at Peoria, beginning the night before the race, and it was accomplished without incident.
Honeywell got the cup offered by the Brown, Page and Plillman Co. It measured 33 in. in height, decorated with the wings and wheels indicative of the new mode of flight, the aeroplane, valued at $250. Peoria is very enthusiastic on the subject of aeronautics.
cABRO SHOW DURING HUDSON-FULTON
An aeronautic exposition will be held in Madison Square Garden, New York, from September 25 to October 2, during the period of the Hudson-Fulton celebration, when thousands of tourists and visitors will be in the city.
During the Hudson-Fulton celebration there will be held in and about this city flying-machine demonstrations, balloon and airship ascensions and world-famed men like Wright and Curtiss will give public exhibitions.
The show is expected to he a rendezvous of the student and lover of aeronautics, to stimulate the interest therein, encourage inventors and experimenters, bring together those working in the various fields of aeronautic endeavor, interest capital in construction work and en able those who have perfected machines and appliances to market their product.
There are promised exhibits of full-sized and
famous machines, airships, flying machines, bal loons, kites, gliders, wmdwagons, engines, models, plans, etc. This will unquestionably be a splendid opportunity for inventors to show what they possess and to see what others are doing. Ample space is allotted and there will be no charge for space in this show. Exhibitors will also be furnished with season tickets without charge. Trade exhibitors, approved of by the directors, can have space for demonstration and sale of goods without restriction.
The Gordon Bennett cup, just won by Cur tiss, has been promised by the Aero Club of America, and a Curtiss biplane will be the star attraction.
For information, address Alfred Chasseaud, 1 Madison Ave., New York,
LATERAL AUTOMATIC STABILITY DEVICE
By Dr. H. W. Walden
LONG has the pendulum principle been considered as the possible, most probable and simplest agent for the solution of a lateral balance device for aeroplanes. Many-ingenious designs have been patented by inventors who proposed the use of an extra weight in addition to the weight of the machine; while others employed the operator's seat, or the radiator, the wheels, the chassis or a gyroscope to act as the suspended body of a pendulum.
In trying to solve the balancing problem, I
or suitable transmissions may be used to a single propeller for a single propeller machine (G) as well as to the two propellers for a double propeller machine.
The motor will hang in a vertical line with or without a load, or overload, on the propeller, as has been proven by my experiments at Morris Park. Any diversity from the horizontal of the machine will cause the weight of the motor to bring in action suitable stabilizing surfaces which will immediately bring the aeroplane to the horizontal position. The
concluded that the pendulum stabilizing idea should be right were it not to add an objectionable extra weight or complicate the structure to the impractical. Therefore, I resolved to use the motor itself as a pendulum, and have reached surprisingly splendid results.
The motor (M) is suspended from its own shaft (A), with ball bearings, D, D1 and D2 separating rods E and E1 on the second shaft B. Shafts A and B are parallel. On shaft B the propeller may be directly attached (F)
gyroscopic action of the flywheel and the heavy weight of the motor may allow us to consider this thus obtained pendulum as a fixed point around which the planes are swung; not as a pendulum suspended from fixed planes with undesirable oscillating movements that would tend to unstabilize rather than stabilize the machine laterally. Remarkable also is the total absence of vibrations on the machine itself due to this mechanical balancing arrangement.
*Patents applied for.
CONTINUING this series of helpful notes, contained in the April, June, August and September numbers, there will be found on this page some valuable points in the building of the aeroplane.
Fig. i shows two cross-section views of the method of laying out a propeller. Layers of white pine or spruce may be used, or spruce and ash can he alternated.
ness, then varnish with shellac, rub down again and reshellac with a very thin coat. Some have covered the blades with strong linen after the first glue coat, with then a second coat of glue, after which the propeller was rubbed down and painted with zinc white. The cloth will aid in retaining original shape.
In Fig. 2 a method of attaching horizon al beams and vertical struts is shown, with guy
After having figured out the desired pitch and the angles at various points along the blade, with these records, a drawing and gauges at hand, the strips are coated with hot glue, placed in position and held by clamps till dry. Then the draw-knife comes into play to shape the blades, closely following the pattern and incessantly gauging.
When shaped, cover with a solution of hot glue, rubbing it well into the grain. When thoroughly dry, sandpaper to glass-like smooth-
wire plate. The latter is of steel, inserted as shown. Holes are drilled to take the bicycle spoke nipples which fasten in turn to the guy wires themselves. An ordinary wood screw is beheaded and a thread cut to take a nut.
In our British contemporary, Flight, arc given some schemes for fastenings, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The Howard-Wright biplane, in which tubes arc employed throughout, has (.Continued on jiage I OS'
THE SELLERS STEP AEROPLANE
MB. SELLERS, whose article on his step glider appeared in the June number of * Aeronautics, has been making some power flights.
Following is a detailed description of the apparatus used as a glider:
DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE.
Fig. 3 is a sectional side elevation of the apparatus used as a glider. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 show the devices by which one secures a regulation or control of the machine. Fig. 7 is a
this: and also offers facility for the application of the regulating device to be described.
When a sudden gust strikes a compound aeroplane or when its speed is accelerated, it tends to tip up in front; and this tendency can be overcome by moving the center of gravity forward; or by diminishing the angle of incident of the planes, and especially the forward plane or planes. Mr. Sellers' method of increasing stability is to construct the planes or wings so they are held in their normal posi-
perspective view. Fig. 8 is a detail view illustrating the means connecting the spars and for securing the cover of the wing. Fig. 9 shows the coupling bar used to connect the wires. Fig. 10 is a detail sectional view of the casing. Fig. 11 is a detail view of the knee block used to connect the spars when the wings are placed at a dihedral angle.
The object of the invention is to produce a better arrangement of surfaces and framing; better stability, and control. In this invention the surfaces are arranged in steps, the highest surface being in front. This1 arrangement of the surfaces, it is claimed, gives greater efficiency than any other, but it is difficult to devise a frame for this particular grouping of surfaces, which shall be light, sufficiently strong and rigid; and have small wind resistance. This invention accomplishes
tion till the pressure on them exceeds a predetermined amount, when they tip up. Their action being independent, any one wing which receives an excess of pressure will tip up; and where there is no excess of pressure there will be no change. Furthermore, when desired, the operator may depress the rear of a wing by pulling on a cord or by some other well known device.
In the form of the device here shown are four aeroplanes, each consisting of two so-called wings, joined at the center by suitable couplings. Each wing, Fig. 8, is arched from front to rear and comprises two spars T and T\ and a covering U having transverse ribs U' fastened thereto, the covering having pockets U= into which the spars are slid in erecting the wing as here shown. The ribs are held in a bowed form by span wires.
These four wings are supported by four transverse inclined struts which are suitably fastened to the front ribs of the respective wings where they cross said ribs. The rear spars T', form no part of the framework but are free except as supported by the devices K, L, M, N. The frame formed by the spars T and struts E, etc., is braced by the diagonal tie wires, and is supported in an inclined position by the posts F, F, and the base rails G, G. Stay wires R, R, connect the juncture of parts Q and G with the six lower spars T at points near the crossing of the struts E, E', etc. The fin in the rear is not absolutely necessary for all operations of the machine, but it is very convenient with a gliding machine, prevents sheering, and makes the machine face the relative wind. Of course it is stayed by wires. In fastening the various wires to their staples the hooked coupling rod, shown in Fig. 9, is used. In this construction of coupling rod, it will be noticed the coupling rod is bent between its ends forming an eye and having a shank beyond on the said eye, and a line wire is extended around the shank and through the eye and around the same and then wound around the shank toward the extremity thereof and twisted at the said extremity of the shank around the line wire and thence twisted back around the shank and wire and passed through the loop or eye and around the same.
A greater or less number of surfaces can be used. In the power driven machine a movable rudder of any suitable well known design may be added. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 show different forms of the regulating device. That shown in Fig. 5 is preferably used on the upper wings. A guide bar 1 projecting down from the lower end of the rod K slides freely in the loops 2 on the strut E. The upper end of the rod K has a concentric bore, and a slot at 3 intersecting said bore, and the rod 4 slides at the lower end freely in the bore; but its motion is limited by the lateral bend 8 at its lower end. The upper end of rod 4 is suitably fastened to the spar T' and it is forced out to its limit and held there by the spring 5. The spring 6 ex-
tending from the upper end of the rod K, to the strut E resists the lift of the wing and holds the rod K down against the loop 2. When, how ever, the pressure on the wing exceeds the tension at which the spring is adjusted, the spring yields and the wing is allowed to tip up thus diminishing the angle of incident automatically. Furthermore, a cord 7 (see Fig. 3) is attached to the spar T, and is led in any suitable manner to a point convenient to the operator and attached to_any ^suitable leyeji or _hand]e; in the" drawing it is shown attached to a ring; it must however, be slack. When the operator desires he may depress the wing or portion thereof by pulling on this cord. It will be seen that here the automatic and the voluntary regulation are independent, or rather do not interfere with each other. Fig. 6 shows the same device as Fig. 5 except that the "voluntary regulation" is omitted and the spring 6 is attached directly to the spar T'.
Fig. 4 shows another form of the regulating device used on this machine. The fork L straddles the strut E and is fastened at its upper end to the spar T'. The springs 11 and 12 hold the fork and the wing in the desired position and the auxiliary spring 6, Fig. 3, together with the spring 12 resists the lift of the wing. This device, while accomplishing the same result as the one before described, does it in a different manner; and it is used on this machine, and is here described, because it has been found peculiarly applicable to the lower wings ; while the other device was found more suitable for the upper wings.
It will be seen that as the curvature of the wing is maintained by the span wires X, this yielding or tipping does not change the curvature but only the angle at which the wind strikes the wing, and in this sense the wing may be said to be practically rigid. The automatic regulation may be applied to any, or all of the wings as desired: also the voluntary regulation ; and where the regulating device is not used, the wing is supported by a post or stay.
THE WRIGHT BROTHERS
Little caring for the mad world's cry and hue,
They toiled in quiet, patiently and sure
they wrought, As building cautious on each lesson taught By failure, or by what their plans proved
Little heeding that which others thought they knew, Step by step they proved what step by
step they thought, With each success one nearer what they sought,
Until at length their triumph came—they flew.
Ah! master men are they who quiet dare The task which by the world is marked
with scorn, Who reap at first but wormwood and the
Vet patient, self-possessed, they toil with care,
Their eyes fixed on success's glorious morn.
"God grant us more such men!" should be our prayer. MERYL DUXKLE.
WASHINGTON wants the next International aviation meet and the members . of the Washington Aero Club are sparing no efforts to that end. The business men have given assurances that the money required to obtain the meet will be forthcoming and the question of a suitable aerodrome where a 10 kilometer course could be laid out has been carefully gone into. The result is that it has been found that Washington's surrounding country offers several excellent flying grounds.
The principal argument advanced by the Washington enthusiasts in favor of Washington for the next contest, is that the government is most interested in the present status of aviatio.i and that by selecting the national capital, the Aero Club of America could not be accused of showing any discrimination. Certain members of the Washington club, who hold membership in the Aero Club of America, strongly oppose the holding of the international meet in New York, contending the parent organization would show very bad taste in appropriating to itself the first opportunity that has come to this country to have the international aviation contests.
The success of the contests at Rheims have had a decided effect upon the military experts who have made a study of the application of aeronautics and aviation to military uses. A year ago it was held that the dirigible balloon would prove of greater value in time of war than an aeroplane, but with the stability of the aeroplane demonstrated as it has been, this view has been changed so that the aeroplane is looked upon with greater favor than the lighter-than-air type.
The work of the motor-balloons here and abroad during the past summer have shown that this class cannot be depended upon except under the most favorable conditions. There have been a number of accidents^ even to some of the large foreign air-ships, and these experiences, when compared with the splendid record which marks the more general use of the aeroplane, have mitigated against the lighter-than-air eraft.
The principal advantages of the aeroplane, according to the Signal Corps officers who have devoted themselves to the study of the question, are that the heavier-than-air machine can fly closer to the ground and therefore distinguish objects better, and that the aeroplane is less vulnerable as a target than a dirigible, being capable of greater speed and having less exposed surface.
Emile Berliner, who is having a powerful rotary motor along the lines of the Adams-Farwell engine built at his laboratory here for use on the Williams-Berliner helicopter, is also working on an aerial torpedo. This new engine of destruction is built along the lines of
an aeroplane, and is to have a gyroscopic attachment that will aid in giving it direction.
The use of the College Park field is to be extended to private experimenters, according to Gen. Allen's plans. There are a number of local inventors who intend availing themselves of this facility. Sheds will have to be erected by those who intend to use the field for their private experiments.
J. H. Smidley, who has an ingenious monoplane, is ready to give his machine a trial almost any day. He has it at the Bennings race track. It weighs 225 pounds, and is equipped with an eighteen horse-power motor. The appearance of the machine is very promising, the method of control having many features to commend it.
Harry A. Orme, another local inventor, has a bi-plane which he hopes to try out in a short time. It is equipped with a Belgian motor and has a number of original features.
Samuel Luttrell, a local automobile enthusiast, has built a biplane which he is said to have tried out at Rockville, Md. So far he has given no public demonstration of his machine, and it is inferred that his tests developed the necessity for making a number of changes in its construction.
Lieut. Commander Geo. O. Sweet, of the Navy, who is in charge of the Bureau of Equipment, is looking after the interests of that branch of the service in aeronautics. Last year Lieut. Sweet drew up specifications for a machine to be used by the Navy. He conferred with Orville Wright before drawing up the plans. Victor Metcalf, who was then Secretary of the Navy, refused to approve Sweet's plan to purchase an aeroplane, although it is understood that the appropriation made for experimental equipment, and which is disbursed by the Bureau of Equipment, would have provided the funds necessary for the purchase of the aeroplane.
There is still a possibility of the Navy taking up aviation, but no action will be taken until the return of Secretary Meyer. He is understood to be in favor of action in the new field being taken by the Navy. It is probable that Lieut. Sweet will go to Hammondsport when Glenn Curtiss returns from abroad, and that he will witness further experiments with the "June Bug," with which Curtiss made a number of experiments in rising from the surface of the water. It is said that an aeroplane can easily be launched from the deck of a moving vessel without any other initial momentum.
WASHINGTON FOR BENNETT MEET
By Our Washington Correspondent
WHILE the estimates which the War Department has submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury for the appropriation needed for the next fiscal year do not include any provision for additional airships for the army, there is little doubt that a small sum will be included before the estimates are sent to Congress in December.
The Signal Corps still has about $25,000 available for aeronautical work, but with the rapid strides being made abroad, there is a feeling in army circles that something must be done by the Signal Corps which will insure for the army a greater aerial navy. It is possible that one of the first steps in this direction will be the equipment of the new aviation grounds at College Park, Md., with a complete experimental laboratory and testing apparati for the use of the aeronautical division.
A comprehensive, plan for an aerodrome and a complete experimental plant was proposed by Lieut. Selfridge just prior to the unfortunate accident at Fort Myer which resulted in his death. His plan was to conduct thorough tests of motors, propellers and the various materials which enter into the construction of an aeroplane as well as the materials from which balloons are made.
order that the Signal Corps officers may continue their work throughout the years.
By the time the use of the Wright aeroplane has become established in the army, the Chief Signal Officer will have received reports from the various military attaches of the United States in Europe regarding the progress and the events in aviation in the foreign nations. Together with the report which Lieut. Foulois will make after his return from the aeronautical congress in Nancy, the observations of the military experts will be used to determine the future course of the Signal Corps with regard to the development of an aerial navy for the army.
It is General Allen's intention to issue speci fications for an aeroplane later in the year, after the results of the various aviation events have been carefully studied. The requirements for the new aeroplane will be more severe than were those for the Wright machine. They probably will exact that the machine carry a small gun in addition to two passengers. Another requirement to which'particular attention is to be paid is that of the motor. Recognizing that the motor is the most important part of a heavier-than-air machine, the Signal Corps officers are devoting considerable attention to that feature.
There is a strong possibility that the instruction flights which were scheduled to take place early this month at College Park, Md., in which Lieut. Frank P. Lahm and Lieut. Benjamin D. Foulois were to acquire the art of flying the Wright aeroplane, will not take place until early in the Spring. This possibility is largely due to the length of time consumed in arranging for the leasing of the grounds, and then because of the time consumed in clearing the grounds of obstructions and building the shed for housing the aeroplane.
Wilbur Wright, who had determined to teach the officers, is to fly in New York during the Hudson-Fulton celebration, and it is therefore doubtful whether he will be able to take up the training of the officers until October. By that time it is feared that the weather in the vicinity of Washington will not afford much opportunity for the training of the officers. Gen. Allen, the chief signal officer, may, in this case, obtain suitable training grounds somewhere in the South. He has already announced his intention of having a permanent aerodrome in ore of the Southern states in
Lieutenants Bamberger, Winter and Dickinson have gone from Fort Omaha to Des Moines, Iowa, with Dirigible No. 1, which is to be operated there during the military tournament September 20-25, and it is possible that Lieut. Lahm may be sent out for that week.
Lieut. Benjamin D. Foulois, Signal Corps, leaves to-day for the Aeronautical Conference at Nancy, France, where he goes as the official representative of the War Department.
Four men from Fort Omaha, Nebraska, have been added to the Aeronautical Detachment at Fort Myer. The Aeronautical Detachment at Fort Myer is now receiving theoretical and practical instruction in aeronautics daily.
A tract of land containing 160 acres has been leased at College Park, Maryland. A contract was awarded on September 7 for the construction of a house on these grounds for an aeroplane. The aeroplane. Aeronautical Detachment and officers who are to receive instruction in operating the machine, will be sent to College Park as soon as the preparations there are complete.
THE success of the Pacific Aero Club's Show just held was beyond our expectations. Moving pictures and lectures added to the interest that the machines and models aroused. President J. C. Irvine, in an address told of the Club's formation and its aims to popularize the science and sport of aeronautics. Mr. Jos. Hasten, the treasurer of the Club, gave an excellent description of a balloon trip he had recently taken. The trip and experiences were vividly portrayed by pictures thrown on a screen. Moving pictures of the Wrights' and other well known machines were given with explanations by Vice-president Chas. Bradley.
The following were some of the exhibits: The balloon "Fairy," 10,000 ft., the smallest man-carrying in this country, weighing 64 pounds, belonging to Mr. A. C. Pillsbury of the Pacific Aero Club and a panoramic aeronautic camera specially constructed by Mr. Pillsbury to use with his balloon. Mr. J. Z. Pozadas, Jr., exhibited a full sized aeroplane in the last stages of completion, lie expects to make trial flights very shortly. Capt. P. A. Van Tassell exhibited a pilot balloon. Messrs. Angus Beecher and Carl Wolf exhibited several large-sized kites for photographic work and lantern slides of their triplane glider were thrown on the screen. Mr. Cleve T. Shaffer exhibited his large aeroplane equipped for the show with only a 6 h. p. motor. Models were well represented, prominent among which might be mentioned those of Prof. J. Hidalgo, Mr. Chas. C. Bradley, Mr. Alfred Binritz and A. C. Watkins. Messrs. Zimmerlin Bros, exhibited a 14 h. p. Peugeot motor, weighing 64 pounds.
ACTIVITY IN AVIATION.
Prof. H. La V. Twining, president of the Aero Club of California, has completed his ornithopter No. 2. The machine weighs 100 pounds, has a spread of 26 ft. from tip to tip, each wing being 12 ft. long and 4 ft. wide at the base. Surface about 65 sq. ft., 32l/2 ft. to each wing. The wings are operated by hand and foot levers. A sweep of 18 in. between hand and foot gives a sweep of 18 ft. at the tips of the wings. Mr. Twining gets a leverage of 5 to 1 at the point where the power is applied; combining this with his weight, he can apply a pull of from 850 pounds to 1,000 pounds on each wing. 1,
He 1t>« »i -,t attempted a flight as yet, but T^s had i1 out three times to test strength and develop weak points.
The wings are made of thin slats of maple tiussed, and finally trussed with piano wire. The main body is made of bicycle tubing, ball bearing throughout.
The machine runs on bicycle wheels and the idea is to run along the ground by beating the wings; when sufficient speed is attained the machine is supposed to rise in the air by displacing the center of gravity to the rear.
There is no tail, the fore and aft stability being obtained by a change of center of gravity. The lateral stability is obtained by beating one wing more than the other when necessary. If one wing is held still and the other is moved, it will cause the machine to turn. Displacing the center of gravity forward by leaning forward, causes it to pitch downward. Displacing the center of gravity to the rear by leaning backward, causes the machine to pitch upward.
The wing is covered on both sides by cloth sewed to the ribs which are first swathed in cloth. It makes a very strong effective wing.
Jos. Bettencourt, Bartram Aber and John Driver, of San Leandro, are experimenting with a 35-pound glider of their own make.
A. L. Smith completed the repairs on his aeroplane and expects to have it reassembled with motor in place for trial at Ascot Park shortly.
The Pacific Aero Club has challenged the newly organized Oakland Aero Club to a balloon race during Portola week. The challenge was accepted by Prof. A. Van Der Nail-len of the Oakland Club.
F. O. Andreae, who is now located in Pasadena, intends building a full-sized machine. In regard to same he states:
"My latest machine will be lighter than Curtiss' apparatus, need 20 h. p. engine, measure 28 ft. laterally, 28 ft. from front to rear. It is neither a biplane nor a monoplane, has no diagonal bracing wires, nor upright struts. It can be assembled quickly, and readily taken apart, and land safely on uneven ground."
Dr. F. O. Cates of Forth Worth, Tex., has taken out a patent on an aeroplane, and will start building at once.
James W. Price, of San Jose, Cal., has just returned to America after touring India, China, Japan, the Philippines, Java and the Straits settlements, with his two balloons, the "Mogul" and the "Mongolia," and a dirigible "Messenger" of 22,000 cu. ft. capacity. Thirty-seven balloon ascensions were made and two airship flights during the year's trip.
People of the Orient, Mr. Price says, prefer to witness the balloon ascents from a distance rather than pay the small gate fee so that the tour was not wholly a financial success.
PACIFIC AERO CLUB'S SHOW
By Cleve T. Shaffer.
IN THE WORLD OF AVIATION
QUADROPLANE FLIES. Wright Brothers Bring Suits.
wiilari) fi tes iv cava da.
PAPERS have been filed by the Wright Brothers in three separate suits — one against the Aeronautic Society, brought in the Federal Court of the Southern District of New York; one against the Herring-Curtiss Co. and the other against G. H. Curtiss himself, the two latter being brought in the United States Court at Buffalo. The bills of complaint are answerable in October.
The suit against the Aeronautic Society is to prevent further exhibition and use of the aeroplane purchased by the society from G. H. Curtiss, and asks for redress from the profits alleged to have already accrued from exhibitions, on the ground that the machine is an infringement of the Wright United States patent, which is No. 821,393, dated May 22, 1906.
If the suits are brought to final hearing, the result will be the first complete review of the state of the art in patent law, and will settle the exact status of the various stability devices now employed in many aeroplanes. In case the claims of the Wrights are upheld, the infringements abroad have vastly outnumbered those in this country, and no doubt suits will be brought in Europe at the proper time.
The bill in the case of the Aeronautic Society is very general in terms, and it is probable that a more specific one will be demanded by the defendant. As all three suits are similar, it is possible they will be merged. The Society states that in the bill of sale of the machine Mr. Curtiss expressly guaranteed to hold it harmless from any suit which might be brought.
When A. M. Herring of the Herring-Curtiss Co. was apprised of the suit, he said, referring to the Wrights: "They have nothing to take action on."
Eight-Year-Old Girl Makes Aeroplane Flight.
Two successful flights were made on Aug. 27 by the W. H. Martin glider at the Martin farm at Canton, O. Miss Blanche Martin, aged 8, a grandchild of the inventor, was the passenger. Miss Martin had watched the previous flight during the morning's experiments and needed no coaxing to be induced M:o take the seat in the machine, ready for the trip above the heads of the spectators. On the second flight she was at her place almost before the machine was ready to start.
"That's more fun than a merry-go-round," she said upon alighting after the flight.
She laughed when 30 or more feet above the ground, as the machine soared from side to side in the grasp of the wind.
M. B. Sellers Flying.
M. B. Sellers, whose "step quadroplane" is fully described in this issue, has made about 50 nights thus far at his place in Kentucky. These were short, from 150 to 165 feet, and not high owing to insufficient thrust. The engine is a Dutheil-Chalmers of a nominal 7 h. p. The weight of the machine is 210 pounds. The flights made are incidental to laboratory work to confirm experiments made there. In the towed flights made with this machine, as per previous issues of Aeronautics, it was shown that a thrust of 40 pounds is required for sustained horizontal flight.
A Front View of Sellers' Machine
Willoughby Completes Biplane.
Hugh L. Willoughby's biplane is now finished and the motor has had trials. The propeller pull is being increased after every trial. Already, Mr. Willoughby says, the pull is enough to get the machine off the ground. The details are as follows:
Total weight, 975 pounds; spread, 44 feet; front to back planes, 7 feet; lifting surface of both planes, 588 square feet: forward horizontal rudder, 36 square feet; forward vertical vane, 6 square feet; after horizontal rudder, 24 square feet; after horizontal vane, 6 square feet; after vertical rudder, 24 square feet; after vertical vane, 8 square feet. Planes have an angle of 4 degrees with "line of flight."
Spruce, cedar, oak, steel and aluminum have been used in its construction. The surfaces are of unbleached cotton covered with aluminum paint. Aluminum paint also covers wood and steel.
A stock motor from the factory of the "Pennsylvania" automobile is used, generating
30 horsepower at 1,500 revolutions. The only-change made was reducing the flywheel from 70 to 30 pounds.
The propeller has four blades of aluminum and steel, running at 1,200 revolutions. It is placed on a short shaft, directly connected, at forward end of machine.
The Willoughby patent steering device is used (for airships of any type), which consists in arranging and operating steering rudders (for steering in the vertical plane) at the forward and rear extremities of machine, so as to cause one rudder to operate inversely with relation to the other.
When the forward horizontal rudder goes up the after horizontal rudder goes up also, and vice versa, elevating the bow of the ship and depressing its stern (or the reverse) at the same time; the wind pressure holding the two horizontal rudders fixed at an angle (without the use of a brake) till a change is made with the steering wheel; also the combining with the after horizontal rudder an after vertical rudder (working like a rudder on a boat), both swinging as a unit on a universal joint/
This after combination rudder has a shape or the rear end of an arrow, with four feathers, giving the smallest amount of head resistance with the greatest amount of steering power.
The distance from the center of pressure of the two planes to the center of pressure of the forward and after horizontal rudders is equal.
Luncheon for Curtiss.
A luncheon will be given Mr. Curtiss on Sept. 22, the day after he is expected to arrive in New York.
Nothing definite has been settled in regard to next year's race. Washington, Los Angeles and other western cities are all anxious to be selected, and no doubt the location will depend largely, after the question of suitable grounds, on which place can promise most in the way of arrangements and prizes.
Luttrell Completes His Biplane.
S. A. Luttrell, in Washington, has finished his biplane and has given the 50-horsepower motor a trial, driving the four-bladed canvas propeller at about 650 revolutions per minute. Mr. Luttrell told a reporter that he had obtained 400 pounds thrust.
The surfaces measure 35 by 7 feet. The propeller is set on a universal joint and is intended to control the vertical and lateral movement of the machine. It is said to have crumpled up on the first test with the big motor. Afterward he took this off, which was a two-cycle affair of his own make, and substituted one of 30 horsepower. The weight of the entire apparatus is given at "about 600 pounds."
Accurate details of the machine are not available.
Wrights Buy 700 Acres.
Springfield, O., Sept. 6.—Wilbur and Or-villc Wright have purchased more than 700 acres of farm land west of here, near Tippecanoe City, as a site for a park to be used in experiments with aeroplanes.
It is reported that the Wrights intend to erect an aeroplane factory on the land.
Foreign Aeroplane to Fly Here.
J. B. Curzon is looking for a place for some trial flights with a foreign-built aeroplane which, he says, is on its way here, with an aviator. The Hempstead Plains have been investigated, and it is probable that any flights made will be there, lie is anxous to have the machine take part in the Hudson-Fulton celebration.
Curtiss to Fly in Chicago.
' Preliminary arrangements for Glenn H. Curtiss to go to Chicago have been made by Thomas W. Ryley, of the Queen of the Moulin Rouge Company.
"I received a cablegram from Mr. Curtiss to-day (Sept. 9), from Brescia, Ita'y, accepting my offer of $8,000 for five successive flights in Chicago, commencing on or about Oct. 20, weather permitting," said Mr. Ryley.
"Mr. Curtiss is to make the flignts in the .iame aeroplane with which he won the international contests at Rheims. France. These will be the first flights of a successful heavier-than-air machine in the West, and I expect 200,000 out-of-town visitors to come to Chicago to see them.
"Several sites large enough :o accommodate the crowds have been offered, and the most convenient one will be accepted."'
The "Baddeck No. 1."
After the unfortunate accident to the "Bad-deck No. 1," built by the Canadian Aerodrome Co., at Petewawa military camp, with the "Silver Dart," it was shipped back to Bad-deck for repairs. In the short flights made with it, the Kirkham motor was used. The same motor was placed in the "Silver Dart" in its flight at Petewawa. The "No. 2" is understood now to be about_ready.
Aero Exposition at Paris.
Instead of the automobile salon, there will be held this year at Paris, from Sept. 18 to Oct. 8, an "international exposition" under the auspices of the Association of Industrials in Aerial Locomotion, a powerful organization which includes in its list of members all French manufacturers of balloons, aeroplanes, aerial motors, materials—everything connected with or pertaining to the manufacture and op-
oration of every device for navigating the air. The prospectus of the exposition contains an array of French notabilities. It will be held under the patronage of the president of the republic and the respective ministers of foreign affairs, war, the navy, public works, commerce and the colonies, sustained by the prefet de police and other high officials.of the municipality, so that the enterprise has the fullest support and influence of the French government.
The exposition will be under the immediate management of an executive committee, of which the president is M. Robert Esnault Pel-terie, and the general secretary M. Andre Granet, 62 rue Caumartine, Paris, to whom all applications for admission or space and other correspondence should be addressed.
DEVELOPMENT OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION.
The extent to which the industry of aerial navigation is becoming developed in France is hardly realized by most people who live outside the radius of the aero clubs and the national association of France. Six months ago the builders of aeroplanes in Paris could be counted on the fingers of one hand. Now there are in full operation 15 factories devoted to the manufacture of materials and the construction of aeroplanes of all sizes, forms and designs, besides a dozen or more inventors who are making under cover and more or less secretly individual machines which embody their special and more or less original ideas of what the aeroplane or dirigible airship of the future ought to be. Three papers, established during the past six months, are devoted to aviation; societies, with many hundreds of members among the wealthy and influential classes of French citizens, are working for the encouragement of aerial navigation, and over $300,000 will be given in prizes which will be open to competition during the year.
The coming exposition will mark the close of 12 months of phenomenal progress and interest in all that relates to aviation, and as such will be an event of world-wide interest and importance.
Los Angeles Bids for Gordon Bennett
LOS ANGELES, Sept. 9.—Los Angeles wants the Gordon Bennett international aeroplane race next year. President Booth of the Chamber of Commerce has called a meeting for next week to consider the plans. This move is separate from any plans the local aero clubs may have.
Before the opening of the Rhcims meet, Dick Ferris started a movement to secure a second contest and headed a subscription list with $1,000.
Brauner-Smith Biplane Waiting for Motor.
A biplane, somewhat along the line of the Curtiss, has been completed by Pincus Brauinr and A. J. Smith, both of New York, and
members of the Aeronautic Society. They are now looking for a suitable motor. It is possible that this machine will be on exhibi tion at the aero show to be held at Madison Square Garden during the Hudson-Fulton celebration.
Miss Todd's Aeroplane Ready.
The aeroplane which Wittemann Brothers have been constructing for a long time for Miss E. L. Todd of New York is now completed, and was exhibited at the Richmond County Fair, at Dongan Hills, Staten Ishnd. Sept. 6 to 11.
Latest Curtiss Motor.
To the 8-cyliuder water cooled motor which Glenn H. Curtiss installed in the machine used in France, is due the success attained in the two speed races. This powerful new motor was especially designed and built for these races and, of course, Mr. Curtiss intended to win. He usually carries out his plans.
The weight is but 225 pounds, including the magneto, carburetor, intake pipes, water and oil pumps, and it developed 63 b.h.p. at 1,475 r.p.m. in a test. t/ //
The cast-iron cylinders are set "V," 4%-in. bore by 4 7/716-in. stroke. The water jackets are steel and it is said that on all future motors steel jackets will be used. The hollow crank shaft is nickel steel, low in carbon, and the cam shaft, also hollow, is of machine steel.
The pistons are cast iron and drilled for lightness, wherever a hole is possible to be made. The connecting rods are of forged nickel steel. "Clico" babbitt is used in connecting rod bushings. The piston pins, made of steel hardened and ground, are fastened solid to the connecting rods and run in the pistons themselves, the cast iron of the pistons serving as bearings. The piston rings are crowned inside, outside and on the faces. The clearance is 2/l,oooths of an inch.
The valves are all in the cylinder heads, at 45 deg., actuated by a single push rod and cam. The exhaust valves open at 45 deg. and the inlets at 10 deg. past center. Compression, 92 pounds. The crank case is of McAdamite.
The ignition is by Bosch high tension mag neto, gear driven. The plugs are Hertz & Co.
Lubrication is force feed, the oil pump being located in the crank case and operated from the cam shaft. The "Packard" oil is fed through the hollow cam shaft to all its bearings, thence through a passageway to all bearings of the hollow crank shaft, and from there to the crank pins and connecting rod bushings; the oil then falls into the crank case and returns to its reservoir.
Using a 6-ft. straight line propeller, pitch 17 deg., a pull of 235 pounds was obtained.
George G. Boldt. proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria, denies through Aeronautics the published reports of his purchase of a Wright aeroplane for exhibition in the hotel during the Hudson-Fulton period.
H. M. Benntr, Photo.
WILLARD FLIES OVER LAKE. Falls in Water.
The Aeronautic Society's aeroplane, "Golden Flier," obtained its first engagement at Scar-boro Beach Park, Toronto, for the two weeks of the Canadian National Exhibition, August 28 to September 11. Aviator C. F. Willard went up in high spirits. After breaking the cross-country record of the Wrights, he was hopeful that by Hying across Lake Ontario he would eclipse the feat of Bleriot in crossing the English Channel. Manager E. T. Tandy had selected a good landing ground at Niagara-in-the-Lake and had made arrangements with several Canadian launches to mark the course, one of which, that of J. Eaton, the big Canadian dry goods storeman, was equipped with wireless telegraphy. But the weather ruled matters otherwise. A heavy gale set in on the night of Saturday, Aug. 28, and for the whole of the succeeding week the wind was blowing furiously over the lake and rarely in less than three directions at a time.
The first lull was on Thursday evening, and the machine was hurried out. A delay then arose in the arrival of the necessary attendant launches. Next a sailing boat anchored right in the line of the getting-off ground. Some time elapsed before that could be signalled out of the way. Then the engine would not start for several minutes, and by that time 7.20 had arrived and brought dark with it.
Willard rose well off the short run down the center of the park, and a great cheer followed him as he mounted into the air. But it was then so dark it was impossible to distinguish sky from water, and when Willard reached the open lake about half a mile out a sudden gust caught him and drove him into the water. Boats made quickly for him and the searchlight from the top of the park illuminated tower showed Willard climbing on to the center of the upper surface.
When the machine struck the water it hit with such force that Willard was thrown over the front control and about 20 ft. beyond. He swam back to the aeroplane, and after levelling her up and finding that the airbags devised for floating her were working satisfactorily, he mounted to the upper surface. The only serious damage was the scattering of the just obtained new propeller, the breaking of a couple of surface ribs, the loss of Willard's spectacles and wetting of his tobacco. Latham, when found smoking a cigarette, must have had a much more agreeable descent than Willard's. Other minor damages were the ruining of a few pairs of boots and suits of clothes, for the staff with the machine all went in up to their necks. 1 Friday, Sept. 3, was the next day when the 1 wind for a while ceased to rage, but then a [dense fog reigned over the lake and even the [water's edge could not be seen. I The real chance came on Tuesday, Sept. 7. Willard readily seized it and made a beautiful flight of about five minutes' duration above the
lake. This was accomplished with the old propeller known as the Herring propeller, which gives a thrust of only 129 pounds. At Mineola this propeller would never raise the machine in much under a couple of hundred yards, and some fear was felt that the air bag floats attached to the lower surface might further retard its efficiency, a serious outlook since the getting off runway across the park was but 127 yards in length from its extreme end to the dip into the water. But at the dip Willard raised his front control and up the machine went.
It is probable that no flying in the world has been done in space so circumscribed as that Willard has used at Scarboro Beach. The getting off can be accomplished only in one given line of direction, and to ensure missing the great illuminated tower and the open air platform it was absolutely necessary to lay down a trough for the front wheel of the machine to run in. But there was no place at all for landing back on. The strip of sand was too narrow. Moreover, the sand was so soft that there seemed a danger that in landing on it the chassis would be stopped dead while the surfaces would still go on. Willard decided that the only possible landing was on the water and he camte back to within two feet of the agreed spot and alighted in about four feet of water. The machine was easily towed ashore and sustained no damage whatever.
Toronto waxed very enthusiastic over the flight, and a great crowd awaited the next day's demonstration. Unfortunately, however, the engine had to be taken to pieces to get out some water, and in replacing the carburetor the thread of the connection tube stripped and the second perfect day was missed.
Willard says that flying over water is extremely difficult because of the greatly increased difficulty of estimating height.
Dr. Orr, of the Toronto Exhibition, had emphatically declared that no one would ever fly above the lake because the wind never blew at less than 35 miles an hour there. Willard managed it anyway.
J. A. D. McCurdy and F. W. Baldwin were invited by Manager Tandy to spend the two weeks at Toronto as his guests, but Mr. McCurdy had to wire back that acceptation was impossible. It was afterwards learned with deep regret that Baldwin was badly hurt in the smash of his new ■ machine, "Baddeck No. 1."
Charles E. Godlove, 20 years old, of St. Louis, claims to have designed and applied for patents on a wonderfully light motor. His scheme is a revolving two-cycle air-cooled affair with Scotch yoke and balls much like the Bailey of Springfield, Mass. It includes lubrication by graphite, special piston rings, injection feeds, etc. He promises 30 horsepower for 60 pounds weight.
Tariff on Aeroplanes. Third Curtiss' Plane Ready.
With all the machines being built abroad and in America, there is no specific provision for flying machines in the Tariff Act on August 5, 1909. The Treasury Department states that aeroplanes "will be dutiable, upon importation to this country, according to the component material of chief value, probably at the rate of 45 per centum ad valorem under the provisions of paragraph 199 of the said act, as an article composed wholly or in part of metal."
Under the new Tariff Law, the Customs officials believe that they will be enabled to permit the entry, free of duty, of foreign flying machines brought to this country for exhibition purposes, and to participate in contests. A bond, however, will have to be given by the importer as a guarantee that the duty will be paid if the aeroplane remains in the United States.
New Aeroplane Prizes.
The Aero Club of America has been presented with a handsome silver trophy, to be known as the "Country Life Trophy," by Mn F. N. Doubleday, for competition of flying machines during 1910.
Robert J. Collier has also presented the Club a gold itrophy of the value of $5,000, to be designed by a leading American sculptor, together with a cash prize of $2,500, for competition of heavier than air machines.
Rules governing competition for both prizes will be drawn up in the near future by the Contest Committee.
William H. Aitken made some gliding demonstrations on Aug. 25 at Huntington, L. I., in connection with the cross-island trolley celebration. Two glides were made from a bank near the Casino of the Chateau B"anx Arts to the beach. In trying a flight with the Wittemann glider towed by a motor boat, the rope got tangled in the propeller and prevented further operations.
W. R. Stewart, of Ensley, Alabama, has nearly completed an aeroplane, the engine now being installed. It is quite possible that a specially built engine will be used. Four hundred square feet of canvas are used and the machine is strong and compact. "There are no new principles—simply a correct application of a few old ones," Air. Stewart states.
There is a vague rumor going around thai the Siegel Cooper Co., of New York, is building an aeroplane to be equipped with two 40 h. p. motors. All attempts to gain information have been unsuccessful.
A. C. Triaca has received as agent, the first "Integral" propeller, made by L. Chauviere, of Paris.
The Herring-Curtiss Co. has entered an order for four aeroplanes, similar to the one flown at Alineola, for A. C. Triaca.
The Curtiss aeroplane ordered by A. P. Warner is ready for delivery after trial flights, which possibly will be made on Long Island. This was the first machine to be sold to a private individual, and was at the same time the first sold by a distributing agent, the Wyckoff, Church and Partridge Company.
Lefebvre Killed By Fall.
Juvisy-Sur-Orge, France, Sept. 7.—E. Lefebvre, the French aviator, was killed this afternoon by a fall from his Wright machine, in which he was practicing over the aviation field here. Al. Lefebvre was alive only a short time after his machine crashed to the ground.
His is the second life to have been sacrificed in mechanical power flight, Lieutenant Self-ridge being the first. Gliding flight has taken the lives of Lilienthal, Pilcher, Alaloney, Letuss and De Groof.
His first public appearance was in exhibition flights in Holland, as recorded in Aeronautics. From there he went to Rheims for the contests.
Death of Captain Hedge.
In the death of Captain Homer W. Hedge, from typhoid fever, on September 9, the Art lost an enthusiastic friend and patron.
Captain Hedge was the organizer and first president of the Aero Club of America, which was started in 1905. He, with A. Leo Stevens, interested the Signal Corps of the regular army in ballooning and, with Captain Chas. De F. Chandler and Major Samuel Rober, at his private expense, made ascensions from Pitts-field in 1906. No doubt his efforts helped towards creating more activity in military ballooning in America. The idea of an aero club was discussed with Al. Stevens some considerable time before it took definite shape.
The title "captain," of which he was so proud, showed his rank in the First Signal Corps of the New York National Guard, and he saw active service during the Buffalo and Brooklyn strikes. Captain Hedge and Whitney were the prime movers in the organization of the Automobile Club of America, and he was its first secretary.
He was the president of the Homer W. Hedge Co., one of the largest advertising-agencies in the country.
We regret to record the death, on Sept. 1, of Louis Raynaud, of New Orleans, who was struck by a train while returning from work on his aeroplane. Eugene Raynaud, a brother, will continue work on the machine.
THREE AEROPLANES READY FOR TRIAL.
Shneider Nearly Ready With His Second Machine.
Though public interest in the doing at Morris Park has fallen off to some extent, after having become acquainted with the aims of the Aeronautic Society, whose headquarters it is, and the work of some of the members, activity still continues. Those who visit the Park now will find things considerably changed from last Fall and the beginning of May.
People wonder why it takes so long to build machines and test them out, but those who have tried know only too well the difficulties to be met with. Everything must be made special; there are no stock parts to be obtained. Most of the builders are doing the work all alone, and the expected day of trial is always further and further off. When at last the machine is completed, there are the tests of the motor, the transmission, the inevitable weaknesses and breaks to be contended with, which mean alterations and delay. Then comes the practice in running the machine up and down the track. There are still more changes, and in the end possibly the. realization that great errors have been made which no modification can rectify and which demand the building of an entirely new structure.
The Raische biplane, which looks like a half brother to the Curtiss, has been ready some days waiting for its motor which has been specially built, This has now been running, and within the next few days will be placed in the machine.
The big Bleriot-like monoplane of S. Y. Beach has been undergoing the usual alterations made necessary by discoveries from running the machine up and down the track. The bolts attaching the propeller to the flange on the shaft have sheared off, chains and propeller broken, but now the machine has been fitted with a new screw and is out again, running with the front wings off. As before, the small planes in the rear with little weight to lift, have brought the tail clear of the ground. Mr. Beach claims now to be able to steer the machine by means of the rudder,
even though the front wheels be fixed, as they are, and the rear wheel off the ground. The accidents to the machine in past triais on the track have been caused by the loss of steering power.
The 100-ft. bag for the Riggs-Rice airship has been completed by Mr. Stevens and is now being varnished. C. and A. Wittemann are casting the joints for the framework out of Silvorite metal, and the inventors themselves are at Morris Park cutting the steel tubing into proper lengths.
Dr. II. W. Waldcn is completing his double biplane, and has tried out the motor which is the one belonging to the society for the use ci" the members. Perhaps the most unique feature of the Walden machine is the manner in which the engine is placed in the machine. Instead of resting on beams, as is the general practice, the motor is slung so to be free to move from left to right. A cable runs from each side of the motor to movable surfaces or "wing tips." Any tilting of the machine causes a resulting pull on one or the other of these cables which start the wing tips in opposite directions to correct instability. The single propeller is fastened to an overhead shaft which is driven by a chain over sprockets in the engine shaft, and the overhead shaft. It was prophesied that the motor would climb up the driving chain and quickly terminate its lease on life, but the trial proved Dr. Walden's expectations. There was no vibration to be noticed although the engine was speeded up nearly to its limit. The first trial broke a sprocket and as soon as this is replaced the machine will be taken out on the track for a run. Dr. Walden is intent on building another machine which will be somewhat different from this one.
The Lawrence biplane is all ready, but is still waiting for a motor, as is the case with the Lindsay machine.
The big "rat trap" of E. R. Ernst has been removed from the Park to a shop where he has the use of a motor.
Dr. Green has suspended all work on his machine for the present.
Frederick Shneider has the central portion of his machine with the chassis together and has installed an Elbridge 3-cylinder 2-cycle
Dr. H. W. Walden's Biplane.
The aeroplane which Dr. H. W Walden has completed at Morris Park might be called a "double biplane," as it comprises two distinct biplanes, each measuring 30 ft. spread by 6 ft. depth, arranged tandem, 18 ft. apart. The total supporting surface is 720 sq. ft.
The angle of incidence of the entire surfaces can be regulated from the operator's seat, this serving for ascending and descending in flight. No other steering devices are used, with the exception of a rear rudder. The single propeller is between the two sets of biplanes, where the main weight is carried as well. The propeller is driven by a 40-horse-power motor suspended on its own shaft. The pendulum, not requiring any extra weight, controls the automatic balance of the aeroplane. This last-mentioned feature server, as well in absorbing all the vibrations of the machine while the motor is working.
The motor is suspended in the machine from a short overhead shaft. On on1 end of this shaft is a ball-bearing pulley, and at the other end is another ball-bearing and two sprockets. A metal strap from the -rvmk case, goes up over the ball-bearing pulley on the short shaft, holding up this end of the motor. On the other end a chain runs over a sprocket fastened to the crank shaft of the motor and over one of
the two sprockets on the overhead slraft. From the other sprocket on the overhead shaft there is another chain running to the sprocket on the short propeller shaft, whirh is mounted on two ball bearings. Both the overhead shaft and the propeller shaft are in fixed positions, while the motor is free to swing from the first-mentioned overhead shaft.
From each side of the motor are cables running to movable "wing tips" which work in opposite directions on any pull on the cable caused by the swinging of the motor.
A further^description of this device is given elsewhere in this issue.
The Close Observer.
"A point yon might bear in mind, and which is typical of the details in the Wright Brothers' machines, is the detailed way in which all theoretical points have been threshed out. This enables them to put out a very economical machine, both of the motor power and the labor on the part of the operator in handling it, which is quite a factor in the "commercial" machine, and will enable them to hold any distance records they choose. Notice Farman was exhausted at the end of the three-hour flight the other day. I think Wilbur Wright could stay up three hours without undue strain."—Subsci-iber.
AT THE FRANKFORT EXPOSITION
By Harry A. Meixner.
THE Zeppelin II which now belongs to the government was sighted at Cologne, where it is to be stationed, at 8:55 a. m., August 5, and after manoeuvering for some hours landed safely at the shed.
The dirigible had left the exhibition grounds of the Frankfort exhibition at 4:40 a. m. making the trip of 100 miles in about 4 hours. An attempt was made to reach Cologne on Aug. 3, but the balloon came in a furious storm which forced him back to Frankfort, when almost within sight of her destination. By this trip, the run from Fredrichshafen to Frankfort, 260 miles in 10J/2 hours against a heavy wind on Saturday, Aug. 1, the easy landing at the exhibition grounds, the struggle against the furious storm on Monday, the run back to Frankfort with a broken propeller, the long dispute if the rigid or non-rigid system is better, may be considered to have been conclusively settled. Until now the Zeppelin II is the best dirigible on earth.
To see such an airship manoeuvering is a sight worth travelling hundreds of miles to see. The precision with which she obeys her vertical and horizontal rudder is marvelous. The ship was expected in Frankfort between 3 p. m. and 4 p. m. on August 1, but the arrival at an earlier hour gave Count Zeppelin a welcomed opportunity to show what his dirigible really can do. On sighting the town the ship bowed her head to an angle of 20 deg. from the horizontal, then she went up again into a cloud at an angle of at least 40 deg. and down again into a spiral twist.
Then she comes against the wind and stops immediately above the spot where a flag spread on the ground marks the place where
a wire rope sling is firmly fixed in the ground. But it is still too early and she darts off again into the town to show some more manoeuvering. She returns skimming close over the ground, a rope is thrown from the front car and in a short time she is secured to the sling, and- floats with the front car almost touching the ground and her back slanting up in the air as lightly and securely as if there were no such thing as wind.
THE ACCIDENT TO THE PARSEVAL
The various flights of the Parseval balloon came to an untimely end on Aug. 12, 1909. It left its shed at 5:30 p. m., having 11 passengers including the crew on board and rose slowly up in the air. Shortly after leaving the ground the pilot had to give ballast a couple of times and after about an hour he had disposed of it all. It is said that vertical downward currents prevailed, which made it necessary to give ballast all the time. The pilot then decided to return, but it was too late. The balloon was seen coming back to the exhibition grounds, flying dangerously close to the roofs of the houses. After scraping over the roofs and knocking down a few chimneys the pilot decided to land in the street. The control of the balloon, however, was insufficient. The balloon hit first one side of the street, the engines were reversed and the dirigible skidded back to the other side of the street, landing on the roof of a fire engine house, considerably damaging the building. The car came down on the pavement without much damage and the passengers left the car unhurt, but the envelope of the balloon was badly ripped and it will need about 14 days for repairs.
ANTHONY WIRELESS DIRIGIBLE
ASUCCESSFUL trial was recently made of the model dirigible of Mark O. Anthony and A. Leo Stevens, which is started, stopped and steered in any way desired by wireless. The experiment took place at Sandy Hook, N. Y. The model airship will ascend or descend at the will of the operator, and even release a weight representing a shell filled with explosives.
It is not possible at the present time to give all the details of the selective apparatus employed by the inventor, but it will not be a breach of confidence to explain in general how these remarkable results were obtained.
The emitter for producing and sending out the electric waves is not unlike a standard open-circuit wireless telegraph transmitter. It consists of a large induction coil
having a single spring make-and-break device operated from the end of the core of the coil, the condenser in the primary circuit is of fixed value and is secured in the base of the instrument.' The primary of the coil is wound for low voltages and is best energized by means of a storage battery. The secondary is wound with wire of comparatively large cross-section, and this, together with a pair of Leyden jar condensers which is shunted across the spark-gap, gives a white, ripping spark, which is indicative of very powerful oscillations.
The oscillation circuit which emits the waves is of the open-circuit type, and this is likewise true of the resonating circuit connected with the actuating and selector electro-mechanism set in the framework of the balloon. This experimental balloon.
Parseval III at Frankfort
built by Mr. Stevens, which is 22 feet in length, carried a triangular framework extending its entire length, and to which a propeller is fitted driven by an electric motor. The detector used is of the exhausted coherer type and was made extremely sensitive, while the tapper, constructed almost entirely of aluminum, as were the other portions of the receptor instruments, thus making the entire equipment as light as possible. The wireless portion of the apparatus was designed and built by the Collins Wireless Telephone Company.
The selector device is so arranged that a series of dots, dashes or a combination of dots and dashes will actuate the propeller
and rudder mechanism; thus a series of dots will cause a contact to be made which will close the circuit of a small motor driving the propeller and so starts the balloon, while a series of dashes will stop it; a series of dots and dashes will actuate a magnet, and this will shift the rudder, turning the airship to the right, while a series of dashes and dots will direct it to the left, and so on, so that the balloon may be made to go through all the maneuvers exactly as though a human hand in the car was guiding it; yet it is all done by the operator on the ground below, and wdio makes it do his bidding through the medium of an ordinary telegraph key. —* -
"LA GRANDE SEMAINE D'AVIATION"
CURTISS WINS BENNETT CUP
Farman Flies Over 3 Hours
SPEED EVENT TO CURTISS
New World Records
TOTAL RKSl'LT OK THE MANX FLIGHTS IN THE MEET— THE NAVIGATION OF THE AIR BY 32 MEN FOR OVER 45 HOURS.
THE first grand aviation tournament took place on the Bethany Plains iu the Champagne district of France, from Aug. 22nd to 20th. Undreamed of feats were, accomplished, and the realization thrust upon the entire world that flying is getting almost common. There is no other event b.v which to compare it. It stands not only the first to have been held, but so far surpassed what was thought possible that it is surrounded with something of a halo.
History was made more rapidly than in any other contest ever held.
There were more flying machines in the Kheims meet, after only three years of real flying history, than were ever in competition in the big automobile cup races.
The Kheims meet marks an epoch in the history of mchanical flight. ft showed the wonderful progress made in three short years. Compared with the perfecting of the automobile, the flying machine has advanced more rapidly. The proportion of accidents fo machines averaged a smaller percentage than did the troubles of motor cars at the same comparatively early period. Even to-day the long road contests with automobiles bring sundry minor troubles, yet Farman flew for over three hours with an air-cooled engine, generally discredited for its over-heating propensities, without any trouble.
Although this year saw at the Juvisy aerial race course, on the outskirts of Paris, weekly meets, no such variety of types was brought together as at Rheims. The diversity of form, size, weight and power brings out forcibly that there is no one type of flying machine. The range is as great as with automobiles. Six machines were at one time in the air together. Kecords were made in one day, only to be broken the next.
The meet is also the beginning of the inevitable "track" racing, or whatever it might be called in aeronautic parlance.
CUIiTISS'S PROPELLER "A PIECE OF WOOD.'"
The Curtiss machine created something of a sensation—that another so good an aeroplane should eome out of America. The "La Vie Automobile" says editorially :
"One single thing in the machine was most surprising, the screw. Under the guise of a screw Curtiss had two flat blades making a pronounced angle with each other. With such an outfit the American was able to make a turn around in S min. 9 sec. Then, captivated by the Chauviere screw, he fitted one to the machine, and consequently made it slower, losing over ten seconds. He then put back his old piece of wood (sic), reduced his reservoir and radiator, and made the marvellous time of 7.51."
The prizes for the meet totaled .$37,000, and with the conditions and divisions thereof, are related below. Some of the contests were divided into heats, that for dirigibles, for instance, was to have had daily heats for the whole eight days.
Grand Prize of Champagne.—$20,000 total. A contest for distance without landing, with a minimum of 50 kilometers. Six prizes : 1st, $10,000 ; 2nd, $5,000; :ird, $2,000 ; 4th, 5th and Gth, $l,ooo each. This prize was competed for in four heats, on the 23rd, 25th, 2Gth and 27th of August.
Speed Prize.—$4,000 total. A contest for speed over three circuits of the course, or 30 kil. Four prizes: tst, $2,000; 2nd, $l,0O0; 3rd, $C>00 ; 4th, $400. Competed for on the 22ud, 24th and 29th of August.
Altitide Prize.—$2,000. A contest for greatest height. Competed for on the 29th.
Prize for Passenger Carrying.—$2,000 for the aeroplane covering a circuit of the course with the greatest number of people on board, weighing at least G5 kg. In case of a tie in point of number, speed to decide. Competed for on the 28th.
Fastest Lap I'rize.—$2,000 total. 1st, $1,400; 2nd, $GOO. For the fastest time made over one lap of the course during the meet, i. e., 10 kil. Competed for every day.
Prize for Dirigibles.—$2,000 to the dirigible making the fastest time for five laps of the course, i. e.. 50 kil. Open every day. Competed for on the 27th.
Landing Contest for Balloons.—$1,000 in prizes in a contest to reach a prearranged destination with free balloons. Competed for on the 20th.
Gordon-Bennett Cfp and Prize. A cup of the value of $2,500, which goes to the winner's club, and a cash sum of $5,000 yearly for three years. For 1000 the contest was for speed over a closed circuit of 20 kil. (12.43 miles). Though offered b.v an American, .James Gordon-Bennett, proprietor of the "New York Herald," one of the conditions of gift was that the first competition be held in France, and after that in the country of the winning aviator.
The other prizes iu the meet were given by famous champagne makers—Heidsieck, Monopole and Olry Uoederer, Moet & Chandon, Mine. Veuve Cliquot Ponsardin, Pommery & Greno, and G. H. Mumm, and the Grand Prize of the City of Bheims.
FIRST DAY, AUG. 22.
Though the day started out unpropitious, with the grounds a sea of mud. and the black flags out, denoting flying impossible, the wind died down, the showers ceased, and the program was carried out.
■The first event was the elimination of three out of the twenty flyers on the list to represent France in the Gordon-P.ennett.
Guffroy, on his II. E. P., failed to get off the ground, owing to the sticking of the wheels in the mud. Tissandier on a Wright was the first to get in the air, but he only stayed up a minute, and was followed by Bleriot on one of the "Cross-Channel" type machines. Latham came next with his Antoinette, but only got a short distance. Le-febvre's turn came next with a Wright, and he covered two laps of the 10 kilometer course. Captain Ferber and others tried, but could not get up. The eliminating trials closed at a certain hour, and Bleriot and Lefebvre were picked as two out of the three. The third was left to be selected according to who made the best time in the speed tests latef in the day. Latham got the third place after a brush with T'aulhan, in which he made 20 kms. more speed, but in revenge Paulhan went a greater distance.
fastest single and triple lap contests.
Wind and rain prevented further flights until late in the afternoon. Tn quick time the machines were then taken out, and the unprecedented spectacle of seven machines in the air at one time was witnessed. There were two contests, one for the fastest time over a circuit of the course, and the speed contest for three circuits. In both, Wright machines flew first, second, third. The longest flight of the day was that of Lefebvre. who remained in the air for 41 minutes. Ma-(Continued on page 150)
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AERONAUTICS October, 1909
SIX FAVORITES AT THE RHEIMS
"The Antoinette IV."
THE EVOLUTION OF A GREAT EVENT AERONAUTICS' EFFORTS SCORE AGAIN! Aeronautic Society Buys Aeroplane—Curtiss Flies at Morris Park—Mineola— Rheims—Brescia—$14,200 Prize Money—1910 Race in America.
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INTERNATIONAL AVIATION MEET
Curtiss (upper left) and Bleriot (upper right) Turning the Post. Lcvick Photos In the Center are two Farman Machines and an Antoinette.
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A Wright*- Aeroplane Turning.
(Continued from page H6) chinos dropped here and there, principally from motor (roubles. Enthusiasm was unbounded when the two machines of Tissandier and Bunau-Varilla were flying close together, in a little brush of tlmir own, the pilot of the Wright gradually overhauling Yarilla in his Voisin.
In the single lap heat, Lefebvre covered .a cir-cuil in S mfn. 58 15 sec, with Tissandier and Lambert second and third. In the speed contest three times around, Tissandier got first in 28 min. 50 15 sec., Lambert and Lefebvre second and third respectively.
SECOND DAY, AUG. 23.
The weather was bright and clear, and Bleriot got out early for practice spins. The dirigible "Col. Penard" arrived during the morning on a fast trip from Meaux, and Paulhan lapped the course five times. The wind blew up at noon, and Yarilla had to land in a field of oats. Fournier got caught in a puff and crushed one wing in landing.
The contesls to be disputed were the Fastest Lap Prize and the Grand Prize of Champagne. On this day all those who actually intended to compete in the two other instalments of the Grand Prize had to qualify by making short flights over a prescribed distance. Eighteen actually qualified. Lefebvre and Paulhan made long flights, the latter staying up nearly an hour. Several of the competitors went in for the lap contest. Curtiss beating out Bleriot for first. Lefebvre created a sensation by flying around, under and* over one of the other machines, but on this day the magnificent spectacle of several machines in the air at once was not witnessed.
In the lap contest Curtiss was first, in 8 min. ."»5 2 5 sec, a speed per hour of flO.S kiloms. (43.34 miles). Bleriot and Lefebvre were two and three. Nine other competitors.
GRAND PRIZE OF CHAMPAGNE.
Paulhan covered 50 kms. in 5S min. 45 sec. and Lefebvre 21.2 kms. in 20 min. 14 sec. The other entrants who qualified were : Bleriot (4 machines), Gobron, Fournier, Lefebvre, Som-mer, lie Lambert, Cockburn, Latham, Tissandier, Farman, Cur tigs, and Latham (2),
The real Contest for the Grand Prize came in the other two sections of the contest. Those named above contented themselves with merely qualifying, reserving their forces for the crucial moment.
THIRD DAY, AUG. 24.
I Slack flags had once more to be hoisted. Late in the afternoon, as the President of the Kepnblic was leaving for his train, the wind died down a bit and the aviators braved the elements.
On this day's card was the fastest lap contest and the 3-lap race. In spite of the wind, Paulhan made a fine flight, lasting 38 min. 12 2-5 sec, covering three rounds of the course, and Latham covered the three rounds a little faster, in 31 min. 2 1 -5 see.
For the lap contest, Bleriot. on the "Bleriot XIJ," beat the time made by Curjiss the day before, making the circuit in 8 min. 4 2-5 sec. a speed of 74 km. per hour. At the end Lefebvre on his Wright machine succeeded in making a series of marvellous evolutions, remarkable for I heir audacity and precision.
FOURTH DAY, AUG. 25.
The contests disputed were the Grand Prize of Champagne and the Lap Prize.
The day was not very favorable, the wind ■ times being quite gusty, varying from 3 to 10 meters per second. A new world's record for both duration and distance in competition for the Grand Prize was made by Paulhan in a Voisin, staying up for 2 hrs. 43 min. 24 4-5 sec, covering 133.0 kilometers. The official timing stopped after 131
kms. -CurHss, Latham and others were endeavoring meanwliue to lower the lap record made by Bleriot the day before. Curtiss lowered his record to 8 min. 11 3-5 sec. Fournier got caught in a whirlwind miniature, and was broken to bits. Fournier luckily escaped injury. Curtiss did not better Bleriot's time, his best being 8 min. 11 3-5 sec. for one round. Latham's flight in the Antpinette was of interest, covering, as" he did, 31 kilometers in spite of the wind, for the Grand Prize.
FIFTH DAY, AUG. 26.
The contests for this day were the Balloon Landing Contest, the Fastest Lap Contest, and the Grand Prize.
A new world's distance record was made on this day, when Latham in his Antoinette covered 154.0 kilometers in competition for the Grand Prize, but curiously enough did not beat the duration record, for his time was 2 hrs. 18 min. 9 3-5 sec. This was in the afternoon, after a preliminary morning warming up of 70 kilometers in 1 hr. 1 min. 51 2-5 sec.
In the morning Bleriot came out with one of his two big monoplanes, of the typo "XII," equipped with a 40 h. p. Anzani. lie took Leblanc and made the first passenger flight of the meeting, for about three minutes. A landing was made for adjustments, and he then took up a mechanic for five minutes.
Legagnenx, on Ferber's Voisin machine, made a circuit, and Delagrange made several short flights in a Bleriot. Sommer, after several evolutions, made a round, and then Curtiss made three, the longest flight made by him up to this time. Bleriot then made several trials, followed by Cockburn in his Farman for a round. Bleriot took Leblanc around the course once in the Bleriot 40.
After Latham's longer flight, De Lambert in his Wright machine journeyed for 110 kilometers. The time was 1 hr. 52 min. This put him third on the list for the Grand Prize.
Other flights were made during the afternoon, but familiarity has bred contempt, and it seems useless to relate them.
On this day Latham lessened his time for a single lap down to S min. 32 3-5 sec, and stood third for the prize.
SIXTH DAY, AUG. 27.
On the card for this day were the Grand Prize, the Single Lap Prize and the Dirigible Prize.
Farman was the feature of the day, making on the third successive day new world's records for the Grand Prize. Not only did he beat the distance record set up by Latham the previous day, but also stayed in the air the longest time of anyone yet. His official distance was 180 kil.. and the time 3 hrs. 4 min. 56 2-5 sec His actual distance was 189.5 kil.
Breguet was out, and succeeded in making a short flight. Here, in making a turn, a gust caught him and he was thrown down. Then followed several short flights of Bleriot, Yarilla, and Gobron and Paulhan.
\ )'ROT'LANE AS A "TAXI."
Later, ltleriot brought out one of his big machines-. On. of Lis friends who was in a hurry to catch .i train was bemoaning his fate. Bleriot, bowev r. bundled him into his aeroplane and took 'urn «even kilometres to Witry. where he droppc i him only n few yards from the station.
Pan .ian's ilvn * for the Grand Prize were cut shi rt l>v ai miq io incident. Just as ho had left the ro" nd lie i«- >clagrange coming head-on only a shor disfaace vay, and to avoid what looked like a fatal accident lie instantly dove his machine down, brt-akinsr tti.'ront portion on hitting the soil.
Toward noor B >riut made four turns (40 kils.) of the course, on kin r three of them in 30 min. 39 1-5 su\
While Farma and Sommer were flying, Latham staited out. ai.tl Mi" spectacle was seen of three machines one Above .he other, going the same
way past the grand stand. After covering 116 kilometers Latham was obliged to stop. Nevertheless, the time he made for 30 kilometers, 26 min. 45 sec, assured him a good place in the Speed Contest.
Although this was intended to be the sixth heat for the Dirigible Prize, no contest had been heretofore held during the week. The "Col. Renard" sailed once around the course in 15 min. 39 3-5 sec. The Zodiac made evolutions for an hour.
Other flights in the afternoon were: Sommer, four circuits in 41 min. 43 sec.; Bleriot, 1 turn, 11 min. 52 sec. Delagrange made a superb flight at a great height, covering 50 kil. in 55 min. 27 1-5 sec. At last Curtiss again lowered his time for the single lap in S min. 9 1-5 see., but did not get back to first place, and finally Rougier made a line flight at a great height, and Lefebvre made evolutions in the darkness for half a score of minutes.
SEVENTH DAY, AUG. 28.
Curtiss Wins Gordon-Bennett.
With Curtiss weather to favor the aviators, tbe Gordon Bennett was the big event, with the seventh heat in the Single Lap Contest of somewhat lesser interest. Curtiss, with a smaller gas tank, covered one circuit in 7 min. 55 2-5 sec, beating Hleriot's former best time by 0 sec Then followed the finals of the Gordon Bennett. The aviators and their respective countries were: France—Lefebvre, Bleriot, Latham ; England—Co(ckburn ; Am-
on bennett. . /
Curtiss started first, and the impression was that his speed was wonderful. In fact, the spectators felt that all records were being broken. His time for the second round was 7 min. 53 1-5 sec, a mean speed of 76.7 kil. per hour. TTis official time for the two rounds, the prescribed 20 kils., was 15 min. 50 3-5 sec, a mean speed of 73.6 kils. per hour (-4£?i miles). This was getting close to Orville Wright's speed of 47.4 miles an hour in the official flight at Washington this last summer.
Lefebvre, in his turn, tried, but could not do better than 20 min. 47 3-5 sec. Bleriot then came on. but the wind had meanwhile risen, and despite a magnificent speed in the first round, he was able to do the two in not better than 15 min 56 1-5 sec Lathant was tbe next to try, making several turns of the course. The time for the two was 17 min. 32 sec.
The "Col. Kcnard-' made a circuit of the course, but did not improve its first time.
passenger prize contest.
The Passenger Prize caused some interesting competitions. Lefebvre started off first with one passenger, covering 10 kil. in 11 min. 5 4-5 sec. Then came Farman, who first made a trial with one passenger and then took up tv i With a weight of 130 kg. for the 2 passeir * 'board he Hew easily 10 kil. in 10 min. 39 ' ended
with a fine landing. He then mad serial
promenades" with various person:-
fastest lap convv ..
Bleriot, who could not dig s . ., v ir-tiss, lightened his machine n- n ie i-oisld and started on a flight great speed, and was able to c<>vei 7 min. 47 4-5 sec. at a mean spec-t pec hour. This gave Bleriot the honor < e fjis^.'st speed ever officially made, and jack to second again. Towards evening f re witnessed some good flights bj ler, wi > is been daily improving, Varilla ■ I made a first trial with his mac'i nc rtji' ftcr the accident, with a short 111.In
EIGHTH DAY, AUG. 29. Curtiss Wins 3-Lap Race.
This was the day of accidents. Breguet and Bleriot managed to break their machines up in good shape. After P.unau-Varilla. nad made some evolutions, Bleriot started off for the three-lap Speed Prize. It was expected that be would make excellent time. As he was rapidly disappearing down the course and was almost lost to sight, a cry went up from the multitude. The little white spot was seen to disappear in a jet of flame and smoke. The apparatus was completely destroyed, and Bleriot was burnt, though not seriously.
Then came the turn of Breguet. He started off well, and flew several hundred meters when his machine seemed to lose its equilibrium and descend. The extremity of one w'ing hit the ground at full speed and the machine turned partly over so that the tail stuck straight up in the air.
Breguet was thrown out in front, but met with the usual aviator's luck and was unhurt.
three-lap speed prize.
In the afternoon the three-lap Speed Contest was on again, and Curtiss made the 30 kil. in 24 min. 15 1-5 sec, beating the time of Tissandier by 4 min. 44 sec, but because of a tenth penalization for not having contested on the two first days, the time was brought to 26 min. 40 1-5 sec. Latham then made the distance in 2<> min. 32 2-5 see. He then mounted another of his machines and made the same course in 25 min. 18 1-5 sec. Curtiss once more started off and made it this time in 23 min. 29 1-5 sec, beating Latham, but one must add 1-10 for penalization. De Lambert ended this contest. His time for tbe three rounds was 30 min. 34 2-5 sec. This time did not beat his trial of the first day, 29 min. 2 sec
Curtiss 2nd in One-Lap Race.
Curtiss had another try at the single lap. and cut his time down to 7 min. 49 2-5 sec. but could not manage the little item of the other 1 3-5 sec, and had to be contented with second money.
The altitudes attained were measured by registering barometers sensitive to every 10 meters, and by trigonometrical calculations.
Farman started first for this, and gradually got to a height of 110 meters.
Latham started in his turn, describing a large circle, and staying up a long time, reached a maximum of 155 meters. The figures do not mean anything. It was necessary to see the machine way up there to get the impression, l'aul-han followed to 90 meters, with Rougier up lo 55 meters.
Finally Bunan-Varilla made a magnificent flight of 100 kil. and Rougier covered 90 kil. The curtain fell on the last act of this magnificent event, which took place in the most perfect fashion in the midst of delirious enthusiasm and without any very serious accident.
D1RIGIKLES go 50 kil.
The only day on which the dirigibles covered the whole 50 kilometers was August 29. Both went the whole route, the "Col. Renard" doing it best in 1 hour, 19 minutes, 49 1-5 seconds. The "Zodiac" was not far behind with 1 hour, 25 minutes, 1 second.
To reward the mechanicians of the various ma chines, a special race was gotten up in which Varilla covered 70 kilometers, Rougier 50, Sommer, Ferber, De Lambert and Delagrange 40, LO, lo and lo kilometers, respectively.
I w.u.t ti congratulate you most earnestly upon the excellence of September Aero-nai'tics. >. 'j man who s?.ys it was not a"crackerjack" simply does not know the flying P 1 co/ered 'very corner of it, and covered it well.—Subscriber.
FINAL RESULTS OF THE MEET.
(!rand Prise of Champagne, Longest Distance. 1. Farman, 180.9 kil., 3 hr. 14 min., $10,000.
Latham. 154.5 kil., $5,000. Paulhan, 131 kil., $2,000. I)e Lambert, 116 kil., $1,000. Latham, 111 kil., $1,000. Tissandier, 111 kil., $1,000. Sommer, Delagrange, Bleriot, Curtiss and Lo-febvre were the other competitors. -y
^ Speed Prize, 30 Kilometers.
1. Curtiss, 25 min. 39 1/5 sec, $2,000; real time, 23 min. 29 1/5 sec.
2. Latham, 20 min. 33 1/5 sec, $1,000; real time, 25 min. 3 8 1/5 sec.
3. Tissandier, 28 min. 59 3/5 sec, $600; no penalization.
4. Lefebvre, 29 min., $500.
Lambert, Latham, Paulhan, Varilla and Sommer "also ran."
Prize for Altitude. 1. Latham, 155 meters, $2,000. Farman, Paulhan and Rougier also competed.
Prize for Passengers, 10 Kil. 1. Farman, two passengers besides himself, one turn in 10 min., 39 sec, $2,000; with one extra in 9 min., 52 1/5 sec Lefebvre with one took 10 min., 39 sec
Single Lap Speed Prize, 10 Kil. 1. Bleriot, 7 min. 47 4/5 sec, speed 76.95 k. p. h., speed record of the world, $1,400. Curtiss. 7 min. 49 2/5 sec, $600. Latham! Ke^etrvre, Farman, Tissandier, Legag-neux, Paulhan, Delagrange, Soininer, Cockburn and Varilla also competed.
Prize for Dirigibles, Speed for 5o Kil. 1. Col. Henard, 1 hr. 19 min. 49 1/5 sec, $2,000. .
2. Zodiac III, 1 hr. 25 min. 1 sec.
Gordon-Bennett Race, Speed for 20 Kil.
O^Curtiss, 15 min. 50 3/5 sec, $5,000. (^1.0^>
2. Bleriot, 15 min. 56 l/5 sec.
3. Latham, 17 min. 32 sec
4. Lefebvre, 20 min. 47 3/5 sec.
1. Bunau-Varilla, 100 kil., $400 and $100.
2. Rougier, 90 kil., $200 and $90.
New World's Aviation Records Made.
The longest distance, longest time, fastest time, highest altitude and best three-man flight.
Aviators 1sts 2nds 3rds 4ths
Latham ................. 1 2 2 0
Curtiss ...................■' _1_ 0_ 0
Farman ................. 2 1 0 ~TT
Bleriot .................. 1 1 0 0
Lefebvre................. 0 1 0 3
Paulhan ................. 0 0 2 0
Tissandier ............... 0 0 1 0
De Lambert.............. 0 0 0 1
Rougier ................. 0 0 0 1
Antoinette ............... 1 2 2 1
Curtiss.................. 2 1 0 0
Farman ................. 2 3 0 0
Wright .................. 0 1 1 4
Bleriot .................. 3 1 0 0
Voisin .................. 0 0 2 1
On September 8, the aviation meeting at Brescia, Italy, opened, to continue to the 20th. Many thousand spectators gathered around the field, but were disappointed by the poor showing. The ground Was uneven, rough, and landings were hazardous.
In qualifying for the Grand Prix, Bleriot, after a short flight, collided with a tree and broke a propeller. Anzani, on a Voisin, started well but. also broke a propeller in landing. Lieut. Calderara in the Wright machine got up in the air, but smashed his rudder. Curtiss made a short flight in the morning and olll1 111 the afternoon, with more success than his competitors. For the Grand Prix, the conditions provided that each contestant must cross the line every day for five days.
September 9.—Short flights were made by the contestants in the Grand Prix race for five times around a 10 kilometer course. Curtiss crossed the line in this to avoid penalization, fhen taking part in the short start contest, leaving the ground after a run of 90 yards. He subsequently bettered this after a run of SO yards in 8 1/5 sec. This prize was to have been given only on condition that start be made within 60 yards, but as no entrant was able to do this, the minimum was made 100 yards. Curtiss was awarded first prize of $600.
MM. LebfTtnc, Anzani and Bleriot made short flights. Rougier on a Voisin made a good flight lasting 12 min. 10 sec. at 100 m. height in competition for the height prize. Leblanc in his Bleriot monoplane got started in 9 3/5 sec, thus getting second. $400.
Sept, 10.—No flights made this day and the crowd became angered and unruly. The troops had to quell the disturbance.
Sept. 11.—Again the people were disappointed, but just before the close of the day Cj&rthss came out and covered 50 kil. in 49 min. 24 sec. in con-
test for the Grand Prix. Rougier reached an altitude of 116 m. in the altitude contest, though it was after the time limit.
Sept. 12.—Last day for the Grand Prix. Rou-Sjier started out and covered the 50 kil. in 1 hr. 1U- min. i& sec The first prize, $6,000, was awarded to Curtiss for his flight of the day before, with the second to Rougier, $2,000.
Curtiss then entered for the altitude prize and went up to 51 m., but Rougier got this for going to 100 m. the second day of the meet. Lieut. Calderara won the passenger carrying contest, taking Lieut. Savoia aboard. Curtiss also succeeded in taking Signor d'Annunzio, the famous author, aboard for a short flight, a remarkable performance for so small a machine.
Bleriot made several brilliant flights, but did not compete for the Grand Prix.
Piizes Offered at Brescia.
Sept. 13.—Bleriot left to-day, Rougier remaining with tin others for further flights.
Grand Prix fie Brescia : $6,000 first, $2,000 second, $3,000 third. Contest for speed over 100 kil., or twice around a. 50-kiI. course.
Prize Modigliani, for altitude: $1,000 first, $600 second, $400 third.
Contest for Passenger Carrying: $600 first, $400 second.
Cjntest for Short Start : $600 first, $400 second.
Contest for 1 Kil. (Open onlv to Italians) : $600.
Dirigible Speed Contest: $1,000 first, $400 second.
"As' we go to press the cables announce the! awarding of the Grand Prix, as a race for 50 kil., whereas the advance rules called for 100 kil. Official figures will, of course, be given in the next issue.
MAY ENCIRCLE THE CITY.
Three Airships in New York-Albany Trip.
CAPTIVE BALLOON A FEATURE
NEW YORK, Sept. 15.—Wilbur Wright and G. H. Curtiss both have signified their intention of giving public demonstrations during the Hudson-Fulton celebration, Sept. 25 to Oct. 9. Contracts have been signed and it is now definitely settled that the flights will be made.
Governor's Island has been offered and accepted for the starting place and sheds. The preliminary flights made over and about the Island will constitute an impressive and instructive illustration of the application of the aeroplane for scouting and defense from an army post or fortifications, and it should prove not only instructive to those on and about Governor's Island, but also prove useful in educating the "Solons" at Washington to the needs of the army and navy in this direction, and have effect upon appropriations for aeronautical purposes.
Wilbur Wright's contract calls for his remaining in the air at least one hour, or the making of a flight of at least ten miles, but New Yorkers have a surprise in store for him in an event which will be carried out by Mr. Wright should the weather and other conditions render the proposed demonstrations possible. This will be a wonderful feat in the present state of the art.
The Curtiss contract calls for a flight from Governor's Island to Grant's Tomb and return, and it is expected that he will also surprise the natives of New York and their guests by a very impressive and spectacular flight. It is possible, also, that both aeroplanes may fly back and forth across the Hudson near Grant's Tomb while the marine pageant is passing up the river.
Governor's Island is an excellent location for the start, as there is now a large level space made by filling in part of the bay. The new extension when completed will comprise 110 acres ; already about 96 acres have been filled in. The only objection will be the winds which may prevent flights according to exact schedule, as has been the case in Washington, D. C, and at the various contests and flights abroad.
Curtiss will use a machine specially equipped with floats in order that it may not sink if he descends into the water; and Wright one of the several machines already built at Dayton. Mr. Wright at first contemplated fitting this up with suitable floats, but he finally decided that there was not one chance in fifty that he would come, down in the water, and if he did his machine would float five or six minutes anyway, giving time for the rescue of himself and machine. He would wear a cork jacket, and if the machine did sink it could readily be fished up again.
There has been some doubt expressed regarding the entry of Glenn H. Curtiss in the Hudson-Fulton celebration flights, but the following leaves no doubt that Mr. Curtiss and Mr. Wright will both fly :
William J. Hammer, Secretary of the Committee on Aeronautics of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, stated yesterday that he had received a letter from Curtiss, dated Paris, Sept. 3, in which Mr. Curtiss, while reiterating his wish and purpose to make the flights in New York under his contract with the Hudson Fulton Celebration Commission, and especially the flight from Governor's Island to Grant's Tomb and return, asks that certain modifications be made in the contract signed by him on August 4. These suggested modifications are not vital, or even very
important. The principal one relates to the time of the second payment under contract.
Mr. Hammer said : "As soon as Mr. Curtiss arrives, and he advises me that this will be on the S.S. "Kaiser Wilhelm IP September 21, the Aeronautic Committee will take up his suggestions with him, and as the Commission wishes him to make the flights, and he has expressed nimself as wishing to do so, I think after consultation with the Hon. James M. Beck, Chairman of the Committee on Aeronautics, that there should and will be no difficulty in adjusting any differences with Mr. Curtiss. If there should be, the Committee need only stand upon its contract signed by Mr. Curtiss, under which he could not legally or honorably, therefore, refuse to fly. The Committee i's proceeding with the erection of both the Wright and Curtiss aeroplane sheds on Governor's Island.
"Mr. Wilbur Wright has advised the Committee that he will arrive in New York with his machine on the ISth, and then be ready to carry out his contract."
The Aeronautic Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration consists of the following representative men : Hon. James M. Beck, former assistant attorney-general of the United tSates: Hon. William Berri, editor, Brooklyn Citizen's Union ; Hon. Theodore P. Gilman. former Controller of the State of New Y"ork ; Peter Cooper Hewitt, a well-known scientist and engineer, grandson of Peter Cooper and son of former Mayor Hewitt of N. Y.
To this committee has been added Major-General Leonard Wood, commanding the Department of the East at Governor's Island. He is heartily co-operating in the proposed plans for the flights at Governor's Island and elsewhere. Wm. J. Hammer is Secretary of the Committee.
General Wood has appointed Col. Samuel Reber of the Signal Corps to assist Mr. Hammer in his preparation of the system of visual and audible signals to be used in informing the people of New Y'ork and surrounding country of the day, hour and minute of the proposed flights.
Dr. Julian P. Thomas proposes to fit the wind-wagon he used at Morris Park with pontoons and take part in the marine parade up the Hudson. It will be remembered that the apparatus made a speed of nearly 30 miles per hour on the track. The wheels and some of the framework, of course, must be removed when it is placed on a cigar-shaped float.
New York to Albany Airship Trip.
For the New York World's $10,000 prize for the best time from New York to Albany, three airships have definitely entered and paid their entrance fees and one man has his fees on the way covering his entry of an aeroplane.
Captain Thomas S. Baldwin will use his dirigible with which he has been making ascents this summer. George L. Tomlinson, of Johnstown, N. Y., will use a dirigible similar to the Baldwin ship, on which both he and Baldwin have worked to bring up to first class. Horace B. Wild, of Chicago, promises another, up to date in everv respect, with steering planes and all the latest novelties in style.
The starting place has been selected just west of Riverside Drive, between 119th and 120th Streets, and the Albany finish line is an imaginary one three miles in length, drawn from the' wireless tower in Ten Eyck Park to the Capitol.
The committee in charge of the event consists of Col. John Jacob Astor, Arthur Billings, Charles M. Manly, J. Parke Channing, J. C. McCoy. A. H. Forbes and J. L. Ten Eyck, who will look after the Albany end.
Trials will be made at the most propitious time during the celebration. Any contestant may make as many trials as he likes, upon proper notice to the committee.
(Continued on page IGi)
WRIGHT AND CURTISS TO FLY IN HUDSON-FULTON
Cody Makes New Cross-Country Record—Long Distance Airship Ascents a Feature of the Month—New Dirigible and Aeroplane Speed Records—$175,000 Receipts at Rheims—High Altitudes in Balloon Ascents—Clement Bayard, Republique and Zeppelin III Have Mishaps— Wright Flying in Berlin—Wellman Polar Airship Has Accident—Scores of Aeroplanes Bought.
COUNTLESS are becoming- the experimenters in aviation in every country, particularly in France, and it is daily more impossible to even attempt the chronicling of every little .jump. The world has advanced so rapidly this past year that events have a new significance. That which was the wonder of the world such a short while back is now the commonplace ; we must progress, letting those things now of lesser importance take their proper place in the world's routine. As they assume greater and greater value, so will (hey lie treated.
In the future 1 shall generalize on many occasions, with the advantage that I shall be able to go more into detail, perhaps, in the items of major worth. A. B. O.
well11an again fails.
On August lo the Wellman polar airship "America" started on its second ascent for the North Pole. Everything went well for some miles until the big guide rope containing the provisions for the journey broke away. The ship was brought-down from the high altitude to which it immediately jumped, and was finally towed by the Arctic steamer From back to its shed. Wellman promises to make another start next year.
This was the third attempt of his to reach the pole via airship. The beginning was in 1 !>(>(>, but the season advanced too far before all was ready. The following year a start was really made, but in a heavy storm the ship became unmanageable and was driven to shore. In 1008 no start was made, but improvements and preparations were made for the trip of 1000, which has now terminated so unfortunately. Now that Cook and Peary, or Peary and Cook, or neither of them, have gained the mark, will Wellman continue?
An M. (Trbanek, at Prague, has built a machine in which the surface is increasable al will. In America, I believe, Peter Cooper Hewitt has ideas of a reefable aeroplane.
Austria, which has seemed to be outside the aero field, is to follow Germany and will build an aerial fleet. It is known that a Parseval of 1,800 eu. m. is to be delivered at the end of September subject to the fulfillment of the following conditions: 1, a trip of 10 kil. covered twice in a given time; 2. a trip of 240 kil. with a fixed destination, not in any specified time, but in a wind of at least 0 m. per see. : .°>, ascension to 1.000 in. altitude, followed bv a trip of at least 40 kil.
Cody is tbe principal figure just now. Uidicule has turned to praise. With the changes made in his machine, he has made during the last month rapid strides. Beginning the second week in August he made various successful flights of 2, 4 and 5 miles, even taking as passengers on different occasions Col. Tapper and Mrs. Tody.
lie has installed a larger motor, an 8-cylinder ENV of 80 h. p., and altered the structure." New wood propellers of 4 in. greater diameter and 1 ft. 0 in. more pitch have taken the place of the old sheet metal ones. The engine is level with the main lower plane and is located between the two center struts. A passenger's seat is fixed to the same spars above and behind the driver's
seat. Cody has done away with tbe tail and the wing tips, though a loss of speed in turning is the result. lie will try to carry three passengers besides himself, and has in anticipation a trip in stages to Liverpool.
On the 8th of September Cody flew for 1 hr. 3 min., covering over 40 miles cross-country. lie flew over valleys, over the barracks and circled the spire of the village church. Several army men took successive two-mile rides with Col. Cody,, returning each time to the start.
The Government's airship, "Baby," has had some more trials. The top tin has been discarded and the propellers have been placed in a lower position on each side of the car and there is a new steering plane in front.
The "Daily Mail" offers a second prize of $500 for the second crossing of the Channel, and $5,000 to the aviator making the greatest total distance across country between Aug. 15 of this year and Aug. 14 of next, in France or England.
Sir Hiram Maxim, 1 hear, is building again, for the first time since the successful experiment with his huge structure some twenty years ago.
Baron de Forest offers $20,000 to the British subject who makes the longest distance across the Channel with a British-built flyer, not across the Atlantic as has been erroneously announced.
A. V. Koe is still practising with his small-powered aeroplane, making short flights. E. V. Hammond is experimenting at Brooklands's motordrome, and A. E. George, a well-known automo-bilist, has his own machine under construction at Bath.
It is expected that the Wright aeroplanes acquired by the British War Office will be delivered this month, and that INlr. Orville Wright will superintend the official trials at Aldershot in October.
In a very confined space, Boe has made some SO flights, some of which have been 300 yards.
The Lebaudys are constructing the airship for England to be paid for out of the "Morning Post" fund. The "Daily Mail" is having the shed constructed at its own expense.
Harold and Frank Barnwell have been able to accomplish a flight of 80 yards at Stirling, Scotland, on the first trial of their experimental machine, using a wooden track for starting.
The two parallel supporting surfaces of this biplane measure 4S by 8 ft.. 7% ft. apart. Steering up and down and laterally is by means of a double-surface front control. This is mounted at the end of two booms fastened to the four central struts. This rudder is divided into two cells by three vertical surfaces. Wing tips are placed between the main planes just inside the ends. One end of the wing tip pivots on the outermost strut and the other end pivots at the intersection of the guy wires, as in the Curtiss machine. This cellular control is pivoted similar to that of the Curtiss machine.
The engine is a regulation automobile motor, weighing about 400 pounds, which drives by chain I wo 2-bladed wood propellers, 10 ft. diameter by TO ft. pitch. With the engine stationary, each, 1 am told, developed 300 pounds thrust." These propellers were made from data obtained in laboratory experiments with model propellers.
The whole machine is mounted on 2 wheels, tandem, directly in the middle. Midway of each wing is another small wheel for protection in landing. The aviator sits in front of the radiator, behind which is the motor.
A novel method in staying the structure is the use of si eel tape instead of wire for the purpose of reducing head resistance.
Sportsmen are buying aeroplanes as fast as they can be turned out. Anzani, the maker of Rle'irot's motor, has bought a Voisin and has already made nights. Jean Gobron is another, rapidly jumping from flights of a few hundred meters up to one of half an hour, Baratoux has a Wright; Sivet a Voisin which he broke up the lirst time out. M. Grou on a machine of his own make was caught in the wind and upset. Mortimer Singer is another Voisin student. M. Ru-ehonuet is a new Antoinette pilot who has flown 15 min. at a time.
G. B. Cockburn, an English purchaser of a Farman, started in the first of August and rapidly became proficient enough to cover the 10-kil. course at Rheiuis. and another flight of half an hour.
Captain Ferber has been fairly consistent in his trials, but he has not developed anything more sensational than a 20-kil. flight. Roger Sommer, in a Farman, has rather been the star performer for fast progress. Since breaking Wright's record he was content with a little over an hour and a quarter at ltheims.
Rougier has made his debut in a Voisin with an Itala motor and has made his 50 kil., with a creditable showing at Rheims in the altitude contest.
Fournier, of automobile racing fame, has a Voisin and has flown for 41 minutes.
The R. E. T. has not been heard of much of late, but Guffroy took it out for the Rheims meet and broke his propeller after a kilometer flight two days before the opening.
Alfred Leblanc. the balloonist, began the first of August with a Bleriot, type XI. Short flights were made, with incidentally a broken propeller to relieve the monotony.
Dolagmnge has another of the cross-Channel flyers and began learning the second week of the month.
This month also saw the trial flights of the monoplane "Blanc"—only short ones. K has ."0 square meters surface fitted with a 7-eylhider RE1* 35-h.p. motor.
IOtienne Bunau-Varilla in a Voisin fitted with an S-cylinder ENV motor, covered the ltheims course. With another machine. Gnome motor, he competed at Rheims. his best experience being, one of 70 kil.
Lefebvre. the young French engineer who came to Rheims for the races from exhibition flights with a Wrisrht in Holland, lie competed in the single lap. the triple lap and the Gordon-Bennett, doing fairly well., though his longest flight lasted 20 minutes. ITis promising career was sadly cut short through the accident to his machine.
From the middle of August to the 22nd there was feverish activity in preparations and practice for the eight-day meet. Everyone who had a machine was out. either at the Betheny plains, at Issy, Chalons or .Tuvisy.
Even Bleriot himself, after arriving in Franco from his Channel flight, being received and banqueted at the Aero Club, was not averse to getting a little practice at lssy. At .Tuvisy a street has been named "Avenue Bleriot."
The accident to Count Lambert's Wright the end of July, when his right wing gave way after tlying a mile and the aeroplane smashed to bits, did not keep him away from Rheims. where he took part in the sinerle and triple lap races and made 110 kil. in the Grand Prix.
Farman practiced at Chalons the first half of the month, with a longest flight of 48 minutes.
Paulhan spent the first half of August at Dunkirk giving exhibitions averaging a ouarter hour each, with the exception of a 1 hr. .17 min. flight on the same day that Sommer was beating Wright's duration and distance record.
The "Zodiac III" was completed and sent to ltheims to compete against the big "Col. Renard." The "Zodiac" is the third of the "demountable" sporting airships nut on the market this spring, with Count de la Vaulx as sort of demonstrator.
i >n August 2.1 the "Clement Bayard" left its shed at Sartrouville to make the last ascent under the conditions imposed by the Russian Government, which required staying 1 hour at 1.200 meters altitude. It made a new altitude record.
1.550 meters, for dirigibles, and stayed up more than two hours above the conditional 1,200.
NEW DIRIGIBLE ALTITUDE RECORD.
Iii descending, the guide rope was dropped and seized by the workmen, and the motor was stopped, but the wind suddenly blew up and the men, many inexperienced and in number only suffi cient for handling in fair weather, gradually let go one after the other as the big airship swayeG in the breeze. Finally, with the memory of La Patrie fresh, the pilot Capazza started up the motor again to get back to the place from where it had drifted. Then the motor stopped and the dirigible was in the position of a free balloon and was carried by the wind. The pilot sought to land at a favorable spot, narrowly missing a train.
CLEMENT BAYARD SUNK.
Oue of the ropes caught in a pile in the Seine, the bag inclined toward the water and the car sank into the water, dragging all but the rear end of the envelope in with it. After several hours the ship was entirely recovered from the river.
KEPl'BLIQI'E MAKES I.(INC T1U1'.
"La Republique," after the military evolutions of July recorded last issue, with the Villo de >ancy at Longchamps. the "Republique" continued to make instruction ascents. On the 4th of August it covered the course imposed in the conditions of the Deutsch dirigible cup, of the value of $2,000, to be given the first airship to accomplish a course of 200 kil. passing over certain cities without a stop and with certain other conditions. The ship actually covered 210 kil. in 7 hr. 13 min., the average speed being 30 k.p.h., though it attained 47 k.p.h. during one stage of the journey from Chalais-Meudon. to St. Germain, Senlis. Meaux, Melun and Chalais. After this trip the instructions ascent began again.
On Sept. 3 the "Republique" started from Chalais for the maneuvers at La Palisse. Near Xevers, 148 miles from Paris, the motor went wrong and the envelope buckled back of the car so that it looked like a back^urikei^ n<l,rse^_4 /tC(d
NEW DIRIGIBLE SPEED RECORD*?" A^~J&
The "Colonel Renard." the new dirigible constructed by the Astra Co. for the military authorities, on August 23 left its shed at Beauval to go to ltheims for the dirigible contest, arriving there without accident and with a favorable wind in 1 hr. .".2 min. The distance is 100 kil., so that the speed of 71.24 k.p.h. (44.24 miles) was attained. So far as records show, this is the fastest time that any dirigible has made.
The ship has 4,300 cubic meters capacity, is 04.75 meters long. 120 h.p.
THE NEW GOV. AIRSHIP "l,I BERTE."
The eud of August the new French Government airship "Liberte," built by the Lebaudys, made its first trials at Aloisson.
The new airship is of a type analogous to the "Republique" and the "Russie." It measures 03 m. long, capacity 4.200 cu. in. The 135-h.p. motor drives two 2-bladed propellers on either side of the car. which is midway the length of the envelope. The speed realized was 53 kil. per hour.
Just in front of each propeller is a biplane horizontal rudder for steering in a vertical direction. It will be stationed at Belfort.
AERO RACE MEET PATS BIG.
"The Car" is responsible for the statement that the gate money at Rheims was $15,000 for the first day and the total was nearly $175,000. while the prize money amounted to only some $40,000. The railroad company carried 40,000 to 50,1100 passengers daily. lino million words wen1 sent out by correspondents in despatches, and the re eeipts at the post oflice wore some $5ll.0oo.
NEW SPEED RECORD.
Saint Cyr. France. Sept. 13. Santos Ditmont has broken the aeroplane speed record to win a wasrer of $200.
Willi the aeroplane "Demoiselle" he made a flight to-day across country to Rue, a distance of liliiw+'en eight nn\] njim kilitnittUux. in live minutes, at a sjieed of about 00 kilometers (55.8 miles) an hour.
M. Paulhan put the aeroplane to a new use this afternoon. Wishing to pay a visit to the Chateau Taintignies, some miles distant from the aerodrome, he pointed his machine in that direction and flew leisurely across country, settling gently near the entrance to the chateau.
After chatting for a short time with his friends the aviator remounted the machine and flew back to the aerodrome. He was absent for about an hour and a half, and tremendous enthusiasm greeted his return.
gross airship on long trip.
The trip of the "Gross II" on August 4, from Tegel to Berlin, was remarkable for its length. 465 kil. Buffeted by the winds, it made part of the course twice.
During the month some experiments were conducted with wireless telegraph on the "Gross II." For three days communication was had between Nanen and Reineckendorf and at the same time with Frankfort, a distance of more than 500 kil.
Baron de Caters has been able to give some exhibitions with his Voisin on the grounds of the Frankfort Exposition, but without anything remarkable. His longest flight has been only 17 minutes, at Issy.
The "Clouth" and "Parseval III" dirigibles are at Frankfort, where on August 22 the Clouth made its first ascent. It has a capacity of 1,700 cu. m., is 42 m. long, with a maximum diameter of S m. The car holds three men. A Clouth 50-h.p. motor drives two wood propellers placed above the car as in the "Parseval III."
the parseval iii.
The capacity is 6.700 c. m., length 70 m., two motors NAG of 100 h.n., operating two screws which are reversible, placed to the rear of the car.
The ship is put at the use of the public for trips at a rate of $50 an excursion of one to two hours. On a trip on August 12 it met with what might have been a bad accident. (See article by Mr. Meixner, this issue.—Ed.)
orville wright flying at berlin.
The first week in September Orville Wright began his flieht for the German Wright Co. at Berlin. On the 7th he flew for 52 min.. and on the 10th he remained in the air 1 hr. 2% min. Capt. Hildebrandt, who visited the States in 1907, Frau Hildebrandt. Prof. Hergesell. of the Meteorological Observatory, and Mr. Wright's pupil, Capt. Englehardt, were passengers.
zeppelin iii on long trial trip.
The "Zeppelin III" has been' completed and
made its first ascent on Alienist 25. On the 27th it set out for Berlin, but had to make three intermediate stops for motor trouble and propeller breaking. On the 29th it arrived at Berlin, landing later at Tegel in the presence of the Emperor. On the return journey another propeller broke, damaging the envelope and forcing the dirigible to land for extensive repairs. It regained Friedrichshafen on Sept. 2. An uninterrupted run was made from Bulzig of 23 hours' duration. A speed of 21 miles an hour was attained during part of the trin.
On the 11th of September the "Zeppelin III" sailed from Friedrichshafen to Frankfort, 220 miles, repeating the performance of the "Zeppelin II" on July 31. The time consumed was about 17 hours.
30,000 feet high in balloon-italian record.
From Turin on August 9, Guido Piacenza and Luigi Mina ascended in the cotton balloon "Albatross" of 2,280 cu. m.. prepared for attaining a high altitude. Only 1,200 m. of hydrogen were put in the balloon. Oxygen tanks were taken along, together with a complete set of instruments. After reaching 5,000 m. altitude the oxygen was used. Here, also, the barometer was set back to zero. A height of 9,200 meters (30,176 ft.) was reached during the 2^-hr. journey, which ended 105 kil. from the start. This is the Italian record. The French record is 8,850 m., held by Balsan in a 3,000 cu. m. balloon using coal gas. The record of the world is held bv Profs. Berson & Suring, 10,500 m. (34.440 ft.), who used an enormous balloon of 10,000 cu. in., inflated with hydrogen.
The Italian military dirigible made ascents during August. On the 21st a sudden landing was made in Lake Bracciano, due to defective valves.
Calderara will not seem to stay away from the aeroplane. He and Lieut. Savoia have been making flights up to 40 minutes with the Wright machine rebuilt and modified since the accident by the Engineering Corps. It has an especially powerful motor now, and it is said the speed has been 70 kil. per hour.
Correspondents say that several aeroplanes are now under construction in great secrecy in Japan. One built by Yoshino-Sirke Takaska is said to have been tried out successfully and to have given a speed of 50 miles an hour. It is hardly likely that the Japanese will remain long behind.
Roumanla has now entered the lists. Lieut. Goliescu, an army officer at Bucharest, has built a monoplane in the city and has succeeded in making several short jumps. It is said that he has found the secret of low speed in huge wings of great spread resembling those of an eagle.
Van der Scrouff has a Voisin at Odessa and has been able to make some short flights. The Lebaudy airship "Russie" has arrived and the name has been changed to "Lebed," whatever that may be.
At a meet organized by the automobile club in Stockholm the first part of August, Folmer Hansen, who served his student time at Juvisy, made some short exhibition flights. Legagneux made a couple 5-kil. flights with a passenger, and later made several of 2 to 5 kil. with Hansen as passenger.
attempt to balloon over mt. blanc.
Edward Spelterini, the celebrated Swiss aeronaut who has made many cross-Alps ascents, with three companions left Chamonix on August 8 in the balloon "Sirius," of 2.000 cu. m. capacity, in an endeavor to get over Mt. Blanc. The wind, however, was not favorable. The crossing of the Alps was accomplished, nevertheless, the balloon landing at Pizzo, Italy, a distance of 150 kil.. after 6 hr. 45 min. in the air. The greatest altitude attained was 5,700 meters (18,696 ft.). An altitude of 5,000 m. was held for over 2 hours.
E. B. Weston, his daughter, Miss Delight, and A. Leo Stevens will make an ascent in Mr. Weston's new balloon, the "Delight," from North Adams the last part of this month. Miss Weston is attending Smith College and the balloon will be shipped East for this oc-
casion. The initial ascension with it was made the first week in September from Canton to Somerset, Ky.
G. L. Bumbaugh sailed his airship at the Indiana State Fair, beginning Sept. 6.
Missouri N. G. Has Aero Corps.
On August 20 an Aeronautic Section of Company "A," Signal Corps, National Guard of Missouri, was enlisted to take up military ballooning and any other aeronautic work that might come within the scope of this department of the Signal Corps. The paramount feature of this organization lies in the fact that it is the first volunteer balloon corps in this country, and approaches the plan recently adopted in England.
The Aero Club of St. Louis have assigned two balloons, one 40,000 cu. ft. capacity, and one of 76,000 cu. ft. capacity, for the exclusive use of the corps. This Aeronautic Section will inflate and handle all the balloons that are sent up during the races which occur in October of this year. One of the balloons in the championship race will be piloted by a member of this corps, namely, Mr. H. E. Honeywell. There are 15 men in this section at present, and of this number 12 are graduates of colleges or technical schools.
The corps was organized and is now commanded by First Lieutenant Chester E. Burg.
Y. M. C. A. to Open Aeronautic School.
To meet the rapidly growing demand for men trained to build, repair and operate aeroplanes and dirigible balloons and also to prepare others for the sport of flying, the West Side Young Men's Christian Association, 318 West 57th St., New York, on October 13 will open an evening course in Aeronautics under the direction of Wilbur R. Kimball, the well known electrical expert and authority on aviation.
The School of Aeronautics owes its existence to the experimental or test course of lectures given at the West Side Branch last spring. The interest shown in these lectures indicated that there was a real demand for aerial training even though, at that time, the Wrights had not made their wonderful flights and Bleriot had not crossed the Channel.
"The successful flights of the Wrights, Bleriot, Curtiss, Count Zeppelin, Dumont, Delagrange, Farman and others, have demonstrated the practical possibilities of aero-navigation. "Men with personal knowledge." says the announcement of the school, "of aero science are in demand." The armies of the great nations are striving to develop aerial machines which shall become effective engines of war. Scores of amateurs are enter-
ing the air as a means of recreation and need assistants. Professionals are at work everywhere devising new and better mechanisms. Experts declare that it is now only a question of time when flying machines will be commercially practical. This coming demand has already been foreseen by the pattern makers who are preparing for work in the aeroplane field.
The first course of study is designed to prepare owners and prospective owners for participation in, and enjoyment of aerial sport; to train aero pilots and mechanics in the principles of management; to teach practical men the principles of construction; to aid civil and mechanical engineers who wish to learn the applications of their science to flight and to prepare writers, newspaper men, advertising men and salesmen to specialize in the new field.
The outline of the course of study which ten years ago would have been regarded as the dream of a crank is as follows :
OUTLINE OF COtJRSE.
Law of Gases—Buoyancy, action under varying temperatures and pressures; the atmosphere, hydrogen; motion; air currents; use of barometer, thermometer, manometer, statoscope, etc.
Resistance and Supporting Power of tlie Air —Laws of motion and application of force; parallelogram of forces.
Sliapes of Surfaces—Planes; curves; solids (square, round, fish-shape) ; use of each; head resistance.
Kites—Malay, Hargrave, Tetrahedral, etc.
Lift and Drift—Mathematical relationships between the two; simple rules for determining ratio between sustaining and propelling elements.
Soaring and Gliding Flight—Ways of birds in the air; some historical gliding machines and their records.
Screw Propellers — Ratio of thrust and torque; proportions determined by work to be performed; number of blades, pitch, speed.
Motive Power—Steam versus gas power; size, weight and performance of practicable types of motors; fuel consumption.
Power Driven Models—Actual demonstrations of working models of aeroplanes, helicopters and vibrating wing machines; designs of various types.
Man-Carrying Apparatus—Working dimensions of apparatus capable of sustaining man : materials used; strength necessary as shown by tables; arrangement and adaptation of various parts; general data.
Superposing Surfaces—Comparison between monoplane and biplane.
Equilibrium—Varying conditions of atmosphere due to whirlwinds and irregular currents ; compensation for advancing center of pressure.
Control—Steering apparatus of various forms; means of control rudder, auxiliary planes, etc.
Transmission Systems—Direct connection ; gearing; chain drive; cable and flexible shafting.
Dirigible Balloons—Size and material of envelope ; gas systems of suspension and application of power; problems of steering and equilibrium.
No attempt will be made in the first course of ten evening lectures and demonstrations to give students actual flying practice, though this phase of instruction may develop later. There will, however, be ample work in flying models and in constructing miniature planes of various types. For experiment with models, the big athletic field adjoining the building at 57th St. and 8th Ave. will make an admirable model aerodrome in tire heart of Manhattan. It is probable that a number of contests between various models will be held in this field. In addition the students will study gas practice in the automobile and motor boat school testing laboratories and will be taken to various flights in nearby aerodrome.
The purpose of the school of aeronautics as described by Edward L. Wertheim, the Educational Director, is to fit men for the coming industry connected with the building and handling of aerial machines.
"A new industry," said Mr. Wertheim, "is rapidly being created and just as the automobile brought employment and wealth to hundreds of thousands who were wise enough to fit themselves for that industry, aerial navigation now promises great rewards to those with foresight enough to prepare themselves for its several branches."
St. Louis Aeronauts Qualify Quickly.
St. Louis is more progressive than cities in the effete East, for there balloon pilots are made, almost "while you wait." The applicant starts out of St. Louis and then descends as soon as the open land is reached. Here a smoke is enjoyed and a new trip begun. This novel method has not yet been worked out fully, as on no occasion have more than thre,' landings been made. It is likely, however, that this diffidence will speedily be overcome.
Aero School Moves.
Albert C. Triaca has now located his aeronautic school at Garden City, Long Island, N. Y. A considerable sum is being spent in remodeling and fitting up a large building for the use of the school. A housing shed will also be erected. Adjacent to the school begins the great Hempstead Plains, where flights of a dozen miles in a straight line can bo made with scarcely a single obstruction.
Flying Machine Supply Houses.
As a sign of progress, there is noted within a month the entry into the aero field of automobile supply houses for the furnishing of aeronautic material.
The Universal Auto Supply Co. of 1900 Broadway, New York, was the first to realize the new industry in this manner. They now have in stock many of the important parts used in construction work.
The Pedersen Manufacturing Co., 636 First Ave., New York, a well-known house of long standing, is making a bid for machine work.
The machine shop of the L. B. Repair Co., 239 West Fiftieth St., is another which is in a good position to do machine and repair work of all kinds. They are experts on motors.
Magnetos and other accessories may be had from L. G. Duquet of 107 West Thirty-sixth St.
The E. J. Willis Co. of 8 Park Place, New York City, which was originally a bicycle supply house when the auto first came into prominence, and which was one of the first to take that line up, and which also carries motor bicycles and motor boats, is now adding to its already extensive business an aeronautic department, the entire fifth floor being devoted to that purpose. The firm is at present negotiating for several European motors which have shown up very well at the late meet at Rheims. It is also importing bamboo of all sizes direct from China, and carries a fully line of balloon silk, steel tubing, sheet and bar aluminum, etc. In short, everything used in the construction of balloon, dirigible or aeroplane. It is hoped by the first of the year to be the largest flying machine supply house in the country. This house intends to carry on an extensive mail-order business, and anyone that is building, or contemplating building, a flyer, should write. Agencies of all kinds are solicited.
American Aeroplane Co., Wilmington, N. C.; capital stock, $125,000. Incorporators, W. B. Cooper, F. A. Bissinger, Dr. J. H. Drehr, Dr. R. S. Bellamy, C. H. Dick, C. W. Polvogt, E. Pieard, R. C. Piatt, E. P. H. Strunk, Albert Schild, J. Brick and David Palmgren. To develop invention of David Palmgren.
San Diego Aeroplane Co., San Diego, Cal.; capital stock, $200,000, of which $33,000 is said to be actually subscribed.
The International Dayton Aeroplane Club, Dayton, O.; C. J. Needham, G. H. Grim, C. T. Mattorn, F. P. Gaddis, G. R. Wells, C. C. McLean, A. E. Estabrook and John C. Eber-hardt.
International Aerial Navigation Co. of Texas; capital stock, $1,000,000. Incorporators, Dr. Frederick J. Fielding, Dr Fred Terrell, V. P. Brown.
Ohio's Course in Aeronautics.
It is our intention to take up the study of aeronautics seriously in connection with the regular courses as soon as the new building of the Ohio Mechanics' Institute is completed.
During the interim, that is within the present school year, it is intended to collect all the facts that can possibly be gathered concerning the progress of the subject of aerial navigation, carefully tabulating them and acquainting the students with the men who are prominent to-day in the experiments that are being made, and become familiarized with the various types of aerial conveyances, motive power employed, etc., at this time. In all probability models will be constructed which, in the new building, may find a place in a special section of the industrial museum. In other words, it is the present plan to lay the foundation for more serious work a year hence.
Gordon Bennett International Balloon Race.
The Gordon Bennett International Balloon Race for 1909 will be held October 3 at Zurich, Switzerland. America will be well represented by Mr. E. W. Mix, a pilot of the Aero Club of America, using the balloon "America II" piloted by J. C. McCoy in the international balloon race from Berlin last autumn.
The French contestants are: Mm. Emile Dubonnet, Alfred Leblanc and Maurice Bien-aime; German, Dr. Broeckelmann, Paul Meckel and Capt. von Abercron. Italy has entered 3 balloons, Belgium 3, Spain 2, Switz-eiland 3, England 1, x\ustria 1, a total of 20.
In addition to Bennett's $2,500, a subscription list reached $6,440 for additional prizes. Besides the G.-B. contest there is a duration and another distance race on Oct. 1 and 2.
c_yUl American Events Credited to Aero Club of America
In answer to the question as to whether or not the Aero Club of America receives credit for all balloon and dirigible ascents and flying machine flights made in America, even though such may be accomplished by members of clubs not affiliated with the A. C. A., or by individuals alone, it may be of interest to note that the A. C. A., as the sole member of the Federation Aeronautique Internationale in America does receive credit for all the balloon and dirigible ascents in this country. The A. C. A. can have one vote in the Federation for every so many thousand cubic feet of gas used in America and for dirigible and aviation records. No records made in an international contest under the auspices of a non-affiliated club will be considered "official" by the F. A. I. No club can obtain recognition by the F. A. I. except through A. C. A.
Balloons for Advertising.
To Manager Wallach, of the Herald Square Theatre, is due the; credit for the most novel advertising New York has seen. To call attention to "The Broken Idol" running at that theatre, in which, by the way, there is a balloon scene, a captive balloon is in use several hundred feet above the theatre, bearing the name of the play. The balloon is illuminated at night by a searchlight. For inflation, tanks of compressed hydrogen are used, furnished by the N. Y. Calcium Light Co. The balloon used has been especially built for this purpose. So much comment has the balloon caused that the builder. A. Leo Stevens, has sold five others for similar work.
St. Louis Ballast.
Probably one of the busiest men in the balloon business at the present time is H. Eugene Honeywell, director of the French-American Balloon Company, at St. Louis. To accommodate the increase in the volume of work he has found it necessary to secure a second shop, which will be known as tbe "Drying Room." Before October 1 he has 25 balloons of 3,000 cu. ft. capacity each to complete, and besides, a racing balloon to be called "Centennial," of 22,000 cu. ft. capacity. There is no foundation for a newspaper story that appeared recently to the effect that Honeywell was building a "monster" balloon. He will compete with the "Centennial" in the October 4 race of the Aero Club of St. Louis.
The Missouri Motor Car Company, at St. Louis, when filing its corporation papers recently, included the handling of aeroplanes as well as automobiles, and is looking for a good machine to place on the market.
John Berry, while endeavoring to make an ascension from tbe gas works at St. Louis, August 29, lost his balloon "University City," 78,000 cu. ft. capacity, with which he won the national balloon championship, last June.
St. Louis aeronauts are paying $1 per 1,000 cu.' ft. for the best coal gas for balloons. Mixed gas, at the Aero Club of St. Louis grounds, costs 60 cents per 1,000 cu. ft.
The Carrollton (111.) Gazette, in recording the landing of the "St. Louis 111" with H. E. Honeywell and party, concludes: "All four were refined, educated gentlemen, with whom it was a pleasure to converse."
Does the Gazette think aeronauts as a class are unrefined and uneducated, or is this merely a refutation of particular assertions regarding the four gentlemen in question?
E. F. Stephenson, of Memphis, Tenn., is designing a 30 h. p. monoplane on which work will begin very soon.
Aeronauts' Busy Season
Captain T. S. Baldwin and Carl E. Myers were at Worcester (Mass.) fair, Sept. 6-9. Mr. Myers had his captive passenger balloon for day and evening ascents, concluding with a cut-loose passenger trip. The Baldwin dirigible acquitted itself as well as usual, making some fairly long trips with the new type 20-horse-power water-cooled Curtiss motor.
Mr. Myers operated his first airship in Massachusetts at Worcester in 1891. There was a parade around the race track of a thousand high-wheel velocipedes, and only one pneumatic-tire, low, "safety bicycle," and Mr. Myers' aerial bicycle, or "skycycle."
Knabenshue has been sailing around Cleveland, O., while J. C. Mars is in the air at Seattle Exposition.
Jack Dallas was at Ontario Beach, N. Y., during August.
Csesar R. Bannihr, New York, N. Y., No. 931,026, Aug. 17, 1909. "Aerodart." Toy helicopter consisting of a hub having spring wires attached and carrying on their outer ends suitably inclined blades. The operation is accomplished by spinning manually the shaft supporting the above hub.
Reinhold Schmiechen, Newell, la.. No. 931,225, Aug. 17, 1909. "Airship," comprising a metallic envelope divided in sections, some of which contain gas and one containing a motor; fans secured at bottom of envelope adjustable as to position, and movable wings on sides, designated "cyclone producers," for propelling ship in any direction.
William Sinclair, San Antonio, Tex., No. 031,966, Aug. 2i, 1909. "Aerodrome." Moro correct term would be "helicopter," since the machine comprises a pair of propellers rotating on vertical axes suspended from a frame. The propellers are encased in open-ended cylinders and formed of alternating flat and inclined sections producing spirals.
Enoch S. Le Fevre, Littleston, Pa., and William D. Le Fevre, Smyrna, Del., No. 932,712, Aug. 31, 1909. "Airship." More specifically a helicopter provided with "vertical-flight propellers" and "longitudinal fl'ght propellers," the propellers of each set rotating in opposite directions. An "aeroplane" is also provided consisting of slats pivoted in a frame so as to open or close.
John Muckle, Kansas City, Mo., No. 932,884, Aug. 31. 1909. "Airship." More specifically a helicopter consisting of "propelling-lifting fans" mounted on opposite sides of body portion. Front and rear deflectors adapted to deflect the air, "fan hoods" for propellers and vertical rudders for steering and stopping in addition to an aeroplane roof are included in this multiple structure.
Joseph A. Rignon, Berlin, Germany, No. 932,999, Aug. 31, 1909. "Airship," consisfing of gas bag and a balloonet, having free open-
ings at front and rear. The opening at front being greater than at rear and an "air-propelling organ" opposite the front opening.
Aerial Torpedo Latest in Aero War' fare.
Aerial torpedoes are the latest horror that are about to be added to modern warfare by Emile Berliner, inventor of the graphophone. It is nothing more or less than a small aeroplane carrying a torpedo in place of an operator and provided with an automatic balance and steering device to the same end as a submarine torpedo.
LIGHT-WEIGHT MOTOR DEVISED.
The thing about the device that has given more trouble than anything else is getting a simple and light-weight motor. This problem is now solved and there is a motor in the Berliner shops that will develop 12 horse power on the brake and weighs only 50 pounds. The present motor is very simple in construction, and it is said that it can be cut down 12 pounds without interfering with its efficiency when the next motor is built.
The motor is something of the Adams-Farwell type, with revolving cylinders. These act as a gyroscope to keep the aeroplane steady in the air and make the motor run without the vibration that would shake a small aeroplane to pieces with a motor of the same size and weight of a reciprocating type. It is said that the motor on a light wooden base has been run without any trouble from vibration, and it was run standing still in the sun for half an hour without overheating. It is true that standing still on a long run the cylinders get a little too hot for greatest efficiency, but moving through the air will keep them just right.
MACHINE TO BE A MONOPLANE.
Mr. Berliner has tried out a lot of propellers and has found a pair of light weight and suitable efficiency. This and the motor constitute the chief problems, and, being satisfactorily settled, he is not bothering much about the aeroplane to carry them. The whole installation will be of such light weight that not much wing surface will be required. The machine will be a monoplane. The automatic balance, is worked out so that it is simply a question of putting the machine together. The aeroplane will carry a gasoline supply for a flight of half an hour. It is pointed out that the aerial torpedo is much cheaper to construct than a submarine torpedo, and that it is more accurate at the same range.
The laboratory is well satisfied with the work it has done on the revolving cylinder engine, and is constructing another of 66 horse power for Mr. Berliner's helicopter, and this will be tried also on the helicopter of J. Newton Williams, who, it will be recollected, was lifted along with his machine at Mr. Berliner's country place a short time ago.
The Oakland Aero Club has been formed at Oakland, Cal., with the following officers : President, A. Vander Naillen, Jr.; first vice-president, Dr. C. L. Tisdale; second vice-president, H. C. Capwell; treasurer, Col. Thos. Gier; secretary, Edwin Stearns. The club numbers over 50.
Its first "affair" was a balloon christening of the "City of Oakland," built by Capt. P. A. Van Tassell for the Club. The builder with Prof. A. Vander Naillen, Jr., made a high ascent for the purpose of becoming familiar with the air currents in anticipation of the balloon race in the Portola festival in which the Club has entered its balloon.
The San Antonio Aero Club is constantly adding new members. It is endeavoring to pull off a balloon race during the Fair and Auto Meet in October. Dr. Frederick J. Fielding, the president, has just returned from his vacation during which he was present at the Indianapolis balloon race, where he went in the interest of the coming meet at San Antonio, and was also present at the Automobile Races at Crown Point and Indianapolis.
The Aero Club of America is arranging for a luncheon to Glenn H. Curtiss when he arrives in this country. He has a contract with the Hudson-Fulton Commission to fly his aeroplane during the Hudson-Fulton celebration. Arrangements are being made for sheds for the Curtiss and Wright machines on Governor's Island where the flights will start.
An aeronautical show is being planned by the Club to be held in connection with one of the automobile shows.
The Aeronautic Society meetings at the Automobile Club the last three weeks have been of unusual interest. On each of these occasions a number of models, both power and gliding were shown in flight and otherwise.
On the evening of September 2, the competitions held were intended to have decided the source of contests, but it was found that a number of members had models which they were willing to show if given another opportunity so that the Contest Committee decided to hold the competition open another week.
There was one large monoplane considerably like the Antoinette, with two propellers revolving in opposite directions on concentric shafts which made satisfactory flights nearly the whole length of the great hall. Two more or less successful monoplanes were sent by Mr. Wm. J. Hammer. These were made by the Bates Toy Aeroplane Co., of Dayton. This is the third concern in this country to follow Europe in the marketing of toy aeroplanes. The Aeriole Co., of . Germantown, was the first, and then came the H. J. Nice Co., of Minneapolis.
During the past month the meetings of the
society have taken on more of a social aspect. The exhibitions of the society, the grounds at Morris Park and the other affairs have previously made the meetings almost entirely of a business nature.
The Aero Club of Saratoga (N. Y.), has nearly been formed. The purpose will be to hold exhibitions and flying machine races at the Saratoga Association Park in July and September, 1910. George A. Farnham, proprietor of the hotel American-Adelphi, at Saratoga, states: "Thus far we have been very successful in our undertaking. It is opening up a large correspondence and the details will be carried out to perfection. We are much pleased at the interest manifested and believe that we will have a club that will be second to none in this country. The location and lay of the country here will make this a wonderful place for demonstrations of this kind."
The Aero Club of New England's two balloons have done good work this summer making to date, August 30, 21 flights and taking up 68 people, traveling 1,142 miles, air line, and remaining aloft 70 hours and 9 minuses.
The International Aeroplane Club listened to addresses by President Needham, Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh, Dr. P. L. Crume and others on Aug. 25. The membership is now above 500 and the slogan is "A Thousand or Bust."
The Aero Club of Atlanta is getting busy with gliders. The new autodrome provides an excellent place for experiments with machine already under construction.
The Aeronautical Society of Canada is now being formed. There was an informal meeting held on Sept. 1 to discuss the formation of an aeronautical society to be called "The Aeronautical Society of Canada," for the purpose of giving a stronger impulse to the scientific study of aerial navigation and to promote intercourse among parties interested in aeronautics in Canada and to aid with advice and instruction those studying the subject.
The foregoing is but an outline of the aim of the society, but putting it more in detail, it is intended to make arrangements for the reading of papers and their discussion; to get up lectures, both popular and scientific, from time to time, and to issue when possible the proceedings of the society in printed form; to form a library, from which books may be borrowed by members, and. if possible, to arrange for the starting of an aeronautical journal, to be published in Canada, which will be the official organ of the society.
Mr. Logan, the secretary pro tern., says: "It is without doubt an urgent necessity that a (.Continued on page 164)
A NEW DEPARTMENT
To the Editor :—
I have plans for constructing a flying machine that I am confident will prove more successful than anything yet on the market. I haven't the money to construct a machine, and would like to find some man or body of men in whom I can place confidence, and to whom I can explain my plans of construction. If 1 can then make satisfactory arrangements 1 want to construct a machine as soon as possible.
I will guarantee that I have the best construction of a machine that has ever been constructed —something entirely different from any of those now in use.
WM. R. YEOMANS, Box 479, Southington, Ct.
from south africa.
To the Editor :
May I explain that I have been studying the different types of flying machines at different periods, and have found one thing lacking with the aeroplane of different makers—yea, even Wright brothers—"excuse me passing a remark, but a fact remains a fact!" Say an aeroplane's engine or motor is started an'd up goes our aeroplane. Well, all goes right up to the height of 300 or 400 feet, when all of a sudden the motor stops, or the propeller breaks, or the such like— energy power is lost, and of course the aeroplane may rapidly fall towards the earth. I have invented a contrivance to overcome this difficulty, which, when energy power is lost, I can prolong my soaring in the air like a bird with the wings stationary. I shall not exactly explain my method to produce this "soaring effect," but all flying machines that have come to my notice have two faults. The one fault is: The elevating planes are too small and too near the main planes, and should be—well, I shan't explain my ideas, as I contemplate producing a South African aeroplane later. I have a model already which flies O. K. I will send a photo later on of my machine. As far as I am aware, I am the only African "born" who intends to produce a monoplane. With every success to Aeronautics,
J. W. N.
E. F. Stephenson, 250 Vance Avenue, Memphis, Tenn., desires to communicate with manufacturers of motors, bamboo, seamless tubing, wire, wheels, propellers, chains, piano wire, turn buckles and fabric.
To the Editor :
I want financial aid to develop a new principle in flying machine ethics. The problem of air navigation is something I have given a good deal of thought to for some years. I think I have developed a device that will solve the problem. The great desideratum of all the flying machines thus far made of which I have any knowledge is to get them in the air easily and successfully, and to land them easily and safely. Of course, the balloon gets up all right, and sometimes, but not always, lands safely. Now my device aud plan will get you into the air, and propel you when there, and get you down out of the air, without
wheels, skids, weights, tracks, or any other such annoying contrivances. My device is no "Keely motor fraud," but something real and practical. I believe it would prove the "ne plus ultra" of aviation. I would like to communicate with someone who has the means and would be willing to aid in developing my plan. 1 have not protected my device as yet with a caveat or patent, hence could not disclose its nature. My device could be used for another purpose equally as valuable as air navigation.
O. HARMON, Oneonta, N. Y.
To the Editor :—
At the suggestion of the Sterling Debenture Corporation I am addressing a letter to you. May 1 have your attention for a few minutes for one or two hypothetical questions?
If an aeronaut could have a terrestrial globe so mounted that a pointer would indicate his true position, and further, if the pointer would move over the globe as the balloon or airship moves over the earth, and continually point out on the globe the true position of the airship at any instant of the voyage, what would be the value of such an instrument to the aeronaut? Or if in place of the pointer, the globe could be fitted with three graduated circles so adjusted as to indicate latitude longitude and the north point, and the globe could be so mounted as to show the relative motion between the airship and the earth in such a manner as to indicate at all times the true latitude and longitude of the airship as the voyage progressed, what would be the value of such a device to the navigator?
I have invented and patented an instrument that will do the things I have outlined. And I might say in passing that the instrument mounted on a vessel at sea will give the saine indications as I have stated above.
With the airship, when the radius of flight extends beyond the knowledge of the aeronaut, or when clouds intervene between him and the earth, the device I have mentioned will be as valuable as it will be to the sailor when approaching a dangerous coast in foggy or stormy weather.
My invention will indicate the north point, and will tell the navigator the number of degrees of latitude and longitude passed over, as readily and with as little effort on his part as his watch will tell him of the time elapsed.
I want to interest capital in the development of this device, and to awaken interest to bring about an examination of my claims 'before condemning them as visionary and impossible.
S. D. J., c. o. Aeronautics.
WANTED.—Capital to build dirigible on new principle, somewhat like Zeppelin; success unquestioned ; intimate experience in German airship factories. No brokers.—GERMAN, c. o. Aeronautics.
WANTED, at once, au aeronautic motor. Write full details and price, LIND AERIAL NAVIGATION CO., Lind, Wash.
Note.—In each case the first name given is that of the pilot. Pilots are especially requested to communicate records of trips.
wade and morgan break club record.
DAYTON, July 3.—J. H. Wade and A. H. Morgan, in the "Sky Pilot," to one mile south of St. Mary's, Pa., leaving at 8.10 p. nr., travelling all night up to 3 a. in., seven hours. Dist., approx.. 156 miles. This is the longest flight made from Dr. J. G. Poltz and W. E. Mast to Ligonier, Pa-Canton. The next is that of Dr. H. W. Thompson. 121 miles.
MODESTO, Cal., July 5.—It. S. Mitchell, P Unger. and D. W. Tnlloch, to Hughson. Mr. Tut
CANTON, July 5.—Dr. II. W. Thompson, W. E. loch was severely injured in landing. Mast and Harry Naugle, in the "Ohio," to Malvern Dist., 12 m.; dur., 3 hrs. 5 min.
DAYTON, July 10.—G. L. Bumbaugh, John S Mclntyre and Walter Keenan in. the "Indianapolis,' to 12 miles beyond Kenton.
ST. LOUIS. July 13.—John Berry and Andrew Drew in the "Melba" (25,000 cu. ft.J.
ST. LOUIS, July 14.—H. E. Honeywell, C. C. Butler and S. L. Von Phul and three others, in die "St. Louis III.," to Tamaroa. Duration, 3 hrs. ^55 min., including one stop.
NORTH ADAMS, July 16.—Mark O. Anthony made an ascension in Mr. Steven's balloon, the 'All America," carrying five passengers.
ST. LOUIS. July 17.—H. E. and Mrs. Honeywell, Miss Ada Miller and another woman, in the "Missouri," to St. Mary's, Mo.
ST. LOUIS, July IS.—John Berry and Miss Julia Hoerner, in the "Melba." to 5 m. S. E. of Belleville, Ills. Dur., 1 hr. 30 min.
PITTSPIELD, July 20.—William Van Sleet, Charles T. Fairfield, Prof. Oswald Tower in the "Pittsfield.' to Mooreville, Ct.
NORTH ADAMS. July 20.—N. H. Arnold, W. C. Coughlin, James Batchelder, L. J. Pollett, Thos. Callahan and Frank Arnold, in the "All America," to Durham, Ct. Dur., 3 hrs. 15 min.
CANTON, July 24.—J. H. Wade, Jr., Reuben Hitchcock and Albert Schoenberg, in the "Sky Pilot," to Apollo, Pa. Dur., 4 hrs. 32 min. Distance 99 miles.
ST. LOUIS, Mo., July 24.—H. E. Honeywell, IL B. Spencer, James W. Bemis. Harry Hayward. Harry Smith and S. Von Phul made a balloou trip to-day in the "St. Louis No. 3." The party made three landings, the last being near Columbia. 111.
260 mile trip.
ST. LOUIS, July 25.—John Berry. Paul J. Mc-Cullough and John S. Thurman, in the "University City," to Savannah, Mo., after a trip of 260 miles, lasting 11% hours. The expectation was to heat the Lahm cup record of 475 miles.
ST. LOUIS, July 25.—John Berry, Paul J. Mc-Cullough and John S. Thurman, in the "University City," in an attempt to win the Lahm Cup from Captain Chandler, its present holder.
NORTH ADAMS, July 25.—N. H. Arnold and F. P. Beckwith, in the "City of Worcester," to Westboro, Mass.
DAYTON, O., July 27.—H. II. McGill made an ascent in his dirigible, which resulted in an accident. He had reached a considerable height when his craft suddenly split in two and he lost practically all of his gas. The balloon collapsed and came*down in a heap, covering the aeronaut, who was dashed down at a terrific rate. Fortunately, the balloon fell athwart a telephone wire, and McGill, who clung to the ropes, found himself dangling not far from Mother Earth. He was rescued from his perilous position.
RUTLAND, July 27.—William Van Sleet. Charles T. Fairfield and H. C. Carpenter, in the "Mass.,"' to Barnard, Vt.
PITTSFIELD. July 27.—Dr. S. S. Stowell, Miss Blanche E. Hulse and John P. Manning, in the "Pittsfield," to Shelburne Falls. Dur., 2 hrs. 40 min.
PITTSFIELD, July 30.—William Van Sleet and Robt. McQuiller, in the "Pittsfield."
NORTH ADAMS, July 30.—William Van Sleet. Fred La Franchise. W. H. Nicholas and F. P. Boughton, in the "Mass.," to Monroe Bridge. In preparing to land all the sand ballast was thrown out, and it was found necessary to drop the basket cover and balloon cover. Then Mr. Van Sleet ordered the anchor cut away, but one of the passougers made the mistake of cutting the main anchor rope instead of the lashings. The balloon dropped rapidly, just clearing a patch of woodlaud and striking hard in a pasture. Mr. La Franchise was knocked out of the basket, striking on his head, but sustaining no serious injury. Before the others could alight the balloon shot far upward, but the pilot succeeded in bringing it down to an altitude of 100 feet when he pulled the rip cord, and again the basket struck the ground with great force. The occupants who had taken to the rigging were sprawled out over the pasture, but all escaped bad injuries.
DENVER. Aug. 1.—Gordon L. Wands piloted ou the first balloon ascent of the new A. C. of Colorado.
DENVER. Aug. 1.—Ivy Baldwin and W. W. Wood, from Elitch's Gardens.
DENVER. Aug. 1.—Wayne Abbott, from Lakeside to Louisville, Colo., 22 miles, dur. 1 hr. On landing, balloon got away, but afterwards found 32 miles beyond.
DAYTON. Aug. 2.—II. IL McGill, L. B. Haddock, J. Schauer and Earl Lyons, in the "Dayton."
ST. LOUIS, Aug. 2.—John Berry and Julia Hoeruer, in the "Melba," to Barnhart, Mo.
ST. LOUIS. Aug. 2.—S. Louis Von Phul, alone in the "Missouri," to House Springs, Mo.
CANTON, Aug. 4.—Dr. IL W. Thompson, W. D. Miller, and Jesse Snyder, in the "Ohio." to Zoar.
FITCITBURG, Aug. 7.—Charles J. Glidden. Maj. F. S. Burnham, in the "Boston," to Northboro. Dist., 20 m.: dur., 2 hrs. 15 min. This makes 31 ascensions for Mr. Glidden.
balloon and auto qhase.
ST. LOUIS, Aug. 4.—Albert Bond Lambert. Christian Konuy and Harry Allen in the "Mis souri." Three landings were made. Following the balloon was II. E. Honeywell in' an automobile. The party first landed near Edgemont, where dinner was had. Though the distance covered was small, it was the balloonists' object to make as many ascents as possible. After dinner, Allen, Honeywell, aud Lambert's chauffeur. Joseph Hanes, made an ascension, landing at Belleville.
WThile the third flight was being made Lambert and Kenny followed in the former's car and kept the bag in sight.
Honeywell and his companion landed near O'Fallon. 111., about IS miles.
DAYTON. Aug. 5.—H. H. McGill. Leo Browue and John Henne. in the "Dayton," to Waynes^ ville, O. Dur. 3.30.
ST. LOUIS. Aug. 6.—S. L. Von Phul. II. E. Honeywell. H. A. Steinwender, Jr., Clinton Boogher, J. W. Bemis and Tarleton Brown, in the "St. Louis III." Three landings were made—at Carondelet Park, near Clayton, and then 5 m. north of Normandie Golf Club. Bemis and Von Phul are qualifying for pilot's license.
PITTSFIELD. Aug. 7.—William Van Sleet, Henry and Sheldon Whitehouse, in the "Mass.," to East Litchfield, Conn.
CANTON. Aug. 7.—Dr. II. W. Thompson, Walter Flickinger and Louis Sweningson. in the "Ohio," to 5 miles west of Millersburg. Dist., 36 miles.
CANTON. Aug. 7.—Dr. II. W. Thompson. Walter Flickinger and Louis Siveningson. in the "Ohio."
DAYTON, Aug. 7.—II. II. McGill and Earl Lines in the "Dayton," to Camden, O. Dist., 6 miles.
FITCHBURO. Aug. 7.—fhas. J. Glidden and Maj,. Franklin Burnham in the "Boston," to Northboro Center. Dist., 35 miles.
ST. LOUIS. Aug. 10.—John Berry and Joseph Heine in the "Melba."
DAYTON. Aug. 10.—II. H. McGill, J. Schauer
and Martha Schauer in the "Dayton," from Buck Island to Shakertown, O.
DAYTON, Aug. 11.—H. H. McGill and Michael Devanney, from Buck Island in the "Dayton" to 4 m. south of Lebanon, O., making intermediate landings near Bellbrook, Johnsville and Miamis-burg. The balloon is being used captive at Buck Island.
FITCIIBURG, Aug. 11.—Chas. J. Glidden, Trof. and Mrs. David Todd, in the "Boston" to Ilopkin-ton, Mass., 30 miles; duration 1.30.
DAYTON, Aug. 12.—H. H. McGill and Henry Pruden. in the "Dayton," to Byron, O., after 5 hrs. trip.
RUTLAND, VT., Aug. 13.—Wm. Van Sleet, Ezra H. Allen and Edith I. Sawyer, in the "Pittsfield" to Brandon, Vt. Altitude 6,000 ft.
no.mlnek christens balloon.
OAKLAND, Aug. 14.—P. A. Van Tassel and Prof. A. Vander Naillen, Jr., in the "Oakland" on its initial voyage. After services, begun with an invocation by Dr. Nelson E. Saunders, Mr. Nail-len's daughter christened the balloon with a bottle of California champagne. The Mayor's representative wished the aeronauts good luck in the name of the city. The balloon has been constructed b.v Mr. Van Tassel for the Oakland Aero Club. In landing in a gale the basket capsized, and the aeronauts were thrown out and the two barometers broken. The duration was 4 hours.
PHILADELPHIA, Aug. 14.—Dr. Geo. II. Sim-merman and Dr. Thos. E. Eldridge, Miss Lydia Cantor and W. W. Geller, both of the Baron de Hirsch School, in the "Phila. II" to Longwood. Pa. The balloon hit a tree just before landing Anally. Alt. 8,200 ft., dur. 3 hrs.
DAYTON, Aug. 18.—H. IT. McGill, Edward W. Keller and Edgar C. Ireland, from Buck Island, in the "Dayton."
honeywell and berry race.
ST. LOUIS, Aug. 19.—H. E. Honeywell, Sidney T. Bixby, Harry A. Blackwell and Carl II. Langen-burg, in the "St. Louis III" (78,000 ft.) to YVood-ville. Ills., 34 miles, after 4 hrs. 45 min.
John Berry and Wm. C. Fox in the "Melba" (39,000 ft.) to Florissant, Mo., 17 miles.
PEORIA, Aug. 19.—Three balloons in race of Air Craft Club. See elsewhere in this issue.
FITCIIBURG, Aug. 20.—Chas. J. Glidden (33rd ascension) and Harry C. Clayton, fifteen years of age, in the "Massachusetts." to Shirley, Mass. Gas was poor, and trip lasted only 23 minutes, landing at 6 p. m., covering 10 miles. Pigeons released at 4,000 ft. altitude arrived safely at their cotes, though all but one of the nine did not return till the following morning.
SPRINGFIELD, Sept. 2.—Capt. T. S. Baldwin, Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Harmon and Miss Anna Byrd. in the "Springfield," to Williamstown. Dur., 45 min.
(Continued from page 153)
A. Leo Stevens will use his balloon "You and I" as a captive during Hudson-Fulton. Located on the grounds of the Colonial Yacht Club, at 140th St. and the Hudson River, there will be a hydrogen gas plant for inflating the balloons. A wireless system will be installed for communicating news of the passage of the marine pageant and other events to the various stations in and around New York City. Wig-wag practice will be indulged in by the signal corps of the New York National Guard, also taking lessons in the operation and equipping of a captive balloon and the making of hydrogen. The signal corps already has an aeronautic squad which Mr. Stevens has taken in hand for instruction. Some time ago they had a drill in the armory in the handling, inflation, etc., of a balloon.
STATUS OF WRIGHT SUIT
(Continued from page 9)
planes or flexible rudders or arms for carrying same.
This cursory examination of the Wrights' patent and suit against the Aeronautic Society has not had for its object the determination of the validity of the Wright claims. It may be assumed, at least for the present and in the absence of fuller research, that the movement of the lateral margins of the main planes is controllable under the Wrights' patent. It may be assumed still further that said patent controls the flexible rudder and the movable arms before referred to, yet in the face of all of this assumption it is impossible to find under the most liberal interpretation of said claims the particular construction characterizing the Curtiss machine.
The use of supplemental surfaces appears to be indisputably a public right, and upon this apparently hinges the issues involved in the present suit. The bill, however, filed on behalf of the Wrights is not specific, and is a mere generalization of rights and grievances. If the suit is not abandoned, something more specific will undoubtedly be demanded, and at that time it will be possible to draw the lines of defense more definitely upon specific grounds.
For those interested in the issues involved, the United States patent of Chanute numbered 582,718, filed Dec. 7, 1895, dated May 18, 1897, will be interesting. Chanute here discloses wings comprising the main planes of his apparatus and being capable of movement to different positions above and below the normal plane, such movement being about an axis transverse to the line of flight, thereby presenting to the atmosphere different angles of incidence. Many varieties of mechanical means are disclosed in the art for changing the angles of incidence and Chanute's application seems indicative of practical work early in the art along the lines pursued by the Wrights. In view of the patent to Chanute, which was granted nine years prior to the patent to the Wrights, it would seem good law to interpret the. claims of the Wrights strictly and specifically upon their construction as interpreted in their own phraseology. This would not reach out far enough to have any bearing upon supplementary surfaces.
It may also be interesting to note that in 1906 a French patent was issued numbered 362,201, disclosing supplemental surfaces as used in the Curtiss machine.
(Continued from page 47)
society of this description should be at once formed in Canada, as the time is not far distant when we will see the 'car in the air' a commercial reality.
"It is therefore high time that Canada should not be lagging behind, but should put forward her best efforts to bring herself into line with all the great countries of the world.
"A general meeting will shortly be called, and we ask all those who have the smallest interest in Canada and things Canadian to send in their names, so that the secretary may communicate with them when arrangements have been made as to the time and place of this meeting."
Should you wish to become a member of this society or should you have friends or acquaintances whom you think would be likely to join the society, kindly send their names and addresses to M. B. Logan, Esq., secretary pro tern., 99 Gloucester St., Toronto.
The Aero Club of America has now affiliated with it the following clubs:
Aero Club of St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo.; Aero Club of New England, Boston, Mass., with balloons also stationed at Pittsfield and Fitch-burg, Mass.; Aero Club of Ohio, Canton, Ohio; Aero Club of North Adams, North Adams, Mass.; Aero Club of Seattle, Seattle, Wash.; Aero Club of California, Los Angeles, Cal.; Aero Club of Indiana, Indianapolis, Ind.
The Club also has at the present time twenty-six licensed aeronautic pilots located at different points throughout the country so that members may make ascensions at almost any place at any time with capable pilots.
The victory of G. H. Curtiss at Rheims brings the competition for the International Aviation Championship to this country next year. Rules governing this competition will be drawn up at the meeting of the International Aeronautic Federation to be held at Zurich in October. The Aero Club of America will have eight votes at this meeting.
(.Continued from page 129)
the joints welded, as well as the eyes for the guy wires.
Fig. 4 shows the socket joints of the Voisin machines. Designs 2, 3 and 4 are for rigid struts only.
A flexible arrangement is that of Fig. 7, in which part of the socket and nut is broken away to show the interior. No one has employed this, but it is given as a suggestion.
Fig. 5 illustrates a quick method of attaching ribs to the main beams. This system is used in the Raische machine at Morris Park. A tube is forced over the rectangular rib, flattened and screwed into the beam.
Fig. 6 shows a tightener for wires. The wire A is divided and each end fastened at B to right and left threaded steel screws C, which engage with the barrel nut D, through the center of which is drilled a hole for the insertion of a bar to turn the nut. The nut is locked by the wire E.
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AEROPLANES, GLIDING MACHINES, MODELS, SEPARATE PARTS
PRACTICAL LESSONS IN GLIDING
Experiments Conducted. Large grounds for testing.
GLIDERS IN STOCK Works: 17 Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road. Telephone, 390-L West Brighton. STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK.
Allowed on royalty to aerial plane flying machine builders. They increase the speed to double the motor power, push machine if motor stops about 20 miles p. h., which permits guiding and prevents accidents. Any height can safely be attained. Working blue prints with full patent rights, maintaining automatic equilibrium also furnished.
For terms apply to R. DRESSLER, Coney Island, New York.
G. L. BUiMBATJOII
1029 N. Illinois St., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.
DESIGNER - CONTRACTOR. - OPERATOR CONSTRUCTOR
AIR SHIPS AND BALLOONS
Builder of the CHICAGO—largest balloon in the world; the INDIANA, which remained in the air 4^ hours and <25 min., the ENDURANCE RECORD for the U. S.; and the INDIANAPOLIS, which won the Handicap Race.
No connection with any other concern.
Livingston Radiator Co., 6 E. 3ist St., New York City.
and F. S. Ball Bearings
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Bowden wire for controls
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Sole Importers, Times Building, New York
New York Chocolates
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Most Suitable for Aeronauts or those requiring a Non-Hnlky Sustaining Food Office, 150-154 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK
Under this heading we publish each month a list of such rare and out-of-print books as can be secured. The demand at the present time for rare aeronautical works is great, and it is usually not possible to obtain more than one copy at a time of any one work.
TRAVELS IN SPACE (Valentine & Tomlinson), introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim; many illusts. 8vo., cloth, London,
ASTRA CASTRA (Hatton Turner), many illusts., royal 4tp., boards with leather back, uncut, London, 1865... $10.00
TRAVELS IN THE AIR (James Glaish-er, Fiammarion, Tissandier, etc.), 125 illusts., royal 8vo., cloth, London, 1871 $6.00
AERIAL WORLD (G. Hartwig), 8 plates, map, many woodcuts, 8vo., cloth,
N. Y., 1S75......................... $4.00
Same, new ed., same illusts., London,
1892 ............................... $4.50
DOMINION OF THE AIR (Rev. J. M. Bacon), 24 plates, 8vo., cloth, London, 1904 ............................... $2.00
"DONALDSON & GRIMWOOD, A true Account of Their Last Balloon Voyage and Tragic Death in Lake Michigan, thin, 121110., wrappers, illust., Philadelphia, 1875 (very
scarce) ............................ $3-00
THIRTY YEARS IN THE CLOUDS, with Observations on Thunder and Lightning, Formation of Rain, Hail, Snow, etc. (John Wise), 8vo., pamphlet, 1870.....$5.00
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Aerial Development Company
Cfl This company is organized for the purpose of exploiting all business connected with aerial transportation, including the patenting of new devices, the purchase and sale of patents and patented apparatus, the establishment of laboratories for original research, the building of manufacturing plants for the construction of all types of flying machines and motors, the promotion of exhibitions, races, prize competitions. ^ Models and experimental work of all kinds to order.
€J Materials and appliances used in aerial transportation offered for sale.
1$ Estimates furnished for the construction and trial tests of all classes of aeronautical work. <J Write for prospectus.
45 West 34th Street, New York. KIMBALL AEROPLANE, $6000 UP,
WITH GUARANTEE OF PERFORMANCE
BALDWIN'S VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL
Used in the U. S. Gov. Dirigible and Spherical Balloons
will last from five to six times as long as a varnished balloon. The weight is always the same, as it does not require further treatment. Heat and cold have no effect on it, and ascensions can be made as well at zero weather as in the summer time. The chemical action of oxygen has not the same detrimental effect on it as it has on a varnished material. Silk double walled VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL has ten times the strength of varnished material. A man can take care of his PROOF balloon, as it requires little or no care, and is NOT subject to spontaneous combustion. Breaking strain 100 lbs. per inch width. Very elastic. Any weight, width, or color. Will not crack. Waterproof. No talcum powder. No revarnishing. The coming balloon material, and which through its superior qualities, and being an absolute gas holder is bound to take the place of varnished material. The man that wants to have the up-to-date balloon, must use VULCANIZED PROOF MATERIAL-Specified by the U. S. SIGNAL CORPS.
AEROPLANE MATERIAL A SPECIALTY
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afl IB? Box 78 MadIson Squarc p- °- ft 5s
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We Accomplish Results where others Fail Pedersen Lubricators have proven to be the most reliable
Pedersen Manufacturing Company
(established 1884. incorporated 1906) 636-644 FIRST AVENUE NEW YORK
when you visit MORRIS PARK
don't forget to visit the aeronauts' retreat
Morris Park Cafe 866 Morris Park Ave.,
and Summer Garden neatMorisPark
Special lunch served at moderate prices. Private rooms for parties with ladies. All bottled goods sold as represented. Telephone, 239 Westchester. John J. Dragnett, Prop.
F. O. ANDREAE
SOLICITOR OF PATENTS
Aeronautic Inventions Pasadena,
a specialty „ .
at home and abroad l^allt.
L. B. REPAIR CO., Inc.
EXPERTS ON GASOLINE MOTORS, REMODELING and OVERHAULING MOTORS, MAKING SPECIAL PARTS FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON
AIR, LAND and WATER VEHICLES
239 W. 50th St., N. Y. Tel. 6459 Col.
AEROPLANES AND GLIDERS
DESIGNED CONSTRUCTED—OPERATED FOR SALE AND BUILT TO ORDER
Aeronautic Supplies and Apparatus
Western Agent "AERONAUTICS"
C. T. SHAFFER
302 HOLYOKE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO
MAGNETOS, SPARK PLUGS BATTERIES
All Supplies and Equipments for Gasoline Motors.
L. G. DUQUET
107 WEST 36th ST.
Partner with $10,000.00, in securing foreign aeronautical Patents, and demonstrating them. Conservative estimate places their value at $100,000.00. Satisfaction guaranteed.
Address Stability, AERONAUTICS.
UNIVERSAL AUTO SUPPLY CO.
Fittings for Airships and Flying Machines All Supplies for Motors, Ignition Systems, Wheels,
ADVISE US YOUR WANTS 1900 Broadway, (cor. 63d St.) New York
npHE recent prizes for aeroplane contests offered by several prominent papers recall that the FIRST AVIATION TROPHY offered in America was given more than TWO YEARS ago by the
which is the only weekly publication that treats fully the new science of mechanical flight—a science which it has helped develop and promulgate from its very beginning.
THE SPECIAL HUDSON-FULTON CELEBRATION NUMBER (issue of September 25th) is now on sale at all newsstands.
MUNN & CO., Inc., 365 Broadway, New York.
Scientific American Trophy, 1907
MORE HONORS FOR
ST. LOUIS and HONEYWELL
RECORDS PROVE IT "University City" ("Yankee") "St. Louis No. 3"
Championship of America Third Place
HONEYWELL, Builder HONEYWELL, Builder
In first national balloon race of The Aero Club of America, Indianapolis, June 5 th.
^ The longest voyage by a licensed pilot in the United States, in 1908, was made with the 2200 cubic meter "Yankee"—461 miles with two stops ~a remarkable performance; 800 pounds ballast aboard when landing.
<J The greatest balloon trip of 1908— 850 miles in competition — made by the 2000 cubic meter balloon, "Fielding-i San Antonio." Four American and two Foreign makes defeated by wide margin.
BUILDER and PILOT
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AEROSTATS, AIRSHIPS AND INSTRUMENTS
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II. E. HONEYWELL, Director
3958 Cottage Avenue, St. Louis, U. S. A.
In answering advertisements please mention this magazine.